Citation
Ponderous shifts of Professor W_______

Material Information

Title:
Ponderous shifts of Professor W_______
Creator:
Kingsley, Samuel W. ( Dissertant )
Kline, Wesley ( Thesis advisor )
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publisher:
College of Fine Arts, University of Florida
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
2010
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Binocular vision ( jstor )
Cameras ( jstor )
Eyeglasses ( jstor )
Images ( jstor )
Inkjet prints ( jstor )
Light bulbs ( jstor )
Photographs ( jstor )
Photography ( jstor )
Three dimensional imaging ( jstor )
Viewers ( jstor )

Notes

Abstract:
It has been said that one looks at a painting but looks into a photograph. The clarity of the photograph and its association with truthful representation has allowed the viewer to comfortably and effortlessly perceive the photographic image as a space with three-dimensional (3D) qualities. My project was about perceived realities and the light photons required to confirm those realities. The viewer transforms the 2D image surface into the original 3D qualities of the photographed space as if looking through a window. The focus of my work was the active use of imagination to juxtapose dimensional spaces while viewing a photograph. In my photographs and installation I explored the phenomena of merging dimensional views by using anaglyphic prints (also known as 3D images) and a model room lit with blue and red lights installed behind a gallery wall. Images depicting light experiments were flattened by separating the red and cyan color layers, creating an image that appears to have depth, but prevents the viewer’s gaze from looking into the photograph. Using 3D glasses, the viewer’s gaze is able to enter into the photographic space as if truly looking through a window. Much like viewing the photographs, to experience the installation, the viewer’s head must physically pass through an opening in the flat wall to perceive the model room mimicking the anaglyphic prints. By giving the viewer the ability to physically switch between 2D and 3D views, I hope to reveal the inherent process involved when looking at a photograph and for viewers to understand their experience of an alternate reality.
Acquisition:
Creative Photography terminal project

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
912426045 ( OCLC )

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THE PONDEROUS SHIFTS OF PROFESSOR W


By

SAMUEL D. KINGSLEY

















A PROJECT IN LIEU OF THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF FINE ARTS

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2010
































Copyright 2010 Samuel D. Kingsley















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

First and foremost, I would like to thank my wonderful wife, Lindsay, for all her

help and support through these past three years. I would also like to thank my parents

for their moral as well as financial support.












TABLE OF CONTENTS


page


ACKNOW LEDGMENTS ................................. .......... 3

LIST O F FIG U RE S ...................................... .............5..

A B S T R A C T ............. ................... ........................... . ............ 6

1. IN TR O D U C TIO N ................................... ........... 8

2 P A S T W O R K ..................................................................... 10

3 T H E W O R K ............................................................. ........... 13

4 IN FLU EN CE S ........................................................ .. ........... 18

5. C O N C L U SIO N ............... .............. .. ......... ........... .... 21

LIST O F REFEREN CE S .............. ......... ...... ................. ........... 22

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .............. ......... ... ............... ..............23

F IG U R E S ............... ......... ...... ................ .......... ........... 2 4














LIST OF FIGURES

Figure page

2-1 Sean and Stephanie................... .... ....................................... 24

2-2 H indsight B attles the Future......................................................... ....24

2-3 Sacrificing Their Souls for the Music........... ........................ ............25

2 -4 A G ath erin g ...... .. ......... .......... ..................... ................. ..... .... 2 5

2-5 A G gathering ............ .. ...................... ............. 25

3-1 The Ponderous Shifts of Prof. W ................................. ......... 26

3-2 Hand Held Aether Ray Emitter .................. .................................... 26

3-3 Das Veltgebaud................. .................................. ............ 27

3-4 D ada Siegt........................................................................ ... 27

3-5 Luminiferous Aether Experiment Three........................ ............... 27

3-6 Wave Particle Duality .......................................... ............ 28

3-7 The Generator................... .................. .................. ......... 28

3-8 Decapitated Viewer........... .............................. ............... 29

3-9 Reaching View er................................................................... 29









Summary of Project in Lieu of Thesis
Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida
in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Fine Arts

THE PONDEROUS SHIFTS OF PROF. W

By

Samuel D. Kingsley

May 2010

Chair: Wesley Kline
Major: Art

It has been said that one looks at a painting but looks into a photograph. The

clarity of the photograph and its association with truthful representation has allowed the

viewer to comfortably and effortlessly perceive the photographic image as a space with

three-dimensional (3D) qualities. My project was about perceived realities and the light

photons required to confirm those realities. The viewer transforms the 2D image surface

into the original 3D qualities of the photographed space as if looking through a window.

The focus of my work was the active use of imagination to juxtapose dimensional spaces

while viewing a photograph.

In my photographs and installation I explored the phenomena of merging

dimensional views by using anaglyphic prints (also known as 3D images) and a model

room lit with blue and red lights installed behind a gallery wall. Images depicting light

experiments were flattened by separating the red and cyan color layers, creating an

image that appears to have depth, but prevents the viewer's gaze from looking into the

photograph. Using 3D glasses, the viewer's gaze is able to enter into the photographic

space as if truly looking through a window. Much like viewing the photographs, to

experience the installation, the viewer's head must physically pass through an opening

in the flat wall to perceive the model room mimicking the anaglyphic prints. By giving the

viewer the ability to physically switch between 2D and 3D views, I hope to reveal the









inherent process involved when looking at a photograph and for viewers to understand

their experience of an alternate reality.









CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

When viewers approach a photograph, they perceive a flat, framed piece of paper

depicting an image encased in glass hanging on the wall; the frame and the glass

produce the illusion of a window pane. As viewers come close enough to see the

framed image, the frame is forgotten and they look past the glass and past the surface

of the photograph and look into the printed image. Classical lines of perspective that

lead to a vanishing point confirm the representation of space and time within the

image.1 The same visual tactics are used in painting and drawing to give images a

sense of depth, a sense of reality; but only the photograph can provide reality. The

photograph is a certificate of existence,2 and it is through this identity as a document

of truth that the viewer generates what I am calling the dimensional shift--wherein the

true effect of the photograph causes the viewer to perceive two dimensional space as

three dimensional and the depictions in the photograph as "real."

In The Ponderous Shifts ofProf W I explored the photograph's ability

to exist as a flat surface portraying three-dimensional properties and the requirement

of the viewer's imagination to produce this dimensional shift. Through the use of

anaglyphic photographs depicting the experimentation of light, a diorama behind the

gallery wall lit with blue and red light bulbs, and 3-D glasses, I sought to reveal the

viewer's inadvertent confusion of dimensions.

