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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00100958/00004
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Title: Spizaetus
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Language: English
Publisher: Neotropical Raptor Network
Place of Publication: Boise, Idaho
Publication Date: December 2010
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Table of Contents
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E N V IRO N M EN T ........................................................................................................... ................. 2

C O L O M B IA ....................................................................................................................................8

HARYPJA) INTOAWILDECOSYSTEMINDARN,PANAM ...........................................................12

R ESERVE R E V E C O M ............................................................................................................. 16

N EOTROPICAL RAPTOR LITERATURE N OTES ....................................................................... 22

O TH ER R ESO URCES.................................................................................................................24

U PCOM ING C ONFERENCES .............................................................................. ..................24

The NRN is a membership-based organization. Its goal is to aid the

research and conservation of Neotropical raptors by promoting com-

munication and collaboration among biologists, ornithologists, raptor

enthusiasts, and other conservationists working in the Neotropics.

Spizaetus: NRN Newsletter Cover photo: Harpia ..,/.'i ; hatched
Issue 10 December 2010 in captivity as part of The Peregrine
English Edition -Fund's Harpy Eagle captive breeding
English Edition
and release program in Panama.
ISSN 2157-8958 Angel Muda

Red de
etropicales Back cover photo:
Glaucidium brasilianum photographed
near the Chiquibul Forest, Belize.
Articles were edited and/or translated by Angel Ryan Phillips
Muela, Hernan Vargas, and Marta Curti



Mari Cruz Jaramillo University of Missouri Saint Louis MSc student and The Peregrine Fund, marij85@live.com;
and Hernn Vargas, The Peregrine Fund, hvargas@peregrinefund.org

A s we sit, observing the nest, six Galapagos
Hawks suddenly appear from behind us,, flying
around in circles like a twister of high pitched
calls approaching quickly. We soon realize they
are after something as, a small bird, barely es-
caping from their talons, flies desperately in an
attempt to save its life. When the female hears
the other hawks, she leaves the nest and her two
week-old chick in a hurry. From within the gul-
ly a hidden male appears. Both are responding

to the calls and rushing to aid in the hunt. Ali
eight hawks dive in one after the other and
as soon as they dive down they come right back
up, circling around and finding another impulse
to attempt to catch the prey. Finally, nearing the
horizon... SUCCESS!!! They ali disappear from
our view and so we quietly sit there waiting, eager
to see what type of bird they were after. Will they
bring their catch back to the nest? Will ALL that
effort go into raising a single chick?

A group of Galapago Hawks. Photo Hector Cadena




served different percentages of polyandry being
displayed. Along with the differences in behavior
they also show great variation in morphology be-
tween islands (Bollmer et al. 2003). On Santiago
Island the Galapagos hawks nests predominantly
on Bursera graveolens trees but, in more arid is-
lands, they may also nest on rocky outcrops, bar-
ren lava and sometimes on other species of tress
such as Opuntia, Erythrina, Pisonia, Piscidia,
Psidium and Zanthoxylum (De Vries 1973).

Less than 300,000 years ago a group of Swain-
son's Hawks (Buteo swainsoni) arrived to the ar-
chipelago, radiated quickly and became settlers
of the Galapagos Islands (Bollmer et al. 2006).
Since the arrival of the first human inhabitants in
Juvenile Galapagos Hawks feeding on goat meat
(bait used to capture and band the hawks).
Photo C Mari Cruz Jaramillo
Galapagos land iguana and lava lizard. Young
land iguanas and adult lava lizards are prey for
Galapagos Hawks.
Cooperative polyandry is the type of breeding Photo C Mari Cruz Jaramillo
behavior the Galapagos Hawk (Buteo galapa-
goensis) exhibits; one female breeding with two
to eight males, all caring for the young equally, all
copulating with the female and all fiercely defend-
ing territory against invaders year round (Faaborg
and Patterson 1981). Though this unusual way of
breeding has captured the interest of many scien-
tists, the species exhibits more than one breeding
strategy. Across the islands they inhabit, includ- ,.
ing Espafiola, Santa Fe, Pinzn, Santiago, Isabela,
Fernandina, Marchena and Pinta, we have ob-




Mari Jaramillo and two juvenile Galapagos hawks, overlooking James Bay study area.
Photo Hector Cadena

the 1800s, hawks have been persecuted and ex-
tirpated from Floreana, San Cristobal and Santa
Cruz (only juveniles are seen occasionally); and
the remaining populations on eight other islands
face yet other challenges. For over two hundred
years invasive species have been brought to the
islands, where rising concerns about their impact
on the native community generated several eradi-
cation campaigns.

