Material Information

Place of Publication:
Kingston Jamaica
Abeng Pub. Co.
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
Physical Description:
1 v. : illus. ; 46 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Jamaica ( lcsh )
Social conditions -- Periodicals -- Jamaica ( lcsh )
Race question -- Periodicals -- Jamaica ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:


The weekly Abeng newspaper (February 1 - September 27, 1969) was published in response to the Black Power and protest movement that emerged after the ban on Dr. Walter Rodney, the Guyanese and University of the West Indies historian, who was prohibited from landing in Kingston on October 15th, 1968 after attending a Black Writers conference in Montreal, Canada. Rodney was known in Jamaica for his lectures and talks on African history and the liberation movements in Africa. These talks were given not only on the campus but in communities of the urban and rural poor. The ban triggered protests by UWI students and the urban poor in Kingston and led to public debate about the state of Jamaican social, economic and political life. The Abeng newspaper‘s Managing Editor was Robert Hill (UWI graduate student) and other editors included George Beckford (UWI lecturer), Rupert Lewis (UWI graduate student) and Trevor Munroe (Rhodes Scholar at Oxford University). The Abeng group was a political centre for the Black Power movement, socialists, the independent trade union movement, Rastafarians, supporters of the opposition People’s National Party and people disaffected with the two main political parties. Abeng therefore became a focal point of critique and activism against the ruling Jamaica Labour Party and a harbinger of the radicalism in Jamaica in the 1970s.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
v. 1- (no. 1- ); Feb. 1, 1969-v. 1, no. 35 (Oct. 3, 1969).

Record Information

Source Institution:
Florida International University: Digital Library of the Caribbean
Holding Location:
Florida International University: Digital Library of the Caribbean
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This item was contributed to the Digital Library of the Caribbean (dLOC) by the source institution listed in the metadata. This item may or may not be protected by copyright in the country where it was produced. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by applicable law, including any applicable international copyright treaty or fair use or fair dealing statutes, which dLOC partners have explicitly supported and endorsed. Any reuse of this item in excess of applicable copyright exceptions may require permission. dLOC would encourage users to contact the source institution directly or to request more information about copyright status or to provide additional information about the item.
Resource Identifier:
05001780 ( OCLC )
5001780 ( OCLC )


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Full Text

"We want our People to think for themselves"

