Aguas Calientes : an urban redevelopment scheme

Material Information

Aguas Calientes : an urban redevelopment scheme
Koester, Chelsea ( Dissertant )
Thompson, Kevin ( Thesis advisor )
Widmer, Jocelyn ( Thesis advisor )
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
College of Design, Construction & Planning, University of Florida
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree Grantor:
University of Florida


Subjects / Keywords:
Buildings ( jstor )
Capital cities ( jstor )
City squares ( jstor )
Incan culture ( jstor )
Landslides ( jstor )
Railroad stations ( jstor )
Restaurants ( jstor )
Towns ( jstor )
Valleys ( jstor )
Vegetation ( jstor )
Aguas Calientes
Machu Picchu
Urban Redevelopment


Aguas Calientes is a small town nestled among mountains in a somewhat remote area of Peru. The town is squeezed into a river valley among mountain peaks that soar 1,000 feet above the site just beyond its borders. The terrain surrounding the town is so treacherous that there are no roads that lead here, the only way to arrive is by way of the Inca trail or train. The town sits on the Urubamba River, which is the life-blood of the surrounding sacred valley and has another river, the Aguas Calientes River, which cuts through the center of the town. The distinction that sets this small, remote town apart from the thousands of similar towns in Peru is its relation to the world famous site of Machu Picchu. Aguas Calientes is located 3.4 miles from the site and is the only access point to the historic ruins. It is this proximity that has caused the town to grow at such an explosive rate that many of the buildings are left unfinished and there is a clear lack of amenities for users, both residents and visitors alike. With a population of just over 4,000 people and approximately 1,000 additional visitors daily, Aguas Calientes is in need of a stronger overall organization which lends itself to the various user groups. The purpose of this project is to transform Aguas Calientes from a gateway town for the Machu Picchu ruins toward establishing it as a destination in its own right. This project aims to achieve this by understanding the fundamental opportunities and constrains of the site, which were discovered through extensive research and an in-depth inventory and analysis phase, with design strategies intending to fix them. Through a design process that carefully balances the many needs of the town, the master plan provides an open space network throughout the site. With natural hot baths, an abundance of river front property, and a pedestrian-oriented environment, Aguas Calientes boasts elements that could become a successful urban environment through the use of innovative design solutions. However, the incredible terrain that this town is surrounded by also presents the threat of landslides and flooding to the town and its inhabitants and visitors. The design solutions proposed on the following pages embrace both the opportunities and constraints present on the site to create a cohesive community for all users.
General Note:
Landscape Architecture capstone project
General Note:
Undergraduate Honors Thesis

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Chelsea Koester. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.


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~-YE"-U~1' ~L--CLLI~-


V. Dedication cQ

I would like to dedicate this book to my family; you know you mean the world and more to
me and not only would I not have made it without you, I wouldn't want to even try.

Mommy and Daddy, I don't know what I ever did to deserve parents like you but I know
that my only real goal in life is to make you proud. You are such an amazing example of all
the things I hope to be in life, I hope to live up to all of them. I cannot even begin to thank
you for the limitless love and support that you have provided me not only throughout my
college career, but throughout my entire life. I love you both so much!!!!!!

Emmers, you are my life partner and I love you more than words. Someone really wise once
said "I'm smiling because your my sister, I'm laughing because there is nothing you can do
about it." So there it is, you're stuck with me and I love it. :)

Granny, thank you for all of the phone conversations and visits that brightened my day. I
love knowing that a conversation with my Granny is the one thing I can always look forward
to for some good old advice and cheery thoughts. I love you!!!

The University of Florida
College of Design, Construction and Planning

Aguas Calientes: An Urban Redevelopment Scheme

An Undergraduate Thesis in
Landscape Architecture
Chelsea Koester

Faculty Advisor:
Kevin Thompson
Jocelyn Widmer


Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Bachelor in Landscape Architecture
and has been reviewed and accepted by the faculty as an Honors Thesis

o) Acknowledgment & Thanks ca
This project would not have been possible without the assistance of several people:

The first of those is my advisor, Jocelyn Widmer, who has patiently helped me throughout this process from
beginning to end. The amount of thanks I owe her I cannot adequately put into words.

A big thank you to my faculty advisor Kevin Thompson who answered so many questions meeting after meeting.

To all of the landscape kids, you know who you are, I don't know how fate managed to bring us all together for
some of the best years ever, but I'm so grateful to have had you all be apart of my life!!

To my fellow international explorer, Sarah, I feel like we definitely figured this thing out together. Thank you
for taking this crazy journey with me.

To my roomies, Yenlys and Nicole, thank you for not calling me crazy, at least to my face. I do sincerely apologize
for the numerous food addictions I may be responsible for.

Katie, you know you are seriously the person that keeps me sane...I love any and every conversation we've ever
had mostly due to the fact that you make me laugh so much...I love you to pieces and I am so incredibly lucky
to have a friend like you in my life.

And finally, to my landscape soul mate, Allison, you know I may have actually died if it wasn't for our intense
work days and Panera dates. You have been my sanity for everything in this major and out, and on top of it all
an amazing friend. I owe you my life.

Chapter 1: Introduction............................ 1
A bstract...................................................... 1
Regional Context.......................................... 2
Sacred Valley Overview................................. 3
Site History............................................... 5
Relationship to Machu Picchu..................... 6
Agency Interaction.......................................7
Project Value.......................................... 8
Statement of Intent.................................... 9
Goals and Objectives.................................... 10

Chapter 2: Case Studies ............................ 12
Case Studies Overview................................. 13
La Fortuna, Costa Rica................................. 14
El Remate, Guatemala.................................. 15
Banos Ecuador........................................... 16
Additional Supporting Case Studies............ 17

Chapter 3: Analysis................................... 20
Site Analysis Introduction........................... 22
Hydrology................................... .............23
Topography............................................ 24
Organizing Elements................................... 25
Building Use........................................... 26
Z ones............................................. ..... 27
Vegetation.............................................. 33

Circulation................................. ............ ... 35
U sers.......................................... ............. .. 36
Synthesis................................... .............. .. 37

Chapter 4: Concepts.................................... 40
Concept 1............................................ ........ 41
C concept 2........................................... ...... 42
C concept 3........................................... ...... 43
ConceptSynthesis........................... ..............44

Chapter 5: Final Design................................. 46
M aster Plan........................................ ...... 47
Welcome Park and Plaza .................................. 49
Hot Baths................................................ 51
Main Plaza.................................................. 53
R iverw alk....................................................... 55

Future Recommendations........................................ 57
C onclusion.............................................................. 58
Sources............................................................... 58
Appendix.................................. .......................... 60

Ih*Kh*I w


.... .. .... ..