According to Vilem Flusser, author of Towards a Philosophy ofPhotography, "...

the specific ability to abstract surfaces out of space and time and project them back


SRosalind Krauss, The Optical Unconscious (Cambridge: October Books, 1994) p. 213
2 Roland Barthes, Camera Lucida (Farrar, Straus and Giroux, Inc., 1981) p.87









into space and time is known as 'imagination.'" With this in mind, it is

understandable for viewers to be unaware of this complex task of using their

imagination to force their way into the image and produce a synthetic reality.

Through decades of classical conditioning (thanks to advertisements, cinema,

photojournalism or even television), the viewer has come to automatically view the

photographic image as another form of reality. If one were to ask viewers what they

saw when looking at a photograph, they would likely describe the scene or object

depicted in the photograph.3 This use of imagination that transforms implied space

into real space fascinates me. This is what I call dimensional shift: the viewer's

ability to shift a two-dimensional object into a three-dimensional one. Additionally, it

is the creation or the reveal of a hidden reality that is the raison d'etre of my work.



























3 Vilem Flusser, Towards a Philosophy oJ Plhotgrcaphd (London: Reaktion Books Ltd., 2000) p. 41









CHAPTER TWO

PREVIOUS WORK

Under the umbrella of hidden reality I specifically explored aspects of

photography: time, the personal experience, and perception. In the series of

photographs titled Chrononauts (2008) [2-1], I sought to reveal an overlooked form

of "time travel." Through one long exposure, I recorded the entire sleep cycle of

friends and family. While they only experienced falling asleep at one hour and

waking up at another, the camera recorded the entire time that had passed. In

Hindsight Battles the Future (2008) [2-2], I experimented with time as an object. I

created time sculptures by throwing objects into the air while leaving the shutter open

and exposing them with a strobe light. What resulted were objects that were

interacting with themselves and working with the other objects to make a time

sculpture. I also explored the concept of the moment by recording entire acts, like

writing on a wall or inflating a sumo suit, with one long exposure. The images

created resembled my older memories: the broad information was there (where), but

the details were blurry (who and when). By leaving the shutter open, I intended to

alter the visual representation of reality and show how I would appear to an observer

existing in another time line.

A common strategy of mine was to try to force the viewer to see from my point of

perception of the world. The photograph alone was not adequate to convey this

message. The disjunction in translation was due to my inability to switch from a

spatial solution to a visual one. To remedy this, I made installations in the language

of photography. Instead of photographing a constructed scene and expecting viewers









to enter the scene with their imagination, I presented the constructed scene for them

to physically experience. I used, and still use, sensorial experience as a way to

connect the viewer to the work. I have found that when a viewer is required to

interact with a work, through touch or even a change of body position, the physical

exchange between the viewer and the work creates a familiarity and helps the viewer

respond to the work.

The first "photospace" was Sacrificing Their Souls for the Music (2009) [2-3]; a

large dark room lit by three wall-sized projections depicting slowed-down close-up

videos of lit light bulbs crashing into the ground then bursting into flame. The audio

was slowed down to the point where the bouncing glass sounded like the deep tones

of mourning bells. In the middle of the room, light bulbs were hung precariously

with twine; and below were the broken and scattered remains of the bulbs used in the

projected videos.

Inspiration for Sacrificing Their Souls for the Music (2009) came from a specific

scene in the novel Jonathan Strange andMr. Norell.4 This book tells the story of two

magicians and is written as an alternate historical account of the Napoleonic Era. The

author describes the hallucinations experienced by Jonathan Strange after casting a

spell: specifically, a scene where Jonathan Strange perceives human beings walking

around with hollow porcelain heads, lit internally by candles. Jonathan Strange

wonders what might happen if one were to extinguish the candles, which in turn

causes him to suffer from an intense paranoia of someone blowing out his own

candle. For me, the candle represented the soul and I wanted to depict the person who

would blow out the candles (or, in keeping with our modern sensibilities, light bulbs).

4 Susanna Clarke, Jonathon Strange andMr. Norell. Macmillan, 2006









Using spectacle and illusion inspired by the phantasmagoria,5 the dulcet tones acted

as a lure drawing the viewer in, and once inside, the crunch of broken glass underfoot,

the violent explosions, and the bulbs dangling helplessly in the middle were intended

to make viewers briefly forget they were in a gallery space.

The abrasive setting of Sacrificing Their Souls for the Music (2009) kept the

viewer from spending time with the installation. A Gathering (2009) [2-4], invited

the viewer to relax and lie down on blankets and gaze at the stars. This installation

comprised blankets spread out underneath a screen suspended high into the air. At

the center of the blankets was a digital projector, projecting what appears to be a clear

night sky. When viewed through (provided) binoculars, the viewer sees that the

projection is not the sky at all, but white specks of dust and hair. The projected

images are four blank 4x5 negatives that were left out for a week around my house

and then digitally scanned. My wife and I produced the collections of dust and

particles as we went about our daily routines at home. The projection was meant to

create a direct comparison between dust and the universe, giving the viewer a

different vantage point of the cosmos. When viewed with binoculars, the dust

becomes larger than the stars, and the viewer's experience becomes purely visual.

The binoculars concentrate the viewer's vision, separating the spectacle from its

surroundings and the viewers' sight from their bodies; allowing viewers the ability to

choose how to experience the installation.







5 "The systematic concealing and mystification of the processes of production." Jonathon Cray, suspensions
ofPerception: Attention, Spectacle and Modern Culture. The MIT Press, 1999.









CHAPTER THREE

THE WORK

The Ponderous Shifts of Prof W [3-11, consists of eight 20x24 inch

anaglyphic prints, which can be viewed with or without 3-D glasses, a 4x8 foot wall

installed in the corner of the gallery housed a diorama that was only visible through a

hole cut in the wall. The diorama was 30x10x10 inches and made of wood, one-inch

tiles, pegboard, Plexiglas, black cloth, and red and blue light bulbs. The photographs

were taken with a Holga Stereo camera using medium format film that was digitally

scanned and printed onto inkjet paper. The Stereo camera consists of two lenses, one

for each eye. Merging the two images and turning the left-eye image red and the

right-eye image cyan created the anaglyphic image. When wearing the 3-D glasses,

the right eye only sees cyan and the left eye only sees red, causing images to appear

to advance and recede.6

The photographs depict Prof W experimenting with light in an attempt to

discover luminiferous aether, a substance known to transform the properties of light