I V. I No.34 Sept. 27,1969. I L l'J. L~-- -~V' N1 3J lk .
B la c k P o w e r .sa result of the shutdown ing bananas to these ports, rather round the coast ,ur uiithedav a,;.
of the major banana ports by ca. than pay the approximately 1.800 load bananas a night..lthu a.oi
a n Driers and loaders at Montego Bay. to the workers demanding a just ing ourtimi cmsts for thirr,/ .
SOracabessa, and Port Antonio, de- payment for their labour after a men. By loading al mhtlit. it is i,
alive e in M o -B a y manding payment done for work normal day's work.The Board would Black Jamiaicaen ilircirs who wrrk
after 4.30 p i., the Banana Board drive thy entire industry into bank- oiirti nith ilet far; ta't /his is
On the 31st. August,concern and its application to Jamaica. It la eek decided to lock-out the irptcv rather than recognise the Banarig int Bepeealirn f la oc Ja-
Syouths from all sectors of the was further revealed that the reason workers and shift all loading to the rights of Ie workers m a'can labh
Pntego Bay community respond- for this dormancy in 'black power blank ports at Bowden and Luea But the banana workers are What the banana workers are
wi much enthusiasm to the involvement' was fear of brutal abandoned port, both political longer preped to foot the ills also making clear is the fact that
black power meeting to be oppression from the govern mett, strongholds of the Labour Party with their unpaid labour. If the in- the low price of fruit to growers
Id in Montgo Bay. The meeting The line of reasoning is undoubt- Bowden however, has no pier fact- dustry crashes, it will be the Board can only be solved when they stand
sp onsored by the YLBU (Youth ably of some relevance as we have lities for unloading and banana sto- and growerslike Cargill and Chm- united with the workers cause, and
ague for Black Unity), a group only got to recall the Dr. Rodnev rage and has a depth of only twenty pagnie who must accept the res- both together confront Elders and
progressive radicals in this town. issue in Oct. of last year, and the, -two feet. This means that ships posibilty. Banana workers have Ffyesin England and theirlocal p-
nAlthough the meeting ran brutal handling UWI students re- loading at Bowden can only take a "enough!" ppets. the Governmentsof Jamaica
othly the gathering was not free (Turn to Page 4 three-quarter full cargo at most. Yet the Board has not said and the Banana Board. Together
t counter-revolutionary "pigs" as Lucea has not been used at all in re- that it can't pay. It has said that it they must demand a completely
iieport from the reactionary press Dr. Drayton cent years, for the simple reason of won't pay! It has said that it won't new trading agreement for Jamai-
tr" on Sept. 2nd. 69 under the hazard it poses to ships loading pay! That is the reward black men can bananas. The fact is that grow-
Black Power in Montego Bay" Visits Jamaica there, and women receive after slaving for enr need the workers more than the
rode *n approximation of about The banana business is owned the last twenty-years to keep the workers need the growers for the
'S0 yOng people" present at the Last ec, Dr arol and on by the Government of Ja- banana industry going, carrying ba- workers have decided that their
meting This figure was an eitre- Drayton, his wife Katheen and naica. The workers who carry the na at the rate of 12/6 ( 1.25 exploitation must either cease now
aly inccrate one as more than thenr two children spent a dai inships and the w pr m m
MO y ths rendezvoused at the Janica. The were i transitfrom as to the sps and the work- per thousand, working at the most or the industry must cease.
Albion Youth Centre. The report Gurpiamo where Dr. DraMton is th ers who load them on to the ships two days a week! The basis of a new agreement
iftthlt its inaccuracy as it pro- Professor of the Biology Deemplyed to the Governmentf Ho er, white dock-workers iorthe marketing of Jamaican ba-
wed its inaccurayote aboth of th e two me ntor o the iolon of Gua of Jamaica in the form of the Ba- in 'ngland are paid l' our sa;ie n.u.s in the U.K. could provide a-
aked omit uoterr both of the two imet in he U niKer tau of Ga nana Board. Yet the Government Ba nana Board at naluiralli much enough money for better wages to
akea it referivoud however is th e UaK n "n s ha which is supposed to be based on higher basic rates thae it ps's to workers and better prices to grow-
te frivolous however, i this Dr. Drnartd n a nd his wI had trade union support, showed again Jamaican workcrs.pays lthemi doub ers. But, as usual, the only people
itpo from the reactionary press graduated at the U.C WI Mona in that it is the most savage exploiter le tice alter 4 30 p m. and in io who don't want this to happen is
t e meeting it was decided to 1954 and were declared prohibited of workers and totally ruthless in case wiln these w hite workers work the Govenment of Backwardness
the youth liberation for black immigrants hr the P.N.P regime in victimising workers who will no after 7 p.m. Our pellc. on the Once workers and growers get ti
ikya.One will only have to re- 158 because of their a nceoiatio n t no t h u n r e n '/ I ow t ^ "e" a oe 8
Oad the last statement in the f ith eht eopesFreedom Moei longer bow to hunger and starvation. other hand. ork right through the gether. the whole political game is
ad thre lost statement in the first with eht Peoples Freedonm MAoe The Banana Board is paying f iriht because he EIlders & Ffes. over ONE TIME!
paragraph of this report to see how ment led by Richard Hart. In 1967 L2.000 in transport costs by shift- wo one the hips, prefer to il a-
midsleading the "Star" can be. Mrs Drayton was prevented ifro,, 000 transporthy take off
At the conference, it was entering Jamaica to spend a few W H A T H A PE D y te
Pointed out to the youths that weeks vacation because fe of the ban H A PPE Garvey
ither ULP nor PNP will make op- imposed in 195i Garvey
reon lighter for the people of Oi this occasion Dr Dray-. LA T W EK A clipping from the Laily Glea-
ie "Sufferers Class" and it was ton said that he encountered a dif e atd Setber th 967
me now for a "Oneness" among ficulOt in entering the island and carries an announcement from the
