The University of Florida
College of Design, Construction and Planning
Urban Upgrading in El Barrio Siloe:
Steps Beyond Regularization.
An Undergraduate Thesis in
R. Terry Schnadelbach
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Bachelor in
Thank you to my family and friends for all of their support
throughout my entire education. This would not have been
possible without all of your support. A special thanks to my
Mother, Father and Dario for listening to my complaints when
times got tough. To all of my fellow classmates, thanks for
making the last few years memorable, I will miss you all. To all of
the faculty, thank you for sharing your knowledge. And Finally to
iy Advisor, Terry, thanks for guiding me through this process.
Table of Contents
1. Project Introduction............................ .............................
Background and Location
2. Case Studies............................................. ............................. 9
3. Program Development....................... .............................. 14
Goals and Objectives
4. A nalysis................................. .................. .............................. 18
Climate and Ecology
5. Synthesis............................................... ................................ 35
6. Concept Development...................................................... 40
Concept 1 Green Infrastructure
Concept 2 The Creation of Destinations
Concept 3 Transit Oriented
7. Design Developm ent.......................... ................................ 44
8. Conclusion........................................ .................................... 53
9. Appendices............................................. .............................. 55
Literature Not Referenced
1o.Final Presentation................................... ......................... 61
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To date, the conflict in Colombia, which began in 1964, has displaced nearly
4 million people making it the second largest displaced population in the
world. Annual figures show upwards of 300,000 people being displaced from
their homes and land (Springer 17). In addition to internal displacement,
200,000 to 300,000 Colombian seek refuge in neighboring Ecuador which
houses the largest refugee population in Latin America (Springer 22). As this
displacement continues, the affected people fall deeper and deeper into l
poverty. Internally displaced populations migrate to urban centers for safety
and with hopes of employment opportunities to support their family. Today,
much of the country's 43,677,372 residents are found in cities or urban areas.
Once in the city the realities of high rates of unemployment and limited social
assistance programs become the new threat. With limited financial means,
once in the city, many refugees have no
place to go. The lucky ones may have
relatives with which to stay while
Se l others find a way to secure a place in
one of the many overcrowded informal
settlements that occupy marginal
Islands on the fringes of Colombia's
major cities. The informal settlements
in Colombia are notorious for poverty
and crime and their destitute
r .. n ha population is the target of drug lords
Homes located in Silo6 on lands not suitable for development. p
and other criminal organizations,
including the FARC (The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia) the main
anti-government guerrilla group in the country. Young men are lured into
such activities as the selling and manufacturing of illicit drugs or acting as
sicarios or assassins for hire. The young women face similar dangers such as
human trafficking which is a growing concern in Colombia, and they too are
recruited to fight with the FARC or paramilitaries. Colombia has been known
for its violent history of drug lords and their influence of both local and
national governmental officials. As major Colombian cities and the country as
a whole become increasingly safe, the isolated pockets of poverty still earn the
stigma as dangerous places.
Siloe is one of these settlements located on the fringe of the southern
Colombian city of Cali. In 1930 the first land invasions in the area of Siloe
occurred (Alexander). By 1960 there were some 850 homes constructed on the
mountains to the west of the city (Gomez). Today, compared to squatter
settlements found in other developing nations, Siloe has much more
permanent structures and
infrastructure with many buildings
constructed with masonry walls and 71
5- tile roofs, most residents do have their
basic human needs of shelter and
sanitation met but housing still
remains far below the standard for the
rest of the city. Other needs such as
education, access to public services,
recreation, cultural activities and
Avarity of construction materials can be found throughout Silo6. safety are also lacking in Silog. The
main reason that such notable
difference is seen between Siloe and informal settlements throughout the
developing world is that Siloe has gone through the process of regularization.
In this process a city gives legal land tenure to the occupants and provides
infrastructure such as water and sewer. This also allows a city to assign an
address making it possible to locate individuals and charge for services such as
electricity. (Brown 2)
Because of how squatter settlements
develop the existing infrastructure is of
poor quality and no elements exist to r
create order to the area. Streets
interweave into mazes that are defined
only by building facades right at the
roads edge. As with other informal
settlements, Siloe is located on land
not suitable for development.
Environmental risks are posed but
heavy rainfall events as well as Poor infrastructure, a common sight in Silo6 and informal settlements
earthquake danger, as most of the around the world.
Andes region in South America
experiences frequent seismic events.
Located on the slopes above the city of Cali, Siloe has many opportunities.
Beautiful vistas of the city provide areas to create public open space that can
act as an amenity to the barrio as well as draw visitors and tourists out of the
heart of the city. Existing attractions, such as Cristo Rey (Christ the King), a
statue of Christ located on the mountain top above Siloe and Tres Cruces
(Three Crosses) located on an adjacent mountain top provide cultural
attractions as well, but few people venture to these locations because of the
reputation of the barrios located on the edge of town and the perceived l
dangers. Inspired by the Christmas tradition of the nativity scene, each
December since the early 1970's the community of Siloe has erected and lit a
star on the hill top above their neighborhood. The
residents of Siloe feel that this is the only time
that the rest of the city of Cali acknowledges their
existence. The residents of Siloe have taken other
measures to ask the city for recognition and
acceptance. A notable feature of the
neighborhood is that many of the houses are
painted white. This could be attributed to the fact
that Cali is located in a tropical region and light
colors help reflect heat radiation from the hot,
daytime sun. However, from speaking with several
people who live in the community I found out that
collectively the residents decided to paint their La Estrella De Silo
houses white as a symbol of the peace that exists in the neighborhood in
hopes that the stigma that they live with would soon become a thing of the
past. Sadly, attempts to break this social brand that the residents of Siloe bear
have been in vain. Throughout the most recent time I spent in Cali and the
times I visited in the past, stories are told about the dangers that Siloe
Panoramic view of Cali from Siloe.
represents to the city and its inhabitants. Not once was a story such as the
desires of the people of Siloe to be socially accepted as contributing members
to the society of Cali told until I educated myself and explored the history and
stories of the people who live there. This is not to downplay the realities of
Siloe. It is still, today, a poverty stricken neighborhood and as such does have
disproportionately higher crime rate statistics than that of other area in the
city, but this fact is true of areas with high rates of people living below the
poverty level throughout the world. The residents of Siloe have the desire and l
drive to be accepted socially into the city of Cali and I believe if steps such as
those I propose in this capstone project were to occur the quality of life for the
residents of Siloe could be greatly improved and the integration and
acceptance that they desire could be achieved.
