Material Information

Place of Publication:
Kingston Jamaica
Abeng Pub. Co.
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
Physical Description:
1 v. : illus. ; 46 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Jamaica ( lcsh )
Social conditions -- Periodicals -- Jamaica ( lcsh )
Race question -- Periodicals -- Jamaica ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:


The weekly Abeng newspaper (February 1 - September 27, 1969) was published in response to the Black Power and protest movement that emerged after the ban on Dr. Walter Rodney, the Guyanese and University of the West Indies historian, who was prohibited from landing in Kingston on October 15th, 1968 after attending a Black Writers conference in Montreal, Canada. Rodney was known in Jamaica for his lectures and talks on African history and the liberation movements in Africa. These talks were given not only on the campus but in communities of the urban and rural poor. The ban triggered protests by UWI students and the urban poor in Kingston and led to public debate about the state of Jamaican social, economic and political life. The Abeng newspaper‘s Managing Editor was Robert Hill (UWI graduate student) and other editors included George Beckford (UWI lecturer), Rupert Lewis (UWI graduate student) and Trevor Munroe (Rhodes Scholar at Oxford University). The Abeng group was a political centre for the Black Power movement, socialists, the independent trade union movement, Rastafarians, supporters of the opposition People’s National Party and people disaffected with the two main political parties. Abeng therefore became a focal point of critique and activism against the ruling Jamaica Labour Party and a harbinger of the radicalism in Jamaica in the 1970s.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
v. 1- (no. 1- ); Feb. 1, 1969-v. 1, no. 35 (Oct. 3, 1969).

Record Information

Source Institution:
Florida International University: Digital Library of the Caribbean
Holding Location:
Florida International University: Digital Library of the Caribbean
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Resource Identifier:
05001780 ( OCLC )
5001780 ( OCLC )


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Full Text



Vol. 1 No. 16 May 17th, 1969




The Jamaica Council for Human
Rights is sponsoring a fund in hon-
our of its former Secretary, Denis
Stoly, who died recently in tragic
circumstances. A barrister-at-law,
Denis Sloly was a foundation mem-
ber of the J.C.H.R. He was an active
member of the Steering Committee
which organised and laid the plans
for the formation of the J.C.H.R.
and, in December 1967 when the
Council was launched he became its
first Secretary.
He was an ardent believer in the
principles of Human Rights and
undamental Freedoms. As Secre-
.ary of the J.C.H.R. he worked
isiduously and without personal
consideration to promote and prot-
ect the rights enshrined in the Jam-
SConstitution and the freedoms
pressed in the United Nations
eclaration of Human Rights.
Itis in honour of the man he was,
he wings he stood for and the cause
in whose active service he died, that
the Jamaica Council for Human
Rights now sponsors the Denis Sloly
Memorial Fund for the provision of
Legal Aid in deserving cases in the
field of Human Rights The Manag-
ing Committee of the Council has
appointed the following persons-
Mr. Vernon Arnett, Mr. H.P. Jacobs
and Mr. Quito Bryan-to act as
trusteesof the Fund. Donations may
be sent to the King Street Branch
of the Bank of Nova Scotia Jamaica
Limited to be lodged to the Jamaica
Council for Human Rights-Denis
Sloly Memorial Fund-Account No.

MAY 1935:

Seaga's "Reform Budget" should not cause any
excitement. By examining the changes in the Income
Tax, Land Transfer and Shares Tax, Tax on Land
Sales to foreigners, we will see that this could never
be the start of any new thinking in Government.
Next week we shall look at the New Company Tax.
The relief given to 25,000 taxpayers earning
between 300 and 500 a year is welcome, as is any
change relieving the burdens and hardship of the mass
of the population. But we should not be fooled into
thinking that it is anything big. Most of the people
in Jamaica are so poor that they pay no taxes at all!
There are 80,000 taxpayers only out of a labour
force of about 750,000 in all. This means that nine
out of every ten Jamaicans in the labour force earn
less than 6 a week! And of these, at least two are
outright unemployed! What value are tax reliefs to
Jamaica's 130,000 to 150,000 unemployed?
What is more, the reliefs actually help the high-
income taxpayers far more than the poorer taxpayers.
The single man earning 500 a year with no depend-
ents now pays about 17 in tax. which he will not
from 1970 on. His income after tax goes up by about
The professional husband and wife say, with
two children, earning together 3,500 a year, will
gain about 137 from the increased wife allowance
and the reduced surcharge-about 5% of their income
after tax! It will therefore be the professional middle-
class, not the masses, who benefit most from the
income tax changes.
Of course, as Mr. Seaga says, the "brain drain'
of professionals abroad has to be stopped. But do we
have to increase inequalities of income in order to do
this? Many professionals are driven abroad because
they are fed up with political corruption, political
patronage and the Government's worship of foreign
"experts" who know far less than our own Jamaican
people. We can keep the best ones here by having a
Government which gives them really creative work to
do in the way of using our resources for our benefit,
and political leaders who set the example by living
modestly and with humility.