[3-2]. These properties include wave/particle duality, after images, luminiferous

aether, refraction, and light pressure. I chose light as the subject of the experiments

not only because of its major importance in photography and its ability to produce

optical illusions, but also for its dual existence in both wave and particle forms.8 The

ability to measure light in two different forms requires the use of specialized optical


6 Arthur W. Judge Sterescopic Photography (Read Books, 2007) p. 213
7 Like the 410 MHz 420 MHz frequency range used for mind control, Prof. W seeks to discover
the specific wavelength/particle ratio required to emit a luminiferous aether beam. This beam would be
used for space travel and refined for military purposes.
8 "By the wave/particle duality of quantum mechanics, light can be regarded as both a wave and a particle."
Light does exist as waves, but waves are not affected by gravity, so it must also exist as particles as well.
Stephen Hawking A Brief History of Time (I ic~. York: Bantam Books, 1996) p.83









instruments. With those optical instruments in mind, I used 3-D glasses and The

Generator as my own optical instruments to reveal the dimensional shift that occurs

when viewing a photograph. As stated earlier, the dimensional shift is the viewer's

ability to shift a two-dimensional photograph into a three-dimensional object. I

regard this act as primarily involuntary as a result of the passive viewer.9 Without

using 3-D glasses, the viewer is prevented from passively shifting the dimensions.

This visual barrier is created by the red/cyan separation inherent in anaglyphic

images, which flattens the picture, preventing the viewer from accessing the

photographic qualities needed to perceive dimensional space. Without the 3-D

glasses, the color separation adds a graphic quality to the images like in Laszlo

Moholy-Nagy's photomontage, Das Veltgebaud [3-3], and makes the objects appear

separated from the background as can be seen in Raoul Hausmann's Dada Siegt [3-4].

In his article, Definition ofPhotomontage, Hausmann states that the visual power of

the photomontage comes from "[its] contrast of structure and dimension, rough

against smooth, aerial photograph against close-up, perspective against flat surface

..."1 By separating the figures and objects from their backgrounds, Hausmann and

Moholy-Nagy were able reduce the photograph to its original two-dimensional form.

The false space between the flattened objects gave the photomontage a sense of the

diorama; two-dimensional objects arranged in a three-dimensional space.

When the viewer dons the 3-D glasses, the photograph shifts from the flat,

impenetrable image depicting light experiments into a phantasmagoric appearance of



9The passive viewer is someone who sees an image, but does not focus their full attention on what they are
observing; they have no intentionality in how they perceive the photograph. This lack of intentionality
causes the dimensional shift.
10 Hans Richter Dada: Art andAnti-art (H.N. Abrams, 1970) p. 116









three-dimensional objects existing in space. But the illusion is not perfect. "The

relation of the observer to the object is not one of identity but an experience of

disjunct or divergent images.""1 The viewer cannot passively gaze at the 3-D image,

but must actively search the image and view specific objects or areas for the full 3-D

effect. This is because the anaglyph is a fixed stereo-image.12 Unlike the eyes'

ability to focus on near and far objects, the anaglyphic image has a fixed point of

focus, making specific objects and the space they are located in appear three-

dimensional, but causing the other objects to hover as if unattached to the image.

This artifact of the anaglyphic image requires viewers to actively enter the depths of

the image through their imagination.13

The viewers bring this illusory experience with them when they approach The

Generator [3-7]. As with the photographs, the viewer must go beyond the flat surface

to view the installation. Once the viewers place their head through the wall they

immediately hear a low rumble. They look down, as if through the waist viewfinder

of a medium format camera, and see a diorama of the experiment room in the

photographs. The diorama is behind a framed sheet of Plexiglas and lit with blue and

red light bulbs, further linking the diorama to the photographs. The vibrant magenta

created by the shift of the blue and red light bulbs gives a sense of false reality. The

low rumble enhances this effect by giving life to the diorama, as if the diorama were a

dimensional machine. Remembering the illusionary effect of the anaglyphic images,

viewers cannot trust their sight and must rely on touch to verify what is being viewed.


" Jonathan Crary Techniques of the Observer (Cambridge: October Books, 1990) p. 121
12 Two almost identical photographs, one for the right eye the other for the left eye, that have been merged
to recreate the original dimensional properties of the photographed scene.
13 Rosalind Krauss The Originality of the Avant-Garde and Other Myths (Cambridge: The MIT Press,
1985) p. 138










Several people were seen doing this [3-9], and the numerous fingerprints on the

Plexiglas confirm that they were not alone in their uncertainty, for "...the sense of

touch had been an integral part of classical theories of vision in the seventeenth and

eighteenth centuries."14

The Generator is meant to reproduce the disorienting effects associated with the

stereoviewer. It also mimics the camera obscura and monocular vision associated

with the camera. The use of apparatuses to view images in their true dimensional

form occurred shortly after the invention of photography in the 19th century.15 The

stereoscope, a binocular device, was used to look at stereoscopic images, which were

cards that showed separate exposures for the left and right eye. To view the

stereoscopic image, viewers had to hold the device directly in front of their eyes,

essentially severing their sight from their body [3-8.16 I designed The Generator to

recreate the severing effect of the stereoscope. The physical constraints imposed onto

the viewer while using The Generator gave the physical appearance of the head

severed from the body. By restraining viewers to a fixed viewpoint and a fixed

distance from the diorama, viewers are not able to verify what they are looking at,

creating a doubt in their minds as to the authenticity of the experience.17

The precursor to the stereoscope was the diorama, a monocular device "based on

the incorporation of an immobile observer into a mechanical apparatus and a


14 Crary Techniques... p. 19
15 Izabel Galliera StereoVision: The Skin and The Form (Tampa: USF Contemporary Art Museum, 2007) p.
3
16 Crary Techniques... p. 129
1 "Since the spectacle's job is to cause a world that is no longer directly perceptible to be seen via different
specialized mediations, it is inevitable that it should elevate the human sense of sight to the special place
once occupied by touch; the most abstract of the senses, and the most easily deceived, sight is naturally the
most readily adaptable to present-day society's generalized abstraction." Guy Debord The Society of the
Spectacle (Detroit: Black and Red, 1970) Sec. 18









subjection to a redesigned temporal unfolding of optical experience."18 Unlike the

stereoscopic image, the diorama relied on the traditional forms of trompe l'oeil: the

exaggeration of scale, linear perspective, and dramatic lighting.


"8Crary Techniques... p. 112-113









CHAPTER FOUR

INFLUENCES

It was during late nights in my studio that I came up with the character of Prof.