I ..:

Aguas Calientes is a small town nestled
among mountains in a somewhat
remote area of Peru. The town is squeezed
into a river valley among mountain peaks
that soar 1,000 feet above the site just
beyond its borders. The terrain surrounding
the town is so treacherous that there are no
roads that lead here, the only way to arrive
is by way of the Inca trail or train. The town
sits on the Urubamba River, which is the
life-blood of the surrounding sacred valley
and has another river, the Aguas Calientes
River, which cuts through the center of the

The distinction that sets this small, remote
town apart from the thousands of similar
towns in Peru is its relation to the world
famous site of Machu Picchu. Aguas
Calientes is located 3.4 miles from the site
and is the only access point to the historic
ruins. It is this proximity that has caused the
town to grow at such an explosive rate that
many of the buildings are left unfinished
and there is a clear lack of amenities for
users, both residents and visitors alike. With
a population of just over 4,000 people and
approximately 1,000 additional visitors
daily, Aguas Calientes is in need of a stronger


overall organization which lends itself to the
various user groups.

The purpose of this project is to transform
Aguas Calientes from a gateway town for the
Machu Picchu ruins toward establishing it
as a destination in its own right. This project
aims to achieve this by understanding the
fundamental opportunities and constrains
of the site, which were discovered through
extensive research and an in-depth inventory
and analysis phase, with design strategies
intending to fix them. Through a design
process that carefully balances the many
needs of the town, the master plan provides
an open space network throughout the site.

With natural hot baths, an abundance
of river front property, and a pedestrian-
oriented environment, Aguas Calientes
boasts elements that could become a
successful urban environment through
the use of innovative design solutions.
However, the incredible terrain that this
town is surrounded by also presents the
threat of landslides and flooding to the
town and its inhabitants and visitors. The
design solutions proposed on the following
pages embrace both the opportunities and
constraints present on the site to create a
cohesive community for all users.


*Aguas Canlp

J ^-

Regional Context Map

* Aguas Calientes is located approximately 3.4 miles from Machu by
road, translating to approximately a 20 minute bus ride
* The town of Aguas Calientes is fronted by the Urubamba river on
the southwest site and the Aguas Calientes river runs through the
center of the site from east to west into the Urubamba river
* Aguas Calientes is only accessible by the train, which can be
boarded at Ollantaytambo, which is 35 miles away, or Cusco,
which is 70 miles away. The travel time to these locations are 1.5
and 3 hours respectively.


^E"re ai


0 2000
Aguas Calientes In Relation to Machu Picchu


* Aguas Calientes is located in the South American country of Peru,
approximately 700 miles southeast of the capital city, Lima
* The town is located within the Cusco region, of which the city of Cusco is
the capital
* The town of Aguas Calientes is located just north of the area that is
commonly referred to as "The Sacred Valley" and includes towns such as
Ollantaytambo, Urubamba, and Pisac
* The town is located in what is referred to as the Urubamba River Valley

This town within the Sacred Valley sits at an
altitude of 9,000 feet and has a population of
approximately 3,000 people. The main attraction
is the fortress ruins, which are located within the
main city center. One very unique aspect of the
town of Ollantaytambo is the fact that the old
section of the city still maintains the original Inca
layout. The neighborhood blocks, called canchas,
are connected housing units forming a square
centered around a common courtyard area.

This town with a population of around 350,000 people is the capital city of the Cusco
region. Being that the airport is located here, the city acts as the entrance point to
the Sacred Valley area. Most visitors arrive here on a flight from the capital city of
Lima. This city acted as the historical capital of the Inca Empire and was declared a
World Heritage site in 1983. There are numerous attractions within the city of Cusco,
including historical churches and Inca temples as well as numerous Inca ruins located
just outside the city center.

Cusco's Main Plaza

View of fortress ruins at the edge of the town

The largest town in the Sacred Valley, with a population of 8,000
people, Urubamba is a popular spot for people to stay and use as their
base point for exploring the
sacred valley. There are a few
Inca ruins within the town,
but nothing that compares
to ruins found throughout

As the smallest tourist stop within the sacred valley with a population
of approximately 2,000 people, Pisac is the location for the most
well-known market in this area. While the main market is held on
Sunday, smaller vendors set up
on Tuesday and Thursdays.
Pisac also boasts Inca ruins,
although they are removed
from the town. The ruins are

a complex series of multiple
clusters of structures and
Pisac Market


I 1(

Aguas Calientes was first founded as Camp Maquinachayoq, a
farm settlement consisting of only a few families in 1901. Ten
years later, in 1911, the American explorer Hiram Bingham discovered
Machu Picchu on his hunt for the lost city of Vilcabamba, which was
the rumored last capital of the Inca empire. Following this discovery
the settlement quickly grew in size and plans were made for the existing
rail line to extend to the settlement, now known as Aguas Calientes.
During the 1920s and 1930s the rail line was extended and Aguas
Calientes served as the base camp for workers of the rail line.

In the decades that have followed, the growth in the popularity of
Machu Picchu has been exponential and with it the growth of the town
of Aguas Calientes. From the years of 1993 to 2005 the population
of Aguas Calientes increased 264%. It is this rate of growth that has
caused concern from various Peruvian and international agencies, most
notably UNESCO.

The town has a history of landslides due to the extreme terrain
surrounding the town. There have been several incidents of landslides
at the site including in 1995, 2005, and 2008. The most recent event
was on January 24, 2010, when the site was hit hard by landslides
brought on by heavy rain in the area. These rains also caused severe
flooding of the two rivers present at the site and was the cause of
the loss of several buildings. Train access to the site was severed, with
only limited access available as of April 1, 2010. The impact on the
economy of Aguas Calientes has been significant, with many of the
residents of the town leaving entirely due to a lack of work.

This symbiotic relationship between the town of Aguas Calientes and the ruins of Machu Picchu can strike a balance by way of
sustaining the integrity of the Machu Picchu ruins while also sustaining the livelihoods of the local people of Aguas Calientes. For
this balance to occur, Aguas Calientes needs to acquire its independence from Machu Picchu by way of drawing on its potential
as a tourist destination rather than a gateway.

Hiram Bingham: Discoverer of Machu Picchu

Currently, the only way to reach Machu
Picchu, besides hiking the Inca trail,
is to catch the train into Aguas Calientes
and then take a bus from the town into the
sanctuary. Being that there are a limited
number of trains that arrive at the site daily
and a limited amount of seats on those trains,
there is a fixed maximum number of visitors
who can reach Aguas Calientes daily. It is in
this way that the town of Aguas Calientes acts
as a control point for the ruins, protecting it
from being overrun by tourism.

