Citation
Resources for teaching three-dimensional art

Material Information

Title:
Resources for teaching three-dimensional art
Creator:
Rogers, Matthew D. ( Dissertant )
Roland, Craig ( Thesis advisor )
Tillander, Michelle ( Reviewer )
Poynor, Robin ( Reviewer )
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publisher:
College of Fine Arts, University of Florida
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
2010
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Art education ( jstor )
Art materials ( jstor )
Art museums ( jstor )
Art teachers ( jstor )
Arts ( jstor )
Instructional materials ( jstor )
Modern art ( jstor )
Sculptors ( jstor )
Sculpture ( jstor )
Teachers ( jstor )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
The purpose of this project in lieu of thesis is to create a sculpture curriculum resource for art teachers. Sculpture offers a spatial engagement with depth and form to students that other artistic practices cannot. After reviewing art education literature for a pilot study conducted in 2009, it I recognized that sculpture resources were not as available to 6 grade to 12 grade art educators as to drawing, painting, or other 2-D resources were. Since then, my research has focused on addressing the limited availability of sculpture resources for 6-12 art educators by developing an online curriculum resource with project outlines, project examples, and links regarding bringing sculpture into their classroom. The methods I used in this study include reviewing previous research and art education literature on sculpture and curricula. I also developed and conducted a survey for practicing 6-12 art educators concerning their sculpture curriculum resources. In addition, I was able to observe local art teachers to examine practical strategies for introducing lessons. While in the school, I field tested sculpture project outlines developed through the research.
Acquisition:
Art Education terminal project
General Note:
Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Includes vita.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 60 p.; also contains graphics.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Matthew D. Rogers. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
887804032 ( OCLC )

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RESOURCES FOR TEACHING THREE-DIMENSIONAL ART


By

MATTHEW D ROGERS






SUPERVISORY COMMITTEE:

CRAIG ROLAND, CHAIR
MICHELLE TILLANDER, MEMBER
ROBIN POYNOR, MEMBER











A PROJECT IN LIEU OF THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ARTS

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2010



























2010 Matthew D. Rogers
































To my Mom, the best teacher I ever had.









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to thank the following people who have assisted me with this project.

Graduate school has been a wonderful experience with many things learned and many

friendships made.

I thank my supervisory committee chair Craig Roland for his wisdom, guidance,

and sense of humor. He has given me new ways of looking at teaching and especially

education technology. I don't think either of us ever imagined I would end up doing

anything online.

I thank Michelle Tillander for her passion for art education, research, and her

students. I can always say she was happy to see or help me whenever I walked up to

her office door, regardless of what meeting she had just attended.

Robin Poynor has been more than a committee member. He has been a good

neighbor, a great friend, and an inspiration. There was always time and place to talk, no

matter how busy, whether it was about school or funny stories, in his office or in the

front yard.

I would also like to thank many others who have helped me directly or indirectly

with my work. My good friend Lindsay Lovequist, who kept me on my toes and always

had something intelligent to say or argue. Celeste Roberge, who always gave me new

ways to think and speak about sculpture. I thank Gary Bone and Robert Ponzio at Oak

Hall School in Gainesville for their motivational words and assistance. I thank all of the

staff in the art office who always helped with a smile. Finally, I thank my wife Katie, who

showed patience as I worked on this project.









TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ............. ................. .............................4

LIS T O F TA B LE S .................................................. 6

LIS T O F F IG U R E S ................................................. 7

A B S T R A C T .......... ................ ............. ......... ...................................... 8

CHAPTER

1 IN T R O D U C T IO N ................................................................ 10

2 LITERATURE REVIEW ........................................ ................ 14

3 METHODOLOGY..................... ...... 26

4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION........................ .... ............................ 43

5 C O N C L U S IO N ........................................................................... ................ 54

A PPEN D IX ......... .. ......... ................................. ......... .... ........ ........... 56

R E F E R E N C E S .............................. ....................................................... ................ 5 7

B IO G RA PH IC A L S K ETC H .................................. ................................................60









LIST OF TABLES
Table page

1-1 A rts and A activities 1999 2008 .............................................................. .............19

1-2. SchoolA rts 1999 2008 ............. ............................................... ............... 19

4-1. T teacher S urvey question 1 ............................................... .........................46

4-2. T teacher S urvey question 2............................................. ................ ................47

4-3. Teacher Survey question 3................................................................. ................47

4-4. T teacher S urvey question 4............................................. ................ ................48





































6









LIST OF FIGURES
Figure page

3-1. Day of the Dead project taken 2009 at Oak Hall...........................................31

3-2. Oaxacan project introduction/demonstration taken 2010 at Oak Hall..................33

3-3. Oaxacan project student construction taken 2010 at Oak Hall.............................34

3-4. Yahoo Sitebuilder with sculpture resource main page.........................................36

3-5. Yahoo Sitebuilder with sculpture resource about page .....................................37

3-6. Sculpture resource site specific project page, top section............................. 40

3-7. Sculpture resource site specific project page, background section......................41

3-8. Sculpture resource site specific project page, project section..............................42









Abstract Of Project In Lieu Of Thesis Presented To The Graduate School of The
University Of Florida In Partial Fulfillment Of The
Requirements For The Degree Of Master Of Arts


RESOURCES FOR TEACHING THREE-DIMENSIONAL ART

By

Matthew D Rogers

May 2010

Chair: Craig Roland
Major: Art Education

The purpose of this project in lieu of thesis is to create a sculpture curriculum

resource for art teachers. Sculpture offers a spatial engagement with depth and form to

students that other artistic practices cannot. After reviewing art education literature for a

pilot study conducted in 2009, it I recognized that sculpture resources were not as

available to 6 grade to 12 grade art educators as to drawing, painting, or other 2-D

resources were. Since then, my research has focused on addressing the limited

availability of sculpture resources for 6-12 art educators by developing an online

curriculum resource with project outlines, project examples, and links regarding bringing

sculpture into their classroom.

The methods I used in this study include reviewing previous research and art

education literature on sculpture and curricula. I also developed and conducted a survey

for practicing 6-12 art educators concerning their sculpture curriculum resources. In

addition, I was able to observe local art teachers to examine practical strategies for

introducing lessons. While in the school, I field tested sculpture project outlines

developed through the research.









The aim of this project is to provide a convenient resource to encourage

sculpture practice in the classrooms. As a result of my research, I have developed an

online sculpture curriculum resource that provides art teachers with practical project

outlines, finished project examples, material demonstrations, and links.









CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

I first worked with three-dimensional (3-D) objects when I was a young boy,

making models and creating train dioramas. I took art classes through middle and high

school but only made sculpture once or twice. It did not matter at the time, because I

was still trying to find my artistic outlet. At Glenville State College, in Glenville, WV, I

enrolled in the art education program, which allowed me to sample all media. This is

where I really discovered sculpture for the first time. My sculpture class mainly focused

on ceramic sculpture, but wire and wood were used as well. The professor of the class

told me at the end of the semester that I had found my medium, sculpture. I didn't really

think much of it until I went to Tom Savini's special effects school in Pennsylvania,

where my love for sculpture surfaced from within. It felt natural to use my hands to

manipulate clay, plaster, and other media. This feeling of creating 3-D works was

important to me and I feel that younger students should have the opportunity for

experiencing this feeling as well. According to Smith (2001), sculpture production

provides students with experiences to develop and refine fine motor skills, 3-D planning

strategies, and tactile processes. Sculpture gives students the opportunities for

"deciphering complex sensory and intellectual experiences"(Ash, 2000. P 211) and

experiencing "relationships of real forms in real space" (Garchik, 1988, p 111).