, ,, ,
Background and Location:
Colombia is located in the north western portion of the South American
continent. It is bordered on the north by the Caribbean Sea and Panama, to
the east by Venezuela and Brazil, the south by Peru and Ecuador, and to the
east by the Pacific Ocean. The country encompasses 1,138,914 sq km, this
compares to approximately twice the size of Texas (CIA World Factbook). The 7
country is made up of 32 departments that are the equivalent of our state
structure. The country has three cities that have populations over 2 million
inhabitants. They include Santa Fe de BogotA (Bogota) the countries capital
with a population of 6,840,116 Medellin the disputed second largest city with a
population of 2,214,494 and Santiago de Cali (Cali), which is the location of
this capstone project site, with a population of 2,119,908.
The Country of Colombia highlighted in yellow.
The City of Call indicated by the red circle.
The~~~~ Coutr of Coomi hihihe in yelloa
The ityof aliindcatd b th re cicle
Guayaq il- A
Cali is the third most populated metropolitan area, and is located in the south
east of the country just north of the equator and east of the Pacific Ocean. Cali
is the capital of the department, Valle de Cauca, which got its name from its
location in a large valley of the Andes range and the river Cauca, a north
flowing river that follows the valley. The geographical coordinates of Cali are
The city of Cali is further broken down politically into comunas and within
these comunas are various barrios or communities. Siloe is one of the barrios
located in the comuna 20 which is a collection of n barrios and represent
some of the poorest communities in all of Cali. Siloe is the largest of the
barrios in the comuna and is the primary focus of this project, however since it
location the middle of comuna 20 many of the proposed design features
extend into neighboring barrios. Instead of trying to designate which portions rl
are in Siloe and which are located in other neighborhoods and because the
majority of my focus will be in the Siloe neighborhood, throughout this
project any reference to Siloe could include parts of other neighborhoods that
make up comuna 20. Siloe is located on the lower slopes of the mountain
range, Los Farallones which serves as the western limit of Cali. It is separated
from the city on the eastern portion of the neighborhood by Carrera 37. The
road structure of many cities in Spanish colonized countries uses a system of
labeling roads as Calle or Carrera, with Calles being north/south oriented
roads and Carreras being east/west oriented roads.
Map of the comunas that make up the City of Cali.
Comuna 20 is the projects location.
Case study i
Brazilian experiences with favela upgrading
By Christopher Brown
This paper was written in 1999 following a visit to Brazil by a team that was
made up by the author and colleagues from the Gauteng Department of l
Housing and Land Affairs from South Africa. The team visited 2 cities in
Brazil to see how they are dealing with housing problems created by the
occurrence of informal settlements. Several differences exist between the
Favelas found in Brazil and the informal settlements of South Africa the most
distinctive is the methods and materials used to construct the informal
structures. Typical construction materials seen in South Africa include
products such as cardboard, plastic and corrugated metal. In Brazil, as in
Siloe, the neighborhood in which I am basing my capstone project, more
permanent materials such as brick and tile are found. The structures of the
Favelas of Brazil are typically two to three stories high and often share
common walls and at times upper floors extend over others living areas. This
face makes distinguishing one property from another nearly impossible
especially when it comes to land rights. The common attitude taken by
governments was one of indifference. Not much attention was given to the
squatter settlements that were growing on the edges of cities and the people
who inhabited them. In recent years this attitude has drastically changed as
governments have realized that this problem will not go away and left
unchecked would continue to get worse. Policies are being adopted in many
countries to upgrade and formalize these areas to provide both social and
physical benefits that come with being integrated into the urban fabric of a
The first city the team visited was Rio be Janeiro. How Rio approaches
informal settlement upgrading is one more of regularization and the provision
of basic services such as access to potable water and proper sanitation. The
process that they employ begins with evaluating aerial photos of the favela
and with its residents decisions are made for suitable areas for the location of
new access roads and pathways to provide proper access to all residences.
Community involvement is present at all levels of the upgrading process and
without the support of the majority of the residents no plan moves forward.
No existing roadway is removed however there is the necessity to remove some
of the existing structures to provide access to all residents. When this occurs
the residents are asked to seek temporary shelter with family and a new home
is constructed in open areas toprovide new shelter for the displaced residents.
A benefit that comes with providing physical access to all structures is that
allows for all resident to have an address and receive mail which would include
bills for the provided electricity and other services, It also limits the ability of l
criminals to hide out of the reach of law enforcement, thus improving safety.
Trees are also planted to create public space that residents can use and will
help create community. For many residents this transformation of the
neighborhood that they live in acts as a catalyst for not only physical change
but social change as well. Residents find a new hope and develop pride in their
new neighborhood and become motivated to improve on their living
conditions. Rio doesn't stop with just the physical improvements. Social
programs continue sometimes up to two years after the completion of the
upgrading process. These programs consist of assisting residents to obtain
needed skills to integrate into the formal economy of the city and assistance in
Sao Paulo was the second city visited by the South African team. They
found that in Sao Paulo there are two different approaches to upgrading
informal settlements. The first is similar to the process seen in Rio, where
access and services are provided in the neighborhoods and the physical
upgrading on the structures is left to the resident. The second see in Sao Paulo
is that which is called verticalization. This process entails removal of squatter
housing and constructing multi-story apartment type housing in their place.
The displaced families are then allowed to inhabit the newly constructed
apartments. Both of the approaches seem to be working successfully. The
verticalization approach seems to be more applicable to Favelas located near
the inner city and in areas that are not located on steep slopes.