Conversely, Machu Picchu is the attraction
that brings visitors to Aguas Calientes
on a constant basis. This flow of visitors
guaranteed by the ruins are what allows
the town to survive in its current physical
state. Without this flow of visitors, the town
would not be able to sustain the many shops,
restaurants, and hotels that currently exist in
Aguas Calientes.

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^Bda CulBtEr

Considering that the town of Aguas Calientes is in such close proximity to a site as widely
recognized as Machu Picchu, it comes as little surprise that many agencies from the local to
the international level have a vested interest in this town. This town acts as the control point to the
Historical Sanctuary of Mach Picchu and limits the number of people who can access the site daily,
meaning that any changes to the access to this town could have far-reaching implications for the
ruins. In addition, any increase in the carrying capacity of the town could translate to more visitors to
Machu Picchu. Agencies including UNESCO, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization, INRENA, the National Institute of Natural Resources, INC, the National Institute
of Culture, and MINCETUR, the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Tourism all currently play a major
role in the governing of the guidelines that affect not only Machu Picchu but Aguas Calientes.
UNESCO has the strongest involvement with the both the _a
31 COM
Historic Sanctuary ofMachu Picchu and with the town ofAguas .... Pa, Ma. 20
O Drl""" Enghsh
Calientes. This agency has made numerous trips to the site to SUNITED NIINS ETC ON
evaluate the many problems and threats that the town faces POUR LETION, L SCIENCE E L CULTuRE
and offer recommendations to solve these problems. UNESCO CULTURAL AND NATURAL HERITAGE
most recently made an expedition to Aguas Calientes in 2007 WODERAE COMI... I COE
and noted that many of the recommendations that it had I T ..
23 June 2 July 2007 1 2 jlIun 2 u7llet 2007
made in the past for the site are not being adhered to. It also P J.l. .. . u l.,un. f ,let0
InscnOed on the World Heritage List andor on thfe List of World Heritage in
voiced concern over the impending threat of natural disasters pn7 de rdreu our rov.olre dE. on.ervat..n e blenin.crt
our la Llte du patnmolne mondal eUou sur la Liste du ptnmolne mond- d
that could cause damage to not only the physical structure ofSION REPORTlPPOR IN
the town, but its human inhabitants. These concerns along
with additional recommendations were published in a report
which acted as an integral resource when researching the
current conditions of this site. However, as research progressed, it was concluded that not all of the
recommendations in this report were the best options for Aguas Calientes. With this in mind, this
information was used as a source, but not as a road map.

Although Aguas Calientes is a small town in a remote area of
Peru, its proximity to one of the world's most well known
historical sites gives it a unique position of responsibility.
Located within the Historical Sanctuary of Machu Picchu,
this town exists amidst a delicate habitat that is in danger of
being threatened by the effects of the hundreds of thousands
of visitors that come to this area each year. Aguas Calientes

has the ability to educate visitors not only about the history
of the Machu Picchu ruins, but the significant environment
surrounding, and the various threats it faces.

Aguas Calientes faces many potential threats that are both
natural and man-made in nature. The ever present push for
vehicular access to the site is one that, if ever executed, would
have severe effects. The town also faces the reality that informal
building construction methods are no longer adequate, and must
come up with a growth management plan to make sure that the
growth of the town does not continue at such an uncontrolled
rate without regulation. Landslides have been a historical threat
to the site and the most recent incident occurred on January
24, 2010 in which hundreds of landslides occurred in the
region, most notably cutting off train access. The same rains
that caused these landslides also caused the Urubamba river to
swell to very high levels, causing many river-front properties in
Aguas Calientes to succumb to the floods. This recent incident
reinforces the urgency to address this ever-present threat.

Aguas Calientes also holds the unique position of acting as a
control point to the historical sanctuary of Machu Picchu. This
relationship between the town and the ruins prevents the site
from being completely overwhelmed by visitors on a daily basis.
Without Aguas Calientes unique ability to serve as a control point
for Machu Picchu, there is a strong likelihood that visitor rates
to Machu Picchu would continue to grow at an exponential rate.

Ctal (aienteS Oil the Iiiubam1ba RI\ el,



Ministerio de Comercio
Exterior y Tlrismo


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The intent of this project is to transform Aguas
Calientes from a gateway into a destination point
by enhancing the experience and character of the
town while accounting for issues concerning safety,
user experience, and context. This is accomplished
through the creation of a master plan that establishes

a system of open spaces and destination nodes to
create a network that allows the user to interact
with the site in a manner that encourages the

understanding of the culture, natural setting, and
history of the town.

r Ifv er2/



Relationship to Attraction Key Features

La Fortuna, The closest town to the Arenal Widely recognized for its
Costa Rica Volcano variety of hot springs

* The half-way point between
the Town of Flores and the
ruins ofTikal
* Located 20 miles from Tikal
(30 min hbs ripde

* Located within the Biotopo
Cerro Cahui Reserve
* Waterfront town

WT hen choosing case studies
that would be relevant to
my site, there were a couple main
considerations. The first feature that I
looked for in a potential case study site
was that the site be in close proximity
to a tourist feature. This element of
proximity to a feature that provided a
flow of tourists to the area created a
strong parallel to my site and provided
examples of the different ways that this
relationship was treated.

Ban Considered the base for Hot Baths was the site's proximity and relationship
Ecuador launching into tours of the Located in picturesque valley to strong natural features such as water
Amazon Region Scenic Waterfalls frontage, topography, or hot springs.
Being that Aguas Calientes' proximity
to both the Urubamba and Aguas
Calientes Rivers, along with its definition by the surrounding topography strongly shaped the way in which the town formed, sites
with similar interactions with their setting would likely provide alternate approaches to the way these features could be addressed.

Once these two main factors were evaluated there were also other slightly less significant features that I did consider. Among the
features considered were outdoor recreation opportunities, presence of markets, and historical features. In all cases, the size and
population played a big factor in determining whether the site was able to accurately relate to mine. However, all sites that were
not of similar scale were not completely ruled out because many of them had valuable information about other aspects of the town
that were not strongly related to size.