W I was trying to find a way to connect all these ideas of dimensional shift,

perception and light into one cohesive work. While working, I often listened to radio

sci-fi dramas like XMinus One (1955-1958) and The Fourth Tower ofInverness

(1972). These programs provided me with the perfect inspiration to create the

character of Prof W a mad man of science researching how he could turn

innocuous light into something both useful and deadly. As a man of science, Prof.

W studied chemistry, physics, and the old sciences of alchemy and

thaumaturgy. By using modern technology and quantum mechanics, Prof W

sought out ancient myths of powerful technologies, created machines that could defy

nature and time, and experimented with the theories of time travel and parallel

dimensions.

The genre of science fiction opened the world to a multitude of possibilities

concerning technology, natural phenomena, society, and metaphysics. Through the

context of science fiction, I want to remind viewers to pay attention to their

surroundings as they go through life. By looking through the 3-D glasses at The

Generator, and by filling Prof. W 's workspace with mundane objects, I wanted

to emphasize the viewer's use of vision and the possibility that their next-door

neighbor could be a mad scientist.









My work further recalls classic science fiction through the use of 3-D. The use of

anaglyph and the 3-D glasses recall 1950s sci-fi classics such as Robot Monster

(1953), It Came From Outer Space (1953), and Revenge of the Creature (1955).19

Interestingly, there appears to be a three-dimensional renaissance in the film

industry. Seventeen feature films will be released in 2010 that use 3-D. The highest

grossing film of 2009, Avatar, was featured in 3-D.20 Additionally, Hyundai released

the first three-dimensional television in 2008 (in Japan); and Samsung released their

version in the U.S. on April 1, 2010. Popular cable channels such as The Discovery

Channel and ESPN are planning to offer 3-D versions of their channels.21 The

commercial usage of 3-D is meant to be experienced as an enhancement to the

absorptive effect of the cinema. The darkened room, comfortable chair, surround

sound, and large projection screen were meant to keep the passive viewer stationary

and visually immersed in the film projected on the screen. The addition of 3-D

technology furthers the viewer's experience of absorption. I, on the other hand, am

using 3-D imagery as a tool to enhance viewers' awareness of what they are looking

at; turning them into active viewers. While wearing the 3-D glasses, it is hard for the

viewer to move around because of the disorienting effect of the 3-D image moving

with you. This requires the viewer to actively remove the glasses to maneuver around

and to put them back on when viewing the next image. The specific focal point in the



19 "List of 3-D Films" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List of 3-D films. Date accessed April 4, 2010

20 i :.. Office Mojo" http://boxofficemojo.com/yearly/chart/?yr=2009&p=.htm. Date accessed April 3,
2010.
21 "Discovery, ESPN to Launch 3D TV Channels" Computer World, Mobile and Wireless.
http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9143116/Discovery ESPN to launch 3D TV channels
Date accessed April 6, 2010.









anaglyph also requires the viewer to selectively look at different objects within the

image to see the full 3-D effect.









CHAPTER FIVE

CONCLUSION

The use of a visual apparatus to create two separate experiences of the same

image or installation became a central strategy for my work. This dual experience

made me think about the photograph's existence as an object and as a direct

representation of real-world objects, which led me to the viewer's perception of the

photograph and strategies for revealing its existential obfuscation. I researched past

technologies from the 18th and 19th centuries that were used to create new sensorial

experiences, which ranged from the simple camera obscura and the lighting effects

used in the phantasmagoria to the more complex stereoscope and its derivative

binocular devices. Through a combination of traditional illusory devices and viewing

apparatuses, I sought to encourage the viewer to actively participate with my work

and I wanted to expose viewers to their ability to perceive the photograph as a

representation of reality and an object. Through my work, I hoped to make viewers

more aware of how they view the photograph, turning the viewer from a passive

observer of photography to an active participant. Through their ability to become an

active participants, I wanted viewers to be aware that what they observe in a

photograph isn't always what it is truly represented.









LIST OF REFERENCES

[1] Barthes, Roland. Camera Lucida. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, Inc., 1981. p. 87

[2] Box Office Mojo (4/3/2010). 2009 Domestic Grosses. Retrieved from:
http://boxofficemojo.com/yearly/chart/?yr=2009&p=.htm.

[3] Clarke, Susanna Jonathon Strange andMr. Norell. Macmillan, 2006. p. 594

[4] Crary, Jonathan Techniques of the Observer. Cambridge: October Books, 1990. p.
121

[5] Debord, Guy The Society of the Spectacle. Detroit: Black and Red, 1970. Sec. 18

[6] Flusser, Vilem Towards a Philosophy ofPhotography. London: Reaktion Books Ltd.,
2000. p. 41

[7] Galliera, Izabel StereoVision: The .\ki and The Form. Tampa: USF Contemporary
Art Museum, 2007. p. 3

[8] Hawking, Stephen. A Brief History of Time. New York, Bantam Books, 1996. p.83

[9] Judge, Arthur W. Sterescopic Photography. Read Books, 2007. p. 213

[10] Krauss, Rosalind. The Optical Unconscious. Cambridge: October Books, 1994. p.
213

[11] Krauss, Rosalind The Origin of the Avant-Garde and Other Myths. Cambridge: The
MIT Press, 1985. p. 138

[12] Niccolai, James (1/5/2010). Discovery, ESPN to Launch 3D TV Channels
Computerworld, Retrieved from:
http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9143116/Discovery ESPN to launch 3D TV
channels

[13] Richter, Hans Dada: Art andAnti-art H.N. Abrams, 1970. p. 116

[14] List of 3-D Films. Retrieved from Wikipedia:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List of 3-D films.









BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH


Samuel D. Kingsley was born and raised in Columbus, Ohio. He attended

Bowling Green State University where he received his Bachelor of Fine Arts degree

in 2006. Samuel graduated from the University of Florida in 2010 with a Master of

Fine Arts degree in creative photography.










FIGURES


Figure 2-1
Sean and Stephanie 29" x 29"
Inkjet Print 2008


Figure 2-2
Hindsight Battles the Future
29" x 29"
Inkjet Print 2008






























Figure 2-3
.Su ritcl intg Their Souls for the Music, installation view
Installation
Projection, whole light bulbs, crushed light bulbs, twine, audio, 2009


Figure 2-5
A G,al..1. I ,I detail image
2009


Figure 2-4
A G,al,. 1n installation view
Installation
Projection, suspended screen, blankets,
binoculars, 2009































Figure 3-1
The Ponderous Shifts of Prof W Installation Views
2010


Figure 3-2
Hand Held Aether Ray Emitter, 20" x 24"
Anaglyphic Inkjet Print 2010*

*In this image the Professor has miniaturized
his Aether Ray Emitter and is calibrating it in
preparation for a series of intensity tests.




