Statement of the Problem

Based on my experiences observing and teaching in art classrooms over the last

four years, I had the impression that sculpture is taught less frequently in middle and

high school classes in comparison to drawing and painting. Why is sculpture taught less

in art classrooms? Wanting to find out why this seems to be a fact, I conducted a pilot









study (Rogers, 2009b) to see how sculpture was represented in the popular art

education magazines, SchoolArts and Arts and Activities. Results showed that sculpture

projects were represented significantly less than drawing and painting projects. How

can art educators teach sculpture effectively with seeming dearth of sculpture resources

(Wachowiak & Clements, 2001)? After experiencing how I was not offered sculptural

opportunities in middle and high school and only experienced sculpture in college and

work, I believe that sculpture should be an equal part of the curriculum. I asked myself

what I could do to encourage teachers to teach more sculpture in the classroom. This

led me to the question: How can I provide an accessible resource to encourage

sculpture practice in middle through high school art classrooms?

In my teacher curriculum survey (see appendix), I found that art educators are

indeed teaching sculpture. However, in many cases they relate the projects to mainly

Modernist work instead of including more contemporary sculpture. A lack of current

contemporary artist resources seems to be a large part of the problem for teachers in

regard to creating a meaningful sculpture experience. I attempted to create a solution to

the limitation of online sculpture resources by forming an easily accessible online

sculpture resource. The resource consists of simple lessons, or project outlines, with

problem-solving opportunities; project examples connecting to current contemporary

artists.

Overview of the Project

This project in lieu of thesis concentrated on developing an online resource for

teaching middle and high school sculpture through the data gathered from my survey,

review of art educational literature, and my observations and testing of sculpture









projects at Oak Hall School in Gainesville, FL. Based on my observations, sculpture

survey, and previous research (Rogers (2009b), I believe there are not enough

sculpture resources available to art teachers considering current contemporary artists

and inexpensive material-related projects. I created eight projects using inexpensive

materials in easy-to-use "project outlines" to aid in the development of middle and high

school sculpture curricula.

Significance of the Project

This project aids middle and high school art teachers by providing a sculpture-

focused curriculum resource that contains project outlines, material demonstrations, and

project examples. My hope is that this online resource will make it easier for teachers to

bring more sculpture into their classrooms considering its online availability, inexpensive

materials or found objects, and diverse themes relating to current contemporary artists.

Definition of Terms

Sculpture: In this study, sculpture is defined as three-dimensional (3-D) forms

consisting of various materials (wood, paper, metal, and clay) and installation.

Project outline: Project plan or overview, which includes concepts and

production.

Maquette: Small model of a larger object

Project Limitations

Based on my research from this project, I created a sculpture resource and made

it available to art teachers online. Findings from my initial research indicated that there

was a lack of answers to questions regarding why sculpture would be taught less often

than two-dimensional (2-D) media in the middle to high school art curriculum. Therefore,

I created a survey. The teacher curriculum survey was posted to two art education-









based websites, Art Education 2.0 and The Getty Teacher Art Exchange, and left open

for response for two weeks. There were a few limitations to the survey such as time and

the posting availability to only two online groups.

While the survey could have been made available for a longer period, the data

collected was none the less significant. In addition, the survey was only made available

to members of the two art education websites. Classroom observations were limited to

one school and my time there was split between two teachers, one more than the other.

The Yahoo SiteBuilder program worked very well, but would experience data loss on

occasion if there were too many hyperlinks. Even with these limitations, I acquired

adequate data through other research avenues for the online sculpture resource.









CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

I reviewed several types of literature regarding sculpture curricula, materials, and

methods in current art education for this project, including art education books, journal

articles, and web sites. The art education articles and texts in the Supporting Sculpture

section below gives examples of important sculptural properties and skills students

cannot learn through experiencing only 2-D media. Initially, it was necessary to find out

why sculpture was important and what it offers to students. The next part of the review,

in the Education Methods section, explores sculpture teaching methods and projects

over the last twenty years, such as Frank Wachowiak's experience in over 50 years of

curriculum development in art education (Wachowiak & Clements, 2001). The last

section, Online Resources, provides samples of what sculpture education related

information is currently available to art educators on the World Wide Web. This review

was helpful in discovering what types of projects are currently being taught in art

classrooms, as well as finding out what popular methods and materials are being used.

Understanding why sculpture is important to teach and important for students to

experience was the driving force behind this project. Also finding out what was taught

and is currently being taught was vital to guiding my effort to build connections among

current materials, sculptors, and curricula.

Supporting Sculpture

What makes sculpture worth teaching? Sculpture offers many experiences,

materials, and skill-building opportunities that 2-D media do not. The following literature

review investigates the work of art educators who recognize the special skills and media

experiences that support sculpture as an important medium. Golomb (2004) suggests









there are differences in sculpture and drawing development in children in relation to

their experiences. She found that students were able to represent the human figure

more effectively in regard to anatomy and proportion during some developmental stages

through the use of clay than through the use of 2-D drawing. It can be said that students

understand and represent forms in clay better than they do in attempting to translate

their environment onto a flat surface. Hume (2000) suggests in her book, that sculpture

encourages abstract thinking and visualization, and allows students not adept at

drawing the opportunity to do well in art. This statement relates to Golomb's (2004)

suggestion that some students may do better when working in real space with 3-D

materials than trying to translate 3-D form into 2-D terms.

"After all appreciation of sculpture depends upon the difficulty of responding to

form in three-dimensions" (Ash, 2000, pg. 212). Ash's statement treats sculpture as a

problem-solving tool. Hume (1990) suggests that students, who typically work two-

dimensionally, may have problems analyzing how something looks in reality or "in the

round" (Hume, 1990, p. 125). Drawing an object and transforming it into a 3-D version

takes careful planning and observation. This is an important method and skill that

students could use in sculpture and other studio areas to improve their work through

observation. Sculptors make use of the same visual elements of art that painters do,

such as space, form, color, texture, line, and value, but sculpture is unique. Garchik

(1988) states that sculpture engages "relationships of real forms in real space" (1988, p.

111). Garchik's book supports the unique spatial-relationship qualities of sculpture, such

as the students' opportunities to perceive and experience "actual" depth and volume in

an artwork (Garchik, 1988; Klaustermeier, 1997). Depth and volume are the special









qualities sculpture has in contrast to the 2-D arts. When one is able to hold or walk

around a sculpture, there is a greater sense of reality than when experiencing 2-D

works.