I the suffering black people in was siuprised at the inoi stan vy o Last week the ABENG did not come out for the first timee Government of Jamaica, that Mar
anati as this would be an imp ar- the Jamorican government's police in 34 weeks of struggle with the sufferer. The reason for this cus Garvey's face will appear on
nt step forward in the fight for towards the banning offellow West was a lapse of vigilance among the editorial brothers which has the Jamaican dollar
talliberation.Brief historical facts Indians fnrn its shore shown up even more urgently the need for reorganisationt Howeverthe Government has de-
n ancient tribes of Africa were I" an in'terv with AbeI l The fact is that though it didh't go out the ABENG was cided that Marcus Garvey.our first
so iarted to the youths by Dr. Drayton stated that he felt cer-
rso. Tugy, a radical, and member tan that the Prime Minister of Guy- printed. o er articles it had in one by Robert F. Will- National Heroshould be relegated
f YL He also pointed out that a Forbs Bnha, was party s the black power revolutioary who has gone back from to the lowest denmination of our
ifriean history is important because to the Janaican Government's deci- China to the USA to resume the struggle. This article pointed paper note the 50 cent note,
dlackman would lear to be proud sion to ban Dr. Clive Thonmas and out to the Afro-American revolutionary brothers how to make This by itself might not be so bad,
of what be is." that the act represented a concerted certain bombs and arms to defend himself against the violence considering that there ought to be
During the "general discussi- effort on the part of the reactonary bf the American beast. It came from THE CRUSADER.Brother more of these 50 cent notes than
on" a careful analysis of the audien- West Inelian Governments to con- Williams' Journal. each of the other notes.
re revealed that the majority of tin and isolate the forces or genut- After tie' ABENG was printed, the legal brothers found S, p , been informed how-
,youths present were ignorant to s te te West Indian Idependence with- out that THE CRUSADER was ol the house-slave banned list ever by e overtor of the Bank
meaning of the dogain"Black Power in their respective territories and afrther that the enemy would most likely lock down the of Ja~ that tahe 0 cent note
C om m ittee Prepare yABENGfor seditious libel because of the seriousness of Brother will eeni ally be withdrawn from
Co mmI i ttI ee Prepares Williams'article. circulation What then will happen
to Fight D ictators eip The editors then had to decide whether it would suit the to the image our first national
to Fight D dictatorship freedom struggle at this stage to have the sufferers' paper closed hero? Blackman wants a very clear
A 'Liberation Committee'was ovaroas West Indian Governments' down. The decision was that this would be just what the PNP- answer to this question.
formed on September 12, after the but refused to do so when tis ILP-imperialists would want and that the loss of the BENG now
public meeting at the U.W.I.Stud- meant further entrenching power- would be a set back to black forces. It was better not to come
tnts Union which discussed,"Free fn interests, out one week because of a mistake and then plan a meeting to
dom VE Dictatnohip." Maintaining this position he reorganise so that the same mistake would iot be repeated. This things to
had refused an offer to become is being done.
The gathering brought toge- Governor of the Central Bank in It is important to see that by holding back lqst week the
there several groups which included Guyana. It was in this context, BENG is not showing respect for the Sediious Libel and U m em ber
gew World, Jamaica Council for that George Beckford asked the BENG is not showing respect for the Seditious Libel and Un-
Bumin Rights, Catholic Youth Or. gathering to understand the Jamai- desirable Publications Laws. The first one was passed by slave-
ginisation, African Youths Move, ca Government's banning of the owning planters in 1836 frightened by the high organisation be- M arcus Garvey
the University Guild of Undergra economist whose advice they often ing showed by our fathers especially Sam Sharpe in 1831 in
duates-and Independent Trade U- sought. their armed struggle against slave oppression. The second law "The 'big tree' at Slats
nionists, some of which are repre- During the discussion which was passed in 1940 by white colonial officials to keep certain Market. is as historic a land-
stnted on the Liberation Commi- followed several speakers pointed mark in Jamaica, as the Cathe-
Cre., out that the suppression of certain writings from the 1938 rebels which might have guided them to dral at Spanish Town, so tlalt
academics was part of the same ea- increase their revolutionary struggles. Even Heon. E.E.A.Camp- not being soldiers, but just o0-
George Beckfordofthe Dept. tion directed against the majority bell one of tile black middlemen in the colonial parliament of dinary reformers we would
SE-onomi.s, UWI, started by dis- of workers and unemployed, hence the time saw this as a law to "enslave the mind and fetter the prefer to he buried just where
Pasig C.Y. Thomas' as an econo- the necessity for cooperative ac- civil liberties of the population". Neither the ABENG nor ainy Long Jolaty used to lick his
participating in the struggle tion against dictatorship. of the sons of slaves, 90 per cent of Jamaica, can feel themselves stick and Bag and Pan used to
Kiat neo-colownlisnm in the Carl- Also stressed was the iupor- bound by laws of and for slaveowners and their agents. denionstralePeople corning af-
eah and showed where his wrl- tance for different groups to re-. So the editors say: Sorry about last week brothers and sis- wld er forget t
ng ad research were tied to that lire that the progress made by this er ns would never forget this.'
al objective. C.Y. 1homas Liberation Coumittee would de- terms. Reorganisation for even closer unity will prevent this hap- THE NEW JAMAICAN
rkled a.'an economic adviser to pend on the efforts of all groups pending again. Struggle must go on:POWER TO THE PEOPLE! Thtrs., Sept. 13. 1932.