Again, it is good to see a tax on the enormous
profits made from the buying and selling of land.
Fortunes running into hundreds of thousands and
millions of pounds have been made in the last ten
years out of speculation in Jamaica's principal natural
asset. But 2%% of the sale price or 12%% of the capi-
tal gain is chicken feed.
Suppose a man buys a piece of land or shares
for 5,000, waits two years and sells it for 9,000,
which can happen. He will probably pay 25/% of the
sale price as tax-225, which is only 5V5% of his
profit on the speculation. If it were taxed as income
he would probably pay 50% of it as tax! The new tax-
es have been introduced with a lot of noise but they
will do little to cream off these fantastic profits, or
tax the fortunes which have been made in the past
from them.
We do not know if the 20% tax on the sale of
land to foreigners for speculative purposes was intro-
duced to still the growing demand for Jamaica's
resources to be reclaimed from foreigners for the
people. What we can say is that this tax will do noth-
ing about the fact that our country does not belong
to us. King Sugar will still own 200,000 acres of the
best land, Busha Bauxite another quarter million
acres, and 16,000 lots of land in St. James, Trelawny.
St. Ann and St. Mary will still be in foreign hands!
The most scandalous part of the budget, how-
ever, is that sugar is to be subsidised yet again. An
industry whose inefficiency and irresponsibility was
exposed to the nation by the Mordecai Commission,
which was subsidised by tax reliefs in 1964 and by
devaluation in 1967, is to be given 308,000 because
the foreign owners of WISCO have given their orders.
At the same time the subsidy on poultry and livestock
feeds, for products produced by Jamaicans for Jam-
aicans has been withdrawn because "the Government
cannot afford it".
To whom, then, does the Government of Jam-
aica belong?

"The Lord shall count, when he
writeth up the people, that this man
was born there. Selah
As well the singers as the players
on instruments shall be there: all
my springs are in thee."
Psalm 87
"Don Cosmic is gone to his Garden
of Love and though his twentynine
years in the Valley of the Shadow of
Death gave us more music than we
ask for we hurt inside when we
remember that he was pushed arou-
nd, pushed about and then fimally
shoved out by Babylon.
But Don Cosmic played a tune
that has not ended: the melody of
Freedom Sounds. Don Drummond
is a natal Black Artist, always select-
ing performances in a historical light
and is the centre of modern musical
history. Before his teens he was on
the forwardline of new music at
Alpha Boys School with man like
Roland Alphonso at his infant side,
and greats like these kept formation,
recording tunes with his lpha-days
teacher, Lennie Hibbert. Probably
these three were reminiscing when
they made "Schooling the Duke" in
'62. It was with these and those like

"Drumbago", not long gone, and
"Rico", Bobby Gaynair, little G. Mc
Nair, Lester Sterling, Johnnie Moore,
Dizzy Reece, Cluet Johnson, Ray-
mond Harper, Tommy McCook, who
blew off the musical revolution back
in '56. The Sound Systems were like
their instruments,for with the advent
of local recording these man got the
hearing ear of the suffering public.
A ready listening ear to their trans-
lations of the popular Black Amer-
ican boogie-woogie, jazz and spirit-
ual, and local timings soon cast them
into a mould: by '59 they had
licensed and registered SKA or BON-
GO MUSIC in our name, the suffer-
ers' name.
And Don Drummond paid the
registration fee.
He caused J.J. Johnson and Kai
Winding to stop, look and listen;
he led George Shearing to say the
Dave Brubeck to play the best at
Blew an iron that was black and
blue, a Peter Pan to lost black man.
A Pied Piper, more music in his
right hand than Little Boy Blue-too.
More still in both hands, heart and

"On the recurrent side of the Bud-
get, I want to repeat that the
Gleaner strike next year will again
form part of the plan of develop-
ment for this public monopoly."