Anecdotal evidence also shows that sculpture improves skills. In a conversation

with Smith (2001), special needs educator Frank Capello explained the benefits of

teaching sculpture to his students. Capello states that the students' sculpture projects

address many important developmental areas such as improving fine motor skills and

problem-solving skills: sequencing steps necessary to complete a project and project

planning. Techniques and materials vary with sculpture, but Edward Mayer ("Sculpture,"

2009) explains that sculpture incorporates many techniques, materials, and concepts

that integrate together, unlike 2-D arts that consist of only flat media. Sculpture students

can use any media or material available to create form with depth and volume.

Media

Constructive experiences with materials vary, such as using clay and paper

mache, but elements of building and gravity play a role in all sculpture. What makes

sculpture media different from 2-D media, and what are the benefits of experiencing

sculpture? Smith (2001) explains the importance of sculpture in developing fine-motor

skills and the importance of sequential steps when working in a 3-D medium that needs

structural support. A good sculptural foundation and comprehension of gravity need to

be established when experimenting with media.

Golomb (2004) focused on the development of children's sculpture in clay and

play dough from preschool to late middle school. Golomb's research shows that









students' sculptural developments are different from their 2-D development when

representing the human figure because of the stability of the 3-D medium.

Other authors (Ash, 2000; Klaustermeier, 1997) support this idea that sculpture

offers a different learning opportunity to students. As students grow older, they begin to

understand the way objects need to be structured sequentially to support their own

weight. Three-dimensional media such as clay or toothpicks each have their own

consistent sequences of creation that need to be followed in particular order to assure

student success in sculpture projects.

What type of materials can art teachers use to create sculpture? According to

Klaustermeier (1997), sculpture can be made out of any material to "acquire form"

(p.181). This concept supports teachers creating projects from inexpensive or free

materials such as paper, natural or manufactured found objects in order to help with

budgeting (Wachowiak & Clements, 2001). Hume (2000) and Johnson (1983) also

suggest substituting found materials for typically more-expensive media such as clay

and wood. According to a round-table discussion among post-secondary art educators

from the United States, Canada, and Germany, the concept of using found materials is

global ("Key Issues," 2009). Most of the educators agreed that budgets are a large

factor in how they teach and organize their programs. Using found materials is one way

to lower media expenses. Wachowiak and Clements (2001), Cikanova (1995), and

Johnson, (1983) also mention the use of simple material, such as cardboard.









Pilot Study

To determine how sculpture projects and resources were represented in art

education magazines, I conducted a pilot study (Rogers, 2009b) to discover the ratio of

suggested sculpture project articles to 2-D projects from 1999 through 2009 in Arts and

Activities and SchoolArts. I found that sculpture project articles (Tables 1.1 and 1.2)

were significantly fewer in number and thus seemingly underrepresented in these two

popular magazines. Over of the ten years reviewed, Arts and Activities had a total of

831 project ideas. Of those, only 149 were sculpture-based. The findings for SchoolArts

were similar. With 862 total projects, only 158 were sculpture-related. The 2-D project

ideas make up approximately 82% of the projects in these two popular art education

magazines.

I established four variables for categorizing the curriculum ideas I collected: 2-D,

3-D, 4-D, and 3/4-D hybrid. The 2-D category contained all flat surfaced, or work

"viewed from one side," and low-relief work, such as tiles. Sculpture was defined as

three-dimensional forms consisting of various materials (wood, paper, metal, and clay)

(Feinstein & Thomas, 2002). The 3-D category did not include sculpture projects

involving low-relief work, pottery, or jewelry (Hume, 2000). For the purpose of this study

4-D consisted of digital, performance, and time-based work. I used 3/4-D to categorize

three-dimensional work used along with 4-D criteria (Table 1-1).










Table 1-1. Arts and Activities 1999-2008

80

70 -

60

50 -- - ----------
m2-D
40------------
I40 03-D
30 N 4-D

20 *3/4-D Hybrid
10----------

0 -
Sooooooooom
i N rN r rt r4 r4 rMj rI4 r4


Table 1-2. SchoolArts 1999 2008


I found in this pilot study that sculpture projects are underrepresented in Arts and

Activities and SchoolArts magazines considering that only 18% of the projects were

sculpture-related based on my definitions. From the results of this literature review, I

concluded there were significantly fewer sculpture articles than 2-D articles. This

information led me to conduct a survey to find out where teachers get their project

information (Appendix).


m 2-D
M3-D
S4-D
S3/4-D Hybrid


I, 1L,11.1 L, L,
- r C It j- Ln D t r h- 0O
0 o 0 0 0 0 0 0
D D D C D C CD
rI4 r-4 r 4 rI









Educational Methods

The sculpture section of Garchik's (1988) book briefly lists different materials and

techniques (e.g. sculpting the human head and mold making) used in making sculpture,

as well as an art history example focusing on master sculptor Donatello (Forbes, 2009).

Garchik mentions four compositional aspects of sculpture: symmetrical, asymmetrical,

repetitive, and radial (Garchik, 1988). These concepts could be evaluated by students in

a class critique or evaluation.

What instructional methods or examples of sculpture education create a learning

environment with challenges and personal connections? To create a project resource

with project plans, it was necessary to review different methods of lesson introduction,

sculptor or concept themes, and media demonstration. Addison & Burgess (2000)

explored methods such as student questioning and discussion criteria for teaching art

and design that are also used in the classroom observations discussed in Chapter 3 of

this project. The methods of Addison and Burgess (2000) structure how sculpture

instruction and project content for overall student learning effectiveness should be

evaluated.

To have a successful project, the teacher must have a clear plan showing

"evidence of the students' growth in sculptural design" (Wachowiak & Clements, 2001,

p. 324). What criteria can teachers use to evaluate student sculpture? Ash (2000)

provides a framework for strengthening sculpture curricula in a classroom based on 12

simple elements: form, volume, space, gravity, material, rhythm (composition), process,

scale, color, environment, surface, and weight (balance), (Ash, 2000). Garchik (1988)

adds to Ash's elements. He provides a list of "ways to create three-dimensional art"









(pg. 181). These consist of subtraction, manipulation, addition, and substitution. These

are all foundational sculpture techniques (Wachowiak & Clements, 2001).

While some of Ash's (2000) listed elements are general, environment and gravity

are very different from the typical elements of art such as space and form (Garchik,

1988). Questions sculptors have to consider: Where does the sculpture go or does the

environment change the work? What about gravity? Gravity works against the sculptor,

so sculptors must make decisions on foundation and structure in order for the form not

to collapse (Smith, 2000; Golomb, 2004).

What teaching problems arise when working with new materials in a collegiate

sculpture setting? The author (unknown) of Educating Sculptors: Past, Present, and

Future (2009) suggests that art educators should look to the past to find answers for the

future of art education. Past pedagogical methods considered were form analysis,

technical drawing, nature study, and life drawing, which some may still consider

foundations of college art education ("Educating Sculptors," 2009). Form analysis is a

typical foundational skill for student questioning and critique (Addison &Burgess, 2000).

In critiques, students should identify what they see visually and allow themselves to

make assumptions and comments about the artist's material usage and intentions. Life

drawing is important as well for considering aspects of sculpture design.

When planning a project, what do teachers take into account for planning

sculpture? Wachowiak & Clements (2001) list some sculpture project issues teachers

face when project media and skill instruction are encountered by large classes. This

means the teacher must plan ahead regarding class size and space available for certain

sizes of sculptural media (Wachowiak & Clements, 2009).