El Remate,

Relationship to Attraction Key Features

Guayaquil, Considered a jump-off point Cerro Santa Anna
Euadr for the Galapagos Islands Malecon 2000
Located 700 miles from the Public Parks
Islands Museums

Most populated town in the Riverfront town
S sacred valley Small Market

Located in close proximity to Widely recognized for their hot
Deadwood, two ski areas springs
South Dakota

Guayaquil, Ecuador
Formerly known only as the city to
catch a flight to the Galapagos from,
Guayaquil decided to capitalize on
the tourists traveling through the city
by taking advantage elements in the
city such as its waterfront location.
With the creation of the Malecon
2000, a ri\erwalk feature that is over
1.S miles in length, the ciry began its
effort to transform this port city into
a destination for tourists. The creation
of hie riverwalk was soon followed by
revitalization efforts throughout the
city and has led to increased safety
within the it


Chillan, Chile


Thirty o4C hIllIlan, Chile kncmx plencn
abO'qIC na111ral dk~a~cer. Locaced Inl an
a'ea P1,i0le It:) ec [dqlk cSI Ellis It ro'- i
ha,1 experiecel~d inanv. [lie Ifllosc 'celc
OCCUrriii ill Febl-rua, 2. 1t)TIn. 1Ih
miedind; chac dih hc ic ha cplolocd
ill [ldce, s lcan up 0 kIlo xin1 rh11 nrlc
d iNPsler shOti d ac [ a an examplecob
[Ile [IOW i Of AC'LMaS (ali nemes. Th is clit.
like AgUa1 CAllicNc. dC[N 11Na1gac~llxIA,-
[CONV 10 [Il Thrma deC (Ihillan Icsorr
an1d [hIelorc ha IS Iasllse C (1)gcc~[
clef bac k 10 a nlCr i-11ii CN~CI l i ode
[C) \\ICOIfle K[Llrisc[,back In0 he CUAi

Urubamba, Peru
ULrubamba shares a close proximity to
Aguas Calienies along with a riverfront
location of [lie Urubamba River in the
Sacred \Vlley. This town has no Inca
ruins or orher disrincr features, but
the reason for its success in the region
is the variety of lodging options that
it offers visitors to the Sacred Valley.
The fact that visitors are willing to stay
in Urubamba and then travel ro the
remainder of the Valley's attractions
acts to emphasize rhe need for Aguas
Calientes to improve its lodging
options in an effort to attract more
over-nighr visitors.

Deadwood, South Dakota

The smal~lItowno'~i f DeaddoodI. \\ich a
population of 2000 Icsidcln" closely
paralls dle AN ofzc Aguas al.(dIiients..
This cwvn also finds i~cIe rlciant on a
loJcal ac[racriointen em i dby ski rsrta
a SOUrCe for its v~isitors. Howverwhen
the ski resort is. out of calon, this town i
has found another reason [o encourage
rouist to pay a '. [ii; the i incredible
hiking nog[IeUTOnigsery
This activiEX is one which the twn iiof
Aguas Cal ien e could Cake advantage
of "I th i r ts lcat[Iiondim iigbreathtrak in
scenery and use [o provide ac ucrie

beyond [heir visit o N tachuL Picch u.

0 *~ I S *~ I


d ll ,




i I

L il--

In order to gain a clear understanding of both the opportunities

and constraints present on the site, an extensive inventory

and analysis was completed. This process started with the direct

inventory of site conditions including topography, building

locations, building use and existing vegetation. After this base

information was gathered it was then analyzed both individually

and as a system to see what conclusions could be drawn from

this information.

Through a site synthesis this inventory and analysis information

was then synthesized to understand the opportunities and

constraints present on the site. These deductions translated

into a form of design guidelines which then began to dictate

the way in which the site needed to be designed and organized

for maximum effectiveness. This process was imperative to

understanding what factors would become the main focus of a

new design strategy for the site.

_.IA3 -'


-:~ iar::;. !~1SSi:. i.:
'';''"''''1 ::;:
, iR:;

Because this site is located at the spot where
the Aguas Calientes river joins with the
Urubamba river, it can be concluded that the
hydrology of this site has played a major factor in
its overall layout and function. Add this to the fact
that the site is located at the bottom of a valley and
the influence of the site hydrology is even more
apparent. Due to the heavily mountainous terrain
in the region, there are many small watersheds
forming individual valleys.

Located at the base of one of these such watersheds,
Aguas Calientes is a point at which much of the
water from its watershed converges. It is this
1NMPAJ UA positioning that makes this site especially prone to
Natural disasters such as mudslides and flooding.
'L When there is a rain event, a large amount of the
-- ORONTO water falling in this watershed has to at some point
travel through the site in order to get to its final
.244 45. destination of the Urubamba river. This sudden
Town ofAguas Calientes Within Its 'Watershed
increase in the amount of water rushing into the
river often causes a dramatic rise in the level of the Urubamba river, as was evidenced by the rain event that caused flooding and
landslides on January 24, 2010. With these considerations in mind, one of the main conclusions drawn from this information
was the need for a more extensive flood plain throughout the site. At the south end of the site there are several buildings that are
located within the actual river bed and it was at this location that the rising river levels actually caused several buildings to collapse
into the river. With a greater setback the river would be able to cycle through its natural rising and lowering of levels without the
damage to property that has been seen in past storm events.

As is clearly demonstrated by the photograph on the right, Aguas Calientes is surrounded by rather extreme topography. While
the town has a steady slope from west to east, beyond the limits of the town the slope increases to an average slope of 60%.
It is this terrain that allows the town at an elevation of 6,693 feet to be more than a thousand feet lower in elevation than Machu
Picchu, a mere 3.6 miles away. It is also this terrain that has kept the town from being connected with a road to the more developed
areas of the Sacred Valley. This terrain also has a strong impact on the way that water flows into and through the site. Being that
the site has a strong slope from east to west down to the Urubamba river, the capacity for this amount of rainwater is absolutely
necessary. Any design elements that may impede this flow of rainwater may cause significant drainage problems. The integration
of vegetation areas in the site in place of the impervious surfaces currently in place will increase percolation throughout the site
and reduce run off.


* : S

W7 hen interpreting the organization of the town of Aguas
V Calientes, one of the most indicative factors was the
location of key elements throughout the town. For example, the
location of the train station provided the selected location for
the entrance into the town. In this way the location of municipal
elements such as the police station, school, and church helped
to indicate a city center, which was located around the main
plaza area. The location of the market was outside of the city
center, but still along one of the main pedestrian circulation

Other elements were not as integrated into the site but provided
unique opportunities if properly planned into the overall design.
For example, the hot baths, which are removed from the town
center, are a feature unique to this town in the Sacred Valley,
and if properly integrated into the site would help to give the
town a unique character.

Likewise, the element of the Aguas Calientes River poses a
unique opportunity to the site as both an organizational and
aesthetic element. While the river is currently treated as more
of an obstruction that an opportunity, by increasing user
interaction this feature could become the backbone of the site
as well as a very strong east-west connection throughout the
site. As is seen by the inventory, there is a lack of key elements
located along the riverwalk area, supporting the interpretation
that this area acts as secondary to the town center area.