Mr. Coore charged that the Govern-
ment was indulging in "political
gimmickry" as a "salute to the
spirit of Abeng" and those people
who were agitating against foreign

mouth. Black Man's musical consc-
ience; forhe paid and played "TRIB-
told of his "REINCARNATION";
He announced "THE RETURN OF
PAUL BOGLE"; burned J.F.K.'s
memory, recorded the "SCANDAL",
Hotted up "CHINA-TOWN". Pressed
rested. Giving thanks and praise to
the King of Kings in ADDIS ABAB-
For he blew not for himself but
helped Justin Hines sayCARRY GO
BRING COME. For the Maytals he
showed that the STONE THAT THE
CORNERSTONE-over 506 tunes
to the credit of Junie and his trom-


Price 6d.


Many youths today are confused and ill-
advised as to the extent and purpose of our
fight against the capitalist system. Bearing in
mind that, in addition to being against the pres-
ent American policies prevalent in Jamaica, we
must have a constructive, feasible plan to put
forward for the administration of duties, this
essay will briefly outline the major aspects of
the youth revolution.
I. CULTURAL -The first step to be taken
in our revolution is to awaken the people to the
facts of their existence and to the non-practical-
ity of their beliefs and customs. We must make
them realise that they are being used as mere
tools and puppets by the imperialist forces. All
that they say and all that they believe in are
part of a pattern employed by the white expl-
oiters to ensure the perpetuation of the system.
Many Jamaicans are under the impression that
since they were born in a democratic era, democ-
racy and private enterprise is their system, and
that we. the youth, intend to destroy their
ay of life.
Capitalism created two basic classes, the
wage-earner and the profit-maker. The further
division of the wage-earning class into "middle"
and "lower" classes is an illusion caused partly
by the bourgeosie-type thinking of the middle
class, and partly by the capitalists under the
mime-proven adage "divide and conquer". The
wage-earners are considerably greater in number

IN SOME PARTS of the world. n\here it is serv hot, it is
often necessar -for a European toenga'e a native to fan him
while he sleeps. However, it is easy for a native to be dis-
honest and fan his master onl so long as the latter is awake.
It happened that a certain European gentleman, who
lived in a hot country, had had the misfortune to lose one
of his eyes, so that he w as obliged to have a glass eye. This
he took out very carefully each evening before going to bed.
Now this gentleman's servant fanned his master all
night; but some dishonest servants, who lived near by,
scolded him because he worked so hard. 'VWh do you
not rest while he sleeps they argued. 'Ah!' said the
servant, 'Master is a clever man. Even night, before he
retires to rest. he carefully
takes out an eye and leaves
From "The Way to English", it on the table. There it
Book II, a text still used to brainwash remains, watching me, all
hool-children in our Secondary Schools. night long.'

than the profit-extracting upper class, so to give
capitalism a mass appeal the rights of democracy
are introduced. Protection of property, one-man-
one-vote, human rights, and certain freedoms
are used to gain favour with the masses whose
labour is being exploited. Obviously the protect-
ion of property is most important to him who
has the most property, and freedom of move-
ment etc. are revokable situations, as is present-
ly the case in Trench Town.
The point is that we can make no major
progress under capitalism, for this system prim-
arily benefits the upper-class. Our people must
stop trying to adopt this system, to fit into the
white man's scheme, and get on with our own
progress. The wickedness of the European escap-
es us because we judge his actions by European
standards. Thus in slavery we see a physically
cruel practice, but we still believe that the
African was a primitive being, that the European
was doing the black man a favour by exposing
him to white culture, and that while we must
be proud of our colour and mildly indignant at
the cruelty, the physical cruelty of slavery, we
must also endeavour to fit into the white man's
way of life. The true effects of what the white
man did to the African must be judged off an
African point of view, and we must know the
history of the black man before European
intrusion. Once we see the greatness of the
ancient Kingdoms of Malt, Ghana, Kush, the
abilities and capabilities of the Zulu and Kikuyu,
then we cannot remain contented with the
comparatively shabby life offered to wage-
earners in the capitalist system.
2 POLITICAL Apparently our politicians are
af the same disposition for they emulate Amer-
ica, and refer to America at every chance they
get. But from a conscious point of view, they
haven't advanced Jamaica in any way from the
days of old until now.
Politics in Jamaica has now become a
profession, the qualifications for which are
neglgible. foday we find not only uneducated
leaders but leaders with disreputable characters
and methods in total contradiction to the ad-
vancement of Jamaica as a whole. Political
violence is a widespread occurrence in every-
day life. and is doubly dangerous because the
public is not aware of its extent. The adminis-
ration of Jamaican affairs has become a nat-
ional disgrace.
The system of election is a primitive one.
Indeed the term "popular vote" reflects the
very inefficiency of such a system. Is the most