To study

about African


by Noel White
It is likely that moi t of those who oppose the teaching of Africa
listors and culture do so without having considered the problem at all
IHoeser. in some cases there are persons in positions of power who re-
card anr possibihrt of change as a threat to them. Such is probably the
case of the rery pussh lady who is reported to have spoken on Black
Power in April She instructed Home Economics teachers to root out
Black Puoer doctrine wherever they find it. But in the same speech she
stated that if Black Power meant the dignity ang social and economic
upliflment of the black man then it was good. Obviously she is not sure
what it means and therefore should refrain from making a tirade against
it or sending neissaries to "root it out. It is clear, too. from her speech
that she intends to propagate her own weakness in Jamaican commun-
ties Her solution to Black Power is the creation of mental barriers in the
minds of nrral people, not the development of their thinking.
But it is to a third group that I wish to address myself: those who o-
pplre the teaching of African culture because thev regard European or
North imerican culture as superior. Firstly there is no reason to assume
that we have to adopt either one of them whole Our whole aim must be
to learn about and adapt to our needs, not to imitate blindly. Secondly to
he fair to the Africans and those of African descent like ourselves we
should examinee the assumptions behind the idea that the culture of our
forehear was inferior.
Mans conclude that European culture was superior because Europea-
ns conquered Africa But if someone came into your homeheld you up
and stole your property it says only that hIe was bigger and stronger than
u,u or that he had lethal weapons. or that he has taken you by surprise
Does that make him superior? To those who say yes, my next question is:
Are those the qualities we desire to propagate in our society, -the ones
that encourage the well-armed to prey on the less well-armed? Even in the
hitors with which we have been brainwashed conquest does not always
impi. superiority The Roman Empire fell before the barbarians but we
don't attribute to the barbarians a superior culture.
\Se meed to ask ourselves, too, whether our culture is British since
those who believe that might seek to defend what does not exist. In actual
lfat it i colonial, which is a totally different thing. For example let me
iue riis favorite yardstick for a culture or a civilisation, -how the people
treat one another. How British are we? What is the image of the British
policeman. He is usually depicted as leading old women across the streets
and of using a fatherly and diplomatic approach in most situations. The
image Jamaicans have of their policemen is one of "draping up", intimida-
ting and dragging to the nearest station. At cricket matches the British
bohbb is shown escorting overenthusiastic fans who have gone out to the
pitch by running beside them until they reach the bleachers. In a similar
situation ours at the vers least would swing their batons in threat.
Courtesy in Britain between those who serve and those who are served
is mwll known Also missionaries tell us of the care that Africans take to
show courtesy and respect for one another. All the Africans I have met
hare displayed a keen sensitivity to the feelings of others and a tendency
to avoid giving offence Whence came the discourtesy that vexes us, that
is so notorious in post offices, stores and buses. Whence came the inclina-
lion to rudeness, so ingrained that a courtesy campaign could not make
the slightest change. It came from our colonial situation, in which one
,titor affected a superiority. which it interpreted as a right to mistreat a-
nother And those who are mistreated (with a few exceptions like Jesus
Christ and Buddha) generally become impolite.
Attend ans test match in England and you will find we are not British
While the natives sit in disciplined silence and applaud at the end of each
oer the West Indians show exuberant enthusiasm for every graceful stroke,
cuer\ good hall and ever) smart piece of fielding. Or look at the customs
ou the old. Lunely old people in England take in dogs or cats; lonely old
people in Jamaica take in children.
Since we are different from others both in our faults and our virtues we
haec noi reason to shut out knowledge of the culture of any continent.
And sin,, wse knew onls a little African history in a distorted form it is
lime ir introduce it It is m siew that a courtesy campign would be more
effestire if it showed that both the British and the Africans are polite:
thiIt confidence in intellectual pursuits would grow if people knew of the
andiient uniersii of Timbuctoo as well as of that of Oxford. Egyptian ci-
silitalion contributed much to the Greeks (via Cretel and the Moors con-
iribatcd much to the culture of Spain and Portugal. Knowledge such as
this vill ei e hlacrk people inner confidence. One item of black Power is in-
.ir confidence





Call Abeng

Africa is the

home of


ii,,iuial .,,Tc This is the first in a series c:
talsk hicsh iwre given to a group of io'oth,
0",I ,ri e 'flrto and Clture

The human being came into exis-
tence on the African continent nearly
two million years ago: and human socie-
It and culture reached great heights in A
-frica before the white men arrived. We
must learn something about the follow-
ing African kingdoms and empires.
(a) On the River Nile there was Egypt
and Meroe (Sudan). These kingdoms flo-
rished on earth before the birth of Christ.
and Egypt in particular is recognized as
having contributed greatly to the mode-
rn world Its huge pyramids and sculptu-
res are still considered wonders,and man-
kind has never rediscovered some of the
technical skills which the Egyptians po-
ssessed, such as the art of preserving the
dead body. Europeans have long refused
to accept the simple geographical fact
that ancient Egypt (like modern Egypt)
was an African country, and even though
some of its culture came from Asia. its
achievements must go to the credit of
Meroe produced a culture very simi-
lar to Egypt, and also ruled over Egypt
for a long period. The Egyptians were
Africans of a light complexion. while the
people of Meroe were dark-skinned.
(bi In ancient Ethiopia there was the
kingdom of Axum, forerunner to the
Ethiopian kingdom. The written langua-
ge of rAum was called Ge'ez, and it is
still used within the Ethiopian church
today. Asum and other parts of ancient
Ethiopia are famous for their architectu-
re. especially the tall 'and finely carved
stone pillars and its churches carved out
of solid rock.
(c) In West Africa, some of the most
powerful political stages in Africa began
to develop some 1500 years ago and the-
ir period of greatness lasted for more-
than 1200 years. These kingdoms bore
the names of Ghana, Mali. Songhai and
Kanem: and they all arose near the great
Niger river. They were noted for their
agricultural production, their learning
and their commerce, especially in gold.
These states also encouraged the religion
of Islam (while Ethiopia, of course, was
the centre of Christianity.
Apart from the states of Egypt, Me-
roe, Axum. Ghana, Mali, Songhai. and
Kanem, which have already been men-
tioned, there were many others in diff-
erent parts of Africa which achieved
greatness before the arrival of the white
man, and before we were snatched away
as slaves. On the West African coasts, the
states of Benin and Oyo were famous,
in Central Africa we can take as example
-es Kongo and Monomotapa (Zimbabwe),
and in East Africa two of the oldest king-
doms were those of Bunyoro and Bugan-
da. All of these are strange names becau-
se we have never been taught anything a
-bout them. If we want to call ourselves