Where are they supposed to put all of that work? Little (1990) addressed

classroom space issues facing art educators. Space is an important factor when

considering sculpture in the classroom, especially when an art teacher has 600 or more

students. The idea of budgeting space in the classroom is a recurring issue addressed

throughout the literature (Ash, 2000; Wachoviak & Clements, 2001), but no clear

answers were determined. Exama (2007) conducted an exercise by making models of

ideal classrooms by experimenting with different configurations. Teachers could

experiment using this method. Only general possibilities, such as smaller work or

rotation of class schedules were offered.

How should an art teacher integrate cultural ideas into a sculpture project? Briggs

(2009) shared a sculpture project based on the Star Wars film and its scientific,

historical and cultural influences. Students had to understand what the underlying

questions and moral codes the movie suggested to viewers such as "God" and "good

vs. evil." The students created their own characters to be used later in a student-

produced movie. Star Wars is a film most students have seen, but they may not

understand the underlying messages of religious oppression. Students would watch the

film in a different way if this was learned, and might make more personal connections

when relating to conflicts in their own culture or current news, such as issues

surrounding the Gaza Strip. This article is a good example of a contemporary 3-D

lesson that encompasses sculpture, and also cultivates students' connections to their

interest in the movie and calls their attention to current global conflicts.









Online Resources

Many online sites address sculpture curricula. Some are tightly structured while

others are simple and loosely organized. The first three websites are what a teacher

would get on the first page on Google when searching "sculpture lesson plans." These

first few sites contain much information and many curriculum resources for art teachers.

The website Art 21 (Art:21, 2001-2009) focuses on current contemporary artists, such

as Mark Dion, and is organized into themes, such as "time." The site is formatted to be

user-friendly and complete with artist backgrounds, videos, and project plans. The

project plans list artist/work-related questions as well as activities for students of all

ages.

The Incredible Art Department website (www.incredibleart.org) is another art

teacher resource that provides lesson plans developed by the art teacher site members.

The "Incredible Art Department" is organized into sections for different age groups. 2-D

media is represented more than sculpture.

Many museums also provide lesson resources for teachers. For example, the St.

Louis Art Museum (SLAM) provides a teacher resource section with curriculum relating

to their art collections. Also, SLAM provides an online gallery of collections the museum

holds. The Ham Museum of Art in Gainesville, FL provides lesson plans and art teacher

workshops. Like the above museums, the Ham's online lesson plans also focus on their

collection such as African figures and Deborah Butterfield's Rory sculpture. The lessons

provide art history about the particular work, discussion questions, and project goals.

The teacher workshops include a curriculum unit packet based on a theme, such as

"sculpture", based on their collections. Along with the curriculum packet, a material









demonstration and project activity are provided. The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA)

and Ace Gallery provide many high-resolution photographs of their current and past

exhibitions and also PDFs of exhibition press releases. Teachers can use these images

to teach about a particular artist or work.

In addition to the above web sites, there are many sites with specific sculpture

concepts or projects. Some address cultural identification and others emphasize

collaboration and teamwork. The Chicana and Chicano Space ("Hispanic Research,"

2001), for example, supplies "significant themes, gender balance, geographic breadth,

and historical" (resource page) regarding reflecting and identifying with one's culture in

a sculpture unit. The Chicano resource provides project introductions and questions for

student connection building. Artnet.com (Artnet, 2010) is a website dedicated to the

buying, selling, and research of fine art. The site lists 39,000 global artists and their

works. The Flong (Levin, 2010) website displays videos and photographs on interactive

collaborative art by Golan Levin and his partners. Levins' (2010) site is great when

considering interactive collaborative sculptures. These examples are just a sample of

the many websites that can provide projects or resources for project development.

Lynne Forbes' (2009) "sculpture school website" concentrates on the formal

classical qualities of figure sculpture (Garchik, 1988). The school teaches people, from

children as young as three, to professional sculptors. In a discussion with Forbes, she

described an interesting quality of sculpture to be the artists' performance when

engaging in clay sculpture. She said the students move around the work as if dancing,

but also looking at the different planes created in the space. This method "helps the









ability to visualize and strengthens abstract reasoning" (Hume, 1990, p. 125), by

allowing the student to experience the manipulation of sculpture in the round.

Since the teacher curriculum survey, the materials have focused on inexpensive

found objects, but I wanted to include two companies that supply a wide variety of

materials. Sculpture House (www.sculpturehouse.com) is another resource for teachers

that offers a variety of literature, materials, and tools for ceramics, stone carving, clay

sculpture, wood carving, and mold-making. It is comparable to The Compleat Sculptor

(www.sculpt.com), but offers some alternate types of clay and casting materials. The

Compleat Sculptor is a sculpture supply resource providing a variety of materials and

tools such as clays and casting products. There is also technical support available for

help if there is a question regarding the use of materials. The company offers

demonstrations in the New York City area where it is based, but also demonstrates

around the country at art trade shows.









CHAPTER 3
METHODS OF RESEARCH

Overview

My initial question asked if sculpture and 2-D art were taught proportionally in

grade 6-12 art classes. My pilot study (Rogers, 2009b) demonstrated that two popular

art education magazines did not publish as many sculpture projects as 2-D projects.

The pilot study led to the review of art education literature and online sculpture

curriculum resources to discover art educators' outlooks and methods regarding

sculpture curricula; an examination of the benefits of teaching sculpture; and

identification of online resources available to art teachers.

In addition to my reviewing art education literature and online resources, I posted

a teacher curriculum survey to a forum on the Art Education 2.0 website, a global social

network for art educators, and on Getty's Teacher Art Exchange, an art educator email

list serve (Appendix). I relied on this survey to select and write the online sculpture

resource content and materials. Among the things I ascertained from this survey was

the need for current contemporary artists-related themes and the use of found materials

in the teachers' projects. Among of the online resources I discovered, they involved

personal websites, for example that of sculptor Michael Rackowitz (2010). Others such

as the Imagillaboration (Cottrell, 2010), a collective sculpture program page, informed

projects I then developed for my sculpture resource projects. In addition to resources for

project outlines, I found YouTube sculpture demonstrations and formulas for

inexpensive materials such as cornstarch clay. I observed and implemented several

projects at Oak Hall School to understand more positive project introduction methods,

practical materials, and understandable themes for middle school students. This









information was used to guide the project introductions and material demonstrations

(Wachowiak & Clements, 2001). Examples of the projects created used inexpensive or

free materials, which were the criteria teachers seemed to implement, according to the

survey. (Table 4-4)

Teacher Curriculum Survey

The purpose of the curriculum survey was to determine how frequently sculptural

projects are taught in the 6-12 art curriculum and what resources art teachers use or

would use to teach sculpture. The survey consisted of five questions: how many

sculpture projects are typically taught by art teachers in a school year, the resources

used or considered beneficial for project development, the media used, which artists

have been covered, and how they were addresses in the curriculum. The use of an

online survey with only five brief questions made it easy for educators to participate

considering their time and schedule (Punch, 2005). The survey was posted on Art

Education 2.0 and on the Getty's Teacher Art Exchange list serve for two weeks.

