Koppers : a conceptual redevelopment plan for Gainesville's Brownfield site

Material Information

Koppers : a conceptual redevelopment plan for Gainesville's Brownfield site
Gilbert, Camille Darke ( Dissertant )
Lathrop, Chris ( Thesis advisor )
Thompson, Kevin ( Thesis advisor )
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
College of Design, Construction & Planning, University of Florida
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Brownfields ( jstor )
City squares ( jstor )
Commercial buildings ( jstor )
Cycling ( jstor )
Ecosystems ( jstor )
Homes ( jstor )
Housing ( jstor )
Linear programming ( jstor )
Neighborhoods ( jstor )
Watersheds ( jstor )
Dissertations, Academic -- UF -- Landscape architecture
Landscape Architecture Thesis, M.L.A.
City of Gainesville ( local )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- Florida -- Gainesville


The focus of this project is to take a site that is in need of remediation and create a design plan that embraces its sensitivities. The site to be used will be the Cabot-Koppers site in Gainesville, Fl. The primary intent is to generate a proposal for a recreational facility or park that will help to create a "green belt" type expansion connecting North Gainesville (via Koppers) to South Gainesville (via the Depot Avenue Watershed Park). Both Koppers and the Depot Avenue Watershed Park sit on sites that are/were contaminated. If Koppers is redeveloped into a green space, it can potentially function as a major component in a central hub for Gainesville. By reconnecting North Gainesville to South Gainesville at this point, I hope to utilize the rails-to-trails bike trail to establish a much needed outdoor recreational facility for Gainesville. Currently the site is zoned I-2 for intense industrial use. It is surrounded by housing to the North and West and the City of Gainesville passed a resolution on June 23, 2009 that intends to clean the Koppers site to include residential standards. They even passed a motion to amend the Gainesville Comprehensive Plan 2000-2010 to include residential use. Having the site cleaned to this standard will allow for a variety of options for future development. Koppers should not just be looked at as a hazardous site, but should be seen for what it can offer if properly managed and restored. I do not intend on providing solutions to the clean-up of Koppers, but rather a design that embraces the process of cleaning a site.
Landscape Architecture capstone project
Includes bibliographical references ( pages 78-79).
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 91 p.; also contains graphics.
General Note:
Title from title page of document.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Permissions granted to the University of Florida Institutional Repository and University of Florida Digital Collections to allow use by the submitter. All rights reserved by the author.
Resource Identifier:
905850804 ( OCLC )


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Full Text

a conceptual redevelopment plan
for gainesville's brownfield site

camille darke gibert
University of Florida. Landscape Rrchitecture. 2010





To my faculty advisors Chris Lathrop and Kevin Thompson, for guiding me along my capstone experience.
Thanks for asking me all those questions I could not always answer (but prepared me for presenting my
thoughts) and for the constructive critiques and feedback.

To the faculty at the University of Florida, for educating me and helping me to explore my interests.

To Scott Wright, with the City of Gainesville, for introducing me to the Koppers site an suggesting that I
study it for my capstone project.

To my parents for believing in me when I didn't have enough sleep to believe in myself. Thank you for your
constant support throughout my college career, and for supporting me no matter which major I chose. I
promise this is the last one.

To David for never asking me the dreaded so when will you be done with your project" question, and for
giving me the time and space to complete my degree.

To myself... for all my hard work and finally "making it work"

And to my friends for all your encouragement, feedback, and laughs for the past 5 years. Xavier, thanks for
all the advice and coffee, and the shoulder to wine on....and Rob Arlen Bias, thanks for hooking me up with
a Mac and helping me with all my computer problems : )

3 I page


The focus of this project is to take a site that is in need of remediation and create a design plan that embraces its sen-
sitivities. The site to be used will be the Cabot-Koppers site in Gainesville, FI. The primary intent is to generate a pro-
posal for a recreational facility or park that will help to create a "green belt" type expansion connecting North Gaines-
ville (via Koppers) to South Gainesville (via the Depot Avenue Watershed Park). Both Koppers and the Depot Avenue
Watershed Park sit on sites that are/were contaminated. If Koppers is redeveloped into a green space, it can poten-
tially function as a major component in a central hub for Gainesville. By reconnecting North Gainesville to South
Gainesville at this point, I hope to utilize the rails-to-trails bike trail to establish a much needed outdoor recreational fa-
cility for Gainesville. Currently the site is zoned I- 2, for intense industrial use. It is surrounded by housing to the North
and West, and the City of Gainesville passed a resolution on June 23, 2008 that intends to clean the Koppers site to
include residential standards. They even passed a motion to amend the Gainesville Comprehensive Plan 2000-2010
to include residential use. Having the site cleaned to this standard will allow for a variety of options for future develop-
ment. Koppers should not just be looked at as a hazardous site, but should be seen for what it can offer if properly
managed and restored. I do not intend on providing solutions to the clean-up of Koppers, but rather a design that em-
braces the process of cleaning a site.

5 I page

table of contents

site location and history 11
current issues 12
project value 13
goals and objectives 14

contextual analysis
-land use 18
vehicular routes 19
parks and recreation 20
6th street transect 22
viewshed 24

site analysis
hydrology 30
soils and historical ecosystems 32
remediation analysis 34
though process 35
site inventory and synthesis 36

conceptual and master plans
concept # 1 40
concept # 2 41
concept # 3 42
master plan 43
proposed neighborhood
road elevations 46
neighborhood section 48
neighborhood detail 52
proposed park
park description 56
park section 58
retention basin detail 60
bike path detail 61
proposed central plaza
central plaza character 64
proposed mixed-use complex
mixed-use complex description 70
mixed-use complex section 72
conclusion, bibliography & contacts 77, 78, 80
appendix 84


- site location and history
- current issues
- project value
- goals and objectives

Koppers Site V

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~1~~. r4

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City of Gainesville

Alachua County >
in Florida

site location

Site Location
The Koppers site is located on NW 23rd Street, between NW 6th Street and North Main Street. Directly to the West of the
site is the Stephen Foster neighborhood. To the East of the site is the former Cabot brownfield site whish was converted
into a commercial shopping mall, car dealership and smaller mixed industries and businesses. About 3 miles south of the
site is the Depot Avenue Watershed Park. Koppers location to the Depot Avenue Watershed Park sets the potential to
create a biking link between the two sites. Plans for the Depot Avenue Watershed Park include the implementation of a
biking path that will eventually link to the Rails- to -Trails bike trail system in Gainesville. This link from the Koppers site to
the Depot Avenue Watershed Park and then to the Rails-to -trails system could potentially make the Koppers site a cen-
tral recreational hub for the city of Gainesville.