In order to get a good idea of the uses present throughout the site, a building use inventory was conducted for the site. The
possible classifications include restaurant, hotel/hostel, souvenir store, and municipal. These categories, while very general, are
all that is needed to see the pattern of building use throughout the site to determine zones of use. There is no residential category
because the site excludes the residential areas ofAguas Calientes is evidenced by the inventory below, there was an apparent pattern
of zones throughout the site, organized around main elements such as Avenue Pachacutec, the main plaza, and the train tracks.

Along Avenue Pachacutec the main uses
present are restaurants and hotels. In some
cases both of these uses are housed within
one building with the hotel located on
the upper floors and the restaurant on the
ground level. This pedestrian thoroughfare
has more of a close, urban feel and therefore
is conducive to the restaurant business. Many
of the restaurants along this walkway have
an open area that extends into the walkway,
allowing them to integrate themselves into
the activated walkway.

The municipal center is clearly centered
around the main plaza area, indicating that
this area functions as the town center. This
allows this area to function with a mix of
both visitor and residential building uses,
providing an open space that will be used
by all people in the town, both visitors and

Building Uses Within Site

Key Organizing Elements ofAguas Calientes

Key Buildings in Aguas Calientes


; .-i
":.i; FB~F*j~-5~r~

--.-* N
-- f ,. '. "' ',.. -. -_ "i '
.. .'

( Zone defined by proximity to train tracks and Urubamba River

Q Zone centered around the Main Plaza area

0 Zone centered on Avenue Pachacutec, which acts as the main street

O Zone of buildings and spaces located on the Aguas Calientes River

O Zone that includes the train station and current market

When looking into the existing conditions of
the site, it soon became obvious that the site
was easily split into five distinct zones, each
with a unique character. Each zone appears to
be organized around a central element such as
the train tracks (1), main plaza (2), pedestrian
thoroughfare (3), river front (4), or train station
(5). Through this zone analysis it became clear
that each area required its own unique solution,
and these solutions became much clearer after
completing this zone analysis.

Each zone was analyzed for features such as
pedestrian circulation, character, dominant
features, and building use. This allowed me to
arrive at a set of opportunities and constraints
applicable for each zone. These conclusions were
applied during the design process, allowing me
to more adequately address the main concerns
for each area. However, it is equally important
to remember that while these zones were
individually important, the overall goal is to
create a feeling of connectivity throughout the
site. Therefore, while the needs of each zone
will be considered, any common features will
be emphasized to help promote cohesiveness.

Defining Characteristics

* Includes all properties that have frontage on the train tracks
* Some of the buildings in this zone have frontage on the
Urubamba River and have a severe flooding risk
* Heavy pedestrian circulation

Image of buildings on the Urubamba River

Typical view of buildings along train tracks


Defining Characteristics
* Includes the main plaza which acts as the town center and
main gathering area
* This area contains the majority of the town's municipal
* This area has the highest level of circulation
* Population distributed evenly among residents and visitors

Defining Characteristics
* Buildings that are on Avenue Pachacutec, the main
pedestrian thoroughfare of Aguas Calientes
* Predominantly restaurants and stores
* Heavy pedestrian circulation
* This area has a very urban feel

Defining Characteristics
* The area bordering the Aguas Calientes River has very low
levels of circulation
* Many of the buildings in this area are hotels
* The hot baths have a weak connection to the rest of the site
and are under-used
* Aguas Calientes River is treated as more of an obstacle
than an opportunity with raised bridges and concrete

Defining Characteristics
* This area acts as the 'welcome center' for visitors
* Currently, this area is very cluttered and chaotic
* There is immense potential in this area being that the only
way to reach this site is through the train station

The town ofAguas Calientes is located in the vegetation
zone known as subtropical humid forest. This region
gets an annual average rainfall of 76 inches per year.
The average temperature range is from 59-64 degrees


Site Conditions
The site currently has an overall lack of vegetation despite being
surrounded by heavy vegetation. Almost all surfaces within the
site are impervious. There are two vegetation zones on the site
which are upland, which encompasses the majority of the site,
and wetland, which occurs along the banks of the Aguas Calientes
and Urubamba Rivers.

Wetland Vegetation
The vegetation zone that Aguas Calientes is located in supports a few varieties
of wetland vegetation that are found along river beds throughout the valley.
The common specimen found include Alder, Willow, and the Phragmites
Reed. This vegetation will be planted along both the Aguas Calientes and
Urubamba Rivers, especially in the restored riparian areas along the Urubamba
River. It will also be integrated into the river walk area in vegetated area along
the length of the river. Willow will be used heavily in the extended river bed
along the south side of the Aguas Calientes river in the riverwalk area.

Upland Vegetation

Cedrela fissilis
Ui mad = ',


The site is currently lacking vegetation although it is located in a
region that is conducive to for several shade trees including Mahogany,
Cedrela fissilis and Polyepis. These trees are both aesthetically
pleasing and provide a cool microclimate for users. These trees will
be integrated into the site in the train station park area as well as in
the upland areas of the riverwalk. Other vegetation found in the area
includes the Trumpet Tree and Cinchona. Both of these options are
good for textural variation and will be used throughout all upland
areas of the site. Through the introduction of vegetation throughout
the site I expect to allow the site to have a more user friendly character
as well as a variety of microclimates to make it more enjoyable at
all times of the year. The vegetation will also reduce the amount
of impervious surfaces in the site and lead to increased amounts of
water being percolated into the soil instead of becoming runoff into
the Urubamba and Aguas Calientes Rivers. This change will help to
reduce the impact of heavy rains on the site.

trumpet tree

Phragmites Reed Willow Trumpet Tree



Alder Phragmites Reed



eing that Aguas Calientes has no vehicular access, the town holds the unique position of only needing a pedestrian circulation
system. This gives the town the opportunity of being able to make strong pedestrian connections throughout the town without the
worry of divisions and breaks in this system due to automobile circulation. This also narrows down the type of user that the circulation
system need to accommodate, being that all users will be traveling at walking (or at fastest) running speed.

As is shown by the circulation analysis, the
strongest circulation on the site currently exists
around the train station, main plaza, and on
avenue Pachacutec. It is evident from this analysis
that the walkway along the Aguas Calientes
riverfront is highly under utilized, with an overall
lack of traffic. Also noticeable is the lack of traffic
that travels to the east side of the site to visit the
town's hot baths.

