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Issue 16 December 2013 English Edition ISSN 2157-8958 Translators/Editors : Helena Aguiar-Silva, Aldo Ortiz Reyes, Marta Curti Graphic Design : Marta Curti Cover Photo : Andean Condor ( Vultur grpyhus) in Colombia. Juan S. Restrepo SPIZAETUSNRN NEWSLETTER Spizaetus: Neotropical Raptor Network Newsletter December 2013. This newsletter may be reproduced, downloaded, and distributed for non-pro t, non-commercial purposes. To republish any articles contained herein, please contact the corresponding authors directly.


A D V AN C E S IN KN O W LED G E O F BREEDIN G BEHA V I O R O F A REINTR O D U C ED PAIR O F A NDEAN C ONDORS ( V ULTUR GRYPHU S ) I N THE C ORDILLERA C ENTRAL OF C OLOMBIA Juan S. Restre p o Car d ona & A l e j an d ro Betancur L p ez ..................................................... 2 C ONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF ROADSIDE HAWK ( RUPORNIS MAGNIROSTRI S ) NESTING IN AN U RBAN A REA IN C AICI RIO G RANDE NORTHERN BRAZIL Emmanue l S a b ino & Jnio Guedes & . ................................................................10 E XPERIENCIES WITH AN A NDEAN C ONDOR ( V ULTUR GRYPHU S ) I N BOLVI A D iego R. M n d ez................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ......................15 R EPORT OF A NEW RECORD OF COLLARED FOREST FALCON ( M ICRASTUR SEMITORQUATU S ) FOR MONTEMORELOS NUEVO LE"N MEXIC O A ld o Ort z Reye s ......................................................................................1 9 C ONSERVATION PROGRAM OF CROWNED SOLITARY EAGLE ( H ARPYHALIAETUS CORONATU S ) IN THE P ROVNCE OF LA PAMPA A RGENTIN A M aximi l iano A d ri n Ga l mes, J os Hern n Saraso l a, & J uan Manue l Gran d e.......................... 21 S UMMMARY OF THE I W ORLDSIDE RAPTOR C ONFEERNC E M igue l Saggese.................................................................................................... 2 6 O F INTEREST ..........................................................................................2 8 The NRN is a membership-based organization. Its goal is to aid the research and conservation of Neotropical raptors by promoting communication and collaboration among biologists, raptor enthusiasts, and other conservationists working in the Neotropics. To join please e-mail the NRN coordinator, Marta Curti, at, stating your interest in Neotropical raptor research and conservation.


PAGE 2 ISSUE 16 • DECEMBER 2013 ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE OF BREEDING BEHAVIOR OF A REINTRODUCED PAIR OF ANDEAN CONDORS ( VULTUR GRYPHUS) IN THE CORDILLERA CENTRAL OF COLOMBIA By Juan S. Restrepo Cardona1 & Alejandro Betancur Lpez2 1Divisin de Historia Natural, Centro de Museos, Universidad de Caldas, Cra 23 # 58 – 65, A. A. 275, Manizales, Caldas, Colombia. 1,2Semillero de Investigacin en Ornitologa, Dpto. de Ciencias Biolgicas, Universidad de Caldas. 1E-mail :; 2E-mail T The Andean Condor ( Vultur gryphus ) is considered to be Near Threatened globally and, in Colombia, it is considered Endangered on a national level (Rodriguez and Orozco 2002, BirdLife International 2013). The Andean Condor is found along the Andes Mountain range from Venezuela to Argentina and Chile (Lambertucci 2010). In Colombia its population has been reduced in numbers and is restricted to a few mountainous locations (MAVDT 2006) in the eastern and central mountain ranges, including the Colombian Macizo, the Serrania de Perija and the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (Rodriguez and Orozco 2002, Salaman et al 2009). As their population numbers continue to be reduced in Colombia, the survival of this species may be seriously threatened in the immediate future (Negret 2001). In 1989, with the goal of unifying forces for the conservation of Andean Condors in Colombia, Male Andean Condor in La Poa, Villamara, Caldas Juan S. Restrepo, February 2013.


WWW.NEOTROPICALRAPTORS.ORG PAGE 3 through an international cooperative agreement between El Instituto Nacional de Recursos Naturales (INDERENA) and The Zoological Society of San Diego, a program was started in order to repopulate condors in some mountainous aeas of the Colombian Andes (INDERENA 1990). Between 1989 and 2013, seventy one Andean Condors were released in the country (Fausto Saenz, Pers. Comm). In 2006, the 2006-2016 Action Plan of the Andean Condor Colombia Program was developed. Through education and participation of local communities, these efforts seek to promote a change in attitude toward the species. Between 1997 and 1999 14 juvenile condors 10 males and 4 females were released in Los Nevados Natural Park, by the Corporacin Autnoma Regional de Caldas (CORPOCALDAS) with the support of the Ministry of the Environment and Fundacin Renacer. Of these 14, 12 had been donated by the San Diego Zoo (California) and two by the Cali Zoo (CORPOCALDAS 2013). However, these birds werenÂ’t suf ciently studied, so certain aspects of the basic biology and ecology of this nucleus population remain unknown. Additionally, little is known about Andean Condor reproduction in the wild. Although a few observations have been made in Chile, Ecuador and Argentina, the majority of these consist of observations or records of one or few nests (Lam-Pair of Andean Condors recorded in La Poa, Villamara, Caldas Juan S. Restrepo, February 2013.


