Tukad Dawa Stream course enhancement

Material Information

Tukad Dawa Stream course enhancement
Andrews, Sarah B. ( Dissertant )
Thompson, Kevin ( Thesis advisor )
Widmer, Jocelyn ( Thesis advisor )
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
College of Design, Construction, and Planning, University of Florida
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
Physical Description:

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree Grantor:
University of Florida


Subjects / Keywords:
Commercial forests ( jstor )
Forest roads ( jstor )
Forests ( jstor )
Monkeys ( jstor )
Pedestrian traffic ( jstor )
Public forests ( jstor )
Rice ( jstor )
Rivers ( jstor )
Streams ( jstor )
Tourism ( jstor )
Dissertations, Academic -- UF -- Landscape architecture ( local )
Stream Course


The Village of Ubud is located in the central foothills of Bali, Indonesia. For thousands of years the island nation of Bali has grown and developed a comprehensive water system which has provided irrigation, drinking water, and been a source for sacred rituals for the dominant Hindu culture of Bali. Ubud is a highly visited destination for all types of tourists. It is known as Bali’s “Art Capitol”, is home to the popular Sacred Monkey Forest, and the setting for the “Pray” chapter from Elizabeth Gilbert’s book Eat, Pray, Love. This project hones in on the current development dilemmas associated with issues with the quality of water. The design and development of the project focus on the existing Tukad Dawa stream course corridor, which runs through the village, passing under the market and through the Monkey Forest. The project looks to increase and restore the carrying capacity of the river while enhancing conditions and connectivity along the corridor. Opportunities exist to daylight the stream and restore the stream to a more natural condition. Pollution is a common issue throughout the island and has had its effects on the natural systems. By creating both visual and physical access to the water the project strives to create awareness of the detrimental effects pollution and development have on such a valued and sacred commodity
Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Landscape Architecture capstone project

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Sarah Burton Andrews. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.


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I would first like to thank both Kevin Thompson and Jocelyn Widmer for exposing
me to the wonderful culture of Bali and for their continued help and support
through this process. I would also like to thank the landscape architecture faculty
for all the diversities of the profession they have exposed me to.

Thankyou to all my friends from studio. I will never forget our late nights in studio,
walking tours in Paris, and Thursday nights at Durty Nelly's. Thank you Katie,
Chelsea, and Allison for keeping me on track and all the laughs along the way.

To Matt, Stephanie, and Hannah, suksma. My time in Bali would not have been
the same without you.

Kiersten and Amy, thank you both for all the late night deliveries you would make
to me in studio and for understanding my crazy schedule.

To my Mom and Dad for giving me the opportunities to study abroad. Thank you
both so much for your constant encouragement, love and support.

And I would like to thank my Savior, Jesus Christ, for giving me peace in my heart
through these past five years and surrounding me with wonderful opportunities
and friendships.

Last but not least, Thank you to the Florida Football Program. You gave me the
best five years the Swamp has ever seen; two National Championships and two
Heisman Trophy's.

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abstract ............................. .............. 6-7
project location............................................. 10-11
p project con text ..................................... ................... 12-13
site description.............................. ......... 14-15
history ............................... ..... ................. 16-17
culture...... ............... .... ........................... .. 18-19
tourism & clim ate........................................... 20-21
current issues.......................................... 22-23
goals and objectives...................... .............. 24-25
case studies
philosopher's path.................... ................ 28-29
san antonio river walk............................................ 30-31
bangun kerto community tourism center................. 32-33
com parison........................................... 34-35
inventory & analysis
topography .................. ..................................... 38-39
hydrology ............. ... ........................ .................. 40-41
river hydrology............................. ............. 42-43
soils.............................. .. ........ ................. 44-45
vegetation.......................... ........ 46-47
p lan ts...................................... .................. 48-49
landuse.......................... ................ 50-51
circulation......................................... 52-53
street character........................... ..................... 54-57
cultural character................................ .................... 58-59
synthesis and opportunities................................. 62-63
concept 1I.................................... ................. 66-67
concept 2.................................... ................. 68-69
concept 3.................................... ................. 70-71
master plan in context........................................ 74-75
m aster plan....................... ... .................... 76-77
master plan details 78-79
market and water museum detail............................. 80-81
river walk detail.......................... .............. ... 82-83
banyan tree detail............................. ...................... 84-85
rice culture detail.............................................. 86-87
typical path charcter...................... ............... 88-89
what i learned?.................. .... ..................... 92-93
literature................. ....................................... 96
w ebsites............................ ......... .................. 97
presentation slides.............................. ..................... 100-121

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The Village of Ubud is located in the central foothills of Bali,
Indonesia. For thousands ofyears the island nation of Bali has
grown and developed a comprehensive water system which
has provided irrigation, drinking water, and been a source for
sacred rituals for the dominant Hindu culture of Bali. Ubud is
a highly visited destination for all types of tourists. It is known
as Bali's "Art Capitol" is home to the popular Sacred Monkey
Forest, and the setting for the "Pray" chapter from Elizabeth
Gilbert's book Eat, Pray Love.
This project hones in on the current development dilemmas
associated with issues with the quality of water. The design
and development of the project focus on the existing Tukad
Dawa stream course corridor, which runs through the village,
passing under the market and through the Monkey Forest. The
project looks to increase and restore the carrying capacity of
the river while enhancing conditions and connectivity along
the corridor. Opportunities exist to daylight the stream and
restore the stream to a more natural condition. Pollution is a
common issue throughout the island and has had its effects
on the natural systems. By creating both visual and physical
access to the water the project strives to create awareness of
the detrimental effects pollution and development have on
such a valued and sacred commodity.

rooftops of Ubud


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project location

project context

site description


tourism & climate


current issues

goals and objectives

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southeast asian region

The village of Ubud is located on the island of Bali, Indonesia. The country of Indonesia
is part of Southeast Asia. Bali is one of Indonesia's thirty-three provinces. Bali is one of
the some 17,000 islands which make up the Indonesia Archipelago of which about 6,000
are inhabited. Indonesia currently has a population of 228 million people. The island is
situated to the east of Java, the province in which the mega city Jakarta is located, and
to the west of the island of Lombok. The Wallace Line runs between Bali and Lombok,
and is the boundary that separates the ecozones of Asian and Australian flora and fauna.
Renowned as a center of Balinese culture, art, and crafts, Ubud is centrally located in the
foothills of Bali and is part of the Gianyar Regency. Bali has a population of 3.15 million
people spread over 5,632km2. Ubud has about 8,000 resident ts.