The complete removal of feral goats (Capra
hircus) from Santiago Island, 585 km2, made this
the world's largest island in which eradication of
goats has been successfully completed (Cruz et
ai. 2009). This, along with the lack of a significant
herbivore population in the environment, has re-
sulted in a remarkable vegetation recovery. This
eradication was successfully completed in 2006.
In 2008, The Peregrine Fund, the University of




Missouri Saint Louis, the Charles Darwin Foun-
dation and the Galapagos National Park Service
joined efforts to study the effects of goat eradi-
cation on the Galapagos Hawk. As part of this
cooperative project, two students from Ecuador,
Mari Cruz Jaramillo and Jose Luis Rivera, had the
opportunity to conduct research for their Masters
programs in Biology at the University of Mis-
souri Saint Louis (USA). While Jose Luis stud-
ied the survivorship of hawks, Mari is focusing

mented before goat removal) to more arboreal
(after goat removal), in order to adapt. Therefore,
we are keeping a close eye on their prey popula-
tions (mainly introduced rats) to determine chang-
es in abundance as a consequence of increased
vegetation. In 2010, we conducted observations
for 60 hours, from a hut 25-60 meters away to
document what prey species are delivered and
which individual brings the prey to the nest. We
have nearly completed our first field season and

her research on their
feeding ecology. Jose
Luis, using banding
data from 1998 to
2009, detected a low-
er survivorship in the
population of hawks
after 2006 when goat
eradication was com-

pleted (Rivera et al. submitted). A previous feed-
ing ecology study in 1999-2000 (Donaghy Can-
non 2001, unpublished master thesis) will provide
a basis of comparison for years before the eradi-
cation of goats and Mari is performing observa-
tions for years after the eradication (2010-2011).
How, then, will the Galapagos hawks' diet have
changed in order to adapt to its new environment
without goats?

If vegetation recovery jeopardizes the hawk's suc-
cess in capturing certain prey, we hypothesize that
their diet should shift from ground based (docu-

we were able
to observe 9
nests with a to-
tal of 274 prey
items delivered.
Although our
sample size is
still small, we

are starting to
see a shift from ground to arboreal prey. We hope
to continue with a second field season next year
and that our results and conclusions serve to in-
form future management decisions at the Gala-
pagos National Park.


Bollmer, J.L., T. Sanchez, M.M. Donaghy Can-
non, D. Sanchez, B. Cannon, J.C. Bednarz, Tj.
DeVries, M.S. Struve, P.G. Parker. 2003. Varia-
tion in morphology and mating system among
island populations of Galpagos Hawks. The


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Female Galapagos Hawk in the nest with two chicks. Photo Daniela Bahamonde

Condor 105:428-438.


Bollmer, J.L., R.T. Kimball, N.K. Whiteman, J.
Sarasola, P.G. Parker. 2006. Phylogeography of
the Galpagos Hawk: a recent arrival to the Ga-
lpagos Islands. Molecular Phylogenetics
and Evolution 39:237-247.
Cruz, E, V Carrion, K.J. Campbell, C. Lavoie, C.
J. Donlan. 2009. Bio-economics of large-
scale eradication of feral goats from Santiago Is-
land, Galpagos. J Wild Manage.

De Vries, Tj. 1973. The Galpagos hawk, an eco-
geographical study with special reference to its
systematic position. Ph.D. dissertation, Vrije Uni-
versity, Amsterdam.

FaaborgJ., and C. B. Patterson. 1981. The charac-
teristics and occurrence of cooperative
polyandry. Ibis 123:477-484.
MacFarland C.G., J. Villa, B. Toro. 1974. The




Galpagos giant tortoises (Geochelone

elephantopus) Part I: Status of the surviving

populations. Biological Conservation, 6 (2),

pp. 118-133.

Rivera, J. L., K. M. Levenstein, J. C. Berdnarz, H.

Vargas, P. G. Parker. Submitted. Implications of

goat eradication on the Galapagos Hawk, an en-

demic island predator.

* *

Female Galapagos Hawk providing shade for her young. Photo Hector Cadena




T he Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus) is cat-
egorized as Near Threatened worldwide, and its
population is in decline (IUCN 2010; BirdLife
2010). This is why, in recent years, conserva-
tionists have begun to reintroduce captive-bred
condors back into parts of their range in Colom-
bia, Venezuela, Peru, Argentina and Chile (Lam-
bertucci 2007). In Colombia, between 1989 and
2005, 65 individuals (bom in captivity in various
zoos in the U.S. and the Cali Zoo, Colombia)
have been reintroduced into the wild in six differ-
ent repopulation nuclei in the Andes (2006 MA-
VDT .) It is estimated that 78% of those released
have survived, although reproduction of reintro-
duced individuals has not yet been documented
(Mrquez et al. 2005).

Juvenile Andean Condor
Photo Santiago Zuluaga Castefiada

In this paper, I will share some observations
made at one repopulation nucleus located in the
Los Nevados Natural National Park (NNP); as
well as the observation of a juvenile found in this
area, which suggests the possibility that the con-
dors reintroduced in Colombia may be starting to
breed in the wild.

Between 2004 and 2010, using binoculars (10 x
50) and cameras, I made non-systematic obser-
vations from high vantage points with broad
views and along transect lines (Mrquez & Rau
2003) in the buffer zone of Los Nevados NNP,
in the central mountain range of the Colombian
Andes. In July 2010, at coordinates 4 o 55.02 'N
and 75 o 26.97' W, at an altitude of 3600 m, I
photographed a juvenile condor estimated to be
approximately three years of age, based on its
plumage characteristics. It is probable that this
individual hatched in Los Nevados NNP, which
makes this the first evidence of possible repro-
duction among the condors reintroduced in Co-
lombia. The juvenile was seen flying, accompa-
nied by a reintroduced adult condor. From 1997
to 2001, 16 juvenile condors were released in the


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i. .. 1 111- 2 11111( ,, 1 1-1, 1 1,1 1 -- --b-1 .. .