PAGE 4 ISSUE 16 • DECEMBER 2013 bertucci 2007). Andean Condors generally nest in caves and crevices located on rocky escarpments (Mrquez et al 2005, Lambertucci and Mastrantuoni 2008, Heredia and Piedrabuena 2010), in most cases in areas inaccessible to land predators (Lambertucci 2007). In Colombia we still have not identi ed nest site characteristics and information on their nesting behavior is practically non-existent. It is necessary to intensify the research efforts for this species in the country, as without basic biological and ecological information, it is very dif cult to identify its current status and its population tendencies. This in turn, makes it dif cult to develop ef cient conservation programs for the species. In this study, we present some advances in the knowledge of the reproductive behavior of a reintroduced pair of Andean Condors in the Cordillera Central of Colombia. Methods The The nest was located approximately 20 km from Los Nevados Natural Park, well outside of Location of the condor territory in Vereda Papayal, Caldas, Colombia. N e s t A r e a Nest Area Observation Point


WWW.NEOTROPICALRAPTORS.ORG PAGE 5 the parkÂ’s buffer zone. It was situated approximately 288 m from the ground on a rocky escarpment on the southern face of Cargaperros (0456N, 7529W), which is 2.347 m high, and found in the Molinos Canyon formed by the Molinos and Campanario Rivers. The zone is a mosaic of open areas used for livestock grazing, associated with fragments of secondary forest and pine ( Pinus patula) plantations. The predominant native trees in the area are Decussocarpus rospigliosii ), Juglans neotropica. ), Smallanthus pyramidalis ), Cecropia telenitida and ( Myrcianthes leucoxyla ), among others. Between March and July 2013, we carried out systematic visits to the nest for two consecutive days each month. Observations were made between 0800 h and 1800 h, using NIKON binoculars (10 50mm) from an elevated observation point Alto de Buenos Aires located about 300 m from the nest. With the goal of describing some of the pairÂ’s reproductive behavior, we used a methodology described by Lambertucci and Mastrantuoni (2008), by which we were able to de ne the nesting territory as being approximately 1 km2 around the nest. We recorded the amount of time each adult remained in the area, the number of hours each adult interacted with the chick, the number of times each adult chased off other raptors from the vicinity of the nest, and the number of incur-The nest site and the location where the chick was placed at Cargaperros, Villamara, Caldas Juan S. Restrepo, December 2013 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t S S S S S S S S S S S i i t t e e e w w w h h h e e e r r r e e e t t t h h h e e e c c c h h h i i c c c k k k w w w a a a s s s s p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p l l a a c c c e e e e e d d d d d d d d


PAGE 6 ISSUE 16 • DECEMBER 2013 sions by raptors into the pair’s breeding area. Results On 25 June we documented the presence of a 6-7 month old chick that had jumped from the nest and remained walking in the area for a couple of days. In an improvised move by the Corporacin Transformar, the chick was captured and brought back to an area close to and below the nest. The chick remained in the same location and an employee of CORPOCALDAS kept an eye on it, until an unfortunate incident occured. On 20 July, the young once again made an attempt to y. However, it wasn’t able to soar and crashed into thick vegetation. In its repeated attempts to free itslef it suffered serious injuries and died. According to the necropsy carried out by CORPOCALDAS, apart from the multiple injuries it suffered, the chick has suffered a previous injurya fracture of the mid-radius which had formed an irregular bone callus. Although the total number of observation hours was small (70 hr), it did allow us to document and quantify some pair behavior while the young was in the nest, including how much of their total time each adult stayed in the area (36% each), and the number of hours each adult interacted with the young: the male14.32 h (20.45%) and the female 17.36 h (24.8%). On 7 July 2013 we observed courtship behavAndean Condor chick rescued after it had crashed into dense vegetation in Cargaperros, Villamara, Caldas Juan S. Restrepo, July 2013