conscious Africans, then we must know
the map of Africa, we must remember
the names of these great African states,
and we must find out as much as possib-
le about them.
The majority of Africans, however.
lived in small societies, and these must
also be seriously studied. It is sometimes
felt that only in large political states can
one find civilization and culture, but
this is wrong, and in the great political
states of Europe and America today
many human values have been destroyed,
while even the smallest African village
was a place for the development and the
protection of the individual.
Certain things were outstanding in
the African way of life. whether in a
large or a small society. These distinc-
tive aspects of the African way of life
amount to African culture. Among the
principles of African culture the follow-
ing are to be noted: Hospitality, Respect
(especially to elders), importance of wo
men (especially in cases of inheritance).
humane treatment of law-breakers, si
ritual reflection, common use of he
land, constant employment of misic
(especially drums) and bright colous
Some of these principles are foundjin
many different human societies, but virs
few are encouraged in the present while
capitalist world. Even in Africa itsel .
European slave trading and cblonialism
have destroyed many aspects of African
culture. But culture is not a dead thing.
nor does it always remain the same. It
belongs to living people and is therefore
always developing. If we. the blacks, in
the West, accept ourselves as African we
can make a contribution to the develop-
ment of African culture, helping to free
it from European imperialism.
What we need is confidence in our-
selves. so that as blacks and Africans we
can be conscious, united, independent
and creative. A knowledge of African
achievements in Art. Education, Religion.
Politics Agriculture and the Mining of
metals can help us gain the necessary con
fidence which has been removed by sla-
very and colonialism.
Marcus Garvey always preached the
value of African history and culture. He
wrote: "For many years white propa-
gandists have been printing tons of litera-
ture to impress scattered Ethiopia, espe-
cially that portion within their civiliza-
tion, with the idea that Africa is a des-
pised place, inhabited by savages, and
cannibals, where no civilized human be-
ing should go." After dismissing the
propaganda as completely false, Garvey
continues, "The power and sway we
once held passed away, but now in the
twentieth century we are about to see
a return of it in there building of Africa;
yes, a new civilization, a new culture
shall spring up from among our people."

A B EN G Kingston 5, Jamaica, W.I
Please entle me for a subscription to ABENG WEEKLY beginning
with Vol. 1 No...... I wish to subscribe for [ ) one year ($2.50)
I IIwo years (84.50) 1 ] Special student rate: (12.00) for one year.
Overseas Rates: 3.18.0. Engiand; S7.50 U.S.A. and Canada.
Name .. ................... ...................
(please Print)
S treet ... .. . . .. .. . ..

City ................. .....Country ... .............

by Dr. Walter Rodney

Suppression of

Black Literature

Black Youths

in Prison

speak out

F.B.I agent with Robert F. Williams at airport at Deiroit
Black Power re'lltmieurt- I rt F
Williams, recentl, returned t,. th I SA alter
spending ten ears in exile During that i'ne he
published a PI:RSONAL JOUPIL\.-l frorn Pc
king China, called The Crusader which has
been banned by the Jatmaica (G'cernments

Malcolm X Book Seized

On Wednesday afternoon September 3,
when I returned to Jamaica. I had a taste
of the police state that is Jamaica today.
A copy of the autobiography of Mal-
colm 'X' which I was carrying openly in my
hand was confiscated by a Security man at
the Palisadoes airport. Needless to say. this
paperback is sold in almost every bookshop
in the USA and is standard reading in many
courses on sociology.
It is depressing to realise that a black
man is more free in New York, the home
base of white power, than he is in the island
of Jamaica which is 95% black. Acts of re-
pression such as these will not stop African
Nationalists from thinking black: on the other
hand it makes us more determined than ever
to oppose white and yellow power and the
black traitors in high places who are the in-
struments of alien nomination.
Marcus Garvey.

$SAM-flfiSlq PltffoTyp& oF NE Lrvtp I'y

? M.S -/tnrF t
looMec oB mIGID MAICk

A p m ^OF ,Soc/iE/

)wINSTa l T/I o LP l PS
;4aFTERAF tNw Bf6l EN --OC LEG

A; 4AN&S b f' POtA VE IA. bK WAs, ADLyA
NIu;APEA c~t~jI

IHow long have 1 in bondage lain
And languished II be free'
Alas! And must I still complain.
Deprived of liberty,