So in the evenings before the dawn of
the breaking of the chains let your words
and works he pure and bright fat the Lion
of Judah shall break all chain and give the
truth her victory again to reign.
0 thou enemies, asthou hast dest(Cy2d
families, so shall your Kingdom perish
with you.
Blessed are they that mourn for they
shall be comforted.
Blessed are they that put their trust
in Him.




Extremely useful commentaries on Mar-
cus Garvey have appeared in the prefaces to
two American and one English reprint of
Garvey's Philosophy and Opinions.
The first was written by the Nigerian.
Prof Essien-Udom in his introduction to the
British publication in the Cass Library of Afric-
an Studies. Here Garvey's philosophy is placed
in the context of the worldwide liberation of
black people from white racism and exploitation
and specifically the continental liberation of
Africa. Prof Essicn-Udom is at present editing
other unpublished Garvey writings which have
been sent to him by Mrs. Amy Jacques Garvey
for a third volume of Philosophy and Opinions.
The first American reprint in the series-
The American Negro, His History and Literature
contained only Vol. I and carried a preface
written by a white professor under the title of
BLACK ShPARATISM which did its best to
narrow dlwn (;arviy's vision and work.

The second American reprint which has
just come out includes both volumes in addition
to an important Garvey document-African Visit Cl ty's fo the bst i
Fundamentalism-which was left out of the
British publication. It is part of the series- Ftjrin and lsc Rme .
Studies in American Negro Life-and there is a Open until 9 pin. enm y.
new preface written by Hollis Lynch, Biogra-
pher of another famous black man from the
West Indies, Edward Blyden, who migrated to
Liberia and became "the most outstanding Pan-
African intellectual of the nineteenth century". Records
Hollis Lynch sees the Garvey Movement 122 Orange St. Kgn. .amaica.
as the first mass movement towards Black
Power, for in his time Garvey "captured the
imagination and loyalty of the black masses", for Courteous & Quick Serve
without which very little can be done towards CHEONGS
achieving Black Power. .W.. SODA FOUNTAIN
Another important point made by Hollis
Lynch is that "Marcus Garvey much more TASTY FOOD
explicitly than the current advocates of Black REASONABLE PRICES
Power, was a Pan-African Nationalist", a poli-
tical position Malcolm X adopted in the later Your satisfaction is dur pleasure
stages of his life. This means there can be no
talk of Black Power being achieved in the Pan-
Africanist sense while Africa remains unliberated.
It is quite clear that Garvey's doctrine of Black
Power is one of African Liberation which inclu-
des the Continental struggle and the struggle PRINCE BUSTER
for Black Power by African minorities and Jamaica's No. I Radio & TV Personality
majorities outside the Continent....


Phone 26272

(ABENG extends the hand of welcome and solidarity to LIJ, a new-paper being published in
the Secondary' Schools by publishing for our 4--eaders the following
statement which appeared in Vol. I No. 1. LIJ, the second edition of which is jug out, has
already been banned in at least one Secondary School and copies of the first issue confiscated
from the students. The word LIJ comes from the ancient Ethiopian dialect of Amharic, and
meant "Sons of-one mother".) '