Site History
Cabot- Koppers is a 139 acre superfund site that spans across two properties. The two sites include the Cabot Carbon area that covers 49
acres on the eastern side of the site, and Koppers, a 90 acre area on the western side. Koppers is a wood-treating plant that has been in
operation since 1916. The Cabot Carbon portion of the property was formerly a charcoal operation, and has been redeveloped into a com-
mercial shopping mall, car dealership and smaller mixed industries and businesses. The Koppers portion of the site has been under the re-
sponsibility of Beazer East, Inc. In 1983 the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) and the United States Environmental
Protection Agency (USEPA) declared the Cabot-Koppers a superfund site, and began investigating the remedial efforts of Beazer East, Inc.

11 I page

Current Issues:

After 24 years of developing remedial plans to monitor the contaminants on the site, the USEPA developed a recommended approach to the
clean-up of the site. The clean-up plan, also referred to as the feasibility report, was released to Gainesville residents and city commissioners
on October 19, 2009. On October 29, 2009, city and county commissioners then voted on a response to the feasibility report.
Having spoken to Scott Miller, the USEPA Remedial Project Manager for the Koppers site, I learned that USEPA's preferred methods for re-
mediation of the Koppers site include:
1. Covering and re-grading the eastern portion of the site
2. Addressing the stormwater runoff by re-grading the site cover
3. Leaving the western and northern areas uncovered
4. Coat the contamination and reduce further leaching
5. Prevent contamination from migrating into Surficial and Upper Hawthorn soils
6. Continue the surface water extraction system
7. Monitor the Lower Hawthorne and Floridian Aquifer

Draft FS Conceptual Site Model

GRU's Conceptual Site Model

r -- -d t'-__ ____

I Creosote, im oile -
Creosote, spars_ y mobile --

Creosote, immobile



Surfical Aquifer

Upper Hawthorn

Lower Hawthorn

Floridan Aquifer


Only pathway is
Along borings ... .. l

Obtained from the USEPA Draft Feasibility Study from the City of Gainesville Commission
and Alachua County Board of County Commisions Joint Quarterly Meeting Oct29, 2009

- The draft feasibility conceptual model illustrates the
previous belief that the creosote contaminants would
have no vertical mobility.

IT 7-'--4. F 3'- r/JWy Surficial Aquifer

Creosote, likely mobile .* T Upper Hawthorn

Creosote, mobte o Lower Hawthorn

Creosote,-hkely mobile -
Floridan Aquifer

I natural pathways -

O -bt.. .. f U.-...... G a lC m
Obtained from the USEPA Draft Feasibility Study from the City of Gamesville Comnrrssion
and Alachua County Board of County Commisiors Joint Quarterly Meeting Oct29, 2009

- The GRU conceptual model illustrates the fact that the
creosote contaminants are indeed vertically mobile and
that their mobility should be re-evaluated and a new
solution to treating their mobility through the permeable
clay layers should be investigated


Obtained from the Gainesville Sun

Project Value:

My reasons for choosing the Koppers site is that: (1) I had an internship with the city of Gainesville and found that the site has become a
hot topic with city officials. The city expressed an interest in the redevelopment of the site. After looking over the draft feasibility study pro-
duced by the USEPA, the site has the potential to be remediated to the standards that allow for mixed-use development, not limiting resi-
dential use. Although Koppers is no longer in operation as a wood treating facility, a final decision has not be made on the remediation of
the site, the next 20 years of city planning will include the rezoning of the site and possible acquisition. (2) The site also has great poten-
tial, if acquired, to be used as a "green link" to the rails-to-trails system that runs through SE Gainesville to Hawthorne. A direct connection
from the Koppers site to the Rail-to-Trails system can be made via NW 6th St all the way to SW Depot Ave. (3) This project gives me a
chance to think in more abstract terms. Even if my ideas are not implemented, I still have a chance to work with issues in design that are
becoming more prevalent in today's urban landscapes. These issues include creating designs that showcase remediation processes in a
way that causes an awareness of the important potential of polluted lands.

13 I page

goals and objectives

Goal # 1:
To design around the sensitivities of the site. Mainly Senve pots.
the 4 spots of direct contamination on site. ('"o,,"n

This will be done by: Aite boary
Proposed slunrryl
capped area
Implementing Low Impact Development processes Fomerdrainage
that are considerate of the site's context dt

Creating spaces that help cause a connection be-
tween the landscape and the history of the site.

Reconsidering the proposed capping of the site.

Goal # 2:

Solve current connectivity problems between the Ad-
jacent Neighborhood and commercial areas.
tephen Folter
This will be done by: *N.*-Doooa

- Blending the uses of residential, commercial and
recreational activities on the site so that each function
works to enhance the others.

- Redeveloping neighborhood roads so that connec- ..
tions from the Stephen Foster Neighborhood can be
made to the adjacent commercial area to the east of
the site.

Goal # 3:

Connect to surrounding park spaces

This will be done by:

Linking the 6th Street bike corridor to the former
Koppers site through the retired railroad.

Providing passive and recreational aspects on site.

Goal # 4:

Create a master plan that complies with the city of
Gainesville's Future Land Use goals, objectives and

This will be done by:

- Redeveloping the area to help promote quality of

- Minimizing environmentally detrimental develop-
ment impacts by implementing Low Impact Develop-

- Protecting natural resources by creating stormwater
retention ponds that filtrate the water before it enters
the Springstead creek and then Hogtown Creek.

15 I page

contextual analysis

- land use
- vehicular routes
- parks and recreation
- 6th street corridor
- viewshed

land use

Contextual Land Use:

The current land use for the area
surrounding the Koppers site is pre-
dominately commercial and mixed-
use (medium) to the east of the site.
To the west of the site the land use
is mixed-use and residential. The
Stephen Foster neighborhood is lo-
cated in the area west of the site.
Just north of the site is a city facility.
To the south of the Koppers site is
more residential neighborhoods
mixed with some light mixed-use

Stephen Foster

The Stephen Foster neighborhood
has the benefit of being located near
many shopping amenities, and being
within biking distance of downtown
Gainesville and the University of
Florida. The neighborhood is also
located near some significant natural
features like the Springstead and
Hogtown Creek. However, the cur-
rent presence of the Koppers site
causes a disjoint in connection of the
Stephen Foster neighborhood to the
amenities just east of Koppers.

[ GainKoppers Sitey
S*r Koppers Site

NW 13th

vehicular routes

- mm Arterial Roads
Collector Roads
.... Local Roads

..* Potential Bike
S Trail Linkage From
6th Street To Site

Railroad System

6th Street
Bus Route

Bike Lane or
Paved Shoulder
Off Street Bike

Wide Curb Lane
Future Off Street
.- No Bike Lane
Koppers Site
S Bus Station
Depot Avenue
Watershed Park

Main Street:
- A north-south arterial connection between the Koppers site and the
Depot Avenue Watershed Park. parts of Main Street are two lanes,
while other areas of main are four lanes. The character of main also
changes. North Main runs through a commercial district heavily lined
with car manufactures, while southern parts of main run through mid-
town Gainesville and a light industrial zone.

6th Street:
- 6th Street is north-south collector road. It has a more neighborhood
character than Main Street. It helps to connect the Stephen Foster
neighborhood to the University of Florida and other amenities in the
southern areas of Gainesville.