Los Nevados NNP. Ali these condors should
have already been in adult plumage by July 2010,
thus, the presence of a young condor suggests
it hatched locally or is a bird which possibly dis-
persed from elsewhere in Colombia, where wild
condors are known to breed. However, the latter
is less likely, because these breeding condors ex-
ist in very small numbers and they are restricted
to a few isolated mountain areas (MAVDT 2006)
in the Cocuy NNP and Sierra Nevada de Santa
Marta, about 417 and 682 km from the Los Ne-
vados NNP, respectively.

I made 14 visits to the study area with an aver-
age of 2.3 visits per year. During each visit, I re-

corded the presence of condors and behavioral
observations. In addition, I interviewed people
in the community about their sightings of this
species. Through my observations I documented
condor behavioral patterns in relation to foraging
and roosting, and the presence of solitary indi-
viduals and pairs.
Observations of feeding behavior showed that
when food is found, the condors do not imme-
diately descend upon it, but rather they remain
a good distance away, in places where they can
observe their quarry over long periods of time.
This behavior coincides with that described by
Speziale et ai. (2008) who argued that, generally,
the species is very cautious and may wait days be-

Juvenile Andean Condor. Photo Santiago Zuluaga Castefiada




First documented Andean Condor roost site in Co-
lombia. Photo Santiago Zuluaga Castefiada

fore deciding to go down to eat.

Two roost sites have been recorded. The first,
found in 2007, is located on a rock wall about 50
m high, with shrubs and trees that isolate the in-
terior. There has been little activity at this site. On
only one occasion did I observe three individuals
in the afternoon hours. The second roost, found
more recently, was first recorded in January 2010.
It is located on a 300 m rock wall with some
shrubbery. There I observed a solitary individual
arrive at sunset and leave in the early hours of
the morning over three consecutive days. Subse-
quently, in May 2010, there were two individuals
using this roost site.

Observed individuals belong to a repopulation
nucleus, established in 1997 as a center of disper-
sal for the species in the central mountains of the
country (MAVDT 2006). From the beginning,
these individuals were marked with patagial tags

PAGE- 10

on both wings, and in addition, were fitted with a
microchip for individual identification (pers com.
G. Corredor). However, it seems that most indi-
viduals have lost their wing tags, which makes it
impossible to identify them in the wild. In addi-
tion, there is little or no knowledge of the biology
of this core group, due to the lack of monitoring
and limited availability of resources that would
allow us to document their current status. These
are perhaps the main reasons why this juvenile
condor had not been previously observed. It is
worth noting also, that before this discovery, resi-
dents in the area claimed that they saw a group of
three individuals, one possibly a juvenile, feeding
in the area.

In addition to this, it is presumed that there are
juveniles of this species in different parts of the
country. However, no conclusive evidence ex-
ists to prove the veracity of these assumptions.

Second documented Andean Condor roost site in
Colombia. Photo Santiago Zuluaga Castefiada

IssUE 10 DECEMBER 2010

It is, therefore, necessary to confirm these re-
cords, and to seek funds to obtain accurate data
and precise knowledge of population dynamics
within these repopulation nuclei. In this way we
hope to evaluate the effectiveness of releases as
an appropriate conservation strategy.

The observations discussed here and the docu-
mentation of a juvenile condor represent a con-
tribution to the knowledge of the population
status of condors reintroduced into the Los Ne-
vados NNP, and the need for verification of wild
reproduction, as a measure to assess the success
of implementing Action Plan 2006-2016 (MA-
VDT 2006) for the conservation of the condor
in Colombia

German Corredor, leader of the Cali Zoo captive
breeding program, says that confirmation that
reintroduced condors are reproducing naturally
will undoubtedly be of great importance to the
scientific community and, especially, will mean
good news for efforts to restore Andean Condor
populations in Colombia.

I would like to thank Sergio Lambertucci, re-
searcher at the Universidad Nacional dei Coma-
hue, Bariloche, Argentina, for his comments and
support. I would also like to especially thank Olga
Luca Nfiez, Germn Corredor, Hernn Vargas
and Cesar Mrquez, for their comments.


BirdLife International (2010) Species factsheet:
Vultur gryphus. Downloaded from http://www.
birdlife.org on 19/7/2010.
IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Spe-
cies. Version 2010.2. www.iucnredlist.org. Down-
loaded on 19 July 2010.

Lambertucci, S.A. 2007. Biologia y conservacin
del cndor andino (Vultur gryphus) en Argenti-
na. Hornero 22(2):149-158.

Marquez, C., M. Bechard., E Gast, & VH. Vane-
gas. 2005. Aves rapaces diurnas de Colombia. In-
stituto de Investigacin de Recursos Biolgicos
"Alexander von Humboldt". Bogot, Colombia.

Mrquez, C, & J. Rau. 2003. Tcnicas de detec-
cin, observacin y censo de aves rapaces diur-
nas en Costa Rica. Gestin Ambiental 9: 67-77.