- F


popular man in Clarendon the best man to look
after, for example, the island's trade? How is it
that a campaigner can lose an election and still
become a Minister of government? What is the
point of our two-party system if the entire
Cabinet is of one party? Why is our government
so centralised that a country district cannot get
a road built without first persuading their M.P.
to beg for appropriations? All these questions
cannot be answered by the democracy of "one-
man-one-vote". The answer is a change of the
system. We want a decentralised government
that will spread power more evenly throughout
the island. We want a government that will deal
with the problems of the population as a whole
and equally, not one that caters to sectional
groups under disguise of the "majority". Democ-
racy is only a tool of the capitalists to ensure
their power over the masses.
3. SOCIAL A complete social upheaval is an
integral part of any revolution. A comparison
between slave society and modern society will
show why. The white slave-owner were in
possession of all revenue products. They owned
the most land and the best land, they ran the
government, they conducted trade agreements
most favourable to them. The criterion for their
society was simply WHITE SKIN. They were a
tiny minority. Today the upper-class is still the
same except that the colour criterion has been
changed slightly to include money. They still
own the most land and the best land. They still
run the government, and they still conduct fin-
ancial agreements in their best interest, under
the guise of "national interest" and "booming
economy" etc. They are still a minority.
To what do we owe this lack of progress-
ion? We owe it to the failure of Jamaicans to
realise the importance of a nationally-minded
government, to their trust in the white man's
methods being the only correct way of life.


-V Ir




On the night of April 25th I and some Brethren were
sitting in front of a Brother's gate reasoning when three
men passed us and said "Love Rasta-One Heart-One God".
The greeting was returned and I and I reasoning continued.
A few minutes later the three men came back, not with love
in their hearts but with guns in their hands, and rock-
steadies protruding from their pockets. "Don't move-police
-put your hands above your heads", they barked at us.
We obeyed the order. While standing in that position
about thirty to thirty-five other policemen came out of
ambush and ordered I and I Brethren to stand with our
heels to the wall We were searched twice and when found
to be clean we were classed not as wrong-doers but as
At that time figures could be seen approaching from
-the South. Two of the police ran in that direction and
stopped them. While searching them one of the men tried
to put a small brown-paper parcel (round and long) in a
cigarette box only to find that the pack was not open. He
then smiled and placed the packet in one of his pockets.

A youth of about fourteen years after witnessing that
got panicky, jumped into the gully and ran. One of the men
fired four shots at the youth, but with the help of God
he escaped unhurt.

The others were brought up and placed in the line.
The order was then given for the flogging to commence.
Some of the policemen who were intoxicated swung their
rock-steadies mercilessly thus causing I and I Brethren to
receive face and body injuries. We were then told to roll
over in the gully and run before we get holes all over our
After the police finished beating the youth they told
them to go and put it in the ABENG or state it on the
Grouse programme. About seven of them went over a man's
house and took out nine man and gave them the same
Sometime after a youth was shot in the back by
police. When his baby-mother heard of the shooting, the
youth was paralysed in hospitaL

What else can we do? We are not allowed to be seen
on the streets after 9.00 p.m. and we are not allowed to
visit anyone. Where call we go in Jamiiica that we won't he

mauled by a mob of policemen? We are asking the adults to
hear our cry and help us. Or are you waiting until one of
your very own falls into the same hands that I and I were in?

Here is an appalling example of a policeman, who was
so intoxicated by his authority, that he unleashed it on a
poor woman with maniacal fury.
This young woman had lately returned from the
United States to take into her charge a young nephew
whose brother was brutally murdered by the police with
the poor excuse that they had mistakably done so. However,
fearful that the other lad may receive a similar fate, she
instructed him to remain close to her until they were ready
to depart to the United States.
Last week Saturday, on passing by Heywood Street
in downtown Kingston, the lad, thirteen years old, was
hailed by a Special, "Hey yu a wan a de pick packet dem,
no?" The young lady informed him that the boy was her
nephew and should not be hailed as such. He coarsely
apologised and walked away. At this point another police-
man who had apparently overheard the conversation, walked
up to her. "Who yu think yu is?" he addressed her. "Yu jus'
a come back fram New Yaak whey yu did a w'ore?"
With this he moved to seize the lad, and most natur-
ally, as anyone else would have done, she tried to prevent
him from doing so. For this, she was savagely boxed in the
face, and informed that she was obstructing the cop on his
duty. The lad was forgotten, and she was being hustled off
to jail.
Never before had I seen a woman handcuffed and
dragged to jai in that fashion. She was viciously, brutally
and inhumanly man-handled by this "peace officer" surr-
ounded by approximately fifty curious onlookers evidently
shocked by the novel spectacle. At the station she was
arrested, and did not receive bail until six-thirty that after-
noon three hours in the cell.
My dear readers, this woman was subjected to abuses,
insults, brutality and indignity, and there are several such
cases that I and many others have seen.
Thanks to our Prime Minister, law and order has been
made a mockery of, decent citizens have been brutalised,
our youths have been shot down by mistakes, and our free-
dom of movement has been limited. Therefore, I ask the
question, if a state of emergency has not yet been declared,
when it does, don't you think, my dear readers, that ano-
ther and bigger morgue will be extremely necessary?