(;EOR(;E IOSFS HORTON (Black Poetl

Black consciousness ias shook the world
as much as Hitler did with brute force or Mtar'
with his philosophy and now demands inter-
national recognition. Its unpsrge has also dealt
mupernansm its most devastating blow and ias
the fascist society with "its pants down."
Youthful revolutionary, soulful and collective
This magnetic generation of African descent
has made the visions of their forefathers a
reality, against overwhelming opposition and
has kept the light of freedom burning. On
the gallows and picket line in Rhodesia. in
the ghettos and streets of Anmerica,. in tile
slums. schoolrooms and university\ campus of
Jamaica and in the streets of Anguilla. From
the four corners of the world, determined
in their stand for final liberation, the Black-
man's struggle marches on as the words of
of the Hon. Marcus Garey "No right, no
privilege can again be denied to the Negro
his demands must be iclt"slowly manifest
itself, And now the caucasians are on the
defensive of a superiority that the) boast, but
are yet to proae The whitemen's main sources
of power: capitalism and imperialism its in-
stitutions and forces, have only been made po-
ssible by the Blckman's sweat and blood as a
slave. The moon landing has only been made
successfull with materials exploited from A-
frica worked by the Blackmanl)Down through
the sears the whitemen have tried to erase the
Blackman's historical contributions to civili-
zation and has succeeded to a certain degre,
Many Black People today outside of Africa.
youths and old folks who can recite Humpt)
Dumpty. Sing a song of Sixpence and verses ol
Shakespeare have never heard of the Kenem-
Bormu and Songhai empires of great rulers of
these ancient Kingdoms of Africa such as Sonni
Ali II. the Aro of Aro Chuku or Muhammed
Rumfa. This is assuredly emphasized by a mili-
tant Black brother in America who says. ."the
continuity between our root in Africa and our
fruit here has been broken, and in part we are
now trying to re-establish it . when there's a
gap between the root and the fruit. when its
broken. that's death."
It is therefore no coincidence that last
October 30.000 Black students boycotted high
school classes in America demanding that Black
history be included in text books, or that re-
presentatives of American universities have re-
:ently held discussions at the U.W.I. Mona cam-
pus to include the regional university in the
Black study courses. Black studies is undoubt-
ably the vital plug for the cultural gap in the
Blackman's past in the western world. But it
was surprising to read that the Minister of Edu-
cation here in Jamaica, a predominantly Black
country has said that (quote). . "There are

Racist Violence

countries where no black people live and who,-
relatives were not slaves" He continues. 'Ja
maica is one exception," he said adding that
his forefathers "were not slaves but free people
(Gleaner, JulO 23rd 691 It is plain that this
whitewashed stooge was speaking only of him-
self and his colleagues and not for the masses
of suffering black people in this country There
can be no black nation without Africa in its
background can the leopard change its spots.
or the Ethopian his skin? Although it is obvious
that this administrator of illiteracy is tri ing to
say something contrary to this in his statement
The idealization of the white power structure
by these whitewashed imperialist puppets, who
cringe in fear at the real sounds of black
power and call all who has the foresight to
see them for what they are, and say so "sub-
versive elements" now poses a major threat
to the final liberation of the black masses here.
It is the confrontation of this fact that
has led us to the inauguration of /il ';
)I ithi LibraLttn t-Actitn ( ,,nct o hriode
lte cultural gap between Black people here
and at home in Africa. to promote militancy in
in the vouths to liberate the country and up-
keep liberty. To repatriate Africans on a five
year basis who wish to be repatriated, to pro
mote universal correspondence of Black people
throughout the world, to co ordinate with
Abeng and all other bodies and individuals
who work sincerely for the final liberation of
the Black race. We are now tr ing to work out
a way to support Abeng financially, and we
will even if we have to use the methods of our
brothers in the Black Panther movement. We
vow to keep Abeng blowing until every suffer-
ing man. woman and child is free from mental
and physical oppression.
Yours in one God. Aim. and Destii:
Ist. Commander of the Liberation Front:
2nd. Commander of the Liberation Front:
Chairman of Cultural Affairs: 1. SCHOOL.
Chairman of Youth and Social Affairs' RASTA
The Black Youths Liberation Action Committ-

Power to

Black People

Thwaite Abologiznd

to his


Arising out of our letter to Mr. S.F.
Thwaite, Operator. Service Station 7 West
Race Course pointing out that (2 times) double
times the single time rates should be the rate
paid for work done on a worker's rest day.
Having received our letter, he called up
the whole of his staff and told them that he
had made a mistake by paying them single-
time when they owrked on their rest day.
The guilt was so much stamping this
Mr. Thwaite the JP. in his face by admitting
that these workers were unfairly dealt with
over the period of their employment, but
tried to cover up the unshamed face by threat-
ening to fire the one who makes the report
'o the Union sh .Id he discovers who made
the complaint.
lank vou Justice, Have you made up
the bills toi those retroactive rest days that
have been worked? We can't wail any longer.
(Service Station Workers unenllet

Manley: National Hero?

/ Ed. Aote- The following
is a statement sent to us in res
Ifise to "MA.VI' Y
.4 B.4LA.\C CSHIET".

Those who control Jamaican
society, its mass communication.
have chosen to present Norman
Manley like unto Marcus Garvey.
Paul Bogle and other Black patriots
The tens of thousands who
now believe that the whole affair
is the personal triumph of Norman
Manlesy are never more deceived
It is British two-party system,white
imperialist hypocrisy which gained
this moment of triumph in this
country. And Norman Manlev. use-
ed in thie service of white oppress
ion during life continue to be used
in death.
The crucial question around
which correct thinking must be
generated is "if Garvey. Bogle and
other Black patriots fought and
died for the liberation and uplift-
ment of the Black man from white
enslasemeni how come Norman
Manlev is enshrined among; our
Black patriots when he unwittingly
became an arch agent of white
rule against the liberation struggle
of the Black man in this country
throughout the world?" Norman
Manles began his infamous role
he persecuted Garvey and his ideals
of Black Liberation.