MAVDT. Ministerio de Ambiente, Vivienda y
Desarrollo Territorial. Program Nacional para la
Conservacin del Cndor Andino en Colombia.
Plan de Accin 2006 2016.

Speziale, K.L., S.A. Lambertucci & O. Olsson.
2008. Disturbance from roads negatively affects
Andean condor habitat use. Biological Conserva-
tion 141:1756-1772.

* *


PAGE- 11


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Two seasons have gone by since the release
of the Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja) called KC,
well-known in the local communities as Nepono,
which means "flower" in the indigenous Embera
language. KC was released into the Chepigana
Forest Reserve, Darien with several goals in mind
all of which are aimed at developing guidelines
for a successful reintroduction of captive-bred
Harpy Eagles in natural environments where wild
Harpy Eagles already live. We released KC in the
forest surrounding the community of La Marea
in the hopes of influencing a courtship between
our captive-bred bird and a resident wild male
Harpy Eagle that recently lost his mate.

KC hatched on December 31, 2004 at The Per-
egrine Fund's Neotropical Raptor Center in Pan-
ama. More than a year after hatching, she was re-
leased in Soberania National Park, in the Panama
Canal Area, where she successfully adapted to her
environment. In January of 2009, we trapped

Harpy Eagle, KC, with a sloth KC and temporarily held her in quarantine to
Photo C Jos de Jess Vargas-Gonzlez make sure she was healthy before we re-released
her into the forests of the Darien Province of
Panama. On February 21, we transported KC to

PAGE 12 IssuE 10 DECEMBER 2010


IssuE 10 DEMIMBER 2010

Jos checking for KC's signal
Photo Jos de Jess Vargas-Gonzlez

the study region, and released her a month later,
after having witnessed vocal interactions between
her and the wild male Harpy Eagle.

In order to collect data after KC was released, we
followed her for at least five hours each day to
document any interactions she had with the wild
male Harpy Eagle or other individuals. Though
our intention to bring KC and the wild male to-
gether was not successful, many hypotheses can
explain why these two birds did not mate, such
as KC's young age. Nevertheless, we learned a lot
from this unsuccessful part of the experiment.

We documented intra-specific interactions with
wild Harpy Eagles and collected data to gain a
better understanding of the tolerance levei and
adaptability of this species in different types of
ecosystems. Today, our preliminary data suggest
that: 1. KC is not a resource competitor for other
adult and juvenile Harpy Eagles; 2. KC has adapt-
ed successfully to a natural environment; 3. KC
had positive interactions with other individuals
of her species; 4. KC can use different types of
forests, with homogeneous and heterogeneous
ecosystems, including areas of some human dis-
turbance; and 5. KC is an excellent icon to raise
awareness in local communities about the con-
servation of this species.

During this past year of constant monitoring ef-
fort, KC travelled roughly 130 km from the re-
lease site in La Marea. Most recently, she has
been located in the Serrania del Sapo, an amaz-
ing contiguous forest near Puerto Pifia. We have
documented three different interactions between
KC and three adults males and one juvenile fe-
male Harpy Eagle, as well her visits into active
breeding territories of other Harpy Eagles. It is
incredible how much we have learned and con-
tinue to learn from this experience with KC. The
interactions we witnessed were both visual and
vocal, and may have lasted for hours, without any
instances of intimidation or aggressive behaviour.
In fact, on several occasions, KC was seen with a
different wild male. At times, they were observed

PAGE- 13

Female Harpy Eagle, KC. Photo Jos de Jess Vargas-Gonzlez

perching close together at distances of under 5
meters in the same tree. They sometimes vocal-
ized back and forth and even flew together. We
considered these interactions as positive. This led
us to conclude that captive bred Harpy eagles can
live with wild Harpy Eagles and that, in the event
they enter occupied territory, they can disperse
without any aggressive behaviour occurring.

Before her release in Darien, we had several con-
cerns, mainly regarding the survivorship of KC
in an environment where we knew wild Harpy
Eagles were present. Today we can support the
claim of "survival of the fittest", as KC has

shown to be a very fit individual. The survival
of this eagle is clear proof of the great value of
ali the rearing, development and reintroduction
efforts made by our team at The Peregrine Fund.

In the Darien's very diverse and amazing eco-
systems, KC has captured a wide variety of prey,
such as sloths, primates, and carnivores, among
others. We have documented how KC searches
for, chooses and captures her prey, always follow-
ing a cost-benefit rule. On some occasions KC
watched her prey for several hours, but did not
attempt to hunt it, despite it seeming, at least to
us, an easy catch. Perhaps the site was not the

PAGE 14 IssuE 10 DECEMBER 2010


IssuE 10 DEMIMBER 2010

best for making the capture, or there was some
risk of KC getting hurt. All of these observa-
tions and theories enrich our study and feed our
desire to learn more.

We monitored KC's movements through mature
forests with open understory vegetation as well
as through complex habitats where the dense
vegetation made it very difficult to move. This
Harpy Eagle has utilized mainly mature forests
with large homogeneous extensions. But we have
also followed her into mangrove forests, cati-
vales, and secondary forests, as well as agricul-
tural fields. This diversity of habitat use suggests
this species' great adaptability, as long as it is not
killed by humans.