Figure 3-3
Laszlo Moholy-Nagy
Das Veltgebaud
64.9 x 49.2 cm
Photomechanical reproduction with
applied markings
1927


Figure 3-4
Raoul Hausmann
Dada Siegt
25 5/8 x 17 3/4"
Photomontage and collage with
watercolor on paper
1920


Figure 3-5
Luminiferous Aether Experiment Three.
20" x 24" Anaglyphic Inkjet print 2010*

*Professor W is testing his
luminiferous aether beam. He seeks to
master the particle aspect of light in order
to find new weapon technologies or
possibly new modes ofspace travel. The
purpose of the ray emitter is to intensify
the particle aspect of light, turning it into a
solid substance.




































Figure 3-6
Wave Particle Duality 20" x 24"
Anaglyphic Inkjet print, 2010*

*In this image, the Professor is trying to
fine-tune the Particle : Wave ratio to find
the specific proportion necessary to activate
the lumniferous aether.


Figure 3-7
The Generator,
Installation View 30" x 10" x 10"
Drywall, wood, one-inch tiles, pegboard, Plexiglas, blue and red light bulbs, black cloth.
2010































Figure 3-9
Reaching Viewer


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Decapitated Viewer




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1 THE PONDEROUS SHIFTS OF PROFESSOR W_______ By SAMUEL D. KINGSLEY A PROJECT IN LIEU OF THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER O F FINE ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2010

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2 Copyright 2010 Samuel D. Kingsley

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3 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS First and foremost, I would like to thank my wonderful wife, Lindsay, for all her help and support through these pas t three years. I would also like to thank my parents for their moral as well as financial support.

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4 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTSÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ.3 LIST OF FIGURESÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ...5 ABSTRACTÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ.......6 1. INTRODUCTIONÉ...ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ..8 2 PAST WORKÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ...10 3 THE WORKÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ..13 4 INFLUENCESÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ..18 5. CONCLUSIONÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ................21 LIST OF REFERENCESÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ.22 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ...23 FIGURESÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ.24

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5 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1 Sean and StephanieÉÉÉÉÉÉ..ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ.ÉÉÉ.24 2 2 Hindsight Battles the FutureÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ..24 2 3 Sacrificing Their Souls for the MusicÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ... 25 2 4 A GatheringÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ...........25 2 5 A GatheringÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ...25 3 1 The Ponderous Shifts of Prof. W_____ ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ...26 3 2 Hand Held Aether Ray EmitterÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ.26 3 3 Das VeltgebaudÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ..27 3 4 Dada SiegtÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ..27 3 5 Lumin iferous Aether Experiment ThreeÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ27 3 6 Wave Particle DualityÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ28 3 7 The GeneratorÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ28 3 8 Decapitated ViewerÉÉÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ...29 3 9 Reaching ViewerÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ...29

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6 Summary of Project in Lieu of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for t he Degree of Master of Fine Arts THE PONDEROUS SHIFTS OF PROF. W_________. By Samuel D. Kingsley May 2010 Chair: Wesley Kline Major: Art It has been said that one looks at a painting but looks into a photograph. The clarity of the photograph and i ts association with truthful representation has allowed the viewer to comfortably and effortlessly perceive the photographic image as a space with three dimensional (3D) qualities. My project was about perceived realities and the li ght photons required to confirm those realities. The viewer transforms the 2D image surface into the original 3D qualities of the photographed space as if looking through a window. The focus of my work was the active use of imagination to juxtapos e dimensional spaces while view ing a photograph. In my photographs and installation I explore d the phenomena of merging dimensional views by using anaglyphic prints ( also known as 3D images ) and a model room lit with blue and red lights installed behind a gallery wall. I mages depic ting light experiments we re flattened by separati ng the red and cyan color layers , creating an image that appears to have depth, but prevents the viewer's gaze from looking into the photograph. Using 3D glasses, the viewer's gaze is able to enter into the photographic space as if truly looking through a window. Much like viewing the photographs, to experience the installation , the viewer 's head must physically pass through an opening in the flat wall to perceive the model room mimicking the anaglyphic pri nts. By giving the viewer the ability to physically switch between 2D and 3D views, I hope to reveal the

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7 inherent process involved when looking at a photograph and for viewer s to understand their experience of an alternate reality.

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8 C HAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION When viewers approach a photograph, they perceive a flat, framed piece of paper depicting an image encased in glass hanging on the wall; the frame and the glass produce the illusion of a window pane. As viewers come close enough to see the framed image, the frame is forgotten and they look past the glass and past the surface of the photograph and look into the printed image. Classical lines of perspective that lead to a vanishing point confirm the representation of space and time wi thin the image. 1 The same visual tactics are used in painting and drawing to give images a sense of depth, a sense of reality; but only the photograph can provide reality. The photograph is a certificate of existence, 2 and it is through this identity as a document of truth that the viewer generates what I am calling the dimensional shift -wherein the true effect of the photograph causes the viewer to perceive two dimensional space as three dimensional and the depictions in the photograph as "real." In The Ponderous Shifts of Prof. W_________ , I explored the photograph's ability to exist as a flat surface portraying three dimensional properties and the requirement of the viewer's imagination to produce this dimensional shift. Through the use of anaglyph ic photographs depicting the experimentation of light, a diorama behind the gallery wall lit with blue and red light bulbs, and 3 D glasses, I sought to reveal the viewer's inadvertent confusion of dimensions. According to Vilem Flusser, author of Toward s a Philosophy of Photography , "É the specific ability to abstract surfaces out of space and time and project them back 1 Rosalind Krauss, The Optical Uncons cious (Cambridge: October Books, 1994) p. 213 2 Roland Barthes, Camera Lucida (Farrar, Straus and Giroux, Inc., 1981) p.87

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9 into space and time is known as Ôimagination.'" With this in mind, it is understandable for viewers to be unaware of this complex task o f using their imagination to force their way into the image and produce a synthetic reality. Through decades of classical conditioning (thanks to advertisements, cinema, photojournalism or even television), the viewer has come to automatically view the pho tographic image as another form of reality. If one were to ask viewers what they saw when looking at a photograph, they would likely describe the scene or object depicted in the photograph. 3 This use of imagination that transforms implied space into real space fascinates me. This is what I call dimensional shift: the viewer's ability to shift a two dimensional object into a three dimensional one. Additionally, it is the creation or the reveal of a hidden reality that is the raison d'tre of my work. 3 Vilem Flusser, Towards a Philosophy of Photography (London: Reaktion Books Ltd., 2000) p. 41

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10 CHAPTER TWO PREVIOUS WORK Under the umbrella of hidden reality I specifically explored aspects of photography: time, the personal experience, and perception. In the series of photographs titled Chrononauts (2008) [2 1] , I sought to reveal an overlooked form of "time travel." Through one long exposure, I recorded the entire sleep cycle of friends and family. While they only experienced falling asleep at one hour and waking up at another, the camera recorded the entire t ime that had passed. In Hindsight Battles the Future (2008 ) [2 2] , I experimented with time as an object. I created time sculptures by throwing objects into the air while leaving the shutter open and exposing them with a strobe light. What resulted were objects that were interacting with themselves and working with the other objects to make a time sculpture. I also explored the concept of the moment by recording entire acts, like writing on a wall or inflating a sumo suit, with one long exposure. The images created resembled my older memories: the broad information was there (where), but the details were blurry (who and when). By leaving the shutter open, I intended to alter the visual representation of reality and show how I w ould appear to an observer existing in another time line. A common strategy of mine was to try to force the viewer to see from my point of perception of the world. The photograph alone was not adequate to convey this message. The disjunction in translat ion was due to my inability to switch from a spatial solution to a visual one. To remedy this, I made installations in the language of photography. Instead of photographing a constructed scene and expecting viewers

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11 to enter the scene with their imaginati on, I presented the constructed scene for them to physically experience. I used, and still use, sensorial experience as a way to connect the viewer to the work. I have found that when a viewer is required to interact with a work, through touch or even a change of body position, the physical exchange between the viewer and the work creates a familiarity and helps the viewer respond to the work. The first "photospace" was Sacrificing Their Souls for the Music (2009) [2 3] ; a la rge dark room lit by three wall sized projections depicting slowed down close up videos of lit light bulbs crashing into the ground then bursting into flame. The audio was slowed down to the point where the bouncing glass sounded like the deep tones of mo urning bells. In the middle of the room, light bulbs were hung precariously with twine; and below were the broken and scattered remains of the bulbs used in the projected videos. Inspiration for Sacrificing Their Souls for the Music (2009) came from a s pecific scene in the novel Jonathan Strange and Mr. Norell. 4 This book tells the story of two magicians and is written as an alternate historical account of the Napoleonic Era. The author describes the hallucinations experienced by Jonathan Strange after c asting a spell: specifically, a scene where Jonathan Strange perceives human beings walking around with hollow porcelain heads, lit internally by candles. Jonathan Strange wonders what might happen if one were to extinguish the candles, which in turn cause s him to suffer from an intense paranoia of someone blowing out his own candle. For me, the candle represented the soul and I wanted to depict the person who would blow out the candles (or, in keeping with our modern sensibilities, light bulbs). 4 Susanna Clarke, Jonathon Strange and Mr. Norell. Macmillan, 2006

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12 Using spec tacle and illusion inspired by the phantasmagoria, 5 the dulcet tones acted as a lure drawing the viewer in, and once inside, the crunch of broken glass underfoot, the violent explosions, and the bulbs dangling helplessly in the middle were intended to make viewers briefly forget they were in a gallery space. The abrasive setting of Sacrificing Their Souls for the Music (2009) kept the viewer from spending time with the installation. A Gathering (2009) [2 4] , invited the viewer to relax and lie down on blankets and gaze at the stars. This installation comprised blankets spread out underneath a screen suspended high into the air. At the center of the blankets was a digital projector, projecting what appears to be a clear night sky. When viewed through (provided) binoculars, the viewer sees that the projection is not the sky at all, but white specks of dust and hair. The projected images are four blank 4x5 negatives that were left out for a week around my house and then digital ly scanned. My wife and I produced the collections of dust and particles as we went about our daily routines at home. The projection was meant to create a direct comparison between dust and the universe, giving the viewer a different vantage point of the cosmos. When viewed with binoculars, the dust becomes larger than the stars, and the viewer's experience becomes purely visual. The binoculars concentrate the viewer's vision, separating the spectacle from its surroundings and the viewers' sight from the ir bodies; allowing viewers the ability to choose how to experience the installation. 5 "The systematic concealing and mystification of the processes of production." Jonathon Cray, suspensions of Perception: Attention, Spectacle and Modern Culture. The MIT Press, 1999.

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13 CHAPTER THREE THE WORK The Ponderous Shifts of Prof. W_______ [3 1] , consists of eight 20x24 inch anaglyphic prints, which can be viewed wi th or without 3 D glasses, a 4x8 foot wall installed in the corner of the gallery housed a diorama that was only visible through a hole cut in the wall. The diorama was 30x10x10 inches and made of wood, one inch tiles, pegboard, Plexiglas, black cloth, and red and blue light bulbs. The photographs were taken with a Holga Stereo camera using medium format film that was digitally scanned and printed onto inkjet paper. The Stereo camera consists of two lenses, one for each eye. Merging the two images and tur ning the left eye image red and the right eye image cyan created the anaglyphic image. When wearing the 3 D glasses, the right eye only sees cyan and the left eye only sees red, causing images to appear to advance and recede. 6 The photographs depict Prof. W_______ experimenting with light in an attempt to discover luminiferous aether, a substance known to transform the properties of light [3 2] . These properties include wave/particle duality, after images, luminiferous aether, r efraction, and light pressure. 7 I chose light as the subject of the experiments not only because of its major importance in photography and its ability to produce optical illusions, but also for its dual existence in both wave and particle forms. 8 The ab ility to measure light in two different forms requires the use of specialized optical 6 Arthur W. Judge Sterescopic Photography ( Read Books, 2007) p. 213 7 Like the 410 MHz Ð 420 MHz frequency range used for mind control, Prof. W________ seeks to discover the specific wavelength/particle ratio required to emit a luminiferous aether beam. This beam would be used for space travel and refined for military purposes. 8 "By the wave/particle duality of quantum mechanics, light can be regarded as both a wave and a particle." Light does exist as waves, but waves are not affected by gravity, so it must also exist as particles as well. Stephe n Hawking A Brief History of Time (New York: Bantam Books, 1996) p.83