From this analysis I came to the conclusion that
redevelopment was needed along the riverfront
corridor in order to strengthen this connection
from west to east throughout the site. This
strengthened connection would also encourage
more users to travel to the baths at the eastern
end of town.

Although pedestrian circulation is plentiful along
the train tracks on the west side of the site, this
area is not currently conducive to pedestrian
circulation. There is a lack of distinction between
the train tracks and pedestrian walkways and in
many areas these two circulation systems exist on
the same level.

i\. 'i.....~ .
S-" *;-j-

Pedestrian Circulation Within Site Area
Pedestrian Circulation Within Site Area

n the town of Aguas Calientes there are two clear user
groups; residents and visitors. The residents of this town
currently number around 4000 individuals. However,
UNESCO estimates that of these individuals, around fifty
percent of them are 'transient', meaning that Aguas Calientes
is not their year-round home. Many Peruvians know that
the tourism business provides the opportunity to make a
large amount of money in a rather short tourism period and
travel to locations that thrive on tourism during the tourism
season. Aguas Calientes is one of the more extreme examples,
and this has led to man problems in the town. The deficiency
of full-time residents has led to a lack of residents that think
of this town as their home, and therefore a lack of people
willing to fight for the well-being of this town.

The visitors to the town of Aguas Calientes can
nearly double the population on a busy day,
numbering up to 3000 individuals in addition
to the town's 4000 residents. These visitors are
all here for the same reason: the ruins of Machu
Picchu. Being that Machu Picchu is not one of
the most accessible places to visit, it can be safely
assumed that these visitors are rather determined
and adventurous. In order to adequately design
for both user groups, all factors need to be taken
into consideration and applied in a way that
allows the user groups to integrate throughout
the site in various gathering areas and corridors.


Primary Circulation System




Primary Nodes

Existing Railway

Steep Slopes, Dangerof

B Good View of
Surrounding Scenery

Opportunity for Welcome
Plaza Area

Urubamba and Aguas
Calientes Rivers, Opportunity

Area Dominated By Local

Area With Majority Municipal
Use, Suitable for City Center

Area With Integrated Hotel,
Store and Restaurant Uses

Area With Majority Hotel/
Hostel Building Use

Area With Majority Restau-
rant and Store Building Use

Area suitable for River walk

Area of Building Within
Urubamba River Bed, Danger
of Flooding

After completing the site inventory and analysis for the site the information was then synthesized to investigate the interaction
between these systems. Through this combination of information, it was apparent which areas were most conducive to certain
types of improvements and user activity. It was also possible to identify the potential conflicts and constraints of the site that
need to be considered in order to design the site in a way that is pleasant and safe for all users. The conclusions realized from
this synthesis were carried into the design phase and were integral to the creation of a safe, effective, and cohesive master plan for
the site. The main opportunities found within the site were locations with existing elements which could be strengthened and
improved such as the river area and the hot baths. This information also lended itself to the identification of several key points
that could potentially act as nodes within the site, such as the hot baths, the main plaza, and the train station. The constraints
found on the site were natural elements such as the steep terrain and the risk of flooding and landslides. These potential risks are
potentially very serious threats and the final design takes these into account and designs to minimize potential impact.

-'cR ==tL

anded Brndge w
Ition of aror an ty

-7 .17

~~ 1/4
Li C#

\L \*

/ /"et^


'T he first concept focuses on the design of experiential
// centers throughout the site. After a review of the
: site synthesis, three locations for these destination nodes
"were selected. These three main nodes were to each have a
S unique experience associated with it. The Arrival Park, located
just outside the train station, would have a focus on the historical
culture ofAguas Calientes. This would be accomplished through the
inclusion of various educational elements. The Hot Baths and Terminal
Park, located at the eastern end of the site would be designed in a way that fuses
the built structure with the natural environment, allowing the user to be able to
. eel apart of the beautiful surroundings of Aguas Calientes. The Main Plaza,
located at the center of the site, would be designed with an emphasis on the
,, current culture of Aguas Calientes. This would be accomplished through
including market elements as well as artisan stalls to
educate the user.
\ ^ 'I

1 .-
Images Representing Proposed
Elements of Concept 2

Images Representing Proposed Elements of Concept 1
Images Representing Proposed Elements of Concept 1I


he second I /
focuses on the
activation of the corridors
that connect the nodes \-ithin
the site. The main focus iln his
design is the activation or the \\alk\\avs on
either side of the Aguas Calienes River. This
corridor currently has ver\- li,\ circuilain leels 'I...
although it is located on hie Fical since eleinein o, ci hec
river. This would be accomplihed th rough the addi io n or
elements such as vendor stalls, concession stands, and seating
areas along the length of the river walk (reference images at middle
and bottom left). In order to allow the user to interact with the river, the scale
of the existing bridges crossing the river needs to be reduced (reference image at
top left for proposed scale). Currently, the bridges cross the river at the height of
the second story of adjacent buildings. Lowering these bridges to a more human
scale and allowing the user to recognize the river as a pleasing aesthetic element
will encourage strolling along this corridor.

T he third concept places an emphasis on the
integration of the cultural aspect of both the current
residents of Aguas Calientes as well as that of the ancient
Incas. In this concept there is a focus on allowing the user
to experience the culture of the site and its people by
combining all Aguas Calientes resident and tourist areas.
This will encourage the interaction between these two
user groups. This design specifically seeks to avoid the
creation of any areas which might be used solely by visitors
to the site. This method allows the visitors to Aguas Calientes to
become immersed in the daily routine of the site, which includes craft
production, cooking, land care, and tourism services.

Upon completion of the conceptual design phase the proposals were presented to a jury which provided design feedback. From personal
review of the concepts as well as through comments received from this jury, I was able to realize which elements of each conceptual
design would be most beneficial to the overall design and would be able to form a cohesive plan. The following were the conclusions reached
during this process:

Images Representing Cultural Elements to Be Expressed in Concept 3

r cEtr" let jog
V 0" 0L7 ^klTB

0 4ll~ n

The final master
." plan for the Town
S' / of Aguas Calientes
aims to resolve
f i the constraints
S- ,discovered in the analysis
W i' % wshiile taking advantage of the
4. .'_... opportunities while achieving
S lIthe design features discovered
i,.i. in the conceptual phase. The
S overall deign of the master plan
rocuised on improving connectivity
Mnd coheliivenes throughout the site.
S Althotught the individual zones present on
e L ccC gi\e each area a unique character,
l hele zones untIm.atcl\ need to tie together in
oidel o allov1 h die lo\\w of pedestiran traffic from one
Co .anohei. The combination iimpirovement to both points of
inei e' \\ I ihin e t o\tn a. \\ell a.s to e corridors that connect
them pi ovdes the needed le\el of pei meability throughout the

The areas that were
, / designed at a greater level of
'0 detail were the train station
S" plaza (1) the hot baths (2)
-.'^ "~', the main plaza (3) and the
*' riverwalk area (4).
..,. These areas were chosen for an
*t: X" increased focus because of various
.SH. :I4 S reasons, such as being an integral point
S>- 5 of interest to the town. For example, the
l !r; hot baths are an element so unique to the site
S Ith eir redesign has the potential to create
. ....r..,' ia ve, successful destination within the town
'.. '" Calientes, leading to increased use.