What motivates KC to move great distances? We
can speculate that it is because she is a young ea-

gle, wandering without direction. Or it may just
be due to disorientation from being in a com-
pletely new environment. Perhaps she is looking
for an ideal area that meets her requirements, or
maybe it is because she found other eagles in the
surroundings and prefers an empty territory. Per-
haps it is because she is young and is searching
for a mate, and later a territory and a good place
to build her nest. There are many questions that
arise from KC's movement patterns. Day by day
we collect more data and we are better equipped
to study her habitat requirements and closer to
understanding her behaviour.

Anthropogenic barriers, such as deforested areas,
may force KC to deviate from her path, causing
her to use forest remnants to bypass poor habi-
tats and reach better areas. Each inference that
we make from observations of KC creates new
concerns regarding the requirement for healthy
populations of Harpy Eagles, especially in con-
trast to the growing trend in soil use and defor-

Today, in the study area, our work team is known
as the "Harpy Eagles". Both children and adults
call us that and ask us about Nepono, who has
become a popular individual, especially among
children. This is the result of the radio advertis-
ments that we broadcast regularly so that the
community learns about Harpy Eagles, especially
about Nepono.

KC visited some indigenous and farmers' lands
as part of her exploratory travels, and thanks to
our communication efforts she has not fallen vic-
tim to hunters. Whenever we have the opportu-
nity, we talk informally with local people to teach
them about our project and the presence of KC.
This way we avoid that she will be hurt due to

A lot more work is necessary to accomplish our
research with KC, but we have the energy and
enthusiasm to continue following our wild flower

*k *k *




Iun- i. II 1i rN F 1

T he rehabilitation of injured birds of prey
found or seized by environmental agencies is
part of the routine at most wildlife rehabilitation
centers. Raptors, due to their particular character-
istics, represent a unique challenge since they de-
pend on the integrity of their talons, their flying
ability, and overall excellent physical condition
for safe release and survival back into the wild.

Located on the left bank of the Amazon River
in the state of Amap (Brazil), the REVECOM
Private Natural Heritage Reserve (RPPN for
its acronym in Portuguese), encompasses about
17 acres including a small river basin (Igarap
Manguerinha). It was established (Portaria no.
54/98 N IBAMA, and considered of pub-
lic utility by law No. 109) by the government of
Amap on May 29, 2007. In addition to shelter-
ing a rich Amazonian fauna, it is being used as a
center for the Forestry Battalion. Seized animals
are admitted and given clinical, microbiological,
and other tests to assess their physical and men-
tal condition before being released back into the
wild. The center is also used in environmental ed-
ucation activities and attends to various schools


in the region. It also promotes specific courses
for university students or graduates interested in
natural resource conservation (Fig 1 and 2).

Case Report

An adult female Harpy Eagle (Harpy harpyja), or
"Uirau" (a name of Tupi-Guarani origin) was
found by a local resident in early January 2007
on a dirt road near a chromite mine, 40 km from
the town of Cupixi or Vila Nova (00 O 07'09 .6
"S and 51 o 38'12 .6" W), about 180 km from
Macap Amap's capital. After three hours of
travel the eagle was brought to REVECOM (ad-
mission document No. 3147 GEA SEMA -
06/01/2007 CCF) for initial observations. At the
time of capture the bird was on the ground and
extremely lethargic. It could not stand up and was
slightly covered with mud(Fig 4 and 5). The ini-
tial clinical examination revealed lesions on the
inside of the right wing (with some joint expo-
sure); the right pectoral region had significant
loss of feathers with dermal exposure and abra-
sion; foreign bodies were found under the nicti-
tating membrane, and it had traumatic keratitis

IssUE 10 DECEMBER 2010

and episcleritis with secondary bacterial infection
in its right eye. The eagle was treated with hydra-
tion and antibiotic therapy.

Its feces initially presented as semi-liquidy with a
lot of greenish mucus with bloody traces. We ad-
ministered 30mg/kg trimethoprim sulfamethox-
azole (Bactrim) twice daily for seven days, which
gave good results, considering that the eagle's
feces returned to normal. Lesions on the wing
and pectoral region were bathed with a mixture
of saline, iodine and hydrogen peroxide adminis-
tered with manual pressure pumping equipment,
and then a fibrinolytic ointment with chloram-
phenicol was applied. The skin lesions healed by
the second treatment. On the 20th of January we
administered a single dose of Abendazol at 10
mg / kg and again 15 days later. In addition, as
initial therapy support, the bird received a multi-
vitamin for 15 days which was added to its food
and water. Initially, the eagle's daily diet consisted

of a mixture of lean beef, beef liver oil and a
puree of chicken bones. After 10 days the bird
began to refuse food. We allowed the eagle to
fast, as it is normal for wild Harpy Eagles to go
for several days without eating between success-
ful hunts. Beginning on 25 January it began exer-
cising its wings. On 27 January 2007 it was very
active and, when given food, partially opened its
wings which is typical juvenile behavior. It be-
gan to exercise its legs by alternately liften them
with the support of the perches. The eagle also
went back and forth between perches regularly -
going from a 15 cm perch to a branch 30 cm in
diameter. It also began to interact with its envi-
ronment and showed interest in a sloth (Cholo-
epus sp.), a kinkajou (Potus flavus) and a juvenile
howler monkey (Allouatta sp.) that were housed
nearby. Upon seeing these animals it lowered all
of its crest feathers as if it were ready to fly and
capture prey. The eagle wasn't interested, how-
ever, in the almost featherless macaw that was

Figure 1. (It.) Amazon River in the coastal state of Amap (Brazil), where the REVECOM is lo-
cated (a green oasis in the urban center of Puerto de Santana).