Case study 2
Urban Transformation in slum districts through public
space generation and cable car transportation at
northeastern area: Medellin, Colombia.
By: Carolina Blanco
This case study involves the Integral Urban Project implemented in
Medellin, Colombia, the nation's second largest city and an area that has
experienced rapid urban transformation beginning in the 1950's. This rapid
influx of people entering the city through inmigration as well as high birth
rates see in the country had negative impacts on public services as well as the
housing supply which lead to the formation of informal settlements on the
periphery of the city. These settlements became known as cinturones de
miseria or misery belts because of their location and the deplorable
conditions their inhabitants face. One main accomplishment of the project
was the installation of the city's mass transit system, the metro. Part of the
metro project included the installation of a cable car system known as the
Metrocable into one of the large informal settlements, comuna nororiental.
The installation of the Metrocable allowed better access by reducing commute
times for the residents of the comuna who typically had to walk long
distanced to access public transportation options and also spurred physical
and social changes by providing officials a view into the informal settlements
that are often overlooked. It also brought awareness to the need for inclusive
development strategies, as well as the need for social, socio-spatial and
The Integral Urban Projects, or the Spanish acronym PUI, criteria is based
on the following; community participation, inter-institutional coordination,
the promotion of housing, improvement of public space and transportation,
facilities upgrading and environmental recovery and can be broken down into
three main components. The first of which is Institutional coordination. This
component is the funding mechanism of the project. It involves the local
government and external investor, such as NGO's, who focus on the
specification of goals and ways to accomplish them once stated. The second
component is known as the social component. The most important factor in
this step is community participation. It is well known that without community
involvement and acceptance any large project will be met with resistance.
Medellin used workshops where participants were asked simple questions and
to draw their dreams for new interventions in their community. This way it
was possible to locate areas that functioned as important social nodes within
the community and identified needed services and other opportunities that
existed. These workshops also acted as a means of educating the public and
gaining the support needed to progress with the project. The final component l
is comprised of all the physical activities required to complete the project such
as new home construction, securing land tenure, providing infrastructural
upgrades, creating open space and improving accessibility to public
Medellin continues to use that strategy today as it was found to radically
change the perception of the area in which the projects were taking place and
the overall sense of belonging and community increased among inhabitants
of these upgraded informal settlements.
de o & -
I approached this project as an urban design problem, beginning
with an overall view and plan for the area. I then reduced scale to focus
on specific design interventions to achieve my stated goal of
integration. Areas that have been proposed include such features as
street upgrading, including streetscaping, public spaces and open space
planning. The methodology I chose to use for this project is the RASAD
method. The research commenced by examining many books and case
studies. My focus is towards topics such as those pertaining to
development projects accessible to low income groups, urban
environments in developing countries and informal settlements. My
research continued throughout the duration of this project as the body
of knowledge is so vast, sufficient time could not allotted to perform
complete research as the project time frame was just over one semester.
, ,, ,
Goals and Objectives:
I am interested in exploring ways to create not only physical, but also
social integration for residents of Siloe, a community developed in an
informal manner on the edge of Santiago de Cali. Through design
interventions I hope to create a community that residents can take
pride in, help remove the stigmas that have become associated with the
community and its residents and create a thriving neighborhood in the
Barrio Siloe that can add to the life and culture of the greater context of
Through the investigation and research of design interventions and
my research into how the designed environment can have an impact on
social issues in informal settlements of various kinds, from squatter
settlements to refugee camps, from around the world. I hope to provide
design interventions that will achieve my stated goal.
* To create a sense of community in the Siloe by upgrading
infrastructure (streetscaping), creating open spaces and linkages
between them, feature elements of civic pride, respond to existing
plans for upgrades already proposed by the city and address
environmental risks and hazards present in the barrio of Siloe.
* To strengthen the Identity of the neighborhood at strategic locations
that will function as gateways to the neighborhood and through
understanding that however different or unconventional it may seem
there is a sense of place for the residents who call Siloe home.
* To designate areas suitable for the provision of services lacking in the
barrio and area suitable for the creation of productive spaces, including
markets or areas for vending products, recreational areas, community
centers, and places for cultural expression.
* To take advantage of the often over looked good qualities of informal
settlements which include: smaller footprints than conventional urban
development, higher densities, fewer cars and more public
transportation opportunities and users.
* To identifying stakeholders and develop a list of target projects that
will provide for the social needs of each identified group as well as
address the functional needs that exist in the barrio.
* To improve safety within Siloe both from criminal activity and
dangers posed from natural disasters such as earthquakes.
* To provide new housing for the residents of Siloe as well as provide
areas of public housing that will serve the entire city.
, ,, ,
Site Visit: I
In December of 2009, I made a visit to Silo6 to perform my site
analysis and gather information. Upon arrival in Cali and after talking to
several residents of the city, I was cautioned of the dangers that exist
within Silo6. Many people reported gang violence and everyone had
extraordinary tales to tell of the horrors of the neighborhood. Accounts
of robberies, the daily ritual of the police force removing bodies from the
prior night's murders and gang turf wars that are fought on a continual
basis, name just a few. Because of this I decided to perform a limited site
visit and only entered areas on the fringes of the neighborhood and
traveled only in the areas that my guides felt it was safe to do so.
Having traveled to Colombia several times before I had a sense of how
the cities of Colombia and much of South America tend to be organized.
One of the first and most notable differences is the development pattern
of residential areas and their lack of private space. Most single family
residences share common walls with their neighbors, and in Cali,
Je because of its very favorable
climate, there isn't always
definition of outdoor and indoor
spaces as many homes have
outdoor kitchens and other areas
that are permanently open to the
outside. This can be in the form
of an internal courtyard with
open sky light or can be an open
pass-through that exits out into a
back patio area, many of which
are shared common areas with
neighboring houses. Very few
homes have what we would
consider a yard area. Due to the
population density in the poorer,
The lack of sidewalks makes for dangerous walking about informally developed
the neighborhood. neighborhoods such as Silo6, this
lack of private space is
amplified. Many residents exit their front doors directly into streets
without even a sidewalk and homes are stacked on top of homes
making it impossible to have any sense of privacy based on our
standards. However, these development patterns are normal and
accepted in Colombian cities and lead to unique social interactions
that are lacking in areas with development patterns such as our
own. Where here, very few of us know our neighbors on more than r
a formal basis, neighbors in cultures where this type of
development pattern occurs often become part of an extended
family type of relationship structure.