in J.D.F.
Ihat happens when an offi-
nr I tile JD.F. misappropriates
iil- belonging to the Jamaican
: tii ,ers'ls he a sested and broug-
before a court-martial? Is he dis-
iargcd from the force Is he strip-
dpd of his rank' Does he suffer b,
w3a of promotion' The answer is
i. The matter is very quietly hush-
,d up and life goes on very much
h before. The officer may even.
centualls, become commander-in-
ABEsN is informed that a
:rtain officer of the rank of major
was recently disco ered to have mis-
tippropriated 1.0)0 (S 2,0001 of
tl\pa er- money a nd that no action
Is been taken either bN his superi-
r officers or bh, the government.
h, fact a ern tiht lid is being kept
Sthe whole :.ffair. On the other
Snad when it was recently alleged
t' it four ird; ian soldiers h id sto-
i S I.000 of the new c nc
w' was published in all tl- ,-.
p rn and th e soldiers we, e lo d s-
" in ci stody for v.eeks before
-'en btin g formally c',arged
AIJENG derrands that the
is t in the case be that :.,

When Black rebellion disrupt-
ed the old colonial order in 1938
the British Gosernment required
local political agents to institute
their two-party system to continue
white oppression and plunder. A-
gain Norman Manley) offered him-
self as the main agent for the job.
Manley's administration sup-
pressed workers struggle against
sitaration wages paid in the white
imperialist industries and services,
helped the white Jewish family ot
Matalons to enrich themselves.
consolidated the local white upper
class in partnership with their A-
merican and European counterpart-
s and intensified white economic
oppression of the Black population
It was \anley administration which
executed Ronal Henry and other
Black liberation fighters for killing
a white mercenarn in this country .
\lanler s hignuti point o, a-
chievement as an agent of white
oppression came with the drafting
of thl independence constitution
which gained full approval of his
white masters. It is this which pro-
vides legal grounds upon which the
SShearer-Seaga administration bans
Black intellectuals who dare to rai-
se their voices for the case of
Black liberation behind the mask
of security of the state. It is signi-
ficant that the sers JLP-PNP lead-
ers vho set their followers at war
killi :g each other have now joined

Sexual 5

Slil i di or,
hill I am a staunch sup-
porrir of the Black M\leiment and
purs il ,r t irnlichinilt sewt-
paper e-r)e week, I must express
srome grai misgiin s about iour
ri -nt inclination towards sexual
',ander Bru Debo Reids report
ron Mlontego Ba in sur e ie
Vol I No 32 is a case in point.
Although the blackman may
not vet realize it.his pre-occupation
,ith sex ha, been one of lthe malor
contributions t o hite supremac\.
For whilst the blackman was
preoccupied with sex. his own sex
life und that of other persons, the
whiteman was preoccupied with
his ec onomic betterment alheit ma-
inly through the corrupt exploi-
tation of other races.
Ve should express sympathe-
tic understanding to those of our
black bretheren who possess sexual
flaws some of which are congenital.
Indeed most of the sexual
shortcomings of our black brethe-
ren are the direct result of the en-
iron:; ent created for them b\ the
white supremacists who still con-
troll us.
We should try to uplift our
less fortunate bretheren and stren-

S orougnht ot nlit, gt en t em to overcome their fail-
lie o'en and t'oat the offie- ,n ing,. Unitr is the blackman's need
luest on be brought to trial like NOW more than ever.
"a ordinary citizen or soldier n*i-
d c. Failing such action. we shall
'a.e more to iay on the matter.

Latess In shaion


Sihp, R L .
lgrrn"oR-?-to I
Kntn 5; Telephone 24738





S*I .. .

hands and heart in enshrining Nor-
man Manley (nay, the reactionary
policy for which he worked). In
esence the JLP leaders are now say-
ing nothing is wrong with the poli-
cies represented by Norman Man-
let and the PNP. it is only a fight
among personalities for power at
the expense of the lives and suffer-

time now...