Figure 2. (rt.) The state of Amap (Brazil) Coast (Atlantic Ocean) and the Amazon River.

Figures 4 and 5. (It.) Harpy Eagle's arrival to
Photo Paulo Roberto Neme do Amorim

nearby. On 27 January the bird showed signs of
recovery. It would not let us touch its back and its
eye injury healed after 20 days of treatment with
ophthalmic ointment (Maxitrol) and boric acid.
The eagle had been rescued on 1 March and on
14 April he was transferred to a new facility built
according to the REVECOM model (AMORIM
et ai, 2010 submitted for publication), where he
began to exercise more and even fly. He adapted
to this new site after 10 days (Fig 6 and 7). Flight
was encouraged by the supply of live white rats.

Harpy Eagle Conservation

The conservation of large predators is becoming
increasingly difficult, not for lack of protected
PAGE- 18

Figures 6 and 7. (rt.)Harpy Eagle in its
chamber after being treated.
Photo Paulo Roberto Neme do Amorim

areas, but due to limited and fragmented habitat.
Large winged predators such as the Harpy Eagle,
Black Hawk-Eagle (Spizaetus tyrannus) and Or-
nate Hawk-Eagle (Spizaetus ornatus) need large
areas in order to survive (Willis, 1979). However,
many of them have disappeared from some re-
gions where forest still exists, as these areas do
not anymore meet the needs of the species. It
is a mistake to believe that the existence of pro-
tected areas guarantees the conservation of the
most demanding species. The same applies to
some mammals like the jaguar (Panthera onca),
tapir (Tapirus terrestris), peccary (Tayassu pec-
cary and Pecari tajacu), the giant anteater (Myr-
mecophaga tridactyla) and the giant armadillo
IssUE 10 DECEMBER 2010

(Priodontes maximus) (Chiarello, 2000). Space
is the most important factor for their conserva-
tion. More demanding species require large, con-
tiguous habitats because any fragmentation could
prevent much of their prey from surviving in
these changed environments.

Although information exists which indicates the
possibility of large predators surviving in areas
near human communities, in our view, this sim-
ply represents an attempt on their part to adapt
to local conditions. We have not done long-term
monitoring to assess exactly how those changes
may affect current and future generations of
Harpy Eagles. It is a fact, for example, that defor-
estation can interfere in both their breeding and
in their ability to raise their young. Human deg-
radation of ecosystems leads to the disappear-
ance of those species that make up the Harpy
Eagle's diet. It is possible that the lack of wildlife
in the region could cause the eagles to hunt do-
mesticated animals, such as has occurred in the
case of the jaguar. This fact may cause people
to see the eagle as a threat and to kill it. Others
may shoot the eagle due to its size, or simply as
a trophy hunt. Illegal hunting, persecution and
trafficking of this species should be considered
as real threats. In the Amazon, large-sized preda-
tory birds are killed for consumption, exacerbat-
ing the problem since the Harpy Eagle is a rare
bird that has a slow maturation rate, with the
adult individuals crucial for population stability

(Chiarello, 2000; ICMBio, 2008). According to
the list of endangered fauna of Brazil, this spe-
cies is placed in the category of Near Threatened
at the national levei (MACHADO et al. 2005).
However, the status of the species in the Atlantic
Forest is worse, being cited in the state red lists
from the south and southeast as "probably ex-
tinct" in Rio Grande do Sul (MARQUES et al.
2002); "Critically Endangered in Minas Gerais
(DRUMMOND et al, 2008), Paran (MIKICH
and Bernils 2004), So Paulo (Silveira et ai, 2009)
and Esprito Santo (Simon et ai, 2007); and "En-
dangered" in Rio de Janeiro (ALVES et ai. 2000).

Most Recent Records of Harpya harpyja in

The most recent Harpy Eagle records are con-
centrated in large conserved areas of the north-
ern region (Table 1). Vargas et ai. (2006) com-
piled records of 21 nests of the species in Brazil.
These records reported by Vargas et ai (2006)
include Galetti et ai (1997), Borges et ai (2001),
Marigo (2002), Silveira (2002), Henriques et ai
(2003), Pacheco et ai (2003), Pires et ai (2003),
Santos (2003), Luz (2005), Silveira et ai (2005),
Pivatto et ai (2006) and Olmos et ai (2006).