Typical development pattern seen in the formal city.
Typical development pattern seen in the informal city.
After the development pattern differences and the lack of private space the
next most notable feature of Siloe is its lack of public open space. A few small
parks exist and some areas of vegetation can be found, but are typically only
where the land is too steep or small in size that a structure cannot be built. In
the formally developed areas of Cali, even with the high density of housing,
there is almost always a small community open space that is within walking
distance for residents. In Siloe this type of open space isn't present and where l
there is open space it is not suitable for this type of use for a variety of reasons
from lack of security or presence of gang and other forms of criminal activity
to simple lack of maintenance. The road system throughout Siloe is a twisting
maze of criss crossing streets and passages that do not function as vehicular
circulation. Many of the roads are too steep or too narrow for most vehicles to
Public open space is found in nearly every neighborhood throughout the formally developed areas of the city.
The following collection of photos represent the existing conditions and
inventory of Siloe that I was able to document.
EIxALIlIg pdl bspdCL.
Existing park space in the neighborhood. Note the
damaged, non usable equipment.
Existing park space.
Many roads are not accessible to automobiles.
Homes are built one on top of another and of varying
roor access ror emergency services is a anger
throughout the community.
Many roads are not wide enough tor vehicular circulation.
l- ., .
Silo6 above a more formally developed area.
There are 21,173 residents living in Silo6. That population makes up 5,655
households with the average household size of 4 which I find surprisingly low
for a lesser developed nation. A breakdown of population by age group shows
that 40% are under the age of 19, the largest percentage falls into the age group
of 20-59 years of age and the remaining 9% are over the age of 59.
- w - - - '
0-4 6- 10-14 16-19 20-24 26-29 30-34 36-39 40-44 46-49 6064 56-) 4 64 66-69 70 +
Based on 2005 census data
A breakdown of the ethnicity of the residents of Siloe shows that the largest
background represented is that of Hispanic descent which comprises 86% of
the population. Black or Afro-Colombian represents 12% and 2% of the
population of Siloe is of other ethnic backgrounds including persons of
Indigenous Caribbean Gypsy Afro-
Based on 2005 census data ETHNICITY
The overall literacy rate in Siloe is 89% and this rate for residents in the age
group of 15 to 24 years of age is 98%. 6% of the population in Siloe has some
form of physical limitation, which includes ability to ambulate, see and hear.
This percentage of the population would have extreme difficulty functioning
within the community of Siloe for a number of reasons, the most obvious of i
which is the lack of sufficient sidewalks.
Nearly half of the population of Siloe is under the age of 20.
An analysis of the housing stock in Siloe shows a total of 5,085 houses with
a vacancy rate of 1%. Of the existing homes 97% have an indoor plumbing
supply of potable water, and sewage system. 98% of the homes are supplied
with electricity. Only 49% of the homes in Siloe have home telephone service.
Gas is supplied to only 2% of the homes, but with the tropical climate and
agreeable temperatures experienced year round, lacking gas does not
drastically affect the livability of a home in Silo6. A variety of building
materials can be seen throughout Siloe. The majority of the materials are
common structural products used in home construction throughout the city
such as brick, roof tiles, wood framing materials including bamboo and sheet
metal. While being constructed of suitable materials the majority of the
homes are substandard.
Services that are located in the area include one super market to serve the
entire community. It location is in the southern most portion of the study
area. Also located in the same area is the only fire station that provides
coverage to not only the barrio of Siloe, but also to the entire comuna and
beyond. In comuna 20, where Siloe is located, there are only 2 police stations. 1
There are 7 primary education schools located in Siloe with 3 associated
libraries. One hospital is located within walking distance but is very small and
has limited inpatient services. Based on the population of the neighborhood
these provided services are not sufficient.
Inside one of the schools that serve Siloe.
Another school located in the community.
The entire country of Colombia experiences periodic seismic events. The
city of was last affected by a major earthquake in November of 2005. The
epicenter of this earthquake was located just off of the west coast of the
country. Many buildings suffered damage. I visited the city nine months after
the event and there were still visible signs of the damage that had occurred.
Most of the damage was to the facades of buildings leaving the underlying
structure sound. Two primary fault lines run the length of the valley in which
iali is located. They are Cali-Patia fault and the Palmira-Buga Fault.
CALI f .-
S. . .
L. . .' . .'.'
'LI .. . .
Fault lines located around Call, Colombia.
Institute Colombiano de Geologia y Mineria
Earthquake hazard map.
Institute Colombiano de Geologia y Mineria
Seismicity of Colombia, 1990 2006
Institute Colombiano de Geologia y Mineria
- a D
Climate and Ecology:
The climate of Colombia varies greatly. It is affected by many factors such as
elevation, location in relation to the coast and the effect of the Andes
Mountains on weather systems. Tropical conditions exist along the coast lines,
in the planes in the eastern portion of the country and in the rainforests of the
Amazon. Cooler conditions exist in the highland regions of the country with 1
many of its highest peaks being snow covered. Cali is located in a valley with
an elevation around i,ooo meters above sea level. Based on the K6ppen-Geiger
climate classification system the city is located in a tropical savannah climate.
The average yearly high is 86 degrees Fahrenheit and the average low is 67
degrees Fahrenheit. The majority of precipitation falls in the form of rain but
in the occasional sever storm event hail is not uncommon. The annual average
amount of precipitation is 36 inches.
T r The ecology of Colombia also
encompasses a wide range of
ecosystems from desert
lit conditions in the Guajira
Peninsula in the north, tropical
rainforests in the south and the
snow covered peaks of the Andes
mountain chain that stretches the
entire length of the country.