To Work Out

American Subversion

ing of the Black masesr. by Blackman
And here is the crux of the
present affair. The white power Imperialism then needs to exploit our resources as much as
structure,aware of the rise of Black man needs to take them for his own freedom. Black liberate
national and international consc- imperialism exploitation clash head on. Imperialism knows this a
iolsness set out to canMonise our sreral tactics for undermining progressive forces. Firstly. the imp
genuine patriots and transform the- feed their local ihouseslnaes and parasites with arms, training an,
m into harmless icons of history. ment. Secondl, they subvert progressive government. Thirdly. %.
ridding their teachings and the else is not enough to put down freedom forces, they themselh
cause for which they died of its re- io""c a"ginst the people.
oilutionary soul. And on the other, TRAINING FOR HOUSESLAVES
promote pseudo-leaders to the new
generations. The imperialists content themselves with cotching up local
But history is not finally either when these feel that their own presence isn't really necees
written For once the Black oppre- hen tired out from struggle all over the world, they are un
hed masses of othis cfuntr sehite shed nore of their own blood unless it is absolutely necessary.
thp reins of power from the white iall after the heroic Vietnamese struggle they are less and lea
opiresors and their hirelings they ing to get tiemselses involved against the collective might
ofll rite ne\nd genuine e pages people- This defeat has cost the Yankees 10,000 lives and
su tior. Anoement of change rnga a 'ear 6000.000 imperialist forces have been unable to put do4
ran tees this. brothers in Vietnam
Increasingli then, the American are saying to the PNP-JI
ques of this world. to the Matalon-Henriques puppets "Defend
iteN MONROE selves and us at thP same time since our interests and yours are the
For Black Liberation We will train and arm you." So three years ago the Caribbean
,lid Social Channge (Mexico. Central America, the Greater Antilles as well as the
Indian Islands) got 70% of its military assistance from the United
in the form of training and equipment. Up till June 1964, mor
l e J ,12.000 military? personitel from these countries had received tr
and e r in U.S. schools. 8.000 of these had been to the special schoi
Panama designed to prepare puppet forces for war against the peo
blush counltr,
You as a newspaper should Right 'rt. ti Jamaica. evervtime new equipment comes fo
guide our less informed bretheren and police f,Ion ile U.S or Ln why. Everytime Jamaicans g.
in the pursuit of economic power, for training we know whi it is because the yankees bum their
not sexual slander against ourseles in \ietnam now ir ing harder to get unconscious blackman to do
Saragery, barbarism and violence dirts work for them. We also kne that once these blackman be
against ourselves only serve to dis- conscious what the Yankees gase for the defense of imperialism
sipate our efforts. divide us and turned on the attack against imperialism
perpetuate the whiteman's yoke.
Atetuwhile. keep ABENG
blowing. its the beginning of the SUBVERSION
inevitable struggle we will win only The second tactic of the imperialists is subversion. This is
with the vast majority united. Best more a desperate attempt by the Yankees to postpone the day
wishes. they will have to come out openly in the light of day to defend
oppression. For a third world government to qualify for subvert
KENNETH BYLES. does not matter that it is legally elected and supported by the
6th, September. 1969. of the electorate. Juan Bosch in the Dominican Republic in 1965
elected president with the support of 60% of the electorate. Ye
CLASSIFIED ADS Americans gave their support to the illegal military junta which
threw him by force. Nor does it matter that the particular third
lurst Fashion Hu:ti s specializes government is against international communist infiltration Mosi
i, shirts and gan/ies for men. Sit- in the Middle Eastern country of Iran would have nothing todo wi
toted at 55 Maiden Lane, Kingston. local communists at the same time that he was taking over fo
Prices moderate benefit of the Iranian people, the exploiting Anglo-Iranian Oil Com
Yet the Amercan subverted him
Riley's fashion centre for:-custom
built ganzies & shirts, men, women It is no use therefore trying to outmanoeuvre American imper
and children. 98 Church St., King- or say to it look we are constitutionally elected or we are anticomm
ston. Prop: D. Jackson. The beast will attack you so long as you enter his den. But we
St n enter the den of American imperialism. There lies the promised
For the latest in suit continental of the third world peoples.
slacks see: Milo Art Tailoring. 66
Duff Street. Kingston 13 B. Rich- It is worthwhile therefore for blackman to sight exactly hoi
ards. beast has subverted progressive governments.
MO-BAY contd.
In 1951 Jacob Arbenz Guzman was elected President of Guat
ceived from government for support getting 267.000 votes, almost twice as much as any other candy
ing Dr Rodney a black power ad- The land hunger of the Guatemalan people was as great as tut o0
Locate. Jamaican; 2 per cent of the population owned 70 per cent of theI
The programme ended with The imperialist United Fruit Company was the greatest lando]
the cultural section in which A- In \I;:rch 1953 Arbenz took over 234,000 acres of uncultivated
frican music was played and "black from the land barons. offering S 600,000 compensation. At that
poems" read. Plans were also re Guatemala was receiving no aid from the Soveit Union nor had
Sealed about future movements of relationship with the Communist bloc. But despite its constitution
YLBU. md its non-communiit links, the Fiienhnoer imperialist administ
decided in late 1953 that Arbenz must be overthrown. But the im
The Chief Reporter for YLBU lists did not mie in with their own armed forces nor openly
Montego Bay their own nastiness. No. What they did was found a Guatemala
-use a consersatve named Miguel Fuentes. Listen to the words o.
CALLING ALL houseslae describing the imperialists approach

To a Soulful nite with
Bredl Jaki at STOKES HALL
Dance all night to the TIin
Spin sounds-of tLove Diiine
Datc: Oct. II
f(,t er:30c.

"A former executive of the United Fruit Company, now reI
Mr. Walter Tumbull. came to see me with two gentlemen whom
introduced as agents of the CIA. They said that I was a pepl
figure in Guatemala and that they wanted to lend their assistance
ioerthrow Arben/. \hen I asked their conditions for the assistant
found them unacceptable Among other things. I was to promir
favour the United Fruit Company .. to destroy the Railroad n Wo
Union to establish a strong ann government ... Further I was tol
back every cent that was invested in the undertaking."
Miguel Fuentes in My War With Communism

When Funtes refused, the CIA found another houseslane,
him money hacking to subvert Arbenz and then put him in as Pr
The land captured by the United Fruit Company was then re
to them.

l riding 1 Calrott Ave., Kgn. S. Printed by H.P. Ltd., 35 Industrial Terrace, Kgn. 14
A f ,::' Hdl A e~rr~ar,, rai'ding a i i (alroft Ate.. Kgn S. Printed by H.P. Ltd., 95 Industnal Terrace, Kgo. 14.