WWW.NEOTROPICALRAPTORS.ORG PAGE 7 ior between the adults, when, in a synchronized ight they ew very close to each other, gaining altitude as they ew in circles. They then fell in a dive while they rubbed their wings. They repeated this display twice throughout the day. At the end of November we observed the pair copulate in a perching spot near the nest. Black Vultures (Coragyps atratus) came into the pairÂ’s territory with the most frequency (95 records), followed by American Kestrels ( Falco sparverius ) (7), White-tailed Hawks ( Buteo albicaudatus )(4) and Turkey Vvultures ( Cathartes aura ) (3). On one occassion we observed the female condor chasing out a Turkey Vulture and on another, a White-tailed Kite. We also observed the male chasing off a Turkey Vulture. Discussion In Colombia, no information exists about the rproductive behavior of Andean Condors in the wild. It is assumed that eggs are laid between April and December (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001), but this information is more precise in the southern part of their distribution in South America such as Chile (September October) and Argentina (October) (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001, Lambertucci and Mastrantuoni 2008). According to Lambertucci and Mastrantuoni (2008), the incubation period lasts around two months, and after hatching the chick remains in the nest for approximately 6 months. In this study, the chick we observed in June was around 6 or 7 months old, so we presume that it had hatched between November and December of 2012. Therfore, incubation took place between September and November. Observations in the eld show that both adults remained in the territory for the same proprtion of time. Due to the fact that we were uanble to see inside the nest, we considered the time that each adult spent inside the nest as the number of hours that they interacted with the chick. The female interacted the most with the young in the nest. This is contrary to what was observed in Argentina (Lambertucci and Mastrantuoni 2008) and Ecuador (INEFAN 1997), where in both cases it was the male that interacted more with the chick. It is important to take into account that the results obtained in this study were based on a very short observation period. Therefore, comparisons made to other studies that lasted much longer must be made with some caution. In Colombia the Andean Condor is found in six protected areas including National Natural Parks (Los Nevados, Purac, Chingaza, El Cocuy and Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta) (MAVDT 2006), and a Natural Bird Reserve (El Dorado) (Salaman et al 2009). Considering that V. gryphus needs a large area for foraging (Lambertucci 2007), it is probable that in Colombia, individuals of this species, just like the pair in this study, may breed far outside of the protected areas mentioned, in


PAGE 8 ISSUE 16 • DECEMBER 2013 zones lacking any form of protection, and where alteration of the land can be constant and intense. This shows that the protection of the Andean Condor in Colombia is not ef cient. The death of the edgling shows that the Corporacin Autnoma Regional and the NGO’s in charge of protecting the nest are not prepared to deal with a situation as critical as the one that was recently experienced. Surely this sad incident should be an incentive to promote the conservation of the species in Colombia and speci cally the research and protection of the only Andean Condor nest in the country. According to stories from community members, the pair has been living and nesting in this area for more than 10 years and in last six years, 3 chicks have hatched and have been observed for a few months each, ying with the adults. In October 2009 a juvenile was photographed and another juvenile was reported by Zuluaga (2011). Both sightings took place in areas very close to the nest described in this study. The reproductive rate of this species is very low, and in the best cases reproduction takes place every two years when food availability is optimal (Wallace y Temple 1988, Lambertucci 2007). Based on all this information, we are very motivated to continue our research and currently, with the approval of CORPOCALDAS, we will continue to make systematic visits to the site with the long term goal of being able to describe, in more Juvenile photographed in Cargaperros, Villamara, Caldas Johan Orrego, October 2009. detail and exactitude, the reproductive behavior of the pair. In this way we will help improve the knowledge on the biology of the species as well as conservation efforts geared toward the Andean Condor in this country. Acknowledgments We thank Pedro Pablo, Beatriz and Estefana for letting us work and rest in your home. To Alex, Isln and the other community members for your kindness. To Fausto Senz, Sergio Lambertucci and Marta Curti for yoru comments on the manuscript. And to Oscar Ospina de CORPOCALDAS for the information you provided. References Birdlife International. 2013. IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 13/03/2013. CORPOCALDAS. 2013. Resumen del proyecto


WWW.NEOTROPICALRAPTORS.ORG PAGE 9 de reintroduccin de cndoresal Parque Nacional Natural Los Nevados. Documento indito. Ferguson-Lees, J.D., A. Christie, 2001.Raptors of the World. Christopher Helm, London, UK. Heredia, J.,J.Piedrabuena. 2010. Registros de nidi cacin del Cndor Andino ( Vultur gryphus ) en las sierras grandes de Crdoba, Argentina. Nuestras Aves 55:37-39. INEFAN. 1997. Los condores de Papallacta. Documento de divulgacin. Departamento de vida silvestre, INEFAN, EMAAP-Q, Fundacin Rumicocha, CECIA, Quito, Ecuador. Lambertucci. S.A. 2007. Biologa y Conservacin del Cndor Andino en Argentina. Hornero 22(2): 149–158. Lambertucci. S.A. 2010. Size and spatio-temporal variations of the Andean condor Vultur gryphus population in north-west Patagonia, Argentina: communal roosts and conservation. Fauna & Flora International, Oryx, 44(3), 441–447. Lambertucci. S. A., O. A. Mastrantuoni.2008. Breeding behavior of a pair of free-living Andean condors. Journal of Field Ornithology, 79, 147–151. Mrquez. C., M. Bechard.,F. Gast., V.H. Vanegas.2005. Aves rapaces diurnas de Colombia. Instituto de Investigacin de Recursos Biolgicos “Alexander von Humboldt”. Bogot, Colombia. MAVDT. Ministerio de Ambiente, Vivienda y Desarrollo Territorial. Programa Nacional para la Conservacin del Cndor Andino en Colombia. Plan de Accin 2006 – 2016. Negret. A.J. 2001. Aves en Colombia amenazadas de extincin. Serie de Estudios de la Naturaleza. Universidad Del Cauca. Rodrguez-M. J. V., R. H. Orozco, 2002. Vultur gryphus En Renjifo, L. M., A. M. Franco-M., J. D. Amaya-E., G. Kattan., B. Lopez-L. (eds.). 2002. Libro Rojo de Aves de Colombia. Serie Libros Rojos de Especies Amenazadas de Colombia. Instituto de Investigacion de Recursos Biolgicos Alexander Von Humboldt y Ministerio del Medio Ambiente. Bogot, Colombia. Salaman. P., T. Donegan.,D. Caro. 2009. Listado de las Aves de Colombia. Conservacin Colombiana 8: 1-89. Wallace. M. P. & Temple. S. A. 1988. Impacts of the 1982 – 1983 El Nio on population dynamics of the Andean Condors in Peru. Biotropica, 20, 144-150. Zuluaga. S. 2010. Posible evidencia de reproduccin de Cndores ( Vultur gryphus ) reintroducidos en Colombia. SPIZAETUS 10: 8-11. * *


