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BY JOHN LEE WILLIAMS.
A FACSIMILE REPRODUCTION
OF THE 1827 EDITION
INTRODUCTION AND INDEX BY HERBERT J. DOHERTY, JR.
A UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA BOOK. THE UNIVERSITY PRESSES OF FLORIDA.
THE BICENTENNIAL FLORIDIANA FACSIMILE SERIES published under the sponsorship of the
BICENTENNIAL COMMISSION OF FLORIDA
SAMUEL PROCTOR, General Editor.
A FACsIMILE REPRODUCTION OF THE 1827 EDITION WITH PREFATORY MATERIAL, INTRODUCTION, AND INDEX ADDED.
NEW MATERIAL COPYRIGHT @ 1976 BY THE BOARD OF REGENTS OF THE STATE OF FLORIDA.
All rights reserved.
PRINTED IN FLORIDA.
Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Williams, John Lee. A view of west Florida. (Bicentennial Floridiana facsimile series)
"A University of Florida book."
Photoreprint of the ed. printed for Tanner, Philadelphia. Includes bibliographical references and index.
1. West Florida-Description and travel. I. Title. II. Series.
F317.W5W7 1976 917.59'9'044 75-45282 ISBN O-8130-0375-X
Governor Reubin O'D. Askew, Honorary Chairman Lieutenant Governor J. H. Williams, Chairman Harold W. Stayman, Jr., Vice Chairman William R. Adams, Executive Director
Dick J. Batchelor, Orlando Johnnie Ruth Clarke, St. Petersburg A. H. "Gus" Craig, St. Augustine James J. Gardener, Fort Lauderdale Jim Glisson, Tavares Mattox Hair, Jacksonville Thomas L. Hazouri, Jacksonville Ney C. Landrum, Tallahassee Mrs. Raymond Mason, Jacksonville Carl C. Mertins, Jr., Pensacola Charles E. Perry, Miami W. E. Potter, Orlando F. Blair Reeves, Gainesville Richard R. Renick, Coral Gables Jane W. Robinson, Cocoa Mrs. Robert L. Shevin, Tallahassee Don Shoemaker, Miami Mary L. Singleton, Jacksonville Bruce A. Smathers, Tallahassee Alan Trask, Fort Meade Edward J. Trombetta, Tallahassee Ralph D. Turlington, Tallahassee William S. Turnbull, Orlando Robert Williams, Tallahassee Lori Wilson, Merritt Island
GENERAL EDITOR'S PREFACE.
"TmH results of his long and toilsome life in books recorded will live when the marbles and monumental brasses of many of his contemporaries shall be no more." This was the prophetic epitaph of John Lee Williams written just two days after his death by his friend and fellow Florida writer, Daniel C. Brinton. Indeed, Florida does owe a major debt to Williams, the transplanted New Englander who, along with Dr. William H. Simmons of St. Augustine, was appointed in 1823 to select the site for a new seat of Florida government. Acting under a legislative mandate they inspected Middle Florida to determine where the capital should be located. Inadequate maps and a dearth of accurate geographical information turned this exploration into* a difficult undertaking. The journal John Lee Williams kept of the journey, later published in volume 1 of the Florida Historical Quarterly, reveals some of the problems the men encountered. The need for books and reliable maps of Florida was obvious.
Williams chose first to write about West Florida, the area between the Perdido and Suwannee rivers. His A View of West Florida was published in 1827 together with a map which he had prepared of West Florida. It was raw, unsettled land which Williams described in this book which is being published now as a facsimile. Its sparse population, only a few thousand people, lived in and around St. Augustine in East Florida and around Pensacola on the Gulf. Middle Florida-Leon and the surrounding counties-was being settled by families moving in from Georgia, the Carolinas, and other southern states. Tobacco farms and cotton plantations would quickly become valuable economic assets, along with lumbering, turpentining, and hunting and fishing. Sugar cane, potatoes, and other vegetables and fruits would soon% beoe rdutvecmmdtis TInians were v-
ing in North Florida at the time of Williams' writings and were becoming increasingly more hostile. Roads were little more than trails through the woods, and most of the transport depended upon rivers and the other waterways. It was a frontier in every sense.
Neither A View of West Florida, nor Territory of Florida (published in 1837), are adequate by today's standards, but at the time they were among the best accounts of Florida available. If Williams' View of Florida was "incomplete and error-laden," it did record the physical aspects and natural endowments of the territory. Descriptions of West Florida life and times, based upon Williams' personal observations and experiences, are the most important parts of his book. Therein lies its value to Floridiana. Williams' 1827 map, by comparison with twentieth-century geographical knowledge, is crude and inaccurate. Yet at a time when there were few cartographic aids at all, maps were needed and Williams' proved useful. A second map which he prepared in 1837 revealed how much more about the history and geography of Florida he had learned in the span of a few years.
A facsimile of John Lee Williams' The Territory of Florida was published in 1962. At that time the country was observing the Civil War Centennial, and many American and Florida history books and monographs were coming off the presses. The University of Florida Press issued a series of facsimiles of significant out-of-print Florida books. Now that the nation is celebrating its two hundredth birthday a new Florida facsimile series has been launched. A View of West Florida is one of the volumes in the Bicentennial Floridiana Facsimile Series being published by the University Presses of Florida for the Florida Bicentennial Commission.
The twenty-seven-member Bicentennial Commission was established by the state legislature in 1971 to plan Florida'2s role in the national celebration and to develop state and county projects that will enhance the three major themes of the Bicentennial: Heritage '76, Festival '76, and Horizons '76. Governor Reubin Askew serves as honorary chairman of the Commission.
Publication of Florida history was adopted as one of the major goals of the Bicentennial Commission. This will include the issuance of twenty-five facsimiles of important Florida history books which have long been out of print, difficult to find, and expensive if at all available. This facsimile of A View of West Florida is in this series. The titles selected will represent the whole spectrum of Florida's rich and exciting history which goes back for nearly five centuries. Scholars with a special interest in and knowledge of Florida have been invited to edit each volume, write an introduction, and compile an index. The goal of the Florida Bicentennial Commission is to make a lasting contribution to the scholarship of Florida history.
Herbert J. Doherty, Jr., editor of A View of West Florida, was also editor of the facsimile edition of Territory of Florida (1962). A native of Jacksonville, and a graduate of the University of Florida and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Professor Doherty is a well-known expert in Florida history. Among his books and monographs are Richard Keith Call: Southern Unionist and The Whigs of Florida, 1845-1854. He has served as editor of the Florida Historical Quarterly, president of the Florida Historical Society, and chairman of the Alachua County Historical Commission. He is professor of social sciences and history at the University of Florida and chairman of the Department of Social Sciences.
General Editor of the
University of Florida.
A View of West Florida by John Lee Williams was published in 1827 as an extended essay to accompany a new map of the area which the author had prepared. West Florida was defined as that area between the Perdido and Suwannee rivers, which had been delineated by an ordinance of Governor Andrew Jackson in 1821. Williams described the area as a gently rolling land intersected by many navigable rivers. Much of it, he noted, was covered with forests whose trees were spaced a considerable distance apart with little undergrowth. These forests were carpeted with grass and flowers, and the streams were bordered with hardwoods tangled in vine. The waterways abounded in fish of all kinds. Though Williams claimed only utilitarian virtues for his book and denied his ability "to amuse by highly wrought diction, or the ingenious inventions of the imagination,." there is imaginative writing in his description of this land where "cthe climate is healthy and the seasons mild."'
One of the earliest reviews of Williams' book appeared in 1828, by James Gadsden, in the North American Review. Gadsden, a South Carolinian, had accompanied Andrew Jackson to Florida during the First Seminole War and had passed some years of his life there as a resident. He was particularly familiar with West Florida. Though Williams does not make reference to having had any assistance in preparing his map, Gadsden noted that the book was the first to appear since the public lands had been surveyed and declared that the map was based upon the "'admirable" survey maps in the General Land Office in Washington. Gadsden concluded that, "The work is evidently the production of a plain, candid man, who seems to be under no influence calculated to deceive himself, or to impose on others, for he has given mnyX facts, ndr hazarded but fe~w opin-
ions." His comments about "influence" perhaps referred to the fact that some very early treatises on Florida, notably those by James C. Forbes and Charles Vignoles, were at least partially motivated by economic interests of the authors in Florida lands.3
John Lee Williams was born in Salem, Massachusetts, in 1775 but grew up in the state of New York. After attending Hamilton-Oneida Academy in Clinton he moved to Virginia and was engaged in business there for a number of years. Because of ill health he came in 1820 to Spanish Florida, settling in Pensacola. By his own account he was in very feeble health and blind when he arrived, yet within six months he had completely recovered and began to take an active part in the business and politics of the community that was rapidly becoming Americanized. judge Henry M. Brackenridge described him at that time as one of the two trustworthy lawyers in Pensacola.4
In 1823, with Dr. William H. Simmons of St. Augustine, he was appointed by Governor William P. DuVal as a commissioner to locate a site for a new seat of government in a place convenient to both of the widely separated populated parts of Florida. He met Simmons in October, 1823, near St. Marks and explored the lands north of that old Spanish outpost fairly thoroughly during October and November. The journal 'Williams kept of that journey, on which this book is in part based, was published in the first volume of the Florida Historical Quarterly. It is a very sparse account, but the delays, mistakes, and confusion evident in it make plain the difficuJi-ies of such an exploration in 1823.5
The first third of the narrative portion of this book is a discussion of the geographic features-and the flora and fauna-of West Florida. A comparison of both the maps and the descriptive detail in A View of West Florida (1827) and Williams' book of a decade later The Territory of Florida (1837) shows interesting discrepancies which indicate that he learned more about both Florida geography and history during the years between the two publications.6 Both books and their mapDs, however, indicate how imp~erfect the state
INTRODUCTION. xiii of knowledge about Florida was in the early nineteenth century, compared with the present day. Both maps seem crude at best.
A brief comparison with modern maps shows many interesting errors, omissions, and name changes. Taking a survey beginning at the Suwannee River and going west, one first notes that Williams placed the Waccasassa River and Bay much closer to the mouth of the Suwannee than they actually are. His 1827 map called it Vaccassar Bay, which became Wakassee Bay by 1837. In the preface to his 1837 book he observed that most surveyors had skipped over more than thirty miles of the coast here because "an extensive reef" shut in this bay. West of the Suwannee, he placed the Histahatchee River further west in 1827 than in 1837, and on the earlier map he confused it with the Acheenahatchee River. On present-day maps it appears as Fishbone Creek. Moving to the west the 1827 map located next the Chattahatchee River, but the 1837 map, apparently correctly, located the Acheenahatchee River next, with the Chattahatchee River being west of it. The Acheenahatchee River, perhaps through years of lazy enunciation, is apparently the river now called the Steinhatchee (pronounced Steenhatchee). What John Lee Williams called the Chattahatchee on his 1837 map now appears to be the Fenholloway.
The Fenholloway River appears on both Williams maps, with slight variations in spelling, but it does not flow to the Gulf! Nor does the Econfina River, both of which modem maps show flowing into the Gulf between the Aucilla and Steinhatchee rivers. On both Williams' maps the Fenholloway and Econfina rivers flow into the Aucilla River (Oscilla by his spelling) before it reaches the Gulf. Williams apparently mistook the Wacissa River for the Aucilla, believing that the true Aucilla was the Fenholloway and that the Welaunee was the Econfina.
Further west is the village of St. Marks, at the confluence of the Wakulla (sometimes called Wakully by Williams) and the St. Marks rivers. In 1827 Williams represented the Wakulla as extending inland in an almost due north direc-
Xiv INTRODUCTION. tion. By 1837 he had it more correctly extending in a northwesterly direction inland. The body of water from the confluence of those two streams to the Gulf, he called the Apalache River. Close by on the west is Ochlockonee Bay fed by the river of the same name and the Sopchoppy (Seckehopko on his 1837 map). On "the 1827 map Williamg ran the Ocklockney (his spelling) almost due north, but by 1837 he changed the spelling to Oclockoney and reoriented its route closer to its actual location. Crooked River which is virtually a second, western mouth of the Ochlockonee is approximately correct on both maps.
The Apalachicola River (spelled with two "p's") is straighter and more due north in its orientation in 1827 than 1837. The Chapola (Chipola) River flows into Hort's Lake on the 1827 map before reaching the Apalachicola. On the 1837 map the "Chappola" flows into "Drowned Land," designated on today's maps as "Dead Lake." The representations of Apalachicola and St. Josephs bays are not too different from modern maps though both appear smaller on Williams' maps.
Williams' mapping of St. Andrews Bay differs materially from that of modem cartographers. He identified no North Bay nor West Bay, but depicted a large body of water in the vicinity of both which he called Wapaluxy Bay. Another Econfina River ran into it. Though he designated an East Bay on the 1827 map, the configuration of connected bays is not nearly so extensive as that delineated on modem maps. In the preface to his 1837 book he admitted that until that time St. Andrews Bay had never been examined by any of the surveyors of the coast or the public lands.
Greater detail in the mapping of both Chactawhatchee (Choctawhatchee) Bay and the complex of bays around Pensacola indicate Williams' greater familiarity with that area of Florida which had been his home for several years. On the northwest corner of Choctawhatchee Bay the 1827 map shows Lafayette Bay. By 1837 it has disappeared. On mid-twentieth century maps the distance between Choctawhatchee and Pensacola bays appears to be three or four
times greater than on Williams' maps, which have the two almost connected. What Williams called Yellow Water Bay appears on modern maps as East Bay, but Pensacola Bay and Escambia Bay are comparatively the same. On the 1827 map, however, they appear larger than on most later maps and the streams flowing into Yellow Water Bay are named differently on Williams' 1837 map. The configuration of Perdido Bay, west of Pensacola, differs from 1827 to 1837, and from modern maps.
A careful observer can find many interesting evidences of the primitive nature of the map-maker's art by comparing these maps of the 1830s with those of the present day. In addition to the differences noted here one may find that often ponds and lakes are included which do not exist, are omitted when they do exist, or are misplaced.
Though neither of Williams' books is valuable as history, his View of West Florida is particularly incomplete and error-laden. In his explorations of the Tallahassee region Williams had been struck by the remains of the extensive Spanish mission system which had flourished there in the seventeenth century. He saw the remains of roads and buildings, but not knowing of the missions he concluded that some advanced civilization had formerly resided there. Drawing on garbled oral tradition passed on by Indians in the area, and speculations of his friend Henry M. Brackenridge, he theorized that survivors of the DeSoto expedition had settled in the area and mixed with the Yamassee Indians whom he believed to have inhabited the region in the sixteenth century. Williams concluded, "by intermarriages and good example, they induced many of the natives to adopt the arts of civilized life. Wholly lost to, or neglected by the mother country, they grew up in the wilderness of Florida, planned towns, extended highways, and built fortifications, whose ruins still cover the country. Becoming effeminate, they at length fell a prey to the Seminoles, Muscogees, and other northern tribes, perhaps one hundred and thirty years ago."7
Williams' concept of the history of the Florida Indians
XVi INTRODUCTION. was fancifully inventive where he had no evidence. His authority for the culture of the Indians was a work published in Paris in 1806. He accepted its generalizations uncritically, assuming apparently that the cultures of all early American Indians were relatively uniform.8 He did admit to a twohundred-year "hiatus" in Florida Indian history, and in this connection he referred his readers to Brackenridge's letter in his Appendix I. He reported a tradition that Yamassees and whites lived together for a long period in the Tallahassee region until routed by the "Muscogulgees.'9 Actually the Yamassees had never lived in the Tallahassee region; the sixteenth-century Indians there were called Apalachees. The American Indian authority, John R. Swanton, maintains that no destruction of the Yamassees ever took place.10 He also makes no recognition of a tribe called "Muscogulgees," but he does note that William Bartram used the term in his eighteenth-century account of his travels in America. It is known that Williams had read Bartram and that Bartram believed the "Muscogulgees" had exterminated the Yamassees, hence part of Williams' faulty theory is attributable to Bartram.11
The physical evidence Williams saw in the Tallahassee area included remnants of roads, buildings, and cultivated fields. He was convinced, however, that most of the buildings were forts and noted their locations on all sides of Tallahassee. The name of one still survived, Fort St. Lewis, two miles west of Tallahassee, where he noted "extensive defenses" and the finding of two cannon.12
In point of fact, the explanation for the remains Williams and his contemporaries saw was far less romantic and more impressive than they imagined. The physical evidences which they attributed to some Indo-European culture were actually remains of the Spanish Franciscan missions which had flourished from the Atlantic coast to the Apalachicola River in the seventeenth century. The Franciscans came to Florida on a serious scale in 1595. Not until 1608, however, did they make regular contacts with the Indians of West Florida, and it was not until 1633 that the Apalachee Indians got
their first full-time resident missionary.13 All through the 1630s and 1640s the influence of the Franciscans continued to grow in the Apalachee region. By 1655 they claimed 26,000 Christian converts in thirty-eight doctrinas, as a mission village with a resident friar was called. In those villages where there were many converts a veneer of Spanish culture was maintained. These Hispanicized Indians all took Christion names, prefixed by don.14
To the dismay of the Franciscans, the Spanish military officials planted garrisons among these missions for their "protection." All too often friction developed between soldiers and Indians because of exploitation of the latter by the Spaniards. Under Governor Rebolledo Indians were conscripted to raise corn and carry it to St. Augustine. In consequence, the Apalachees revolted in 1647 and again in 1656. The revolts were cruelly repressed and the garrisons strengthened.15 The circumstances probably were the origin of the tradition that the missions were "forts."