Seventy-eight anonymous middle to high school art educators were posted from around

the world. I rounded all percentages to the nearest whole number to report results. The

most important finding from the survey was that most of art teachers want online project

outlines containing themes, inexpensive materials, and artwork examples. (Table 4-2)

Oak Hall Observations

At a local middle/high school in Gainesville, Florida, I observed current art

education practice and was also given an opportunity to test teaching strategies and

projects I developed. The Oak Hall School has an exceptional art program. Two art

teachers share responsibilities in the 6-12 Upper School. One teacher focuses on 3-D









arts, while the other focuses on 2-D art. I observed for seven months and noted their

teaching methods. I recorded my weekly observation on Blogger (Rogers, 2009a;

Rogers, 2010) from September 2009 to April 2010 My schedule for providing project

plans depended on the 3-D teacher's schedule. I observed both of the teachers, for the

most part, used inexpensive or everyday materials, such as cardboard and acrylic paint,

on a regular basis (Wachoviak & Clements, 2001; Cikanova, 1995; Klaustermeier,

1997). My observations used a framework of objectives given by Addison & Burgess

(2000). This simple framework (below) helped organize my thoughts, visual

observations, and data synthesis.

Understand the function and potential of pedagogic methods and their

effect on learning;

Use conceptual frameworks to focus your classroom observation and

inform your lesson planning;

Consider how conceptual and sensuous responses to the world effect the

way students learn (p. 21).

I viewed how each teacher introduced projects via brief art history and

media demonstrations or project explanations (Addison & Burgess, 2001). I noted how

differently the two teachers approached project introduction. One provided an in-depth

explanation of the forthcoming project, including cultural backgrounds and media

demonstrations. The other gave very brief cultural backgrounds or art origins, and

demonstrated the project media briefly, or showed student examples. These two

methods associate with data from the survey: media driven and media associated. (See

page 49).









I chose to observe the teacher who taught 3-D art and sculpture. For my first trial,

the cooperating teacher and I decided to experiment with a new medium for a seventh

grade sculpture project. The teacher wanted to carry out a project he had not done in a

while that introduces the Mexican festival, and had students create their own versions of

the Day of the Dead skeletons. This seemed like a good project, given the fact that

Halloween and All Saints Day were soon. Instead of using paper mache, which he had

used in the past, the supervising teacher wanted to test a new medium in the class. The

material we decided to use was DAS brand self-drying paper-based clay.

This was a wonderful opportunity to observe how students interacted with the

material, as well as the properties of the medium, such as malleability. This is an

example of a media driven project similar to that listed in the teacher curriculum survey

(See page 48). Before the students used the DAS clay, they had to create a wire

armature, which they had not done before.

The Day of the Dead project was preconceived by the cooperating teacher. While I

assisted with some information, I primarily focused on the medium demonstrations:

building wire armatures and adding the medium to the armature.

We introduced this co-taught project by providing students with background

information on the Mexican Day of the Dead festival. The purpose behind the festival

and the sculptures used in it were briefly explained. The students asked a couple of

questions about the aesthetic qualities of the sculpture. The teacher then explained that

they would create a character based on their own interest. A few examples for possible

characters were mentioned by the teacher as he showed examples from past classes.

The students began to think about what characters they wanted to create. Some of the









ideas offered by the students were original. Others were taken from the suggestions or

examples provided.

After the introduction, I started the production by giving a demonstration on

building wire armatures. Building a sturdy armature is an important step for sculpture

support and is a part of sequences that must be addressed in such a lesson, according

to Frank Capello, (Smith, 2001). I showed the students how to cut lengths of garden

wire, and where to bend with pliers. I showed students to begin with the head, then the

neck, the arms, and down the rest of the body. I showed how to twist the wire for torsos

and legs for stronger support, since the legs, and torso would position the armature,

according to character. The feet were looped and stapled to a piece of scrap wood, to

be used as a base.

The students then began applying the DAS clay to the armatures. I instructed

them to start at the bottom and move upward, to provide stability.

The clay dried relatively quickly as the students worked with it, but it could be

moistened with water to keep it pliable for longer periods. After the sculptures finished

drying, the students personalized their characters by using paint, found objects, and

fabrics to clothe the skeletons. There was not a critiques held, but the students were

very interested in explaining who the figures were and why they made their material

choices. After the Day of the Dead project, I developed a trial project outline for the

teacher to use to instruct students. The teacher wanted a project that used paper

mache and Oaxacan animal sculptures, so I developed one considering the

components.




























Figure 3-1. Day of the Dead project at Oak Hall School (2009)

My Designed Project Outline for Oak Hall

Based on a project concept by the cooperating teacher, I conducted a trial

curriculum similar to those I developed for the online resource. From the Day of the

Dead observation, I learned to consider the way one introduces the project to and allow

the media to drive the project.

Paper mache was a material the teacher had not used in some time, so he wanted

a project based on this material. The new project was to be media based followed by

lessons on the subject of Oaxacan sculpture of Mexico. I made the decision to include

background information on Oaxacan people who carve animal sculptures; and their

methods and craft. In an attempt to create a student connection, I thought questions

should be asked about the students' "cultural myths," and I thought we should discuss

iconography such as animals, and discuss other interesting objects or people in the

students' environment or culture.









It was somewhat difficult to create student connections because of the mythical

purposes behind the original Oaxacan sculpture and also the ways the Mexican groups

use found materials. The Oaxacan carvers select pieces of wood that suggest to them a

particular animal. The basis for this folk art tradition is thus a "found object," not an

object; like a paper mache piece, which is a construction. This difference furthers the

student disconnection and understanding of the Oaxacan medium choices and

methods.

Instead of showing a variety of Oaxacan sculptures, in this project outline, I

preferred the students make three sketches based on their ideas of a character using

cultural myths or animals. Once the students came up with a few ideas, the teacher

would show them examples of original carvings.

The introduction to the project outline included four pictures of carvings: two

creatures and two human-based works. These objects seemed to generalize the

sculptural designs of Oaxacan sculpture instead of showing the typical animals. In

addition to the information provided in the project outline, I included the current

contemporary artist Sergio Hernandez, whose work was influenced by Oaxacan folk art

details, such as color.

The Oaxacan Project Outline Trial

I provided the Oaxacan project outline to the art teacher a week before the project

started. The art teacher introduced the project by explaining that the students would

create a paper mache project relating to the Oaxacan carvings. The teacher briefly

explained where the Oaxacan people live and how they chose the wood for the

carvings. The teacher did not mention the contemporary artist whose works related to









the Oaxacan sculptures. He asked the students to brainstorm, to think of different

animals or creatures they could create, based on their interests.

The teacher then demonstrated how to construct different forms with newspaper

and tape. In addition to forms, the teacher showed students how to roll tubes for legs

and make cardboard wings (Fig. 3-2).
