There is no doubt that the recovery and mainte-
nance of raptors in captivity can be a challenge
for their rehabilitators, especially when it comes
to birds the size of Harpy Eagles, which require


PAGE- 19


Acre Sena Madureira 2006
Amap Vila Nova (Lat. 00007'09,6"S e Long. 51038'12,6"W) 2007
Amazonas PARNA Ja, REDES Mamirau 2001, 2006
Par Rio Trombetas, RESEX Tapajs-Arapiuns, FLONA Tapajs, Moju (Ag- 2003, 2005,
ropalma), Paragominas (Fazenda Cauaxi), PE do Cristalino. 2006
Roraima ESEC Marac, PARNA Viru 1985, 2003
Mato Grosso Ricardo Franco (Serra), Vila Bela da Santissima Trindade 2002
Mato Grosso do Sul Serra da Bodoquena (Fazenda Salobra), PARNA Serra da Bodoquena 2006
Bahia Serra das Lontras, PARNA Pau Brasil 1991, 2005
Esprito Santo Pedro Canrio, REBIO Sooretama, REFLO Linhares (CVRD), REBIO 1997, 2000,
Augusto Rischi 2003, 2006
Minas Gerais RPPN Feliciano Miguel Abdala, PE do Rio Doce, Tapira (comunidade de 2002, 2006
Palmeiras), Fazenda Montes Claros
Rio de Janeiro PARNA Itatiaia, PARNA Serra dos rgos, PE Serra do Mar 2000, 2002,
So Paulo Canania, Ariri 1989, 1993

Table Most recent records for Harpy Eagles in Brazil
Table 1. Most recent records for Harpy Eagles in Brazil

more space and more experienced staff to handle
their management. In this particular case, the ini-
tial situation of the bird favored its rapid recov-
ery as important structures like wings and talons
suffered no permanent damage. The availability
of a suitable enclosure is a decisive factor in the
rehabilitation process, particularly when falconry
techniques in which the bird is kept on a proper
perch and is exercised daily with vertical jumps,
followed by free flight until they gain enough
muscle condition and self-confidence to return
to the wild, are not employed.

I want to thank the team at REVECOM for their
efforts in the full rehabilitation of the Harpy Ea-



Alves, M.A.S.; J.E Pachecho; L.A.P. Gonzaga;
R.B. Cavalcanti; M.A. Raposo; C. Yamashita; N.
C. Maciel & M. Castanheira. 2000. Aves, p. 113-
124. In: H.G.Begallo; C.ED. Rocha; M.A.S. Alves
& M. Van Sluys. (Eds). A fauna ameaada de ex-
tino do estado do Rio de Janeiro. Rio de Ja-
neiro, Editora da UERJ, 166p.

Amorim, P. R; R. Rocha e Silva, ; M. Lemos, M;
M. L. Barreto. Um novo conceito em abrigos
para grandes accipitrideos: Estudo de caso com
Uira (Harpya harpija, Accipitridae, AVES). En-
tregue para publicao em novembro/2010.

Bierregaard Jr., R.O. 1995 .The biology and con-
servation status of Central and South American
Falconiformes: a survey of current knowledge.
Bird Conservation International. ICBP 5:325-

FZB 11, 52p.

Brown, 1. 1976 Birds of Prey, their biology and
ecology. Hamlyn: Londres.

Chiarello, A. G. 2000. Conservation value of a
native forest fragment in a region of extensive
agriculture. Revista Brasileira de Biologia, So
Carlos, v 60, n. 2.
Cooper, J.E. 1991. Veterinary aspects of cap-
tive birds of prey. 2ed. The Standfast Press.
Gloucestershire. 256p.

Drummond, G. et al. 2008 Lista das espcies da
flora e da fauna ameaadas de extino do es-
tado de Minas Gerais. Fundao Biodiversitas:
Belo Horizonte.

Halliwell, W H. 1975. Bumblefoot infections in
birds of prey. J. Zoo Anim Med. 6:8-10.

Keimer, I. E 1972. Diseases of birds of prey.
Veterinary Record.90(21): 579-594.

Machado, A.B.M.; C.S. Martins & G.M. Drum-
mond. 2005. Lista da fauna brasileira ameaada
de extino. Belo Horizonte, Fundao Biodi-
versitas, 160p.

Marques, A.A.B.; C.S. Fontana; E.Vlez; G.A.
Bencke; M.Schneider & R. E.Dos Reis. 2002.
Lista de referncia da fauna ameaada de extin-
o no Rio Grande do Sul. Porto Alegre, FZB/
MCT, PUCRS/PANGEA, Publicaes Avulsas

Mikich, S.B. & R.S. Brnils. 2004. Livro ver-
melho da fauna ameaada no estado do Paran.
Disponvel na World Wide Web em: http://
Peres, C.A; J. Barlow; T. Haugaasen. 2003. Ver-
tebrate responses to surface wildfire in a central
Amazonian forest. Oryx, v.37, n.1, p.97-1 09.

Sick, H. Ornitologia Brasileira. 1997. 2a. im-
presso, Editora Nova Fronteira S.A. Rio de

Janeiro, 912p.

Silveira, L. F et ai. 2009. Aves. In: BRESSAN,
P.M et al. Fauna ameaada de extino no estado
de So Paulo: Vertebrados. So Paulo: Fundao
Parque Zoolgico de So Paulo e Secretaria de
Meio Ambiente.