The evidence is that Williams' Fort Lewis was the mission of San Luis de Talimali which Michael Gannon in recent years has mapped near Tallahassee. Gabriel Diaz Vara Calder6n, Bishop of Santiago, Cuba, who made an inspection of the Florida missions in 1674, noted, "'In the mission of San Luis, which is the principal one of the province, resides a military officer in a country house defended by pieces of ordnance and a garrison of infantry."'6
The last quarter of the seventeenth century marked the high point of the Franciscan missions in Florida. In 1676 there were forty fathers of this order in Florida; by 1680, there were fifty-two.'7 The death knell of the missions, however, was to be sounded by events to the north. English colonization had spread as far south as Charleston by 1680. English incursions against the missions north of St. Augustine increased through this period, the Yamassee Indians usually working in alliance with the English. By the end of the century fear and apathy had spread among the Franciscans because of these raids and the neglect of all affairs relating to Florida by the Spanish crown. In 1702 the War
of the Spanish Succession began, pitting England against Spain and France. In that year Governor James Moore of South Carolina with many Indian supporters laid siege to St. Augustine and destroyed all missions in northeastern Florida. In 1704, again with his Indian allies, Moore launched a succession of raids into the Apalachee country. Mercilessly his forces looted and burned the mission towns and murdered their inhabitants. Moore annihilated eight of the fourteen missions in that area of Florida. By 1708, the Apalachee missions had been completely destroyed and ten to twelve thousand Indians had been carried to slavery in the Carolinas,.'8
By 1837, when he published The Territory of Florida, Williams had learned a great deal more about Florida history. The lengthy historical section of that work contains no tales of lost members of the DeSoto expedition amalgamating with Indians. Although he placed the Franciscans in Apalachee country about a century too early, he no longer viewed their missions as forts. He wrote, "Missionary establishments, and convents were founded, whose ruins are at this time a subject of curious investigation, in the middle district of Florida. It was here that the see of Rome chartered a great religious province, under the order of the Franciscans .. ...>19 He made no reference to his earlier inventions in his View of West Florida.
For a modern historical researcher, as well as a layman interested in Florida history, the most valuable parts of this book are those in which Williams described the life and times of the West Florida which he knew. In that connection, even his sketchy knowledge of Florida's past reveals to us the general ignorance of Americans on that topic in the early nineteenth century. He had, however, seen with his own eyes the towns of West Florida; the geological curiosities such as disappearing rivers, sinks, and natural bridges; the festivals and customs of the old inhabitants; and the productions of the land. His section called "Productions"' (beginning on page 38) deals with the natural productions of the land. He cataloged the land in five types: pine bar-
rens, uplands, hammocks, swamps, and marshes, and he estimated the quantity of each. He described the qualities of the soil in each category and then made an extensive inventory of the trees, shrubs, herbs, vines, and grasses in each. The accuracy of his usage of botanical names does not stand close scrutiny, but his efforts are nonetheless impressive.
His section on "Agriculture" (beginning on page 62) brings few surprises. Cotton was the largest crop, and several varieties were cultivated. Some readers may be surprised to learn that rice was the second ranking crop. Williams maintained that it grew as well in uplands and pine barrens as in low wet areas and that it was a more certain and profitable crop than corn. He noted that corn should be raised for local consumption but not for market. It was too risky a crop, and he believed good land should be more profitably used for sugar and cotton. For three years prior to publication of this book, sugar had been successfully produced in Jackson, Gadsden, and Leon counties, and Williams believed it had a promising future. The sweet potato was a common crop grown profitably everywhere in Florida, but Irish potatoes grown locally were thought to be inferior to those grown in the North. Tobacco and indigo were grown on a small scale, as were a variety of small grain crops and vegetables. Grasses, he noted, had been little cultivated. Of fruit crops, figs, plums, and oranges were successfully cultivated, but the sweet orange was noted to be particularly delicate and difficult to raise.
""Manufactures" got short shrift as Williams noted, "As yet there are none in West Florida," and "It is not probable, that manufactures will ever be greatly extended in this country.
.*" --20 Commerce, according to him, consisted of a small coasting trade which brought foreign goods from New York and groceries and provisions from New Orleans.
The section on "Towns" (beginning on page 73) deals only with Pensacola, but, used in conjunction with the inset maps of Pensacola and Pensacola Bay on his map of West Florida, it pDresents a revealing picture of that city in his
.&.W INTRODUCTION. day. A very sketchy history precedes the description. Of the life of the mind, Pensacola had little, according to Williams' lights: "Good schools are not encouraged as they ought to be. Science is scarcely thought to be a subject worthy of conversation. Swarms of children are running about the streets, improving rapidly in dissipation and vice."12'
A section on "Manners and Customs" ensues next (beginning on page 77). The distinctive customs he described were those derived from the old inhabitants and were quite similar to those which had been observed in old St. Augustine. After these descriptions, as if the printer had gotten his pages mixed up, unaccountably he continued the narrative of towns, writing of Tallahassee's physical appearance, population, civic organizations, and living expenses. After noting several abortive attempts at town-building he closed the section with the observation, "Quincy .. is said to be improving very handsomely."122
Ten pages follow headed "Counties" (beginning on page 80), in which he related what he had observed of the geography and natural resources of the six counties then comprising West Florida: Escambia, Walton, Washington, Jackson, Gadsden, and Leon. To some degree this is repetitive of the material presented in earlier pages. The final section of the material authored by Williams deals with history. Despite our critical treatment of that section in previous pages, it should be noted that, as in other portions of the books, where Williams related the history that passed within his own memory the quality and value of his material improves considerably.
Fully 40 percent of this book was not, however, authored by John Lee Williams.. Three appendices at the end of his work, admittedly ".,more copious than was at first intended," occupy seventy-four pages. By all odds the most interesting is the first-a letter from judge Henry M. Brackenridge to Joseph M. White, Florida's delegate in Congress. Its contents indicate that Williams and Brackenridge were much indebted to each other for their knowledge of Florida.
Appendix 11 relates to land titles and gives a brief history
INTRODUCTION. Xxi of Spanish land practices as well as the procedures used by the United States government to validate old claims and to make arrangements for disposing of lands to United Stat es citizens. In 1826 a pre-emption act relating to Florida was enacted by Congress, and Williams devoted many pages to excerpts from discussions in Congress which took place before its passage.
Appendix III is headed "Canals." This section purports to show the importance and ease of constructing canals to advance communication and commerce in Florida. In it are reproduced supporting newspaper articles, Congressional debates, and letters. The central object was the survey and initiation of a cross-Florida canal, a project as yet incomplete.
1,James Gadsden, in his review, expressed the hope that Williams would write a similar book relating to East Florida.2 Such was Williams' intent should this work meet with success. With a great show of modesty, he wrote that "his expectations, however, are not high, and it is therefore impossible that his disappointment can be great." This first work was well received, and its success spurred him on to a second volume. It, however, was not limited to East Florida but embraced the entire territory. In the period between publication of his two books Williams moved to East Florida, settling first in St. Augustine about 1830. There he dabbled in business and law and served as a justice of the peace.24 Undoubtedly, much of his time was spent in exploration of the east coast and the St. Johns River valley. He boasted that "the whole face of the country" east of the St. Johns River was moree correctly exhibited" on his map of 1837 than on any other map.25
In 1834 he moved to Picolata, about twenty miles west of St. Augustine on the St. Johns River. In 1837 his Territory of Florida was published in New York by A. T. Goodrich. It proved to be very popular owing, no doubt, to the Seminole War then raging in the territory. After the publication of his second book, Williams settled into a quiet rural life, occasionally visiting Jacksonville or St. Augustine, and re-
ceiving friends and travelers in his house by the river. In his eighty-first year John Lee Williams died in his rustic home at Picolata. Two days after his death on November 7, 1856, the American anthropologist, Daniel G. Brinton, arrived to visit him. Brinton recorded that Williams' last twenty years had been spent alone and in abject poverty. He had occupied his time in gardening, in botanical and horticultural experiments, and in literary dabblings. He had, Brinton reported, been working on an improved version of The Territory of Florida and also upon a novel set in China. No scrap of these manuscripts has survived. Brinton found Williams' fresh grave in a corner of his garden, marked by round pine sticks at head and foot. He lamented that all traces of Wil-. liams' physical existence would soon be obliterated, but he took comfort in the thought that the results of his life would live on "in books recorded..26
HERBERT J. DOHERTY, JR.
University of Florida.
1. John Lee Williams, A View of West Florida (Philadelphia: H. S. Tanner, 1827), iii, 5-6.
2. James Gadsden, Review of Williams, A View of West Florida, in North American Review 26 (April, 1828): 483.
3. Ray E. Held, "Spanish Florida in American Historiography, 18211921" (University of Florida Ph.D. thesis, 1955), pp. 39-40.
4. Clarence E. Carter (ed.), The Territorial Papers of the United States, volume 22, The Territory of Florida, 1821-1824 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1956), p. 877.
5. Florida Historical Quarterly 1 (April, July, 1908): no. 1, pp. 37-44; no. 2, pp. 18-29.
6. John Lee Williams, The Territory of Florida (New York: A. T. Goodrich, 1837), was republished in a facsimile edition, with its map and an introduction by Herbert J. Doherty, Jr., as a part of the Floridiana Facsimile and Reprint Series by the University of Florida Press in 1962.
7. Williams, View of West Florida, 91-92. Henry M. Brackenridge was one of the several gentlemen who came to Florida in 1821 with Andrew Jackson and received appointment at his hands. Earlier he had dabbled in diplomacy in Latin America and had some pretensions to learning. He was United States Judge for West Florida.
8. Ibid., p. 70.
9. Ibid., p. 72.
10. John R. Swanton, The Indians of the Southeastern United States (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1946), 231n.
11. Swanton, pp. 224, 231; Williams, View of West Florida, p. 32; William Bartram, Travels through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East & West Florida... (Philadelphia: James and Johnson, 1791),
pp. 483, 487-88.
12. Williams, View of West Florida, pp. 33-34.
13. Michael V. Gannon, The Cross in the Sand: The Early Catholic Church in Florida (Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1965), pp. 52-54.
14. Ibid., p. 55.
15. Ibid., pp. 56-59.
16. Report of Gabriel Diaz Vara Calder6n to Queen Mariana of Spain, 1675, cited in Gannon, Cross in the Sand, p. 63. Also see map opposite p. 64. Gannon's careful mapping of the Florida missions makes it possible to identify almost all of the old towns listed by Brackenridge (Williams, View of West Florida, p. 107). St. Matthew was likely the mission of San Mateo, St. Juan was San Juan de Aspalaga, Aspalaga is probably the same place even though he lists it separately, Ocon was likely San Francisco de Oconi, Ayavala seems to be La Concepci6n de Ayubale, and San Pedro was San Pedro de Potohiriba. TapaFaga is not identified, and St. Marks was not a mission site.
17. Gannon, Cross in the Sand, p. 69.
18. Ibid., pp. 73-76.
19. Williams, Territory of Florida, p. 175.
20. Williams, View of West Florida, p. 69.
21. Ibid., p. 77.
22. Ibid., p. 80.
23. Gadsden in North American Review 26 (April, 1828): 493.
24. Carter, Territory of Florida, 24:402, 592, 601, 682, 816.
25. Williams, Territory of Florida, p. vi.
26. Daniel G. Brinton, Notes on the Floridian Peninsula, Its Literary History, Indian Tribes and Antiquities (Philadelphia: Joseph Sabin, 1859), pp. 70-72. For more complete biographical information on John Lee Williams, see the introduction to the facsimile edition of Williams, Territory of Florida.
GEOGRAPHY, TOPOGRAPHY, 4e.
TREATING OF ITS
ANTIQUITIES, LAND TITLES, AND CANALS;
A CHART OF THE COAST, A PLAN OF PENSACOLA.
THE ENTRANCE OF THE HARBOUR.
BY JOHN LEE WILLIAMS,
PRINTED FOR H. S. TANNER AND THE AUTHOR,
Z, R. BAILET, PRINTER.
EASTERN DISTRICT OF PENNSYLVANIA, TO WIT:
BE IT REMEMBERED, That on the ninth day of March,
(L. S.) in the fifty-first year of the Independence of the United States of
America, A. D. 1827, H. S. TANNER and Jowi-LEE WILLIAMS, of the said District, have deposited in this Office the Title of a Book, the right whereof they claim as Proprietors, in the words following, to wit:
"A View of West Florida, embracing its Geography, Topography, &c. with "an Appendix, treating of its Antiquities, Land Titles, and Canals. And con"taining a Map, exhibiting a Chart of the Coast, a Plan of Pensacola, and the "entrance of the Harbour. By John Lee Williams."
In conformity to the Act of the Congress of the United States, intituled, "An Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts, and books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned." And also to the Act, entitled, "An Act supplementary to an Act, entitled, An Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts, and books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned,' and extending the benefits thereof to the arts of designing, engraving, and etching, historical and other prints."
D. CALDWELL, Clerk of the
Ecatern Distric of Pennsylvania.
Tim following pages are the result of the occasional employment of the writer, while engaged in other pursuits, during a residence of seven years in Florida. His attention was first attracted to the subject, by remarking the singular deficiency of the maps of West Florida, in his frequent excursions through the country. Having been appointed one of the commissioners for locating the new seat of government of Florida, the author, for his own satisfaction, made a minute survey of the coast, from St. Andrew's bay to the Suwannee, as well as of the interior of the country in which Tallahassee is situated. In consequence of the information thus acquired, he conceived the idea of preparing a new map of that part of Florida which had come under his immediate notice; and of accompanying it with a memoir, or essay, containing such information in relation to the country, as would seem to be called for at the present moment.
In appearing before the public as an author for the first time, he throws himself upon the candour of those who are in search of useful: and accurate information, without being too fastidious as to the manner in which it is conveyed ; for they will find no attempt to amuse by highly wrought diction, or the ingenious inventions of the imagination: his object has been to offer something useful to practical men.
Although Florida is rapidly increasing in population, there are several causes which must tend to retard its progress in some parts, for several years to come : these are, principally, the unsettled land claims, and the large grants possessed by individuals, which are withheld from sale for the purpose of speculation.
iv PREFACEr The general excellence of the climate, and its adaptation to the culture of some of the most valuable of the southern staples, must give it decided advantages over any part of the southern seaboard. The sugar cane, the silk worm, the grape, and the olive, will no doubt at some future day render it one of the most important portions of America. The fine harbours of Florida will secure to it important commercial advantages; and no portion of the Union possesses such singular facilities for the construction of canals. Should the ship channel across the peninsula be effected, and in the practicability of which the author is very sanguine, a most important revolution in commerce will be the result.
The author has had it in contemplation to prepare a similar map and memoir of East Florida, should the success of the present attempt be such as to afford him encouragement: his expectations, however, are not high, and it is therefore impossible that his disappointment can be great. Should such a work be undertaken, the natural as well as the civil history of Florida will appear in a more systematic form.
The Appendix to this little volume is somewhat more copious than was at first intended; but it contains some interesting documents, which the author felt unwilling to omit.
PHLADELPHIA, March 5th, 1827.
VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA.
TiE. title of West Florida has, at different periods, been applied to territories very different in location as well as in extent. At one time, the river Mississippi was the western boundary, and for a long period of time, the Appalachicola river was the eastern limit. In 1821, General Jackson, then Governor of Florida, by an ordinance, since confirmed by several Acts of Congress, fixed the limits of West Florida, from the bay and river Perdido on the west, to the river Suwannee on the east; and from the Gulf of Mexico on the south, to the thirty-first degree of north latitude on the north, until intersected by the Chattahoche river; then down the Chattahoche river to its junction with the Flint river; thence eastwardly on a direct line towards the head of St. Mary's river, until it intersected the river Suwannee. The tract of country thus designated, is situate between 280 10' and 311 N. lat., and between 60 and 100 20' W. long. from Washington. It is about 276 miles long, from east to west; and from forty to ninety in width, from north to south. It contains about 16,500 square miles, and 10,560,000 acres of land, with a population of from eight to nine thousand inhabitants.
The face of the country is, generally, rolling, but there are neither mountains nor hills of any considerable magnitude. It is intersected'from north to south by numerous rivers, many of which are navigable quite through the territory. A large portion of the country is covered with forests, the trees usually at a considerable distance apart, without underbrush; while the srB
VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA.
face of the ground presents a carpet of verdant grass and flowers most of the year. The borders of the water-courses, however, as well as the hammocks, are covered with thick woods of hard timber, tangled with innumerable vines. An abundance of lakes and ponds diversify the interior; while the seacoast is indented with bays, bayous, and lagoons, abounding with fish of all kinds, and affording every facility for internal as well as foreign commerce. Although the largest portion of the country is covered with pine barrens, and much of it extremely poor, yet there is also much upland, interval, and hammock land, of the most excellent quality; peculiarly well calculated to produce sugar, rice, cotton, tobacco, indigo, corn, small grains, vines, and fruits; and all" the timbers necessary for ship-building are found here in abundance. The pine barrens afford excellent grazing for cattie, and they are abundantly stocked with wild game. The climate is healthy and the seasons mild.
The southern coast of West Florida, from Perdido bay to Cape St. Blass, a distance of 140 miles, is formed of pure white sand, principally silicious, but mixed with calcareous particles of broken sea shells. From Cape St. Blass to the Appalache river, a distance of sixty miles, the coast is composed of a yellowish brown sand, alternating with white cliffs and sometimes with salt marshes. From theAppalache to the Suwannee river, a distance of eighty miles, a calcareous rock forms the seacoast, generally covered with grass and rushes for several miles into the sea. These different formations of the coast are occasioned by various causes. The limestone which forms the base of the country, from the Chactawhatchec river' in theinterior, to the seacoast of Appalache bay, is, every where, very productiveof grass; this bay is also sheltered from storms by the circular form of the coast; and the Tortugas shoals throw the currents of the gulf so far out to sea, that they scarcely strike the western coast of Florida until they reach Cape St. Blass; from thence'westward, the coast receives the full force of both storms and currents, and exhibits a beach of sand,. white as snow, and ahnost as hard as rock.
Between the Perdido bay and the Escambia river, the soil is 0lhwial. The substratum is a clayof various colours-white, ye
VIEW OY WEST FLORIDA. 7
low, red, and blue. Strata of dark iron sandstone pervade it in many places; and is often thrown up in small hills, especially in the low grounds near the water-courses. This clayey substratum is generally covered with a fine, white, silicious sand, which in its native state, produces little more than pine forests and grass; except where the tide or the streams have thrown upon it fossil or vegetable remains; these form hammocks'and intervals, rich in vegetable productions. The peninsula, extending between Pensacola bay and St. Rosa sound, has not even clay beneath the sand : peat is sometimes found there in extensive beds, with abundance of cypress and cedar stumps, standing far beneath the sand. A stratum of sandstone, three or four feet in thickness, is forming, some twenty miles from the west end of the peninsula, but it is yet too tender for building.