Figure 3-2. Oaxacan project introduction/demonstration Oak Hall School (2010)

The teacher decided to use art paste for the paper mache gluing agent. Art paste

is very inexpensive, and a small box makes one gallon of glue. The teacher mixed it in a

Tupperware bin about 20 inches long, 12 inches wide, and seven inches deep. The

large size of the bin made it possible for multiple students to use the glue at once. The

teacher demonstrated how to dip the newspaper and slide the excess off with their

straight index and middle fingers. He mentioned three layers of lightly glued newspaper

were required for proper rigidity. While most of the students continued to build, a few

started gluing and seemed to do well applying the glue-dipped newspaper. When time

ran out, the students put their projects onto lunch trays to store until the next class









meeting. The students finished the projects with three layers and painted them using

chosen colors.

Once the students finished brainstorming (Fig. 3-3), they created dragons, a

sheep, a flying pig, a shark, and a few insects. Some of the students chose the animals

based on their interests or just because they thought it would "look cool." After the

demonstration, the students began constructing their own creature forms from the

newspaper and tape. The students seemed to translate the creature designs very well

with the media, which is a Sculpture Concept in my online resource. The only problems

seem to be leg stability and proportions, which were solved with teacher intervention.

















Figure 3-3. Oaxacan project student construction Oak Hall School (2010)

Designing the Sculpture Curriculum Resource

The initial idea for this project was to create a sculpture resource in a form similar

to a museum travel kit. Such kits could be used by teachers wanting to learn a new

sculpture medium or wanting to use one of the provided project outlines. The problem

with the intended design was the production of this "travel kit" and its distribution. Some

teachers may not be able to afford them or have the space to store them. Considering









that teachers use the Internet for project planning, I decided to create an online

resource that would always be available and at no cost to teachers.

What would I include in this online sculpture resource? The teacher curriculum

survey I conducted provided me with ideas of what resources current teachers were

using in their curricula (Appendix).

What resources would I use to create such an online resource? Yahoo SiteBuilder

seemed the most convenient program to use. I had used it to create my personal

website. I decided to link the sculpture resources site through my sculpture portfolio site

address (www.rogersfx.com), but the appearance and layout of the two are very

different. To maintain a separation of sites, I created no direct link back to my sculpture

portfolio site.

Yahoo SiteBuilder is a user-friendly program, even if one does not understand

html coding. The program resembles PowerPoint with respect to its applications, tools,

and options. The tools are set up with the help menu on the left, tools on the top bar,

and the web page files on the right (Fig. 3-4). The interface orientation is very similar to

most graphics programs and even Microsoft Word. The page components are contained

in a size-adjustable box that can be made larger or smaller, and dragged around with

the mouse. On the right side, each file is assigned the title of the project outline or page

concept and can be opened with a click. Yahoo SiteBuilder offers many choices of

templates, fonts, and navigation bars for quick use. Users can also create their own

components, since each is in a separate box and easily interchangeable or moved.














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Figure 3-4. Yahoo SiteBuilderwith sculpture resource main page


Yahoo SiteBuilder provides a variety of web page templates available to use when



initially building the pages. The template I used throughout the site circles-bluegold,



seemed a good choice because of the simple, mildly colorful background and airy



appearance. The top left area contains the title of the site, The Form Factory, followed



by an identifying phrase "sculpture project outline resource for art educators" to the



right. The left side of the page contains the navigation bar or menu that directs the



viewer to various pages: the About page, Sculpture Concepts page, Project Outlines



page, Materials/References page, Contact page, and a link back to the Home page (Fig.



3-5). Under the navigation bar on each page are quotes that range from those of artists



to scientists, such as Bruce Nauman. In the central area of the page is the main



content, ranging from key ideas to project outline menus.


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Figure 3-5. Yahoo Sitebuilder with sculpture resource About page

The home page introduces the viewer with a brief statement describing the

website. The About page consists of a brief statement about the resource and its

background. A brief biographical statement explains my background as a sculptor and




not be found in one place, and that I decided to create that one place. This section

needed to be brief, but explain my background and intention.

The Sculpture Concepts page central section lists five important sculpture

concepts I chose to incorporate throughout the project outlines. Students should:

Express themselves through various 3-D materials and processes

Know past and present sculptors and their contributions to art, culture, and

society

Translate ideas into 3-D media to create various sculptures

Value the real or actual space and time qualities of sculpture
Value the real or actual space and time qualities of sculpture









Speak critically and constructively about sculpture.

In addition to the sculpture concepts, I provided Ash's (2000) twelve elements of

sculpture that I listed in my literature review. These elements, similar to the elements

and principles of art, mainly focus on the qualities of sculpture.

The Media/References page contains links to step-by-step media demonstrations I

conducted, such as building a wire armature; or a link to YouTube demonstration

videos, such as figure sculpture. Below the media section are links to the references I

used to create the project outlines. Some of these include artist websites, photographs

used, and journal articles.

The Contact page allows the viewer to contact me with any comments, questions,

or project ideas they would like to share. The message is sent to a hotmail account

created for this purpose.

Project Outline Development

The project outlines page lists the projects I created: Collaborative Exchange,

Collective Conceptions, Formally Functional, Structural Community, Site Specific,

Online Environments, Folk Art, and Figure it Out. The projects needed to be simple, to

the point, and easily modifiable for any middle or high school level. The structure of the

project outlines was based on a traditional art-teaching format: studio production, art

history, and critical analysis. I considered this format, but the rigid structures of

production and art history were discarded. I attempted to use an open-ended structure

based on student problem-solving, creativity, art history, and production. The format

needed to be kept flexible and the project outlines needed to make it easy to peruse the









main points highlighted. Also, I intentionally placed the background information close to

the supporting artist examples.

Decisions on what projects to use and their components were based partly on

information gathered from the sculpture survey, classroom observation, and literature

review. All of these research methods provided clues on materials, such as everyday

objects, the need for current artists or project background, and project introduction

methods or student motivational tactics.

I created each of the project outlines by referencing the backward curriculum

design by Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe (1998). The first aspect to consider for

Wiggins and McTighe's method is to identify the learning goal. What will the students

understand as a result of this project? Each project outline has an "objective." The

objective is project specific, but is accompanied with "sculpture conceptss)" which may

be included in other projects.

I wanted to create problems for the students to solve. For "student preparation," I

might suggest they brainstorm ideas, make personal connections, or experiment with

materials unfamiliar to them (Johnson, 1983). With this in mind, the students would

have more control over the project and be able to make personal decisions pertaining to

its execution.

Online Project Outlines

The Project Outlines page is set up as a navigation page with project links in the

center section in columns and range from collaborative sculpture to figurative sculpture.

The viewer goes directly to the project outline page upon clicking the link on the

navigation bar. The project outline pages in (Fig. 3-6), are all formatted the same, but











the content varies. On each project outline page, there are Sculpture Concept and


Objective sections explaining what will be learned from this particular project (Fig. 3-6).


The Student Preparation section (Fig. 3-6), below the objective gives quick suggestions


to prompt student or classroom discussion about the project (Addison & Burgess, 2000;


Wachowiak & Clements, 2001). These prompts may be in the form of questions or


project-related ideas for the students to comment on or brainstorm (Hume, 1990). This


is an important section, giving the students the opportunity to think creatively about the


concepts and make connections to their environment or lives.