~-L I I~

The West Indies needs to take a more
careful, more appreciative look at what its
primitive artists are doing. Every now ahd then
art in Jamaica and elsewhere needs a shot in
the arm, a revitalization. Sometimes we get a
spark; unfortunately much too little of it.
Recently the Creative Arts Centre of the
University gave us such a look at indigenous
art. Three Rastafari Brethren mounted an exhi-
bition there. They were Brothers Everald Brown.
Arnold Tucker and Clinton Brown, all of the
Assembly of the Living, 82 Spanish Town Rd.
They wanted to assist in the expansion of their
place of worship, and they wanted to "show the
people their spiritual thinking". It was the most
satisfying exhibition of primitive art I have seen
in three years in Jamaica.
I found a common thread running through
the paintings of these artists-apart of course,
from their basic Rastafarian consciousness. The
vision of the artists ranged through three situa-
tions. Clinton Brown, 15 years old, concentrated
on the present suffering of the Rastafari in this
country. Brother Arnold Tucker, 22, was moti-
vated by the ever-present sufferer's hope for
delivery. Brother Everald Brown had the ulti-
mate vision the fulfilment of prophecy.
Clinton Brown came the closest to realis-
tic art. This was the view of the present sufferer-
"The Rastaman
In tattered garment clad ....
I sandals made of motor tyre"
His vision is on the way to growth, the
seed is well established. Perhaps he might
watch his tendency to be led astray by the
realistic, academic approach to art. The build-
up of academic art holds back the first prim tive
voyage into the creative rendering of a vision
because the virtue of a plant is in its seed; and
however elaborate, and however beautiful a
plant might become, it cannot escape its essen-
tial beginning, its seeds the mysterious, trium-
phant life that goes on beneath its surface; the
origin of all things.
And that is what primitive art is about.
Primitive art is the seed, the first beginning,
the ultimate ending. Scientific, academic art is
too western, too cold for the fire of the creative
spirit of the conscious Black Man.
But his vision of suffering is real, and
TIME OF REST. depicts a moment of release
from the heavy cares of life in the sweat and
the grease of the greedy, grab-up, dog eat dog

attitude ol commerce. It is simply a view of
people visiting on and around a park bench. The
park bench is symbolic of momentary, man-
made "haven" of rest in the tortured life of the
city; appropriate enough lor the depiction of
the withdrawal of the sufferers into a time of
peace away from the cares of a hostile Baby-
lonian world.
Then there is the bitter satiric comment
of RESTHOUSE. This painting depicts a man
sitting on the lawn of his Barbican-type house
in an easy-chair, pillow behind his head, dog
at his feet, limousine in garage, T.V. aerial on
the house. His face is black, like those of the
men on the park-bench. The contrast, that of
rejection and acceptance of the world of Baby-
lon, is stark.
The MASTER OF PEACE is another
rest" or escape from the torture of everyday
existence in a hated system. It is a portrait of
a black King, his eyes beautiful in tleir vision
of peace and love. justice and mercy
Brother Arnold Tucker gives us the hope
of fulfilment of the Rasta dream. His GREAT
EXPECTATIONS (well named, indeed), shows
us a Rastaman on a barren land, a black, ted,
green and yellow ship approaching over the sea.
and in the distance a fruitful land. This theme
is again repeated in BEAUTIFUL SHORE. This
time there is the green of Africa with the black
King standing there, the deliverance ship (mark-
ed Black Star Liner) approaching over the sea.
and a Rastaman, prophetic Book in hand, kneel-
ing on a blood-red Jamaica (remember red and
green are opposite on the colour spectrum!). At
the top of the painting is the rainbow, symbol
of God's complete power and glory which
stretches over the Promised Land.
vision is there again. This time there is no lone
Rasta figure; only the barren land in the fore-
ground, the fruitful land in the distance, the
sea in th- middle. There is no ship either. There
is just the hope that "now it won't be long"
Brother Everald Brown has the ultimate
vision the fulfilment of prophecy. He writes
that he is inspired "to see many visions of the
mysteries of God which I am trying to impart
to the world."
black man stands holding in one hand a serpent
by the neck, and in the other the devil (all white)
caught in a net and surrounded by pitchforks
In CHURCH TRIUMPHANT the Brother depicts
his spiritual view of the Promised Land. A clear
silver river runs in the foreground, the rainbow
covers the land. Then the rest of the painting
continues the mythology of the Land-the lion
lying with the lamb, and so on.
I found the greatest of his paintings to be
THE EARTH IS THE LORD in which the figure
of God looms high among the sea with land
colours representing the world. Over his body
are depicted the flags of the various earthly
principalities and powers. Little human aspira-
tions. nationalisms and quarrels of man are all
dwarfed in the presence of this universal figure.
The Black Man is depicted sitting in the place of
honour, his brain;all other nations and races
taking an inferior place on other parts of his
It is the first exhibition where nothing
is stressed about the vengeance against the
oppressor. The themes are of suffering, endur-
ance, relief, and escape; the personal problems
of the sufferer seen only from his point of view.
with a complete ignoring of the white man
oppressor except perhaps for one ominous line
at the end of the poem-
When Priestnan talk,
Babylon marks its hour of Destiny.
And when we come to appreciate the
truly meaningful indigenous art of Jamaica,
middleclass techniques and ideas of art are
certainly going to take their true second place.