North of the Chactawhatchee bay, a high ridge of sand divides the water-courses, which fall southwardly into the bay, and northwardly into Shoad river, a branch of Yellow Water. Near the east end of the bay, this ridge subsides in a succession of knolls, which give rise to the springs of Alaqua river and Uchee creek. A pleasant country of rich land extends from this to the Chactawhatchee river, based on soapstone and limestone formations.
The soapstone is found in strata, from five to eight feet thick, and extends to the Shoal river. The limestone has been discovered west of the Chactawhatchee, only in the Uche'e valley, where it is abundant. On the eastern bank of the Chactawhatchee, the limestone is found less compact than on the western; it seems a congeries of, shells, some of them entire, cemented together by a tough aluminous matter. Buhrstone of an excellent quality is found in large masses near the Alabama line. Millstones are made here of a better quality than can be procured from abroad. This stone extends as far eastward as the Flint river, and., northward for a hundred miles or more. The structure is nearly compact; the cavities are very small; it appears like a mass of fine escallop shells; is evidently calcareous; and rings like marble. The colour is from a light gray to a brown, the break conchoidal, and has an earthy appearance. Po.nds and sink holes are numerous between the Chatawhatchee and Chapola rivers, and large
VIEW OP WEST FLORIDA.
springs, forming navigable streams, often burst from this formation; the waters, though perfectly transparefit, are highly impregnated with lime, and are not generally considered healthy.
Proceeding towards the Chapola river, the limestone acquires a firmer texture, the clayey concrete disappears, and the mass ap. proaches nearer the surface ; it is seen as far south as the Econfina river, seven miles, above the head of St. Andrew's bay. Near the Chapola river, this formation often rises above the earth, in tabular platforms ; they are usually covered with grass, but not with trees. At other places, broken fragments lie in large piles, interspersed with dogwood, chicasa plumb, hydrangia shrubs, and vines. Under these piles of rock, eaves have usually been discovered.
East of the Appalachicola river, there are few indications of stone, until we approach Leon county. Here a ridge appears above the earth, from four to six miles from the coast, and parallel with it; it dips a few degrees to the SSW., and is probably the edge of that stratum which forms the coast: the navigation of all the streams between St. Marks and Suwannee is impeded by it. This rock resembles chalk, generally of an ash colour; some of it, however, is quite white, and is used for chalk. A kind of imperfect flint is imbedded in it, in 'form of a shelly nucleus. It becomes hard on exposure to the air. The flint is' of. a light gray clour, full, of ,holes, which are filled with the calcareous matter: it breaks with a conchoidal fracture; gives fire freely with steel; is quite opaque, but void of the greasy feel which is peculiar to pure flint. On' points of the coast, where the waves have washed the calcareous matter away, these flinty nuclei form extensive and very rugged reefs. The fort of St. Marks is built of this limestone. Grass grows spontaneously on this rock, whether covered with salt or fresh water, even to the depth of twenty feet. Oysters grow in great masses to the rock, and they are very hard to separate from it.
Through the centre of. Gadsden and Leon counties, ridges of clay extend, and form the base of an excellent soil. The upper stratum is red and very pure, and has an unctuous feel; but very small sandstones, of the size of a buck-shot or bullet, pervade the whole mass: this stratum is usually fourteen feet, more or less,
VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA. 9
in thickness. Under this, a white clay, similar in quality, extends from twenty to thirty feet, which resposes on a rotten limestone; somewhat different, however, from that found in the western part of Jackson county. The shells which compose it are more perfect, and the cement is a calcareous, instead of aluminous matter. It is found to make excellent lime. The springs and streams in this part of the country are very pure ; they rise and run over the aluminous formations, but they all at length sink beneath the limestone rock, where, having united their currents and become highly impregnated with lime, they rise at once navigable rivers; such are the St. Marks, Ithe Wakulla, and Oscilla rivers, which from these springs pass over the chalky formation to the sea.
This term, originally expressing temperament of situation, has by common use become an indication of situation, as it respects health or sickness. In this sense, West Florida is peculiarly blessed. Her climate is temperate, both from its latitude and from exposure to the mild sea breezes of the Southern gulf.
A rolling country is more favourable to a free circulation of air than a level plain; and a sandy soil, covered with forests, although not the most profitable to cultivate, is eminently productive of health. On the contrary, the estuaries of large rivers, and rich bottom lands, densely covered with timber, although rich in natural productions, are usually unfavourable to health, especially when first opened to the influence of the sutn. A high state of cultivation usually corrects both. Ponds of stagnant water are usually fruitful sources of disease, and some of these exist in this country. Many Of these ponds, however, are merely expansions of the subterraneous rivers, which pervade the limestone region. Extensive marshes are, also, usually unhealthy in a warm climate; and these line our seacoast, from the St. Marks eastward, to the Suwannee; how far the sea breezes may correct the evil, time will discover.
From these observations, it appears certain, that the advnntages of a pure atmosphere, and at the same time a very rich.
10 VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA.
soil, cannot be expected to meet in the same place. If thi, country be diversified with both these blessings, in different situations, it is all we can reasonably expect. Residences on the low alluvial bottoms, and near the marshes, have usually, in autumn, been attended with agues and bilious fevers ; e 'xcept these, JI have heard of no diseases peculiarly incident to the climate. Pensacola has twice been visited with yellow fever. The last time that dreadful disorder occurred, was in the year 1822. The season had been unusually hot, there was no efficient police, the town was filthy in the extreme, and overrun with strangers. A cargo of spoiled codfish arrived from Havana, and was distributed among the little huckster-shops along the bay. From this moment, the pestilence spread like wildfire, sweeping whole families, and almost whole streets, in one general destruction, which ended only in a total desertion of the inhabitants. We have every reason to believe, that a vigilant police will always prevent the recurrence of a similar calamity.
Our climate has proved peculiarly salutary in pulmonary complaints. Many of our most useful citizens came here, merely for the recovery of constitutions which were rapidly declining;- and they are now enjoying perfect health. We are taught by experience, that'intemperance will produce disease in every climate; but with habits of cleanliness, moderate industry, 'and temperance, any person may enjoy as perfect health in West Florida, as in any part of the universe. Sea-bathing is one of the greatest luxuries of our climate ; and this, r'-ore than any other prescription, has tended to recover invalids from most disorders. This, with other gentle exercise,- and a prudent diet, has uniformly proved successful, in the most inveterate diseases. The yellow fever has yielded to it, and by it this dreadful disorder has often been prevented.
Perdido bay, Which divides Florida from Alabama on the west, is a pleasant sheet of water, about thirty miles. in length, and from two to six miles in breadth. The bar, 'at its junction
VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA. 11
Pensacola bay is from twenty-five to thirty miles long, and from four to seven miles wide. About eleven miles from its junction with the gulf, it divides into three parts; the north-west bay is called Escambia, which is about ten miles long, and from four to six wide. It receives the Escambia river at the northwest end, which enters among several low islands. The north branch is called Yellow Water bay; it is about the same length, and from three to four miles wide. It receives a river of the same name, from the east, through several channels. Black Water bay is attached to its north-west corner. This is a small bay, seven miles long and two wide, and is ful of islands; it receives from the north, Cold Water river, Black Water and Cedar creeks. The eastern bay is called East river bay, it extends six or seven miles into the country, where it ends in a small river. St. Rosa sound is connected with Pensacola bay, on the southwest. The latter joins the Gulf of Mexico, between the fort of Barrancas and St. Rosa island, where it is at least three-fourths of a mile wide. It has, at the lowest'tides, twenty-one feet, and usually twenty-three feet water on the bar. This is by far the best harbour on the Gulf of Mexico, or indeed south of the Chesapeake bay. The following Report of Commodores Bainbridge and Warrington,-and Captain Biddle, will show the opinion of those gentlemen on the subject.
"The bay of Pensacola is extensive and capacious, easy of access from the sea, and affording secure anchorage for any number of vessels of the largest class. The depth of water on the bar, as laid down by Major Kearney, of the Topographical Engineers, is twenty-one feet. From the report to us of Lieutenant Pinkham of the John Adams, whom we directed t6 sound, and from all the information we have been able to collect, at least this depth of water, we believe, will always be found on the bar, even after a long continuance of northerly winds. These northerly winds sensibly affect the waters on this part of the coast; they, however, seldom continue long. The ordinary tides do not rise more than three feet, but these tides run with considerable rapidity, thus affording facilities to vessels working in or out of the harbour, against an unfavourable wind.
" The position which we have selected, as, in our judgment,
12 VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA. combining the greatest advantages for a Navy Yard, is in the vicinity of the Barrancas, and to the northward and eastward of Tartar point. Here we found the necessary depth of water nearest the shore ; an important consideration in respect to the expense to be incurred in carrying out the wharves required for naval purposes. Here too the works erected for the defence of of the Navy Yard, would give additional security to the harbour, while its vicinity to the Barrancas would admit of assistance to it, in case of need, from the troops stationed there. Here, we are, in our opinion, susceptible of complete defence, at a less expense than elsewhere in the bay. The position is wholly protected by Tartar point, against the swell of the sea, which strong south-westerly winds set over the bar. It is favourably situated for rendering assistance to vessels approaching the harbour. Its healthiness is not surpassed by any other part of the bay; and fresh water is here abundant, and of a wholesome quality."
The post of Barrancas was established in 1669, by the Spaniards, under Andre de ]a Riola; and the present fort was built by Don Bernardo de Galvez, about 1784. It is situate on the north shore, on a high shell bank. It completely commands the entrance of the harbour. West of the fort, a light-house was erected in 1824. It is thirty feet high, and may be distinctly seen at fifteen miles distance. The ruins of old Fort Arunado, are situate on the north side Of St. Rosa island, about two miles from the west end, and two and a half from Barrancas, nearly bpposite Tartar point, where the naval depot is now established.
Large vessels, coming from the eastward, should keep in seven fathoms water, until the light-house bears N. by W., in that course ruin to three and a half fathoms on the bar, then steer the same course till the west end of St. Rosa island bears E. by S. and the light-house N. one half, W. ; then steer direct for the light, until within the island, then hawl up and run into the bay. The same should be the course of large vessels coming from the west, except that they may safely run in five fathoms. Vessels drawing less than fourteen feet, may bring the light to bear N. three-fourths W.. and then steer for it till 'within
VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA. 1
half a mile; thence E. by N. till sheltered by St. Rosa. The ebb tide sets south-west, and the flood north-east. The ebb sets directly on to the Caycos shoal, and the flood across the Middle ground.
The following extract from the Report of F. Laval, Commissioner of Marine, &c. to His Catholic Majesty, in 1719, will show that a century has made no material difference in the entrance of Pensacola bay:
"The Admiral (Champmeslin) was on board of the Hercules, of sixty-four guns, but then mounted only fifty-six, and drew about twenty-one feet water; he was advised that there was only twentytwo feet on the bar; he therefore despaired of entering the harbour; but an old Canadian, named Grimau, a man of experience, and well acquainted with the channel, alleged that he could take her in, and actually succeeded. He ran along a good musket-shot from the ledges, (breakers,) till he brought the Fort of Pensacola, (Barrancas,) N. and S. one-fourth E., and ran that course till he was W. one-fourth S. from the old fort on St. Rosa; heathen bore away a little to the west land, keeping midway betwixt that and the island, to avoid a bAnk onl the latter, which ran out to sqme distance WNW. from the pint. The Hercules was followed by the Mars, pierced for sixty, but carrying only fifty-four guns. The Triton, pierced for fifty-four, but carrying only fifty. Two frigates, one of thirty-six, the other twenty guns. They all anchored in water from twenty-five to thirty-six feet, in good holding ground of soft mud."
The Grand Lagoon extends from the entrance of Pensacola bay, below the Barrancas, eight miles westward, aid within threefourths of a mile of the Perdido bay, and with which it might be connected by a trifling labour. It is open to the gulf near the west end; the passage has usually six feet water on the bar; near the Barrancas it is more shoal, the sea having lately broken over and thrown considerable sand on the bar.
The Big bayou enters the bay one and a half miles above Tartar point.
Three miles farther north-east, Bayou Chico enters; on the north bank of which, Camp Clinch is beautifully situated, one and a half
14 VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA.
miles north of the bay, of which there is a fine prospect. This bayou is a pleasant, healthy, and safe harbour for small craft.
Bayou Texar enters from the north, one mile above the city of Pensacola; it is a handsome sheet of water, one-fourth of a mile wide, and four miles in length.
The Bayou Mulatto enters the east side of Escambia bay.
St. Rosa sound connects the bays of Pensacola and Chactawhatchee. This is a charming sheet of water, about forty miles long, and from one and a half to two and a half miles wide. A narrow peninsula divides the Pensacola bay from the sound, for thirty miles. Vessels drawing five feet water may pass through the sound and thence to sea, through the west end of Chactawhatchee bay, and the pass L'Este. The navigation is perfectly safe, and no difficulty occurs, except at the narrows, near the east end of the sound, where there are two places that the channel is narrow and crooked.
The Chactawhatchee bay is at least forty miles long, and from seven to fifteen wide. It receives the Chactawhatchee river through many mouths, at the east end ; while on the north side there enters Cedar creek, the Alaqua river, Rock creek, Boggy creek and Twin creek. This bay is much affected by storms; and many shoals running far into it, the navigation is considered somewhat dangerous. It has two outlets. The pass L'Este communicates with the sea, seven miles south-east from the-west end of the bay, and at the west end by St. Rosa sound. When a heavy swell of the sea meets the ebb tide on the pass L'Este, the breakers render it impassable. The British established a very profitable fishery here. It might still be improved to great advantage.
St. Andrew's bay has, hitherto, been little known, but it must hereafter become a place of importance. It is easy of access, has eighteen feet water on the bar, good anchorage, and is perfectly sheltered from every wind. It is divided into several arms, which stretch over a wide extent of country; the north and east arms extend to the neighbourhood of the rich settlements of Chipola, the principal trade of which, at this time, passes through this bay. Three islands lie off the mouth of this harbour, Sand island, Hummock island, and Crooked island. The principal
VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA. 15
channel is between Sand and Hummock islands, it being the nearest; betwixt Hummock and Crooked islands the channel is equally good.
The main body of the bay extends northward for about twelve miles, and thus far averages about five miles in breadth. Five miles from the entrance, a large arm, near a mile in width, runs to the west, parallel with the coast for twenty miles. Ten miles from the entrance, another branch extends westwardly thirty miles; this branch is in some places ten miles wide, and approaches very near the Chipola inundation. The Wetappo, a navigable creek, which enters the north-east end, rises near the very bank of this sheet of water. Five miles north-west of East bay, the Wapaluxy bay branches off to the west, in a circular form, which the name indicates. This bay is from seven to ten miles in diameter. A navigable creek enters the west side of Wapaluxy, from which, to the lake branch of Chactawhatchee river, is only four miles and a half. Seven miles farther up the north branch, vessels may carry eighteen feet water, to Little Oyster point. From thence to the head of the bay, a distance of eight miles, the water gradually shoals to seven feet.
St. Joseph's bay presents an entrance, from the north-west, six miles wide, but most of this distance is occupied by a middle ground. One channel is close under the north point of the peninsula, where there is seventeen feet water. The main channel commences near Cape False, and passes about two miles from the main land, and has twenty-eight feet water. The bay is generally from seven to eight miles wide, but grows narrower, and shoal, towards the south-east end. It is twenty miles in length, and easy of access. On the land side it is unapproachable, being insulated among lakes, lagoons, and marshes. The southern point of the peninsula, which forms St. Joseph's, is the Cape St. Blass. The north end is blown up into sharp sand hills, except, that inside of the point there is a forest of high pines, which may be seen at a great distance.
The Appalachicola bay is formed by the islands of St. Vincent and St. George, opposite to the mouth of the Appalachicola river. It is from four to eight miles wide, and twelve in length. Vessels drawing twelve feet water can enter the bay, and with eight feet
16) VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA.
can approach Murder point, at the mouth of the river. This river being the largest in West Florida, and the outlet of an extensive and fertile country, it will, at some future time, render this bay a place of extensive business, unless the produce of the country should be directed into some other channel.
This bay is connected with the gulf, on the north-west, by the Indian pass, which is rapidly filling up: little more than four feet water is now found on the bar.
The main channel is betwixt St. Vincent and St. George islands; here the channel is about a mile wide, and easy of access. A small sand bar lies outside of the entrance,,which is called Flag island: the channel is near the eastside of it. From the northeast corner of St. Vincent's, an extensive oyster bar runs, in a circular form, round the entrance of the bay, almost to St. George's island. St George sound, between the island and the main, is a pleasant inland passage, but is obstructed about midway by an oyster bar, which extends from north to south, quite across the channel; at low tides the water is not more than four feet deep on this bar. East of Cat point, in this sound, there are extensive bars, covered with large and excellent flavoured oysters.
The Ocklockney' bay is twelve miles long, and two broad. The Ocklockney river enters the west end, where a large branch passes off to the west, called Crooked river, which, after running about twenty miles, enters New, river near its junction with the sound, directly north of the west end of Dog island. The entrance of this bay is obstructed by sand bars and oyster shoals. No more than four feet water can be depended on at low tide.
The Appalache bay is that circular indentation which sweeps round from the South cape to Histahatchee bay. This on one side, and the peninsula on the other, affords a partial shelter from the eastern and south-western storms, and although it is quite exposed to the south, and the shore also quite shoal and composed of rock, yet it has the credit of a safe navigation. There is really no good harbour in it for large vessels. It is wholly surrounded by green marshes, interspersed with keys, which are covered with live oaks, cedars, and palm trees. The port of St. Marks is much frequented since the establishment of the seat of government at Tallahassee: seven feet water can usually be 'depended on
VIEW O WEST FLORIDA. 17
in passing up the riVer to the fort. A great number of oyster bars render the navigation of the river narrow, crooked, and difficult.
Histahatchee, or Deadman's bay is small, but offers a safe harbour for small vessels, which may enter and anchor perfectly secure in twelve feet water. Nearly the same draught of water may be carried up nine miles to the falls.
Vacassar bay receives the Suwannee river from the north, divided among an archipelago of islands and keys; but scarcely five feet water can be any where found on the bar, nor is the anchorage outside of the bar very secure, though here the water is deeper. This is the easternmost bay in West Florida.