Colombia is the second most
Sbiodiverse country in the world. It
has the most bird species of any
-country and is ranked 6th for its
-l total number of animal species.
This is evident in the flora and
fauna found throughout the city
of Cali. Many beautiful specimen
trees are found in public spaces
and often roads are constructed
around trees in order to preserve
Tree preserved in the center of the roadway.
Much of Silot is situated on
the slopes of the Farallones de
Cali, the mountains which
restrains the city from
expanding to the west. The
elevation change in Silo6
ranges from a high point of
around 30oom to the low
point, which is located at the
eastern boundary formed by
Carrera 37, which is
approximately looom, the -L
typical elevation found
throughout the floor of the The grade change present in Silo6 is approximately 3oo meters.
valley where the rest of the
city of Cali is located. As is typical with informal developments around the
world, Silo6 developed on marginal lands that were unusable or unsuitable for -
development. As a result, many of the roads have extreme slopes and others
are simply too steep for vehicles to navigate and have been modified into
alleyway staircases that only provide pedestrians access to portions of the
community. This drastic change in elevation also poses dangers in the event of
natural disasters. In heavy rain events large volumes of water running over the
disturbed slopes can lead to massive erosion and a virtually non existing
stormwater system in Silo6 offers no remediation for this problem. Also as
seen in the recent 2010 Haitian earthquake, entire hillside communities
collapsed and the land beneath them slid to the base of the slope in a land H
slide. A situation like this is very possible in the community of Silo6. m
The land use of the barrio Siloe is dominated by residential. However, in
the section to the south and east of the community there is an area that also
includes many commercial activities. As is common throughout the city, most
business are run out of the home so even though I have indicated areas as
commercial in the community the dominate land use of the entire area is
Land uses in the vicinity of Silo6. Yellow indicates residential, red indicates areas with commercial activity.
The city of Cali is currently going through an upgrade in their public
transportation system. They have introduced new bus lines and vehicles that
will greatly increase the efficiency of public transportation throughout the
city. The system is called MIO, an acronym for Masivo Integrado de Occidente,
is providing expanded transportation options for the city. Massive
infrastructure projects are still underway and have caused some disruptance in
the normal flow of traffic and have been met with resistance from some of the
citizens of Cali. Currently there is one bus route that serves a small portion of
Siloe and the closest station for residents to access public transportation is
located at Estacion Cahaveralejo which is located nearly one half mile from
Siloe. The city also has plans to install a cable car system that will provide
transportation from the Cahaveralejo station into the heart of Siloe.
rRuts A72 DKLO
Bus route map.
Bus route map.
In December of 2007 the Centro Nacional de Consultoria, a research and
consulting company focused on creating value through listening to the needs
of clients, carefully studying their problems and developing creative solutions
(Centro Nacional de Consultoria), prepared a study for the city of Cali. It
focused on the public perception on the development of the city. Its findings
have provided invaluable information collected from the residents of Siloe and
what they feel the city has failed to provide them. This study presented data in
an overall city format but also broke it down to show the perception of
residents per comuna. In comuna 20 which includes Siloe the top 5 problems
that residents indicated are robberies and thefts, drug addiction, juvenile
gangs, public utility rates and unemployment. They also surveyed residents on
their perception of multiple social aspects of the, this included housing,
education, public services, health, recreation, culture and safety. Siloe ranked
amongst the lowest of all of the 22 comunas in each of these categories.
The Findings of The Study
M Principales problems de cada comuna
.-/, .. ' -ImI
Comuna 10 Comuna 17 Comuna 18 Comuna 19 Comuna 20 Comuna 22
Atracos y AtraCos y Atracos y Estado de las Atracos y Atracos y Estado de las
hu hurtos hurtos vias nurtos hurtos vias
Estado de las Estado de las Atracos y Estado de las Atracos y
vias Drogadccoon vias hurtos vias Drogadicci n hurtos
Recoleccton de Coberlura del
Estado de las residues sbihdos transport Pandilas Parques y
Drogadtcctin vtas (basuras) Drogadiccin pUblico Juveniles zonas verdes
Manelo Tanfa de los los servtcios
Pandillas inadecuado de PandHilas servlaos publicos
juveniles residuos s6lidos juveniles Desempleo Drogadlcci6n pubicos domicilianos
Tanfa de los Tarfa de los Tarifa de los
services services servicios Pandtllas
publicos pubiicos Drogadlcci6n p~llicos juveniles Desempleo Caos vehicular
El Centro Nacional de Consultoria
Though very limited, Siloe does have some existing open spaces and areas
with vegetation that could act a as an organizing element within the
community and affords opportunities to create a connection that could extend
through Siloe and into the urban fabric of greater Cali. In addition to the
small pockets of green in Siloe, on the fringes of the barrio are vast areas of
open space or areas with low density types of land uses that could be utilized
as future housing options for the temporarily or permanently displaced
residents that would result from the infrastructure changes. La Estrella de
Siloe, the star that is lit every Christmas season, is an expression of civic pride.
The opportunity exists to feature this element giving a stronger identity to the
community. A plaza area could be developed at the site of the star that could
act as market space, an area for cultural expression or any other form of public
open space which is currently lacking in Siloe. Within half a mile of the
community is located a large shopping mall, Cosmocentro. Large shopping
centers like this have not only local but, regional draw and brings many
people into the area. This becomes important because the proposed cable car
transport system will originate at the Cafiaveralejo transit station that is
located across the street from Cosmocentro. Another feature located with
proximity to Siloe is the sports complex that was constructed for the 1971 Pan
American Games that were held in Cali. This complex includes indoor
stadiums, a gymnasium and track and is the location of the city's plaza de
toros, or bull fighting arena. In the formally developed neighborhood that
borders Siloe the existing infrastructure provides a strong connection to the
city. The streets have the traditional grid layout as seen in many cities
throughout the world. This system could provide nodes that would extend
into Siloe and serve as an ordering principle for which future development or
upgrading could originate. Silo6's location on the hillside above Cali provides
panoramic views of the city. New development and open spaces could be
oriented to take advantage of this feature and provide a destination that
would bring tourists into Siloe to take advantage of these panoramic
overlooks. Other opportunities exist that cannot be illustrated graphically.