NW 23rd Street:
- NW 23rd Street is an east-west collector road. It contains some light
mixed-use commercial complexes and housing. South of NW 23rd is
the Pine Park, Gateway Park, and Oakview neighborhoods.

Depot Avenue:
- Depot Avenue is a east-west collector road. It is located in an indus-
trial area of Gainesville. and contains a local bus station. Depot Avenue
runs past the Depot Avenue Watershed Park and connects to the Depot
Avenue bike corridor.



I i


- 6 10t

SMain Street

m we m NW 39th Avenue


m I*

-. -- --- -- NW 23rd Avenue

IT ".

.:. .... .


r. R- University Avenue

Depot Avenue

I NW 6th Street
2,600 3900 5200
19 I page

parks and recreation



1~'r ._



Local and Regional Parks & Recreation

City of Gainesvioe
Gainesvle FIonid
DeOi of Planning and Doevxopmen Smrvw
June 2009

Community Park 1 Mini Park
Conservation Area Neighborhood Park
Local Nature Park Neighorhood School
ACF Acquired Properties Rail Trail
Creeks Lakes
S****.* Koppers Site

Regional Park
Special Park
Other City Conservation
1 City Limits

m k

---- '

3 Brens Arm
4 Blues Ceek Ravnle
5. Bouare Springs
8 Broken Arrow Buf
11 C. apran's Pond
13 C4*en
14 Clear Lake
15 Cornn Nature Park
16 Colkxugh Nl1!u-e P.vk,
17 Comrmunin PLaRv.
18 Cone
19 Copound Seotenoon"
20. Depot Avenue FRa TraI
21. Dept Park
22 Oevfs MUlhoppe
23 Downlown Connedor Tral
26 Evergreen Cef y
27 Flatwoods
28 Forest Park
29 Forest Park Con Area
30 Fox Pond
32 Ga-nes w Golf
34 Gas esv-HaWthome Tra
38 GrandmotNher
37. Gen Acres Cons Area
38 Green Acres Park
39 Greoron
40 GRU Cons Ewa nt
41 Gum Root
42 Hacht Creek
43 der Tract East
44 HG M (4 Drg3rs)
47 I-ornood ColI ClRb

49 John Mahon Natur Park
50 Kranpaha Botancal
52 Karapaha Park
53. Karapana Prar Sanr ei
COre Refu e
55 Kiwanrs
56 LakoAeo
58 Lke Kanapha,
61. Loblolly Woods
62 Loctoosa Forest*Levy
Prnie Cornector
64 Ly)Dls Longlea'
65 Lynch
67 Mri Park 01
68 M Park ro0
69 Mn Park #1103
70 Mr. Park #04
71 AM. Park #05
72 Mri Park *06
73 M Park 07
74 Mni Park #08
75 Mr" Park #09
76 Mr Park #10
77 Mrv Park #11
78 Mn Park #12
79 Mornefsade Nature
80 NE 31stAvenue
81 NE Liaison Center
82. Newnan's Lake ConsArea
83 Northeast
84 Nonthsde
85, Oak Ml
87 Palm Point
88 Paynes Prai

89 Paynes Prar Sweetwater
90 PN'd Flrwoods
91 Porter's Comwnunry Center
92 Pos-m Croek
93 Powrs Park
94. Prlne Creek Park
97. Rtyo -Newnas Lake
98 R,ng Park
99 Rope Open Space
100 Rosa Wilar
101 S Foster Par
102 San Fetasco County Park
103 Son Feasco Hammock
104 Santa Fe CC,
105 Shame Fatr Park
107 Smokey Beou
108 Spt Rock
109 Sp'nv ry I NC H bortood Park
110. Syngysee Par.
111 S"lu res Redge
112. SR.VMD Property
114. S ga'oot Prane
115 TB Mc8Pherson
118 Terw, gc Pond
119 Themb BoC; Center
120 Thomas Center Gardens
121 Tunbbn Croee
122 Uhr. ery of Florda
123 WVcaioota Procety
124, W do Road Tra
125 WetsL.d
129 Woootwn

Parks and Recreational Facilities:

The local and regional parks and recreation map show the parks that
are located in Gainesville, particularly the parks located around the
Koppers site. To the north of the Koppers site is a conservation ease-
ment while to the west of the site there is the Stephen Foster school
and the Stephen Foster mini park. Parks and recreational facilities
are important aspects to the Gainesville community. The Koppers site
could potentially serve as a park amenity to Gainesville and help to
increase the canopy coverage in urban areas.

2 AO Jones Cente 45 Howard B&hop Msl
6 Bofs Cljo NW 46 ldUed ElcA'necnyy
7. Boys Club SE 48 J J F.ncy E lennt r
9 Bunrhor H gn 51 Kanapaha Miade Scl
10 Ceon Property 54 K-rby Swrim
12 Chis Elementary 57 Lake Forst Etmen
24 val Elementary 59 Lincokn Middle.Wdia
25 East See Hwji 60 Uitlwood Eloemear
31 Ft Clarksliden Oak Elem 63 LoEen Center
33 Galnesi So H-gh 66 Metcalo Elmentary
35. Glen Sprlngs El ren~s y

o Srt

86 PK Yonge
95 Pra'ri Vew Eleentry
96 RaA'wngs Ekrieenar
106 Ssdey Laner Center
113 Stephen Foster Ekleentary
116 Ta~ot Elementary

ns Elem 117 Tervcqrfpr Er~rwnlar
y 126 Wes'wood Mogso Scnoo
127 Wes Elementry
128 Wilams Elementary

Cy of Gainesvil
Gaineswele. Flonda
Depl of Planming amnd DvBov nt; Sirvies
June 2009
21 I page


6th Street Corridor

The transects map show the components
that make up the context around the
Koppers site. Studying the 6th Street
corridor, and the breakdown of the sur-
rounding neighborhood components
helps illustrate the flows of urban density. -
This context was studied to provide a ref- I m
erence of how the site relates to its sur- -P r d!; I
rounding densities, and how it relates to Mi 'I *
the Depot Avenue Watershed Park. lo I i A A ,

From the diagram it is easy to see that ,T1fa*s
the character along the 6th Street corri- -
dor changes from apartments and light
commercial in the southern area, to a t,
more commercial area and, and then
ends with a residential neighborhood in
the northern portion. Koppers Site

This shift from apartments, to commer-
cial, to residential neighborhoods be- Depot Ave.
comes important when establishing what Watershed
programmatic elements would blend P
easily into the urban context surrounding a
the Koppers site.


23 I page

contextual viewshed

Viewshed Analysis:

Since no photos were allowed to be taken of the Koppers site the importance of the contextual analysis
was studied to show the general character of the context of the Koppers site. By understanding the con-
text of the site and the character, a better understanding of the Koppers' site needs was obtained. The
image on the following page illustrates the general character surrounding the Koppers site, and location
of such character in relation to the Koppers site. On the following pages, more images help to illustrate
the surroundings of the Koppers site in more detail. Important elements like the entrance and exit of the
railroad system onto and away from the Koppers site, the Stephen Foster neighborhood and the com-
mercial and light industrial zones around the Koppers site help explain the nature of the site.