Cape St. Blass is the most noted of any in West Florida: it is situate in Washington county, in latitude 29' 42', longitude 850 45', and lies in front of St. Joseph's bay. It, stretches into the sea near twenty miles, in successive ridges: even at that distance, it is little more than seven fathoms deep. Vessels drawing ten feet water, may, in good weather, pass within three miles of the land, but if a southern swell prevail, they ought to keep double that distance from the shore.
Cape St. George extends south from the island of that name, about five miles from the west end, in latitude 290 32' N. and longitude 840 52' W. It is perceptible only three or four miles from the island.
South Cape is a point of land in front of Alligator harbour, on James island, below the Ocklockney bay. Several distinct shoals lie off this point. Vessels bound to or from St. Marks, should keep three miles from this shore.
St. Rosa is a narrow sandy island, extending from the mouth of Pensacola bay, oppositeto the fort of Barrancas, to the pass of L'Este, a distance of near fifty miles. It is about half a mile in breadth, and is conspicuous for its pure white sand hills, which
18 VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA.
at a distance appear like hills of snow. It -is very barren: a few crooked live oaks and pitch pine grow in spots on the north side of the island; while scrub oaks and yapon, tangled with vines, form impenetrable thickets on the ihorthern sides of the sand hills; these are excellent shelters for deer, Which are numerous during winter; abundance of water fowls cover the fresh water ponds, which are found in all the valleys. There is usually a heavy surf on the south shore of the island; during storms it is tremendous; several vessels have been wrecked here. A small fort and pilot house formerly stood near the west end of the island, they are both in ruins.
Opposite the mouth of St. Andrew's bay, are three small islands: the first is Sand island, three miles from the shore, and about one mile in length. Except some bunches of tall grass, (uniola latifolia,) and some scurvy grass, or as it is called here, sea-kale, it is totally barren. During summer, it is wholly covered with the eggs of sea fowl. A shoal extends from the shore to this island, except a narrow channel in which there is eight feet water.
Hummock island commences a mile and one-fourth south-east of Sand island, and extends, parallel with the coast, six miles; it is quite narrow, and has no timber, but is covered with the same kind of tall grass. Immediately after passing either end of this island, vessels may anchor in perfect safety, close along shore. A ridge of low sand hills extends along the west side of this island. On Gauld's chart, this and Sand island, are laid down as forming the west point of St. Andrews; and Crooked island, alone, is laid as separate from the shore. It is not improbable, that these islands have been separated by some late eruption.
Crooked island lies a mile south of the latter. Its north-east point' approaches very near to the shore, past which, however, there is a deep channel. It is nearly as long as Hummock island, but lies in form of a crescent. It is half a mile wide, at-the north end, but becomes narrower at the southern end. This island has on it a considerable grove of pine trees. Between Sand and Hummock island, the channel is more than half a mile wide. To enter, sail within a mile of the centre of the island, where the channel opens between a shoal one mile below Sand island, and another
VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA. 19
shoal which stretches west from the centre of Hummock island. After entering between these two shoals, run within a quarter of a mile of Hummock island, then haul up north. If you wish to enter the bay, pass close to the north-east point of Sand island. If the object be merely to make a harbour, you may lay round the north end of Hummock Island, in four fathom water and muddy bottom.
St. Vincent's island is on the west of Appalachicola bay; its form is a triangle; the north and west sides about ten miles long, and the eastern from five to six miles. It is thickly covered with timber, lofty pines shade the seacoast, while the eastern shore, within the bay, is diversified with live oaks, magnolias; and palms, which give it the resemblance of a fine park, rather than a lonely uninhabited island. An excellent stream of fresh water enters the bay from about the middle of the east side. The northern shore is marshy and broken by large lagoons.
St. George's island is about forty miles long, and from a half to two miles wide. Its west end is about opposite, and eight miles south of the mouth of Appalachicola river. For about four miles, its direction is E. by S.; it then turns NE. The east end is about three miles from shore. The southern shore Of the island is thrown up into' two or, three parallel ridges of a yellowishbrown sand; some of them forty, some fifty feet high. The centre of the island is usually covered with pine forests, among which there are some hammocks of good hard timber land. The northern shore is marshy, and indented with numerous bays and
- lagoons. On this side, the island seems to be increasing in size.
The east end is low and barren.
Dog island lies in the same direction as St. George's, and
about the same distance from the shore. It is. seven miles long, and one and a" half wide. It is similar in surface to St. George's.
At the north-east end there is an excellent harbour for small vesselS. It is three miles distant from St. George's. The tide runs
with great force between them.
James island lies between New river and Ocklockney bay. It
is made by a branch of the Ocklockney, called Crooked river, which branches off to the west from the head of Ocklockney bay. It is twenty miles long) and fromn five to twelve miles wide.
20 VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA.
Alligator harbour is in the south-east corner of this island; South cape is part of the peninsula that forms the harbour. This island is, in general, a poor pine barren, broken by ponds of water, and skirted, especially on the east end, with extensive salt marshes.
There are four or five small islands between the Appalache and Suwannee rivers. Within the mouths of several rivers, also, especially the Chactawhatchee, Appalachicola, and Suwannee; there are several extensive low islands; but they are little known, and can be of little consequence until some enterprising planters shall bank the water off them. They will then become the richest cane lands in the territory.
The Perdidp river is of little importance, except as forming part of the boundary line between Alabama and Florida. It rises about thirty miles within the state of Alabama, increases rapidly from large springs, and empties into the bay of the same name. It is navigable seven miles above the bay, to some sawmills, which have done considerable business.
The Connecuh rises in the south-east part of Alabama. Its general course is south-west, urftil it meets the Escambia river, near the north line of the territory. It there loses its 'name for that of Escambia, a much smaller river. Here it turns a southeast course, and enters the north-west end of Escambia bay, through several deep channels. Its principal tributary streams are, Sepulgas, Murder creek, the Big and Little Escambia. The lands, on the banks of this river, are rich, but are often overflowed, which renders planting, on the intervals, a hazardous employment. In autumn, they are also subject to agues and fevers. An opinion is prevalent here, that the soil is so open, that the waters cannot be banked out. The experiment has never yet been made; should it ever prove successful, as I think it will, some of the finest land that the territory affords will be reclaimed.
The Yellow Water also rises in Alabama. Its course is southeast. till it enters the bay'of the same name. It receives from
VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA# .21
the south-east, near its mouth, Shoal river and Titi creek. About ten miles from its mouth, the Yellow Water is obstructed by extensive rafts, which wholly impede the navigation. There is a very good settlement of industrious farmers on this river, forty miles above the bay. These lands stand the droughts of summer better than any other-lands in the country. On Shoal river, also, there is very good land in small bodies, gome of which is settled.
The Alaqua rises north of the Chactawbatchee bay, and increases rapidly from large springs, Some of which are large enough to turn mills at their source. It is navigable for boats, fifteen miles, to Vaughn's. It runs through one of the pleasantest wild countries in Florida, and empties into a, large lagoon north of the bay.
The'Chaetawhatchee rises near the east line of Alabama; its general course is south and west, till it arrives at the Cow ford, thirty miles from its mouth; it then runs west to the bay, Which it enters through numerous channels. It receives in its course Pea river, and Uchee creek, from the weSt; and Big Barren, Holmes, and Pond creeks, from the south-east. The United States' road, to St. Augustine, crosses at the Cow ford; three miles below, the river divides, and makes an island ten miles long: the eastern brancl is called East river. The western branch is cut ;up with innumerable islands, and the water running very rapid, the navigation of this branch is difficult. Boats have ascended this river one hundred miles. The Big spring of Chactawhatchee,
-rises about one mile and a half south-east of Holmes creek, and joins it about the same distance from the Chactawhatchee: six or seven feet water may be carried up to the spring head. This has% been a considerable landing place for several. years past. The banks and every sunken, log in this river, are covered,. most of the year, with a profusion of wild flowers;, turtles and water-snakes, are'scarcely less numerous.
'The Econfina has a short course; it rises from large springs and ponds, south and south-east from Oak Hill, i4 Washington county, and falls into the north arm of St. Andrew's bay: -it is navigable to the natural bridge, fifteen vailes from the mouth, where the United, States' road crosses.
The Chapola i a Western branch of the Appalachicola. It rise;q
22 VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA,
in several very large springs, on botl aides of the north line Qf the territory, in Jackson county; after running twenty miles, and receiving considerable accessions from both sides, it divides, and both branches sink into the earth; the eastern branch continues under ground several hundred yards; the western branch but a few rods: these streams unite again about half a mile below. To this place the Chapola is navigable. About half a mile west of the natural bridge, a large stream bursts from the base of a'gen, tle hill, and joins the Chapola a mile below; it is large enough for boat navigation. Five miles below the natural bridge, the Big spring of Chapola rises, three miles east of the river; this spring is, also, navigable to its source, Thirty miles below this spring, an arm of the Appalachicola has lately burst into the Chapola, an6t4? formed a lake twenty miles in length, and geven wide, in which the forests are yet standing. This river enters the Appalachicola nine miles above Colinton, or fort Gadsden. The banks of the Chapola are usually low.- The upper part of the river has a swamp oi on6 or both sides, a mile or more in width, The adjoining lands are among the best in the territory, and generally settled with able planters,
The Appalachicola- is formed by the junction of the Chatta. boche, and Flint. The former rises near the corriers of the four states of Tennessee, South Carolina, Georgia, and Alabama., Ite course lies through a country of excellent lard. The Flint is a4 much smaller stream. The junction is ore hundred miles from the sea. To this place considerable sized schooners have sailed, 3Boat navigation extends three hundred miles higher. This river was formerly the boundary line betwixt East and West Florida, until the line was removed to the Suwannee, by an ordinance of general Jackson, in 1$21. The current of this river is swift, the channel deep, -narrow, and crooked. It overflows its banks to a considerable extent The lands on its margin are very rich. It has carried a considerable Delta into the hay of the same name, which it enters among numerous low marshy islands.
The Oeklockney rises in Georgia, has a general course SSW, passes through the north-west corner of Leon county, through the eastern part of Gadsden, and enters the gulf on both sides of James island, Little river. Robinson's ereek, and Rocky Cum~
VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA. .2S
fort, branches of this river, pass through a large tract of excellent land, in the heart of Gadsden county. SThe Appalache is formed at the fort of St. Marks, by the junction of theWakully and St. Marks rivers; it is only nine miles to the sea. Schooners, drawing seven feet water, have ascended the Wakully to Francis town, seven miles above the fort, and the St. Marks, four miles, to the watering place. In the winter of 1826, the Franklin schooner came up to the fort, drawing nine feet; but seven is asmuch as can be usually depended on: numerous oyster shoals render the channel excessively crooked. Business on this river is rapidly increasing. Large boats may ascend the Wakully to its source, which is eleven miles and a half north-west frinm St. NMarks fort. For two miles the upper part'of the river is full of islands, and the whole surface of the water is covered with grass, like a green meadow. Boats may also ascend the St. Marks river nineteen miles and a half, tQ the place where it emerges in a considerable pond; this, also, is wholly covered with grass and rushes, although several fathom deep. The outlet of this pond is rapid, narrow and rocky. It is an excellent situation for mills. The water is at all seasons equally abundant, and the timber in the neighbourhood plenty and of a good quality. Below this rapid )the river becomes broad and deep, but there are two more rapids below; the one six and the other ten miles above the fort: the latter is half a mile in extent. The pine barrens usually approach very near the river. A few small mill streams enter on each side, on which are found tolerable hammock lands. All the lands within the-forks of Wakully and St. Marks, for four miles back, are very rich, but low, and cleared of timbir; by banking two or three miles, on each river) a plantation might be redeemed that would become invaluable. Situate at the head of schooner navigation, near the seat of government, with the great road passing through the centre, no situation in Florida would have greater advantages,
The Oscilla rises just south of the north line of the territory, in several large lakes and ponds; it passes through the centre of Leon county, and enters the sea twelve miles east of the Appaiache- it has five feet water on the bar, after which there is a con-
MS VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA.
siderable depth for twelve miles; aboye that the river sinks in the earth for a considerable distance.
The Acheenahatchee and Chattahatchee are considerable streams, which enter the gulf east of Oscilla, but they are little known.
The Histahatchee enters the bay of the same name about fifteen miles west of Suwannee; it is navigable nine miles, to the falls, where it branches into several small creeks. The banks of this river present rocky shores scooped out into very singular fantastic shapes.
The Suwannee is a very pleasant river, and, but for a shoal bar at its mouth, would be of great importance in navigation. Its principal stream comes from the Oquafanoka swamp. It receives two large branches from Georgia, the Allapahaw and. Ouithlacouchee. Its course is west for a considerable distance; it then makes a great bend, quite round to the east, where it meets the Santaffee; it then turns a south-west course to the sea.
This river is yet but little known. It is said to be generally deep. At its mouth it is divided into a great many'channels, among a wide extent of low keys: none of them has been found to 'possess five feet water. The ruins of an old town have been discovered, just below Ouithlacouchee, on the western bank. And on the same side, below its junction with Santaffee, the remains of old Suwannee town are still to be seen. A little: below the Santaffee is the Great Maneto spring. This spring is on the south-east side of the Suwannee river, below the Santaffee, at the foot of the Upland hills; the basin is circulars fifty yards in diameter, of a 'bluish green colour, but perfectly transparent, and exceedingly deep. It is a kind of jet, emitting the waters with great force for nearly half a minute, and then subsid, ing for the same length of time; the stream, issuing from this fountain, is forty or fifty feet wide and very deep, it abounds in fish aid alligators; and the Indians state that the maneto, or seacow, used to resort to it. This is nearly the size of the Chapola Big spring. The general course of this river is through a pine barren country. There are, however, on its borders, ,some considerably extensive hammocks of good land. A few Americans are about settling near the mouth of the river, for the purpose of cultivating the sugar cane.
VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA. 25
The central parts of Florida are interspersed with a great number of lakes and ponds: some of them are natural reservoirs of water drained from the surrounding country, and some are expansions of subterranean rivers, which frequently pervade the country.
Mickasukee lake is situated fifteen miles north-east from Tallahassee; it is twelve miles long from south to north; the western part is, in form, a triangle; from the south-east point, an arm, one or two miles broad, extends quite into Georgia. There is pme good hammock land on its 'borders. "And many old Indian fields remain covered with peach trees.
Lake Jackson lies north-west from Tallahassee. It is eight miles long, and from two to three miles Wide. This is a very pretty sheet of water. On its shores are some of the best lands in the country.
Lake lamony is about fourteen miles north of Tallahassee; it is eight miles long and three broad. This lake is ,said to contain a great number of fish. Its banks are generally good land. Its outlet communicates with the Ocklockney'river. .. The Old Tallahassee lake lies five. miles east of the seat qf government, in La Fayette's township. Chefixico's old town was situate on the south shore; here are extensive peach orchards. It is three miles from east to west, and abouta mile wide.
Lake Wimico is situate in Washington county, between the mouth of Appalachicola river and St. Joseph's bay. *It is seven miles long, and two or three broad.
The Inundation, or Hort's lake, is, to appearance, newly formed, oil the Chapola river, by a part of the Appalachicola bursting out aind inundating the country; it is from ten to twenty feet deep, yet the forests are standing in the water. It is the longest lake in the country, being twenty miles long and seven broad.
Dennard's lake, betwixt the Cow ford and St. Andrew's bay, in Washington county, is twelve miles long and five wide; it is little known.
W VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA.
The native horses of Florida are a small breed of ponies, hardy, and easy to support, but not fit for the harness. They will keep fat on the wild grass and herbage of the country; they are excellent swimmers, and are better for travelling in a new country than English horses; endure very long journeys with ease, but are not heavy enough for the harness. They were originally brought from Andalusia by the Spaniards.
Mules are rarely raised, here, but are frequently brought from Campeachy; are principally used for draught, and they are very long-lived. It is believed, that a mixed breed of native and English horses would unite most of the qualities desirable in that useful animal.
The cattle are a large breed, with broad horns and close hair; they are good breeders, but have not been highly valued for the dairy. They often become very fat on the wild grass, but it does not so much increase their milk. Very few oxen are used; when yoked;, they are always managed with a line, like horses..
Sheep would succeed well, did not the inhabitants prefer to keep an immoderate number of useless, thieving dogs, to worry them. The barking, yelping, and howling, of a congregation of half. starved whelps, is music to the ear of a native Floridian; even if, by supporting them, his children be reduced to the same miserable circumstances. It is not surprising, that there are few* sheep in'Florida.
Goats are raised with ease; very little care is expended abqut them; they even, seem to prosper best; when neglected.
Hogs grow well; but corn is always too dear to fatten them; most of our pork is, and will be, brought from a.distance..
Of wild animals, the deer is most numerous. Panthers, bears, and wild-cats are plenty, in some parts: wolves are sometimes seen; foxes are rare. The Mexican oppossum is very numerous; even in the city of Pensacola, they often rob the hen-roosts, Racoons and skunks are frequent in the interior.
There are two kinds of squirrel; the large fox squirrel,-and the small gray. The former is much admired a pet especially
VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA. 21
when it is found with a white face, and a rich brown colour. The Salamander is a large mole, about half the size of a rat. It pene. trates the earth in every direction, especially the pine barrens, which it throws up in the form of ant-hills. Otters and minks are numerous, in the water courses. Rats and mice are very troublesome, every where.
The Gopher is a very peculiar animnial. It delights in black jack ridges, which are easily penetrated with its burrows. They are easily caught, by digging pits at the mouth of their holes, into which, if they fall, they remain prisoners. Soups and gumboes, made of their flesh, are much esteemed. They are a harmless animal, of the turtle species. They feed, night and morning, ton the dewy herbs, ,near their burrows. They lay several eggs, in the sand, about the size of a hen's, but quite round, and leave them to hatch by the heat of the, sun.