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Ubud is located in the central foothills of Bali. Its
central location is convenient to many tourist
activities around the island. The village of Ubud
is bisected by several stream courses, which run
from the north to the south. The close proximity
of Ubud to the surrounding villages makes them
appear as one, this is known as a composite village.
Surrounding villages, include Nyuh Kuning, Peliatan
and Pengosekan each contribute to the traditional
art culture of the Ubud area. Many five star resorts
are situated just outside of the dense area of Ubud,
and offer guest a more secluded experience with
vistas of the mountains and rice paddies. Much of
the land to the west and south of Ubud currently
exists as rice paddies.

busystreetI peliatan village

rice padi I near pengosekan village

nekamusuem I kedewatan village






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Monkey Forest Road [M.FR.] and Jalan Hanoman create the
north-south connection on the site. The east-west connection
on the northern portion of the site are Jalan Raya along
with Jalan Dewi Sita. In the north area there is a significant
concentration of cultural interest point, including the market,
the Ubud Palace, and the Ubud Tourism Center. Along M.FR.
the streetscape is dense, storefronts filled with art and open air
restaurants line the street. Located just behind the storefront are
many bungalow-style hotels and in rare cases rice paddies. On
the southern portion of M.FR. is the popular Monkey Forest,
which houses the Pura Dalem Temple.

monkey forest road streetscape

jalan hanoman

hindu offering

ubud morning market





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projectsite contextual map

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Bali was believed to first be settled by Chinese
immigrants sometime around 2500 B.C Around
300 B.C, the Balinese culture had evolved,
including a complex and effective irrigation
system resulting in a successful rice agriculture
society. This irrigation system still runs throughout
the country today.

The village of Ubud traces its roots as far back as
the 8th century when a revered holy man from
India, Rsi Markandya, discovered the area while on
a spiritualjourney. Traveling east from Java, Rsi
was in search of the light rising from the earth to
the sky and what he found was the island of Bali.
While on the journey Rsi was led to meditate at a
junction on the Wos River in the central foothills.
He was inspired by the radiance of the two rivers
joining which was named Campuhan and felt
compelled to build the temple Pura Gunung
Lebah. In addition to Pura Gunung Lebah, Rsi
built a number of other significant temples and
created a shared irrigation system for the terraced
landscape, which still exists today. The basis of
this community structure is the Subak and the
Banjar. The Subak are responsible for controlling
who will plant rice and when, to avoid pestilence

rice padi jatiluwih

traditional balinesea art

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pura gunung lebah I campuhan

and ensure equal share for all farmers. Traditionally
the head of the Subak is the farmer whose field is at
the lowest elevation, and water must pass through all
other fields before irrigating his. The Banjar organizes
all other social aspects of the community including
marriages, ceremonies, community services, and

In 1010 A.D. Balinese Prince Airlangha took over
East Java. After uniting it with Bali, he appointed his
brother, Anak Wungsu, to rule Bali. This resulted in an
increase ofcommerce between the two islands. During
this time Bali adopted the Javanese language, Kawi.
Airlangha's death and many wages of warbyJavanese
Kings led to the defeat by General Gajah Mada, from
the Majapahit Empire, and Bali succumbed to the

Javanese rule in 1343 A.D. The Majapahit Empire was
the last Hindu Javanese Empire, and collapsed in the
16th century as Islam spread from the north. Many
Javanese Hindu aristocrats, priests, and artists fled to

The Dutch arrived in 1597 and established the Dutch
East India Company [VO.C] in 1602 and became the
dominant European power in what is today Indonesia.
The VO.C. was formally disbanded in 1800, following
bankruptcy and the Netherlands established the
Dutch East Indies as a nationalized colony. The Dutch
control over the East Indies was weak for most of the
colonial period until the 20th century when Dutch
authorities started to interfere with Balinese politics.

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In the 1930' Bali saw a significant influx of overseas
visitors. This wave of tourism was focused in Ubud
and its surrounding areas. Celebrated artist,
Walter Spies arrived in Ubud in 1930, and paved
the path for other foreign artists including Rudolf
Bonnet and Willem Hofker. As word spread about
Ubud, its enchanting beauty drew in many famous
faces including Charlie Chaplin and recognized
anthropologist Margaret Mead. Pit Maha, a
painters association, was formed by Tjokorede Gede
Agung, Spies, Bonnet, and several other local artists
in 1936. This group was responsible for bringing
together some of Bali's most talented artists to
teach painting, dance, and music to the younger
generation. From this Ubud developed its current
reputation as a being the cultural pulse of Bali.

Tourism suffered considerably by the onset of WWII.
During that time the Japanese invaded, followed
by a violent struggle to gain independence from
Dutch rule, which was finally gained in 1945.
Tourism slowly returned to Ubud during the 1970s
when backpackers and hippies set out to find new
experiences. Captivated by the island's beauty,
tourism became steadier, from the 1970s onward.

typical resort I ubud

rice padipainting by walterspies


ricepadipainting by walterspies

Located just 8.67 degrees south of the equator the weather
in Bali is consistently hot and sunny. Year round the days
and nights are universally 12 hours. Daytime temperatures
average between 80 and 90 degrees Fahrenheit and humidity
averages around 75%. Bali's tropical climate has two distinct
seasons; wet [October to April] and dry [May to September].