PAGE 10 ISSUE 16 • DECEMBER 2013 B CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF ROADSIDE HAWK ( RUPORNIS MAGNIROSTRIS) NESTING IN AN URBAN AREA IN CAICI, RIO GRANDE, NORTHERN BRAZIL Por Emmanuel Sabino e Jnio Guedes, nitosabino@gmail.comBirds of prey are important biotic agents in the maintenance and function of the communities to which they belong. Often referred to as “top predators” they generally occupy the highest positions in food chains within a community (Ricklefs & Miller 2000). Pair of Roadside Hawks (Rupornis magnirostris) on the Radio Rural de Caic-RN radio antennas, keeping an eye out for invadors into their nesting territory Emmanuel SabinoThe Roadside Hawk ( Rupornis magnirostris Gmelin, 1788) is distributed from Mexico to Argentina and is present throughout Brazil (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001), where it is a common species that has become well adapted to anthropogenic actions (Santos 2008).


WWW.NEOTROPICALRAPTORS.ORG PAGE 11 The Roadside Hawk nest that we observed was constructed in a mango tree ( Mangifera indica L .) in the garden of the Radio Rural building (627’57.47”S, 37 5’56.54”W). Rural Radio is located in an old building belonging to the Diocesis de Caico – RN and is close to Rio Barra Nova (627’58.86”S, 37 6’3.63”W). This area, declared an “Area of Permanent Preservation,” has been in uenced by urbanization, and there are only a few trees left which can be utilized by the hawk for perching, searching for food, or guarding its territory. Some remaining tree species include: Prosopis juli ora Licania rigida and T abebuia aurea During our observations, the male guarded the female while she was in the nest, acting aggressively toward any invader of their territory. During the observation period, some Radio Rural employees were attacked. These attacks increased in frequency once the chicks had hatched. In fact, some workers were injured when they came too close to the nest tree. The Roadside Hawk’s diet consists of insects, lizards, small snakes and birds including Ruddy Ground Dove ( Columbina talpacoti ), Picui Ground Dove ( Columbina picui ) and House Sparrow ( Passer domesticus ). Generally, these prey species are found easily and in large numbers in the nest area, making it easier for the hawk to nd food. Some of these birds even nest within the same territory. There are also old buildings which serve as refuge Location of the Roadside Hawk pairs nest and territory


PAGE 12 ISSUE 16 • DECEMBER 2013 Our rst observation of the young, on 10 December 2012, occurred because of an accident – one of the nestlings had fallen out of the nest. It was vulnerable in this urban environment, where predators, including house cats ( Felis catus Linnaeus 1758) pose an obvious threat. We relocated the young to the nest, however at night it was still vulnerable and nally, on 14 December it was eaten by house cats, which by nature are excellent bird hunters. It is possible that the older chick kicked the younger one out of the nest to avoid competition. This is a phenomenon that occurs in some birds of prey, as the difference in age between the chicks can provoke the dominance of one over the other. As a result, younger chicks may die because they are unable to compete for food, or because they fall victim to fratricide. We continued our observations of the surviving chick, which was named “Maria” by the of cials of Radio Rural. They also expelled the cats from the area. This gave us more opportunities to study these birds together as photographic records by some of cials and visitors were made. In January the chick began to take its rst exploratory ights of the territory, losing its fear and beginning to ignore the presence of humans. We continued to make observations until March 2013, at which point the juvenile was no longer reliant on its parents for food, but was hunting for bats which are hunted by the hawks during the day. During the nesting period which occurred between September and October, the pair produced two eggs, and both chicks hatched. During incubation, the female remained in the nest, and was being fed by the male. The male also defended the nest and the young with low-level ights. Photographic record of juvenile #2, 3 May 2013 close to Radio Rural (above). The edgling exploring its territory while waiting for food from its parents (below). Emmanuel Sabino


WWW.NEOTROPICALRAPTORS.ORG PAGE 13 on its own. After a short while, it dispersed from the area to avoid competition with its parents. Studies addressing the reproductive behavior of birds of prey are of great importance in understanding the biology of this group of birds and the ecology of the overall community. Even though, in general, raptors may have lower population numbers, they play a key role in the organization of communities. Gaining new information on nesting behavior of the Roadside Hawk is important to help increase understanding of the reproductive biology of the species in urban areas. This species faces many threats in the region. Of the main threats, perhaps the greatest is the bad reputation that these birds have within the human population, who believe that it is harmful to domestic animals. As a result, it is indiscriminaely killed by humans and its presence in urban areas makes it even more vulnerable to this threat. Despite the fact that it is a common species, indiscriminate hunting can still generate a series of ecological imbalances. Roadside Hawks play a fundamental role in cities – helping to control animals which are conThe chick, after falling from the nest (left), and the same chick (right), after being relocated to its nest. Emmanuel Sabino