The Alligator stands at the head of this class. He is, undodbt. edly, the ugliest creature living. Floating on the. water, he appears" like a rotten log; on land, he appears like a huge snake, with the addition of sprawling claws. But it is in the wallows, large mud holes among the rushes, that the alligator appears herself; surrounded by a hundred young imps of ugliness, all barking like puppies, and chased by the male for food. The female then adds rage to her native deformity- and she often kills her whelps by the strokes of her tail, made in their defence. Yet these reptiles are more terrific than dangerous. Persons often bdthe within a few yards of them, in perfect safety; nor have they been known, iri this country, to injure any human being. They have sometimes caught hogs and dogs, but very rarely. Almost every night, they leave the salt water, to wallow insome pool of fresh water, in the vicinity; but they usually return before morning. Some of them, however, live in fresh ponds, forty miles inland. Salt lagoons are their favourite residences, where fish, and other reptiles are abundant; and they are not delicate in their choice of food. It is sometimes difficult for a stranger to sleep r~egr their residences, for their bellowing. About the Gulf oIf
28 VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA,
Mexico, they are abroad during the whole winter. Their nests are truly described by Bartram. They usually consist of five to seven tiers, or alternate layers, of eggs and vegetables; the whole plastered with mud. When hatched, by the fermentation of the vegetables, and the sun's rays, the young whelps all crawl from one hole, near the top of the cone, and, instinctively, seek their mother, in the adjoining wallow.
The other lizards of Florida are very small; the largest is about seven inches long, with sides striped, alternately, red and brown, and has large red gills; he is a disgusting reptile, and somewhat impudent witlial, often intruding himself into the houses of new settlers; he is in other respects innocent. The old inhabitants call him the scorpion.
The northern blue tailed lizard is sometimes, but rarely, seen.
The chameleon is the least ugly of the species; he is very frequeqtly seen, and has much the contour and manners of a dandy. le will often sit on a green leaf, and puff out his .under lip like a bladder, speckled with rubies, looking you all the time in the fac e, with great assurance.
The rattlesnake,,moccasin, arid viper, are all dangerous snakes, and highly poisonous; but they are very rare. Many aie killed by the fires that frequently run over the country. Some are killed by the deer, who wage an eternal war with them. :And the king snake kills them whenever they cross his path. There is a little ground rattlesnake, that escapes the fires' in his burrow, he is very diminutive, being not more than twelve inches long, but his bite is very 'poisonous. A water moccasin, that covers the old logs, in the rivers hear tide water,, is a large dreadful looking snake, bit it is said not to be poisonous. On the contrary, a livid looking mud asp, thdt has sometimes been mistaken for an eel, has, in several instances, proved.fatal to those who expose themselves by wading in muddy creeks.
The king snake is clothed with a variegated coat of black, brown, red, 'yellow, afid white, in rings of about an inch long. his bite is innocent, but'he has the credit of'tyrannizing over his fellow crawlers of the desert.
Black snakes are lolerably frequent, both on land and in the water; thd former sometimes, catch chickens, ducks, and gos-
VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA. 29
lings. The coach-whip is most frequently seen in the pine barrens; he perfectly resembles a coach-whip, with a black handle; but is very innocent.'
The garter, riband, green, chequered, and glass snakes, make up the account of this species, in West Florida.
Although the lands of Florida may not, all of them at least, produce forty bushels of frogs to the acre, as has been asserted by a late traveller in that country; yet, it cannot be denied, that they are very numerous, and very noisy. The Bell or Virginia frog, is only found in the eastern district; and there they are not numerous. The bull-frog is numerous every where: a stranger would imagine, that he often strained his lungs, to imitate the voice of the lordly alligator. The red and black toads are common and useful reptiles; in destroying insects they are extremely expert. The shad-frog, speckled, and green frogs, are confined usually to the water. The house-frog always becomes very musical before a rain; and may be termed the poor man's barometer. The little green garden frog changes colour like the chamelion, and his barking imitates, to perfection, the voice of a puppy. Except the little savanna-frog, these embrace all the species with, which we are acquainted.
Of these the jigger is the most troublesome; it enters the skin, most usually of the feet, and produces an excessive itching and inflammation. Frequent sea-bathing, and constant cleanliness, are the best guards against them. When once lodged under the skin, it is very difficult to expel them.
Red bugs are numerous, especially in mossy woods; they are nearly imperceptible to the naked eye; but the poisoned shirt of Dejanira could scarcely be a' greater torment, than these little pests are to the body. Sea-bathing, or rubbing the body with spirits, will destroy them,, if immediately, applied. If this be not done, they will continue painful eight or nine days.
Our hammocks are infested with fleas; the sea-beach with sand-flies; the uplands with gnats; and the low grounds with musquitoes. ,
30 VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA.
In most parts of West Florida, the inhabitants sleep under musquitoe bars; and every person travelling the country, in the summer season, should carry a bar with him.
Too little attention has been paid to the insects and reptiles of Florida: an examination of these subjects, as well as that of Conchology, arid Ichthyology, is in progression, and may hereafter be published.
Our Ornithology is also very imperfect; the following is a list of those birds which are most common.
OFEAGLEs. Falco, we have Parroquet. Psitticus caroThe Bald eagle. F. leucoce- linaensis.
Fishing eagle. F. piscatorius. White-back. Picusprincipalis. Hen Hawk. F. gallinareus. Red-crested. P. pileatus. Chicken Hawk. F. pullenari- Red-headed. P. erythrocephaus. lus.
Pigeon Hawk. F. columbarius. Red-bellied. P. carolinus. Marsh Hawk. F. ranivorus. Black and white. P. pubescens. SharpWinged blue. F.subceru- Yellow-bellied. P. various.
leus--rare. Nuthatch. P. varia ventre.
OwLs. S trix. Brown Creeper. Certhia rufa. Great Horned. S. arcticus. Pine Creeper. C. pinus. Whooping. s. acclamator. King Fisher. Aludo alceon. Screech. S. assio. Humming bird. Trochilus caVULTUREs. lubris.
Turkey Buzzard. FTultur aura. Butcher Bird. Lanius garruCarrion Crow. V. atratus. lus.
CRows. Black-head fly catcher. MusRaven. Corvus carniverus. citapa. Rook. C. maratimus. Yellow-bellied do. M. cristata. Common Crow. C. frugive- Little Olive do. M. subvirirus. dis.
Florida Jay. C. Floridanus. Green Wren. M. cantatrix. JSackdaw. Gracula quiscula. Pigeon. Columba migraCrow Blackbird. G.purpurea. torea-.rare.
VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA. 31
Turtle Dove. C. carolinaen- Wren. M. domestica.
sis-abundant. Do. do. palustris, and Ground Dove. C. passerina. Do. do. caroliniana-seveBrown Meadow Lark. Adlauda. ral kinds. Robin. Turdus migratorius- Titmouse. Lucinda philomela.
whole year. Yellow Bird. Parvus luteus-. Thrush. T. rufus. of this bird there are many Mocking Bird. T. polyglot- kinds.
tas-incomparable singer. Swallow. Hirundo pelasgia. Red bird. Merula marylan- Purple Martin. H. purpurea.
dica-.a good singer. Chimney Swallow. H cerdo. Cat Bird. Lucar lividus-a Night Hawk. Caprimulgus
fine singer. americanus.
Cedar Bird. admphelis garru- Muckawis. C. rufus.
lus. Crane. Grus. pralensis-these Wild Turkey. Meleagris a- birds inhabit the pine barrens,
mericana-plenty. in flocks or pairs, and feed Quail. Tetrao minor-plenty, on grass and seeds, but withRed Bird. Loxia cardinalis. draw to the coast in the evenCross Beak. L. rastro. ing, and stand in great flocks Rice bird. Emberiza oryzi- together near the waters edge
vora-this bird changes his during the night. They are colour, three feet high, of a cinerous Finch. Linaris ciris-several grey colour; usually very fat
kinds, and equal to turkey. Every Linnet. L. cyanea, person who has passed down Tewe. Fringilla several the Mississippi, will recollect
kinds, the Hemp Bird and their evening music.
Sparrow most common. Heron, Gray. ardea herodius. House Sparrow. Passer do- White Heron. J. immaculata.
mesticus. Small do. J. minor.
Red Sparrow. P. palustris. Crab Catcher. A. maculata. Field Sparrow. P. agrestis. Marsh Bittern. A. mugitans. Sterling. Stiruuspredatorius. FrogCatcher. clamator. Cow Pen Bird. S. sterco- Blue Bittern.. A. violacca.
rarius. Poke. .. viriscens.
Blue bird. Motacilla sialis. Spoonbill. Platqlea ajaja. Water Wagtail. A. fluvialis. Pelican. Tantalu loquator.
32 VIEW OP WEST FLORIDA.
White Curlew. T. alba. Speckled. .t. rustic. Speckled do. T. pictus-the Dipper. e. maculata.
screamer. Teal, several kinds.
Gannet, or Ibis. T. Ichthyo- Whistling Teal. Fistulosa. phagus. Fishers. Mergus-three kinds. White Godwit. Numenius. Cormorant. Corymbus floriRed-breast do. N pectore ruso, danus.
abundant in Appalache bay. Snake Cormorant. C. calubriPool Snipe. N. fluvialis. nus. Sea Curlew. N magnus. Loon, Pied. C. musicus. Little do. N cinerius. Diver. C. arcticus. Field do. N campktris, White Gull. Lanus alber. Meadow Snipe. Scalopax Grey do. L. griceus.
americana. River do. L. minor.
Tring, several species. Parva Sea Pelican. Onocraticus
. Maculata-do. Booby. P. rula. Canadian Goose. anser cana- Noddy. Sterna stolida.
densis. Kildea. Charadnus vociferGrey do. /. maculata. us. Duck and Mallard. Anas. Ringneck Plover. C. minor. Black Wood Duck. d. nig. Coot. Fulca floridana.
maxima. Water Rail. Rollus minor. Blue-bill. a. subcerulea. Brown do. R. rufus. Sprig-tail. a. caudacuta. Blue do. R. major.
The central parts of West Florida, display abundant evidences of an ancient, and dense population. History is silent on the subject, and Indian tradition sheds but a faint and uncertain light on that period of distant years. Great roads, werethe first objects which caught the attention of a traveller, while this country was yet uninhabited. Bartram, the younger, mentions them in his Tour and Remarks, that they would be conspicuous for a hundred years to come. Three years ago, they might be easily traced on both sides of the Ocklockney river, for fifty miles, nearly in a straight line, east and west. The prominent ridges,
VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA. 33
which they crossed, were dug down, and causeways were constructed over the swamps. The principal highway, running through the site which is now the seat of government, was. often crossed, at right 'angles, by other roads: near Tallahassee these were very frequent. At a little distance south-east of the town, however, the minor roads crossed at very acute angles. It is remarkable, that although the Indian paths often cross this great road, they never follow it; but wind away from it, with almost a religious caution.
Extensive forts were erected, on many commanding eminences. Fort St. Lewis was situate two miles west of Tallahassee. Its form was an irregular parallelogram; the eastern, and longest side, was fifty-two paces. Within the moat, two brick edifices had been -erected; one sixty by forty, and the other thirty by twenty feet. There were bastions at each corner. The outward defences were extensive. A covered way led to a spring, in a deep ravine, under the north-east wing of the fort. Here were discovered two broken cannon, one of them having only the muzzle broken off: this has been removed to Tallahassee, land again awakens the echoes of the distant hills, on days of rejoicing. Many articles of old iron have been discovered about this ruin. Before it, trees and grape vines grow, in the order in which they were planted: the rows are distinctly traced, although overrun with a more recent forest.
Three miles east of Tallahassee, on a hill, at the base of which is a small but deep pond, is a fort, about a hundred and fifty paces long, and sixty broad, with regular bastions, ditches, &c. both without and within. In this fort are to be seen the ruins of brick buildings: within the fortifications, twenty, or more, gun-barrels were found, but little injured by the rust; on one of them, was discovered the tower stamp. This fact, however, does not prove that the English possessed the fort; since that nation has long manufactured arms, as well as other articles, for the world. Mr. John M'Iver has erected a dwellinghouse within the walls of this fort; and it is expected, when he removes the rubbish of the old brick edifices, that valuable discoveries will be made. He has lately discovered a large well, which has not yet been cleared' out. On 'a higher hill, about half a mile north-east of this, are
34 VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA.
the outlines of a larger, and apparently more regular fortre~so but the Indians have, for a number of years, cultivated the spot, and obliterated the most distinguished features of the work. Even now, the inhabitants often dig up numerous spikes, hinges, pieces of saw-plate, and tools of various kinds, which marks a population of civilized people. About half a mile south of Tallahassee, and near the dwelling of his excellency governor Duvall, are the ruins of several small fortifications, which appear to have been hastily thrown up; near one of these, a large wooden building appears to have been destroyed by fire; some large timbers of the frame, completely charred, have been preserved; very large spikes, locks, keys, and hinges, have been discovered here: among other things, a. porcelain lion, in a good state of preservation: it appears to have been an ornament for a chimney piece. At some distance under the surface, a floor was discovered, formed of a composition of lime, and other materials, very hard and smooth. On a part of the floor, was piled a quantity of charred corn and filberts, perfect in form, but very tender.
On the east side of Ocklockney bay, and about two miles from the mouth, are the ruins of an extensive fort. This is said, by the Indians, to have been the last place occupied by the old civi* lized inhabitants of Florida, when the country was conquered lty the Muscogulge tribes. A town, called Oldenberg, was founded near this place, by the English.
At the junction of the Chattahoche and Flint rivers, on the eastern bank, are the ruins of an extensive and regular built fortification. The bank is two or three hundred feet high; it com. mands a beautiful and extensive wild prospect of the Appalachicola, and its tributary streams. The Spaniards are said to have abandoned this, in favour of fort St. Marks; the latter being' easier of approach.
Regular avenues are frequently seen, usually about one hundred feet wide, extending in a straight line, for a mile or more; on each side, large oaks are growing, in the wild disorder dictated by nature; while the centre is filled, very thickly, with-young pine poles.
On the west side of Suwannee river, and near St. Pedror lake, there are ruins, nearly as extensive as those described in the
VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA. 35
neighbourhood of Tallahassee: but the country is yet unsettled, and the objects of antiquity have not been much examined. A ruined monastery is particularly spoken of, the broken bell of which, has long been a subject of wonder to the Indians.
Tumuli are not so common here, as in the valley of the Mississippi; they, however, are occasionally seen; most usually, on hammocks; and always in situations where they command extensive views.
Near Histahatchee, places have been discovered where the aborigines, long since, manufactured arrow and spear heads from the reef flint: large piles of chips mark the spots; among these are found the half formed weapons, which some unlucky stroke had spoiled: some are found nearly perfect. The arrow heads are, usually, one and a half, the spear heads three inches long; one half the length is spear shaped, the other half a shaft, notched to fasten to the reed. These arrow heads are often discovered, in the newly cultivated countries of the northern states; and are sometimes called elf stones.
These consist, principally, of natural caverns, sinking rivers, great springs, and natural bridges.
The Arch cave is situated near the public road, about three miles west of the ferries on Chapola river, in Jackson county. It opens, to the east, an aperture under a vast limestone rock; about five feet high, and thirty feet wide. This passage descends gently, for three or four rods; the cavern then opens, to the extent of a hundred feet wide, and fifty feet high. A deep channel, of transparent water, skirts the south side, for some distance; it then breaks off in wells, and finally disappears altogether. The course of the cave now turns north-west; it grows narrower, and resembles an arch of the gothic order. After proceeding about sixty yards, the cave is crossed by a stream twenty feet wide, and five deep; in this, numbers of craw fish are seen: after passing this stream, the passage tuzns north of east, and presents a hall, one hundred feet in length; pretty straight, with a very uneven floor of red clay, covered with the debris of the decomposed rock.
36 VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA.
A row, or rather cluster of stalactical columns, supports the centre of this hall; while thousands of stalactites stretch down their long tubes towards the white bases, which are growing up to meet them, from the floor. Many large holes, in the rock above, are filled with bats, which, on the approach of lights, flit off to other dark recesses, with a roaring sound, like heavy wind.
The passage now becomes crooked and intricate, for a few rods; and then opens into another lofty apartment; from which, there are many avenues, most of which remain unexplored; as well as two water courses, one of which bounds the passage.
This cave has been explored about four hundred yards. The congelations, on the sides of the walls, have the appearance of grey ice; through which, a sparkling crystallization appears: they often project into curls and folds, representing draperies, and mouldings of inimitable forms: the projections are nearly white, but the same sparkling crystalline appearance continues. The regular stalactites are hollow; the outside a soft chalky decomposition; the centre irregular sparry crystals, of a yellowish hue.
In the neighbourhood of the Arch cave, colonel Stone attempted, in three several places, to sink wells; but in every instance, he came to hollow spaces in the earth; and the well-digger becoming at length frightened, at the danger of entombing himself in some fathomless cavern, abandoned his work.
The Ladies' cave is about one mile south-east from the Arch cave; it opens to the north-west; the entrance is wider, and easier of access, than the former; it is, also, more spacious within. About fifteen paces from the entrance, it is divided into two passages; the left, about fifty yards in extent, terminates in a deep river, which passes to the north, under a bold arch of sparry congelations, which has not been, nor cannot, without a boat, be explored; the banks are bold, rocky, and difficult of access. The right hand passage is formed of rugged rocks, bold projecting pillars, curious excavations, and fanciful galleries, which it would be difficult to describe. The congelations are fine and infinitely various. The passage terminates in a narrow chasm, which has the appearance of a water-course; through which, at about three rods distance, another room appears: this h5s been but imperfectly explored. To the right of this last branch of the cave, the exca.
VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA. 37
nation has-been examined about one hundred feet; many holes appear to lead off in different directions; some of these may lead to other caverns.
Two miles south-east from the Ladies' cave, is the natural bridge, over the Chapola river. The water at this place sinks through a stratum of limestone rock, until meeting some impediment in its course, it rises again, and- flows on the surface of the earth. A great road formerly crossed this bridge: it is now travelled by some persons, during the summer; in winter, the whole is overflowed: a stranger, crossing here, would not be led to discover any difference in the appearance of the ground, from the river bottom, in any other place; the heavy forest timber appears the same, and there is no variation of ground.
The Econfina river passes under a similar natural bridge, but it is narrow. The United States' road, from Pensacola to St. Augustine, crosses this bridge; but an addition of timber is now added.
The Oscilla river, in Leon county, sinks for nearly a mile; a division of general Jackson's army once crossed here, without suspecting that a river existed near them.
The course of subterranean rivers, can usually be traced by persons acquainted with the country, by the growth of timber, and by frequent sink holes, which usually occur at short distances from each other.