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From the beginning of human settlement,
agriculture has been a key element in the
development of the Balinese culture. The first
inhabitants created a complex irrigation system
which supplied water to the entire island. With its
steep topography, farmers were forced to design a
solution for creating usable farmland. The farmers
changed the landscape of the island by clearing
forests and terracing hillsides for farmable land.
The Subak is the cooperative which manages
the irrigation system. All farmers who receive
irrigation from the same source are members of the
same Subak. This system has effectively provided
the framework for Bali to become one of the more
efficient producers of rice in Indonesia.

Rice is more than just a staple food, it is a
fundamental part of the Balinese culture.
Ceremonies are held to carry the young stems of
rice to the sawah, or agricultural field. The first
section to be planted is the corner nearest Gunung
Agung, oriented in the northeast direction.
Ceremonies and offerings are presented to Dewi
Sri, the goddess of rice, before planting, through
growing time, and at harvesting. Often times in
the middle of the sawah there are small temples

rice padi I near pengosekan village

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baths at tampaksiring

traditional balinese dancer

in which offerings are presented to Dewi Sri. In Bali
there are 3 names for rice: padi -growing rice I beras-
harvested and uncooked I nasi- cooked rice.

Today Bali is about 90% Hindu, in contrast to the
majority of Indonesians who are predominately
Muslim. Although Balinese Hindu worship the
Hindu trinity Brahma, Shiva and Vishnu, the Balinese
religion is very different from the Indian variety. One
major difference in the Balinese variety is that they do
not believe in reincarnation. They believe the spirits
dwell in the mountains, and that the sea is home to
demons. Every village has at least 3 temples.

Ubud has several temples and a palace, Puri Saren,
where the Prince of Ubud once lived. Pura Dalem
Pandangtegal is located in the Monkey Forest on

the southern edge of Ubud. The main street of Ubud
runs west over a bridge crossing the Wos River at
Campuhan. Situated in the steep ravine Pura Gunung
Lebah was most likely founded in the 8th century by
Rsi Markandya.

The Ubud Market is located on the southeast corner
of the main intersection, Monkey Forest Road (North/
South) and Jalan Raya (East/West). The market is a
destination for both locals and tourists. In the early
morning, vendors have a wide variety of fresh local
produce, spices, clothing, and offerings for the locals.
By mid morning the market transforms to a souvenir
shop for the hundreds of day trippers that arrive on
tour buses. Tourists can buy sarongs, hand caved
teak, paintings, puppets, jewelry, batiks, and a variety
of other unique items.


students at the uuds.m.p. school presenting their diagrams ot thesawan

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The composite village of Ubud faces many development pressures from
the growing tourism industry. Ubud's success has resulted from the tourist
industry which draws in people who are looking for an authentic culturally
rich experience. A delicate balance exists between the local culture and the
tourism industry. Today an increasing demand has forced development into the
agricultural land, known as the "sawah" This development is forcing locals out
of workandis decreasing the sawah, which has resulted in Balineeding to import
rice. The sawah is a defining component of the rich Bali landscape and plays an
important part of the culture, providing jobs, food, a place to play, raise live stock,
and provides open space. It is important that the development is strategically
planned and that attention is focused on preserving the Bali landscape before
the sacred commodity is lost forever.

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local child playingkite I ubud

encroaching development I surrounding uud village

SMP Student, Udyana Uni Student, and UFstudent, Sarah Andrews



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1. Utilize the Tukad Dawa stream course corridor to create an alternate
pedestrian connection
2. Create a east-west connection through the existing rice padi

Cultural Awareness
1. Create a Water Museum which informs users on the importance of water to
the culture of Bali
2. Create a path which give users visual access to a functioning rice padi
3. Use traditional BalineseArchitecture and details in all improved construction

Ecological Improvement
1. Daylight the Tukad Dawa stream course where opportunities exist
2. Remove the engineered portions of the Tukad Dawa stream course and
restore the edge to the natural grade, which will allow for a heavier load
3. Plantings along the stream course will help restore the corridor to a more
natural ecosystem

Environmental Awareness
1. Visually open up access to the the Tukad Dawa stream course to the street
2. Create a Water Museum which informs users on the importance of water to
the ecology of Bali


tukad tirta at gunung kawi

1 26 744e b, StAi& CoUd Giwscfwwwd






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The Philosopher's Path (Tetsugaku no michi) is located in the northeast
portion of Kyoto, Japan in the Higashiyama district. Kyoto was Japan's
capital and home to the emperor's palace from 794 until 1868. For
centuries Kyoto experienced destruction from fires and wars, but was
fortunately spared from the nuclear bomb droppings during World
War II and is home to many of Japan's historic temples and shrines.
The Philosopher's Path is situated alongside a portion of the Lake Biwa
canal. Construction on the Lake Biwa Canal began in 1888 during the
Meiji Period, 1869-1912, to facilitate water for the use of passenger
transportation and hydroelectricity. The 2 kilometer stretch of the
canal named the Philosopher's Path runs south from Ginkakuji to the
neighborhood of Nanzenji. It is lined with hundreds of cherry trees
and is distinguished by its pleasing stone walkway. The well known
path gets its name from a philosophy professor at Kyoto University,
Kitaro Nishida[1870-1945], who frequently strolled along the canal.
Legend has it that Nishinda had many inspirations along the serene
walkway. Situated along the Philosopher's Path are five of Kyoto's
significant temples and two shrines. Today tourists and locals frequent
the Philosopher's Path, especially during the spring when the cherry
blossoms are in bloom. Tourist will alsofind restaurants, cafes, boutiques,
and local artists along the journey.