The most notable being the opportunity to educate and solicit the
participation of the residents of Siloe who to this point represent a largely
disenfranchised population in the city of Cali.
Opportunities Map: I
Based on my site visit and analysis, the following map illustrates the
constraints that exist in Siloe as they pertain to this project. The first
constraint is the topography of the area. The steep slopes will limit areas
where upgrading of housing and infrastructure can occur. They also pose a
risk for construction activities that would be required to implement any
proposed projects in the area. The next constraint is the organic nature in
which Siloe has developed. One goal I have is to displace as few families as
possible. With the way the homes are constructed and the narrow winding
roads any change of infrastructure through the realignment of and/or
widening of roadways will have major impacts on the community. Carrera 37
is a busy highway that provides a bypass of sorts for travelers to avoid the
congestion of roadways that pass through the downtown business district of
Cali. Carrera 37 is a 4 lane highway divided by an open drainage channel.
While this does create a physical barrier, pedestrian overpasses and cross
walks exist to allow for easy navigation. It is the division of the formal city
from the informal neighborhood of Siloe, but there is also an unseen social
barrier that this roadway represents. On one side is Siloe with its high density, .
low quality housing and on the other is modern apartment housing and
upper-class neighborhoods. The residents in the city rarely cross over this
barrier that separates the "good" from the "bad". As with the opportunities,
other constraints exist that cannot be illustrated on a map, these include the
dangers that exist from the presence of gangs in the barrio, the large number
of residents that live in Siloe, the economic status of these residents,
ecological and environmental dangers and hazards, the different stakeholders
that could potentially have vested interest in a project of this type and this list
Constraints Map: I
Concept 1- Green Infrastructure:
For the first concept, I decided to focus on the existing green spaces in
Siloe. By examining the aerial images I used to create my base map, I was able
to outline most of the sizeable areas of open space. I then looked at the road
system. The primary and secondary roads are fairly easy to distinguish from
one another based on the width of the road. Also, most of the primary roads
that serve as vehicular circulation run parallel to the slopes. I selected several
of the major roads that had the most direct contact with the existing open
space that I had delineated. These roads are designated to become tree lined
boulevards that would act as linkages between the open spaces. This concept
became a green infrastructure plan.
Concept 2- The Creation of Destinations
For the second concept, I decided to focus on the civic feature of la Estrella
de Siloe. If this area were to become a usable open space that would feature
the star, it could serve as a destination that not only residents of Siloe would U
use, but would also draw people into the neighborhood from other parts of
the city as well as attract tourists. One very basic concept of crime prevention l
in community design is having eyes on the streets. By increasing the
pedestrian presence in the barrio of Siloe the potential exists to decrease the
incidence of crime that plagues the area. I also chose other areas within Siloe
that could serve as new public spaces, denoted by the yellow circles. I then
looked at the road system and indicated the most direct vehicular route,
highlighted by the red line, and potential pedestrian routes, highlighted by
the blue line, to access these destination points.
Concept 3- Transit Oriented
For my third concept, I chose to respond to the proposed plan of the city to
construct a teleferico (cable car) system that will provide a public
transportation option for the residents that are located in the heart of the
barrio and face extended walking distances to access the existing public
transportation system. Knowing the originating point of the teleferico will be
at the Canaveralejo transit station, I chose to show the path taking users to the
location of la Estrella de Siloe, which is located relatively in the center of the
barrio, this is indicated by the green line. Design interventions would be
focused in and around the projected path that the cable car is expected to take
through Siloe, creating a linear open space or redevelopment area through the
middle of the neighborhood. The yellow circles represent locations of the
associated teleferico stations as well as a station that would serve as a ground
transit hub. Examining the roads, I chose three looping routes indicated by
the red lines that would be serviced by small vans or Willies, the local choice
for moving small groups of people, which would be able to navigate the steep
slopes and pick up users along the newly designated routes. This would
provide another form of public transportation for the residents of Siloe.
Through careful examination of my analysis and synthesis and based on the
information that I was able to gain from the independent research study that
had been conducted. I was able to develop a master plan based on a sound
foundation of information. Second only to a funding mechanism, the next
most important element of a successful project of this type is public support.
If you cannot get the very people for whom you are proposing the design
interventions for to support your ideas, you can never have a viable project. In
order to gain the support of the residents of Siloe, public hearings would be
held to educate the residents on issues that will be addressed in the design.
More importantly, residents would be involved throughout the entire process
by attending public design charrettes. This is necessary for the people to feel
that their interests are indeed the basis of the proposed design decisions. Due
to the limited time for this project, the language barriers that exist, the
distance to the project site and the purely conceptual basis of this project, I
have chosen to rely solely on the top 5 complaints that the residents of
Comuna 20 had when the independent study was conducted in 2007. All of
the design elements and decisions that I have made in the master plan can all
be related back to these 5 issues that were brought to light from the survey
which include robberies and thefts, Drug Addiction, Juvenile Gangs, Rate of
Public Services and Unemployment.
The first element that I have proposed is open green space in the form of
parks, consisting of both active and passive recreation options. The location of
these parks, where possible, correlate to existing areas of open space and or
areas where the minimum amount of existing homes will have to be removed.
They also relate to the newly proposed road system, which I will be explaining
in greater detail. Parks and open space will address most directly the issue of
juvenile gangs. By providing recreational spaces for the youth of Siloe and the
potential for the creation of youth sports leagues that could utilize the new
park spaces, more positive options will exist for the youth of Siloe. More
indirectly, decreasing the number of youth that become involved in gangs
would also lead to a reduction in the incidences of robberies and thefts.
Creating new open space will necessitate workers to construct and maintain
these parks and could lead to the creation of new jobs not only in the
construction process, but the long term maintenance and management of the .
lew park system of Siloe.