Forg brckford
roblrt hill
trnor munroe
ruprt lewis

Vol. 1 No. 16 May 17th, 1969


The J.O.S. workers decided last year to
start an organization which would be of
more benefit to them than the two rival
political-affiliated Unions that are now battl-
ing for representational rights for the workers.
The workers know that the same Govern.
ment, regardless of which party, who brought
in these foreign exploiters, are the same set
of people that run the Unions. Therefore,
the workers' rights have always been sold out
by these Unions to the capitalist, who no
doubt have always greased the palms and
strings of these B.I.T.U.-N.W.U. puppets.
I know that these Unions and their Europ-
ean friends have seen the growing unity and
consciousness among the workers, and that
they will do whatever they can to put out
every possible light that these workers have
come to and try to turn them back to otter
So the Company has split the workers by

setting up offices at different parts of the
I was told by a conductor that the Cross
Roads and down-town bus crews are not in
agreement at all; and that one gets a little
more working facilities than the other.
There was one time when the Cross Roads
workers went on strike and the down-town
ones were still working. Apart from discourt-
esies to their passengers, I support them
wholeheartedly. But not when they show a
sign of disunity. Let the Company know that
however much they want to split the workers
you all are working for the same Company
and when one section strikes the whole
entire staff will go on strike whether we are
in agreement or not
When it is time to fight for our rights we
have no grievance but for those who come to
take away our rights and to exploit our

==== ~ ~ bi ................


To the majority
oppressed, ABENG
pe. Is it to be a forl
tell us implicitly wh
cance and purpose
paper. Chart a cour
follow, because it is
fight, it is also our fi

y of Jamaican I would like to know if this is
represents a ho- the way we are going to be treated
orn one? Please by the Government? If someone
at is the signifi- should say, "the employee could be
of your ,news- guilty," I will say, "he can't be."
se for us all to And the reasons why I say the
I not only your employee is not guilty are:
ght for survival. (a) The policemen when they carried
iWERS NOW! the employee to the station began
to ask the man how long since he
CONCERNED turn Rasta and if he smoke and
things like those.
(b) The policemen then turned to
the man and told him that he must
go home because there is nothing

A teacher at the Fruitful Vale
Primary School, Portland. Mr. B.F.
FULLER, has been dismissed by the
headmaster of the school. M. Fuller
has been teaching there since Sept-
ember of last year. The headmaster
has not given any reason for the
dismissal. Mr. Fuller has written to
the Ministry of Education to appeal
against this decision which was not
even discussed at the Parent Tea-
chers' Association, where he is liked
by many of the parents.
This is another case where a
difference of views between the
headmaster and a member of staff
has led to an arbitrary dismissal of
tire staff member