The Wakully river, rising from the earth, presents the finest spring in West Florida; probably in the world. It is of an oval form; the longest diameter about six rods. It is of an unknown depth, and perfectly transparent. In looking into it, the colour is similar to a clear sky; except, that the reflection of the surround.. ing verdure, gives it a slight shade, of green: the eastern side presents a rugged rocky precipice; all else, is an abyss of boundless depth. Squadrons of fishes are seen, careering round "their own world," in perfect security. The water is not very cold; but it is highly impregnated with lime. The beauty of the fountain; the luxuriance of the foliage around it; the calm retirement of the whole scenery, renders this a charming spot.
The Big spring of Chapola, offers a very different scene; here another river bursts from the gaping rocks, with giant force, and
38 VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA.
furious rapidity; as though impatient of its long confinement. The orifice opens to the south-west, under a high bank; it is near thirty feet one way, by eight the other: a large rock seems to divide the opening in two parts, at some depth below the surface. The water acts as a prism; all the objects seen through it, in a sunshine day, reflect the colours of the rainbow. It at once forms a river six rods wide, and eight feet deep. The Wakully rises gently from a retired dell, in a low level country; surrounded by deep embowering groves of trees, hung with festoons of a hundred different vines. The Chapola spring bursts from the side of a hill, in an open country, thinly scattered with oaks. There all is caln unruffled quiet: here all is life, activity, and animation.
The Chapola river is almost wholly formed from large springs; one of them rises at the foot of a gentle hill, on the farm of judge Robinson, near the natural bridge. It is nearly as large as the Big spring, above described; boats may ascend quite into the fountain; it is peopled with a great variety of fish.
The Big spring of Chactawhatchee rises eight miles above the Cow ford, on that river. It is a round basin of a few rods in circuit, very deep, and very clear, but much filled up with timber; it throws out a constant gentle current, eight feet. deep, and five or six yards wide, which, in a mile and a half from the spring, joins Holmes' creek, about the same distance from the Chactawhatchee river. This spring has, for many years past, been a general landing place for the country trade; a large store is now kept there, by Mr. Cummins, a merchant from Philadelphia.
Several medicinal springs are scattered over the country; the largest and most numerous are in, and on the borders of the Wakully and St. Marks rivers. They visually cover the aquatic. plants in their vicinity, with a bluish white gelatinous matter: some of them indicate chalybeate and sulphurous qualities; none of them, however, have been analyzed.
These vary, according to the soil on which they are produced. The soils of West Florida, may, perhaps, all be comprised in five kinds, to wit: Pine barrens, uplands, hammocks, swamps,
VIEW OF WEST FLOR1DA. 39
and marshes. If we estimate the quantity of land at 10,560,000 acres, and deduct one fourth part for bays, lakes, rivers, &c., there will remain 7,920,000. Of this quantity, two thirds, or 5,280,000 acres may be covered with pine barrens; 800,000 with tillable upland; 600,000 with hammocks; 500,000 with swamp; and 400,000 with marsh.
The pine barrens are composed, principally, of silicious sand, more or less mixed with calcareous and vegetable matter, and often divested of every fertilizing principle, by the frequent fires which run over them. Barrens are found on the seacoast, and on the ridges, between the large water courses. All the lands covered with pine timber, are by no means barren; on the contrary, some of the best uplands are wholly, or nearly all, covered with yellow pines. And some of the burnt barrens will not produce even pine or scrub oaks, but are usually partially covered with clumps of savin. West of Cape St. Blass, the sands are usually of a pure white; east of that point, they become more coloured, and of course, more fertile. Very few trees grow on this soil; those most frequent, are, Pine, pitch. Pinus rigida-a low poor timbered tree, but produces turpentine and tar.
Pine, many cored. Pinus seratina-a useless tree, found on the
banks of lakes and lagoons.
Pine, loblolly. Pinus teda-a large tree, in valleys, has much
Pine, yellow. Pinus palustris-this is a large and most useful
tree, it is the principal timber used for plank and scantling in
the southern states; and also produces turpentine and tar. Oak, high willow. Quercus cinera-on barren hills. Black Jack. Quercus nigra-on the poorest sand ridges-excellent firewood.
Andromeda. A. rigida--on the edges of savannas and streams.
Shallow Cup. Quercus pumilla-round the borders of hammocks. Live-oak shrub. Q. maratima-near the sea coast, very fruitful. Holly-leaved. Q. ilicifolia, do. the branches
often bent to the ground with acorns, excellent for swine.
Hickory grubs. Juglans tormentosa-the better kind of barrens.
40 VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA.
Haw, winter. Cratagus parvaflora-ridges, fruit green or yellow,
Haw, summer. C. flava-sea islands and dry plains.
C. apafolia---edges of savannas and streams. Azalea. A. Bicolor and nudiflora, do. do. Chinquapin. Castanea nana-dry ridges, edge of hammocks,
Andromeda. A. feruginea-dry ridges, edge of hammocks,
Huckleberry. Vaccinum myrsinites-dry ridges, berry small,
Whortleberry. V. staminium-dry ridges, berry larger.
V. dumosum-plains, dark purple.
Blueberry. V. frondosum-damp flat plains, berry blue.
V. glaucum, do. larger fruit, on a
HERBS are abundant, to wit:
Wild Sunflower. Helianthes atranubus-pine woods.
H. pubescens-banks of streams. H. mollis-ridges. H. hispidulus-ridges. H. tormentosus-do. H. decapitatus-do. Goldenrod. Salidago reflecta-ridges.
S. laterifolia-pine woods.
S. pyrimidata, do.
S. bicolor, plains.
S. pulverulenta, do.
S. elata, do. Aster. A. ericoides-dry ridges.
A. squarosus-pine woods.
A. concolor, do.
A. surculasus, do.
A. undulatus, do.
A. cenearefoleus, do. Dittany. Cunila mariana, do. Wild Pennyroyal. A. pugloides, do. Woundwort. Stachys sylvatica--barren fields.
VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA. 41
S. hysopafolia-barren fields. S. aspera, do. Wild Mallows. Hybiscus scaber, do. Origanum. Monarde punctata, do. Spiderwort. Tradescanthia virginica, do.
ST. tripetalous, do. Wild Indigo. Baptista perfoliata, do.
B. lanceolata-pine woods. B. tinctorea, do. this is a most valuable plant; it produces the best indigo, with less trouble than
any other of the species.
Agrimony. Eupatoreum alleum-barren plains.
E. rotundifolium, do. E. linearifolium, do. E. foeniculasceum. do. Penstemon. P. pubescens-pine woods.
P. lavagatum, do.
Chrysopsis. C. argentea-dry ridges.
C. graminifolia, do.
C. pinifolia, do.
C. trychophylla, do.
Ophrys. Neottia tortillis-sandy plains. Balsam Cuphilla. C. viscossima, do. Gerardia. G. linifolia-sandy plains, flower blossoms four
Scull cap. Scutelaria villosa--pine woods.
S. pilosa, do.
Silkweed. Asclepias phytolachoides-sandy plains, and sea islands. This beautiful plant has already, by the French nation, been cultivated to advantage. The pappus is spun with raw silk for gloves, the juice collected for opium, and the leaf used
Asclepias connivens-sandy plains and sea islands.
A. obtusifolia, do. do.
A. amplexicoides, do. do.
A. lanifolia, do. do.
A. tuberosa, do. do. Violet. Viola villosa.
42 VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA.
Button Root. Eryngia. Lupin. Lupinus perennis-pine woods.
L. villosus, do. Glycine. G. argentosa-dry plains.
G. peduncularis, do.
Sensitive plant. Mimosa sensitiva, do. White Lilly. Crinum-pine woods. Nightbelle. Ipomea bona nox, do. Sand Lilly. Convolvulus spithamacus-dry plains.
C. obtusilobus, do. and sea islands. Granadilla. Passiflora incarnata, do.
P. lutea, do. Phlox. P. parviculatus, do.
P. pyramidalis, do. P. glaberima-damp plains. Verbena. V. corymbosa.
Graphalum. G. purpureum. Anona. A. grandiflora, Ruellia. R. strepens.
R. oblongafolia, Salvia. S. graviolens.
Prenanthus. P. virgata.
Chrysomachia. C. acaulis. Galega. G. chrysophylla. Hypoxis. H. folafilia. Comelina. C. erecta. Black root. Pychnastaticum. Blackberry. Rubus villosus. Dewberry. R. cunefolius.
Strawberry. Fragaria virginiana.
F. canadensis. Tormentilla. T. officinalis. Wood-anemony. A. nemorosa.
VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA. 43
Muscadine grape. Vitis rotundefolia-heads of small streams,
Briar, China. Smilax China-grows every where, but best in damp
soils, near streams. It often extends one hundred feet; the root is similar to a cluster of potatoes. The Indians grate them, or bruise them in a large wooden mortar, then throw on water, strain the starch through baskets, dry and pulverize it; the colour is a redish brown. They mix it with fine homony, and make cakes; with honey and warm water, it becomes a fine jelly:
toasted and mixed with sweet milk, it is a delicious food Briar, China. S. Ovata.
Morning-glory. Convolvulus purpureus.
Cypress vine Ipomea coccinea.
Traveller's Joy. Clematis holosericea.
Crimson woodbine. Lonicera sempervirens. Yellow do. L. flavium.
Climbing Ivy. Cissus,hederocea. Yellow Jessamine. Gelseminum sempervirens-dry plains.
The grasses are also numerous; there are very few spots, in deed, of pine barren, that are not covered with grass: in many dry ridges, the heat of the summer kills the stem, while the roots remain entire; and fire is thought to improve its growth; the herdsmen, accordingly, fire the barrens, at regular seasons. Deer, as well as cattle, may always be found on places recently burnt over.
Twisted Xyri4. X. flexuosa-flat grounds.
Rough-head Fuerina. F. squarosa--flat grounds. Rush-like F. scirpoida-savanna edges Killingia. K. pumila, do.
44 VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA.
Rhynchospera. R. plumosa-dry plains. Schcenus. S. Sparsus-pine woods. Nut grass. Cyperus hydra-on cultivated sandy land, and
almost every place; it is the greatest curse to planters; the Riband cane is said to keep it down, but nothing has been found to eradicate it. The root is fibrous like horse hairs, strung at a few inches apart with tubers of the size of a musket ball, which descend into the sand, in every direction, frequently to the depth of five feet.
C. distans-pine woods. Mariscus. M. retrofractus-sandy plains. Scirpus. S. capellaceus--dried savannas, forms a close carpet
soft as silk.
S. autumnalis-savanna edges.
S. ferugineus-pine woods.
S. exaltatus, do. grows to a great height-ten feet.
S. lineatus, do.
White button. Duchromena leucocephala-wet barrens.
D. ciliata, do. Cockspur. Cenchrus tribuloides-old sandy uncultivated fields. Low cane. Arundinarea tecta-around spring heads.
Muhlenbergia erecta-pine woods. Fringed Aulaxanthus. A. ciliatus-ridges.
Fringed Paspalum. P. ciliatifolium-old fields which have been
Smooth Panic grass. P. levigatum-ridges.
Cocksfoot. P. grus-galli-round savannas.
Broad-leaved Panic grass. P. latifolium-pine woods.
P. amarum-sand ridges. P. ciliatum-wet barrens, evergreen. P. divergens-sand hills.
VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA. 45
Crab Grass. Digitaria sanguinalis. Bermuda grass. D. dactylon-these, as well as P. divergens,
ought to be cultivated: these in dry, that in wet soils.
Silky Agrostis. A. senicea-sand hills-may be cultivated whereever there is calcareous matter in the soil.
A. trichopodes-sand hills.
A. juncea-sand hills, not fit for hay. Purple Aristida. A. spiciformis, do. Woolly do. A. lanosa, do. do. Fringed Andropogon. A. ciliatus, do. if mown early, the hay is
tolerable, but coarse.
Nodding Andropogon. A. nutans-finer.
A. purpurea-stem coarse, few leaves. A. argentus, do.
Broom Grass. Lateralis-tall, coarse, and often used for sweeping. Purple Aira. A. purpurea-sea islands. Hairy Poa. P. hirsuta-old fields. Green do. P. viridis, do.
P. nitida, do.
Rough do. P. rigida-pine woods. Purple do. quinquefida-makes excellent hay. Oat grass. Uniola paniculata-sea islands.
U. gracillis-pine woods.
Slender Fescue. Festuca tenella-barren plains.
F. parvaflora-pine woods. Hairy do. F. mycinus-ridges.
F. nutans-most common in the barrens. Crows Foot. Eleusine indica-old fields, an exotic probably. Tooth-ache Grass. Monocera aromatica. -This is a singular
grass; it has a naked stalk four feet high, spikelets in two close rows, on one side of the stem, at top; straight when young, but bends with age, and finally curling in a spiry coil. It affects the breath and milk of cows, who eat it when young and tender. The root is bitter, and affects the salivary glands.
Uplands are formations of clay, which arise gradually on the subtending limestone; they usually commence about twenty miles from the coast. The first stratum of clay is usually white; red.
46 VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA.
clay succeeds; while the surface is covered with a mulatto or chocolate coloured loam. The trees, on this soil, are abundant, and form the pleasantest groves imaginable. The following are most common:
Oaks, Hemispherical. Quercus laurefolia.
Black. Q. tinctoria.
Red. Q. coccinea.
Yellow. Q. rubra.
Spanish. Q. falcata; triloba.
Post. Q. obtusiloba.
White Q. alba-the most useful tree in America. Yellow Pine. Pinus palustris. Black Hickory. Juglans nigra. Thick shelled do. J. sulcata.
J. tormentosa-the common Hickory of Florida. Magnolia. M. grandiflora. Umbrella tree. MI. tripetala. Yellow Poplar. Liriodlendron tulipifera. Dogwood. Cornus florida. Wild Cherry. Cerassus virginiana. Persimmon. Diospyros virginiana. Holly. Ilex opaca. Sassafras. Laurus sassafras. Mulberry. Morus rubra. White do. M. alba, or pubescens. Black Gum. Nyssa sylvatica. Sorrel tree. Andromeda arborea. Catalpa. C. bignonia. Scarldt maple. Acer rubrum. Plumb, red and yellow. Prunus chicasa. Anona. Asimina triloba, or Pawpaw. Gordonia. G. lacianthus. Hopea. H. tinctoria. White Locust. Robinia pseud acacia.
Beach. Fagus sylvatica. (hesnut. Castanea vesca.
VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA. 47
Birch, white. Betula alba. Iron wood. Carpinus ostrya. Sycamore. Platanus occidentalis. White Ash. Fraxinus epiptora.
Honey Locust. Gleditschia triacanthos.
The uplands produce few shrubs; the following are found about spring heads, banks of rivers, lakes, and savannas: Anana. A. grandiflora.
Lantana. L. camara. Stratia. S. virginica. Hopea. H. pumila. Shrub Locust. Robinea hispida. Baccharis. B. halimifolia. Carylus. C. americana. Chinquapin. Castanea pumila. Myrtle. Myrica cerifera-rare. Prickly Ash. Zanthoxilon tricarpium. Service Berry. Prinos verticilatus. White Fringe tree. Chionanthus virginica. Azalea. A. visciosa-rare. Hydrangea. H. Nivea-on limestone rocks.
The herbs, vines, and grasses, on the hammocks, are, many of them, similar, but of more numerous species than those on the uplands; the same classes of trees and shrubs also grow on the hammocks, but there is also a greater variety of species; those which are common to both, will therefore not be again enumerated; but such as are peculiar to the hammocks will be noted. Sweet Bay. Laurus borbonia.-This tree produces timber inferior only to mahogany, which it closely resembles. The young leaves are often used for tea, which is a most pleasant
and healthful beverage. Cattle eat the herbage with avidity. Pond Spicewood. L. geniculata. American Olive. Olea americana. Spotted Haw. Fothergilia punctata.
48 VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA.
Cabbage Palm. Cha~marops palmetto.-The greatest ornament.,
of our sea-coast; they sometimes rise on a straight column eighty feet. The timber resists the gulf worm, so destructive to vessels. Hats, baskets, mats, &c. are manufactured from the leaves. The embryo head is excellent food. Bears and other animals feed on the berries. Confined to the coast and
islands; not seen farther west than St. Andrew's bay. Cotton Tree. Populus grandidentata.
Juniper. Juniperus alba. Red Cedar. J. virginiana. Sweet Gum. Liriodendron styraciflua-rivers, hammocks. Live Oak. Quercus virens. Cettis. C. occidentalis. Mulberry. Morus rubra.
Saponaria. Sapindus saponaria. Sidiroxelon. Bumelia lycoides.
B. languinosa. Halesia. H. tetraptera.
Azalea. A. calendulacea-the most beautiful native shrub of
Florida. Flame coloured, pink, yellow, streaked and mottled
with every intermediate shade. Haw. Crategus grus galli.
Salicifolia. Spina salicifolia.
Andromeda. A. axillaris.
Hammock Berries. Vaccinium myrtilloides-about the size of
a cherry, usually grows near streams, ten feet high. Clethera. C. tomentosa. Styrax. S. grandifolium.
VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA. 49
Hydrangia. H. quercifolia. Ananna. A. incarnata-five feet high, flowers large, white,
many on a large panicle; fruit size of a small cucumber; pulp
yellow, and tastes like custard. Sumach. Rhus vernix. Sensitive Shrub. Mimosa eburnea--the first plant which grows
on the sea sand; excellent for hedges, and ornament.
Scull Cap. Scutilaria hysopifolia. Blue do. S. laterifolia. Coral Tree. Erythrina herbacea.
E. coralodendron. Cassia. Sesbania macrocarpa. Senna. S. marylandica.
Lindernia. L. dilatata. Bellwort. Uvularia sessilafolia.
Fairy Flax. Houstonia ccerulea. Star of Bethlehem. Hypoxis erecta. Slender Lobelia. L. kalmia. Indian Tobacco. L. inflata. Ladies traces. Neottia tortillis. Domestic Ipecacuanha. Gillenia trifoliata. Scabious. Erigeron philadelphicum.
E. hederophyllum. Asclepias. A. tuberosa. Pentstemon. P. pubescens. Starwort. Aster lineafolium.
50 VIEW OFr WEST FLORIDA.
Wild Sunflower. Helianthus truncatus.
Annemona. A. thalictroides. Milkwort. Polygala purpurea. Pogonia. P. verticillata. Smilacina. S. canadensis. Cancer Root. Orobanche virginica.