PAGE 14 ISSUE 16 • DECEMBER 2013 sidered to be “plagues” such as rats, insects, bats, spiders, snakes, and scorpions. They also help control infestations of exotic species including African doves and European Sparrows. For this reason, it is important to carry out further studies on this species to determine how real the threat of altered environments and the presence of humans in their nesting territory can be, particularly when they use urban areas for breeding. References Albuquerque, J. L. B... [et al.].Ornitologia e conservao : da cincia s estratgias /Tubaro : Editora Unisul, 2001.344 p. Ferguson-Less, J. & Christies, D. A. (2001) Raptors of the world. New York: Houghton Mif in Company Jaqueline M. Goerck. Programa de reas importantes para a conservao das aves(IBAs) – uma estratgia global da BirdLife International. Ricklefs, R. E. & Miller, G. L. 2000. Ecology. W.H. Freeman and Company,New York, USA. Santos, W. M. Site Aves de Rapina Brasileiras – Brazilian Raptors. Disponvel em: < http://www.> Acesso em Outubro de 2008. Sick, H. (1997) Ornitologia brasileira. Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira. Plano de ao nacional para a conservao de aves de rapina / Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservao da Biodiversidade, Coordenao-Geral de Espcies Ameaadas. – Braslia: ICMBio, 2008. Aves de Rapina BR guias, gavies, falces e corujas do Brasil (Publicaes online) * *


WWW.NEOTROPICALRAPTORS.ORG PAGE 15 T The Andean Condor ( Vultur gryphus ) is a national symbol in many countries in South America, and is one of the most charismatic animals in the Andes. However, despite the fact that this bird is the protagonist in a number of stories and legends, it is largely unknown within its own land. In Bolivia, it is widely distributed between 500 and 4500 masl, throughout the western part of the country almost to the lowlands of Chaco in the southeast, with the majority of the records concentrated in the eastern branch of the Andes (Hennessey et al 2003). While little or nothing is known about basic aspects of this speciesÂ’ biology and ecology, making it dif cult to accurately assess their conservation status, the condor is categorized as Vulnerable nationally because of the decrease in its population and continued hunting pressure because it is erroneously regarded as a threat to livestock (Balderrama et al 2009). Among the few studies that exist in the country, a 2005 study estimated the populationÂ’s minimum abundance to be about 78 individuals in the Apolobamba Mountains, an area of <1000 km2 in northwestern Bolivia. This highlights the potential importance of the Bolivian Andes for the conservation of the species (River-Uzeda and Wallace 2007). In order to determine the status of Andean Condor populations in the rest of the country, in 2012, with the support of The Peregrine Fund, we esEXPERIENCES WITH ANDEAN CONDORS ( VULTUR GRYPHUS) IN BOLVIA By Diego R. Mndez, A sociacin Armona y The Peregrine Fund. e-mail: An Andean Condor soaring over Cuesta de Sama, with Tarija in the background. 20 Aug 2012 Diego R. Mndez / Armona


PAGE 16 ISSUE 16 • DECEMBER 2013 timated the abundance of condors in ve locations in the eastern Bolivian Andes (Mendez et al In prep.). The study covered three departments: Cochabamba, Chuquisaca and Tarija. We worked closely with the municipalities of Omereque and Tiquipaya in Cochabamba; Yamparez, Tarabuco San Lucas and Camargo in Chuquisaca; and in Tarija we worked with the Cordillera de Sama Biological Reserve. In addition to obtaining valuable data on the abundance of the Andean Condor, this research gave us the opportunity to interact with many A group of Andean Condors close the community of Real, Cochabamba, 2 June 2012 Diego R. Mndez Armonapeople including authorities, rangers, staff and local citizens living near the study sites. Shared experiences greatly enriched the information obtained and allowed us to have a clearer picture of the situation in order to develop conservation strategies for the condor. These strategies speci cally include input from those who play a crucial role not only in the conservation of this species, but of biodiversity in general. The cultural and social importance of the condor is indisputable. This is evident by the respect of local people towards the condor itself, the leg-


WWW.NEOTROPICALRAPTORS.ORG PAGE 17 ends that exist around it, and the persistent belief in some places more than others that the condor is a threat to livestock. The locations we visited are in a region where most of the inhabitants are of Quechua origin, and during our trips we heard several references to places locally known as “condor phuuna” (where the condors sleep), “condor khechana” (cliffs covered with characteristic whitewash), “condor thapa” (where the condor has its nest) and, particularly interesting, “mayllani condor” (waterfalls where the condors go to bathe). We even heard local stories, including one entitled “Condor child” – about a woman whose child is stolen by a condor. The child has condor wings International Vulture Awareness Day in the “Cordillera de Sama” Biological Reserve with the participation of park guards and investigators, 1 September 2012 Armonaand can only be seen close to inaccessible cliffs, and when he sees someone approaching, he takes ight and disappears into the clouds. Others stories say that during calving season “more than one young cow is lost because condors y down and eat them.” Other individuals mentioned inaccessible ravines where the condors bathe, stating that “one has to go up above to see them, but there is no need to get close to them.” We were encouraged by the fact that in the areas where we work, we are seeing a growing interest in environmental issues, as evidenced in part by the institutional support we received, without which it would have been impossible to develop project activities. However, this study did bring to