It might he that our "eyes are
not yet opened", but we are forced
to ask what is "AIENG" trying to
say? You are blowing the horn but
what tune are you playing Is it a
revolutionary chorus or are you
playing a "DO-RE-ME" that we
know already. Your arguments are
garbled and without force. You do
not complain with a mind for change
for example Vol. I No. 14 "Origins
& Future of Jamaica Banana Indusr
try" you seem to be just blowing
your horn to make noise.

as Smerch
of Ewartron
A NItG;17 AI Ai
Sounds of
THE SMERtCH Discotheque
Saturday lst May. 1969)
51 Main Street, Lwartun
Adinissioni COUPILE 7/.
Rcf jrc hmtevrc i ,,i ,alt

in thna after tley brutahse the man
at the Jamaica Cordage Co. where
he was employed.
Black man unite with one black
heart because unity is strength.

On Wednesday, April 30, 196l
one of the employees of the Jamaica
Cordage Factory, wlh served the
Company as Machine Operator for
nine years, was fired.
thle employee reacted by report-
ing the matter to tlie Union that
represents him. 1 lie Union gave the
employee a document to deliver to
the delegate at the Jamaica Cordage
(oipauny. After the delegate receiv-
ed the document and read it, they
called the policemen who came with
no love in them. They didn't even
try to hear tile reason why they
were called before they began to
brutalise the employee and carry
him to the station where they began
to ask the man about things far
different from what they were called
about. That is to show the public
or people that they did not hear
what they were called for.



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ets im UNM slW fA Midft wk-U reuerst. a)]

by Omo'Oguar

This week let us take a look at what the military are
doing in Africa at the present time. One of the most noticeable
features of Africa today is the series of military coups which
are taking place. In many different parts of the continent -
though more especially in West Africa - army officers have
seized power from the civilian leaders. Thus, in the last few-
years military governments have been set up in three of the four
English-speaking countries of West Africa (Nigeria, Ghana and
Sierra Leone) and four of the nine French-speaking countries
(Togo, Dahomey, Upper Volta and Mali). Army coups have
taken place in some of the largest countries like Nigeria, and
some of the smallest, like Togo. They have taken place in the
wealthier, such as Ghana, and the poorest, such as Upper Volta
What we must ask ourselves, therefore is why at this point in
time there is such a general movement towards army takeovers?
Basically the answer is to be found in the problems now
confronting the African states, and the inability of their civilian
rulers to find answers to those problems. The fundamental
problem is the control of tie economy of the African countries
by foreigners, who exploit African resources for the benefit of
of the rich countries, not for the benefit of black people.
Even when Africans are suffering cruelly, as in the civil war
in Nigeria, the expatriate companies are still able to declare
a profit!
Following from this exploitation is a second problem, the
poverty, ignorance and disease which are the main features of
the lives of the African people. Nothing can be done about
these things while the people do not control their own resources.
Thirdly there is the disunity caused by tribalism and
other factors, which have been fostered both by the white
colonialists and by the new black rulers. Lastly we may mention
especially those new rulers. In some cases they came to power
at the time of Independence, not because they were genuine
leaders of their people, but because the colonial powers trusted
them not to interfere with foreign investment if they were
given political power. The new leaders had no policies and no
concern for the misery of their people. All they wanted was
votes from the people, and once in power they suppressed the
opposition and set out to make themselves rich. They had big
cars, big houses, and many girl friends, while the people had
only hunger and disease.
Increasingly in the first years after independence die people
became restless as they saw their leaders unable to solve any of
thle problems, as they saw them willing to go on serving
white masters in return for power and bribes, Strikes, riots and
rebellions grew more common, such as tie general strike in
Nigeria in '14, or the rebellion in the Congo-Kinshasa in
[)i4-oS5. The army officers became alarmed at these develop-
ments, more so since tile troops were often used to put down
thle people. The officers felt contempt for the inefficient and
corrupt politicians: increasingly they felt that tlie army was the
cure for their country's ills.
At last, in seven of the thirteen states of West Africa
in Congo-Kinisha a, and in others as well, the army took control.
thie armiies moved in, then, because of the failures of ilhe
post-independence leaders. Next week we will see how suc-
cesstul tlie new military governments have been.

. i- ast St., Kingston May 17th. '19,9.




NYAH I.h. from Laws St.
NYAH RUDDY from Tele-
phone Co.

on 17th May
at 1 South Camp Road
All Africals Welcome!