Wormseed. Chenopodium anthelminticum. Lambs Quarter. C. alleum.
C. ambrossoides. Poke. Phytolacca decandria. Sheep Sorrel. Oxalis -acetosilla. Spanish Moss. Tilandsia usneoides. Indian Agave. A. virginiana. Ground Sorrel. Rumex acetosa. Jimpson. Stramoneum datura. Phlox. P. carolina.
Broad Thistle. Sonchus macrophyllus. Cotton do. S. oleraceus. Narrow leaf. S. floridanus. Small yellow. S. carolinianus. Milk Thistle. S. accuminatus. Wild Baum. Melissa. Golden Rod. Solidago reflexa.
Tarragon. Artemissia caudata. Wild parsnip. Sison trifoliatum. Ranunculus. R. recurvatus.
VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA. 51
Poppy. Papaver-white and yellow, petals four, stamens many,
pistil one, leaves jagged and thorny, sap a yellow juice somewhat corrosive; these plants are new to me, and although very common on the shores and old fields, it is doubtful whether
they are not exotics naturalized. Mallows. Malvus virginicus.
Water Cress. Sisymbrium nasturtium.
S. amphibium. -This plant is found on sea islands in other respects barren, and on the shore; the sands often drift over it, but it shoots through again; it is a delicious
and most healthy herb, especially in scorbutic affections. White nettle. Urtica alba.
Domestic Euphorbium. E. cordifolia.
E. polygonifolia. E. gracilis.
E. helioscapia. E. paniculata. Aurantium. A. coccinia. Veronica. V. angustifolia.
Eupatoreum. E. foeniculaceum.
E. coelestinum. Graphalium. G. polycephalum.
G. plantaginum. Senecio. S. hieracifolium.
S. suaviolens. Chrysopsis C. pinafolia. Verbesina. V. sinuata. Cancer Weed. Salvia lyrata.
52 VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA$
Fox grape. Vitis vulpina.
V. aestivalis-usually cultivated for arbours, it is
also a good wine grape, B13ignonia. B. radicans.
Rhus. R. radicans.
Poison Vine. R toxicodendron. Crimson Woodbine. Caprifolium sempervirens. Yellow do. C. flavum. Supple Jack. Rhamnus volubilis.-Twisted walking canes of
this vine are much admired.
Yellow Bell Flower. Convolvulus obtusilobus.
Ipomea. I. coccinea.
Ivy Vine. Cessus hederacea. Yellow Jessamine. Gelsemum sempervirens. Yellow Echites. E. diformis. Aristolachea. A. tomentosa. Purple Thyrsa. Thyrsanthus frutescens.
These may be divided into three kinds. First, those formed on the borders of rivers, by inundation; these are the richest swamps, and the most extensive. They are usually separated from the stream by a ridge of dry land, formed by the heaviest parts of the alluvial matter, which is deposited immediately after leaving the current; this ridge, or natural embankment, prevents the waters from draining off, as the surface of the rivers subside. They are, usually, densely covered with heavy timber, and this tangled with innumerable vines, which renders them almost impenetrable. Secondly, pine barren swamps, which are natural basins, containing the waters of the surrounding country. These swamps, when covered with small coast cypress trees and knees, are usually, but improperly, termed cypress galls. Cypress
VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA. 53
knees are hollow cones, which rise from the roots of the cypress tree, from one to six feet high, and terminate in a blunt point. These never shoot up into trees, as has been imagined, from the circumstance of large cypresses being supported on hollow cones, similar in appearance; in the latter case, the tree first grows up straight, and the cone gradually swells out underneath it, as high as the highest stage of the water. Savannas are no more than natural reservoirs of water like the swamps; except that they are covered with grass and herbs instead of trees and vines; they are usually founded on clay or marle, but sometimes only on a hard sand. They are freqently extensive, and form excellent grazing lands. The third kind of swamps are those spongy tracts, where the waters continually ooze through the soil, and finally collect in streams and pass off. These are properly termed galls, sometimes sour, sometimes bitter lands. They are the coldest soils we have, and the waters arising through them are frequently impregnated with sulphur, vitriol, and iron. When their foundation is alluvial matter, it is usually very thin, like quagmire: the land may be shaken for acres in extent. When the base is sand, it is always a lively quicksand, very dangerous for cattle. These galls are usually covered with titi and other andromedas, loblolly and other laurels, vaccinums and vines.
The trees most peculiar to swamps, are,
Cypress. Cupressus disticha. -A large and beautiful tree, often
rising one hundred feet, makes excellent boards, scantling,
Coast do. C. thyoides.
Pine barren do. C. imbricarea. Swamp Ash. Fraxinus epiptera. White do. F. acuminata. Oval-leaved. F. platycarpa. Black. F. pubescens. Willow Oak. Quercus phellos. Water do. Q. aquatica. Lyre-leaved. Q. lyrata.
Chesnut do. Q. prinos.
Velutinian. Q. michauxii. Pignut. Juglans porcena.
54 VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA.
Tupelo. Nyssa unifolia. Ogechee Lime. N. capitata.
Loblolly. Laurus caroliniensis-grows in every kind of swamp,
from ten to seventy feet high; the beauty and aroma of its
flower is well known.
Swamp Magnolia. M. glauca. Swamp Poplar. Populus angulata-river swamp. Whahao. Ulmus alata-high pine barren. Bumelia. B. lycoides-galls. Plane Tree. Planera gmelini-grows in river swamps, and resembles elm.
Soap Tree. Sapindus saponaria, do. near the coast. Winter Plumb. Prunus hiemalis, do. back from the coast. Gordonia. G. lasianthus, do.
Buttonwood. Cephalanthus occidentalis-near the coast. Swamp Dogwood. Cornus canadensis. Amorpha. A. frutescens-river swamps. Strawberry Tree. Euonimus americanus, do. Viburnus. Viburnum dentatum, do. Swamp Haw. V. nudum, do. Sambucus. S. canadensis-deep inland swamps. Laurel. Laurus millisafolium, do. and in galls. Andromeda. A. axillaris.
Titi. A. angustifolia.-This class furnishes most of the shrubs
found in our swamps; the titi, in particular, occupies the same situation south of Georgia that the alder does in the northern states. It grows from six to twelve feet high; the stoles are slender and set so thickly together that their shade keeps the small streams cool for a great distance from their fountains.
In March, their racemes of white flowers are abundant and very ornamental, and their singular strings of three cornered seeds
often hang on the bushes till winter.
VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA. 55
Billberry. Vaccinum corymbosum.
Spicewood. Laurus benzoin.
Bird Shot. Canna indica-river swamps.
Herbaceous Canna. C. salicornia-savannas. Spring Callitriche. C. callitriche-galls. Virginian Gratiola. G. virginica--ditches. Yellow do. G. aurea-pine barren swamps. Hairy do. G. pilosa-near swamps. Round Fruit. G. sphmrocarpa-lake shores, and savannas.
G. quadridentala, do. Square-stemmed. G. tetragona, do. Lindernia. L. dilatata, do.
L. attenuata, do. Round Micranthemurh. M. orbiculatum, do. Big-leaved do. M. emarginatum,do. Floating Utriculare. U. inflata, do. in still water, fresh. Purple do. U. saccata, do. Yellow do. U. longirostrus, do. Small do. U. biflora, do. Bristle-stalked. U. setacca-pine barren swamps and savannas.
Narrow-leaved Lycopus. L. europius, do. Sallop-leaved do. L. sinuatus, do. Blue Tripterella. T. ccerulea, do. Variegated Iris, I. versicolor, do. the root is a remedy for dropsy.
Three-petaled. I. tripetala, do. rare. Blue. I. hexagona-rich river swamps. Yellow Tricoma. Lachranthes tinctoria-pine barren swamps
Creeping Comelina. C. communis, do. Blue do. C. longifolia, do. Moss-leaved Syena. S. fluviatilis-bay galls. Proserpina. Proserpinaca palustris, do.
P. pectinata do. and savannas.
56 VIEW OFr WEST FLORIDA.
Tetragon. Diorea tetragona-galls. Three-leaved Galium. G. trifidum, do. Centaurella. C. verna, do.
C. paniculata, do. and swamps. Sanguisorba. S. canadensis, do.
Potamogiton. P. pinnatum-stagnant fresh water.
P. verticillatum, do. Villarsia. V. trachysperma, do. Lysimachia. L. ciliata-savannas. Phlox. P. divaricata-low river swamps. Cardinal flower. Lobelia cardinalis, do. beautiful scarlet.
L. amamena, do. blue. Pinckneya. P. pubens-galls and savannas. Solanum. S. nigrum-savannas.
S. mamosum-low swamps.
Swamp Milkweed. Aselepias parviflora, do. Hydrolea. H. quadravalvis-galls.
H. corymbosa, do. Erynguim. E. foetidum, do.
E. gracile, do.
Hydrocotyle. H. interrupta-stagnant water.
H. umbellata-swamps. Wild Annise. Ammi copillaceum-galls.
A. costatum-swamps. Cicuta. C. maculata, do. Sundew Drasera. D rotundifolia-galls.
D. longifolia, do.
Spanish Moss. Tilandsia usneoides-swamps.
T. recurvata, do. Wampee. Pontederia cordata-galls and savannas. Pancratium. P. mexicanum-savannas. Smooth Palmetto. Yucca gloriosa-galls near the sea shore. Calamus. Acorus calamus-muddy galls. Cats Tail. Typha latifolia, do. Soft Rush. Juncus effusus-galls and savannas.
J. setaceus, do.
J. triflorus-river swamp edges.
VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA. 57
J. polyuphalos-savannas. Rumex. N. britannicus-shady swamps. Nectris. N. aquatica, do. Swamp Lilly. Saururus cernuus-galls. Rhexca. R. virginica, do.
Blue Scull-cap. Scutelaria laterifolia-swamps and galls. Polygonum. P. hirsutum, do.
P. persecaria, do. and ponds.
Penthorum. P. sedoides, do. White Pond Lilly. Nymphea odorata-in swamps, ponds, and
Sarracena. S. purpurea-swamps, galls, and savannas.
S. rubra, do.
S. variolis. -The leaf of this singular plant is a tube
which widens towards the top in the three latter species; in the two former, they are contracted near the top. The inside of the tube is covered with viscid hairs, which prevent insects from retreating, when once they have entered for shelter or food. They are always partly filled with insects. The leaf is beautiful, both as to shape and colour, and the flower is of a deep gaudy redish brown, and remarkable for having two
Hypericum. H. parvaflorum.
Elodea. E. virginica. Ranunculus. R. hederaceus.
Caltha. C. ficoloides-swamps.
58 view or WEST FLORIDA.
Cyamus. C. luteus, or Yellow Water Chesnut, do. Polygala. P. lutea-ponds and galls.
P. corymbosa, do. Winged Dolichos. D. luteolus, do. Aromatic Liatris. L. odoratus-galls and savannas. Purple Veronica. V. oligophylla-edge of swamps. Eupatorium. E. perfoliatum, do. A decoction of this
plant operates as a gentle emetic. Indians use it as a sudorific
Conyza. C. marylandica. Black Root. Pterocaulon pychnastachyum.-The famous Indian
remedy for pulmonary disorders.
Butter Weed. Senecio lobatus-swamps. Slender Aster. A. carolinianus, do.
A. dracunculoides, do.
A. junceus, do.
A. paniculatus, do. Solidago. S. virgata, do.
S. pulverulenta, do. Baltonia. B. asteroides, do. Heleneum. H. autumnale, do.
H. quadridentatum, do.
Yellow Bidens. B. coreopsis-ditches and galls. Chana. C. capitata, do. Duckmeat. Lemma minor-stagnant waters. Bristly Typha. T. latafolia, do. Sparganium. S. americanum, do. Carex. C. stipata-swamps.
C. scirpoides, do.
C. scoparia, do.
C. crineta. do.
C. trichocarpa, do.
C. furcata, do.
Orchis. O. ciliaris, do. and galls.
0. cristata, do. Calopogon. C. pulchellus, do. Sagittaria. S. sagittifolia, do.
VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA. 59
S. graminea-swamps and galls. Arum. A. dracontium, do.
A. triphyllum, do.
A. alba, do.
Cissus. C. ampelopsis--swamps. Echites. E. diformis, do. Dolychos. D. luteolus, do. near salt water. Apios. A. tuberosa, do. This vine has numerous tubers
of the size of hickory nuts. The Seminoles raised great quantities for food.
Glycine. G. reflexa, do. Grape. Vitis labrusca-in all swamps. Muscadine. V. rotuwdifolia-edges. Smilax. S. pastata, do. every where. Smooth Briar. S. bona nox.
S. pseudo china.
S. caduca.-These briars cover wet lands of
Pistache. Amphicarpe monoica.-This is a singular plant, stemn
decumbent, climbing angular, red at the base, light green above, branching, twenty inches to two feet long. Leaves ternate, lanceolate, ovate. Common petiole three to five inches long.
Stipules ovate, subulate, hairy; flowers in pendulous racemes; calyx tubular, four toothed. Corolla white, tinged with violet.
Legume wrinkled,*one to three seeded, most frequently two.
The petaled flowers are barren, but stems, furnished with a calyx and the part of a style, shoot from the stalk into the ground, and there produce pods. They were greatly cultivated by the Seminoles, and are now much used by the Americans of West Florida. This vine produces a large crop on sandy land. They are baked or roasted in the shell, and are much used by the confectioners. The pistache is a native of Spain, from which it was, but a few years since, transferred to the
60 VIEW OP WEST FLORIDA.
gardens of France and Italy. With us it is perfectly natural
Rhynchospora. R. cymosa-galls and savannas.
R. distans, do.
R. sparsa, do. Cyperus. C. articulatus, do.
C. vegetus, do. Spanish Grass. C. virens, do. Yellow Cyperus. C. flavescens, do.
C. tenuiflorus, do.
C. odoratus-edge of rivers.
C. strigosus-galls and savannas.
C. speciosus, do.
C. enslenii, do. Scirpus. S. filiformis, do.
S. validus-in lakes and ponds.
S. mininus-galls and savannas. Fringe leaved. S. ciliatifolius-savannas. Dichromena. D. ciliata-margin of ponds and swamps.
Trichophorum. T. cyperinum-savannas. Cane. Arundenaria macrosperma.
A. tecta-edge of swamps and marshes. Spring Trichodeum. T. laxiflorum-swamps. Leersia. L. oryzoides, do. inland. Phalaris. P. americana, do. fresh and brackish. Early Paspalpum. P. precox, do. Joint Grass. P. distichum, do. Large Spiked Panicum. P. italicum, do. Cockfoot. P. grus-galli, do. Water Panicum. P. geniculatum, do. Compressed. P. anceps, do. Sword. leaved. P. ensifolium-galls. Aira. A. palustris-swamps and savannas. Proserpinaca. P. palustris, do.
Arenarea. A. glabra, do.
VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA. 61
Liatris. L. tormentosa, do. Veronica. V. oligophylla, do. Awlwort. Sibularia aquatica-river swamps, and wet sea beach.
Are of two kinds, fresh and salt. The former are usually situate on the borders of some large body of water, in the interior of the country. The latter on the seacoast, or near the estuaries of rivers, There is a great diversity of marshes; much depends on the substratum, on which they are based. For instance, the most extensive marshes of West Florida are based on limestone, which renders them extremely fertile in aquatic vegetables: some of the fresh marshes, on the contrary, are merely quicksands, covered with a very thin soil, and are of course quite barren. Others have a clay foundation, and may be cultivated to advantage. Marshes produce no trees; a few shrubs sometimes skirt the edges of them. The herbs most common, are, Micranthemum. M. orbiculatum-fresh marsh. Tripteleria. T. coerulea, do. Creeping Comelina. C. communis, do. Convolvulus. C. sagittifolius-salt.
C. repens, do. near the mouth of rivers.
Marsh Rosemary. Statice limonium-salt marsh near the shores. Pancratium. P. mexicanum-fresh. Dracocephalum. D. variegatum, do. Cardamine. C. pennsylvanica-salt-near the sandy shore. Pistia. P. spathulata-brackish-mouths of rivers. Sagittaria. S. lancifolia, do. Arum. A. virginicum, do. and fresh. Iresine. I. celosioides-sa]t and fresh. Acnida. A. rusocarpa-fresh. Water Plantain. Alismia plantago-brackish.
Schomnus. S. effusus-fresh marsh. Rhynchospora. R. longirostris, do. Scirpus. S. simplex, do.
S. palustris, do.
Round-head. S. capitatus-salt marsh.
6 VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA.
S. mucronatus, do.
Large Marsh. S. lacustris, do. Salt Rush. S. spadiceus, do. Downy Flower. S. ferrugineus, do.
S. maratimus, do.
Eriophorum. E. virginicumn-fresh-in boggy clumps. White Rush. Spartina juncea-salt-forming also tufts.
S. polystachya-brackish. Salf Marsh Grass. S. glabra-salt. Ceresia. C. fluitans-fresh. Smooth Panicum. P. lavigatum-fresh. Soft do. P. molle, do. Sea-shore do. P. virgatum, do. Johnny Bartram. Lycium carolinianum-salt. Black Rush. Juncus acutus-brackish. Arenaria. A. canadensis, do. Aster. A. flexuosus, do.
A. subulatus, do.
Zizanea. Z. aquatica. -This is the most common grass at the
mouths of rivers where the marsh is often overflowed, grows six to ten feet high, is eaten freely by cattle and horses. Miliacea is not eaten by either.
The productions of agriculture in this country, at present, are not very numerous. Cotton engrosses the most attention. Three kinds are cultivated.-The sea island, Mexican, and green seed cotton. The sea island, or black seed, is only raised on the seacoast; hammock lands, where the sea-breezes are felt, are most congenial to its perfection; on them it often grows to the height of fifteen feet, throws off extensive branches, and bears a large beautiful yellow flower. The cocoons, or capsules, are longer than those of the other kinds. The seeds are black and smooth, the herl long, of a silky lustre; the colour a glossy yellowish white. It is sown in February and March, in drills, according to the quality of the soil, from five to seven feet apart; the stalks from seven to twelve inches.
VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA. 63
It is sometimes cultivated on the uplands. There the drills are usually from ten to twelve feet apart. The cocoons open from September to December, when they are usually killed by the frost; the cotton should be gathered as the pods open, as a rain is then of great injury to the coloitr and strength of the herl. The cotton is separated from the seed by a pair of small wooden rollers, less than an inch in diameter, and from twelve to fifteen inches long: these are turned by a crank with the hand or foot. One slave will clean from twenty to twenty-six pounds of cotton in a day. The expense of cleaning the sea island cotton, is greater than that of the other kinds, although the machinery is much less expensive. When well handled, it brings more than double the price of green seed cotton, and has a more certain market. Whether this plant is indigenous to America, or an exotic, is still uncertain. The green seed cotton is most commonly cultivated in the country: this is the true Gossypium, brought formerly from Siam. Its height rarely exceeds four feet; the flower is white, the capsule shorter and thicker than that of 'the sea island, or Mexican; the herl is shorter' and whiter than the former; it grows so firmly to the seed that it requires a gin with steel saws to separate it; the bark of the seed being torn by these, forms the little black motes so hard to separate from the cloth.
A red clay soil is most congenial to the growth of the green seed. This is the kind of cotton usually cultivated in France, Malta, Italy, and Egypt. It is said to have been introduced into Georgia by a Dr. Turnbull.
The Mexican cotton is an intermediate species, between the two former; it is a native of Mexico and Peru. It grows better in the country than on the seacoast; the seed is green, but the staple long, fine, and white. It produces well, and is yearly coming more in use.
As the sea island cotton is only cultivated within the range of the sea breezes, and as the quantity of good land on the seacoast is comparatively small, this article is never likely to be produced in sufficient quantities to glut the market. It will always be a safe crop to cultivate. It is much to be wished, that all our fine hammock lands were improved in its cultivation. They
64 VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA.
uniformly afford delightful residences for the farmer. They will, besides cotton, produce all the necessaries of life. Their situations on the seacoast are usually healthy; and. the abundance of fish in all the bays and creeks are a great convenience to a farmer. Fruits and vines are produced with great ease, and in great perfection. The only apparent'inconvenience is their detached situation, not, being usually large enough to support a neighbourhood; they must be retired residences, though they are certainly very pleasant ones.
Rice is the next article that merits the attention of the Florida farmer. This grain is raised with equal success in the marsh, the hammock, and the upland; and on the pine barrens when trod, or as the term is here, cowpenned. A general opinion has prevailed, that rice can be cultivated successfully only in situations where water can be raised upon it. Humboldt has stated, that the Mexicans neglected the culture, for want of this convenience. But constant experience teaches us, that, although it is easier to kill the weeds among rice by water, than by the hoe,. yet that if is no more essential to the growth of rice than of corn. Next to sta island cotton, this is the most profitable crop in Florida. Cattle, in winter, eat the straw with as good an appetite as they do hay; sixty bushels of rough rice is a usual crop, on cowpenned pine land, per acre; low rich lands often produce eighty bushels; seventy-five cents is the usual price per bushel in market, or from four to five dollars per hundred when cleaned from the husk. A barrel of cleaned rice contains as much nutriment as a barrel of flour. It preserves much better in a warm climate. On the rich valleys of the Mississippi and Ohio, it is doubtless more profitable to raise corn; but in this climate rice is a more certain crop, and much more profitable.
Corn should be raised by every planter for his own family, but not for market. It grows well on some of our uplands, and better on the alluvial grounds of our rivers, but they often overflow while the crop is still on the ground; it is, therefore, a business of much risk; and besides, our river bottoms are quite subject to bilious complaints in autumn. The hammock lands produce very good corn, when early planted; but if planted late, they are often overrun with worms, which destroy the ear. On our rich
VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA. 65
land, therefore, it will be more profitable to raise sugar and cotton, and purchase bacon and flour.
Sugar is becoming an object of attention. Several farmers have, forthe three last years, 1824,1825, and 1826, been increasing their fields of cane. In many parts of Jackson, Gadsden, and Leon counties, it grows to great perfection; the climate and soil are very appropriate, and there is no doubt that sugar, in a few years, will become an article of the first importance to our planters. An acre of sugar cane has, in one year, produced three thousand pounds of sugar. In Louisiana, one thousand pounds per acre is considered a good crop. A farmer near Tallahassee, has this year made three barrels of excellent sugar from an acre of cane, besides a barrel half full of thick syrup, with his usual family utensils alone: and he reserved cuttings for planting, to the value of one hundred and sixty dollars from that same acre.
The Otaheite cane has been principally cultivated in Florida. In Louisiana, the riband cane is likely to supersede all others. This species of cane was introduced, only six years ago, by Mr. Cairon, of Terre aux Bouf. He procured it from Georgia, where it had a short time before been introduced, from the Philippine islands. Mr. Cairon was not, at first, aware of the importance of the plant of which he had become possessed. Experience has shown, that it stifles the nut grass, (coco.) It ripens a month earlier than any other cane, and stands the cold better; when blown down, it does not become sour so soon. The rations never decay: it will succeed on much poorer land than any other cane. A middling crop will produce one thousand five hundred pounds to the acre.
The sweet potato, (convolvulus batata,) is probably as much used for food, in this country, as any other vegetable whatever; the pine barren is its natural soil. It is agreeable to almost every taste; there is no vegetable, the Irish potato excepted, which produces so much nutriment from the same quantity of ground. It is a very healthy food, as useful to animals as to man; and is, in this climate, the best substitute for bread, that exists.
The Irish potato, (solanum tuberosum,) is considerably cultivated here; and when planted early, and covered with sea-weed Qr some compost, to shield its roots from the rays of the sun.
66 VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA.
it usually succeeds well: the red clay uplands suit this vegetable better than any of our soils. The Irish potato, raised here, does not last through the season, so well as those brought from the north.
The sweet tobacco of Cuba, (nicotiana,) has been cultivated here, in small quantities, with perfect success. The cultivation of this plant should take place of the green seed cotton; it is a more certain crop, and always finds a more certain market. Florida is the native country of this plant. It was first introduced into Europe, from this place, in 1560. One species of it, (nicotiana rustica,) still grows wild in our hammocks. While the British had possession of Florida, tobacco was a considerable article of exportation.
Indigo, (indigofera, sp.) however, was most extensively cultivated by the English, as an article of exportation. Caracas, alone, was able to rival Florida, in this article; forty thousand pounds sterling, in one year, has been paid in London for Florida indigo; yet at this time not a pound is raised in the territory, for sale; a few planters cultivate it for the use of their families: yet it is raised with less trouble than any other crop, and any female slave can manufacture it. This plant, also, is a native of Florida: its natural soil is the pine barrens.
The small grains have been little attended to. Rye has been cultivated with success on the uplands. Wheat cannot be expected to grow near the seacoast. It is believed that barley might be raised advantageously.
The palmachriste, (ricinus,) and the benne plant, (sessamum,) produce profitable crops on any of our lands.
The lady pea (dolichos) is extensively cultivated for table use; it is a pleasant food, both green and dry, is also healthy, and contains much nutriment; it is usually planted in corn-fields after the hoeing is finished, and in this way it is raised with very little trouble. The cow pea is raised in the same manner, and is sometimes used for food; but more generally for provender, for horses and cattle.
Pumpkins, water-melons, musk-melons, and cucumbers, are raised with great ease, and in great perfection; squashes are more difficult to cultivate; cabbage and carrots do well; but beets,
VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA. 67
parsnips, and onions, are raised with difficulty. Lettuce and radishes come to great perfection. But the egg plant, (solanum,) and tomata are used more generally, than most other garden vegetables, during the summer season.
Grasses have been very little cultivated; the whole country is covered with wild grasses, of almost every description; many of them might be cultivated with great advantage. The guinea grass has been raised successfully by judge Robinson, of Gadsden county. It has succeeded, to admiration, on the sandy peninsula, occupied by judge Brackeiridge, opposite to Pensacola. The Bermuda grass forms a very soft carpet for our yards; but the nut grass is an intolerable curse to our gardens. Red and white clover grow wild in many places, and there can be no doubt of their succeeding, as well as lucerne, on a large scale of cultivation.
Of fruits, the fig is produced with less care than any other. It grows spontaneously; by selecting the best kinds, and keepingthem pruned, any quantity might be raised with a trifling expense. There are several varieties, of which the black are largest; but the small yellow or cceleste fig, is the sweetest. They usually produce two, sometimes three crops in one year; they bear plentifully the third year after planting.
There are several varieties of the Chicasa plum, all nearly in a state of nature. Where they have been transplanted from the woods to the garden, they have been greatly improved.
The sweet orange has been successfully cultivated, in and near Pensacola; but the cold season of 1822, killed all the trees; they are again beginning to bear fruit. This is a tender tree, and requires considerable care in the cultivation, especially in sheltering it from violent storms and extreme frosts. They usually bear in six or seven years from the time of planting the seeds. The young trees should be transplanted from the nursery the second or third year; they should be set in good land, about twenty-three feet apart, in a quincunx form, and kept clear from weeds; when arrived at maturity, they will, on an average, produce one thousand oranges per year: some trees in St. Augustine, have been known to produce six thousand in one year.
VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA.
In a good soil they have been known to live a hundred and fifty years. It is well to plant one or two rows of sour orange, on the side of the grove next the sea, to break the force of the storms.
The sour orange is much more hardy; the acid juice of the fruit and the peel are the only parts used.
The bitter sweet is a native kind of orange, that grows wild in many parts of the peninsula, especially; near the St. Johns river.
Of late years it is considerably cultivated; many estimate the mild acid of its fruit, before the sweet orange; the peel alone is bitter. This is the most hardy of the orange trees, and when cultivation shall have brought it to the perfection it is capable of attaining, it may become, in all respects, the most estimable fruit.
The pomegranate is a beautiful ornamental shrub, and the fruit is considered healthy; it arrives at perfection here; and almost every garden is ornamented with it. Mr. Darby recommends this shrub for hedges; it certainly would be very ornamental, and if interspersed with our mimosa eburnea and Spanish dagger, (yucca draconis,) the hedge would be also formidable.
The quince is also common in our gardens, but it does not possess the fine aroma of the northern fruit; want of attention in the cultivation may be one reason for the difference.
Apple trees grow here, but produce little fruit; they blossom abundantly; probably they are blasted by the sea breezes; when fruit is produced it is but indifferent. This fruit might perhaps succeed better on the clay uplands, at a distance from the coast.
Few pears have been raised; they are said to do well and produce very good fruit in the country. The persimmon is a native of our hammocks, and the pawpaw of the river bottoms. The wild cherry is a common timber tree on the hammocks and uplands; the fruit is very indifferent, but the wood is superior to the northern cherry in firmness and texture. The bilberry (vaccinum arboreum,) and the whortleberry (vaccinum stamineum,) are found in the sandy edges of the hammocks, and near small streams. -And the blueberry, (vaccinum resinosum,) in the pine lands. The blackberry, (rubus villosus,) is common in most grounds, and the dewberry (rubus fruticosus,) on the
VIEW QF WEST FLORIDA. 69
pine barrens, and on the sea-beach. Wild strawberries are confined to the prairies and savannas, but our gardens produce a superior quality.
The only mode of improving our hands has been the penning of cattle on them; this improves the_ sandy lands by rendering them more compact, as well as manuring them. Our gardens are sometimes manured imperfectly. Great improvements might be made, by mixing clay with the sand, and thereby rendering it more retentive of moisture. Buraing renders the clay still more fruitful. Sea-weed may be collected, in any quantities on our seacoast; this forms an excelled. anure for every kind of produce; especially so, for the, sea island cotton, agd Irish potatoes. Extensive banks of shells are also found every where near the coast; for clay soils nothing can be better. Peat beds are also frequent;, this, when trodden or fermented in piles of compost, forms an excellent manure.
As yet there are none in West Florida; if we except the domestic clothing, made by the planters for their own families. It is not probable, that manufactures will ever be greatly extended in this country; as the staple' articles of commerce will always employ the inhabitants more profitably: certainly that will be the case for many years to come. Some of the most important productions of this country, however, require to be manufactured on the spot where they are produced:-such .as sugar, indigo, myrtle wax, quercitron bark, ,sumach, benne, and palma christi. Bricks are now manufactured here; cargoes of them are weekly Shipped to Oileans. Fire bricks, in particular, are in great demand, and bring a very good price.
Lime has often been shipped abroad: our shell banks are very extensive, and will notP be exhausted for many years. In proportion as sugar cane shall be cultivated, taffia may be manufactured. Cigars haveoften bepn made from the tobacco raised here, inno particular inferior to Havana cigars. This business ought to be increased.
Our shores are peculiarly well calculated for the making of salt. It is said that a company is forming to establish salt works
0 VIEW OP WEST FLORIDA.
at St. Andrew's bay. Glass might be made here to great advantage; all the materials are furnished in the neighbourhood, in perfection and abundance. Peach brandy will, ere long, be made in the country;'as peach orch~uis are rapidly increasing. Few pursuits offer better prospects of success than this.
Is yet in infancy; a moderate c6asting, trade is all that West Florida can yet boast. Foreign goods are principally imported from New-York: provisions ahd groceries from New-Orleans. :Otir exports consist ofAcotton, cedar logs, boards, staves, deer skins and horns beeswa, tallow, hides, peltry, and bricks.
When Ponce de Leon first visited Florida, in 1500, the natives were. a'hardy warlike race. They were' very independent; but like all ignorant people, they were also vpry superstitious. The following portrait of the manners and customs of that period, is translated from The Beauties of American History, published at Paris in 1806.
They worshipped a demon called Toy, to whom they offered hbman-sacrifices. The priests were called Jauvas, who disguised themselves in a variety of extravagant forms, to ,impose on the credpulous, and to extort rewards for alleviating their fears.
In the morning, every Indian presented himself at the entrance of his cabin, and extending his hands towards the sun, as his first tay beamed from the eastern horizon, he addressed a rude 'but fervent hymn of admiration to its glory. -At noon they performed a similar act in token of their gratitude. And to the-setting sun they addressed their thanks for all the bounties, which they conceived, he had bestowed uponr them during the day: and they were particularly careful that his last ray should strike their heads.
They had four quarterly feasts or holy day,., which they celebrated, by assembling together on the highest ground in the' vicinity of their villages, where altars were raised for the purpose, on which they sacrificed aromatic plants and honey, prostrating themselves at the sanie time in adoration. The chief Jauva also spread on a -smooth stone, corn, an offering to the birds, in
VIEW 0 WEST PLORIDA. 71
acknowledgment for their melody. These rites being performed, they devoted themselves to dancing and joy. At exact noon the sacrifices were renewed, and cages were opened, and multitudes of birds, which had been procured for the occasion, were turned loose to the air, whose joyful notes celebrated their free-.. don: to their flight great attention was paid by the Jauvas, who thence prognosticateid future ei efits It was in -asesof great calamity only, that human sacrifices were offered to their demon. In some districts+ the first-born- male infant was required to be 0tcrificed to the sun; in 'other distrits, handsome girl, of a good
o th "o~ ,-a .. ..
family, was sacrificed to the moon and in both cases the mother was requiredto assist at the immolation of her oflfspring.
Heaven, or the higher world, they called Hamanpacha. Hell, or the lower world, Ucupacha; and Cupai the evil spiritL
That all the branches of quackery might be united in the same persons, the Jauvas carried by their sides, when not engaged in spiritukl affairs, a bag of various: simples to cure disorders; and their experience, says our author, had probably rendered them. as efficacious as the nostrums of our civilized'practitioners. These priestly physicians, dressed. in mantles made of skins, cut in bands and fastened by a belt round the waist, the legs and arms naked, the head'covered with a cap of the same skin terminating in a point, ahd ornamented at bottom with a garland of feathers, carried a kind of drum to announce their approach" The Jauvas were consulted before they went to war, and a kind of consecration was performed by sprinkling water in the air over the assembly. Valiant warriors were honored by various funeral rites, and their widowWere allowed the honour of depositing their hair on the tomb of their husbands. But they werekot permitted to marry again until their hair hid grqwn soas to cover their shoulders.
The adulterous woman was stripped of her clothing anid hair, and thus exposed to the insults of her own sex, and thensent to her parents, who hid her in some secret recess. They usually remained naked until twelve-or fifteen years of age; they then used leggins and mantles of fur.
Not many of the modern Indians of Florida, are, probably, eventhe descendants of those who inhabited the coast in the days
72 VIEW OF WEST FLORIDA.
of Ponce de Leon; yet their habits and manners are not extremely dissimilar. During a term of two hundred years there is a great hiatus in the Indian history, see judge Brackenridge's letter, Appendix, No. 1. Tradition says, that about one hundred years ago the Yamases inhabited this country; but that white men also h ad towns and cultivated fields among them; that they lived in peace and intermarried with each other. But the Muscogulgee tribes commenced a war on them, which continued a long time; during which the forts were erected, whose ruins are still seen: that the Muscogulgees finally conquered; that the white men were at last all driven to Fort St. Lewis, and from that to the Ocklocknrey fort, from which they embarked on the Big water, and left the country. That the remainder of the Yamases were taken prisoners, and made slaves to the conquerors. That the Muscogulgees then abandoned the country, because they had destroyed the means of subsistence. Many years of desolation succeeded; till at length vagrants from different tribes strayed into the unoccupied regions, and united with the remnant of the Seminole nation. These traditions are gathered from the old men of the Fowl towns, and however uncertain, are the only authorities within our reach. After the battles of Emuckfaw, and the Horseshoe, &c. many of the ftigitive Creeks fled into Florida, and joined the Seminoles.
The Indian villages west of the Suwanney river, and Mickasuky lake, were called-the Fowl towns, when the territory was transferred to the United States. They were six in number, viz: Cahallihatchee, OldI'allahassee, Taphulgee, A.llikhadje, Etatulga, and MVickasuky, besides several *nbr settlements.
By the treaty made at Camp Moultre, in 1824, the Indians of Florida relinquished their lands, in the centre of the territory, for a district of country on the peninsula; to which they were removed in 1825: and a military post was established at Tampa bay, for the purpose of supplying them with necessaries, and keeping them in order. Their improvementswere immediately occupied by emigrants from different parts of the United States, and the rest of the country is now rapidly settling. A few sections of good land were reserved to their chiefs. The land, to which they are legally banished, consists of dry sand ridges