PAGE 18 ISSUE 16 • DECEMBER 2013 light that in general, people do not have a good understanding of the real importance of conserving and studying the condor (or any other species). In order to change this perception, it is imperative to engage them in environmental education activities. Also of great import is the opportunity for communities to generate revenues by implementing conservation practices such as environmentally based tourism to natural attractions, including a visit to the condor observation site, as well as demonstrating traditional lifestyles and marketing of local products in each region. In the Sama Biological Reserve we worked together with their staff, whose help was essential in the development of all activities. Their support highlighted their deep commitment to the protection of the area. Our work here was very enjoyable, and we shared many anecdotes about working in the eld and the observations of the Andean Condor’s natural history and behavior, condor-livestock interactions, and the perception of the people living in the reserve. We also exchanged views on research and conservation in this important reserve which is protecting the unique biodiversity of the Puna and BolivianTucuman Forest in southern Bolivia discussing aspects such as reforestation, ecotourism and environmental education. The information and local views that we obtained are essential for developing effective conservation measures for the condor and its habitat. To this end, we hope to strengthen the links established and continue with our investigations in the region. Acknowledgements A special thanks to those protecting the Cordillera de Sama Biological Reserve and to the following communities: Real, Huanacuni Grande, Huari Pucara, Corral Pampa, Yunga Pampa, La Mendoza, Sarufaya, Sanimayu, La Quemada and Abra Calderillas. I thank Hernan Vargas for his review of this manuscript and his continued collaboration on this Project, to Rodrigo Soria and Sebastian Herzog for their constant assistance. References Balderrama, J.A., C. Quiroga, D.O. Martnez y M. Crespo. 2009. Vultur gryphus Pp. 363-364. En: Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Agua 2009. Libro rojo de la fauna silvestre de vertebrados de Bolivia. La Paz, Bolivia. Hennessey, A.B., S.K. Herzog y F. Sagot. 2003. Lista Anotada de las Aves de Bolivia. Quinta edicin. Asociacin Armona/BirdLife International, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia. Ros-Uzeda, B. y R.B.Wallace. 2007. Estimating the size of the Andean Condor population in the Apolobamba Mountains of Bolivia. J. Field Ornithol. 78: 170–175. *


WWW.NEOTROPICALRAPTORS.ORG PAGE 19 Here we present a visual record of an adult Collared Forest Falcon. The individual was observed on 22 August 2013 at approximately 0930. It was perched in an oak tree ( Quercus sp .) and was vocalizing. When it noted our presence it ew off, but continued vocalizing for around 15 minutes. The area where the bird was observed is in the foothills of Sierra Madre Oriental in the Ejido Images of the area where the Collared Forest Falcon was observed Aldo Ortiz Reyes REPORT OF A NEW RECORD OF COLLARED FOREST FALCON ( MICRASTUR SEMITORQUATUS) FOR MONTEMORELOS, NUEVO LEON, MEXICOBy Aldo Ortz Reyes, Universidad Autnoma de Tamaulipas. Reynosa, Tamaulipas, Mxico T The Collard Forest Falcon ( Micrastur semitorquatus ) of the order falconiformes, is a species with a predominantly Neotropical distribution, and is found from central Mexico to southern Brazil. It inhabits evergreen and deciduous forests (Howell and Webb 1995). In Mexico, it is a resident species and is considered to be “At Risk” within the Of cial Norms of Mexico NOM-059.


PAGE 20 ISSUE 16 • DECEMBER 2013 “Raices” de Montemorelos, Nuevo Leon (Coordinates 14 R 0394285 E/ 2790662 N ), at an altitude of 498 masl. The vegetation in the zone corresponds to Submontane Matorral ( Helieeta parvifolia, Cordia boissieri ) intermixed with Oak forest ( Quercus sp. ) and elements of coniferous vegetation ( Taxus sp. ). The area where this observation occurred is very close to the Important Bird Conservation Area 69 SIERRA DE ARTEAGA, in which 61 species of birds are found including Maroon-fronted Parrot ( Rinchopsitta terrisi ), Golden Eagle ( Aquila chrysaethos ) and Peregrine Falcon ( Falco peregrinus ) (Del Coro and Marquez 2001), which are considered to be rare and endangered in Mexico (NOM ECOL 059). Discussion and Conclusions This is one of the northernmost records for the species and adds to other recent observations made in the towns of Chipinque and Estanzuela, near Monterrey and Santiago, Nuevo Len. This contribution helps to strengthen the hypothesis that there is an established population of this species in the Sierra de Arteaga, which is considered to be a corridor for Neotropical species, as it forms part of the mountain range of the Sierra Madre Oriental extending from Monterrey to Veracruz. Further studies are needed to determine the population status of this species in the Sierra de Arteaga and to contribute to the knowledge of the biodiversity in the area. References Del Coro A. M & Marquez V. L 2001. reas de Importancia para la Conservacin de las Aves. CONABIO Howell S.N.G. y S. Webb 1995. Guide to the Birds of Mxico and Northern Central America. Oxford University Press, New York USA. Norma O cial Mexicana NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2010 map/coffal1?neg=true&env. minX=171.78165912997042&env. minY=-47.347993958547725&env. maxX=51.89884662997042&env.maxY= 40.903283497372165&zh=true&gp=false &mr=1-12&bmo=1&emo=12&yr=19002013&byr=1900&eyr=2013 *