The next elements I have proposed are areas of new civic identity. A
roundabout is currently located at one of the access points to the
neighborhood, but is nothing more than an open space. In my plan, I would
propose a work of public art be located in this roundabout to serve as a gate
way into the newly updated neighborhood of Siloe. Another area designated
for a new civic feature is located in the center of the Barrio. This area correlates
with the current location of La Estella de Siloe. I am proposing a new plaza
area be constructed here to feature the star and act as an area where markets
and other ventures of the informal economy of the city can occur. The
informal economy in Colombia is comprised of people who sell products
either from their home, or on the street, provide services from their home such
as repairs or small scale manufacturing and domestic services to name just a
few. In Colombia the selling goods in any "public space" is prohibited Under
Article 5 of Law 9a of 1989 Urban Reform Law. Public space is defined as any
area used for the "satisfaction of collective urban needs." (Tomal 1) Some
examples include areas used for the circulation of pedestrian and vehicular
traffic and recreation areas. People who conduct business in these areas are
subject to having their inventory confiscated by local police, however vendors
selling in a fixed location can apply for a permit from the local authority to sell
their products at that location (Tomal 2). Providing this area for the vending
of goods would decrease the rates of unemployment in Siloe. It would also
provide a destination in the heart of the neighborhood that would not only i
serve the residents of the community, but people from other neighborhoods
and tourists who would be drawn into the area. The increased number of
people using the area and increased volume of pedestrians in the
neighborhood would reduce rate of crime that is currently a concern of the
citizen of Siloe.
Another part of my master plan .
is areas designated as new housing.
As one of my stated goals for this
project is to displace as few
residents as possible, but knowing
it's impossible to undertake a
project of this scale in a
neighborhood this dense and not
have to remove some housing. To
remediate this I would have areas
of new, high density housing
constructed in open areas as close N
to the barrio as possible, in order
to not disrupt any social functions Potential character of the new housing areas 1.."1'
between family members and neighbors in Siloe. This new housing
would serve as temporary shelter for the residents affected by the
construction activities associated with this project. Residents would
have the option to stay in the new accommodations instead of moving
back into new housing that will be constructed in Siloe. Many projects
of this type involve the complete removal of all residents for the informal
settlements and the relocation of them to new housing that is typically
located far from their current homes. While this is often the best option
for the city, it is the worst option for the residents. Entire social networks
are disrupted when people are moved away from family and friends.
Often, residents of these new settlements sell their new homes and
move back into the city and the invasion process begins all over again.
keeping this new housing close to Siloe the chances of such a scenario is
greatly reduced. As units are vacated in this new housing and residents move
back into Siloe, the empty units would become available to the public housing
program of the city to address the continual influx of people inmigrating into
the city from the rural areas of the country and prevent the Illegal land
invasion which is still a common occurrence in the city of Cali.
Located on the mountain above the neighborhood, a new series of wind
turbines will be located. The scale of these turbines will be carefully chosen as
to not compete with features of cultural Identity that are also located on these
mountains above the city. An area within Siloe that is predominately a south
facing slope has been designated as the location of a new solar panel array.
The installation of the turbines and Solar panels will help to offset the cost of
electricity for the residents of Siloe. This system will be tied into the existing
power grid of the city and excess energy that would be produced could be sent
out to other areas of Cali.
Sustainable energy plan.
The design element that I chose to focus my attention on is the boulevard
system. Since the primary mode of transportation for many residents of Siloe
and throughout the comuna 20 is by foot, creating a safe network of tree lined
streets with sufficient sidewalks would be a priority. I chose three existing
roads within the community to roughly follow and join, creating my primary i
boulevard. These roads; Calle 3, Calle 6A and Carrera 51 would all be realigned
and widened to better accommodate vehicular traffic. This also will provide
access for public transportation to better serve the community. The new
streets would be lined with palm trees and small flowering trees such as
plumeria. New multifamily housing units are also located on either side of the
boulevard, where topography and environmental conditions allow. The street
level floors of these buildings will be modular spaces that can be used as
commercial space, for the provision of services lacking in the community or
additional residential space. This will create jobs in the barrio and will also
bring more pedestrian traffic into the heart of the neighborhood which will
decrease incidences of crime.
Detail of a portion of the proposed boulevard.
In addition, a retaining feature will be incorporated into the back wall of
the uphill structures. This will act not only as a typical retaining wall, but will
serve as protection for homes further down the slope during the event of a
major earthquake. As seen in countries like Haiti, settlements on the slopes
are at danger of collapse and then becoming materials in the massive landslide
that wipes out everything in its path as it slides to the bottom of the slope.
Sections are provided that show the location of this retaining structure. l
However, since the design of this actual wall is beyond the scope of landscape
architecture, the actual height of this wall in the sections is solely for the
purpose of representing its location and showing how the sidewalk will be
widened in areas where housing can't be located on the uphill side of the
boulevard. The widening of the sidewalks will allow for a more comfortable
walking area for pedestrians. Integration and upgrading is my goal for this
project, therefore the retaining wall height will only be as high as necessary to
provide the intended protection and will be decided by a structural engineer.
In areas where the retaining wall is located along the sidewalk an artistic
treatment will be applied to the wall face to create a more aesthetically
pleasing pedestrian environment.
I I I i I I
Retaining wall Structure 12' Sidewalk 24' Roadway 12' Sidewalk Structure
I I I I I I
Retaining wall 15' Sidewalk 24' Roadway 12' Sidewalk Structure
Typical sections of the new boulevard.
As the new boulevard is constructed, upgrades will be made to the existing
sewage and water systems and public utilities will be buried. At this time a
new storm water system will also be installed in all of the new boulevards. The
parks and open spaces located to the south of the site will also contain
stormwater remediation features such as settlement and detention basins.
Both of these systems will connect into a new underground storm water
system that will be installed in the median of Carrera 37. Currently the median
contains an open swale that serves to channel stormwater from the area. With
the median now covered, the option of planting street trees and creating new
pedestrian connections across Carrera 37 would be possible.