NW 39th Avenue

Train tracks into
L Koppers site





Stephen Fosters



Train tracks
leading into

Industrial yard
east of


Intersection of
NW 23rd Avenue
and Main Street

Intersection of
6th Street and
NW 23rd Avenue

4001 I4Xc I

Koppers entrance


. ..... -u

I I *

25 I page

contextual viewshed


A Railroad exit and entrance onto Koppers

A(1 NW 23rd St entrance into Koppers

A Industrial area around Koppers

A 39th St. north of Koppers

A 6th St. corridor west of Koppers

A Stephen Foster neighborhood 27 I page

site analysis

- hydrology
- soils and historical ecosystems
- remediation analysis
- thought process
- site inventory and synthesis



The hydrology of the Koppers site involves the flow of water across the site from south to north. There is a grade change on site of
about 20 ft but the slope is so gradual that the grade change is not incredibly noticeable. The water that flows across the site is not
guided and during heaving rainstorms can flood the surrounding neighborhoods. When Koppers was an operating wood treating fa-
cility, a remedial ditch was constructed in attempt to catch and direct water across the site. However, this remedial ditch was a fail-
ure and soon filled in.
Impact on Creeks:

NE 39 Ave

NE 23

NE 16 A' -

................ Hogtown Creek
S Contour Lines
Koppers Site
SWater Flow

M 5 0

Since there is no filtration method or water-
shed management facility on the Koppers site,
contaminated water is flowing directly into the
Springstead Creek (to the north of the site)
and into the Hogtown Creek (just west of the
site). Both creeks are important ecosystems in
Gainesville. Hogtown Creek is the largest
water shed in the Gainesville area, covering
approximately 20 square miles of urban and
suburban areas.
Pollutants in these creeks can eventually flow
into the Floridian Aquifer at the Haile Sink. Not
Avi only are the pollutants harming the local eco-
systems, they are also posing threats to visi-
,, tors. Many people visit the Hogtown Creek
-'S' searching for fossils or enjoying nature, and
are potentially being exposed are being ex-
posed to the contaminates in the water. Al-
though Hogtown Creek is relatively healthy at
the northern points and southern points, it
should be monitored and maintained at points
where it flows through more urban areas.

i c


Primary Protection Zone:

The primary protection zone consists of land
immediately surrounding the Murphree Well-
field, including land defined as the two years
Floridian aquifer system travel time at a rate
of 60 million gallons per day (meaning con-
tainments would take approximately two
years to reach the Floridian aquifer). It ex-
pands approximately 1 mile away from the
Murphree Wellfield.

Secondary Protection

The secondary protection zone consists of
land immediately surrounding the primary
protection zone. It includes lands defined as
the 10 year Floridian aquifer system travel
time at a rate of 60 million gallons per day
(meaning containments would take approxi-
mately years to reach the Floridian aquifer).
It expands approximately 1.5 miles away
from the Murphree Wellfield.

Tertiary Zone:

The tertiary protection zone consists of land
immediately surrounding the secondary pro-
tection zone. It includes lands defined as the
25 year Floridian aquifer system travel time
at a rate of 60 million gallons per day
(meaning containments would take approxi-
mately 25 years to reach the Floridian aqui-
fer). It expands approximately 2 miles away
from the Murphree Wellfield.

Murphree Wellfield:

The Murphree Wellfield supplies approximately 175,000 Gainesville residents with
drinking water from the Floridian aquifer. It is located about 2 miles from the Koppers
site. The three protection zones of the wellfield establish a set of requirements and
restrictions of what can and can not be built in the various areas surrounding the well-
field. This is done to ensure the health of the wellfield and quality of the drinking
water. Information concerning the Murphree Wellfield can be found in chapter 355 of
the Alachua County Code.
31 I page

soils and historical ecosystems

SCurrent Soils:

The soils found on the site are the Wauchula- urban complex and
the Millhopper-urban complex. These soils are urban complexes
meaning that they have been altered by building. Knowing what the
soils are is useful in determining the slopes on site however it be-
comes slightly irrelevant since the site is a brownfield site and the
soils are contaminated and not suited for many uses.

000 .01 02 03 04

^ .- I

I mm .... .

,.- e _-

A Landscaping suitabilities

SNo Suitable

A Commercial building suitabilities

M Not Suitable

Moderately Suitable

K* oppers Site

Moderately Suitable

SKsuiop ite
S Koppers Site

.i I

SHistorical Ecosystems:

Based on the historical soils of the site. A map of the historical
ecosystems was created. From this map it is evident that the
North Florida Flatwoods and Hardwoods ecosystems were the
historical ecosystems of the site. The North Florida Flatwoods
ecosystem is the largest terrestrial ecosystem in Florida and com-
prises about 50 percent of the natural vegetative areas in the

slash pine
W. I,., 1 -4 11 n

saw palmeno www srrc.

I 1 1t'- : l1

pine flatwoods www.sfrc. ufledu


0 15 3 6 9 12 4

m Ca bag Palm F alviods
Cypress Swamp
Fresiwater Marst and Ponds
L[ngleaf Pine. Turkey Oak Hills
Mkied Hardwood and Pine
SNoth Florida F latwods
Oak Hammock
Pitcher Plant Bogs

snhru Bog
Swamp Hardwoods
S Upland Hardwood Hammock

SWelland Hardaood Hammoc
e .rT i"., 1 ir,

Characteristics of Flat-

Common vegetation:
- slash pine (Pinus elliotti)
- longleaf pine (Pinus serotina)
- saw palmetto (Serenoa
- gallberry (Ilex glabra)
- fetterbush(Lyonia lucida)
- wax myrtle (Myrica cerifera)
- dwarf live oak (Quercus
- tarflower (Befaria racemosa)
- blueberries / heath
(Vaccinium spp.)

Infrequent vegetation:
- live oak(Quercus virginiana)
- water oak(Q. nigra)
- sweet gum (Liquidambar sty-
- red maple(Acer rubrum)
- ash (Fraxinus spp.)

The flatwoods generally occur
in low areas with flat topogra-
phy and poorly drained sandy

The Norh Florida flatwoods
(which historically occurred on
the site) are commonly used for
recreation and timber.

33 I page

remediation analysis

Remediation Considerations
The green area on this map shows the area on the site that has been proposed
to be capped with a concrete cap. Capping this portion of the site with concrete
would limit the planting depth above the cap and thus limit the planting options.
When evaluating what I thought was best for the site I suggested that this area
had extreme potential and other methods than capping be proposed. Although I
can not legally suggest a remedial process I can propose a reconsideration of a
previous remediation method for the sake of this capstone project.

Y Remediation Matrix
When evaluating the three parties involved in the decision making processes of
the Koppers site, a remediation matrix was developed. The matrix expresses the
desired proposed method of remediation preferred by each party. All the parties ,
agreed that the monitoring of surficial water and groundwater were important to
the remediation of the site. As for capping the eastern portion of the site, the city -U
of Gainesville preferred that other methods be explored. '

Sensitve spots.
Include areas of

*III Site boundary
Proposed slurry/
capped area

Former drainage

thought process map

I I \ / N %
Koppers i Natureo1f Risk Site
S Site ,s the Site / \ Assessment Conditions I
^-^ v--/ %,,- .. /

Thought Processing:

Throughout the process of evaluating the
Koppers site and listening to the con-
cerns of all parties involved, creating a
strategy for development was difficult.
Mapping my thought process was a
useful tool in assessing the site and cre-
ating a strategic plan. J

I began by evaluating the nature of the strr
site, the risks involved and the conditions Fe
of the site. Then I established the stake-
holders and chose the stakeholder I
thought had the best interest for the site
in mind. Based off the elements the
stakeholder desired I was able to assign
importance to the programmatic elements
and then create conceptual diagrams,
and eventually a master plan.

Beazer Inc. EPA

S -- _

S Stakeholders )-- F

S Cityof
r Gainesville

a Desired '


pei, cIp
Oper SpaciE

/ Capping
I Major Constraint N i
r f, Eastern Portion I
S of Site /

I- -

/ N / N
Clay Plantings 1
SDesign 7 T ..
SDictated by \
\Remediation Concrete
4,'* / N
r sParking I

temrediation Geotextitle I
% -..
4 riuix

/ \
I Remediation
I .I ; II. J ., '
\ Design /


N /

N' "--- - *'
Recreation \ I mpotanceof (' '- /
Recreation importance of Concept \ % Development of '
Facility Program Elements
SPgram Elements, Development i I Concept
S% Into Master Plan

Business /
Campus ,'

35 I page



site inventory


The site inventory map illustrates the exist-
ing elements on site and surrounding the
Koppers site.

The Stephen Foster neighborhood and
source points for contamination are the
main areas of concern for me when devel-
oping my conceptual plans. The current
ditch on site is no longer operational and
its non-existence suggests the need for
some watershed treatment.

II Koppers Site Boundary

U Tree Canopy

E Areas of Border Wells
and Transect Wells

Stephen Foster

U Potential Addition
to Site
Light Industrial

S Source Wells

S Drainage Ditch

S Sensitve Areas
1 Former North Lagoon
2 Former Drip Track
3 Former South Lagoon
4 Former Operations Area


site synthesis


As illustrated in the synthesis map, the
Stephen Foster neighborhood has the po-
tential to expand to the least contaminated
portions of the site (assuming they are re-
mediated to residential standards). The
potential for good views and entry points
can link the existing neighborhood to the
proposed neighborhood.

The central area has potential to become a
transitional green space if not capped.
Reasons for this potential is because of its
need to eventually be buffered, and be-
cause it could showcase phytoremedial ef-
forts best in this portion of the site. l -

The site can also be extended to include ,
the former Cabot site and a re-working of
the existing structures on this portion may
benefit the rest of the site.

Noise Potentail Bike Suitable for
tUt ATrail Entry Commercial
Potential Areas
of Interest 000 Potentail Bike Suitable for
Trail Green Space
BuffVegetativers Suitable for
SBuffers o/ Good Views Residential
SPotential Po
r Vehicular Access Potential
points Bad Views Water Feature

IIIM Roads Potential Addition
V to Site

37 I page

conceptual and master plans

- concept # 1
- concept # 2
- concept # 3
- master plan

programmatic concepts

. b L..I -J % 9- .i.i
.I11 -fi LL Ctiij.-li;s> "^^ *

200ft 600ft
400ft 1000ft


Concept # 1
1. Open green space
The open space program was determined to be the leading programmatic ele-
ment in this concept. It would include active and passive recreational areas.
The passive recreational areas would be located just outside the extension of
the Stephen Foster neighborhood. It would act as a buffer between the current
neighborhood and the Koppers site. As the open space stretches towards the
retired rail line, it would act as a recreational biking corridor.

2. Commercial buildings
The commercial buildings were a secondary programmatic element in relation
to the open green space. They line the Main Street corridor where their front-
age would help to create a new facade along Main Street. Within the commer-
cial program would be the the use of business campuses and mixed use facili-
ties. these would help to create a commercial district that would facilitate work-
ing and shopping experiences together.

3. Housing
The housing element was the tertiary programmatic element in relation to the
other programmatic elements. Housing is not a programmatic element best
suited for the site, and its placement would require that it not be near any
source spots of contamination.

Concept # 2

200ft 60O1ft
400ft 10001t

1.Commercial buildings

The commercial buildings are the programmatic element in this concept. Simi-
lar to the first concept, the commercial district includes mixed use facilities and
a business campus. The commercial areas line both the Main Street corridor
and NW 23rd Avenue. This will help with he accessibility of the commercial

2. Housing

Housing is the second most important programmatic element in this concept.
The housing is a transition from the recreation facilities into the mixed use
areas and then into the commercial district. The housing would be incorpo-
rated into the light commercial mixed use area by being located on top any
light commercial buildings. Again housing must be strategically placed to avoid
being built directly on any source contamination spots.

3. Open green space

Due to the arrangement of the other two programmatic elements, the open
green space becomes the tertiary programmatic element. In this case it runs
parallel to the retired railroad system and is intended to play of the rail road el-
ement. The park space becomes a more linear element in this concept, and
does not do enough to address the east-west connectivity problems.


41 I page

programmatic concepts

'"" t- Concept #3
r 1. Watershed
'h' A watershed program is introduced into this concept. After analyzing all the re-
Smedial considerations for the site, I felt that one of the most important consid-
\ erations for the site should be addressing the watershed across the site.
: S B .. Hand-in-hand with the addressing of the watershed of the site would be to ad-
" dress the open space of the site. In this concept, the open space element
S" '^ helps to tie the other programmatic elements together.

2. Commercial buildings
S The commercial buildings in this concept come secondary to the watershed
and open space programs of the site. Their orientation is still maintained along
oPN s A,,,. the Main Street corridor and arranged so that it can still facilitate the surround-
ing neighborhoods.

3. Housing
i Housing is also an important programmatic element on the site. It too comes
Secondary to the watershed and open space programs on site. Any proposed
r -.-, housing should blend with the existing housing and should have some con-
S. .nection to the open space elements.
200ft 600 ft
400ft 1000ft


master plan

1. Proposed Stephen Foster neighbor-
hood extension

2. Bike entries from the existing neighbor-
hood to the park and Main Street

3. Retention basins

4. Sculptural mounds

5. Extreme biking paths

6. Neighborhood road

7. Boulevard road

8. Central plaza

9. Commercial buildings

10. Commercial buildings with housing

11. Business park

12. Parking garage

13. Bike facility

*wrap. y.-- "-.