WWW.NEOTROPICALRAPTORS.ORG PAGE 21 semi-arid environments in the north central part of the country. Despite its wide distribution and endangered status, no conservation programs or population monitoring efforts currently exist for CONSERVATION PROGRAM OF CROWNED SOLITARY EAGLE ( HARPYHALIAETUS CORONATUS) IN THE PROVINCE OF LA PAMPA, ARGENTINABy Maximiliano Adrin Galmes 1,2, Jos Hernn Sarasola 1,3 and Juan Manuel Grande 1,3 1Centro para el Estudio y Conservacin de las Aves Rapaces en la Argentina (CECARA) Av. Uruguay 151, 6300 Santa Rosa La Pampa, Argentina; 2The Peregrine Fund, 5568 West Flying Hawk Lane, Boise, Idaho, USA.3Instituto de Ciencias de la Tierra y Ambientales de La Pampa (INCITAP) Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient cas y Tcnicas de Argentina (CONICET) Av. Uruguay 151, 6300 Santa Rosa La Pampa, Argentina T The Crowned Solitary Eagle ( Harpyhaliaetus coronatus ) is an endangered species, distributed throughout the central-southern region of South America. In Argentina it inhabits arid and Hembra adulta de guila Coronada alimentando al pichn con una serpiente del gnero Bothrops


PAGE 22 ISSUE 16 • DECEMBER 2013 this species, either on a local or regional level. Based on information generated during 10 consecutive years of studying this species in the La Pampa Province (Argentina), by the Centro para el Estudio y Conservacion de las Aves Rapaces en Argentina (CECARA), the principal threats to this species in the region have been identi ed. Individual mortality due to persecution, electrocution on power lines, drowning in stock tanks, as well as loss of habitat has manifested in an alarming situation for the species, considering their low reproductive rate. Based on the work of scientists and technicians from CECARA, and in conjunction with the Department of Natural Resources of the Province of La Pampa, a series of measures to mitigate the impact of human activities on populations of Crowned Solitary Eagles have been established. Through communications between researchers and managers, the Crowned Solitary Eagle Conservation program has been achieved in the province of La Pampa Argentina. It was presented at the XV Meeting of Ornithology, in the city of Santa Rosa from 18 to 21 September 2013. This program has established conservation activities and actions for each of the identi ed causes of mortality for the species in this region. In Subadult female Solitary Crowned Eagle electrocuted in west La Pampa, Argentina Maximiliano A. Galmes


WWW.NEOTROPICALRAPTORS.ORG PAGE 23 other words, for each of these threats a speci c work plan has been designed to prevent or mitigate the impact of these factors on the mortality of Crowned Solitary Eagles. Reaching out to local people in order to achieve a change in perception and attitude towards the species was one of the key components to consider. To this end, as a continuity of the education and outreach efforts that CECARA has conducted in recent years, two TV spots and a documentary, entitled“Let the Eagle Keep Flying,” were developed. This documentary will be shown during presenations and meetings held with local community members, but will also be aired on state television a medium that reaches all communities within the area where the project is located in the west-central area of La Pampa. The documentary was made by professional lmmakers and researchers from CECARA assisted in writing the script. This lm clearly and concisely presents the problems this species faces, as well as the results of our research, and actions to promote conservation. With the experience gained through working in classrooms to present information about this species in rural schools, the program will also carry out a series of workshops at the Centers for Teacher Education to incorporate the Solitary Crowned Eagle as a focal species in areas of Ecology and Conservation for teachers of different educational levels. Teachers of a variety of grades will be able to teach their students various educational activities that focus on the species. The drowning of Crowned Solitary Eagles in stock tanks is another mortality factor identi ed in this region and is one that also affects other species of wild animals. To mitigate the effect of these drowning incidents on the Crowned Solitary Eagle populations, a program has been esVariable Hawk ( Buteo polyosoma) drowned in a stock tank in west La Pampa. Maximiliano A. Galmes