Cit'e CQ 1. - I

The Philosopher's Path is located in a highly urbanized
setting, in a city of 827.9 km2 with a population of over one
million. The village of Ubud is sufficiently smaller in both
area and population but supports a much higher density of
closeto4000/km2. In Kyoto, the Philosopher's Path provides
a tranquil and serene pedestrian experience for both locals
and tourists. The separation of the pedestrian path from
vehicular traffic creates a superior user experience. In its
current state the pedestrian experience in the village of
Ubud is directly situated alongside the busy and crowded
roads with no separation from the vehicle. The Lake Biwa
Canal creates a unique setting for the Philosopher's Path
which has provided the distinguished character of both the
Ginkakujiand Nanzenji neighborhoods. Likewisethevillage
of Ubud is intersected by the Tapes River of similar scale to


the Lake Biwa Canal. The Tapes River flows south from
the Mount Batur watershed. In its current condition the
Tapes River lacks in public accessibility and is hidden
behind walls and buildings. There is an opportunity to
bring a focus towards the river corridor and create a
quality pedestrian experience which brings awareness
to the importance of water in the Balinese culture.
The tourism success of the Philosopher's Path can be
attributed to its close proximity to several of Kyoto's
most famous shrines and temples. For tourists, the
Philosopher's Path defines the itinerary of a day trip in
which one travels from temple to temple by means of
the path. A similar opportunity exists in Ubud, to use
theTapes River corridor to connect the villages various
tourist opportunities.

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section | philosophers path

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Today, the San Antonio River Walk curves through the
grid of streets in a loop off the main channel for 1.2
miles. For over 11,000 years Native American hunter-
gatherers utilized the lush landscape of the Olmos Creek
Basin, including many springs and the San Antonio River.
Spanish missionaries arrived in the early 1700s. In 1718
the Spanish began to construct irrigation channels,
or acequias, to divert water from the San Antonio
River to their farmlands. The acequias served as San
Antonio's water system for close to two hundred years.
Throughout the 1800s the San Antonio's residents used
the river for bathing and recreation. As described by
Frederick Marryat in 1843 "Few cities have ever had such
an intense love affair or such an intimate relationship
with their river as in San Antonio". By 1850 the river had
become a servant to the city, providing power to mills,
fed irrigation channels, provided drinking water, and
carried sewage downstream. The river permeated daily
life for most citizens of San Antonio. In 1911 the San
Antonio River Improvement Association was formed.
San Antonio architect Harvey L. Page devised a plan to

F-1 E F-T i i7 m r-

line the river for 13 miles with reinforced concrete, add
decorative bridges and numerous benches to turn the
river banks into a "vast park". These plans established a
uniform width for the downtown river channel with a
low concrete wall. As a result of the great flood of 1921
San Antonians addressed the issue of flood control. The
construction of the Olmos Dam located at the head
waters to the river, and the creation of a cutoff channel
were part of the solution. With the construction of the
floodgates, commercial development could proceed
at river level. In 1929, Robert Hugman presented an
imaginative plan for development which he called "Shop
of Aragon and Romula", patterned after the narrow
winding streets of Spain. His plans developed a rich
vocabulary using local stone channel walls and arched
bridges, applied at a confined and intimate scale. The
meandering walk is present on both sides of the river
bank and is often only 4 feet wide with no guardrails.
The River Walk is lined with busy cafes, shops and hotels
set in a lushly planted intimate space.

The San Antonio River Walk has become a success today and has
over nine million visitors each year. On average, the width of the
River Walk ranges from 30 to 60 feet. In the village of Ubud the
Tapes River Corridor is on average 20 to 60 feet wide. The scale of
the River Walk and the detail create an intimate space. Hugman
focused on using local stone and materials to give the River Walk
a unique and local feel. The Balinese culture has a strong focus
on architecture, spatial orientation, and art. By incorporating
the local traditional styles in the design along the Tapes River
corridor will help to establish a distinguished character. Hugman
noted the success and modeled the River Walk plans off the
historic streets in Spain. He believed the historic streets which
were barred to vehicular traffic provided for the best shopping
and restaurant experience. In this scenario the river becomes
the "road". Similarly, an opportunity exists along the Tapes River.
The shallow river bed and existing vegetation create an element
of serenity. Facing buildings towards the river places a strong
emphasis on the river as opposed to the existing condition where
buildings are oriented away from the river.

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The village of Bangun Kerto is located about 20 kilometers
north of the city of Yogyakarta in the highly productive
agricultural lands of the Yogyakarta Regency. In 1980
farmers in the region began to switch to the higher quality
salakfruit, called salak pondoh. Salak is also known as snake
fruit due to its distinctive sharp, scaly brown skin. It is a
relatively small fruit with a hard white flesh surrounding a
large pit. Before switching to salak, the farmers in this
region grew a wide variety of fruits including mango,
coconut, and bananas. With the switch to salak the incomes
in the region have reportedly increased by three to five
times. In 1983, local residents developed the idea of that
agrotourism could be established based on the salak crop.
In 1984 the Provincial Agricultural Department assisted in
the effort and donated 4,000 salak crops to the community
to begin the agrotourism efforts. In 1990 the 27 ha site was
selected in the village of Bangun Kerto and the construction
of the agrotourism facilities were completed in 1992. The
purpose of the agrotourism project is to expose tourists to
the natural environment and to stimulate awareness and
demand for the product, salak pondoh. The initial project
stated seven objectives (1)increase agricultural production,
(2)increase income to farmers, (3)develop the area in an
environmentally sound manner, (4)generate a promotional
medium for agricultural production, (5)expand the market,
(6)increase foreign exchange earnings, and (7)promote
human development. The site was built by local residents
on community land. All aspects of the attraction are
controlled at the local level and it currently employs area
youth as guides, as well as to perform traditional dances.
On the 27 ha site there are two ponds, one filled with fish,
the other has a series of boardwalks and pavilions. There is
also a dance platform and gift shop for tourists. In response
to the development, locals have set up a small market to sell
salak and other local produce to tourists.