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14 instruments. With those optical instruments in mind, I used 3 D glasses and The Generator as my own optical instruments to reveal the dimensional shift that occurs when viewing a photograph. As stated earlier, the dimensional shift is the viewer's ability to shift a two dimensional photograph into a three dimensional object. I regard this act as primarily involuntary as a result of the passive viewer. 9 Without using 3 D glasses, the viewer is prevented from passively shifting the dimensions. This visual barrier is created by the red/cyan separation inherent in anaglyphic images, which flattens the picture, preventing the viewer from accessing the photographic qualities needed to perceive dimensional space. Without the 3 D glasses, the color separation adds a graphic quality to the images like in Laszlo Moholy Nagy's photomontage, Das Veltgebaud [3 3] , and makes the objects appear separated fro m the background as can be seen in Raoul Hausmann's Dada Siegt [3 4] . In his article, Definition of Photomontage , Hausmann states that the visual power of the photomontage comes from "[its] contrast of structure and dimension, r ough against smooth, aerial photograph against close up, perspective against flat surface É" 10 By separating the figures and objects from their backgrounds, Hausmann and Moholy Nagy were able reduce the photograph to its original two dimensional form. The f alse space between the flattened objects gave the photomontage a sense of the diorama; two dimensional objects arranged in a three dimensional space. When the viewer dons the 3 D glasses, the photograph shifts from the flat, impenetrable image depicting light experiments into a phantasmagoric appearance of 9 The passive viewer is someone who sees an image, but does not focus their full attention on what they are observing; they have no intentionality in how they perceive the photograph. T his lack of intentionality causes the dimensional shift. 10 Hans Richter Dada: Art and Anti art (H.N. Abrams, 1970) p. 116

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15 three dimensional objects existing in space. But the illusion is not perfect. "The relation of the observer to the object is not one of identity but an experience of disjunct or divergent images." 11 The viewer cannot passively gaze at the 3 D image, but must actively search the image and view specific objects or areas for the full 3 D effect. This is because the anaglyph is a fixed stereo image. 12 Unlike the eyes' ability to focus on near and far ob jects, the anaglyphic image has a fixed point of focus, making specific objects and the space they are located in appear three dimensional, but causing the other objects to hover as if unattached to the image. This artifact of the anaglyphic image require s viewers to actively enter the depths of the image through their imagination. 13 The viewers bring this illusory experience with them when they approach The Generator [3 7] . As with the photographs, the viewer must go beyond the flat surface to view the installation. Once the viewers place their head through the wall they immediately hear a low rumble. They look down, as if through the waist viewfinder of a medium format camera, and see a diorama of the experiment room in the p hotographs. The diorama is behind a framed sheet of Plexiglas and lit with blue and red light bulbs, further linking the diorama to the photographs. The vibrant magenta created by the shift of the blue and red light bulbs gives a sense of false reality. The low rumble enhances this effect by giving life to the diorama, as if the diorama were a dimensional machine. Remembering the illusionary effect of the anaglyphic images, viewers cannot trust their sight and must rely on touch to verify what is being viewed. 11 Jonathan Crary Techniques of the Observer (Cambridge: October Books, 1990) p. 121 12 Two almost identical photographs, one for the ri ght eye the other for the left eye, that have been merged to recreate the original dimensional properties of the photographed scene. 13 Rosalind Krauss The Originality of the Avant Garde and Other Myths (Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1985) p. 138

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16 Several people were seen doing this [3 9] , and the numerous fingerprints on the Plexiglas confirm that they were not alone in their uncertainty, for "Éthe sense of touch had been an integral part of classical theories of vision in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries." 14 The Generator is meant to reproduce the disorienting effects associated with the stereoviewer. It also mimics the camera obscura and monocular vision associated with the camera. The use of apparatus es to view images in their true dimensional form occurred shortly after the invention of photography in the 19 th century. 15 The stereoscope, a binocular device, was used to look at stereoscopic images, which were cards that showed separate exposures for th e left and right eye. To view the stereoscopic image, viewers had to hold the device directly in front of their eyes, essentially severing their sight from their body [3 8] . 16 I designed The Generator to recreate the severing ef fect of the stereoscope. The physical constraints imposed onto the viewer while using The Generator gave the physical appearance of the head severed from the body. By restraining viewers to a fixed viewpoint and a fixed distance from the diorama, viewers are not able to verify what they are looking at, creating a doubt in their minds as to the authenticity of the experience. 17 The precursor to the stereoscope was the diorama, a monocular device "based on the incorporation of an immobile observer into a m echanical apparatus and a 14 Crary Techni quesÉ p. 19 15 Izabel Galliera StereoVision: The Skin and The Form (Tampa: USF Contemporary Art Museum, 2007) p. 3 16 Crary TechniquesÉ p. 129 17 "Since the spectacle's job is to cause a world that is no longer directly perceptible to be seen via different sp ecialized mediations, it is inevitable that it should elevate the human sense of sight to the special place once occupied by touch; the most abstract of the senses, and the most easily deceived, sight is naturally the most readily adaptable to present day society's generalized abstraction." Guy Debord The Society of the Spectacle (Detroit: Black and Red, 1970) Sec. 18

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17 subjection to a predesigned temporal unfolding of optical experience." 18 Unlike the stereoscopic image, the diorama relied on the traditional forms of trompe l'oeil: the exaggeration of scale, linear perspective, and dramatic ligh ting. 18 Crary TechniquesÉ p. 112 113

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18 CHAPTER FOUR INFLUENCES It was during late nights in my studio that I came up with the character of Prof. W____. I was trying to find a way to connect all these ideas of dimensional shift, perception and ligh t into one cohesive work. While working, I often listened to radio sci fi dramas like X Minus One (1955 1958) and The Fourth Tower of Inverness (1972). These programs provided me with the perfect inspiration to create the character of Prof. W_____, a mad man of science researching how he could turn innocuous light into something both useful and deadly. As a man of science, Prof. W______ studied chemistry, physics, and the old sciences of alchemy and thaumaturgy. By using modern technology and quantum mec hanics, Prof. W______ sought out ancient myths of powerful technologies, created machines that could defy nature and time, and experimented with the theories of time travel and parallel dimensions. The genre of science fiction opened the world to a multit ude of possibilities concerning technology, natural phenomena, society, and metaphysics. Through the context of science fiction, I want to remind viewers to pay attention to their surroundings as they go through life. By looking through the 3 D glasses a t The Generator , and by filling Prof. W_____'s workspace with mundane objects, I wanted to emphasize the viewer's use of vision and the possibility that their next door neighbor could be a mad scientist.