PAGE 24 ISSUE 16 • DECEMBER 2013 tablished to place escape ramps in the stock tanks. These ramps are made of metal mesh which are submerged in the tanks. In case a bird accidentally falls in, it may use the ramp to climb to the border of the tank and escape. This program will be nanced by the provincial government, who will initiate a series of informative talks so that local community members will design and construct their own rescue ramps. Finally, to address the issue of electrocution on power lines, a series of meetings with the Provincial Energy Administration have been held, to implement mitigation measures on the electricity poles identi ed as dangerous for Crowned Solitary Eagles. The approach to this problem has been well received by those in charge of this administration since the electrocution of large birds in remote and inaccessible areas also entails signi cant economic damage when restoring the electrical system after an incident of this type. Increasing awareness about the conservation of the Crowned Solitary Eagle involves a change in Disseminating information on the Crowned Solitary Eagle during the Chi Pronvincial Festival Laura Beinticinco


WWW.NEOTROPICALRAPTORS.ORG PAGE 25 attitude not only towards the Crowned Solitary Eagle itself, but also for other species, regardless of their conservation status. The implementation of these mitigation measures are intended to bene t not only the Crowned Solitary Eagle but all bird species using poles or power lines as perches; or nesting birds and mammals that are victims of drowning in deadly stock tanks. Likewise, the Crowned Solitary Eagle will become an umbrella species for other wildlife of the arid and semi-arid region of central Argentina. We hope that this conservation program and its measures, some of which are already in place, while others are yet to be implemented, can help reverse the negative population trend of this species within its distributional range. Since the threats identi ed are not unique to this region these mitigation measures could be applied in other areas of the Crowned Solitary EagleÂ’s range. * For more information please visit: Centro para el estudio y conservacin de las Aves Rapaces en Argentina


PAGE 26 ISSUE 16 • DECEMBER 2013 B Between 20 and 24 October 2013, in the city of San Carlos de Bariloche, Rio Negro, Argentina, the I Worldwide Raptor Conference took place. More than 200 delegates representing 30 countries and 5 continents attended this meeting, organized jointly by the Neotropical Raptor Network (The Peregrine Fund), Raptor Research Foundation, World Working Group on Birds of Prey and Owls, and Universidad del Comahue. Before the conference, several workshops took place, which were attended by a large part of the conference participants. These workshops provided training in the use of remote controlled vehicles, taking biomedical samples, capture techniques and the correct application of satellite radio transmitters on birds of prey. Conference participants also joined in on numerous eld trips, before, during and after the conference. This gave them an opportunity to enjoy the natural marvels that only Patagonia can offer, and to observe several raptor species and other local fauna. The Neotropics was represented by participants from almost all of the countires within the region. They shared experiences with other researchers from Europe, North America, Australia, Asia and Africa. This conference also offered participants the opportunity to meet researchers from all over the world who share a common interest, with the possibility of generating interesting collaborative projects. This meeting was an example of team work among the different participating organizations, SUMMARY OF THEI WORLDWIDE RAPTOR CONFERENCEPor Miguel Saggese The Presidents of the local organizing committees: (left to right) Sergio A. Lambertucci, Valeria Ojeda y Miguel D. Saggese.


WWW.NEOTROPICALRAPTORS.ORG PAGE 27 their representatives, and the local organizors. We hope that this joint meeting among different organizations dedicated to the study and conservation of raptors will be repeated again in the future! Additional information about the conference, program, list of presentations, and proceedings can be found at WorldwideRaptorConferenceProgram.pdf * Ruth Tingay, Raptor Research Foundation. Participants of the I Worldwide Raptor Conference in front of the Neotropical Raptor Network banner


TIOF ENDOWMENT FUND PROPOSAL International Osprey Foundation (TIOF) supports research activities of graduate student primarily focusing on osprey. However, work with other raptor species may be considered. To apply, send a project description of no more than two pages, an itemized estimate of expenses, and the name and address of the graduate supervisor. Applications must be submitted by 31 Jan 2014 to: TIOF Endowment Fund, P.O. Box 250, Sanibel, Florida, USA 33957-0250. The grant will be awarded on 31 Mar 2014. Neotropical Raptor Network www.neotropicalraptors.orgIssue 16, December 2013 IX National Ornithological Congress, Ayacucho – Per, 2014. organizaing commiteee of the IX National Ornithologial Congress, made up of diverse organizations from the Ayacucho region of Peru, including the Asociacin Pro Fauna Silvestre, la Red Ecolgica Hatun Sacha, la Asociacin Cactus Ayacucho, la Gerencia Regional de Recursos Naturales y Gestin del Medio Ambiente, la Facultad de Ciencias Biolgicas de la Universidad Nacional de San Cristbal de Huamanga and sponsored by the Unin de Ornitlogos del Per – UNOP, cordially invites you to this imporant event. The IX NOC will take place in Huamanga, Ayacucho, from 20 to 25 April 2014. During the four days of the conference, there will be a variety of event including symposiums, workshops, oral presentations, posters, and a photography exhibit on the birds of Peru. Viaje a Las Rapacesby Vctor J. Hernndez and Juan Varela With a selection of the best drawings and paintings of Juan Varela and text by Victor J. Hernandez, “Viaje a las Rapaces” takes a unique look at these birds. This book seeks to convey the excitement of direct observation of birds of prey in their natural habitats.Aimed at all audiences, it highlights the observation and biology, behavior and conservation of birds of prey in general, with examples from all continents, with numerous species illustrated. For more information visit: