America's role in the COld War
 Investigating and comparing models...
 U.S. overseas expansion, 1850s-World...
 U.S. intervention in Latin America...
 The story of the 1915 United States...
 Jefferson and the Haitian...
 U.S. invasion and occupation of...
 The impact of the Haitian Revolution...
 The first U.S. occupation of Haiti,...
 The impact of the Haitian Revolution...
 American influences in Latin America...
 Migration and culture: Haiti and...
 The Haitian Revolution’s impact...
 The global impact of Haiti’s Revolution...
 Politics of migration
 Haiti and the American Revolut...
 America’s westward expansion: Impact...
 The struggle for Hispaniola: Haitian...
 How did the Haitian Revolution...
 Immigration and its impact

Title: Teaching World History : US - Haiti Relations ( 2009 )
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00100312/00001
 Material Information
Title: Teaching World History : US - Haiti Relations ( 2009 )
Physical Description: Archival
Language: English
Creator: Latin American and Caribbean Center, Florida International University
Publisher: Latin American and Caribbean Center, Florida International University
Place of Publication: Miami, FL
Publication Date: 2009
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Bibliographic ID: UF00100312
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Table of Contents
    America's role in the COld War
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    Investigating and comparing models of immigration experiences: The making of America through assimilation and diversity
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    U.S. overseas expansion, 1850s-World War II
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    U.S. intervention in Latin America and the Caribbean
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    The story of the 1915 United States military occupation of Haiti (1915-1934)
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    Jefferson and the Haitian Revolution
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    U.S. invasion and occupation of Haiti
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    The impact of the Haitian Revolution on American slavery
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    The first U.S. occupation of Haiti, 1915-1934
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    The impact of the Haitian Revolution on the United States
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    American influences in Latin America and the Caribbean, 1853-1934
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    Migration and culture: Haiti and the United Sates
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    The Haitian Revolution’s impact on 19th century African Americans
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    The global impact of Haiti’s Revolution lesson plan: introduction to Haiti’s Revolution
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    Politics of migration
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    Haiti and the American Revolution
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    America’s westward expansion: Impact of immigrants on the frontier
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    The struggle for Hispaniola: Haitian Dominican relations and the influence of imperialism
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    How did the Haitian Revolution affect America?
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    Immigration and its impact
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Full Text

Latin American and Caribbean Center

"Teaching World History: US-Haiti Relations"

I. America's Role in the Cold War by Nancy K. Abay

II. Investigating and Comparing Models of Immigration Experiences: The Making of America Through

Assimilation and Diversity Unit Lesson Plan by Luona M. Body

III. U.S. Overseas Expansion, 1850s-World War II by John Burkowski

IV. U.S. Intervention in Latin America and the Caribbean by Rey Casais

V. The Story of the 1915 United States Military Occupation of Haiti (1915-1934) by Crystel R. Dunn

VI. Jefferson and the Haitian Revolution by Raul A. Garcia

VII. U.S. Invasion and Occupation of Haiti by Vijay Jainanan

VIII. The Impact of the Haitian Revolution on American Slavery by Michael Jon Littman

IX. The First U.S. Occupation of Haiti, 1915-1934 by Brian Orfall

X. The Impact of the Haitian Revolution on the United States by Daniel Reyes

XI. American Influences in Latin America and the Caribbean, 1853-1934 by Fabricio Rivas

XII. Migration and Culture: Haiti and the United States by Karen Roberts

XIII. The Haitian Revolution's Impact on 19th Century African Americans by Richard Rodriguez

XIV. The Global Impact of Haiti's Revolution Lesson Plan: Introduction to Haiti's Revolution by Carmen


XV. Politics of Migration by Jorge Server

XVI. Haiti and the American Revolution by Ana M. Soto

XVII. America's Westward Expansion: Impact of Immigrants on the Frontier by Veronique I. Toussaint

XVIII. The Struggle for Hispaniola: Haitian Dominican Relations and the Influence of Imperialism by Xavier


XIX. How did the Haitian Revolution Affect America? by Madelin Vinat

XX. Immigration and Its Impact by Angela M. West

Disclaimer: Due to copyright law, some images referenced in lesson plans have been removed. Based on
their descriptions, educators may identify and re-insert the images for individual classroom use.

America's Role in the Cold War


Nancy K. Abay

Florida International University Teaching American History

Latin American and Caribbean Studies Teacher Summer Institute


Dr. Verna Readings in American History
HIS 5905- Haiti-U.S. Relations
U01C: Lesson Outline
SUM 2009

LESSON Nancy Abay


This lesson is to force students of American History to globalize
America's role during the Cold War and its effect not only on the U.S.
and Europe but other regions of the world. The United States policies of
containment, support of or disinterest in repressive leadership, and
diplomatic initiatives had lasting effects in developing countries of Latin
America and the Caribbean basin that carry into the 21st century. Many
nations of this region, for example Haiti, have a rich history and cultural
heritage but are still impoverished. This lesson will show the theme of
containment at any cost (support of repressive regimes) and focus on
analyzing US. Foreign policy towards specific countries, not only Cuba,
but other countries that may have served Americans purposes. This
lesson is to help students understand the history of these nations, the
United States and Soviet Unions Cold War affect, and current issues
facing this region. These resources may be utilized to develop other
lessons on variety of topics not limited to a United States History

In South Florida we have a majority of students from the Americas and
the Caribbean Nations and sometimes not enough time is available to
focus on extra lessons pertinent to their heritage. This lesson is to not
only fulfill multiple social studies standards at the national, state, and
local levels, but also Florida's multiple months of focuses such as Haitian
Heritage Month or Hispanic Heritage Month. The websites and a
majority of articles mentioned below should be easily accessible for
teachers and students who may not have access to a university library.
LESSON The Cold War Beyond America and Europe: Case studies of U.S.
PLAN Relations in Latin America and the Caribbean. Cuba, Haiti, Dominican
TITLE Republic, Guyana

SUBJECT/GR U.S. History but can be adapted for World History/International
ADE LEVEL Relations/European History Grades: 9-12

DESCRIPTIO The Cold War not only affected Europe, Africa and Asia but spread
N/ABSTRACT across continents. This lesson will investigate the role of the U.S. and the
OF LESSON Soviet Union in Latin America and the Caribbean.

OBJECTIVE(S 1. Summarize the reasons for United States' involvement in the Caribbean
) and Latin America and its impact on selected nations and people.
2. Analyze the impact of the United States' policy of "containment" of
communism during the 1950's and 1960's on the nation and the world.

TEACHER Maps of the Caribbean, North, Central and South America:
MATERIALS/ http://www.eduplace.com/ss/maps/n_america.html
TECHNOLOG overhead projector
NS American History Textbook with chapter on Cold War
Copies of articles and documents mentioned below to use in the
classroom and for home learning activities.
STUDENT Blank Maps of the Caribbean, North, Central and South America
TECHNOLOGY American History Textbook

DURATION One week.

ESSENTIAL What role did the Caribbean nations play in U.S. foreign policy during the
QUESTION Cold War and after (1945-2000)?

KEY Cold War, containment, communism, domino theory, Truman Doctrine,
VOCABULARY Alliance for Progress, Organization of American States

LESSON Background Knowledge
LEAD Introduction to the beginnings of the Cold War: U.S. and Soviet Union.

STEPS TO 1. Mapping Activity: Students will review their geography skills by
DELIVER completing blank maps of the region.
LESSON 2. Teacher will review the beginnings of the cold war using news clips
and video from www.icue.com titled "Cold War Beginnings" and lecture

3. Watch clips or full biography from "Truman," "The Kennedys," and
"LBJ" from American Experience:

4. Guided Readings: Postwar America: 1945 1960:
Students will create a graphic organizer (chart or diagram organizing their
notes) with a partner based on their readings in class textbook, and


5. Teacher and students will analyze documents from:
Cold War International History Project:
http ://www. state. gov/www/about_state/history/frusX/index.html
http://www.wilsoncenter.org/index.cfm?topic id=1409&fuseaction=va2.b
U.S. Department of State:
Foreign Relations of the United States, 1964-1968
Volume XXXII Dominican Republic; Cuba; Haiti; Guyana
Use APPARTS Worksheet to analyze documents. May be divided among
the class individually or by groups.

6. Complete essay topic under Assessment
GUIDED Create a Graphic organizer of key countries and their relationship to the

INDEPENDENT Read journal article titled The Formulation of U.S. Foreign Policy in the
PRACTICE Caribbean by Joseph S. Tulchin.
Complete a Reading Worksheet for Journal Articles
Research key events of the Cold War and create a timeline but the events
must contain events pertaining to Latin America and the Caribbean.
DIFFERENTIAT 1. Create Power point or movie player projects on key events.
EINDSTRUCTION 2. Read books or articles from teacher that provides more information on
Cold War policies or events.
3. Watch films that deal with the Cold War or the history of the countries
Haiti, Cuba, Dominican Republic, and Guyana.
LESSON Students will research the post-cold war relationships of the U.S. with
CLOSURE Haiti, Cuba, Dominican Republic, and Guyana and other nations.

ASSESSMENT Essay Prompt: How successful were the containment policies of the U.S.
In Latina America and the Caribbean?

FLORIDA Grade 11 American History
SUNSHINE VI. Global Perspective
STANDARDS/ A. After studying United States' foreign policy, past and present, the
CBC'S/NCSS students will:
STANDARDS a. Explain the rationale for and the effects of selected foreign
policy decisions.
b. Compare/contrast foreign policy decisions made during

different time periods.
c. Assess, through individual, small group, or entire class
discussion/or written assignment, the effectiveness of United States'
foreign policy during a specific time period.
d. Debate a current foreign policy issue and/or decision from
different perspectives. e. Propose, through individual, small
group, or entire class discussion, a solution to a current foreign policy
problem. (SS.A. 1.4.1) (SS.A. 1.4.2) (SS.A. 1.4.4)
1. Describe national and international causes and effects of
military conflicts between 1860 and present; e.g., Civil War, Spanish
American War, World War I, World War II, Korean Conflict, Vietnam
War, Persian Gulf War. (SS.A. 1.4.1) (SS.A. 1.4.2) (SS.A. 1.4.3)
(SS.A.1.4.4) (SS.A.2.4.6) (SS.A.3.4.7) (SS.A.3.4.9) (SS.A.3.4.10)
(SS.A.4.4.6) (SS.A.5.4.3) (SS.A.5.4.5) (SS.B.2.4.1) (SS.B.2.4.2)
(SS.B.2.4.3) (SS.B.2.4.4)
2. Summarize the reasons for United States' involvement in the
Caribbean and Latin America and its impact on selected nations and
people. (SS.A.1.4.1) (SS.A.1.4.2) (SS.A.1.4.3) (SS.A.1.4.4) (SS.A.3.4.9)
(SS.A.3.4.10) (SS.B.2.4.1) (SS.B.2.4.2) (SS.B.2.4.3) (SS.B.2.4.4)
7. Analyze the impact of the United States' policy of
"containment" of communism during the 1950's and 1960's on the nation
and the world. (SS.A. 1.4.1) (SS.A. 1.4.2) (SS.A. 1.4.3) (SS.A. 1.4.4)
(SS.A.3.4.10) (SS.A.5.4.5) (SS.A.5.4.6) (SS.B.2.4.1) (SS.B.2.4.2)
8. Analyze the relations between the United States and other
nations since World War II. (SS.A. 1.4.1) (SS.A. 1.4.2) (SS.A. 1.4.3)
(SS.A.1.4.4) (SS.A.5.4.5) (SS.A5.4.6) (SS.B.2.4.1) (SS.B.2.4.2)
(SS.B.2.4.3) (SS.D.2.4.6)
9. Discuss selected foreign policy issues and actions that have
shaped American thought. (SS.A. 1.4.1) (SS.A. 1.4.2) (SS.A. 1.4.3)
(SS.A.1.4.4) (SS.A.2.4.6) (SS.A.3.4.10) (SS.A.5.4.5) (SS.A5.4.6)
(SS.B.2.4.1) (SS.B.2.4.2) (SS.B.2.4.3) (SS.D.2.4.6)

WEBSITES Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars
Cold War International History Project:
This is a wonderful sight for diplomatic relations primary documents
during the Cold War. This website has papers from experts both
nationally and internationally for background information or pursuit of
knowledge on diplomatic relations between the Soviet Union and the U.S.
plus many more countries.


The National Security Archive
The George Washington University:
This website can be used for document searches on Cold War materials
and can provide information on government activities for student

Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Secretariat
This website provides current information on the Caribbean economic
alliance of nations named CARICOM. It provides information on their
free-trade agreements, economic initiatives, member countries, statistics,
and issues being faced plus much more.






Modern History Sourcebook:
This site is good for both teachers and students for further background
information and primary and secondary sources. The following link is
JFK's speech on the Alliance for Progress at a white house reception for
Latin American diplomats:
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1961 kennedy-afp 1. html

The Avalon Project:
This is a wonderful website for documents on law, history and diplomacy.
The following web address titled, "The Inter-American System:
Agreements, Conventions and Other Documents" has useful documents
on the Alliance for Progress and more. The following documents may be
useful for this lesson plus many more: "Resolutions Adopted at the
Eighth Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of Foreign Affairs, Punta del
Este, Uruguay, January 22 31, 1962," and "The Charter of Punta del
Este, Establishing an Alliance for Progress Within the Framework of
Operation Pan America; August 17, 1961"
htto://avalon.law.vale.edu/subiect menus/interame.aso


* A New Latin American and Caribbean Nationalism
* Author(s): Isaac Cohen
* Source: Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol.
526, Free Trade in the Western Hemisphere (Mar., 1993), pp. 36-46
* Published by: Sage Publications, Inc. in association with the American Academy
of Political and Social Science
* Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1047465

* The U. S. and the Caribbean: The Power of the Whirlpool
* Author(s): Robert A. Pastor
* Source: Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol.
533, Trends in U. S.-Caribbean Relations (May, 1994), pp. 19-32
* Published by: Sage Publications, Inc. in association with the American Academy
of Political and Social Science
* Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1048572

* The Formulation of U. S. Foreign Policy in the Caribbean
* Author(s): Joseph S. Tulchin
* Source: Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol.
533, Trends in U. S.-Caribbean Relations (May, 1994), pp. 177-187
* Published by: Sage Publications, Inc. in association with the American Academy
of Political and Social Science
* Stable URL: http://www.istor.org/stable/1048583

* Implementing the La Pietra Report: Internationalizing Three Topics in the
United States History Survey Course
* Author(s): Thomas J. Osborne
* Source: The History Teacher, Vol. 36, No. 2, Special Focus Issue: The Teaching
American History Program (Feb., 2003), pp. 163-175
* Published by: Society for History Education
* Stable URL: http://www.istor.org/stable/1555736

This article is a must read for teachers of American History. As globalization pushes
forward, American students have to look beyond their borders to understand the world at

Maingot, Anthony P. Trends in U.S.-Caribbean Relations. Annals of the American
Academy of Political and Social Science, vol. 533. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Periodicals
Press, 1994.

Nagel, Stuart S. Handbook of Global International Policy. Public administration and
public policy, 80. New York: Marcel Dekker, 2000.


Borstelmann, Thomas. The Cold War and the Color Line: American Race Relations in
the GlobalArena. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001.

Pastor, Robert A., and Robert A. Pastor. Exiting the Whirlpool: U.S. Foreign Policy
Toward Latin America and the Caribbean. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2001.

Pastor, Robert A. Whirlpool: U.S. Foreign Policy Toward Latin America and the
Caribbean. Princeton studies in international history and politics. Princeton N.J.:
Princeton University Press, 1992.

Reading Worksheet for Journal Articles

The purpose of this worksheet is to help you summarize, understand, and evaluate what
are the important points in the research articles) you are reading.

Part I: Reference Information
Last name, first initial, middle initial. (year). "Title of journal article." Name of
Journal, Volume, page-page.

Part II: Summary of article:
(complete these questions while you are reading the article)

1. The main purpose of this article is
(Here you are trying to state, as accurately as possible, the author's purpose for
writing the article. What was the author trying to accomplish?)

2. The key question that the author is addressing is
(Your goal is to figure out the question that was in the mind of the author when s/he
wrote the article. In other words, what key question or thesis is addressed?)

3. The most important information in this article is
(You want to identify the key information the author used, or presupposed, in the
article to support his/her main arguments. Here you are looking for facts,
experiences, and /or data that author is using to support her/his conclusions.)

4. The main inference/conclusions in this article are
(You want to identify the most important conclusions that the author comes to and
presents in the article.)

5. The main assumptions(s) underlying the author's thinking is (are)
(Ask yourself: What is the author taking for granted [that might be questioned]? The
assumptions are generalizations that the author does not think s/he has to defend in
the context of writing the article, and they are usually unstated. This is where the
author's thinking logically begins.)

6. The unanswered questions) is/are
(You want to identify any weaknesses, limitation, unanswered questions the author

Stop here for the literature review

Part III: Your integration, evaluation, and comments about the articles:
(complete these questions after reading the article)
1. Assess the author's conclusions(s). Do you think the author's conclusions are
valid and reasonable (provide an explanation). Discuss how the conclusion
relates to the procedures used to test the hypothesis.
2. In what ways were you disappointed with this research? What do you see as the
weakness and or limitations of this research?
3. What questions still remain? Are these issues that the article raises that are does
not address or resolve? How might this research be extended? What further
research needs to be done?
4. Describe any interesting discrepancies from or agreements with other research
articles you have read. Compare this research with other research in the area.
5. What use does this study have for you?


Who created the source? What do you know about the author? What is the
author's point of view?


Where and when was the source produced? How might this affect the
meaning of the source?


Beyond information about the author and the context of its creation, what do
you know that would help you further understanding the primary source?
For example, do you recognize any symbols and recall what they


For whom was the source created and how might this affect the reliability of
the source?


Why this source was produced and how might this affect the reliability of
the source?


What point is the source trying to convey?


Why is the source important? Ask yourself, "So what?" in relation to the
question asked.



Place and Time

Prior Knowledge



(The) Main Idea



Investigating and Comparing Models of Immigration Experiences:

The Making of America Through Assimilation and Diversity

Unit Lesson Plan


Luona M. Body

Florida International University Teaching American History

Latin American and Caribbean Studies Teacher Summer Institute


Investigating and Comparing Models of Immigration Experiences: The Making of
America Through Assimilation and Diversity
Unit Lesson Plan

Subject: American History

Grade level: Grade 10

State Standards: SSA. 5.4- Students understand U.S. History from 1880 to the present.
SSA. 5.4.1-Students understand the causes of the Industrial Revolution, and its economic,
political and social effects on American society. SSA.5.4.2-Students understand the
social and cultural impact of immigrant groups and individuals on American society after
1880 (up to, and including the present day.)

Materials: Textbook, The Americans McDougal-Littell, 2005, Chapter 15-pp458-478,
and Chapter 34, pp. 1088-1095. Schlessinger American History series video on
Immigration and Cultural Changes., Vol. 12. Reading excerpt from Georges Woke Up
Laughing, Glick Schiller and Fouron, Duke University Press, 2001. Online wevsite

Lesson Overview: Students will examine and discuss political, economic, and social
events world-wide that prompted the immigration of millions of people to the U.S.
between the 1880's and early 1900's. Students will analyze and compare these causes to
those factors that promote immigration in the present day.
Students will examine and define key terms such as assimilation, "melting pot," and
diversity, and will apply these terms to various examples of immigrant experiences,
ultimately utilizing analysis to gain insights and relate to the effects of immigration on
family members in the U.S. and in the home nations.

Duration: 4 block classes of 90 minutes each.

Key Vocabulary: Ellis island, Angel Island, Gentlemen's Agreement, Americanization
Movement, Assimilation, the "American Dream," the "melting pot, Tossed Salad
Theory, "Ethnic Stew," Coercive Assimilation, Multiculturalism, Long Distance
Nationalism, Quota Systems, "E Pluribus Unum," Little Haiti, Little Havana (in
relationship to Miami locality.)

Key Questions: What political and/or economic events pressed people to choose to
migrate? (Students will examine all possible reasons, relating to previously gained
knowledge of the time period.) What difficulties or challenges would be faced by
immigrants in a new land? (Responses would be put on smart board and visible in chart
form for the entire class. This chart could be fluid, using comparison to difficulties faced
by present-day migrants as well.) Would it be better for survival purposes to assimilate
into the culture of the new nation, or to maintain one's own identity? (Student responses
would be crucial to the lesson.) How do the components of pride and survival affect the
immigrants? What have we learned from the hardships and successes of our own family

and friends who have migrated? Does the phrase "E Pluribus Unum" still apply to
today's American culture and society? (This, after the students have examined U.S.
currency, seen the motto, and have ascertained its meaning.) What have we learned from
the experiences of immigrants about out own identity?

Lesson Lead-in: Students will be asked to activate prior knowledge through the review
of previous chapters in order to assess the climate of post-Civil War America. The focus
would be on the growth, rebuilding, and increased urbanization of the late 1880's. The
Industrial Revolution and the resultant rise in factory jobs would be a major motivation
for people to move to the U.S. Included in this discussion would be the conflicts between
immigrants and the newly-freed African-Americans who also resided in the growing
cities of the northern U.S. Students would also be asked to cite factors that would
motivate migration in today's world.

Session I: After the lead-in discussion, students will read and discuss Chapter 15 in the
text, section one (pp. 460-465) which describes the motivation for migration as well as
the Ellis Island/Angel Island experiences of people from several ethnic and racial
backgrounds. Students will define and discuss "melting pot" theory, and determine the
validity of this theory in their own perceptions of America. Students will discuss the
concept of the "American Dream," and its effects on the newcomers described in the text.
Students will discuss the restrictions faced by various immigrants as forms of racism.
Discussion will also include inequities in American immigration laws, like the quota
systems and differences in policy based on nationality.
Homework Assignment: Complete charts in text workbooks that compare/contrast
immigrant experiences including laws, restrictions, racism, employment, ethnicities, etc.

Session II: Review of previous class concepts, and collection/review of homework charts
from workbook pages. Opening Question: Is the U.S. really a "melting pot," as you see
it? The class will view the Schlessinger U.S. History Series Video on Immigration and
Cultural Changes, which emphasizes the theory of complete assimilation, which was
predominant in the U.S. of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. After the
video, students will define and discuss the term assimilation,, and will discuss the
changes of this concept over time. Students will revisit the term "American Dream," and
will cite examples as seen in the video. Subsequent discussion will entail examples of
students' personal concepts of "The Dream," and how it was reached in their own lives,
and how it is still to be attained.
Homework Assignment: Students will be provided with printed excerpts from Georges
Woke Up Laughing, (pp. 80 -88) in order to compare the Haitian immigrants'
experiences to those seen in the text and in the Schlessinger video. Students will identify
this text as a primary source, and will complete a one-page mini-essay to cite the
similarities and differences in the various experiences. Essays should include a new
awareness of long distance nationalism and the added responsibilities of Haitian
immigrants to their homeland.

*I chose this excerpt because I only recently learned about long distance nationalism, and
found the contact between Haitian-Americans and their families and colleagues on the

island to be quite a unique relationship, one that I had never encountered in my previous
studies of History. Despite U.S. citizenship, Haitian-Americans maintain close contacts,
and take responsibility for their homeland, which is far different from any immigrant
experience that I had ever encountered.

Session III: Examination of student essays should result in the definition and discussion
of long distance nationalism and responsibility in the experience of the Haitian
immigrants in contrast to situations examined in the text and the video. Students should
recognize that immigrants are often completely cut off from their land of origin, and
should be aware of the factors that contribute to this separation, leading again to the
questions relating to assimilation and diversity and the quest for the "American Dream."
Students are divided into six rows in this classroom. Each row will be given one article to
read and discuss as a group. Using the "Think-Pair-Share" mode, students in each row
will analyze their assigned article, and will write the similarities and differences
encountered by each author, applying the key questions previously discussed. The articles
describe immigrant experiences from people of Italian, Spanish, Bohemian, Chinese,
Irish, and African-American descent. Notes from each group should include information
on the degree assimilation or how well cultural identity/diversity was maintained. The
realization of the "American Dream" for these individuals should also be included. The
group's consensus of the article will be collected at the end of the class for a grade..

Final Discussion: Students will read the article "Diversity and the National Identity" in
the text, pp. 466-467. Questions after reading will include the following: Does "E
Pluribus Unum still apply to today's U.S.? Is this America an assimilated or diverse
culture? Is there truly an "American Dream," or is it also too diverse to apply to one
culture or ethnic group? Student responses should reflect new knowledge and insights on
the experiences of immigrants from the past as well as today as gained through the
combination of the text, the video, primary source material, and the online articles.

Final Assessment Assignment: Students are to choose ONE of the following:
*Create a poster or collage reflecting immigrant experiences of one or several ethnic
groups, even comparing and/or contrasting situations of different groups in America.
*Create a multimedia presentation detailing the immigration experience of a friend or
family member.
*Create a poster or collage detailing the "American Dream," and its past and present
significance for Americans in a diverse culture.
*Write an essay or create a poster explaining the "melting pot" or "ethnic stew" or
"tossed salad" theories, and explain which one best describes today's America.
*Create a realistic version of a law revision that would make immigration laws more
equitable for all ethnic groups coming to the U.S.
Session IV: Presentation of all final assessment projects, with discussion and


Bah, Char McCargo. "Putting My Family Back Together." The Statue Of
Liberty-Ellis Island Foundation, Inc.
http://www.ellisisland.org/immexp/wseix, 2008.
This article details the author's search for information about her African-
American family's past. Fortunately, the state of Virginia kept records of
slaves' births, deaths, and marriages, which aided the author in finding
names and even prices for her slave ancestors. This article gives insight into
the struggle for survival of African-Americans, and shows the importance of
History in strengthening family ties across the centuries.

Demmers, Jolle. "Diaspora and Conflict: Locality, Long-Distance
Nationalism, and Delocalisation of Conflict Dynamics." The Public:
Bol. 9 (2002), 1, pp. 85-96.
This article further explains the concept of long distance nationalism while
focusing on the mobility of diaspora populations and their continued contact
and political and social involvement in their home nations. This article
emphasizes that there is only a certain degree of assimilation because of the
high mobility of the people, accompanied by the heightened attachment to
the nation of origin.

Elshoff, Jennifer. "America Isn't a 'Melting Pot or a 'Salad Bowl.'"
This author is tired of food analogies being applied to the description of
America and the immigration experience. The author believes that people
come to the U.S. expecting to obtain a particular lifestyle level and to reach
a degree of success that was unattainable to them in their place of origin.
The author is hopeful that a suitable description can be obtained in the
future, where an America that accepts all ethnicities equally can be found.

Feeny, Margaret. "My Irish Journey." The Statue of Liberty-Ellis Island
Foundation, Inc. http://www.ellisisland.org/immigrationexp/wseix.
This article describes the author's search for information about her
grandfather, who migrated from Ireland to Portland, Maine, in the early
twentieth century. Finding, few primary documents, the author and her
family traveled to Ireland, where they found the island of their family's

Gloor, LeAna B. "From the Melting Pot to the Tossed Salad Metaphor."
http://www.uhh.hawaii.edu/academics/hohonu/writing.php ?id=91. Vol. 4.
The author explains her fears that America is turning away from its early
premise of cultural integration into a current society of coercive assimilation.
The author maintains that there can be a national social direction that can
embrace all things "American" as well as all the ethnic groups that are the
true makeup of this multicultural nation.

Laubeova,Laura. "Melting Pot vs. Ethnic Stew." Fitzroy Dearborn
Publishers. Encyclopedia of the World's Minorities, 2000.
http://www.tolerance. Cz/courses/texts/melting.htm.
The author traces the origins of both the melting pot theory and the salad
bowl theory, and comes up with her own analogy of American society-the
ethnic stew theory, in which America can have a singular national identity,
but still maintain the individual flavors of the multicultural society.

Navarrette, Ruben, Jr. "Assimilation Happens." San Diego Union-Tribune.
Wednesday, May 21, 2008.
This article explains that assimilation is inevitable and unavoidable, no
matter what cultural ties an ethnic group may have. Different types of
assimilation are outlined; these include employment, education, home
ownership, cultural intermarriage, English proficiency, family size, and civic
responsibilities. This article also explains how greater numbers of
newcomers to the U.S. are reaching their own versions of the "American

Petrino, Jennifer. "An Italian Family Returns Home." The Statue of Liberty-
Ellis Island Foundation, Inc. http://www.ellisisland.org/immexp/wseix.
This article details the experience of a third-generation Italian-American
family that has lost ties with the Italian homeland. Through the immigration
process, friends and family memories were lost. Through documentation
provided by a genealogy center, this family was able to reunite with family
and friends and visit Italy to reestablish ties of unity and identity.

Schiller, Nina Glick and Fouron, Georges E. Georges Woke Up Laughing.
London/Durham: Duke University Press, 2001, pp. 80-83.
This book describes the term long distance nationalism and outlines
immigrant experiences in which contact with the land of origin is maintained
and responsibility for the mother nation is fostered. International
relationships are the by-products of this new social, global mentality.

The idea of citizenship becomes more globalized in this book, and
assimilation takes on a different aspect through the eyes of these authors.

Sevilla, Mary. "Secrets of My Ancestors." The Statue of Liberty-Ellis
Island Foundation, Inc. http://www. Ellisisland.org/immexp/wseix.
This article describes the author's search for family history, since her family
was kidnapped by Pancho Villa during the Mexican Revolution in 1915.
Church records and a trip to Mexico revealed information about her maternal
grandmother's family that led to stronger family ties and pride in their

Woodle, Alex. "Searching for the Lost Jews of Bohemia." The Statue of
Liberty-Ellis Island Foundation, Inc.
The author was inspired by the wedding document of his great-grandfather
to look for more of his ancestors in and around New York City. His search
led to the discovery of the graves of previously unknown ancestors in an
ancient cemetery in Queens, which, in turn, led to even more discoveries
through primary documents that led the author's journey to Bohemia to trace
more of his family members.

Yee, Byron. "Discovering a Paper Son." The Statue of Liberty-Ellis Island
Foundation, Inc. http://www.ellisisland.org/immexp/wseix.
This article describes the experiences of Chinese immigrants who came to
the U.S. via Angel Island in California. The piece discusses the Chinese
Exclusion Act and its impact on the conditions in which illegal entrants were
forced to work and live. The author discovered the courage of his ancestors
to withstand the rigors of life in a strange land and still maintain the dignity
of their culture to pass on to subsequent generations.

U.S. Overseas Expansion, 1850s-World War II


John Burkowski

Florida International University Teaching American History

Latin American and Caribbean Studies Teacher Summer Institute


7/26/09 4:34 PM

Lesson Plans: 11 SS LP 006 U.S. Overseas Expansion 1850s-World War II

Title: 11 SS LP 006 U.S. Overseas Expansion 1850s-World War II
DESCRIPTION / The student will compare and understand the foreign policies of the United States and its military force from its infancy to before World War II. The student will compare tl
ABSTRACT OF causes and effects of the United States' intervention in three case-studies: Japan in 1853-1858, Hawaii in 1893-1898, and Haiti in 1915-1934.
OBJECTIVE(S): II.12.A Compare major individuals, events, and characteristics of periods in American history.
VI.1.A Describe national and international causes and effects of military conflicts.
VI.2.A Summarize the reasons for U.S. involvement in the Caribbean and Latin America and its impact on selected nations and people.
VI.3.A Assess the social, economic, and political ramifications of United States expansionism.
VI.9.A Discuss selected foreign policy issues and actions that have shaped American thought.
TEACHER From Colony to Superpower: U.S. Foreign Relations Since 1776 by George C. Herring. pp. 212-214, 388-389
TECHNOLOGY http://www.bartleby.com/124/pres42.html (Theodore Roosevelt's Inaugural Address 1905)
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1899antiimp.html (Platform of American Anti-Imperialist League 1899)

The Anglo-Japanese Convention of 1854 by Grace Fox. The Pacific Historical Review, Vol. 10 No. 4 (Dec. 1941) pp. 411-434

Perry Opens Japan to American Trade, 1854. Discovering World History. Edition. Gale, 2003.

Perry's Expedition to Japan by Charles M. Dobbs. Dictionary of American History. Stanley I. Kutler, ed. 3rd ed. 10 Vols. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2003.

Treaty with Japan. http://www.ambrosedigital.com/component/page,shop.getfile/file id,876/product id,407/option,com virtuemart/Itemid,59/index.php?
page= shop.getfile&file id= 876&product id= 407&option= com virtuemart&Itemid= 59&vmcchk= 1

The United States and the Opening to Japan, 1853. Office of the Historian http://history.state.gov/milestones/1830-1860/OpeningtoJapan

Commodore Perry's Expedition to Japan. First Visit. Harper's New Monthly Magazine Volume XII from December 1855 to May 1856. http://cdl.library.cornell.edu/cgi-
bin/moa/pageviewer?frames=1&coll= moa&view=50&root=%2Fmoa%2Fharp%2Fharp0012%2F&tif= 00451.TIF&cite= http%3A%2F%2Fcdl. library.cornell.edu%2Fcgi-

Perry, Matthew Calbraith. (1856). Narrative of the expedition of an American Squadron to the China Seas and Japan, 1856. New York : D. Appleton and Company.

http://popartmachine.com/item/pop art/LOC+1124963 (Editorial cartoon)

Editorial Notes Literature. Putnam's Monthly Magazine Vol. VIII July to January 1857 phs 217-230

http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/hawaii-petition/images/hawaii-petition-01.jpg (Petition against annexation of Hawaii)

http://digital.library.upenn.edu/women/liliuokalani/hawaii/hawaii.html#LV (Queen Liliuokalani's official protest to the Provisional Government in 1893)

http://www.bartleby.com/43/44.html (Newlands Resolution 1898 to annex Hawaii)

Inquiry Into Occupation and Administration of Haiti and The Dominican Republic. April 1922. http://www.history.navy.mil/library/online/haitilinquiry.htm

Haitian-American Treaty. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/report/1995/BPL.htm

Marines Off to Haiti. New York Times. June 23, 1915. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9CODE6DC1038E633A25750C2A9609C946496D6CF

The 1915 Intervention In Haiti. http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/43a/406.html

http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/43a/384.html (Hearing the Truth About Haiti 1921)

Black Democracy The Story of Haiti by H.P. Davis. http://books.google.com/books?id=4VQbEr3kCV8C&pg=PA180&lpg=PA180&dq=Haitian-
American+Treaty&source=bl&ots=i4uZtR8xoL&sig=strVkLx0IQ4qLzACf9EdOU5nQUU&hl=en&ei =FyI4SprGF9SJtgeJiZDSDA&sa=X&oi =book result&ct=result&resnum=5#PPA

Taking Haiti: Military Occupation and the Culture of U.S. Imperialism 1915-1940 by Mary A. Renda. The University of North Carolina Press. Chapel Hill. 2001. pp. 1-130.

American History by Irving L. Gordon. Second Edition. Amsco School Publications, inc. New York. 1993. pp. 523-577.

Above sources provide historical and historiographical background to the lesson regarding U.S. foreign policy during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, specifically with
Hawaii, and Haiti. Particular attention should be given to the U.S.'s isolationism before the Civil War, reasons for pursuing imperialism, and policies after World War I. The
presidencies of Grover Cleveland, William McKinley, Theodore Roosevelt, and Woodrow Wilson should be noted.
STUDENT American History by Irving L. Gordon. Second Edition. Amsco School Publications, inc. New York. 1993. pp. 523-573
TECHNOLOGY http://www.bartleby.com/124/pres42.html (Theodore Roosevelt's Inaugural Address 1905)
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1899antiimp.html (Platform of American Anti-Imperialist League 1899)

Treaty with Japan. http://www.ambrosedigital.com/component/page,shop.getfile/file id,876/product id,407/option,com virtuemart/Itemid,59/index.php?
page= shop.getfile&file id= 876&product id= 407&option= com virtuemart&Itemid= 59&vmcchk= 1

http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/hawaii-petition/images/hawaii-petition-01.jpg (Petition against annexation of Hawaii)

http://digital.library.upenn.edu/women/liliuokalani/hawail/hawaii.html#LV (Queen Liliuokalani's official protest to the Provisional Government in 1893)

http://www.bartleby.com/43/44.html (Newlands Resolution 1898 to annex Hawaii)

Haitian-American Treaty. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/report/1995/BPL.htm

http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/43a/384.html (Hearing the Truth About Haiti 1921)
Duration : 7 Days


Page 1 of 2

7/26/09 4:34 PM

ESSENTIAL What prompted the U.S. to pursue overseas expansion and how did it affect certain nations?
VOCABULARY: imperialism, isolationism, foreign policy, Monroe Doctrine, Manifest Destiny, Good Neighbor Policy, Roosevelt Corollary, Platt Amendment, Spanish-American War, Dollar
Diplomacy, Fourteen Points, acquisition, annexation, occupation, intervention, protectorate, treaty, expansion, industrialization, nationalism, national interest
LESSON LEAD IN Teacher will ask the students to call out all the places around the world the United States has intervened in, occupied or occupies, and possessed or currently possesses. Afl
/ OPENING: class runs out of ideas, the teacher will add nations, but must include Japan, Hawaii, and Haiti. Then the teacher will ask why the U.S. intervened, occupied, or possessed.
will be various answers, but the teacher should facilitate into leading into the lesson regarding U.S. foreign policy.
STEPS TO 1. Have students read and outline from the Amsco book on pages 523-573 dealing with American foreign policy and imperialism. The pages will explain American isolationism
DELIVER reasons and factors for American expansion overseas. Students must pay particular details to Japan, Hawaii, and Haiti.
LESSON: 2. Students will be sent home with Theodore Roosevelt's 1905 Inaugural Address, Platform of the American Anti-Imperialist League, Treaty of Kanagawa, Petition Against H
Annexation, Queen Lilluokalani's Protest, Newlands Resolution, Hearing the Truth About Haiti, and the Haitian-American Treaty to be read and compared. Students must me
notations on pro-U.S., pro-Japan/Hawaii/Haiti, and mutual benefits.
3. In the meantime, the teacher will lecture students on American foreign policy from 1850s to before World War II. The teacher should focus on America's isolationism dict
Washington, but emphasize the Monroe Doctrine and Manifest Destiny. Explain the reasons for American expansion overseas, such as industrialization, nationalism, and the
context. Highlight the Spanish-American War and America's acquisitions. Emphasize the Roosevelt Corollary and Platt Amendment. Explain American presence in Haiti in 19
Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points and self-determination, and America's return to isolationism before World War II.
4. After foreign policy lectures, students will bring in their analyses of the documents to hold discussions on American foreign policy in Japan, Haiti, and Hawaii. Focus on ho
nations were affected and how the military was used. Were Americans divided on American imperialism, military use, expansion? Foreign nation reactions?
GUIDED Explain to students on how the U.S. was justified or not in seeking expansion and intervening in other nations. Also, keep the students guided on how American foreign poll
PRACTICE: affected Japan, Hawaii, and Haiti. Prevent students from engaging in discussions on how the U.S. is "the best" and can do whatever it deems fit.
INDEPENDENT Each student must become well-versed in the subject matter and develop sufficient and competent comparisons.
DIFFERENTIATED Facilitated discussion, textbook outlines, primary sources.
LESSON Students will be involved in a discussion to realize the consequences of United States foreign policies and military use, both on the United States and other nations.
ASSESSMENT: Have students write an essay on whether the United States was justified in Japan, Hawaii, and Haiti. Students must use examples from the handouts/sources to justify thel
answers. Should the U.S. continue such justifications in today's world. (Answers will be used to lead into lessons regarding U.S. foreign policy from WWII to Current.)
Jurying Profile: 9-12 Social Studies

Jury Admin 9-12 Social Studies Jury Admin
FLORIDA Florida STATE FL Social Studies Standard (2008)
STANDARDS & Florida Sunshine State Standards
NETS: Grades: 9-12
American History
1: Use research and inquiry skills to analyze American history using primary and secondary sources.
4: Demonstrate an understanding of the changing role of the United States in world affairs through the end of World War I.
7: Understand the rise and continuing international influence of the United States as a world leader and the impact of contemporary social and political movemer
American life.

Date Created : July 02, 2009

Date Modified : July 26, 2009


Page 2 of 2

U.S. Intervention in Latin America and the Caribbean


Rey Casais

Florida International University Teaching American History

Latin American and Caribbean Studies Teacher Summer Institute


Title: U.S. Intervention in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Grade Level: Eighth
Subject: U.S. History

Abstract of Lesson: This lesson will describe how the United States political and
economic influence was extended in Latin America and the Caribbean during the early
twentieth century. Students will analyze Woodrow Wilson's attempts to carry out his
mission of moral diplomacy primarily in Haiti and Mexico. Students will also analyze the
response of the Haitian and Mexican people. The primary focus of the lesson will be to
go beyond the use of the text book in order to introduce students to different sources such
as documents and political cartoons.

After completing this lesson all students will be able to:
Describe what shaped the policies the U.S. followed in Latin America and the
Understand where and how the U.S. intervened in Latin America and the
Discuss how U.S. actions reflected Wilson's foreign policy.
Describe three different policies. Roosevelt Corollary, Dollar Diplomacy, and
Moral Diplomacy.
Explain why many people resented U.S. actions in Latin America and the

Teacher Materials:
Text book The American Journey
Overhead Projector
Copy of all documents used for the lesson
Web links

Activity One: In this activity, Students will read chapter 22 pages 656-661 of their text
book The American Journey. This section of the book describes how the United States
political influence was extended in Latin America. It also gives a brief description of U.S.
involvement in Panama and Mexico. As students read the section they will create a
diagram describing three different foreign policies mentioned in this Chapter.

Foreign Policies:
1. Roosevelt Corollary
2. Dollar Diplomacy
3. Moral Diplomacy

Activity Two: In this activity, students will use an interactive map that can be found on
line. This activity will give students the opportunity to learn about U.S. actions in the
Caribbean and Central America.

Web link: http://www.teachingamericanhistory.org/neh/interactives/caribbean/

While using the map students will answer a set of questions that allow them to explore
the extent of U.S. intervention in the Caribbean and Central America.
1. How many times did the U.S. send troops to the Caribbean and Central America
between the 1890s and 1930s?
2. To what countries did the U.S. send troops?
3. In what countries did the U.S. supervise finances?
4. What other actions did the U.S. take in the Caribbean and Central America
between the 1890s and 1930s?
5. Why do you think the U.S. sent troops and supervised finances in the Caribbean
and Central America?

Activity Three: In this activity, students will analyze a set of political cartoons dealing
with the issue of U.S. intervention in Latin America, the Caribbean, Hawaii, and the
Philippians. In order to help students break down and understand the information in the
cartoons students will use an analysis worksheet and political cartoons can be found on
line. Student can look up the cartoons on their own or the teacher can provide a power
point presentation.
Web link for worksheet: http://www.calisphere.universityofcalfornia.edu

Questions for discussion:
1. Describe the action taking place in the cartoon.
2. Explain how the words in the cartoon clarify the symbols.
3. Explain the message in the cartoon.

Political Cartoons:
Hurrah! The Country Is Saved Again
"Now, Will You Be Good?'
Uncle Sam Teaching the World
The American Policy

Activity Four: In this activity, students will break up into groups and use primary
sources in order to prepare a presentation outlining important issues detailed in the
documents. Each group will take on the perspective of the author in order to better
understand U.S. intervention in the Mexican revolution. Groups may put their
presentation in the form of a power point if they wish.

Each group will be assigned the following documents.

Group one: The United States and the Mexican Revolution: "A Danger for All Latin
American Countries," Letters from Venustiano Carranza
Group Two: Robert Lansing on Military Operations in Mexico, 20 June 1916

Group Three: "Avoid the Use of the Word Intervention": Wilson And Lansing on the
U.S. Invasion of Mexico.

After all the groups have given their presentation the teacher will facilitate a class
discussion using the following questions.
1. Why did Carranza appeal to Argentina, Chile, and Brazil?
2. What were the most convincing reasons for sending U.S. troops into Mexico?
3. In what ways do sending U.S. troops into Mexico demonstrate the views of Woodrow
Wilson? Think of Wilsons Moral Diplomacy.
4. Were their any inconsistencies in America justifying sending troops in to Mexico?

The next set of activities will focus on the American intervention of Haiti. Because
the text book has no mention of Haiti the students will use a set of documents for
their assignments.

Activity Five: In this activity, students will focus primarily on Haiti. Students will take
on the role of an American news reporter in Haiti during the U.S. occupation of Haiti
between the years 1915-1934. Their task is to write a brief article answering one of the
two questions provided.
1. How did the people of Haiti respond to the presence of U.S. Marines in their
2. What do many of the Americans in Haiti think of Haitians, and how do the
Americans or U.S. Marines treat the Haitians?

Students will use the following documents as sources for their article:
"Bandits or Patriots?: Documents from Charlemagne Peralte"
"The Truth about Haiti: An NAACP Investigation"
"The People Were Very Peaceable": The U.S. Senate Investigates the Haitian

Activity Six: While reading each document, students will take notes on each document in
order to help them with the assignment and class discussions. Student must answer the
following questions in their notes.

What type of document is it? Newspaper, letter, map, political cartoon, etc.
Date of document.
For what audience was the document written for?
List three things that the author mentioned that you think are important.
What evidence in the document helps you know why it was written? Quote from
the document.
List two things the document tells you about life in the U.S. or Haiti during the
time the document was written.
Write a question to the author that is left unanswered by the document.

Students will use the following documents:

"Bandits or Patriots?: Documents from Charlemagne Peralte"
"The Truth about Haiti: An NAACP Investigation
"United States Department of State/ Papers relating to the foreign relations of the
United States with the address of the president to Congress December 8, 1914"
"The People Were Very Peaceable": The U.S. Senate Investigates the Haitian
"The Missionary," a cartoon by Private Paul Woyshner

Student Assessment:
After completing all the activities students will be able to answer the following questions.
1. Why did the U.S. intervene militarily in Haiti and Mexico?
2. On what principles did Woodrow Wilson justify his actions for going in to Haiti
and Mexico?
3. How did Haitians and Mexicans respond to the U.S. government?
4. How does Wilson's foreign policy differ from the foreign policies of Theodore
Roosevelt and William Howard Taft? Or do you think it is just an extension of the
5. Compare and contrast U.S. military actions in Haiti and Mexico.

Students will be able to identify and explain the significance of the following People:
1. Woodrow Wilson
2. Theodore Roosevelt
3. William Howard Taft
4. Robert Lansing
5. Venustiano Carranza
6. Charlemagne Peralte
7. Victoriano Huerta
8. Cacos- armed resistance force in Haiti
9. NAACP and their position on Haiti
10. Francisco "Pancho" Villa


"Bandits or Patriots?: Documents from Charlemagne Peralte" URL:

"The Truth about Haiti: An NAACP Investigation URL:

"United States Department of State/ Papers relating to the foreign relations of the United
States with the address of the president to Congress December 8, 1914"
URL: http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/FRUS/FRUS-idx?ty

"The People Were Very Peaceable": The U.S. Senate Investigates the Haitian
Occupation. URL: http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/4945

"The Missionary," a cartoon by Private Paul Woyshner Renda, Mary Taking Haiti
Military Occupation & the Culture of U.S. Imperialism 1915-1940

The United States and the Mexican Revolution: "A Danger for All Latin American
Countries," Letters from Venustiano Carranza URL:

Robert Lansing on Military Operations in Mexico, 20 June 1916
URL: http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/mexico lansing.htm

"Avoid the Use of the Word Intervention": Wilson and Lansing on the U.S. Invasion of
Mexico URL: http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/4947

"Uncle Sam Teaching the World" URL http://wpscm.pearsoncmg.com

"Now, Will YOU BE GOOD?" URL http://www.ashp.cuny.edu/ashpnews.html

Hurrah! The Country Is Saved Again
URL: htto://librarv.kcc.hawaii.edu

"The American Policy" URL: http://library.kcc.hawaii.edu

Political Cartoons

Uncle Sam in Foreign Nations

Uncle Sam Teaching

"Now, Will You Be Good?'

Hurrah! The Country Is Saved

The American Policy

The Story of the 1915 United States Military Occupation of Haiti



Crystel R. Dunn

Florida International University Teaching American History

Latin American and Caribbean Studies Teacher Summer Institute


The Story of the 1915 United States Military Occupation of Haiti
(1915- 1934)

Description/Abstract of Lesson: The July 1915 U.S. military occupation of Haiti was the first of three to
date; the others occurring in 1994 and 2004. As a result of the 1898 Spanish-American War the United
States expanded its control into The Philippines, Guam, Cuba and Puerto Rico. The need for U.S.
expansion did not end, but continued to grow. U.S. Marines were sent to Haiti ostensibly to assist by
bringing peace, stability and ultimately Democracy to the country after the murder of Haiti's President.
However, while roads and bridges were being built, many Haitians who opposed U.S. occupation were
also being jailed and killed. Haiti's occupation represents a pattern established by the U.S. government
to first occupy and remain in smaller nations under the guise of improving conditions only to take
control of the government and economies of those nations. Students who complete this lesson will be
able to understand the factors that lead to the occupation and how the occupation of Haiti compared to
those of other nations in which the U.S. began to expand such as Panama and Nicaragua.

Objective: Students will be able to understand the occupation of Haiti within the historical context of
the time. Students will be able to compare the U.S. occupation of Haiti with other occupations carried
out by the United States. Students will also be able to identify the role of key figures/events during this
period such as the following:

1. Woodrow Wilson, U.S. President from March 1913- March 1921
2. Warren G. Harding, U.S. President from
3. Carl Von Doren, Professor of History Columbia University
4. Admiral William B. Caperton, controlled the early stages of the U.S. occupation of Haiti
5. Faustin Wirkus, U.S. Marine stationed in Haiti who later wrote fictional accounts of his time in Haiti
6. John Russell, U.S. High Commissioner of Haitian Occupation
7. Major Smedly Butler, USMC, Officer of the Gendarmerie
8. Charlemagne Peralte, Caco Resistance Leader
9. Benoit Batraville, Caco Resistance Leader
10. Philippe Sudre Dartiguenave, President Haiti from --- 1922
11. Louis Borno, Haitian President from 1922- 1929
12. Stenio Vincent, Haiti's final President to rule under U.S. military occupation
13. Simon Bolivar, Latin American Resistance Leader
14. Congress of Panama
15. The Incident of the Slice of Watermelon
16. Guardia Nacional de Nicaragua
17. Augusto Sandino, Nicaraguan Resistance Leader

Grade Levels: 8- 11

Materials Needed:

Teacher Materials/Technology Connections
1. Textbook- The American Journey (2005 Florida Edition) -Chapter 22 Overseas Expansion
2. Photocopies of excerpted readings
3. Overhead Projector (if a projector or photocopies are not available, the teacher may e-mail the material to their
students as well)
4. PowerPoint Presentation
5. Signs for group activity

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The Story of the 1915 United States Military Occupation of Haiti
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Student Materials/Technology Connections
1. Textbook- The American Journey (2005 Florida Edition)-Chapter 22 Overseas Expansion
2. Copy of Prompt for Essay Response
3. Writing Materials (paper and pencil)

Duration: Four 50-minute sessions
Day 1- Overview/PowerPoint Presentation

Day 2- Reading 1 Taking Haiti Class Discussion and Student Research

Day 3- Reading 2 Brother I'm Dying Group Activity

Day 4- Assessment and Closing Discussion

Lesson Lead-In: Begin the lesson by playing a portion of the track "I Can Run to Haiti Just Like This"
(attached).To open the discussion ask students questions such as "What do you think this
song means?" "What purpose would it serve in the Marine's training?" "Could the song be
serving another purpose?" "What message could the song send to outsiders about the U.S.
and/or the Marines?"

Steps to Deliver Lesson:

Prior to the first lesson assign students the following homework:

Read and take notes from excerpt #1 Taking Haiti, pp. 29 34, be prepared to discuss
at our next class.

Chose one key figure from the reading and complete research on his life,
achievements and beliefs. Bring your research to class daily to add any notes but be
prepared to answer an essay prompt about this person on the last day of the lesson.

Day 1: Allow students to share their opinions on the reading and to ask any questions they may
have from the reading. The instructor should be prepared to present a PowerPoint lesson
(attached) on the first day of instruction.

Day 1 Homework: Read and take two-column notes on excerpt #2 Taking Haiti

Day 2: Today's lesson will focus on the inconsistencies that exist between the U.S.'s official
reasons for occupation of a country and the outcome of some of those occupations. This
lesson should be held in a computer lab to allow students to access information via the
Internet. End the lesson by allowing 15 minutes for students to share their findings and to ask
any questions they may have come out of their research. Students should use the list of Key
Figures/Events as a starting point.

Day 2 Homework: Read and take two-column notes on Brother I'm Dying excerpt

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The Story of the 1915 United States Military Occupation of Haiti
(1915- 1934)

Day 3: Allow students to share their opinions on the reading and to ask any questions they may
have from the reading. The instructor should use the remainder of the period to complete the
Carousel Brainstorm Activity (attached).

Students should benefit from working directly with their peers, but may need additional support
from their teacher. Be certain to encourage students to succeed by mixing the skill level of the
group members. For example, do not compose any group entirely of low-level readers.

Day 4: Class time should be used to complete the essay and allow two students to share their
essays with the class.

Essay Prompt: Using your research and notes from this unit, answer the following question:
How was the 1915 military occupation of Haiti similar to previous invasions carried out by the
United States. How was the invasion unique? Be sure to provide specific names, locations and
events to answer the question.

End the lesson by discussing the following key points with the students:

Future Haitian occupations and their objectives

Acknowledge Haiti as a prime example of the U.S. invasion/occupation pattern
established and then repeated since the Haitian occupation

Ask students to identify current examples of this pattern

Guided Practice: The teacher may choose to have students read individually or as a group
depending on the reading level of the students.

Independent Practice: Students will work independently during the group activity, but the
teacher should be available to provide support to students that are unable to work quickly.

Differentiated Instruction: Students should benefit from working directly with their peers, but
may need additional support from their teacher. Be certain to encourage students to succeed by
mixing the skill level of the group members. For example, do not compose any group entirely of
low-level readers.

Lesson Closure: The last day of the lesson should be used to give students their assessment and
allow at least 15 minutes at the end of class for a review and to answer any questions students
may have from this unit.

Teacher Resources:

Danticat, Edwidge. Brother, I'm Dying. New York; Random House, Inc., 2007

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The Story of the 1915 United States Military Occupation of Haiti
(1915- 1934)

Renda, Mary. Taking Haiti: Military Occupation and the Culture of U.S. Imperialism 1915 1940.
Chapel Hill; University of North Carolina Press, 2001.

Schmidt, Hans. Maverick Marine: Smedley Butler and the Contradictions of American Military
History. January 1998.

Schmidt, Hans. The United States Occupation of Haiti 1915 1934. February 1995.


Upon the lesson completion students will use 30 35 minutes of class time in order to answer
the following prompt:

Using your research and notes from this unit, answer the following question: How was the
1915 military occupation of Haiti similar to previous invasions carried out by the United States.
How was the invasion unique? Be sure to provide specific names, locations and events to
answer the question.

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The Story of the 1915 United States Military Occupation of Haiti
(1915- 1934)


Danticat, Edwidge. Brother, I'm Dying. New York; Random House, Inc., 2007

Danticat's memoir of living in Haiti and migrating to the United States covers her families'
history from 1933 near the end of U.S. occupation of Haiti through the death of a relative
while in the custody of U.S. Immigration officials in 2004. The memoir does an excellent job
of conveying the happy moments of her childhood, the struggles of her parents to establish
their new home in New York and the urgent need of her uncle to leave Haiti because the
level of violence had become unbearable. This memoir shows how the past actions/policies
of the United States and its NATO allies still has a direct impact on the lives of Haitian

Empire State College. http://wwwl.esc.edu/personalfac/ginghram/politic.html

This image originally appeared the New York Call on 10 May 1921. It was during this time
that a Senate investigation was being conducted of the U.S. military's occupation of Haiti. In
the image a Haitian man is seen struggling under the boot of an American Marine. The
caption under the cartoon states that Haitians have spent the last five years enduring
"torture, destruction and humiliation" at the hands of Marines. Rather than depicting the
U.S. as simply offering assistance on the island. It offers an alternative view of the

Langley, Lester D. "The Image of Simon Bolivar in the United States in the Revolutionary
Era." In Simon Bolivar: Essays on the Life and Legacy of the Liberator, edited by David
Bushnell and Lester D. Langley, 123-134. Rowman and Littlefield, 2008.

Langley's essay focuses on the period between 1815 and 1826 and way Simon Bolivar and
the Spanish American wars were depicted within the United States. However, Langley's
essay also informs readers of the warning that Bolivar makes to Latin America about the
dangers of the United States taking over "in the name of liberty". This essay offers insight
into the details surrounding Bolivar's quest for an Inter-American Union that would exclude
the United States and Haiti and the U.S. response.

McGuinness, Aims. Path of Empire: Panama and the California Gold Rush. Ithaca; Cornell
University Press, 2008.

McGuinness opens this history by detailing the events that occurred on April 15, 1856 also
known as La Tajada de Sandia or "The Incident of the Slice of Watermelon". It would lead to
the beginning of many U.S. military interventions or "invasions" of Panama. Between 1856
and 1903 the U.S. military occupied Panama thirteen times. The official reason was to bring
stability to the region. However, that is only the American perspective. McGuinness looks

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The Story of the 1915 United States Military Occupation of Haiti
(1915- 1934)

at the history of Panamanian protest and also chronicles efforts by other Latin American
nations to join forces against the Americans. As early as the 1850's people within Latin
American nations such Chile, Nicaragua and Ecuador had begun to protest the presence of
American business. Mc Guinness' history chronicles the push by the United States to
control resources within the region and he looks objectively at the response of the people
within that region.

Plummer, Brenda Gayle. "Firmin and Marti at the Intersection of Pan-Americanism and
Pan Africanism." In Jose Marti's "Our America": From National to Hemispheric Cultural
Studies, edited by Jeffrey Belnap and Raul Fernandez, 211- 227. Durham, N.C.: Duke
University Press. 1998.

This article discusses the lone encounter between the reformer (Firmin) and the
revolutionary (Marti) at Cap Hatien in 1893. Plummer details the lives of both men and their
impact on their ideologies would have on the future of Pan-Americanism and Pan-

Plummer, Brenda Gayle. "The Changing Face of Diplomatic History: A Literature Review,"
Journal of the History Cooperative.org, Volume 38, no. 5 (May 2005).

Plummer defines diplomacy as "a product of a range of political and cultural responses, and
as the result of non-governmental actors operation on the world stage." This article
discusses new trends in diplomatic history such as the increasing influence of other
disciplines of study such as colonial studies, American studies, anthropology, cultural
studies, ethnic studies and feminist theory. The article goes into detail about the impact of
these areas on foreign relations. Examples of well-written histories are also provided.
Plummer's insistence that foreign relations history has become more inclusive is her way of
reminding us to continue to study diplomatic history with a broader viewpoint.

Plummer, Brenda Gayle. Haiti and the United States: The Psychological Movement.
Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1992.

In this history of U.S./Haiti relations Plummer analyzes the U.S./Haitian relationship and its
effects on the both nations. Plummer contends that financial and diplomatic relationships
were defined the initial interest in Haiti and that the impact of this relationship continues to
have in impact on the current condition of Haiti.

Renda, Mary. Taking Haiti: Military Occupation and the Culture of U.S. Imperialism 1915 -
1940. Chapel Hill; University of North Carolina Press, 2001.

The author begins by asking the question "How does a man imagine himself when he is
about to pull a trigger?" Through the use of primary sources she tells the story of soldiers

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The Story of the 1915 United States Military Occupation of Haiti
(1915- 1934)

that were very young men given a great deal of power in a foreign country about which they
knew very little. She also offers some insight into the official and unofficial reasons for the
U.S. to occupy Haiti at all. She also details the scope and outcome of the Senate
investigation of the occupation. Although Renda acknowledges the brutality of the violence
that developed in Haiti she does not define the Marines as monsters rather she allows the
reader to see the contradictions within each figure and within their circumstances. The
major strength of Renda's argument about the definition of Empire is that she tells the story
from a human perspective. She does include some official documents and records of some
of the Congressional hearings but she also has great uses the primary sources in such a way
that she allows the soldier's day to day story to be told.

Smith, Joseph. "The First Conference on American States (1889-1890) and the Early Pan
American Policy of the United States." In The United States and Latin America: A History of
American Diplomacy 1776 -2000, by Joseph Smith, 19-32, 2005.

This article details the conference between the U.S. and several Latin American nations held
from October 2, 1889 through April 19, 1890. The article details the goals of the conference
from arbitration, to increased trade in Latin America. The most interesting aspect of the
article is the acknowledgement of skepticism about American intentions among countries
like Bolivia, Peru, Colombia, Argentina, Mexico and El Salvador.

Suggs, Henry Louis. "The Response of the African American Press to the U.S. occupation of
Haiti 1915-1934", The Journal of African American History, Vol.87, Winter 2002, p.70-82.

As the title suggests this article looks at the response of several African-American
newspapers of the U.S. occupation of Haiti. One admitted weakness of the article is that it is
unable to show any direct impact the reaction may have had on foreign policy.
Unfortunately, it is unlikely that high-ranking officials in the government followed the black
press during that era. What the article does well is outline the interest African-Americans
had in U.S.'s treatment of Haiti. Other aspects of the article that are helpful are those
discussions about the circumstances leading to the 1920 election of Warren G. Harding as
President of the United States, the U.S. concern about its image in the foreign press, and the
results of the Forbes Commission on the occupation. The article creates a clear illustration
of how vital the African-American press had become in informing its community in relation
to domestic and foreign issues.

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The Story of the 1915 United States Military Occupation of Haiti
(1915- 1934)

Schmidt, Hans. Maverick Marine: Smedley Butler and the Contradictions of American Military History. January

Schmidt, Hans. The United States Occupation of Haiti 1915 1934. February 1995.


Page 8 of 8

Excerpt from Brother, I'm Dying
Danticat, Edwidge. Brother, I'm Dying. New York; Random House, Inc., 2007

FROM the chapter entitled, "Brother, I'll See You Soon" pp. 245 247

Uncle Joseph's most haunting childhood memory, and the only one he ever described to
me in detail, was of the year 1933, when he was ten years old. The U.S. occupation of Haiti was
nearing its final days. Fearing that he might at last be captured by the Americans to work in the
labor camps formed to build bridges and roads, my grandfather, Granpe Nozial, ordered him never
to go down the mountain, away from Beausejour. Uncle Joseph wasn't even to accompany his
mother, Granme Lorvana, to the marketplace, so that he might never lay eyes on occupying
marines or they him.
When he left home to fight, Granpe Nozial never told my uncle and his sisters, Tante Ino
and Tante Tina, where he was going. (The other siblings, including my father, were not born yet.)
Granme Lorvana told them, however, that their father was fighting somewhere, in another part of
the country. She also told them that the Americans had the power to change themselves into the
legendary three-legged horse Galipot, who, as he trotted on his three legs, made the same sound
as the marching, booted soldiers. Galipot was also known to mistake children for his fourth leg,
chase them down and take them away.
Still, my uncle and his sisters were never to let on that they knew anything about their
father's whereabouts. If they were ever asked by an adult where Granpe Nozial was, they were
supposed to say that he had dies, bewildering that adult and sending him/her directly to Granme
Lorvana to question her. But when Granpe Nozial returned from his trips, they were not to ask him
any questions. Instead they were to act as thought he'd never left, like he'd been with them all
along. This is why they knew so little of Granpe Nozial's activities during the U.S. occupation. This
is why I know so little now.
One day while Granpe Nozial was away and Tante Ino and Tante Tina became ill, Granme
Lorvana had no choice but to send my uncle to a marketplace down the mountain. As Uncle
Joseph walked to the market, following the road that his mother had indicated, what he feared most
was running into Granpe Nozial, who'd threatened him with all manner of bodily harm if he ever
found him on the road leading out of Beausejour.
When my uncle finally reached the marketplace at midday, after hours and hours of
walking, he saw a group of young white men in dark high boots and khakis at its bamboo-fenced
entrance. There were perhaps six or seven of them, and they seemed to be kicking something on
the ground. My uncle had never seen white men before, and their pink, pale skins gave some
credence to his mother's notion that white people had po lanve, skins turned inside out, so that if
they didn't wear heavy clothing, you might always be looking at their insides.
As my uncle approached the small circle of men and the larger crowd of vendors and
shoppers watching with hands cradling their heads in shock, the white men seemed to him to be
quite agitated. Were they laughing? Screaming in another language? They kept kicking the thing
on the ground as though it were a soccer ball, bouncing it to one another with the rounded tips of
their boots. Taking small careful steps to remain the distance away as the other bystanders, my
uncle finally saw what it was: a man's head.
The head was full of black peppercorn hair. Blood was dripping out of the severed neck,
forming dusty dark red bubbles in the dirt. Suddenly my uncle realized why Granpe Nozial and
Granme Lorvana wanted him to stay home. Then, as now, the world outside Beausejour was
treacherous indeed.

Excerpt from Taking Haiti
Renda, Mary. Taking Haiti Military Occupation and the Culture of U.S. Imperialism 1915- 1940. Chapel Hill; University
of North Carolina Press, 2001.

From Chapter 2: "Haiti and the Marines, Making Sense of the Occupation" pp. 39 42.

Corporal Homer Overley didn't know what to think. He'd left a small, rural town in Illinois to join the Marines
and, by 1920, had landed in Port-au-Prince with his new buddies in the Fifty-seventh Company. From their main post
in the capital, Overley and his fellow recruits patrolled the hills around Mirebelais and Lascahobas, from Bon Repost,
just north of the capital to Belladere in the East, a stone's throw from the Dominican border. The main strength of the
Caco's military opposition had been sapped, but the war continued in fits, and the marines of the Fifty-seventh
Company, searching out the remaining rebels, worried about "loosing" their heads in the hills. Hungry, thirsty, and
carrying a heavy pack over long, rough, rocky trails- as he later recalled-Overley sometimes cursed and sometimes
kept his thoughts to himself.

Nineteen years old and a private when he arrived in Haiti, the young Overley was quick to learn Creole and,
before long prided himself on his ability to communicate directly with Haitians. Perhaps this contributed to his
promotion to the status of a noncommissioned officer. Even so, as a corporal his allegiance was still clear; he was an
enlisted man with all the resentment and apprehension toward officers that came along with that station. And if
learning Creole helped him learn a little more about the people whose nation he patrolled, it did nothing to help him
understand the men above him. Orders didn't come with explanations. The average marine was left to wonder, and it
seems that's just what Homer Overley did.

He wondered about the Haitian workers he observed as he patrolled the Haitian American Sugar Company
grounds near Port-au-Prince. He wondered about the wealthy Americans and Europeans who owned HASCO. He
wondered about the fate of marines captured by the rebels; he'd heard stories enough to fuel his imagination on that
question. He wondered why it always seemed to be the officers who got the credit, when it was the men themselves
who braved the odds and fired the decisive shots. He wondered, one day a he approached a large group of Haitians
with only four other marines on hand, whether they were Cacos or rioters who might overpower his small patrol. He
had orders not to speak to any natives, but spoke to the group's leader, the local chief of section. He had order-or so
he said- "to shoot all Cacos and Voodoes [sic]," but he didn't shoot, though he learned they were on their way to dance
in honor of their priestess. Perhaps he wondered what went on at such dances; almost certainly he wondered what
this "Voodoe" was, and what it had to do with the rebellion.

Other marines had more troubling encounters with the mysteries of this foreign culture in this land they had
invaded. In the thick of the war against the Cacos, marines could find themselves disoriented, not only by unfamiliar
terrain or insufficient rations, but also by the unnerving sounds of drums and conch horns coming from near and far.
One marine described the experience of coming on a Caco camp: "We passed the outpost with no resistance but after
passing them about 150 Cacos fell in behind us armed with rifles machetes, and sharp pointed sticks, keeping up an
incessant blowing of conch horns and beating of drums...at the second outpost...a much larger force...fell in rear of us
also keeping up the conch horn music which will never be forgotten by the men as it was the weirdest of sounds under
the circumstances any of us had ever heard" We don't know whether Haitians-seeing the effect of the conch on
Marines in the field- ever purposely used "the incessant blowing of conch horns and beating of drums" to unsettle
marines on patrol. Nor do we know whether Marine Corps officers realized the precise uses of the conch in battle. We
do know, however, that officers in the field recognized that the conch posed a threat, at the very lest, because it shook
the confidence of their men. Hence Captain Chandler Campbell's promise, in the fall of 1915, to burn the houses and
destroy the corps of the Cacos "if they blow anymore conches"

What to make of the conches, the drums, the worshipers going to honor their priestess? What to make of
commanding officers, demanding duty, silent fellow recruits? What to make of poor Haitians, wealthy Americans,
French priests, and Germans? What t make of one's own role in such a complex situation? Some years later, with the
benefit of hindsight and perhaps an anti-imperialist tract or two, ex-corporal Homer Overley reflected on his service in
Haiti. "We who served in [the] Marines received little credit," he wrote; we "tried to keep Esprit du Corps high to cover
for service which was often disillusioning," so disillusioning, in fact, "that we sometimes wondered just what was right or
wrong" and "what it was all about."

1 of 2

Excerpt from Taking Haiti
Renda, Mary. Taking Haiti Military Occupation and the Culture of U.S. Imperialism 1915- 1940. Chapel Hill; University
of North Carolina Press, 2001.

The State Department and the U.S. Navy certainly hoped to keep marines straight on the question of what it
was all about. The official story of paternal guidance offered to a child-nation in need was intended in part to clarify
questions of right and wrong. Yet the marines were operating in a complex cultural context, shaped not only by their
government's rhetoric and propaganda, but also by the realities of Haitian history and culture that surrounded them.
The encounter between Haiti and the marines that was initiated by the invasion of 1915 continued each time a patrol
found a Caco camp or met a group of peasants going to a dance. The cultural baggage these young men brought with
them to Haiti-from their upbringing, their training, their pervious tours of duty, and their camaraderie en route- all this
helped to shape what they saw and heard when they encountered Haitians and what sense they made of occupation
they were carrying out. Just as significant were the cultural and historical discourses that shaped the world the
marines invaded. Before turning to the marines, let us first ask, whose shores had they breached?

2 of 2

Carousel Brainstorm Instructions

Step 1 Preparation

The Instructor should print signs with the following questions on 8.5 x 11 inch sheets of paper.
There should be only one sheet posted per station.

Station 1 "What was the official reason for the U.S. occupation of Haiti in 1915?" and "How
did the U.S. accomplish the occupation?"

Station 2 "What tactics were used by the rebels to intimidate the American soldiers?"

Station 3 "Why had Uncle Joseph been warned by his family never to go down the
mountain, away from Beausejour?"

Station 4 "Describe what Uncle Joseph sees when he arrives at the village?"

Step 2 Set up

Post signs throughout the classroom. For classes with 20 or more students it is best to have two
"carousels" running simultaneously. For example, you may place one set of signs (stations 1 4)
at the front of the room and place the second set of signs at the back of the room. Students should
always remain on the same "carousel" by staying within the same rotation in which they began.

Step 3 Carousel Activity

Divide the class into small groups of 3 5 students each. Place each group of students at a
different station. You may assign a recorder for the group or require each student to write their own
answers. Allow the students three minutes to discuss and write down their answers. Every three
minutes call "time" to allow each group to move to the next station.

Step 4 Conclusion

Once each group has rotated to all four stations allow students to return to their seats. As a class
review the questions that were posted. Each group's answers may vary; therefore, allow adequate
time for discussion and clarification of each topic.

Jefferson and the Haitian Revolution


Raul A. Garcia

Florida International University Teaching American History

Latin American and Caribbean Studies Teacher Summer Institute


Unit Teaching Plan: Jefferson and the Haitian Revolution

Note: The following Lesson Plan outline utilizes the River Deep template. Following this
are more details of implementation and a listing of sources.

Title: 08/11 SS LP 006 Jefferson and the Haitian Revolution
Subject Area: Social Studies- Grades 8, 11
Course Connection: American History (8, 11)
Description/Abstract of Lesson: Using primary and secondary sources, students will
understand the importance and connection of United States History and African
American History, to the Haitian Revolution, beginning during the Jeffersonian period.
Objective(s): CBC's- Component Based Competencies: Geographical Understanding I,
B.3 migration of people through history (slave trade); Historical Awareness II, 1.
Economic reasons for New World exploration; 5.territorial growth of the United States,
7. Economic importance of slavery in the United States, 14. Role of key individuals in
U.S. history; Economic understanding IV, 4. Economic program of Jefferson; VI. Global
perspective, 2. Analyze events which demonstrate the concept of historical interpretations
to differ, 4. Apply the five-step decision-making model to historical conflicts (Louisiana
Teacher Materials/Technology Connections: Selected online sites and excerpted
Student Materials/Technology Connections: History textbook, online websites,
computer lab use.
Duration: 5 class sessions. Block scheduling 3 sessions.
Essential Question/Key Vocabulary: What was the context and events that led to the
Louisiana Purchase? Why was the second New World republic not recognized by
Jefferson? Key vocabulary: laissez faire, embargo, customs duties, triangular trade,
revolution, mulatto, environmentalism, Republicans, states rights.
Grouping for Instruction: Both the classroom and the computer lab will be utilized.
There are several online sources to be used by the learners. Two readings will use the
Criss strategy of Think-Pair-Share.
Lesson Lead In/Opening: K-W-L Criss strategy will be used to assess prior knowledge
and obtain focus questions.
Steps to Deliver Lesson: Day One: Assess learners prior knowledge on Jefferson,
Haitian Revolution, and the slave trade. Day Two: Present Power Point on the
development of racism in the nineteenth century and define environmentalism. Day
Three: Selected reading- Edwidge Danticat, "Ignoring the Revolution Next Door", Time,
July 5, 2004. Think-Pair-Share.
Guided Practice: Power Point presentation will be teacher-led and highlight Jeffersonian
and then-current views on slavery and race.
Independent Practice: Students will pre-read Section 2, The Louisiana Purchase, in The
American Journey (2005) textbook, Glencoe, pages 282-285.
Differentiated Instruction: Alternative credit may be earned by students producing map
of territorial expansion and/or the triangular trade. Power Point presentation on a relevant
topic to this unit- Jefferson, Haitian Revolution, Toussaint Louverture, can be used for

Lesson Closure: The ideals of Jefferson's Declaration of Independence and the French
Revolution, in particular, influence directly the Haitian Revolution. The success of the
Haitian revolt and the end of slavery there is paralleled with the entrenchment and
expansion of slavery in the southern United States. Jefferson's non-recognition of this
republic was in large part due to his status as a slave owner and that a large part of his
constituents were also slave-owners.
Resources: www.weblessons.com, www.teachingamericanhistory.org,
www.digitalhistory.uh.edu,www. thelouvertureproject.org,
Assessment: All learners will receive an objective chapter test. Additionally, learners
will develop an essay on Jeffersonian democracy and discuss his views on slavery and
race relations. Alternative assessment can involve Power Point presentation on relevant
unit topic and/or creation of map on territorial expansion.
Jurying Profile: 6-8 Social Studies.
Creator: Raul Antonio Garcia
Date Created: 7-1-09

Intent: The proposed lesson plan was designed to help bridge the gap between the current
textbook expositions afforded to Grade 8 American History students and more recent
historiography. The American Journey (Glencoe, 205), covers the Jeffersonian period in
Chapter 9, pages 276- 303. The Haitian Revolution and its centrality in the acquisition of
the Louisiana Territory are covered in three brief paragraphs on page 283. One of the
main reasons of this lesson plan is to highlight this momentous revolution and the effects
on U.S. history within, but not limited to, this time frame.

Scope: Though this plan is designed for Grade 8 learners, this can also be utilized for
Grade 11 students. In the current Miami Dade County Public School progression,
American History is taught in Grade 8. In Grade 9, World History is taught. There is no
mandated Social Studies course in Grade 10, but in Grade 11 American History is taught.
The selection of reading passages and excerpts and online sources was framed by
considering the reading levels of Grade 8 students as a baseline.

Student Orientation: Though the transatlantic commerce, and specifically the slave trade,
was covered in a previous chapter The American Journey, a prelude to this lesson would
be to re-visit the so-called "Triangular trade" and the "Middle Passage". Expanded text
descriptions and visual aids are provided at the U.N.E.S.C.O. site
The establishment of Haiti as a premier plantation colony is noted by Thomas Bender, A
Nation among Nations- America's Place in World History, Hill and Wang, New York,
2006, p.66. St. Domingue/Haiti was "the jewel of the Caribbean sugar islands". Students
will pre-read Chapter 9, Section 2, in The American Journey (2005) pages 282-285.

Spatial understanding of the Louisiana Purchase can be accessed by the online
www.weblessons.com There is a specific lesson on the Purchase with maps and charts.

This site has been made available to all TAH Masters program in American History grant
students through a perpetual license and there are several mandated inclusion lessons,
though this is an additional lesson but most relevant to this lesson plan.

Day One: The Criss Strategy of K-W-L will be used to gauge prior knowledge of
students about Jefferson and the Haitian Revolution. A chart of three columns is written
on the board- the first column is headed "What I know", the second is headed "What I
Need to Know", and the third is headed "What I Learned". The intent is to focus on and
establish questions and define what were Jefferson's personal views on slavery and race
relations. To explore the mind of Jefferson, students will read the primary source letter
from Jefferson to Henri Gregoire, dated February 25, 1809. This was gleaned from
www.teachingamericanhistory.org/library.indes.asp?document460 This printable
document offers insights into Jefferson's views on race.

Day Two: Students will review the Jefferson to Gregoire letter and Think-Pair-Share their
views. Following this, a Power Point presentation on the development of nineteenth
century racism will be viewed. This is largely derived from George M. Fredrickson, The
Black Image in the White Mind, Wesleyan University Press, 1971, Chapters 1-5. This
will be a teacher-guided presentation, with emphasis on Jefferson's "suspicions" on race
and the current of "environmentalism". In The American Journey (2005), there is no
direct mention of Jefferson owning slaves. This is a glaring omission that has been noted
by writer James W. Loewen in Lies My Teacher Told Me, Touchstone, New York, 1995.
On page 148, Loewen notes this omission and states that Jefferson eventually owned 267
slaves, and also supported the western expansion of slavery. Students will read this
excerpt, and will also view the DVD video, Egalite for All: Toussaint Louverture and the
Haitian Revolution, Koval Films, Director: Noland Walker, Narrator: Edwidge Danticat,
2009, 60 minutes. Though the film can be viewed within a block schedule class period, it
is suggested to view the film in two showings of 30 minutes each for material review and
discussion. Michel Laguerre's Diasporic Citizenship: Haitian Americans in Transnational
America, St. Martin's Press, 1998, can be used for orientation to this historic connection.
Additional secondary history evidence is gleaned from Mary A. Renda's brief narrative
that although U.S. merchants supported the rebels in Haiti, the perceived danger of the
new black republic by Jefferson and his southern constituents resulted in non-recognition
until 1862. (Mary A. Renda, Taking Haiti-Military Occupation and the Culture of U.S.
Imperialism, 1915-1934, University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 2001, p. 29)
More evidence is provided, this time about the period prior to Jefferson's presidency,
when in 1792, the U.S. welcomed and in some cases paid for the re-settlement of French
colonists fleeing St. Domingue with their slaves. This is found in an overview of Haitian
migration by Karen E. Richman, Migration and Vodou, University Press of Florida,
2005, p. 52.

Day Three: Students will read Edwidge Danticat's essay "Ignoring the Revolution Next
Door", Time, July 5, 2004, p. 61. This Time magazine featured several articles on
Jefferson and the article by Danticat eloquently grasps the essential points of this period
with respect to the Haitian revolution, which marked its bicentennial birth in 2004.
Danticat is the narrator for the film, Egalite for All.

Vocabulary: insurgency, chattel. Students will Think-Pair-Share their views and
compare/contrast this revolution/insurgency with the American Revolution via a Venn
diagram or three-column chart. The concept of slaves as property is starkly seen in the
3/5 Compromise during the American Constitutional Convention. This can be supplied as
a hint/clue to students as a question: "What was the 3/5 Compromise and what does this
have to do with our discussion on Haiti?"
Days Four and Five: Ideally these two days can be scheduled in the computer lab to
provide individual exploration of two sites. The first one is
www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/article. This offers students a description and
synthesis of Jeffersonian republicanism and the Louisiana Purchase.
The second site is www.thelouvertureproject.org, this offers several primary sources such
as the "Tobias letter to James Madison" which provides insights into U.S./Haitian
relations at this time. It also provides additional links to the Haitian revolution and more
about Toussaint Louverture.
Special Assignments: The Microsoft Power Point program I have found to be successful
in enlisting students to create a combined text and visual image presentation. Students
can select a specific topic and create a series of related slides on the topic with
explanatory text. Students additionally learn good documentation practices by
documenting both images and textual passages. Electronic submittal also reduces paper
costs in school. Students can also individually present these to their class and provide
peer feedback and assessments.
Follow-up: Thomas Bender (A Nation among Nations, 2006) has documented the high
mortality among slaves in the production of sugar in the Caribbean (p. 58-59). The
persistence of economic dependency, poverty, political instability, and violence in Haiti
is a reality. A more recent work of relevance to students is Edwidge Danticat's Brother;
I'm Dying, New York, Vintage, 2007. It is difficult to discuss death and these systemic
social conditions in Haiti with students but one method is to use a story. In this work, a
folk tale is related to the author by her aunt, in the story of "Father God and the Angel of
Death" on pages 142-145. This excerpted text can be read by students and discussed. This
story can be the catalyst to open up discussions on how people cope with these conditions
and on present-day Haiti. Michel Laguerre's Diasporic Citizenship can also be used for
more modern Haitian history, including the transnational experiences.
It has been my experience after teaching middle school for eight years, that it is difficult
to cover adequately American History from its colonial beginnings to the present day, in
any given school year. Scheduling changes, FCAT testing, the requirement beginning in
the 2008-09 school term to provide career training through the social studies department,
have all diminished the subject curriculum calendar. Given sufficient time, more modern
focuses on U.S. / Haitian relations and history could be addressed. Some of the
previously cited sources could also serve to achieve more modern lesson plans. Students
will certainly be enjoined to research current events about Haiti to accomplish this.

U.S. Invasion and Occupation of Haiti


Vijay Jainanan

Florida International University Teaching American History

Latin American and Caribbean Studies Teacher Summer Institute


Title: U.S. Invasion and Occupation of Haiti.

Grade Level: 8

Subject Area: US History

Lesson Overview: After the Haitian Revolution, Haiti was wrecked with political
turmoil. They had seen many presidents in the early 19th century. Between 1911 and 1915
Haiti had seen six different presidents. These domestic weaknesses led to intervention by
foreign nations that worsened the political situation. On July 28, 1915 President
Woodrow Wilson sent 330 marines into the Port-Au-Prince. Since the US History
textbook used in Miami Dade County Public Schools neglects to address the US invasion
and occupation of Haiti this lesson will facilitate as an extension to the chapter which
focuses on US "Overseas Expansion." (Chapter 22 of "The American Journey") With the
use of primary and secondary sources this lesson will explore U.S. invasion and
occupation of Haiti form 1915-1935.

IA9 Examine a social, political, or economic issue in the United States during the 1920's
that has implications for society today.

IIA14 Discuss the roles of key individuals, including women and minorities, during
major historical periods or events in United States and Florida history.

IB1 Assess the impact of physical geography on the development of the United States;
e.g., early exploration, colonial settlement, westward movement, development of cities
and industries, Civil War, overseas expansion, isolationism, interdependence.

Key Question: Why did the US invade and occupy from 1915-1935?

Key Terms and Individuals:
President Woodrow Wilson
President Andrew Johnson
Haitian President Jean Vilbrun Guillaume Sam
Philippe Sudre Dartguenave
Thomas Jefferson
Toussaint L'Ouverture
Caco Revolutionaries
Haitian Revolution

The lesson will be completed in two class periods (Two days based on block Scheduling.)
Day 1 will be spent on exploring student's knowledge of Haiti and its History and
viewing a documentary on Haiti's History.

Day 2 will be spent of exploring the key Question.

Steps to deliver lesson:
1. Student's prior knowledge will be activated with the use of the KWL chart. On a
sheet of paper student will create a chart with three columns.
2. The first column will be labeled K-know, here the students write everything
though already know about Haiti and the US invasion and occupation of Haiti.
3. The second column students will write everything they want to know about the
US invasion and occupation of Haiti.
4. The third column will be reserved for what they have learned about the US
invasion and occupation of Haiti at the end of the lesson.
5. Students will share their responses for column one and two with the rest of class
allowing for discussion.
6. Students will watch a documentary informing them of Haiti's history. The
documentary titled Haiti, land of tragedy: Haiti, land of hope, Princeton, NJ:
Films for the Humanities & Sciences, 2004 traces the history of Haiti from its
discovery by Christopher Columbus in the later 15 century to present. This video
will provide an opportunity to cover centuries of Haiti's history in 55 minutes
thus providing the students with the background knowledge needed for the better
understanding of the lesson.

Day 2
7. Students will then break up into groups of 5. Each member of the groups will be
given two pieces of documents to read and analyze.

1. Renda A. Mary, 2001, A Brief Narrative of the U.S. Intervention and
Occupation in Haiti, Taking Haiti: Military Occupation & the Culture of
U.S. Imperialism 1915-1940. The University of North Carolina Press.
This excerpt gives a brief simple narrative of the U.S. intervention
and Occupation in Haiti. It includes the influence the Haitian
Revolution had on the United States up to the departure of the US
Marines form Haiti.
This link will give you access to Renda's A Brief Narrative of the U.S.
Intervention and Occupation in Haiti
http://www.ibiblio.org/uncpress/chapters/renda taking.html

2. U.S. Department of State U.S. Invasion and Occupation of Haiti, 1915-
This document published on the US Department of State Website is a brief
argument for the U.S. Invasion and Occupation of Haiti, 1915-34 form the
US State Department

8. While the students are reading they are to answer the Key Question Why did the
United States enter into Haiti in 1915?

9. After Students have read the article they will utilize Think-Pair-Share, which is
cooperative discussion strategy. It allows of structured discussion based on pre-
reading and or research.

Think- as students read the documents they will write down their answers to the
question posed and they will also write down any question they have after

Pair- Students will then be organized in groups of 5's. This will allow them to
discuss what they have read and share their comments, answers, and ask questions
allowing a group member to respond.

Share- After the students are finished discussing, they will share with the rest of
the class their response to Key Questionsl.
This also allows for open class discussion. Students can share with the whole
class their analytical thoughts thus sparking discussions based on they knowledge
they acquired based on the readings.
10. Students will then fill in the third column of their KWL chart. Under column
"L" the students will list everything they have learned about Haiti and the US
invasion and occupation of Haiti.


Joyce Appleby, James M. McPherson, Alan Brinkley, The national Geographic Society,
2005, The American Journey, Time School Publishing collaboration with Glencoe/
McGraw Hill

This the 8th grade United States History textbook use by Miami Dade County
Public Schools.

Mary A. Renda. 2001, Taking Haiti: military occupation and the culture of U.S.
imperialism, 1915-1940, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press
This book gives an insightful view of American Imperialism in Haiti. Renda
Explores in Part 1 of the book the Occupation by United States in Haiti. She spends a
great deal time exploring the interaction between Haitians and the US Marines.

Brenda Gayle Plummer. 1988, Haiti and the Great Powers, 1902-1915, Louisiana State
University Press
This book explores Haiti's straining connection to Europe and the invasion and
occupation of Haiti by the United States. The author argues US occupation was led to the
penetration of US business's which economic interest became the United States key
interest in Haiti.

Magdaline W. Shannon. 1996, Jean Price-Mars, the Haitian elite and the American
occupation, 1915-1935, New York: St. Martin's Press.

The book revolves around Jean Price-Mars who was a writer and leader during the time
of the US occupation of Haiti. He was a firm believer in the equality of all Haitians and
worked to restore public faith with the elite leader ship including the American

Hans Schmidt, 1995, The United States occupation of Haiti, 1915-1934, New Brunswick,
N.J. Rutgers University Press.
This book as the title says gives a good overview of the US occupation of Haiti. It
explorers the events taking place before and after the invasion of Haiti by the US. The
author spends time not only looking at the political side of the occupation but also human
aspect of it. The author like Renda spends time exploring the interaction between the US
Marines and Haitians.

Chester Arthur Millspaugh, 1970, Haiti under American control, 1915-1930, Westport,
Connecticut, Negro Universities Press
This book gives and inside view of America's Hati policies. Chester Arthur
Millspaugh was a financial advisor to Haiti from 1927-29. The author us statements,
polices, and treaties and other various forms of primary evidence to give a detailed look
at the US occupation of Haiti.

U.S. Department of State U.S. Invasion and Occupation of Haiti, 1915-34,
http://ww.state. g', iv pa hl, time wwi/88275.htm
This document published on the US Department of State Website is a brief
argument for the U.S. Invasion and Occupation of Haiti, 1915-34 form the US State

George W. Brown, 1923, Haiti and the United States The Journal of Negro History. Vol.
8 No. 2. pp 134-152, Association for the study of African American Life and History.
This article provides an insight into the US thoughss and surveys of Haiti. It
provides the reader with an insight into the early interatcion of Haiti and why Haiti is at
a great stategic commercial position geographically for the United States.

Antoine Leonard-Maestrati, 2004 Haiti, land of tragedy: Haiti, land of hope, Princeton,
NJ: Films for the Humanities & Sciences

This documentary traces the history of Haiti from its discovery by Christopher
Columbus in the later 15 century to present. This video will provide an opportunity to
cover centuries of Haiti's history in 55 minutes thus providing the students with the
background knowledge needed for the better understanding of the lesson.

The Impact of the Haitian Revolution on American Slavery


Michael Jon Littman

Florida International University Teaching American History

Latin American and Caribbean Studies Teacher Summer Institute


Lesson Plan

The Impact of the Haitian Revolution on American Slavery

Rational: The student should be able to see the connections between the Haitian Revolution and how
that revolution changed the way free Americans like John Brown, American slave owners like Jefferson
Davis and American slaves like Frederick Douglass subsequently interacted with each other.

Objective: After a unit on slavery and examining primary source documents the student will predict, via
an essay and in-class debates, possible impacts of the Haitian Revolution on American Slavery


1. The teacher will begin with a discussion of the predecessor events of the Haitian Revolution and the
subsequent violence using selected readings. Each student will construct a map showing the location of
Haiti in relation to its neighbors circa 1800.

2. The students will be broken up into in their small groups. Each group will be given a specific task to
research and report to the class:

a. Economic causes of the Haitian Revolution

b. World/Global events and the Haitian Revolution

c. The road to liberation in Haiti

d. Possible effects of Haitian liberation on the Americas

3. The student small groups will report to the class on their findings with a question/answer session to
follow each presentation.

4. The teacher will construct a time line of the Haitian Revolution with the assistance of the small groups
and their findings

5. The teacher will refer to the presentation of the last group (effects of liberation) and ask the class to
predict possible repercussions of the Haitian Revolution on the relationship between slave and master in
the USA.

6. The class will hear arguments of the impact of the Haitian Revolution on American Slavery in debate

Evaluation: The student will be graded in the following fashion

1. Participation in small group activity (1 grade)

2. Predictive essay (2 grades)

3. Participation in debate (1 grade)

Materials: The teacher will supply the following materials

1. American Sugar Kingdom by Cesar Ayala Page 16

2. The Haitian Revolution (1791-1804): A Different Route to Emancipation by Prof. Jeremy
Popkin, University of Kentucky (selected primary source quotes from his appendix shown
below as Appendix A)

3. International Repercussions of the Haitian Revolution, by John E. Baur Page 394

4. The Haitian Revolution And The Forging of America by Jim Thompson (primarily for the
excellent primary sources in the appendix but also the analysis in the essay. Shown below as
Appendix B)

Appendix A
Primary Sources From Popkin

French Attitudes Toward Africans and Slavery on the Eve of the French Revolution (1789)
(two citations from Pruneau de Pommegorge, Description de la Nigrite (1789))

"If religion did not teach us beyond any doubt that we are all descendants of a single man, one
would certainly believe that, just as he did with dogs and parrots, God created several species of
men at the same time." (59)

"By what right do we permit ourselves to take men like ourselves away from their homeland?
To cause massacres and continual wars there? To separate mothers from their children,
husbands from their wives? To cause those who are too old to be sold to be massacred... in front
of their children, because of our lust to buy these unfortunates?"

The First Mention of Toussaint in a French Document (1792)

"At the Time of so hazardous an Occurrence as this was, Toussaint, of Breda, Biassou's Aid de
Camp [Biassou was one of the rebel leaders], braving all Danger, attempted to save us, though he
might have been himself the Victim to this Monster's Rage. He represented to him, that we
could not, and ought not to be thus sacrificed, without being imprisoned, and calling a Court
Martial upon us." (Gros, An Historick Recital, of the Difference Occurrences in the Camps of
Grande-Reviere... by M. Gros, 62. Gros had been taken prisoner by the blacks during the

A White Combatant Describes the Behavior of a Captured Black Rebel

The anonymous French author captured a black rebel who was about to be executed. The man
told him, "'It is the Devil who gets inside this body of mine. I am a good nigger, but against my
will the Devil is too strong.' His excuse made me laugh despite my anger, and had I been alone,
I would certainly have saved him." The other white soldiers were less sympathetic, however,
and insisted on executing the man. "When he saw that his fate was sealed, he began to laugh,
sing, and joke. At times, however, reviling us in a furious tone, at times jeering at us in
mockery. He gave the signal himself and met death without fear or complaint." (My Odyssey,

Toussaint's First Public Appeal to the Population of Saint Domingue (1793)

"I am Toussaint Louverture. My name is perhaps know to you. I have undertaken to avenge
you. I want liberty and equality to reign throughout Saint Domingue. I am working towards that
end. Come and join me, brothers, and combat by our side for the same cause." (George Tyson,
Toussaint L'Ouverture, 28)

The French General Rochambeau describes Toussaint in 1796

"Wanting to travel and to see the Africans for myself, with my own eyes, to determine whether it
was possible to get them back to work after they had been so suddenly emancipated, I visited the
provinces of the north and the west and I stopped for a while in Gonaives where I stayed with
Toussaint Louverture. I conferred with him, he seemed to have some ideas about how to conduct
military operations... He is religious, a friend of order, and submits to the new laws through
which he obtains all the respect he desires. He certainly has his own little ambition which he
carefully tries to hide... I don't know if he will settle for a supporting role when he can or wants
to play the leading one... The blacks in the North worship him and I fear... that he may overawe
the agents of the Directory." [The Directory was the French republican government set up after
the end of the Reign of Terror; it was overthrown by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799].

A French Legislator's Explanation of the Slave Revolt (1797)

"In the midst of the general exaltation of passions caused by the Revolution, when the word
liberty was in everyone's mouths, even those of the white colonists who used it to claim
tyrannical power and political independence for themselves, when the symbols of freedom were
displayed everywhere, it would have been odd indeed if the blacks alone had been deaf to the
sound of a word that promised them a condition so different from the one they were suffering
under. They saw the whites fighting among themselves and alienating the mulattoes. They
outnumbered the whites ten to one. One would have to have a very poor understanding of
human nature to think that, in such a situation, the blacks needed any inspiration other than this
impulse that is irresistible for all living creatures..." (Garran-Coulon, Rapport sur les Troubles
de Saint-Domingue, 2:194)

A French Comment on the Slave Army (1797)

"The blacks... showed their political intelligence after the victory. It is reported that they did not
lose a man, that many of their units were better armed than the whites themselves, and that they
maintained an excellently coordinated fire." (Garran-Coulon, 2:609)

A White Plantation-Owner Describes the Behavior of Emancipated Blacks (1799)

"They profit from their present preponderance to vex the whites, humiliate them whenever the
circumstances permit, by outbursts, thefts, or insults that aren't punished. 'You punished me,
now I punish you!' That is their unanimous cry." (Descourtilz, Voyages (1809), 2:452-3)

Toussaint Justifies His Forced-Labor Program (1800)

"In order to secure our liberties, which are indispensable to our happiness, every individual must
be usefully employed, so as to contribute to the public good... Whereas, since the revolution,
labourers of both sexes, then too young to be employed in the field, refuse to go to it now under
pretext of freedom, spend their time in wandering about, and give a bad example to the other
cultivators... I do most peremptorily order as follows: "Art. 1. All overseers, drivers, and field-

negroes are bound to observe, with exactness, submission, and obedience, their duty in the same
manner as soldiers.... Art. 3 "All field-labourers, men and women, now in a state of idleness,
living in towns, villages, and on other plantations than those to which they belong... are required
to return immediately to their respective plantations..." (G. Tyson, Toussaint L'Ouverture, 52-3)

A French Description of Toussaint in 1801

"Toussaint, at the head of his army, is the most active and indefatigable man of whom we can
form an idea... His great sobriety, the faculty, which none but he possesses, of never reposing,
the facility with which he resumes the affairs of the cabinet after most tiresome excursions, of
answering daily a hundred letters, and of habitually tiring five secretaries, render him so superior
to all those around him that their respect and submission are in most individuals carried even to
fanaticism. It is certain that no man, ion the present times, has obtained such an influence over a
mass of ignorant people as General Toussaint possesses over his brethren in St. Domingue."

Appendix B

Primary Sources From Thompson


In 1794 and 1800, the federal government passed anti-slave trade laws to prevent the possible
spread of the Haitian slave revolt to the U.S. The first prohibited citizens from equipping ships
engaged in slave trade commerce, and the second prohibited Americans from serving aboard
such ships or from having any interest in their voyages. (Aptheker, 45).

Beginning in 1792, southern states, including South Carolina, Kentucky, North Carolina, Georgia,
and Maryland, passed laws restricting slave trade as a means of preventing the possible
infection of the U.S. by the Haitian rebellion. South Carolina's statute prohibited the importation
by any one person of more than two slaves, and required that the slaves imported be for
personal use only. This law was subsequently modified to retain a total ban only with respect to
slaves from the West Indies or South America. However, all imported slaves had to be
accompanied by a statement signed by two magistrates attesting that the slaves had not been
involved in any insurrection or revolt. (Ibid., 73-74).

In 1797, Baltimore, Maryland passed an ordinance declaring all slaves imported from the West
Indies between 1792 and 1797 to be "dangerous to the peace and welfare of the city" and
ordering their masters to banish them. (Ibid., 74).

Many southern states enacted measures restricting the civil liberties of blacks, including laws
forbidding meetings of slaves without the presence of whites, prohibiting the assembly of blacks
on city streets after dark, requiring slaves to have passes when off plantation, forbidding slaves
to possess weapons, and providing severe penalties for sedition. (Ibid., 73-74).

A South Carolina regulation made it necessary for a magistrate and five freeholders to approve a
document of manumission, freeing slaves from bondage. One of the stated reasons for this
regulation was a concern that slaveholders would release slaves "of bad or depraved character"
who might incite rebellion once freed. (Ibid. 75)

Freed blacks were restricted in their right to hold certain jobs or learn certain trades that might
make it easier for them to organize a rebellion. They were also restricted in their freedom of

movement from state to state or county to county. (Ibid., 77-78).

In some states, blacks were prevented from testifying in court against white persons; this
restriction had the effect of preventing blacks from defending themselves against charges that
they were part of a slave conspiracy. (Aptheker,77).

Shortly after the Vesey Plot to burn Charleston was aborted, white Carolinians took measures to
ensure that free blacks were given even less freedom. As part of this effort, in December 1832,
the South Carolina legislature enacted the Free-Colored Seamen's Act, requiring that all free
blacks employed on incoming vessels be detained in jail while their ship was in port. (Hunt, 120).

Annotated Bibliography


A Particular Account of the Commencement and Progress of the Insurrection of the Negroes in St.
Domingo. London: J. Sewell, 1792.
This is a translation of a speech made to the French National Assembly by the Deputies from the General
Assembly of St. Domingue explaining the origins of the slave revolt. The viewpoint presented is that of
the white planters. The speech describes in graphic detail the horrors of the slave insurrection and the
gruesome murder of the white population at the hands of the slaves. The Deputies suggest that there
would not have been an insurrection except for the activities of the Amis de Noirs (literally "Friends of
the Blacks") which fomented discontent among the black population. This speech is interesting because
it is a first person account and helpful in explaining the position of the white planters.

An Inquiry into the Causes of the Insurrection of the Negroes in the Island of St. Domingo. Philadelphia:
Crukshank, 1792.
Like the preceding entry, this too is a translation of remarks made to the French National Assembly
looking into the causes of the slave revolt in St. Domingue. Unlike the previous entry, however, these
remarks reject the arguments of the white planters as to the origins of the revolution and instead lay the
blame at their feet. This report suggests that the unwillingness of the white planters to extend equal
rights to the mulattos was the source of the discontent which eventually spread to the slave population.

Aptheker, Herbert. American Negro Slave Revolts. [1943] 5th ed. New York: International Publishers,
This book could be considered both a primary and a secondary source. It is a complete and very well
documented account of the history of resistance to slavery in the United States. The author's analysis is
insightful and was very helpful to me in preparing my paper. However, what was even more helpful was
the primary source material which helped document just how big an impact the Haitian Revolution had
on the United States in the pre-Civil War period. This book is one of the best sources I found.

Howard, Thomas Phipps. The Haitian Journal of Lieutenant Howard, York Hussiers, 1796-1798. Knoxville:
University of Tennessee Press, 1986.
This is a first-hand account of the Haitian Revolution written by a lieutenant in a regiment of the British
expeditionary force sent to St. Domingue. As was true of the French forces, the British forces were
repelled and soundly defeated by the Haitian army led by Toussaint L'Ouverture. This journal vividly
describes Lieutenant Howard's experiences during the final two years of Britain's occupation of St.
Domingue. The editor of this book notes that it is probably "the only reliable firsthand military account
in English" of the slave uprising. The journal is interesting because of what it tells us about the slave
rebellion and the military history of a doomed expedition. In the process, it provides insight into the
military leadership of Toussaint from someone who fought against him.

Lassat, Pierre-Clement de. Louisiana, Napoleon, and the United States. Lamham: University Press of
America, 1989.
This book, written by the man who was designated by Napoleon to become the governor of French
Louisiana, is an excellent primary source of information pertaining to the events leading up to the sale of
Louisiana to the United States. The book contains particularly interesting insights into Napoleon's
thought process in deciding precipitously to sell Louisiana.

Marbois, M. Barbe. The History of Louisiana. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1977.
This primary source, written by the then-French Minister of the Treasury, provides not only a masterly
written and very informative account of the history of Louisiana but also first person insight into the
thoughts of Napoleon at the time he decided to sell the Louisiana territory to the United States. The
author was the French representative to the negotiations which led to the sale of Louisiana.

Mullin, Michael, et. American Negro Slavery: A Documentary History. Columbia: University of South
Carolina Press, 1976.
This book traces the history of black slaves in America through original primary source materials,
including diaries, public records, newspaper accounts, and personal correspondence. These documents
help you understand what it was like to be a slave in America, as well as how the slaves were perceived
by white society. For purposes of my paper, the book was useful because it contained a series of
accounts pertaining to Denmark Vesey, the leader of one of the largest planned slave insurrections in
U.S. history, and a man who clearly drew inspiration from the Haitian slave revolt. Vesey was born in
Africa and was brought to the Caribbean, and specifically to St. Domingue, by his master. He had an
opportunity to observe first hand the Haitian revolt. Vesey eventually purchased his freedom with a
lottery ticket, after which he moved to the United States and settled in Charleston, South Carolina, a city
which had a long history of contact with the West Indies. There he carefully planned a slave revolt
involving thousands of slaves. His plans were to take the entire city and, eventually, to escape to Haiti.
His plot was foiled, however, and Vesey and thirty-five others were tried and hanged. One of the
excerpts in this book reports on the Vesey trial, in which Vesey took the stand and defended himself.

Ott, Thomas 0. The Haitian Revolution. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1973.
This book could be listed as both a primary and a secondary source. Although it is written by a
contemporary author, it contains much primary source material. The book is a history of the Haitian

Revolution told in large part through first hand accounts. It has a particularly good discussion of the
consequences of the Revolution for the United States. This source provided me with first hand
explanations of the events that were taking place in Haiti at the time of the rebellion. This book does a
particularly nice job of telling, through first hand accounts, of the impact of the Haitian Revolution on
the South.

Parham, Althia de Puech, ed. My Odyssey: Experiences of a Young Refugee from Two Revolutions by a
Creole of Saint Domingue. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1959.
This is the first person account of the French and Haitian Revolutions told by a young French Creole
author (16 years old at the time of the events described in the book) whose family fled the terrors of the
French Revolution in 1791 and moved back to Haiti seeking asylum. Unfortunately, they returned to St.
Domingue just in time to be caught up in the slave revolt. The family stayed in St. Domingue about two
years, during which time the young author fought on the side of the French planters in many uprisings.
After the horrible massacre and burning of Cap Francais, a major city in St. Domingue, the family once
again fled, this time to the United States.

Although I wasn't able to use this book very much in my paper, due to page constraints, it is a fascinating
account of the Haitian Revolution from the perspective of an actual participant. According to the editor,
who is a distant relative of the author, this is the only first person account available which is told from
the side of the French planters. This book provides a fascinating account of the situation in St. Domingue
immediately prior to the slave revolt, the events that actually took place during the author's two visits to
the embattled island (the second coming in 1794 when the author returned to St. Domingue from the
United States to fight on the side of the French against the rebels.

Rus, Martin. Night of Fire: The Black Napoleon and the Battle for Haiti. New York: Sarpedon Publishers,
Inc., 1994.
Although this book could be considered a secondary source, I have treated as a primary source because
of its many primary source quotes. The book traces the history of the Haitian Revolution from the pre-
Revolution brutality leveled by white plantation owners at the slaves to the uprising itself.

Ryan, Mary C., ed. The Louisiana Purchase. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records
Administration, 1987.
This book contains copies of documents pertaining to the purchase by the United States of the Louisiana
territory, including the actual purchase agreement. It also contains a good discussion of the
consequences for the United States of the purchase of the Louisiana territory.

Stephen, James. The Crisis of the Sugar Colonies; or An Enquiry Into The Objects and Probable Effects of
the French Expedition to West Indies. London: J. Hatchard, 1802.
This document consists of a series of four letters written by a James Stephen to the British Prime
Minister offering advice concerning the situation in St. Domingue following the slave uprising and on the
eve of Napoleon's ill-fated attack. It is unclear who Mr. Stephen is and whether his letters are an official
report solicited by the Prime Minister or simply voluntary comments. The letters are interesting for a
number of reasons. In the first letter discussing conditions in the West Indies that led to the slave

insurrection, Mr. Stephen provides an excellent description of the harsh conditions under which the St.
Domingue slaves were forced to work. The other part of these letters which I found to be of particular
interest were the British predictions as to what Napoleon was intending when he sent troops toward St.
Domingue. The author of these letters guessed correctly that Napoleon wanted more than simply to
persuade Toussaint and his band of rebels to swear allegiance to the French. Instead, the author
predicts that Napoleon is bent on restoring slavery. The author suggests that, at the outset, Napoleon
should have little trouble subduing the rebels. However, once the former-slaves become aware of
French intent to reinstate slavery, this author predicts that the mass of blacks will rise up again, placing
in jeopardy the French invasion.

Toussad, Louis de. Justification of Lewis Tousad Addressed to the National Convention of France.
Philadelphia: Daniel Humphrirs, 1793.
This is a rather pathetic plea from a man who led French forces during the slave rebellion written from
prison, professing his innocence to charges that he conspired with the black insurgents against the
citizens of St. Domingue. Although the events which gave rise to Mr. Tousad's imprisonment are not
entirely clear, this report was interesting because it reveals just how many factions were in conflict
during the Haitian Revolution.

Tyson, George F., ed. Toussaint Louverture. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, Inc., 1973.
This book is an excellent source of commentary on Toussaint Louverture, the Haitian Revolution, and its
aftermath, told largely through the first person accounts of people who lived during this period in
history. It gave me a good perspective on the fact that Toussaint was a highly controversial figure,
feared by some people and very much loved by others.

The First U.S. Occupation of Haiti, 1915-1934


Brian Orfall

Florida International University Teaching American History

Latin American and Caribbean Studies Teacher Summer Institute


Lesson Outline to Be Used with the Document Based Question "The First US
Occupation of Haiti, 1915-1934"

Since Miami-Dade County Public Schools does not have its own set of
curricular standards for Advanced Placement United States History, I have
appended two excerpts from my own syllabus, which I currently use to teach the
class that students refer to as "APUSH." In the first excerpt below, I have listed
the relevant sections of the course outline published by the College Board, the
makers of the Advanced Placement exam.1 All page numbers are for the student
textbook America: Past and Present.2 Dates are the result of my own goal-setting
process as well as the fact that the exam is given in early May each year. The 2010
exam is scheduled for Friday, May 7. It is imperative to keep the course moving.

17. Populism and Progressivism Dec 10-14
Agrarian Discontent and Political Issues of the Late 19th Century (pp. 572-650)
Origins of Progressive Reform: Local, State and National
The Progressive Presidents: Roosevelt, Taft and Wilson
The Role of Women: Family, Workplace, Education, Politics and Reform
Black America: Urban Migration and Civil Rights

33 Percent of the APUSH Exam Deals with Material between the Years 1915-
1989; We Will Cover the Following Material in about 10 Weeks or about 33% of
the Time Before the Exam.

18. The Emergence of America as a World Power
American Imperialism: Political and Economic Expansion
War in Europe and American Neutrality
The Great War at Home and Abroad
The Treaty of Versailles
Postwar Society and Economy

Dec 17-21
(pp 655-717)

19. The New Era: the Roaring Twenties Jan 7-11
The Business of America and the Consumer Economy (pp. 717-749)
Republican politics: Harding, Coolidge and Hoover
The Culture of Modernism: Science, Art, Entertainment
Responses to Modernism: Religious Fundamentalism, Nativism and Prohibition
African Americans and Women Strive for Equality

1 The complete document called the "Recommended Course Outline" can be found at:
hlp % % % .collegeboard.com/student/testing/ap/history _us/topic.html.
2 Divine, Et al. America: past and Present. New York, Pearson, Longman & Co. 2005.

Below, I have attached the unit outline from the same Advanced
Placement syllabus.3 The US Occupation of Haiti DBQ will be used to address
theme number one below: The Changing Role of the US in world affairs.

Unit o10: Imperialism and World War I (3 Weeks)
1. The changing role of the US in world affairs from isolationism to
world power, including an in-depth look at the US occupation of Haiti: 1915-1934
2. US motives in World War I and post-war agreements.
3. Presidential and congressional roles in policy management.

Reasons for new interest in world affairs
Spanish-American War
Cuban situation and US reaction
Military preparedness and action
Philippine Annexation debate and results
Open Door Policy
Teddy Roosevelt's "Big Stick" Diplomacy
Roosevelt Corollary and applications
Panama intervention and canal building
Taft's Dollar Diplomacy
Wilson's "Moral" or "Missionary" Diplomacy
Relations with Panama, Mexico, Haiti, Philippines
Neutrality, 1914-1917
World War I as a war to "make the world safe for democracy"
Various interpretations of US motives in World War I
World War I at home
Harassment of German-Americans
Women and minorities
Espionage and Sedition Acts
Business and Labor relations
Creel Committee wartime propaganda
Treaty negotiations and Senate rejection of Versailles Treaty

Major Assignments and Assessments: i.) Simulated debate over Philippine
annexation 2.) Political Cartoons: Students create one cartoon representing
either pro-annexation sentiment or one representing anti-annexation sentiment.

World War I Position Statement:
Students evaluate documents and make reports and position statements on
whether the US claim to be fighting a war to "make the world safe for
democracy" was a valid claim. Groups evaluate the following sets of
documents and readings:

3 The syllabus for an Advanced Placement class must be submitted for approval by the College Board for
approval. I wrote this syllabus in 2006, when I began teaching the AP course.

1. US neutrality statements, submarine warfare experiences, Zimmerman
Note, Fourteen Points
2. US trade and loan figures, Nye Commission report
3. Fourteen Points, Wilson War Message, Versailles Treaty negotiations
(US positions)
4. Documents from the First US Occupation of Haiti: 1915-1934.

Culminating Activity: DBQ The First US Occupation of Haiti In class writing
activity and document fair.

The Textbook and the Curriculum

While America: Past and Present does a good job overall of describing the
Wilson-Era foreign policy episodes in Latin America and the Caribbean, the book
chooses US involvement in Mexico as an in-depth example of the involvement of
the United States in the region during period of the US occupation of Haiti.4
The book devotes only one sentence to the US occupation of Haiti. "In
1915, he [Wilson] sent marines into Haiti to quell a revolution; they stayed until
1934."5 What America: Past and Present lacks in detail, it makes up for in its
summary of American interventionist attitudes during the era of Wilson. The
authors tell us that Wilson's goals were "laudable," that he wanted to help Mexico
develop. The authors criticize Wilson's "motives and methods" as
"condescending," they take a skeptical view of him for trying to impose "gradual
progressive reform" and for "interfering in the affairs of another country" with
"little forethought."6
Since the College Board does not mandate any set topical outline and their
recommended outline lists "The Changing Role of the US in World Affairs," I feel
that the teacher should make the decision whether to offer additional material in
place of the heavy focus on Mexico or to offer the experience of another country
as a comparison. I choose to employ the latter option. The experience of Haiti
under US occupation brings in the important element of race (and, as historian
Mary Renda suggests, gender).7 Comparing the experiences of two or more
countries with their powerful neighbor to the north can show that there was
continuity to the approach of Wilson's foreign policy.

Reading Assignments

In addition to the assigned reading listed above, each small group of
students will be assigned a short section from one of the major secondary sources
listed in the bibliography. Students will be encouraged to identify differing
interpretations among the various historians as their group makes a 5 minute

4 Divine, Et al, page 695.
5 Divine, Et al, page 694.
6 Divine, Et al, page 694.
7 Mary A. Renda, Taking Haiti, (Chapel Hill, 2001).

presentation to the class. The groups should focus on making the main points and
events clear to the class.
The first assignments come from the work of the historian Mary A. Renda.
Renda argues that the US occupation of Haiti was part of a larger culture of US
imperialism and that gender played a large part in determining the behavior of
the Marines sent to fight in Haiti. Her introduction offers an excellent review of
Haitian history up to 1915 and the conditions and influences that impacted both
the Marines and the Haitians.8
Assign one group to report on each section.
Pages 46-53 Overview of Haitian History, 1791-1915
Pages 53-62 American Marines, Who They Were and Where They
Pages 74- 8o Indoctrination, What the Culture of the Marines Was Like
Pages 80-88 First Impressions, What the Marines Initial Experience Was Like

It is also necessary to include reading selections from what many authors
refer to as the classic work on the US occupation, The United States Occupation
of Haiti, 1915-1934 by Hans Schmidt. Schmidt views the occupation through the
lens of the World War I era, arguing that military considerations trumped race,
gender and imperialism.9
Assign one group to report on each section.
Pages 42-63 The Decision to Intervene
Pages 64-81 The Intervention
Pages 83-107 The Marines Take Charge
Pages lo08-134 Reorganization and Rationalization

For the first hour, the teacher should facilitate student presentations; adding
detail where appropriate and helping the students take good notes. Once students
begin to demonstrate a basic understanding of the US Occupation of Haiti, the
document fair can begin.

The Document Fair
Ask students to turn a piece of notebook paper sideways and make five vertical
columns on it. Label the columns from left to right as follows:
Letter and Name of Document
Effect on Your Opinion
How a Historian Could Use the Document
Take four copies of the Document Based Question and cut it up so that you have
four copies of Document A, four copies of Document B, and so on. Divide the
students into groups of two, three or four (depending on class size) and give the

8 Renda, Mary A. Taking Haiti: Military Occupation and the Culture of US Imperialism, 1915-1934.
Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2001.
9 Schmidt, Hans. The United States Occupation of Haiti, 1915-1934. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers
University Press, 1971.

first group Document A, the second group Document B and so on. Walk the
students through the first round and help them fill the chart out.
Remind students that on the AP exam, they will have 15 minutes to read all
of the documents. Consider timing students so that they work more quickly. Each
time they finish, ask the students to switch documents with the group to their
right. When every student has had a chance to analyze all of the documents,
collect the students work and grade them on the presentations and the chart, just
the chart or just wait and grade only the document based question the next class
when the students write it under timed exam conditions.

Follow-Up Activity

Read the either the article by Henry Lewis Suggs or the one by Brenda
Gayle Plummer on the African American press and its coverage of the US
occupation of Haiti.10 Ask students to discuss why the African American press
might have had such a different opinion on matters such as these. Do differences
exist in media coverage today between minority and majority media?

10 Suggs, Henry Lewis. "The Response of the African American Press to the United States Occupation of
Haiti, 1915-1934." The Journal of African American History, Vol. 87, The Past before Us (Winter, 2002),
pp. 70-82. Published by: Association for the Study of African-American Life and History, Inc. Stable
URL: hup \ \\ \.jstor.org/stable/1562492
Brenda Gayle Plummer, "The Afro American Response to the Occupation of Haiti, 1915-1934" Phylon
(1960-), Vol. 43, No. 2 (2nd Qtr., 1982), pp. 125-143 Clark Atlanta University. Stable URL:
hip \ \\ \ .jstor.org/stable/274462

Document-Based Question
The First US Occupation of Haiti: 1915-1934

Using documents A-K and your knowledge of American history, write a well-
organized 3-4 page essay. Remember to use 75% or more of the documents, bring
in outside information and take a defensible position on what the question asks
you to do. Just like the Advanced Placement Exam, you will have a mandatory 15
minute reading period and 45 minutes to write the essay itself.

To what extent was the US occupation of Haiti motivated by the desire to improve
the lives of the Haitian people? To what extent was it motivated by other factors?

Document A

US Occupation Aids Haiti, Says Russell
WASHINGTON- The American occupation of Haiti is so successful that the
"future of Haiti has never been brighter," General John J. Russell, American high
commissioner in Haiti, declared in his first report to the State Department on the
administration of the "Black Republic."
It is believed, declared Russell in part, "that a continuance of the present
policy of cooperation with Haitian government, together with a maintenance of
sincere and earnest cooperation that has been given by it during the past eight
months, can lead but to development and progress of Haiti, maintenance of
peaceful conditions and increased welfare and prosperity of the Haitian people."

Wall Street Journal, April 18, 1923

Document B

My dear Mr. Secretary,

After you have had a chance to read and reflect fully upon Mr. Fuller's report, I
would very much value an expression of your opinion as to what ought to be done
in Haiti, and how it ought to be done. It gives me a good deal of concern. Action is
definitely necessary and it would be a mistake to postpone it long.
Faithfully Yours, W.W.

Letter from President Woodrow Wilson to Secretary of State William Jennings
Bryan, July 2 1915

Document C

...The President said a French cruiser had gone into Haiti to protect the
French bank there. He immediately dispatched an American cruiser, thanked the
French government for what they had done and told them he would relieve them.
He said while Bryan was always using the "soft pedal" in negotiations with
Germany, he had to restrain him when he was dealing with Santo Domingo, Haiti
and such small republics....

From the Diary of Colonel House, June 24, 1915.

Document D

To the Congress of the United States:

In my Message to Congress of the 3rd instant I indicated my concern as to
the future of our policies in Haiti. I stated that we have there about 700 marines,
and that we are confronted with a difficult problem, the solution of which is still
obscure. I further stated that if Congress approves I shall dispatch a Commission
to Haiti to review and study the matter in an endeavor to arrive at some more
definite policy than at present.
Our representatives in Haiti have shown great ability and devotion, and
have accomplished signal results in improvement of the material condition of
that people. Yet our experience has revealed more clearly than was seen at first
the difficulties of the problem, and the entire situation should be reviewed in the
light of this experience.
Since the dispatch of my Message disturbances in Haiti emphasize the
importance of such an investigation and determination of national policies in the
immediate future.
The students at the Agricultural School at Damien went on a strike on
October 31st as a protest against a new policy of the Haitian Government. The
Haitian Government had heretofore allotted $10o,ooo per annum to this School
for scholarships but this year it withheld $2,000 of the appropriation in order to
make it possible for needy students to perform practical school work on the
grounds. Sympathetic strikes were subsequently declared in the medical and law
schools. President [Louis] Borno appointed a committee of Haitians to inquire
into the matter and it seemed probable at the time that recommendations
presented by this committee and accepted by the authorities would adjust the
difficulty. Unfortunately, advantage was taken of the situation by various
agencies to foment disturbances against the Haitian Administration and on
December 3rd the American High Commissioner reported that the strike
movement had spread throughout the country and that it was feared that the
Haitian employees of the departments under American Treaty Officials might
become involved.
On December 4 custom house employees at Port au Prince abandoned
their work in a disorderly manner and crowds have gathered in Port au Prince. At
the same time there were reported demonstrations by crowds at Cape Haitian in

sympathy with the disturbance in Port au Prince. The American High
Commissioner reported that on the morning of December 4 it was feared that
disorderly conditions would arise at Aux Cayes and similar disturbances were
possible at other places.
The High Commissioner has asked that additional Marines be in readiness
to make sure that if the situation becomes serious American lives will be
protected, and the force he has suggested has been ordered dispatched for that
I feel that it is most desirable that the Commission mentioned in my
Message of December 3 be constituted and sent to Haiti without delay and I,
therefore, request the Congress to authorize the immediate sending of such a
Commission and to appropriate for this purpose $50,000. It is my intention to
include one or two Members from each House of Congress on this Commission.

The White House
December 7, 1929

Document E

May 28, 1929

My dear Dr. Buell,

There are two persons who have been in close touch with Haiti, whom I think you
ought to consult. One is Ulysses G. Bassett, 1505-12th Street, NW, Washington,
DC. His father [Ebeneezer D.] was United States Minister to Haiti, and he has
since kept in touch with the best class of Haitians. He receives a good many
confidential documents, and has much information. The second person is
Napoleon B. Marshall, 229 West 135 Street, NY. You probably know him.
Harding started to appoint him United States Minister, but finding that the
banking interests did not want this, he compromised and sent Marshall to Haiti,
as a sort of clerk with indefinite duties. Marshall has stayed there many years and
knows much of the inside workings of the American Occupation. He has recently
resigned and is now in New York. I feel very strongly and in accord with the
conclusions of the report edited by Emily Greene Balch. I think we ought to make
a definite promise of withdrawal at a certain time; then we ought to withdraw the
marines [sic] immediately, and then we ought to send to Haiti civilian helpers in
every line of education and social uplift. Especially we ought to stop the
beginning of the land monopoly and exploitation and restore to their rightful
leadership the educated class of Haiti with every effort to induce them through
example and advice to lead a movement for the uplift of the masses.

Very sincerely yours,
W.E.B. Du Bois

Document F

Honored Minister,

Despite the principles, of international law usually adopted by civilized nations,
and coming out of Great War in Europe, the American Government got involved
in the internal affairs of the small republic of Haiti and imposed a rule whose
approval by the Haitian Parliament was guaranteed enforced by military

We were ready to accept this rule and follow its obligations, despite the threat to
our autonomy and the dignity of our free and independent people. But the false
promises, given by the Yankees, when they invaded our land, brought in almost
four years of continuous insults, incredible crimes, killings, theft and barbarian
acts, the secrets of which are known only to Americans.

Today we lost patience and we reclaim our rights, rights, ignored by the
unscrupulous Americans, who by destroying our institutions deprive the people
of Haiti of all its resources and devour our name and our blood. For four years,
cruel and unjust Yankees brought ruin and hopelessness to our territory. Now,
during the peace conference and before the whole world, the civilized nations
took an oath to respect the rights and sovereignty of small nations. We demand
the liberation of our territory and all the advantages given to free and
independent states by international law. Therefore, please take into consideration
that ten months of fighting has been in pursuit of this aim and that our victories
give us the right to ask for your recognition.

We are prepared to sacrifice everything to liberate Haiti, and establish here the
principles affirmed by President Wilson himself: the rights and sovereignty of
small nations. Please note, honored Consul, that American troops, following their
own laws, don't have any right to fight against us.

Dear Sirs (sic), please, accept our distinguished salutations.

Signed by the High Commander of the Revolution

M. Peralte
followed by 100 other signatures

Cacos Leader Charlemagne Peralte

Document G

"...This is not a racial conflict, My Father. We are not that different from the
white race that our relationship with it can only be resolved through continual
conflict. We are never more at home than in Europe, and in Haiti, the European-
more precisely the Frenchman and the German-feels at home. We are willing to
marry French women. They don't die from it nor do they suffer. Germans have
married our sisters. They haven't behaved badly because of it. No, Father Le
Ganet, we are not so different from the white race that we cannot live with it
without eternal conflict. [...] No, this is not a racial conflict, My Father. It is
perhaps worse. It is the collision of two mentalities, not only different, but
opposing and contradictory."

Leon Laleau
Le Choc

Document H

"...Fifth: We take it for granted that the President of Haiti will continue the
understanding which this government has had with preceding presidents-
namely: That no rights of any kind concerning the use of Mole St. Nicholaswill be
granted to any other government, or to the nationals of any other foreign

While this government would be willing to lease directly or through a Hatien
Company in which the United States would be a controlling stockholder, the right
to use Mole St. Nicholas, it will not insist on such lease if objectionable to Haiti,
but it cannot consent to the lease or use of such harbor by any third power or by
the nationals of a third power."

William Jennings Bryan to Paul Fuller
May 6, 1915

Document I

Co l r C
Caco leader Charlemagne

eralte was killed by two Marines in 1919.

Document J

Agrandissement maternite-hopital general, Port-au-Prince (Expanded Maternity
Wing of Port-au-Prince General Hospital 1935)

Document K

My dear General Russell:

In accepting your resignation as American High Commissioner to Haiti, I take
this opportunity of expressing my appreciation of the loyal and efficient manner
in which you have fulfilled your difficult mission.

The material progress which has been achieved during the eight years of your
incumbency of the office of High Commissioner is substantial and impressive.
Haitian finances have been placed on a sound basis, commerce has revived,
adequate roads now connect the important cities, schools and hospitals have
been built, agriculture and industries have been developed and encouraged and
outstanding work has been accomplished in introducing sanitary measures
through the entire Republic.

These results have been largely due to your administrative ability and the high
minded purpose which has animated you in the performance of your task.

I wish also to express my warm appreciation of the excellent spirit of cooperation
with which you facilitated the important work accomplished by the recent
Commission for the study and review of conditions in the Republic of Haiti.
Yours faithfully,


October 29, 1930

Document L

"...the great publicity that resulted from his work from 1916 to 1918, which
already constitutes a veritable illustration of what he has achieved and which
raises him so high that we would like to see our cries for help reach him, if true
justice and the sense of liberty for others could not be destroyed by the influence
of certain enemies of independence for our dear country. If it is really true that he
was and remains the "Doctor of Calamities" (Docteur des calamit6s) as he is
known in Europe, he will find a remedy to our extreme pain which consists of
reconstituting our legislature and other national institutions. This is hardly
difficult for a man who saved Europe from famine."

Le Nouvelliste, Leading Port-au-Prince Newspaper, Reporting on the Election of
President Hoover, March 5, 1929


Primary Sources

"A l'Intention du Pr6sident Hoover" "Regarding the Intention of President
Hoover." Le Nouvelliste, Port-au-Prince, Haiti, March 5, 1929. World
Wide Web: http://www.dloc.com/?b=UFoooooo8l&v=17134
Buell, Raymond Leslie. "Letter to W.E.B. DuBois" May 25, 1929. Taken from: The
Correspondence of W. E. B. DuBois By W. E. B. Du Bois, Herbert
Aptheker World Wide Web:http://books.google.com/books
DuBois, W.E.B. "Letter to Raymond Leslie Buell." May 28, 1929. Taken from: The
Correspondence of W. E. B. Du Bois By W. E. B. Du Bois, Herbert
Aptheker World Wide Web:http://books.google.com/books
Hoover, Herbert. "Message to the Congress Requesting Authorization for a
Commission to Investigate Conditions in Haiti" December 7, 1929. John
T. Woolley and Gerhard Peters, The American Presidency Project [online].
Santa Barbara, CA: University of California (hosted), Gerhard Peters
(database). Available from World Wide Web:
Hoover, Herbert. "Letter Accepting the Resignation of General John H. Russell as
American High Commissioner to Haiti" November 1, 1930. John T.
Woolley and Gerhard Peters, The American Presidency Project [online].
Santa Barbara, CA: University of California (hosted), Gerhard Peters
(database). Available from World Wide Web:
House, Edward M. "From the Diary of Colonel House, June 24, 1915." Printed in:
Wilson, Woodrow, and Arthur Stanley Link. The Papers of Woodrow
Wilson. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1966.
Laleau, Leon. Le Choc, 1932, quoted in Nadeve Menard, The Occupied Novel: The
Representation of Foreigners in Haitian Novels Written During the US
Occupation, 1915-1934. PhD Diss. University of Pennsylvania, 2002.
Retrieved July 30, 2009, from Dissertations & Theses: A&I.(Publication
No. AAT 3054979
Peralte, Charlemagne. "Letter to the French Minister." 1919. World Wide Web:
U.S. Occupation Aids Haiti, Says Russell. (1923, April 18). Wall Street Journal
(1889-Current file), p. 9. Retrieved June 19, 2009, from ProQuest
Historical Newspapers The Wall Street Journal (1889 1991) database.
(Document ID: 397377081).
Wilson, Woodrow. "Letter from President Woodrow Wilson to Secretary of State
William Jennings Bryan, July 2 1915." Printed in: Wilson, Woodrow, and
Arthur Stanley Link. The Papers of Woodrow Wilson. Princeton, N.J.:
Princeton University Press, 1966.


Peralte, Charlemagne. "The body of Charlemagne Peralte, as it was displayed to
the Haitian people." Taken form: Renda, Mary A, Taking Haiti: Military
Occupation and the Culture of US Imperialism, 1915-1940. Chapel Hill,
2001, page 174.
Agrandissement maternite-hopital generalPort-au-Prince (Expanded Maternity
Wing of Port-au-Prince General Hospital) Direction general des travaux
publics Archives Nationale d'Haiti (Contributor), Archives Nationales
d'Hafti. World Wide Web: Digital Library of the Caribbean:

Secondary Sources

Nicholls, David. From Dessalines to Duvalier: Race, Colour and National
Independence in Haiti. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1996.
Brenda Gayle Plummer, "The Afro American Response to the Occupation of
Haiti, 1915-1934" Phylon (1960-), Vol. 43, No. 2 (2nd Qtr., 1982), pp. 125-
143 Clark Atlanta University. Stable URL:
Renda, Mary A. Taking Haiti: Military Occupation and the Culture of US
Imperialism, 1915-1934. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina
Press, 2001.
Schmidt, Hans. The United States Occupation of Haiti, 1915-1934. New
Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1971.
Suggs, Henry Lewis. "The Response of the African American Press to the United
States Occupation of Haiti, 1915-1934." The Journal of African American
History, Vol. 87, The Past before Us (Winter, 2002), pp. 70-82. Published
by: Association for the Study of African-American Life and History, Inc.
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1562492

Student Textbook

Divine, Et al., America: past and Present. New York, Pearson, Longman & Co.

The Impact of the Haitian Revolution on the United States


Daniel Reyes

Florida International University Teaching American History

Latin American and Caribbean Studies Teacher Summer Institute


Lesson Plan:
The Impact of the Haitian Revolution on the United States.

Grade Level/Subject:
11th Grade U.S. History

-To have students understand the events that shaped the history of the United States during the pre-
Civil War era (between the early to mid 1800's).
-Students will gain a better understanding of the Haitian Revolution and its independence and its impact
on the United States during its era of slavery.
-Students will understand the events that altered the U.S. institution of slavery.

Teacher Materials:
-Class textbook: The Americans: Florida Edition 2005. McDougal Little
-Internet Article: by Jim Thomson, "The Haitian Revolution and the Forging of America
-K.W.L.H. chart any version of the chart will do. One could easily be found with a web search of K.W.L.
-Access to Primary and Secondary Sources.

Lesson Duration:
Three Class Periods (100 minutes per class)

Vocabulary: Key Figures and/or events
Toussaint L'Ouverture
Jean-Jacques Dessalines
Thomas Jefferson
John Brown
Harper's Ferry Raid
David Walker (Walker's Appeal)
Nat Turner
William Lloyd Garrison
Harriet Tubman
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Fredrick Douglass
Racial Identity
Dred Scott (Dred Scott v. Sandford)

Background Information:
What impact did the Haitian Revolution have on the United States?
The Haitian Revolution impacted the people of the United States in several different ways depending
upon their roles in and their stance on the issue of slavery. Due to these differences, some Americans
viewed the Haitian Revolution as a negative event, and feared similar revolts on Southern plantations.
Some slaveholders believed the revolution proved that blacks were inherently violent, and used this
opinion to justify their enslavement. For slaves and many abolitionists, the Haitian Revolution served as

Daniel Reyes

a positive symbol of what could be accomplished in America. Toussaint L'Ouverture's actions became a
model for slave rebellions in America. It can be argued that the Haitian Revolution hastened the
abolition of slavery in America.

Lesson Lead in or Opening:
-This lesson is to be conducted upon the completion of Chapter 10 in the American's Textbook. Upon
the completion of this chapter, the students should have background knowledge on the U.S. slave era,
its Southern plantation system, Slavery in the U.S., slave revolts, and the attempts of Southern whites to
maintain the institution of slavery in the South.
-Teacher must then provide students with a brief history of the island of Haiti and the Haitian

Day One of Lesson:
-The focus of this lesson is on the U.S. during the pre-Civil War era.
-Students learn about the pre-Civil War slavery era of the United States. The lesson will include
information about the Southern plantation system, U.S. Slavery, Slave laws, threats to slavery (escape
and revolt).
-By the end of this lesson students should be familiar with the lesson's vocabulary: Key figures and/or

Day Two of Lesson:
-The focus of this lesson is on Haiti and what Impact the Haitian Revolution may have had on U.S.
-Students will begin K.W.L.H Chart (information provided below).
-Student will read article by Jim Thomson, "The Haitian Revolution and the Forging of America."
-Students will list examples of laws and regulations that were enacted by Southerners in reaction to the
Haitian slave revolt.
-Students will finish K.W.L.H Chart upon the completion of the reading.

Homework for Day Two:
-Students will do research on the Haitian revolution and its impact in the United States that would be
included in an essay written on day three.

Day Three of Lesson:
Students will write an essay describing the impact of the Haitian Revolution and the impact it had on the
U.S. Students must include or research the following information for their essay:
-John Brown
-Nat Turner
Toussaint L'Ouverture
-David Walker
-Changes in Southern laws or attitudes toward slaves

Steps to Deliver Instruction:
1. Teacher will begin lesson with a K.W.L.H technique to help students activate their prior
2. Teacher will pose this question: What do you know about Haiti, its revolution, and how Haiti's
history has impacted the history of the United States?

Daniel Reyes

a. Students will create a K.W.L.H. Chart to answer the question prior to reading an article
about the Haitian Revolution and complete the chart after reading the article.
b. Here is how a K.W.H.L. works:
1. K Stands for what student's recall, what they KNOW about the subject.
2. W Stands for helping students determine what they WANT to learn.
3. L Stands for helping students identify what they LEARN as they read.
4. H- Stands for HOW we can learn more (other sources where additional information
on the topic can be found).

3. Students will begin their own K.W.L.H. chart. Students should be able to begin the K and W
portions of the K.W.L.H. chart prior to the reading of the article.
4. Students will read article by Jim Thomson, "The Haitian Revolution and the Forging of America."
5. Upon the completion of the Jim Thomson's reading, students will complete the final two parts of
the K.W.L.H. chart.
6. Class discussion on what the students thought about the article.

Follow up Lessons:
-Find primary documents from southern slave owners (senators, governors, or wealthy slaveholders)
that react to the Haitian revolution. Students can search national archives for newspaper articles,
pamphlets, senate deliberations or speeches, ex.
-Compare those documents with southern slave owners response to the events in Harper's Ferry (John
Brown) and/or a response to David Walker's Appeal.
-Discussion question: What changed in the south after the Haitian Revolution?

Primary Resources:
1. McDougal Littel. The Americans: Florida Edition 2005. Chapter 10, The Union in Peril, Protest,
Resistance and Violence. Pages 310-318.
This is our State issued American History Textbook. This is the main primary source in my
American History classroom. For this lesson I would use chapter 10 which provides information
about the pre-Civil War era including slave revolts, territorial disputes, the politics of slavery, the
plantation system, and the paths towards slave freedom.
2. Thomson, Jim. "The Haitian Revolution and the Forging of America," The History Teacher November
2000 http://www.historycooperative.org/iournals/ht/34.1/thomson.html
July 7, 2009.
Thomson provides a short article about the impact Haiti's Revolution had on the United States.
This article became the basis of my research. I would have my students read this short article
that would provide them with a brief synopsis of the Haitian Revolution and the impact it may
have had on the United States.
3. Geggus, David Patrick. The Impact of the Haitian Revolution in the Atlantic World. University of
South Carolina Press. 2001.
This book provides information on the impact of the Haitian Revolution had on the Atlantic world. Geggus
provides historical analysis from a compilation of leading historians who write provide their own
perspective on the impact the Haitian Revolution had. Geggus' book is arranged in sections which deals
with the political, economic, ideological, and physiological impact of the Haitian Revolution on the Atlantic
4. Davis, David Barron, Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and fall of Slavery in the New World. Oxford .
University Press. 2006.

Daniel Reyes

Davis provides a good account on the impact of Slavery in the New World. He provides details
of the Haitian Revolution and its impact on the U.S. slave holders.

Secondary Recourses:
1. Plummer, Brenda Gayle, Haiti and the Great Powers, 1902-1915. Louisiana State University Press
August 1988.
Plummer illustrates the difficulties Haiti faced as they dealt with world powers such as the
United States. Plummer provides a history of Haiti from its revolution to Haiti's challenges of
democracy and self-government.
2. Plummer, Brenda Gayle, Haiti and the United States: The Psychological Movement. University of
Georgia Press (December 1992).
Plummer provides an extensive study on the relationship between the United States and Haiti.
Plummer provides information about U.S. occupation of Haiti in the early 1900's to the current
state of Haiti.
3. Hunt, Alfred W. Haiti's Influence on Antebellum America. Louisiana State University Press, 1988.
Hunt discusses the ways Haitian immigrants influenced southern agriculture, architecture,
language, politics, religion, and the arts. By affecting the development of racial ideology in
antebellum America, Hunt concludes, the Haitian Revolution was a major contributing factor to
the attitudes that led to the Civil War. Hunt shows in this book just how profoundly Haitian
emigrants affected America, particularly Louisiana, where Haitian influence is seen in everything
from language to politics, religion, culture, architecture, and cuisine.
4. Ott, Thomas 0. The Haitian Revolution. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. September 1973.
Ott provides firsthand accounts of the history of the Haitian Revolution. Ott also provides
information on how the Haitian Revolution may have had an impact on slave population in the
United States of America.
5. Mullin, Michael. American Negro Slavery: A Documentary History. Columbia: University of South
Carolina Press. 1976.
This book traces the history of black slaves in America through original primary source materials,
including diaries, public records, newspaper accounts and personal correspondence. These
documents help you understand what it was like to be a slave in America, as well as how the
slaves were perceived by white society.
6. Clarke, John Henrik. African People in World History. Baltimore: Black Classic Press. 1993.
This book provides a wealth of information on the History of Africans in the Americas and in the
Caribbean. Clarke provides details of the Atlantic Slave Trade as well as information of the
plantation system of the United States and its slave revolts.
7. Meinig, D.W. The Shaping of America: A Geographical Perspective on 500 Years of History: Volume 2.
Continental America, 1800-1867. Hampton: Vail-Ballou Press. 1993.
Meining provides information on how the Haitian slave rebellion forced slave owners in the
United States to tighten the reigns and treat their slaves harsher out of fear that a similar slave
revolt would be repeated in the United States.
8. Aptheker, Herbert. American Negro Slave Revolts. 5th Edition. International Publishers, 1987.
A compressive well documented account of the history of slavery and slave resistance in the
United States. Aptheker provides a "narrative of the numerous plots and rebellions that
persistently rocked American slave society for over two centuries" (p.367). This book provides
information on the impact of the Haitian Revolution on the pre-Civil War period in American

American Influences in Latin America and the Caribbean, 1853-1934


Fabricio Rivas

Florida International University Teaching American History

Latin American and Caribbean Studies Teacher Summer Institute


Title American Influences in Latin America and Caribbean, 1853-1934.
Grade Level 8
Subject Area Gifted American History
Description In this lesson the student will be able to identify American economic and political
interests in Latin America and the Caribbean; explain how the U.S. attempted to preserve
and sponsor democratic reforms in L.A. and Caribbean; discuss how the areas that the
U.S. invaded were affected (economically, socially, politically); and explain how and if
these nations still show affects of interventions.

Objectives 1.1 .A.Review map skills on appropriate historical, political, or topographical maps.
II. 11 .A. Analyze cause and effect relationships, including those of major wars,
throughout key periods in the United States history; e.g. global conflict, expansion,
interdependence, industrial development.
II. I.B.Obtain appropriate information about historical events from maps, atlases,
pictures, primary sources, graphs, tables, charts, diagrams, references materials,
newspapers, political cartoons, and periodicals.
11.3.B Cite examples of the relationships that exists between past and present events.
VI. .A.Use appropriate skills and resources to access, analyze, and synthesize
VI.2.A.Analyze events which demonstrates the concept of historical interpretation and
identify the factors that cause historical interpretations to differ; e.g., personal
perspectives and bias, religious, political, social, economic background.

Teacher textbook, internet link, projector, computer, analysis worksheets (map, pictures, primary
Materials sources, book), handouts packages (map, two L.A. sources, Haiti source)

Student textbook, analysis worksheets (map, pictures, primary sources, book), handouts packages
Materials (map, two L.A. sources, Haiti source)
Duration Five 55-minute days
Essential 1. Which were the American foreign policies that deal with L.A. and Caribbean nations?
Questions 2. What type of relationship did these nations have with the U.S. before intervention?
3. What reasons were given by the U.S. for intervention?
4. What happened during intervention missions?
5. How did the foreign governments and people react to the Marines?
6. What changes occurred during interventions?
7. Who made the decision as to when would the Marines leave the intervened nations?
8. What happened after the Marines left?
9. How do the nations of Nicaragua, Panama, and Haiti compared before and after
intervention? (Venn diagram)
10. Was the intervention worth it for these nations? U.S? And why?

Grouping for 1. Class discussion
Instruction 2. Pair analysis
3. Individual analysis

Lessons 1. Have students read and define key terms:
Lead In/ A. Monroe Doctrine
Opening B. Roosevelt Corollary
C. Big Stick Policy
D. Dollar Diplomacy
E. Good Neighbor Policy

2. Discuss as a class the key terms and their intentions.

Steps to DAY 1
Deliver open class discussion
Lesson 1. Have students read and define key terms: Monroe Doctrine, Roosevelt Corollary, Big
Stick Policy, Dollar Diplomacy, Good Neighbor Policy
2. Discuss as a class the key terms.
3. Compare and contrast the key terms.*
4. Ask students to discuss the world events of this period.

Small group
1. Read over all the sources in packet #1.
2. Fill in one analysis worksheet.
3. Answer essential questions.*
4. Discuss with group and then class.

Small group
1. Read over all the sources in packet #2.
2. Fill in one analysis worksheet.
3. Answer essential questions. *
4. Discuss with group and then class.

Small group
1. Read over all the sources in packet #1.
2. Fill in one analysis worksheet.
3. Answer essential questions.*
4. Discuss with group and then class.

Day 5
1. Essay Exam/ Overall Assessment*

*finish as home-learning activity

Independent 1.Answer the essential questions per packet (Panama, Nicaragua, and Haiti)
Practice 2. One analysis worksheet (map, picture, political cartoon, primary resource)

Overall One thousand word essay:
Assessment How did American intervention change Nicaragua, Panama, and Haiti socially,
economically, and politically?

Lesson Discuss as a class how the American foreign policy toward Latin America and the
Closure Caribbean benefit the people it assumed to protect?

Handouts/ Designed and developed by the Education Staff at National Archives and Records
Worksheet Administration (www.archives.gov/education/lessons/worksheets/)
1. Written Document Analysis
2. Photograph Analysis
3. Cartoon Analysis
4. Map Analysis

Background The United States passed many proactive foreign affair legislation on the premises of
Information promoting sound political, economic, and social changes for Latin America and the
for the Caribbean. The U.S. attempted to promote democracy and provide opportunities for
Teacher American investment. In turn, nations receiving American investments would be ensure
long-term prosperity and peace, thereby, securing benefits for the reformed government
and its population.

Progressive Presidents attempted to secure change in foreign nations by providing
American capital opportunities not available to them before. These investments would
help promote sound democratic reforms. They argued that it was America's moral duty to
provide assistance and enforce changes.

The U.S. was charged with imperialist ambitions. Anti-imperialists argued that American
investors and bankers were forcefully creating markets for American products at the cost
of the native products. These investments created monopolies and special interest groups
that influenced legislation and seemed to enrich them.

In Nicaragua, American filibuster William Walker and American entrepreneur Cornelius
Vanderbilt changed the nation's economic, social, and political structure. They became
dominate forces in the nation and enforced their will with little consideration to local

In Panama, Americans had a need for a shorter passage to the West Coast. American
investors and California travelers changed the economic, political, and social structures
of Panama. Local attitude and norm were ignored. This disrespect caused an
international crisis known as the "Dajada de Sandilla."

In 1914, Marines invaded Haiti with the intention of promoting stability. Many dissenters
of the American intervention charged that it was special interest groups that forced
Wilson to protect American investments. The intervention caused many changes in Haiti.
The intervention lasted a total of fourteen years.

Coverage of

Textbook: "The American Journey: Florida Edition." Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. New York.

Nicaragua: On page 660- "In 1912, when a revolution in Nicaragua threatened
American business interests, the U.S. quickly sent marines to restore peace. Such
interference led to increase anti-U.S. feelings throughout Latin America."
This is a very ambiguous statement. It gives no indication to what happened and what
aroused the anti-U.S. sentiment. The two sentence statement about Nicaragua gives no
justice to the near two decade intervention. It gives no mention of the social, political,
and economic devastation of William Walker and Cornelius Vanderbilt to Nicaragua.

Haiti: On page 707: "The U.S. had intervened in Latin American countries several times
in the early 1900's to support American business interests. When Harding took office,
American troops were stationed in Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and Nicaragua, and
relations with Mexico were tense."
This edition does mention how special interest groups' affect foreign policy. It gives no
indication of the length of time of intervention. It does not do justice to the changes these
nations went through due to interventions (the good, bad, and ugly). It mentions nothing
about how citizens or governments responded (supported or rejected). The section title in
which this quote is found is "A More Friendly Neighbor." It gives the impression that the
U.S. acted in the best interest of it neighbors and nothing more.

Panama: On page 656: "Americans and Europeans had dreamed of building a canal
across Central America to connect the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and to eliminate the
long and dangerous sea voyage around South America. Now that the U.S. controlled
territory in both oceans, a canal that would allow easier access to American overseas
territory became increasingly important."
The textbook mention nothing on the watermelon incident in Panama. Panama is usually
discussed only within the confines of the "Panama Canal." It is discussed from the
American perspective and gives no voice to any Panamanian. The canal is viewed as a
"progressive" investment for both nations. It does not mention changes the citizen and
government went through during the American interventions (eighteenth and nineteenth

Textbook and curriculum presents topics in an American-centric manner. The three case
studies (Nicaragua, Panama, and Haiti) in this lesson attempt for a better historic
interpretation of events by including local response. This would lead to more enrich
analysis of events-- presenting both sides.

The intention of the teacher will be to give an understanding that every event must be
viewed from multiple interpretations in order to have a better more historically sound
analysis. It is also important for the students to comprehend the implication of legislation
in foreign affairs.

The most important aspect of the lesson is for students to understand that history can not
be studied from one perspective. Every action taken has good, bad, and ugly outcomes.
One must learn from them to make better decisions in the future.


Sources Books
1. McGuinness, Amims. "Path of Empire: Panama and the California Gold Rush." Ithaca:
Cornell University Press, 2008. Page 1-4, 54-85.
This book brings to life one of the most crucial international affairs episodes in
Latin America that is not studied by Americans. The event is not in the middle
school level curriculum or in textbooks. Yet Latin Americans can decently recall
the event known as the watermelon incident.
The incident aroused to due economic, political, and social changes forced on
the local population when American citizens and business encroached on local
sovereignty. The crisis erupted in gun battle that left dead bodies and distrust
and dislike on both sides. Each side defended itself against accusation of
wrongdoing. The event left a lasting impression that will effect how they deal
with each other in the future.
2. Renda, Mary A. "Taking Haiti: Military Occupation & the Culture of U.S.
Imperialism, 1915-1940. Chapel Hill. The University of North Carolina Press, 2001.
Pages 1-45.
Haiti was invaded in 1914, by Marines, when the President decided it was
needed for the promotion of peace, support of democratic policies, and for social
and political stability. Dissenter charged that the intervention force was there to
protect the investments made by American businessmen. They claimed from the
day of the landing to the last day of occupation that the United States
government was encroaching on Haiti's sovereignty.
Renda analyzes the reasons for the invasion and discuss the events leading to the
invasion. She goes in detail as to how the Marines were received in Haiti and
what they accomplished. In her analysis she gives voice to members of the
Marine units and members of the rebel group. The book captures both points of
view on the issue of the Marines in Haiti.
3. Wurlitzer, Rudy. "Walker: The True Story of the First American Invasion of
Nicaragua." New York: Harper & Row, Publishers. 1987. Pages 95-103, 144-166.
William Walker was, a self-proclaimed general of a small band of American
citizens, was invited by one of the political factions in Nicaragua, the one losing
political ground. He proceeded to take-over the nation as a military defender of
democratic principal and later proclaimed himself de-facto leader of Nicaragua.
Once in power he made political, economic, and social reforms that did not sit
well with the citizen he ruled. He gained political enemies in Nicaragua,
neighboring states, British government and businessmen, U.S. government, and
Cornelius Vanderbilt.
His actions and those of the Marines still are vivid in the minds of Latin
4. Dando-Collins, Stephen. "Tycoon's War: How Cornelius Vanderbilt Invaded a
Country to Overthrow America's Most Famous Military Adventurer." Cambridge, MA:
Da Capo Press. 2008.
One of America's most predominate businessman set his sight on a passway
through Nicaragua to the Pacific. As a renowned entrepreneur, he wanted to
gain control of the passway market. His company became the biggest investor in
Nicaragua and the most dominate political force. His highly speculated
investment paid off as his company gained a greater share of the market. His
problems arouse when William Walker and a few renegade investors sighted
against him. In an over-zealous mindset he was determined to gain control of his
company once more. He used his influence in Congress and in Parliament to
campaign against Walker and anyone else who stood on his way. In the end
Vanderbilt tripled his wealth in Nicaragua.
5. Walker, Gen. William. "The War in Nicaragua." Tucson, Arizona. The University of
Arizona Press. 1985.
William Walker became a national hero to many for his actions in Nicaragua.
He was seen as a defender and promoter of Manifest Destiny and a pride for

American Exceptionalism. Some saw him as renegade citizen over-stepping
Nicaraguan's sovereignty.
His memoirs were read by many when published. He wanted to give reasons to
his actions and to give reasons to the failure of his expedition.
Overall he wanted to make sure that people understood that he tried to do the
best for Nicaragua. And that the end result was not his fault.
6. Wilde, Margaret, editor. "The Panama Canal and Social Justice." Office of
International Justice and Peace. United States Catholic Conference. October 1976.
The Office of International Justice and Peace presented their case for the support
of the United State control of the Panama Canal waterway. Their view came
from their religious missionaries involved in Panama. Their belief was that if the
U.S. withdrew it would be devastating for Panama and for the region overall. It
would also not be a good foreign affair move by the U.S. It was morally
important for the U.S. to remain in Panama at all cost.
7. Martinez, Orlando. "Panama Canal." London: Gordon & Cremonesi, 1978.
This book presents the reason for the passway thru Panama to the Pacific. It
was crucial for the United States. It is rich in history and supported by
government documents, officials' point of views, includes pictures, maps and
political cartoons. A good book for gathering an understanding of events.
Sources Political Cartoons
1. Pughe, J.S. "Peace." Harper's Weekly, Vol.57, No.1465. March 1905
President Theodore Roosevelt was a strong supporter of arms-building in the
United States. He promoted the expansion of the Navy to unprecedented levels.
This would allow the U.S. to bolster its stand in the international world by
intently supporting and imposing the Monroe Doctrine and the Roosevelt
Corollary. The U.S. was not going to allow any other nation to interfere in the
Americas. Force, if needed, would be used.
2. "President Roosevelt's Forthcoming Feast." Reprinted in Review of Review, Vol.31,
No.3. March 1905.
This political cartoon appeared in a Chilean newspaper. It was drawn by a Latin
American citizen.
The United States government viewed itself as a supporter and defender of the
Western Hemisphere. Yet some Latin nations viewed the U.S. as imposing a
monopoly on the states it said to protect. "America para los Americanos" was
the slogan many Latin American citizens held.
3. Roger, W.A. "A Fair Field and No Favor! Uncle Sam: I'm Out for Commerce, Not
Conquest." Harper's Weekly, Vol.43, No.2239. November 18, 1899.
At the end of the nineteenth century the door to imperialism was fully open.
Many powerful nations forced themselves onto weaker nation during this era.
The reason for invading nations ranged from promotion of democracy, to
increase commerce, to social betterment for invaded nations, to moral
obligation. Some saw this time period as sinful, dangerous, and acceptable.
4. Ehrhart, S.D. "Columbia's Easter Bonnet/ Ehrhart after Sketch by Dalrymple." Puck
Magazine. April 6, 1901.
The oversea expansion the United States was displaying was supported by its
mighty and powerful military forces. Those forces were something all
Americans should have been proud of. It was what allowed the nation to be a
"world power."

Sources Documents
1. Kyle Longley. "Relations with Latin America." Dictionary of American History. Ed.
Stanely L. Kutler. Vol.5. 3rd edition. New York: Charles Scribrer's Sons, 2003. P.46-56.
This is a summary of the United States foreign affair dealing with Latin
America. It starts in 1820's and ends with the Clinton years. It states what
legislation were passed and under which American president. The map included

in the summary states every intervention force involved in Latin America from
1800-2002. It gives very good information to create a timeline of events.
2. "Bandits or Patriots?: Documents of Charlemagne Peralte," excerpt. National
Haitian Charlemagne Peralte led an insurrection against the American
intervention forces. He urged the people of Haiti to fight with him against the
"savage people" who invaded their nation. He pleaded with a minister of France
to help protect the "rights and sovereignty" of Haiti. He accused the American
of hypocrisy and of committing many crimes against Haiti and its people. After
fighting for two years Peralte becomes convince that the only way to defeat the
Americans was by political pressure in Haiti and with international pressure.
3. "Inquiry into Occupation and Administration of Haiti and Santo Domingo by the
United States Senate Select Committee on Haiti and Santo Domingo," excerpt.
Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1922.
The United States Senate Select Committee interviewed Haitian citizens on their
personal dealings with the Marines. Two citizens gave their unflattering
accounts. They charged that they were imprisoned unjustly and had bad overall
dealings with the Americans. The committee attempted to understand why the
Americans were not winning over the Haitian people.
4. James Weldon Johnson. "The Truths about Haiti. An N.A.A.C.P. Investigation." Crisis
5. September 1920. P.217-224.
James Weldon Johnson, N.A.A.C.P. leader, visited Haiti to asset the situation.
He hoped to present a truthful view of events. He accused the U.S. government
of interfering in Haitian politics long before the intervention forces arrived in
1914. He stated that all books and pamphlets written on Haiti were full with
prejudice and bigotry. That doctrine written constantly due to the disrespect to
the history of Haiti and its people. He pronounced the entire intervention a
failure. The forces must leave Haiti and the nation must be left to deal it own.
They must return to Haiti its "independence and sovereignty."
5. "To Abolish the Monroe Doctrine: Proclamation from Augusto Cesar Sandino."
Nicaragua National Archives.
Augusto Cesar Sandino, a nationalistic leader, led a revolution against the
American military and its hand-picked Nicaraguan government. He charged the
United States with intervening and invading his nation's sovereignty. He
indicted the Monroe Doctrine as a "farcical" document in which it did not
respect the rights "of the Indo-Hispanic republics." The intentions of the
documents presented themselves in the form of monopoly of railroads,
agriculture, banking, port control, and government manipulation. Nothing good
came of the American intervention.
6. "Un Colombian con Sandino: U.S. Intervention in Central America." by Colombian
journalist Alfonso Alexander Mancago of Nuevo Amancer Cultural. August 12, 1983.
Nicaragua National Archives.
Alfonso Alexander Moncayo, a Columbian journalist, was sent to Nicaragua to
interview the rebel leader Sandino. Since Sandino did not trust outsiders,
Moncayo had to prove himself "Hispanic." Overall Moncayo was involved in 87
battles in Nicaragua. He believed that Sandino, like Bolivar, had dream of
independent Hispanic nations. His article appeared as a testament to Sandino
and his war.

Migration and Culture: Haiti and the United States


Karen Roberts

Florida International University Teaching American History

Latin American and Caribbean Studies Teacher Summer Institute


Karen Roberts
August 7, 2009
Final Lesson Plan Project
Professor C. Verna

Table of Contents

Pgs. 2-8

Pgs. 9-14

Page 15

Page 16

Pages 17-19

Pages 20-22

Pages 23-24

Annotated Bibliography

Lesson Plan

Quiz: "Children of the Sea" (2 quizzes per page)

Map and Culture Chart added as attachments

Nash Reading

White Reading

Pages Fouron Reading

Migration and Culture: Haiti and the United States

The lesson examines movement from St. Domingue to the U.S. at the time of the
Haitian revolution. The lesson also looks at immigration from Haiti to the U.S. in
the twentieth century. Students make comparative observations and draw


Brasseaux, Carl A. and Keith P. Fontenot and Claude F. Oubre. Creoles of Color in the
Bayou Country. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1994.

The author traces the experience of free people of color in the New Orleans area from
about 1805 -1912. The end of the Civil War was hardest on this group of free blacks. As
slaves became free in the South, black and mixed race people in New Orleans, who had
enjoyed life for decades as free men and women, were now more discriminated against
than ever before.

Appropriate for my area of interest, this article examines life for this unique group of
people both before and after the Civil War.

Danticat, Edwidge. Krik? Krak!. New York: Soho Press, Inc., 1991.

The author, Edwidge Danticat, emigrated from Haiti as a young girl. She has become
an award winning author. Her engaging style can be read easily by most level readers.
The author's voice is passionate and honest. Students across cultures will engage with
her work. This book of short stories is excellent for in-class use. It represents the use of
art in the classroom: (SS.912.A.1.4 Analyze how images, symbols, objects, cartoons, graphs,
charts, maps, and artwork may be used to interpret the significance of time periods and events from
the past.). Appropriately, the artist is also the subject of the lesson. Students will make
the comparisons; how might the St. Dominguan immigrant experience be similar or
different from Haitian immigrant experience today? (see also Fouron for primary
source data on immigrant experiences )

The short story "Children of the Sea" is the opening reading assignment in the current
lesson plan. It is the story of a group of Haitians in current time putting their lives on
the line in order to immigrate to Miami.

Danticat, Edwidge. Brother, I'm Dying. New York: Vintage Books, 2007.

Brother, I'm Dying is Edwidge Danticat's own memoir. Poignant and rich are the
author's descriptions of life issues. No matter how raw or real, Danticat portrays people
with dignity and beauty. Fifty years of Haitian and United States history is woven into
this inspirational personal story.

Brother, I'm Dying is appropriate for high school readers. If the school library could
obtain a class set, this book would be an excellent assigned reading. This source
satisfies the following standard: SS.912.A.1.2 Utilize a variety of primary and secondary sources
to identify author, historical significance, audience, and authenticity to understand a historical period.

Dessens, Nathalie. From Saint-Dominigue to New Orleans, Migration and Influences.
Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2007.

The refugee-immigrants from St. Domingue to New Orleans during the years 1791-1809
made a huge impact on the existing society there. These new arrivals came from a
similar culture, French in origin. Their numbers doubled the population of the area
surrounding the city of New Orleans.
Nathalie Dessens explains why the timing of their arrival was favorable to the retention
of their cultural heritage. The French-speaking, Gallic culture was under threat in New
Orleans after the purchase of the territory by the United States. The existing population
welcomed the newcomers, using their numbers as support for their society and
culture as it was. The large numbers of French Creoles in Louisiana allowed a
uniquely non-American culture to thrive in the United States, (around the city of New
Orleans), during the antebellum years.

From Saint-Dominigue to New Orleans, Migration and Influences, by Nathalie
Dessens, is the newest scholarship on the subject of St. Dominguan immigration's
influence on New Orleans that I could find. The author is associated with a university in
France. She is presently studying an unpublished correspondence written by a Saint-
Domingue refugee in New Orleans, Jean Boze, between 1818 and 1839.
For information on this author:
http: / /www.sudam.uvsq.fr/ sudmbrs / sudmbrsframed eng.htm

Foner, Laura. "The Free People of Color in Louisiana and St. Domingue: A
Comparative Portrait of Two Three-Caste Slave Societies." Journal of Social History,
Vol. 3, No. 4 (Summer, 1970): pp. 406-430

This article describes the remarkable comparison of three-caste societies, both in St.
Domingue and Louisiana during the 18th century. The author outlines similar factors
leading to a society where whites were at the top, a large free colored population in

equal numbers to the whites, and slaves (outnumbering all free people) at the bottom.
Free black people in both St. Domingue and Louisiana enjoyed economic advantages
similar to that of whites as well as most civil liberties. They performed needed roles in
the slave societies, enjoying a virtual monopoly on skilled labor and artisan services.
Many free blacks in both locations also owned land and even slaves.
The article explains important cultural differences between Latin and Anglo colonial
societies which led to the larger mixed race class having greater economic opportunity
in French as opposed to English colonies.

Classroom application: This article is not difficult. It would be appropriate as assigned
reading for AP or honors students.

Gabaccia, Donna R. "Is Everywhere Nowhere? Nomads, Nations, and the Immigrant
Paradigm of United States History". Journal of Amerian History Vol. 86, No. 3, The
Nation and Beyond: Transnational Perspectives on united States History: A Special
Issue, pp. 1115-1134, Organization of American Historians, December 1999.

Using extensive data of the movement of Italians, Donna Gabaccia proposes that
migration of people should be studied from multiple perspectives. The author points
out that nationalist histories the United States' in particular portray an incomplete or
inaccurate picture of the immigrant experience. "The historiographies of countries that
'received' Italy's migrants divide sharply between t hose that acknowledge and those
that deny migration as makers of their modern nations."

In agreement with Donna Gabaccia's thesis, this lesson plan includes opportunities for
students to view immigration and assimilation from differing points of view.

Hall, Gwendolyn Midlo. Africans in Colonial Louisiana: The Development of Afro-
Creole Culture in the Eighteenth Century. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University
Press, 1992

Gwendolyn Midlo Hall is one of the leading scholars of this era and region. She has
written a comprehensive book on the subject of people of color and their culture in

This book informs my personal study into St. Domingue influences on the free-colored
population of New Orleans because it uncovers many parallel influences St. Domingue
and Haitians brought with them. Many of these parallel influences are African

Hanger, Kimberly. Bounded Lives, Bounded Places: Free Black Society in Colonial
New Orleans, 1769-1803. Durham & London: Duke University Press, 1997.

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