_ -aC ,4 : "
,* ; .^ i?
* 1
-- (*e*t 9OtC e &.4&-.4w.s a *, -ai
42 \403 ~ C~ e;:
Al % "UWtr

200ft 600ft
400 ft 1000ft
43 I page

proposed neighborhood

- road delineation
- neighborhood section
- neighborhood detail

road elevations

I (
+1 1

Ii 4 -

. f




5 4 6' 8' planting 12 road 10 rmedin 12 road 8' plantig 6 4 5
sidewak planting b(a bike planting sidewalk
pah path


I r


It C


neighborhood road *

road delineation

The roads for the proposed site can be divided into two categories: neighborhood roads and boulevard roads.
the neighborhood roads help facilitate a more pedestrian friendly community, as well as help the community
make a physical connection to the eastern mixed use portion of the site. The neighborhood roads are narrower
than a normal two lane road and are lined with street trees, with the occasional cut out for on street parking. .

The boulevard roads provide a direct connection to the proposed neighborhood and also help to facilitate a more
walkable community. The bike paths along the boulevard are separated from the main road by an 8 ft planting strip.
This separation helps to create a sense of security for bikers, while the 8 ft planting strip provides for a nice shaded
road. The 8 ft planting strip can also be cut into to provide on street parking. On street parking areas will generally be
located closer to the mixed-use shopping plaza and at access points for bike paths in the main park area. Both the
neighborhood streets and the boulevards provide access to the park and at certain points directly link to the biking

5" 8' 8' 5'
sidewalk saret tree plant road street tree planOing dewelk
and parallel parng and parallel parking

47 1 page

neighborhood section

4 4

4AmnS C

bungalow lots with shared backyards

200 ft 600 ft

400 ft 1000ft

Proposed Neighborhood:

The neighborhood plan for former Koppers site is proposed for the north
western portion of the site. This area of the site contains the least
amounts of contamination, and according to the parameters set during
earlier stages of analysis, should be feasibly remediated to housing

The character of the neighborhood will reflect the surrounding Gainesville
community character, and will incorporate single-family style living with
multi-family style living. The current surrounding neighborhoods include
single-family homes, but due to their location next to a contaminated site,
their value has decreased. With the inclusion of multi-family living and
small single-family homes on the site, the value of surrounding homes
could potentially increase.

duplex townhome


Wa4t k ,Q r Lni
-- -" ."9i33 --"e6* "_____
neighborhood cpen space uCplex iownnrnomcs Mrl, pjiK -.ifi-*
10' 30'

The proposed neighborhood will be composed of approximately 16 acres
of housing and small neighborhood parks. There are 44 bungalow homes
and 30 duplex style homes. Each home will be situated on small 20 ft wide
streets with 8 ft wide planting strips and 5ft wide sidewalks. The homes will
be situated close to the streets to help create a smaller streetscape scale.
By following "smart growth" principles of mixed housing and compact :
development, the proposed neighborhood will encourage biking and
waking. Therefore creating a more pedestrian friendly community that '....
will blend into the current existing Stephen Foster neighborhood. ... I

Creating a more pedestrian friendly neighborhood will also help ""..
facilitate a connection between the west and east side of the former
Koppers site. .

a larger view of the above section is provided on the following page
49 I page

neighborhood section

* "

duplex townhome a
w n mr*r nd *- t d
10 30 Iw e re P "
10' 30' v'm P" WW"

fovetiQ Umiq
pf nd trrt panwi and
pwlue~g wrui Pw.-vn

neighborhood open space

10' 30'




ungalow lots with shared backyards

W"Owku -
"0 g and
wprU p-r

20v rc

duplex townhomes with park view

3re pIereQ and
- Ow"-W4

We parena and
L i. al T

pa' pwr"g

51 I page


20 rod


- "I M

neighborhood details


bungalow homes

Due to the establishment of the University of Florida and the
economic boom -esulting from the Gainesviile phosphate in-
dustry, developers began building moderately priced bunga-
lows around the University area. This developing trend lasted
into the 1920's, and as a result, Gainesville can be character-
ized by its historic bungalow scattered neighborhoods.

The single family residential homes proposed for the site are
designed to reflect the character of the pre-existing community.
Each bungalow-style home rests on a 70 ft wide by 120 ft deep
lot. There are 44 bungalow homes in the proposed neigh-
borhod. The homes are setback 20 ft from the street, allowing
for a smaller neighborhood scale, and spacious backyards
areas to be maintained.

duplex / townhomes

The neighborhood surrounding the former Koppers site is a mix-
ture of small single family homes to the west with larger single
family homes to the north of the site. This transition of larger
homes to smaller homes allows for an easier transition to multi-
family housing.

These multi-family townhomes share a common wall and back-
yard area. However, due to their placement in the proposed com-
munity, every duplex townhome has access to park space. Thus
expanding the views past the backyards and into the park. This
placement will help to create a sense of more space on a smaller

Each of the 30 townhome is situated on a 112 ft wide by 60 ft
deep lot, and similar to the bungalow homes, is setback from the
street 20 ft to ensure a smaller scale streetscape.


200 ft 600 ft
400 ft 1000ft

52- 0-

duplex / townhomes
y f4C


2r-r x -o** II

S L --
U b

bungalow homes

* ft.



53 I page

proposed park

- park section
- retention basin detail
- bike path detail

park section

N *<

- .


depression / etenlion basin

200ft 600ft
400ft 1000ft

Proposed Park:

The park proposed for the site is a reaction the conditions of the site. The central
areas and the eastern half of the site are extremely contaminated with creosote
from the once operating pressure treating timber facility. Due to this contamination
and the parameters drawn during the analysis process, this portion of the site was
designated as a "should not be built" area. Meaning, that it is extremely sensitive
and efforts to remediate the site should be geared towards more ecological ap-

The proposed park is meant to be a learning environment and a functioning water-
shed. The depressions and hills that stretch across the park help guide and cleanse
water that passes through the site. The depressions will be planted with vegetation
that helps extract toxins from the basins. This cleansing process is not only vital to
the health of the site, but the surrounding neighborhood and the local Hogtown


vegetative bufie

:V 'I
G n

10' 20'

Bike trails are located within the park and provide for active recreation on the
site. Along the bike paths are kiosks that provide directions, and information
about the sites conditions and rehabilitation process.

As for the rehabilitating of this portion of the site, it is proposed that phytore-
mediation (remediation by use of plant material: in basin areas) and imple-
mentation of historical ecosystems be taken into consideration. Although the
feasibility of such practices is unknown, the practices themselves will provide
an invaluable assets to the educational potential of the site.

The historical ecosystem of this area is the pine flatwoods ecosystem. By
properly re-implementing this ecosystem the natural function of the area
should see some benefit. In turn serving as an educational tool.