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19 My work further recalls classic science fiction thr ough the use of 3 D. The use of anaglyph and the 3 D glasses recall 1950s sci fi classics such as Robot Monster (1953 ), It Came From Outer Space (1953), and Revenge of the Creature (1955). 19 Interestingly, there appears to be a three dimensional renaiss ance in the film industry. Seventeen feature films will be released in 2010 that use 3 D. The highest grossing film of 2009, Avatar , was featured in 3 D. 20 Additionally, Hyundai released the first three dimensional television in 2008 (in Japan); and Samsung released their version in the U.S. on April 1, 2010. Popular cable channels such as The Discovery Channel and ESPN are planning to offer 3 D versions of their channels. 21 The commercial usage of 3 D is meant to be experienced as an enhancement to the abs orptive effect of the cinema. The darkened room, comfortable chair, surround sound, and large projection screen were meant to keep the passive viewer stationary and visually immersed in the film projected on the screen. The addition of 3 D technology fur thers the viewer's experience of absorption. I, on the other hand, am using 3 D imagery as a tool to enhance viewers' awareness of what they are looking at; turning them into active viewers. While wearing the 3 D glasses, it is hard for the viewer to mov e around because of the disorienting effect of the 3 D image moving with you. This requires the viewer to actively remove the glasses to maneuver around and to put them back on when viewing the next image. The specific focal point in the 19 "List of 3 D Films" http://en.wikipedia.org/wi ki/List_of_3 D_films . Date accessed April 4, 2010 20 "Box Office Mojo" http://boxofficemojo.com/yearly/chart/?yr=2009&p=.htm . Date accessed April 3, 2010. 21 "Discovery, ESPN to Launch 3D TV Channels" Computer World, Mobile and Wireless. http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9143116/Discovery_ESPN_to_launch_3D_TV_channels Date accesse d April 6, 2010.

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20 anaglyph also re quires the viewer to selectively look at different objects within the image to see the full 3 D effect.

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21 CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION The use of a visual apparatus to create two separate experiences of the same image or installation became a central strategy for my work. This dual experience made me think about the photograph's existence as an object and as a direct representation of real world objects, which led me to the viewer's perception of the photograph and strategies for revealing its existential obfuscation. I researched past technologies from the 18 th and 19 th centuries that were used to create new sensorial experiences, which ranged from the simple camera obscura and the lighting effects used in the phantasmagoria to the more co mplex stereoscope and its derivative binocular devices. Through a combination of traditional illusory devices and viewing apparatuses, I sought to encourage the viewer to actively participate with my work and I wanted to expose viewers to their ability to perceive the photograph as a representation of reality and an object. Through my work, I hoped to make viewers more aware of how they view the photograph, turning the viewer from a passive observer of photography to an active participant. Through their ab ility to become an active participants, I wanted viewers to be aware that what they observe in a photograph isn't always what it is truly represented.

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22 LIST OF REFERENCES [1] Barthes, Roland. Camera Lucida . Farrar, Straus and Giroux, Inc., 1981. p. 87 [2] Box Office Mojo (4/3/2010). 2009 Domestic Grosses . Retrieved from: http://boxofficemojo.com/yearly/chart/?yr=2009&p=.htm . [3] Clarke, Susanna Jonathon Strange and Mr. Norell. Macm illan, 2006. p. 594 [4] Crary, Jonathan Techniques of the Observer . Cambridge: October Books, 1990. p. 121 [5] Debord , Guy The Society of the Spectacle . Detroit: Black and Red, 1970. Sec. 18 [6] Flusser, Vilem Towards a Philosophy of Photography . Lon don: Reaktion Books Ltd., 2000. p. 41 [7] Galliera, Izabel StereoVision: The Skin and The Form . Tampa: USF Contemporary Art Museum, 2007. p. 3 [8] Hawking, Stephen. A Brief History of Time. New York, Bantam Books, 1996. p.83 [9] Judge, Arthur W. Stere scopic Photography. Read Books, 2007. p. 213 [10] Krauss, Rosalind. The Optical Unconscious . Cambridge: October Books, 1994. p. 213 [11] Krauss, Rosalind The Origin of the Avant Garde and Other Myths. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1985. p. 138 [12] Niccol ai, James (1/5/2010). Discovery, ESPN to Launch 3D TV Channels Computerworld , Retrieved from: http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9143116/Discovery_ESP N_to_launch_3D_TV_ channels [13] Richter, Hans Dada: Art and Anti art H.N. Abrams, 1970. p. 116 [14] List of 3 D Films. Retrieved from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_3 D_film s .

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23 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Samuel D. Kingsley was born and raised in Columbus, Ohio. He attended Bowling Green State University where he received his Bachelor of Fine Arts degree in 2006. Samuel graduated from the University of Florida in 2010 with a M aster of Fine Arts degree in creative photography.

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24 FIGURES Figure 2 1 Sean and Stephanie 29" x 29" Inkjet Print 2008 Figure 2 2 Hindsight Battles the Future 29" x 29" Inkjet Print 2008

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25 Figure 2 3 Sacrificing Their Souls for the Music , installation view Installation Projection, whole light bulbs, crushed light bulbs, twine, audio, 2009 Figure 2 4 A Gathering , installation view Installation Projection, suspended screen, blankets, bi noculars, 2009 Figure 2 5 A Gathering , detail image 2009

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26 Figure 3 1 The Ponderous Shifts of Prof. W________ , Installation Views 2010 Figure 3 2 Hand Held Aether Ray Emitter , 20" x 24" Anaglyphic Inkjet Print 2010* * In this image the Professor has miniaturized his Aether Ray Emitter and is ca librating it in preparation for a series of intensity tests.

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27 Figure 3 3 Laszlo Moholy Nagy Das Veltgebaud 64.9 x 49.2 cm Photomechanical reprodu ction with applied markings 1927 Figure 3 4 Raoul Hausmann Dada Siegt 25 5/8 x 17 3/4" Photomontage and collage with watercolor on paper 1920 Figure 3 5 Luminiferous Aether Experiment Three . 20" x 24" Anaglyphic Inkjet print 2010* * Professor W____ is testing his luminiferous aether beam. He seeks to master the particle aspect of light in order to find new weapo n technologies or possibly new modes of space travel. The purpose of the ray emitter is to intensify the particle aspect of light, turning it into a solid substance.

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28 Figure 3 6 Wave Particle Duality 20" x 24" Anaglyphic Inkjet print, 2010* * In this image , the Professor is trying to fine tune the Particle : Wave ratio to find the specific proportion necessary to activate the lumniferous aether. Figure 3 7 The Generator , Installation View 30" x 10" x 10" Drywall, wood, one inch tiles, pegboard, Plexigla s, blue and red light bulbs, black cloth. 2010

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29 Figure 3 8 Decapitated Viewer Figure 3 9 Reaching Viewer