N. `O C(


-\r -

)One of th e under ing considerations of the site when creating a
maceir plan \\as the eei-prisen i isk of flooding in this site due
Co rain events har cause a nse in [he river levels. With these
Stactors in mind lhe foodplan areas on either side of both the
Aguas Caliees and iLrubamba Rivers were expanded and
--- their natural riparian zones restored.

"The inman plaza was designated for greater detail
- d tdue o thde fact that it acts as such an integral gathering
area for thd e Cln and has the potential to strengthen the
[i\\ n cencel.. Being IhaI tle train station is the point of entry to the
ilce Ic seemed logicall co creae a design for the area just outside of the
scacin as a \Ielcome Ceauire for visitors arriving in the town. Finally,
che riverivalk is an element t hat I believe will help to transform the
character of the town of Aguas Calientes from that of a gateway
town to a destination.

S a
*'iL These areas are designate
features will be discussed


ed as shown on the plan at left. These
I in greater detail on the following pages.






The train station plaza is the area just outside of the train station, which
is the point of arrival to visitors to Aguas Calientes, meaning that this
area is the first impression that they have of the town. For this reason it
was extremely important to keep the character of the town while placing an
emphasis on the strongest elements of the site. The two major elements to be
integrated throughout this plaza were seating and vegetation. There was also
the addition of elevation changes throughout the site which allowed for the
train tracks to be lowered below the line of site of the users of the park and
also allowed for terraced seating in the park. The only buildings proposed for
the site were in this location, in the form of four buildings, which act as a
center of information for both residents and visitors to the site.

Retaining Wall

Interactive Fountain

Section A A

Restored Riparian Zone

Section B B1

0 S A


TIe ho bachs in dthe \own of Aguast (al ences are di[e element \with [he I0sc potential Io
distinguish the town from the other Sacred \ Ualle sues. an importance Icha is reflected in
d[e namie of the [ o\wn. Agulas ( aenilles. \ which [transla[es [0 hot a licer. HoPve\er. [he e\Isting lio
bathls are kno-w\n tol be rather unkempt alnd have ia ver lo w capacwI y. leading to \very croAywded
conditions dtiing touristt season. For this reason min\1 [ouri guides and guide books do not
recommend \ isiling [lie balhs. a large flCcor in the lack of \ isitors o [hlls unique feature in [he

The redesign of thesee bahlis Increased capacin i as \ell as making [ihe badhs more desirable co
visitors and residents b pro iding ivalious level s of waer empeIral re ci ha [erracie [hOtLighoiIo [h1e
bai1hs. The design oft [he baths aims 0 o allow the user o feel connectedto [ [he incredible scenery
just1 ouLsidthe tle bavs, a feeling tha1 comes na1iralhlv o [1he badhis being [hai cliev are remoI\Ied
fiol [1le buisCle of [1he ceIner of [townX The nnew design also iIncegnaed [user amieniies such as
concessions and a locker roomi \ Ich lin11 to ilfmprove the usei experience while at [1ie hot bac1hs.

`i C

L -_i I

Section A A1



The main plaza is currently the heart of the town of Aguas Calientes, acting as a gathering
place for both visitors and residents of the town. This location currently has an obvious
lack of seating, with users sitting on curbing when benches are unavailable. Being that this space
is one of the few locations where vegetation is integrated into the site, it does not adequately take
advantage of this feature, lacking trees or any vegetation that provides shade.
The proposed design for the main plaza includes three main features; planters with seat walls,
community gardens, and a central fountain. The design of the main plaza is distinctly Spanish,
reflecting a common design style found in many plazas in the Sacred Valley area including
Pisac, Cusco, and Ollantaytambo. The raised planters provide for the addition of trees to the
main plaza, introducing shade to the space which will be appreciated in the summer months.
The community gardens add an element of fun to the site while also increasing the amount
of vegetation present. These community gardens will be available to all residents of the town,
providing them with a plot of land to raise their own food, leading to a sense of ownership and
loyalty to the space. The central fountain provides visual interest to the plaza, drawing users into
the center, as well as provides white noise to provide an area of serenity within the busy site.
Overall, the design for this area provides for increased user interaction as well as a unique open
space in the dense center of the town of Aguas Calientes.

.i' / Fountain

S Raised Planter

""-' i" '-- ^-^\ 4

Section A A1

Pebble Path


T he Aguas Calientes River is
Sa main element of the site,
cutting the site through the center
from East to West. Currently the
river is treated as more of an obstacle
than an opportunity. There is very
limited interaction with the river, with
a severe concrete containment running the
length of it as well as bridges that cross the river
at a 2nd story level. Being that the river is such a
strong element, it holds great potential to become
a focal point and organizing element of the site. The
activation of the corridor along the river on both the
north and south side would increase the connectivity
throughout the site, most importantly from the town center
to the hot baths.

The design for the riverwalk area activates this corridor and makes
Sit into one of the main organizing elements of the site. The riverwalk
y area accomplishes many things including integrating vegetation,
providing seating, activating the space, expanding the flood plain of
the Aguas Calientes River, providing space for vendors, and allowing the
store fronts along the riverwalk area to engage the passing pedestrians. The main
Thing that this design of the riverwalk aims to achieve is to improve connectivity and
encourage movement throughout the site, including to the hot baths. This design uses
various techniques to activate the landscape and increases the level that the users have with both
the Aguas Calientes River and the surrounding landscape.

As is seen in the sections on this page, the redesign of the riverwalk acts to engage the user
with the Aguas Calientes River as well as encourage movement along the riverwalk corridor.
Section A A1 shows the integration of vendor and concession stands in order to activate the
riverwalk area. These elements act to strengthen the interaction with pedestrians along with
cafe seating at the numerous restaurants. Section B B1 illustrates the proposed bridge levels
in relation to the existing conditions as well as the expansion of the river bed, which will act to
reduce impacts of rain events of the level of the Aguas Calientes River.