Simon, J. E et al. 2007. As aves ameaadas
de extino no estado do Esprito Santo. In
MENDES, S.L e PASSAMANI, M (org). Livro
Vermelho das espcies da fauna ameaadas de
extino no estado do Esprito Santo. Vitria:

Vargas, J. J; D. Whitacre; R. Mosquera; J. Al-
buquerquej; et al. 2006. Estado e distribuicion actual
Del guila arpa (Harpia harpyja) em centro y sur
Amrica. Ornitologia Neotropical, v.7, p. 39-55.

* *






Compiled by Lloyd Kiff, Ikiff(@peregrinefund.org

Martnez-Snchez, J.C., and T. Will (eds.). 2010. Thomas R. Howell's Check-list of the
Birds of Nicaragua as of 1993. Ornithological Monographs no. 68. 108 pp.

To say that this just-published volume has been
"long awaited" would be a major understatement.
Thomas Howell, a Professor at the University of
California Los Angeles, began his studies of the
Nicaraguan avifauna in the early 1950s at a time
when there was virtually no other ornithological
research being undertaken anywhere in Central
America, aside from Alexander Skutch's life his-
tory work in Costa Rica. By the end of the 1960s,
Howell visited Nicaragua on 13 extended trips,
and he and his assistants amassed one of the
most important collections of birds for any Cen-
tral American country. He always planned to do
a major avifaunal treatment for Nicaragua, and
from the 1970s to the early 1990s, he worked in-
termittently on his manuscript. Regrettably, he
eventually ran out of energy and commitment
before the book was completed. Luckily, two
other experts on Nicaraguan birds, Juan Carlos
Martnez-Snchez and Tom Will, were in regular
contact with Howell during his later years, and
their persistence and hard work resulted in the
welcome publication of the present volume by
the American Ornithologist's Union, as a part of
the Ornithological Monographs series. Appro-
priately, they limited the content of this volume to
the period of Tom Howell's actual involvement,

carefully editing his notes and partially finished
manuscript with only a few discreet changes in
nomenclature and ecological jargon. The result-
ing monograph includes a fascinating history of
ornithological work in Nicaragua and provides a
useful summary of specimen records, distribu-
tion, status, and habitat preferences of all species
known from the country as of 1993, including
51 species of diurnal raptors and 12 species of
owls. It establishes a solid baseline which should
be helpful to the editors of the monograph to
produce their own up-to-date treatments of the
birds of the largest country in Central America.

Raptor Information System:

For several decades, the most important single
bibliographic database on raptors has been the
Raptor Information System, which has been ad-
ministered by the U.S. Geological Survey from its
offices in Boise, Idaho. This vast collection of re-
prints, reports, and theses contained over 38,000
titles by mid-2010. It was originally formed in the
late 1980s by the merger of the "Raptor Manage-
ment System," created by the late "Butch" Olen-
dorff, and a similar database created by raptor
biologists associated with the Snake River Birds
of Prey National Conservation Area. The RIS

database has been maintained online for nearly
15 years, and has been a rich source of hard-to-
find "gray literature" (mostly unpublished manu-
scripts and agency reports) on raptors. Although
the database is focused mainly on North Ameri-
can species and topics, it contains many referenc-
es of interest to Neotropical researchers.

The USGS recently decided to discontinue its in-
volvement with the RIS, and the entire holdings
were moved to The Peregrine Fund Research Li-
brary on 20 October 2010. Although it will re-
main online in its present form for an indefinite
period, the RIS electronic database is gradually
being merged into the Global Raptor Informa-
tion Network bibliography, and requests for PDF

copies of any of the RIS records should now be
directed to library@peregrinefund.org. The orig-
inal paper copies of the RIS references will be
preserved in The Peregrine Fund library collec-
tions, and most of the duplicates resulting from
the merger will be sent to Hawk Mountain Sanc-
tuary. Combining the collections is expected to
generate duplicate copies of over 300 hardbound
books on raptors, and these will be sold to sup-
port new acquisitions for The Peregrine Fund
Research Library. A full listing of these titles
will be available on The Peregrine Fund website
(www.peregrinefund.org) by late January under
"Research Library" and "Books for Sale."

* *




AI DI) I( )NA RI:S( )UR(,1S

Of special interest to researchers, naturalists and
conservationists interested in raptor conserser-
vation this book integrates reports and com-
munications about raptor conservation biology
with special emphasis on Neotropical and Latin
American species. A NEW WORLD VULTURES:

For more informa-
tion visit: This book teaches about the diet, habitat and be
www. havior of all New World vultures.
To download a PDF copy, go to: http://hawk-
mountain. o rg/media/New World_Vulture_Ac-
tivity Book_2010_2.pdf


Idaho, USA. For more information visit: http://www.peregrinefund.org /gyr conference/

CONGRESS 9-13 March 2011, Kearney, Nebraska, USA. For more information visit: http://

IX NEOTROPICAL CONGRESS 8-14 November 2011 Cusco, Peru. For more information
visit: http: / /www.neotropicalornithologyv.org/

PAGE 24 IssuE 10 DECEMBER 2010


IssuE 10 DEMlMBER 2010

To join the NRN please send an e-mail to Marta Curti, NRN coordinator, at mcur-
ti(@peregrinefund.org, introducing yourself and stating your interest in Neotropical

raptor research and conservation. Red de -
1 LukNIN