* A larger view of the above section is available on the following page

57 I page

park section



vegetative buffer


depression I retention basin




mound nwth observaior

10" 20"

10' 20'

@. 4

pine flatwoods

Sr -

slash pine



i i'jtl IIIIr.I www.iW. uI.UUll.uu

59 I page

(: !

retention basin detail

Retention Basin

The storm water retention basins proposed
for the site are being used to help cleanse
water as it passes through the site. They may
also potentially serve as basins that remove
the toxins currently on the site. By planting
the surrounding edge of the retention basins
with native vegetation, and vegetation that
can extract toxins from the water, the reten-
tion basins will become areas that collect and
cleanse. Surficial toxins that travel on the sur-
face layer of the site will be collected in the
basins when it rains. The water will then over
flow or filter out to the next retention basin,
thus cleansing the water. As the water moves
from basin to basin, visitors of the site will be
able to see the process and gain a greater
knowledge of the importance of the process.

Another method for cleansing the water using
the retention basins would be to treat the
contamination located below the surface.
This would require the basins to be dug out
to the depth just above the contamination on
the site (which would be about 30 ft deep- the
depth of the first clay layer). The basins
would then fill with water, and through a pro-
cess of phytoremediation draw toxins from
the water. Although feasible, this option and
use of the retention basins may be too costly.


Surficial water
retention basin

I .

Transitions A
surficial water
retention basin

bike path detail

2 f1

T ., ,..
, ,:D--


- .1

Level one path:
The level one biking path is a simple
dirt path. This type of path will compose
most of the biking facility, and in some
points, will be paved. By allowing this
type of path to be the primary path for
bikers, more people will have accessi-
bility to the site and be able to use the
biking system as a transitional route
from the neighborhood to Main Street
or NW 23rd Street.

Level two path:
The level two biking path is a more ex-
treme path. This type of path will be lo-
cated on the hills located within the
park. They are meant for more experi-
enced bikers and those seeking some
sort of recreational bike facility. These
paths will not interfere will regular bi-
cycle traffic that may flow through the

Level three path:
The level three biking path is the most
extreme level of biking that the facility
provides. Similar to the level two paths.
the level three paths will be located
near the hills and will not interfere with
regular bicycle traffic on site.

200ft 600 ft
400ft 1000ft

61 I page


proposed central plaza

- central plaza character

central plaza character

200 ft

600 ft

40 ft 100 f

400 ft

1000 ft

A Railroad Turnaround

Central Plaza:

The central plaza is an area where the community can gather and hold functions. It is located
Just off the portion of the Koppers site that is contaminated with source containments. Its
shape evolved from turnarounds found in rail yards. The turnaround is a portion of the rail line
that is circular in shape and allows the train to turn around on the tracks. Generating a central
plaza based off a turnaround helps to create a central area that addresses the history of the
railroad on the site. The shape of the space also helps to allow for a variety of functions to
occur on the site of the plaza. Community events can be set up and take place simultaneously
within the plaza. Benches and water features help to create smaller more intimate spaces in
this area. The streets along the central plaza will be lined with small scaled street tress and
will help to maintain a more intimate community feel to the space.

Surrounding the central plaza is also the outer edge of the mixed-use complex. The western
portion of the mixed-use complex contains mixed commercial buildings with apartment style
housing on top of them. This facade along the street running through the central plaza helps
draw people into the mixed-use complex and helps maintain the scale of a community town

65 I page

central plaza character

- *. .; "
^ r~i~ISA*^^A-.E~~

67 I page


r mvvd1

proposed mixed-use complex

- mixed-use complex detail
- mixed-use complex section

mixed-use complex

g fl ee'i spaxe *'ed <'se and flotng 20 pWUang pace

I' Mixed-use complex:
W* .o *4*4 The mixed-use community proposed for the the site will include mixed commercial buildings,
I* with homes on top the commercial buildings facing the central plaza, a light business park,
V and a shaded parking lot with a parking garage for the housing located on top commercial
,, buildings.

S .The current shopping complex is not utilized to its full potential. It is consumed by an over-
.H whelmingg parking lot and provides no view from main street. Due to its current state and lack
n "... -< ,, f of services to the surrounding neighborhood, this shopping center is in need of redevelop-
b*ow ment.
o,** By creating a mixed-use complex on this portion of the site, the surrounding neighborhoods
may be more inclined to use the area. Shops that cater to the neighborhood and create
pleasant building facades are implemented, the site will be more welcoming.
200 ft 600 ft
$NCZ fMain street is a "gateway" street in Gainesville and the current intersection of NW 23rd and
400ft 1000 ft Main street provides no indication of Main street's "gateway" function. By providing street
trees and a sidewalk along Main street, the street begins to shift scales and becomes more
pedestrian friendly.

* A larger view of the above section can be found on the following page

I /

S 21 Da'rir) 4pa4e 24 larm

;D paikLn soxce

24 Ianl

5 i1

'I I I

71 I page


mixed-use complex section

green space mnxeo use ano nousIng

5' 10!

I% 1 7

20 parkng space islnd 20' parking space

24' lane I 20' parking space

5' 10

' f



20 parking space 24 lane 20 parking space 20 parking space
2 parkingspace24 e island


24ae green space


24 ----reensac office buldMng
24" ane green space

73 I page

conclusion, bibliography & contacts


Throughout the process of studying the Koppers site for my capstone project I learned many things. I was introduced
to the Koppers site not knowing much about its history. It wasn't long before I began to realize the severity of the
Koppers site and the implications it had on its surrounding context. I have always wanted to learn more about brown-
fields, and felt that this local site offered me the opportunity and challenge I needed. Koppers eventually offered me
a bit more than a challenge. Not only did the parties involved in the Koppers site, and the lack of a remedial decision
create some constraints, but my timeline to complete the project also posed a constraint. With the time I had and the
unmade decisions, I was able to draw my own parameters of the site keeping in mind what I thought may be most
important to the site.

Studying Koppers gave the chance to become more familiar with Gainesville's future land use and planning goals,
the remediation processes involved in brownfield reclamation, and the values of ecosystem restoration.

My final master plan for the site was created to become a visionary plan that may encourage the thought of other re-
medial efforts to the site. I am unable to suggest a plan of action that would remediate the site, but I can still show-
case a potential that may have not previously been considered for the site.

My research of the Koppers site has sparked my personal interest in the site. I plan to continue to help with the cre-
ative development of the site in anyway that I can, and believe that the Kopppers site has much to teach about being
a landscape architect and the responsibilities that we have and implications we can make.

77 I page



Balmori, Diana, and Gaboury Benoit. Land and Natural Development (LAND) Code: Guidelines for Sustainable Land Development. A

Wiley book on sustainable design. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons, 2007.

Hall, Kenneth B., Gerald A. Porterfield, and Gerald A. Porterfield. Community by Design: New Urbanism for Suburbs and Small Com-
munities. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001.

Moughtin, Cliff, and Peter Shirley. Urban Design: Green Dimensions. Amsterdam: Elsevier Architectural Press, 2005.

Russ, Thomas H. Site Planning and Design Handbook. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002.