Section A A1

iSU `



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Although I feel that this project has proposed many solutions to the majority of the problems facing Aguas Calientes today, there are still
outstanding issues I feel need to be addressed:

SCarrying Capacity The first of these is studies concerning the carrying capacity of Aguas Calientes. These
studies need to address issues such as infrastructure and building density. With information giving insight into these
conditions in the town, solutions to address these issues relating to carrying capacity can be found.

Design Guidelines Although much of the character of Aguas Calientes is due to the widely varied design styles,
there are several properties that remain what looks to be unfinished. There are buildings that still consist only of
concrete block with no finish. Design Guildelines need to be created for the town in order to provide a basic level
of consistency between the zones of the site.
MOMMOP" --~ap-~i

Overall, upon completion of this project I feel as though it has been an invaluable experience that has provided

unique experiences. The ability to select a project outside of the United States allowed me to expose myself

to a project with a unique cultural aspect. This design process has educated me on the whole ofthe process

and has led me to understand how each element of the process contributes greatly to the finished whole.

Dempsey, Mary A. "Beyond the Sacred Citadel: Shabby Town Spruces Up in Pursuit of Its Own Identity." General
OneFile. Gale, Feb. 2002. Web. 21 Dec. 2009.

"Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu." ParksWatch. Duke University. Web. 16 Jan. 2010.

Huaroto, Ramon R. "The chaos at the foot of Machu Picchu." Http:// El Comercio, 27 Sept.
2009. Web. 13 Jan. 2010.

"Machu-Picchu." Cuzco Peru. Web. 13 Jan. 2010. .

Report on the Reactive Monitoring Mission to the Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu. Rep. no. 31 COM. Vol. 31.
Christchurch, New Zealand: UNESCO, 2007. Print.

Report on the state of conservation of the Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu. Rep. 202nd ed. Vol. 02. Budapest, Hungary:
UNESCO, 2002. Print. Ser. 10.

"Reorganization and Cultural Development in Urban Centers in Machu Picchu Village." MINCETUR. Ministry of Foreign
Trade and Tourism of Peru. Web. 28 Dec. 2009.

United Nations Environment Programme. Rep. World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Oct. 2008. Web. 21 Nov. 2009.

Tourtellot, Jonathan B. "Hope in the Inca Heartland: Peru's Machu Picchu and nearby Sacred Valley face surmountable
challenges." National Geographic Traveler May & June 2007: 48-51. Print.

Zoomers, Annelies. "Global Travelling Along the Inca Route: Is International Tourism Beneficial for Local Development?".
European Planning Studies August 2008: 971-983.

Images presented in this report were from the following locations:

* Introduction

* Chapter 1

* Chapter 2

* Chapter 3

* Chapter 4

* Chapter 5

* Chapter 6

s Agums Caipntes

* 700 miles SE of Lima

* Located in the Sacred


* Accessible Only By Train

~ ~ _1 ~ ~ 1p

I Proec Loaton 0XoU 13 e&U03iU

cE r

Lima *


-i i ,ill

! ^
... -.



tj e . 2--- f

0 2000

* Began

as a farm settlement,

Camp Maquinachayoq in 1901
* Machu Picchu discovered in 1911

* Railroad arrived in 1920's

* Population increased

264% from

1993 to 20o5

* 3.4 miles from Machu Picchu

* 20 minutes by bus

* Sits on Urubamba River


Project Location/Contexti


I s t o r y I

* Relationship to Machu Picchu

Gateway vs. Destination

* Current Threats

Natural Disasters

Uncontrolled Growth

* Agency Interest




P r o e t a leC

I~ e ta io

7 /,16 i6 p.


~* ....
~P~YI~T' '-
r ~s"-.V*"

* Elevation 6,693 ft
* Slope of 60% Beyond Building
* Located at Base of Watershed

* Strong Slope from East to West

(Toward Urubamba River)


T o p o r a p h & H d r ol gy9


I Key Element~~s /Bidn s



L C i r c u I a t i o n I


LExisting Conditions

* 4000 Inhabitants

Half Transient

3000 visitors daily

S"Residents" & Visitors

"Residents"- Turnover

Visitors Special Interest

A ___ a dominated by local
Area with majority municipal
use, suitable for ciy center
Area with inregiared hotel,
store, aid restaurant uses
SArea with majority Ilotcl/
Hostel Building Use
Area with majority restau-
arant and store I.,id.,.. use
Area suitable for River walk
Area of building within
Urubarmba river bed, danger
of flooding

Existing Railway F a

Primary Nodes r

Primary Circulation Ssrem

Steep Slopes. Danger of
Landslides 1

Good View of
Surrounding Scenery
OpporEruniv fIor Welcome
'laa Area ---

Urubamba and Aguas
Calientes Rivers, opportunity

S I T A A L Y I S & Y N TE S S0


s e r s I


I S ite Synthesis I

* Inspiration from Inca and Spanish Design Styles

Q 9 ~

* Three Concepts with Individual Themes

Experiential Nodes

Activated Corridors

Cultural Integration

* Elements From all Concepts Successful

* Combination of Themes Necessary

Corridors Activate Nodes

* Inca Vertical

Spanish Horizontal

* Styles Co-exist

S pp~u ~sas mu semI-CONCEPTsS -Isa.uamun' umn e

I e i n I sp i r a iow



C """ --


Conceptual Phase I

-. S


Ii C
\ -S.

Decreases Environmental Hazards

* Consistent With Character of Site

SIntegrates Improved Points of

SInterest with Activated Corridors

Retaining Wall / -

Interactive Fountain/
Pavillion Searing

Terraced ea.uingl

o re ian i cl

Restored Riparian /one

-Natural Center
Cultural Center

Machu Picchu Center
AVisitor Center
Ferraced Seating
Train Station

Cafe Seating



IT a nSta io.Paz.


Master Plan I

Section A

Section B



I~~ Rie Wl

Welcome Park I

* Integrates Natural Elements

* Increased Capacity

I I _ flgIaIiaII


I o B ts I

River Walk I


Section A

SCommunity Gardens

i D..LklPIl.l. .

* Planter Seat Walls

* Fountain Focal Element


H o t B t hsS


I Main Plaza I

* Design Guidelines

* Buildings

* Pedestrian Connections

* Carrying Capacity
Enforce Build Limits

* Density Limits

L FutuUEin.ire e o mIUIiIerndations



L Main Plaza I


"Life is full of beauty. Notice it.
Notice the bumble bee, the small
child, and the smiling faces. Smell
the rain, and feel the wind. Live
your life to the fullest potential,
and fight for your dreams."
Ashley Smith

aiL& ,,

; -------'"'