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el-apecifi peace. The sculptures should notoly, integrate into the space, but
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Student Question
A sFigure 3-6. Sculpture resource site specific project page, top section


Sr(Fig. 3-7), which contains historical information related to the topic or artists covered.
The amount of information in the background changed varies, depending on the type of project.










For instance, the site-specific project outline use hasndo a background on artists such as
Richard Serra and his work. Project backgrounds may vary in containing additional

questions or bulleted data. In addition to backgrounds on artists, there are links to other
Student Question
wMat Iocatons around your local



Figure 3-6. Sculpture resource site specific project page, top section

As the viewer scrolls down the page, he/she comes to the background section


(Fig. 3-7), which contains historical information related to the topic or artists covered.


The amount of information in the background varies, depending on the type of project.


For instance, the site-specific project outline has a background on artists such as


Richard Serra and his work. Project backgrounds may vary in containing additional


questions or bulleted data. In addition to backgrounds on artists, there are links to other


A Sculpture Lesson Resource for Art E












websites regarding more information on the topic, such as the Richard Serra's work


Tilted Arc, and the controversy around it.



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Background
RJ-grorruf
Sie specific sculpture of the 160 s-1970' funded by the Natonal Endowment for
the As (N ) was rejected by the pubic because of the disconne ct hey had with
modem art The general pubc did not relate to the static plop art that was
consered a puic outreach program because of the conceptual or abstract ideas
considered site-specific," but just an enlarged version of a museum piece A good
example would be the public work of Henry Moore and the infamous work of Richard
Serra, TPedArc

W o ,a part of the surroundings such as seeang, s n oelow or the reflection of
surrounding architecture or co untrly (See AnmSh Kapoor and Scott Burton)
Richar Serra, C fara r, Pans 1969


Project
-Photograph the surrounding public areas that could be improvedd wh
an outdoor sculpture Are the public business people, children, park
goe, How til they interact wth V,
-Recreate the space after taking photos while noing the colors and
matenals of the environment create a rrp in grid paper
Don



Figure 3-7. Sculpture resource site specific project page, background section


The last portions of the page are the Project and Project Materials sections


(Fig. 3-8), which contains step-by-step instructions for the actual studio production and


suggested media for the project. The Project section highlights in the text the key


actions or activities the students will "do," such as write, design, and demonstrate, to


complete the work. Under the Project is the Assessment section that lists possibilities


for analyzing the student's work for each project, such as identification of sculpture


qualities and discussion. Finally, to the right side of the Project section is the list of


possible materials, such as "found objects." Beneath Assessment is a link to a printable


PDF version for the teacher.


I chose to keep the pages simple and free from clutter, to keep it easily readable.


Throughout each project outline page there are visuals that consist of related artist


work, provided by Flickr Creative Commons or other public domain sources, and

















finished examples of the project that I provided. Below the project is a photograph of the




project example.


- &--

C,,r

Project

-Photogrph the animonding plitf areas that could be proved with
an outdoor sculpture Ale the public business people, children, park
goars? Hoill theyinteractwith it?

-ReOdtte the space after taking photos while noting the colors and
rhateni o te enalionmend Create a hip in grid paper

-Choos. at dndoi, sculpture cnteria (paper slips) frit a bin. This
mtdd be sarbitr to an artist getting a conhission add timing to adoar
within certain pervietes gven by tehefunders.

-Cesign three wulpture6 ushig the researched environmental and social
difoinniton and the cten". Students n the clas wllw vote on each other
,,best renderng or concept

-Detelnle the idter Is needed to excide the sculpture od tne

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Figure 3-8. Sculpture resource site specific project page, project and material section









CHAPTER 4
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

This project was guided by the question: How can I provide an accessible

resource to encourage sculpture practice in middle through high school classrooms?

The literature review and survey were the main focuses of this project in order to

support the need for sculpture to design projects relating to current contemporary artists

and make the use of inexpensive materials. The sculpture resource website needed to

be simple, easily adaptable, and contain relevant content that creates challenging

projects with student-connections to contemporary art. The teacher curriculum survey

showed what current art teachers are using for project content and materials, e.g.

Modernist sculpture. Their responses indicated how projects were structured, such as

basing a project on an artist's work or focusing a project on the use of media.

After reviewing the literature that supports my project, I was able to answer the

question: what makes sculpture worth teaching? Sculpture offers the opportunity for the

strengthening of motor skills and for following sequences of instruction to maintain

sculptural form because of gravitational effects. I have addressed the "sequencing of

steps" on my Media/Reference page in my sculpture resource. In addition to the

sequential steps, I created opportunities in my projects to allow students to experience

sculpture's spatial engagement qualities. These qualities allow students to work-with

and understand actual depth and volume (Klaustermeier, 1997; Forbes, 2009). In my

resource, I also addressed the use of everyday materials to alleviate budgeting

constraints, which was mentioned throughout my review (Smith, 2001; Klaustermeier,

1997; Wachowiak & Clements, 2001).









Ash (2000) provided valuable insights for my research, addressing the concern

around the lack of sculpture in art education. Within the sculpture curriculum resource

developed, all twelve of Ash's prescribed elements were listed under the sculpture

concepts. Seven of the twelve elements were included in the project outlines, such as

environment, in the site-specific project. I wanted to include these elements to assist

teachers in the identification of sculptural properties. The format and step-by-step

demonstrations in Garchik's (1988) book provided an example of demonstration staging

for the project outlines, all of which helped to give insight on teaching methods. Lynn

Forbes' classes in Greek classical figure sculpture do not provide current contemporary

artist examples, but the classes allow students to experience the manipulative

engagement and dance-like qualities sculpture provides to students (Forbes, 2009).

Creating a sculpture in our "real space" or environment provides students with an

engaging experience with form as opposed to that provided by 2-D surface artworks.

The Sculpture journal article ("Key Issues," 2009) was written to suggest what

students face in college when studying sculpture, so I provided a resource that

encourages sculpture in their pre-secondary curriculum ("Educating Sculptors," 2009). It

gave me the opportunity to think about what is being said regarding sculpture education

in the college setting and what to consider if high school students are going to study fine

arts in college. Including formal analysis during a critique prepares them for this.

One type of planning strategy suggested keeping sculptures relatively small to

medium size or to create the project out of the classroom (Little, 1990; Wachowiak &

Clements, 2001). One of my projects focuses on large, site-specific sculptures, but









students cannot create these in class. I thus created the opportunity for them to think

large, but to create a maquette for a larger piece in an open environment.

My pilot study (Rogers, 2009b) provided me with the information to further

research sculpture resources available to art teachers. I found a lack of representation

considering that 82% of Arts and Activities and SchoolArts consisted of 2-D related

projects.

The online resources I reviewed provided many different types of information

regarding sculpture and art education. Some of the websites such as the Incredible Art

Department (Rohrer, 2010) and Art: 21 (Art: 21, 2009) provided full lesson plans. These

websites are both useful to my research, but the Art: 21 site structures the projects

within themes and allows the teacher to teach sculpture and also other media under a

common topic. In addition, the Art: 21 site's projects focus on current contemporary

artists. Museum websites such as MoMA provide project ideas, but allow educators to

view and use photographs of artwork in their collections, for research and curriculum

development. In addition to these museums, the Harn Museum of Art provides teacher

workshops and curricula based on their collections, and over-arching themes, such as

African art or sculpture. The Ham-type resources that museums provide work well if

used abroad, but work even better if the students are able to visit the facilities.