salakmarket atbangun kerto


Salak AqrotoL


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plan ofbangun kerto

The SalakAgrotourism Center project in Bangun Kerto has
introduced a new tourism product into the community.
The agritourism project is controlled at the community
level and has in turn created a stronger community
culture and sense of pride. The scale of this site relates
to a much less populated area in contrast to that of the
village of Ubud. The project is located in a rural area
which is generally accessed by vehicle. The concept of
agritourism as it relates to community development can
be studied and applied similarly in the village of Ubud.
Increasing development in Bali has come at the expense
of Bali's agriculture, specifically rice. Currently in Bali
there is a shortage of rice for the locals and they have

recently been forced to import rice to the island. In the
village of Ubud there is an opportunity to convey the
importance of rice to both the locals and the tourists.
Another similar issue exists with Bali's complex 2000
year-old irrigation system. In its current condition
many of the rivers are being polluted by trash and run
off. The pollution is not a result of a lack of pride but
a lack of awareness. An opportunity exists to bring a
focus towards the Tapes River corridor. The use of the
Tapes River and the surrounding village character will
create a successful pedestrian experience. As a result
of successful tourism the locals will have a sense of
pride and ownership in the space.

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33 1

S34 9Jrud et. SAv Co Mea -MWuw


pedestrian relationship to
connectivity of interest
linear pedestrian corridor


S river-oriented commercial
S active pedestrian linkages
S use oflocal materials


S importance of agriculture to
the community
community effort
S promote awareness of local







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stream course hydrology






street character

cultural character

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Bali lies over a major subduction zone where the Indo-
Australian tectonicplate collides with the Sunda plate.
A chain of six volcanoes stretches from west to east,
the two of significant sizes are MountAgung (3.140m)
and Mount Batur (1.717m).
The north side of the mountain range has fairly steep
slopes, creating narrow lowland along the coastal
area. Ubud is located on the south where the slopes
are much more gradual, forming a fertile plain that
has become the main center for Balinese culture. The
Tukad Dawa stream course flows from the mighty
The elevation change from the north end of the ite
at the market to the south end of the Monkey Forest
is approximately 30 meters, or 100 feet. The slope is
gentle and becomes much more apparent on the
southern portions of Monkey Forest Road and along
the stream courses.

topographic map of bali, indonesia

topographic map of bali, indonesia



S ,,r ., f. .. 3 9






L i

I 190m




100 moo

topography map of ubud






744 boDV, S6w COu e ws fh"M~Wv

Ubud, located in the foothills of Bali, has several
stream courses which traverse through the village,
flowing south towards the Bali Sea. The springs
in the mountains to the north provide fresh water
throughout the island. In contrast to the natural
hydrology of the island, the Balinese over the
past two thousand years have engineered the
landscape to provide adequate irrigation for
agriculture on the steep slopes. Overtime the value
of water has increased beyond its material worth
to hold spiritual significance for the Balinese.
The water system has shaped much of the Hindu
religion structure, practices and calendar which
effectively regulates and coordinates the sharing
of limited water to all farmers.


*, ,
i 'i 0 "

iriga- n cana
imcsation canal

stream course hierarchy of ball, indonesia

.piiiym ui ul ut eiurp



100 .&0

hydrology map ofubud


1 42 7 44L)O,V S6vi, Cow e16"WvWd

For thousands of year the Bali landscape
has been manipulated. The watersystems
have been engineered to allow for water
to irrigate the terraced agricultural
land. The Tukad Dawa stream course is
reflective of this engineered landscape
as it flows through the village of Ubud.
In the northern portion of the site, the
stream course flows underground until
it resurfaces just south of the market. Its
general condition exists with concrete
barriers guiding the water through the
site. It is not until the stream course
reaches the Monkey Forest that is has a
chance to breathe. An opportunity exists
to daylight the stream and improve the
edge to a more natural state.



,., 43

/ 1 m

100 ,

hydrology map ofubud

I44 TukL e DMa, StCawmv Couse Atmwewa

Ubud is located in the central foothill of the island
of Bali where some of the most fertile land is found.
The volcanic soils of the foothills are rich and filled
with nutrients from the volcanic matter. The rice crop
thrives in soils containing phosphate and potassium,
minerals that are naturally abundant in the volcanic
soil of Bali. Monsoon rains falling on the island during
the rainy season leach these nutrients from the soil,
and irrigation canals continuously transport them to
the rice paddies.

. A


r - ~~ *'~

a local man in his rice paddy


0 .. -,


. (., 45

soils map ofsouthern bali

'fuf.~CQ DCMC SwVlil CoM

The island of Bali has been inhabited by humans
for over two thousand years. Much of the land
has been altered for agriculture and development.
The engineered landscapes have become a part
of the natural systems of the island. The island
is predominately divided into four broad areas:
developed, agricultural, forests, and dry lands. The
lower and central foothills are charactertically suitable
for agriculture. The lower half of the island and along
the coast has the larger population densities, with the
capitol city, Denpasar located in the central southern
The village of Ubud is predominately developed with
the exception of the riparian zone of the Tukad Dawa
stream course. Much of the development is focused
towards the tourism industry with commercial and

\Land Use Patterns


Built Up Areas
Dry Land
Wet Rice

land use patterns of ball, indonesia

S ,,, ,, .,.... 4 7


144 baD(V, S6, in COi e GR tfviKte

open space loowroa neia

In the village of Ubud, although mostly
developed, there are a few natural areas
and open spaces. The village has a larger
football field which is used by many locals
on a daily basis for sports and festivals.
Visitors are also engaged in the space as
they pass along from M.FR. The riparian
zone along the Tukad Dawa stream course
has been significantly altered in many
areas, even going under ground. Portions
of the riparian zone do exisit including
a considerable tree canopy. A few rare
vistas to the sawah exisit from the street.
The sawah is an important cultural and
economic part of the local community.

sawahl between M.ER. andJ1. Hanoman

riparian zone I monkey forest


,&. ,, ,a i., t. I49




Bali has a wide variety of plants throughout the island.
There are huge banyan trees in villages and temple
grounds, tamarind trees in the North, clove trees in the
highlands, acacia trees, flame trees, and mangroves in the
South. In Bali there are dozens species of coconut palms
and even more varieties of bamboo.

There are flowers everywhere that fill the island with color
and a sweet fragrance. There are hibiscus, bougainvillea,
jasmine, and water lilies. Magnolia, frangipani, and a
variety of orchids found in many front yards and gardens,
along roads, and in temple grounds. Flowers are also used
as decorations in temples, on statues, as offerings for the
gods, and during prayers. Dancers wear blossoms in their
crowns, and even the flower behind the earofyour waitress
seems natural in Bali.

744 bc,"aDs~w vi" CoGtose ftd1tvW

' ,,r ,,i&yl, A ( .



At,1 A

[1] Staghorn Fern [12] Yellow Bamboo [23] Cordylines
[2] Jackfruit [13] Alternanthera [24] Red Hibiscus
[3] Cocos nucifera [14] Croton [25] Aeschynathus radicans
[4] Betel [15] Durians [26] Dendrobium spathilingue
[5] Scindapsus [16] Veronica elliptica [27] Bougainvillea
[6] Birds Nest Fern [17] Arundo donax [28] Rhoeo
[7] Cyperus alternifolius [18] Croton [29] Alpiniapurpurata
[8] Golden Coconut Dwarf [19] Rambutan [30] Plumeria
[9] Salakpondoh [20] Betel Nut [31] Plumeria
[10] Clove Tree: [21] Allamanda [32] Heliconia
[II] Varigated Pedilanthus [22] Paphiopdeium lowii [33] Delonixregia Flame Tree

52 fTMd D~ta SVtM CouMe UtW dikt

The general network of circulation in Ubud can be
divided into vehicular and pedestrian circulation. The
vehicular circulation includes by automobiles and
motorbikes, that are used by both locals and visitors.
The pedestrian circulation is also divided into both
locals and visitors.

Along M.FR. automobile traffic flows one-way(north)
where as motor bike traffic is two-way. This unique
traffic configuration functions for the limits that exist
but creates a congested streetscape. The experience
for the pedestrian is generally affected by the vehicular
traffic. The conditions of the pedestrian realm along
M.F.R. are in decline. The pedestrian sidewalk is a
unique system which is placed directly above the
street runnels. Many areas along the road have either
collapsed or are in disrepair, forcing users into the

Some of the more residential areas have narrower
paths which are only suitable for pedestrians and
motorbikes. The general feel along the main streets
in Ubud is of dense commercial use. Storefronts block
the street user's view into any of the surrounding
natural and agricultural areas.


1 54 ITT N I, S6 i, I, Co"uu&e iL~

I MONKEY FOREST ROAD I.!,l n ,,f i '.r i

M EY FOREST ROAD |., lie,;'


S. ... 55


JALAN GOUTAMA I i,. (Jl."'J ', ," I

1 56 Tu e V S lwv i Co u& t

2 section | MonkeyForest Road
one-way vehicular
two- way motor bike
angled vehicular parking
curb and gutter
high density commercial

3 section I Monkey Forest Road
two-way vehicular
two- way motorbike
angled vehicular parking
curb and gutter
medium density commercial

section IJalan DewiSita

one-way vehicular
dense residential

,z t




MONKEY FOREST 4 .1"MANDAb7!"1 "- -.E4


3 PURA DA *ffm=. pilV hAiC-t'i


744 bc,"Dwai CosLe GcM awwvwd



; Pt

1 6o 14 4 bav S, I Cc, ctW vtLvvtm


synthesis & opportunities

62 7T4.4 bcIMa' S tviu CouMe rMw"viW

The village of Ubud currently offers a rich cultural experience to both locals and visitors.
As the development has increased over the years, the culture is being compromised in
this dense composite village. The streets have dense storefronts, which provide for a
thorough shopping experience but at the cost of the beautiful Bali landscape. Ubud is a
very delicate environment with quick contrast from the urban to the rural.

The Tukad Dawa stream course is currently inaccessable to the public pedestrian.
Its linear quality offers an opportunity to create a pedestrian connection along with
a quality cultural expereicne. In its current engineered state the Tukad Dawa stream
course is unable to carry the natural water load. An opportunity exists to improve its
state and enhace the stream courses conditions. Becuase Ubud is so heavily visited this
site has a unique opportunity to expose many visitors to the challenges that face the
Balinese culture and environment today.

[1] This area has a high density of both cultural and visitor points of interest

[2] The Ubud football field is the onlypublic open space on the northern part of
Monkey Forest Road

[3] The Tukad Dawa stream course intersects Monkey Forest Road and enters into
the Sacred Monkey Forest


[4] An opportunity exists to daylight the Tukad Dawa stream course where it
intersects Jalan Raya at the Ubud Market

[5] Tukad Dawa intersects Jalan Dewi Sita. At this node an opportunity exists to
enter into the vegetated corridor

[6] The Tukad Dawa stream course corridor offers an opportunity to act as a
pedestrian corridor

[7] The forested River Corridor creates an opportunity to open up public access


synthesis diagram



)r .. ,

I ~ S~w~n C~A4x 1<
I i

4Arr .vr
id I


concept 1

concept 2

concept 3

I66 7I(&Q tL Stwv COMU&e 4MWvM-e

[1] Day lighting Tukad Dawa stream course will improve the ecological conditions
as well as create a visual connection

S[2] Create a public plaza on Jalan Raya at the intersection of the Ubud Market,
I.. Ubud Palace and the Tukad Dawa stream course

[3] Utilize the Tukad Dawa stream course corridor between Jalan Raya andJalan
Dewi Sita as a pedestrian connection

[4] Retail and Commercial establishments will face and take advantage of Tukad
Dawa as an amenity

S/ [5] The intersection of the Tukad Dawa stream course corridor andJalan Dewi Sita
4 [ forms a suitable area for a small plaza and entry into the corridor walk

M Kr [6] At this node there exists a large banyan tree, sacred in the Bali landscape; it is
S- to be highlighted

[7] A minor node will be created at the edge of the football field and the
performance building along M.F.R.

[8] This connection provides an east-westpedestrian connection and
brings the user through the integral rice paddies

[9] A minor node will be created along Jalan Hanoman to create pedestrian access
to the Tukad Dawa corridor

[10] A minor trail system will continue along the Tukad Dawa corridor connecting to
the Monkey Forest.

C .... jq 67

4' 4


S11 11111 )
*1 9P / ei

.co e. ,g-m- -

concept diagram I

68 TMJi Draw StwavM CouMe tM4a1ew

[1] A visual connection to the rice padi introduces the pedestrian to the rice
culture of Bali

j-... [2] A minor trail system will continue along the Tukad Dawa corridor connecting
Sthe Monkey Forest area to Jalan Dewi Sita and eventually the Ubud Market

'[3] A minor node will create an access point to the the Tukad Dawa corridor and
east-west pedestrian permeability

[4] This connection provides a north-south pedestrian connection and brings the
user through the integral aspects of the Bali landscape

[5] Retail and commercial establishments will face and take advantage of Tukad
Dawa as an amenity

L y [6] A minor node will create an access point to the the Tukad Dawa corridor and
j east-west pedestrian permeability

[7] Create a public plaza on M.F.R. at the intersection of the the Monkey Forest and
the Tukad Dawa stream course

[8] The Monkey Forest is a point of interest for both visitors and locals, pedestrian
connections along the Tukad Dawa stream course will be improved

[9] Opportunities exist to open up vistas from M.F.R. plaza to the large expanse of
rice padi

....j, 69


UL! .

. .~
..... ...

"-t - 1 .. ..-- --

- 7


concept diagram 2

70 7 ~( Sc~M,' Cosu A wMtc W hvw

[1] Day lighting Tukad Dawa stream course will improve the ecological conditions
as well as create a visual connection

1 [2] Create apublicplaza on Jalan Raya at the intersection of the Ubud Market, Ubud
Palace and the Tukad Dawa stream course

[3] Utilize the Tukad Dawa stream course corridor between Jalan Raya andJalan
SDewi Sita as a pedestrian connection

[4] Retail and commercial establishments will face and take advantage of Tukad
Dawa as an amenity

S[5] At this node there exists a large banyan tree, sacred in the Bali landscape, it is to
// be highlighted

Si [6] Visual access to the rice paddies introduces the user to the integral rice culture of
-- 1 Bali

[7] This natural area will incorporate a path system while educating the user on
cultural and ecological issues

[8] A minor trail system will continue along the Tukad Dawa corridor connecting to
the Monkey Forest

[9] Improved conditions along the stream course will allow for a larger carrying

[10] Retail and commercial establishments will face and take advantage of Tukad
Dawa as an amenity

[11] The Monkey Forest is a point of interest for both visitors and locals, pedestrian
connections along the Tukad Dawa stream course will be improved.

[12] Create a public plaza on M.F.R. at the intersection of the the Monkey Forest and
the Tukad Dawa stream course

[13] Opportunities exist to open up vistas from M.F.R. plaza to the large expanse of
rice paddies



67 -4

It i'

I' __

'I"~ '
~*Ev~ .

concept diagram 3

72 144(e bava4 s ton, Gtosc fduttv

73 I

master plan in context

master plan

master plan details

water culture

river walk

banyan tree

rice culture

typical path character

1 74

1 Ju144 ba'va' S&dvw CouA&Se fdWuvikA

As synthesized the clear opportunity for
the village of Ubud exists in highlighting
and improving the Tukad Dawa stream
course corridor. The most significant
impact can be made in the dense
northern sector of the site. In the north,
the Ubud Market is heavily visited
and used by both visitors and locals.
The densities in this areas allows for
optimum visual exposure to the cultural
and environmental awareness of the
Tukad Dawa stream course.

master plan density study

SO(Ldwkt ~

master plan in context

76 T144 btva, SRt"tM CoMuA&e MauCW, v

The goal of the final master plan is to enhace
pedestrian connectivity, educate users on culture,
improve the ecology along the stream course, and
create environmental awareness. The master plan
for the Tukad Dawa stream course takes advantage
of the diverse character transect of the corridor.
Significant nodes are highlighted where the stream
course bisects a street. Each of these nodes has been
developed into a plaza which provides pedestrian
use from the street realm. The nodes also serve as
an entrance into the pedestrian circulation system.
The circulation system exposes users to a variety
characters along the transect including the Balinese
rice culture, the Ubud market, and varying densities
of residential.

SowidoK' 77

I .

I, Is


1 7

744.Cv DcMC S4M"wv CoMwUe td1WlvWt"

The final master plan creates a linear pedestrian
corridor along the Tukad Dawa stream course. The
linear connection intersects several nodes. The first
node is at the intersection of Tukad Dawa and Jalan
Raya, where the new Water Museum will draw users
in and educate them on the importance of water
to the Balinese culture. From the Water Museum a
path continues south which introduces users into
the "back yard" of Bali. The path is lined with lush
plantings and is surrounded by traditional Balinese
Architecture. The path connects to the River Walk
where restaurants have outdoor seating oriented
towards the stream course. Across the street
from the River Walk is the sacred Banyan Tree. A
pedestrian path connection continues south to the
Monkey Forest along the Tuakd Dawa corridor and
a to the west a path connects to M.FR. though local
rice padi terraces.

Soto60 79 1

4SIrbba ce a


Market & Water Museum / "' "'

Path Character .,
--- ^ O^ ^F--,

Banyan Tree ..