Before and after images of the improvements to Carrera 37.
Also indicated on the master plan is the path of the cable car that has been
proposed by the city of Cali. This is not one of my ideas, but I included it on
my master plan because several of my proposed areas respond to the cable car
system. By creating the new civic space at la Estrella de Siloe, this area would
be an obvious choice for the location of the new station in Silo6.
. .. ,
In conclusion, I know these few interventions will not solve all of the social,
environmental and economic issues faced by the residents of Siloe, but I feel
that they will defiantly improve the quality of life in the community. If a
project such as this were to be implemented it would potentially lead to more
improvements for the residents in the future.
The writing on the wall in the center of the picture sums up this project and
why I chose it. The message is from the residents of Siloe. It says, Yo amo a
Siloe, y usted? I love Siloe, and You?
Alexander, Jose. "Siloe Siglo XXI". 02/23/10
Blanco, Carolina. "Urban Transformation in slum districts through
public space generation and cable car transportation at
northeastern area: Medellin, Colombia." The Journal of
International Social research 2. 8 Summer (2009): 75-90
Brown, Christopher. "Brazilian experiences with favela upgrading."
UNISA Latin American Report, UNISA center for Latin American
studies 15.1(1999): 36-40
Gomez, David. "Siloe City". 11/20/09 .
Springer, Natalia. "Colombia: Internal Displacement Policies And
Problems." Writenet June (2006): 17-22
Tomal, Annette. "Earnings Determinants For Self-employed
Women and Men In The Informal Economy: The Case of Bogota
Colombia." International Social Science Review (2008): 1-6
US Government, "CIA World Factbook". CIA. 01/13/09
1. Brown, Christopher. "Brazilian experiences with favela
upgrading." UNISA Latin American Report, UNISA center for Latin
American studies 15.1(1999): 36-40
2. Blanco, Carolina. "Urban Transformation in slum districts
through public space generation and cable car transportation at
northeastern area: Medellin, Colombia." The Journal of
International Social research 2. 8 Summer (2009): 75-90
3. Fiori, Jorge, Riley, Elizabeth and Ramirez, Ronaldo. "Favela
barrio and a new generation of housing programs for the urban
poor." Geoforum 32.4 (2001) 521-531
4. Barke, Michael, Escasany, Tony and O'Hare, Greg. "Sambs A
Metaphor for Rio's Favelas" Cities 18.4 (2001): 259-270
5. Pamuk, Ayse and Cavallieri, Paulo. "Alleviating urban poverty in
a global city: new trends in upgrading Rio-de-Janeiro's favelas."
Habitat International 22.4 (1998): 449-462
6. Werlin, Herbert. "The slum upgrading myth." Urban studies
Journal Limited 36.9(1999): 1523-1534
7. Peattie, Lisa. "Settlement upgrading: planning and squatter
settlements in Bogota, Colombia." Journal of Planning Education
and Research 2.27 (1982): 27-36
8. Abbott, John. "An analysis of informal settlement upgrading and
critique of existing methodological approaches." Habitat
International 26 (2002): 303-315
9. The Aguablanca District: The Urban Poor's Access to Land.
Thesis by C. Andres V61ez
Literature Not Referenced
Brun, Hayes-Mitchell and Zeigler, Cities of The World. Lanham:
Roman and Littlefield, 2008.
Schneider, Richard and Kitchens, Ted. Crime Prevention and the
Built Environment. New York: Routledge, 2007.
McKee, David. Urban Environments in Emerging Economies.
Westport: Praeger Publishers, 1994.
Neuwirth, Robert. Shadow Cities. New York: Routledge, 2005.
Davidson, Forbes and Payne Geoffrey. Urban Projects Manual.
Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2000.
Atlas, Randall. 21st Century security and CPTED. Boca Raton:
Taylor & Francis Group, 2008.
Harvard Design Magazine article:
DESIGN INTERVENTIONS: Improving Informal Settlements Ideas
from Latin America.
. .. ,
Dr. Macedo, UF faculty
Andres Blanco, UF faculty
Professor T. Schnadelbach, UF faculty
Pilar Rios, Resident of Siloe
Leyda Avila MillnA, School teacher in Siloe
Monica Herrera, Resident of Cali
Urban Upgrading in El Barrio
Steps Beyond Regularization
0. Isl *6.r aft
C~. c iad
* Total population 21,173
* 5,655 Households, average household size is 4 people
* 40% of the population is under the age of 20
* 86% of the population is of Hispanic descent
* 12% of the population is of Afro-Colombian.
* Total housing stock 5,085
* 97% of homes have indoor plumbing
* 98% of the homes are supplied with electricity
* 49% have home telephone service
# g~jiLC' ~~
- 1 -
Services within the neighborhood
7 Primary Education Schools
1 Fire Station
2 Police Stations
1 Gas station
l lP~II Ii,
. . vl
Peak Ground Acceleration (m/s) with 10% Probability of Exceedance in 50 Years
Seismicity of Colombia, 1990 2006
- < m
Principales problems de cada comuna
Comuna 10 Comuna 17 Comuna 18 Comuna 19 Comun 20 Comuna 22
Estado de las
Estado de las
Estado de las Estado de las Atracos y Estado de las Atracos y
vias Drogadicci6n vias hurtos vias Drogadiccion urtos
Recolecci6n de Cobertura del
Estado de las residues solidos transport Pandillas arques y
Drogadicci6n vias ;Dasuras) Drogadiccion public juveniles onas verdes
Manejo Tarifa de los os servicios
Pandillas inadecuado de Pandillas servicios ublicos
juveniles residues s6lidos juveniles Desempleo Drogadiccion publicos iomiciliarios
Tarifa de los Tarifa de los Tarifa de los
servicios servicios servicios Pandillas
publicos piblicos Drogadicci6n publicos juveniles Desempleo Caos vehicular
U Park Space
New Ctvic Identity
N w Public Houing
m Cable Car
I I I I I J I
SI I I I
I, U U 12