Walters, David, and Linda Brown. Design First: Design-Based Planning for Communities. Oxford: Architectural, 2004.


Bartsch, C.and Collaton, E.(1997) Brownfields: Cleaning and Reusing Contaminated Properties. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Greenberg, M. (2001) Brownfield redevelopment as a smart growth option in the United States. The Environmentalist v.21, 129-143

Register, R. Brownfields in Florida: Designation Process and Incentives for Redevelopment and Sustainable Reuse. Florida Depart-
ment of Environmental Protection, Brownfields Liaison, 2600 Blair Stone Rd., Tallahassee, Florida 32399-2400

Benfield, K.(1999) Once there were greenfields. Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy


These websites are helpful because they offer up to date information on the topic of brownfields and contain specific information on the
Koppers site.

nitp .. v' (Alachua county website)

http ,,.vw iimages'EPD/Polution Joint'' .20Cit/ 20Cor ni ..20.. g-l't 2:0C:: 2029' 2.:-009 2S:Reco
,mendations .20Draft"' 20EPA -,,20 FS 2Koppers 20Site' .'2010-22-2009.pdf
(EPA presentation of remedial plans for Koppers)

http .vw.. a I
(Pollution programs in Alachua County)

nttp 'gro.'
(Data warehouse for GIS)

nttp'imageslCommunic]ations comm_update/Update-2008-04-25.htm
(Community updates)

(Polluted site locator)

http .v/A., 'tier3_loc.cfm'"folder_id=250
(Land conservation programs in Florida)

nttp 'ww.'programl 'recycle'pdfieusirgsites pdf
(EPA information on Superfund sites)


- Feasibility Study
- ISBS Pilot Study Report
- Field Performance Assessment
- Cabot Carbon/Koppers Superfund Site in Gainesville, Florida
Adventus Project No. AAI6-189
Found at: httpsg: ''

79 I page


USEPA contacts:

1. Scott Miller
Remedial Project Manager
Superfund Division
Superfund Remedial Branch
Section C
U.S. EPA Region 4
61 Forsyth Street, SW
Atlanta, GA 30303
Phone (404) 562-9120
Fax (404) 562-8896

2. Mitchell Browerman
Project Manager
Superfund Division
Phone (412) 208-8805
Cabbot-Koppers contacts:

1. Penny Salisbury
Koppers Plant Manager
(352) 376-5144

City of Gainesville contacts:

1. Planning Department
Location: Thomas Center B Address:
Phone: 352.334.5023

2. Ralph Hillard: planning manager
(352)334- 5022
Email: hilliar,:!- cv jcityo',aines.

3. Pat Byrn :Parks and Recreation department

4. Sam Bridges: Thomas Center B office 314



1. Christina Lathrop, ASLA; LEED AP
Dix.Lathrop and Associates, Inc.
150 W. Jessup Ave.
Longwood, FL 32750
cilathrop@ di '.lath

2. Matt Robbie
Community Planning and Design Group
E2 Inc.

81 I page


case studies

rrip:.,'v(v v.sI iniIory.oIl '1 iisiory/creosoie.asp

Site: Reilly Tar and Chemical Corp. Superfund Site
Location: St. Louis Park, Minnesota
Size: 80 acres

The Reilly Tar and Chemical Corp. Superfund site is a superfund site contaminated with creosote. From 1917 until 1972 the site
was under the operations of a wood preserving and coal tar distillation plant. The contaminants were discharged into a ditch that
ran the length of the site and eventually flowed into a peat bog just south of the site. The soil on the site was also contaminated
from direct source of timber treating chemicals.
Wells on the site vary in depth from 50 feet to 900 feet. And the contaminants eventually spread to private wells and municipal
water sources.
The site was remediated with storm water drainage and facilities that were created. Contaminated wells were ordered by the
EPA to be cleaned. After 18 years of no development, the local government eventually obtained the property (taking responsibil-
ity for its remediation) and developed a recreational park, and mixed use complex.
Many similarities between this site and the Koppers site can be made. The Koppers site has similar groundwater concerns, his-
tory, and similar local involvement as this site. This site could be an important asset to studying the potentials of the Koppers site.

More info at: http:"'v;.vw.epa gov region superfuncl' pl rrinnsota..'',aN1J D980609804.htm

* -. -

Site: Depot Ave. Watershed Park
Location: Gainesville, Fl
Size: 35 acres

The Depot Ave. Watershed Park is a remediation project that was a result of contaminants left behind by the Gainesville Gas
Company. The site will be converted into a stormwater park that will revitalize the ecology of the site and promote neighborhood
development. The plan for the Depot Ave. Watershed Park is to transform of the site from a former rail yard declared Brownfield,
to a recreational site. Facilities on the site will include nature trails, an amphitheater, children's play area and stormwater basins.
The park also ties to the Rails-to-Trails system. The total cost for the project is estimated at $30 million. Funding will come from
the EPA and the St. Johns Water Management District.
I chose this as a case study because it exemplifies the ecological effects of remediating a Brownfield site locally. It also functions
a connecting point that can be made to the Koppers site. By using this site as a connection point, it strengthens the goal of Kop-
pers becoming a redeveloped mixed-use site with a focus on recreation.

More info at: http: \.. ,'GOV'ERPJMErJTCityDepartmentsNZ/ PublicV'Vor. s DepotParkProject

85 I page

case studies

ICK corn i'DI? oguuI I I

Site: Former Dixisteel in Atlanta, GA currently Atlantic Station
Location: Atlanta, GA
Size: 138 acres

Atlantic Station was built on the former Dixisteel property, and is currently the largest urban brownfield redevelopment in the
United States. The site was considered a superfund site, and with the remediation help of the EPA, contaminated soil was re-
moved, detention facilities were implemented and the air quality was monitored. This project had been divided into three different
phases. The District, The Commons, and The Village. The District phase will consist of a one million square foot open air retail
and entertainment area, a six million square foot office space area and 150,000 square feet of loft office space, and 200 two
story loft apartments above retail shops and restaurants. The Commons phase will consist of residential apartment buildings, and
low-rise condominiums built around park and water feature, all within walking distance of the retail center and office space lo-
cated in the District. The Village phase will consist of retail shops and cafes with residential units above.
I chose Atlantic Station as a case study because it has proven to be a successful remediation effort of the EPA. It also merges
the use of commercial and residential uses well, and provides a good example of smart growth through remediation.

More info at: http:: "'wh., home.php

Site: Gonwamus Canal
Location: Brooklyn, New York
Size: 1.8 miles

Gowanus Canal was recently declared a superfund site by the EPA on April 8, 2009. The site consists of the canal which is 100
feet wide and about 1.8 miles long. The property along the waterfront consists of industrial and commercial use. Surrounding this
are residential areas. A few proposals have been made with consideration of redeveloping the site into a waterfront park with
light commercial use.

More info at :http:'',' html.dcp/html govanuslindex.shtml

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KOPPERS: A Conceptual Redevelopment Plan For
Gainesville's Brownfield Site

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Full Text

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