'" "'Rice Culture '. ,L,- "
Rice Culture \ "O : 0 W '

master plan with detailed areas


Located at the northern portion of Ubud the
Water Museum and Plaza would draw users
from the market area. The stream course is to
be day lighted here and is now visable from
Jalan Raya. The Water Museum will be a
source to educate visitors on the cultural and
environmental aspects the role of water plays
on the Balinese landscape. A paving pattern in
the road will give a visual understanding that
the water is passing under the street. The river
enhancement will increase the water load. A
boardwalk gives users close access to the stream
course. The boardwalk continues south along
the stream course to Jalan Dewi Sita.

- - Pie-existing Hyclology is Uncleiground

5' 20'

10' ft

,Uab S, Co6tive tucvW

-nI "~;


I'~~Ll 81


I Seatwall

i, t I Tukad Dawa River

Rice Display

Water Museum


S- Boardwalk
.,, .-'- ,



,,s I.

The River Walk is situated on the Tukad Dawa
stream course just north ofJalan Dewi Sita. Users
have the opportunity to enter the space from Jalan
Dewi Sita on the south or from a path connecting
from the north. With placing a path on each side
of the stream course the space comes to life with
people. Some of the adjacent local restaurants
now have the opportunity to take advantage of
the scenic space and open up outdoorseating. The
placement of a bridge presents the opportunity
for users to make a short loop through the space
or to continue through as a pedestrian connection
to the Market and Water Museum.

5' 20'

10' ft

- - Pre-existing Hydrology

144 baSvavi COu"de Gtostfvd

ZAt*% a

Path to Market

Pedestrian Bridge



Water Feature

Restaurant I Outdoor Seating

Tukad Dawa River



Restaurant I Outdoor Seating


,I ~-~
/ fr

5' 20'
10' ft

L^. *'

144 bavl S6, in COi e GR tfviKte


I. y,

"~~' ':
li~o a ,Iw

The Banyan Plaza is a small plaza situtated on the
south side of Jalan Dewi Sita at the intersection
of the Tukas Dawa stream course. This plaza is
oriented around the sacred Banyan Tree which
signifies eternal life for the Balinese culture. The
fabric wrapped aroung the base of the tree
signifies the good and evil spirits. As on Jalan
Raya, a paving pattern in the road displays the
crossing of the stream course to create visual
awareness of Tukad Dawa. South from the plaza
exists a network of paths which connect south to
the Monkey Forest and west through rice padis to

- - Pre-existing Hydrology

5' 20'

10' ft




So6t K 5 I5

-" l.' ---- t ---l
Widenend Sidewalk ". "" i

Tukad Dawa River -


Small Public Plaza C

Sacred Banyan Tree

Hindu Shrine

25' 20'
Pedestrian Bridge

Path to Rice Padi 5

Path to Monkey Forest 1' ft
/ f

plaza character

plaza character

path character


Lii I

~I i


The path which connects M.FR. to the Tukad
Dawa stream course corridor presents a unique
experience passing through local rice padis. In
the densely developed village of Ubud very few
opportunities exist for visitors to enter into and
experience the Balinese rice culture. The path
system offers an alternate pedestrian route from
the Monkey Forest to the Ubud Market. Users
will walk on a path which runs between the padi
terraces and a boardwalk which runs through the
padi. Users will see the local children playing kite,
the flocks of ducks who live in the padi, the various
offerings to the rice goddess, Dew/Sri, and witness
different stages of the rice.

5' 20'

10' ft

,USab wvi Cou&L&e tAvW






Sou o 7 I
i' .

Performance Building

Path to Monkey
Forest Rd.

Football Field
Library ricepadipath character

Rice Padi ..l ,

-~7 i

Path through Padi .

Boardwalk I

Path to Jalan Dewi Sita

Tukad Dawa River -

Path to Monkey Forest .-

10' 40'
20' ft

I gg Sw o we tn1trvWl



The path which connects the Water Museum to
the River Walk is meant to give users a unique
look at the lush landscape and details traditional
Balinese architecture. The path and hardscape
will have the traditional detailed quality and use
local materials and craftsman. Coconut palms
and fragrant plumeria line the paths and frame
views of rice terraces in the distance.


5' 20'

10' ft

- - Pre-existing Hydrology

1.1 ,


Sr,(,C&K S9


pathway character

Tukad Dawa River

Path to Jalan Dewi Sita

Riparian Vegetation

Exisiting Structures

5' 20'
10' ft

IfPa balv, S6 , i, I, Cou"&e "ti1t"

91 1


92 7TL4 bav S~wvoi COMU &/e dM4wM t

Working on an international project presents many
challenges but provided fora very rewarding experience.
It was very important to fully research and fully
understand a foreign site and culture.

The linear quality of this project also presented many
challenges. The form of the project was guided by the
existing transect along the Tukad Dawa stream course.
Working in a densely developed area little opportunities
exist to change, much of the design was focused on how
to treat the conditions in the existing transect character.

If this project is implemented its ideal success would
include improved hydrological conditions along the
stream course. Secondary successes include a flourishing
pedestrian realm which separates pedestrians from the
street realm. The other success would be the intangible
idea of creating awareness and in turn aiding in the
protection from the development pressures which exist




7912itA PAk aCe&

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I --- ----- -,- --- --,-l
i _ _ _ _ _






94 TL e 74avLkt

A.L. 4

95 I



S96 TMJ a Stti CoMuae tWvikLtv


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Shimano, Y (1992).Characteristics of hydro-geomorphology in the volcanic island of
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Wijaya, Made. Architecture of Bali. University of Hawaii Press: Honolulu, 2002.

So"iuuf 97|

lake batur


Bali and Indonesia on the Net

Bali News
h ttp://

Neka Art Museum

United Nations Development Programme: Indonesia

TED Case Studies

Wikipedia (Images: "Walter Spies' "Salak Pondoh' "Bangun Kerto'" "Pura Dalem';
"Monkey Forest Road, "Jalan Hanoman")

I Tx 4 Si Couwiatei 6"Wvwd


presentation slides

17100 f '( D S Ccu744iN~a&tU

Tukad Dawa
Stream Course

IlyL' ~4p c_-,~ ~ AIIOSIKVNTOPO