I addressed the idea of current contemporary artists in my sculpture resource

because of the current cultural themes in these artists' works. The Chicana and Chicano

Space website provides questions for creating student discourse on personal

connections to the project or topic ("Hispanic Research", 2001). Museum web sites and

online galleries, such as the Ace Gallery and the Museum of Modern Art, provide









sculptor information and work from their past and current exhibitions (Ace Gallery, 2010;

"Museum of," 2009). These online exhibitions are beneficial to an art teacher when

observing a variety of sculptors and their artworks for projects. The exhibitions provide

the opportunity for teachers to preview artists' works quickly in order to find an artist to

research later.

Curriculum Survey Results and Discussion

Results for question one of the survey showed that 63% of the 78 participants

teach more than three sculpture lessons throughout the year, whereas 36% said they

do one to two per year (Table 4-1).

Table 4-1. Question 1 Data

How often do you include sculpture in your art curriculum?

63

36

1

Never 1 to 2 per year More than 3 per year


Of the 77 participants for question two, 90% answered that they mainly use

online resources for creating sculpture curricula, while artist information came in at 79%.

The third highest answer was art education literature (e.g. SchoolArts) with 69% (Table

4-2).









Table 4-2. Question 2 Data


If so, what resources do you use when developing sculpture
curricula?
90
6979


1 I 1 .32
Art Ed Lit. Online Resources Artists Convention
Workshops


In question three, the project/curriculum ideas/lessons item encompassed the

sub concepts of media, techniques, and related artists, Techniques for media usage

considered step-by-step demos for materials, and Themes/concepts/meanings included

topics and ideas for project development. Participants were also given the opportunity to

elaborate on the choices they made. As seen in (Table 4-3), 91% considered

project/curriculum ideas/lessons to be the most beneficial in creating a sculpture

curriculum, while 81% considered techniques for media usage important. And finally,

61% were interested in themes/concepts/meanings.

Table 4-3. Question 3 Data

Which resources would you find beneficial for creating sculpture
lessons?
91 81


Curriculum Ideas Media Techniques Themes/Concepts






For question four about media (Table 4-4), all 78 respondents answered the

question, but only 22 wrote additional comments. 76% said they use all of the materials









listed above, whereas 24% chose materials individually. Found materials ranked the

highest, being 47%, while wire came in second at 43%, then paper at 41%.

Table 4-4. Question 4 Data


What mediums would you consider using in your sculpture lesson?
76


40 41 44 39





Clay Found Paper Wire Papier All of Above
Materials Mache


In question five the respondents were asked to gauge how they include art

history in their lessons and what artists are being included in the curricula.

It was surprising to see that nearly two-thirds of the participating art teachers are

teaching a fair number of sculpture projects in comparison to the one-third who are not.

Data from question two showed that 90% of the participants use online resources for

designing lesson plans. More than half of the art teachers, 69%, used journals such as

SchoolArts to shape their lessons. In question three, 91% of participants wanted

complete lesson plans or projects that included artists, media, and techniques. Closely,

81% of participants regarded information on media techniques as important to

curriculum development. The lowest choice was 61% of the teachers chose themes or

concepts as in important resource. For question four, I was pleased to observe that 75%

of the participants considered using all of the basic materials listed. The most interesting

aspect of this data was the high number of teachers considering found materials for use

in their curriculum. Inexpensive, yet diverse materials such as wire and paper came in









second. More surprising was the low use of clay and paper mache, coming in last.

Found objects and inexpensive materials were the most popular selection.

In addition to the available choices for question four, there was an optional

writing area where the participants could write comments. Twenty-two teachers left

responses and I grouped them under four average terms: everyday/found objects,

plaster, wood, and wire. The written responses from teachers are summarized in (Table

4-4), with the most common answer being Everyday/Found Objects: cardboard, tape,

foil, recycled, fabrics, and plaster.

I was specifically looking for two concepts in the answers of question five: what

art movement or artists were addressed and how was art history included in the

curriculum. Almost 75% of the participants mentioned including an artist within their

projects. What artists are being covered? 21% of art teacher participants said they used

current contemporary artists, while nearly 54% said they covered Modernist artists. The

use of past artists to elucidate projects recalls Ash's statement: "Contemporary

sculpture bears little reference to dictionary definitions and school sculpture" (Ash,

2000, pg. 216). This may be why current contemporary sculpture isn't covered and

Modernism is so easy because of its classification.

It was even more surprising when 12 of the 53 teachers listed both Modern and

Contemporary artists. How are these practicing teachers using artists, or what is the

artist's role in their 6-12 curricula? Common derived themes: Artist Driven, Artist

Associated, and Material Associated. Artist Driven focuses totally on the artist. Artist

Associated "touches base" on the artist. Material Associated referred to projects

focused on media. Thirty-eight of the 71 said they centered a lesson on a particular









artist or art movement, while 25 of them said their projects link to an artist. Thirteen

stated that artist media was important when creating a lesson and six explained it had

did little or no art history.

The number of responses collected was satisfactory within the two week time

frame. I was surprised to see the number of sculpture projects the teachers said that

they taught. This information changed my questioning on the "low amount of sculpture

taught," to "what are they teaching." I was also pleased to receive many written

responses, which contained detailed information of the artists and materials they use

with their instruction. Overall it seems that most of the teachers base their lessons on

artists or movements, while the rest relate an artist or material to their projects. As a

result of the survey, I decided my sculpture resource projects should balance an artist or

movement with a theme or idea; not just students copying the artist's work or concept.

The data indicated that current art teachers mainly use online resources for their

sculpture curriculum, they want lesson plans or project outlines, they use a variety of

materials (most commonly found objects), and they base their curricula on artist-based

themes (most of which are Modernist). The idea of an all-inclusive project outline is

desirable when considering the helpful aspects of self-education or step-by-step

projects, fresh concepts, and less time for lesson research and development. Data

directed my resource to contain current contemporary sculptors, to incorporate

inexpensive or found objects, and to make connections to the students' lives and

surroundings.









Oak Hall Trial I Discussion

Background information given by the teacher on the Day of the Dead skeletons

was very brief. I thought the teacher should have explained more of the Day of the Dead

information regarding the purposes of the skeleton sculptures, such as festival imagery

and how they are celebrated visually in our culture in events such as Halloween.

As for character development and keeping work original, it would have been best

to have students create a list of original ideas or characters they could transfer to the

piece. I also would not show them personalized finished examples, but provide one

example showing the basic unadorned possibility. This allows the students to create a

personalized sculpture freely, while knowing basically what the product could look like,

but not specifically. Measuring their own proportions would have made the figures a little

more personal, which was a part of the figure project in my sculpture resource. I have

gained knowledge on how to keep students' projects personally original, and learned

that students are not afraid to use new materials, but take to them very well. This

information helped me create a project outline for the cooperating teacher to test

theories learned here and from the survey.

Oak Hall Trial II Discussion

The historical background of the Oaxacan sculpture was explained briefly by the

teacher. The only personal connections mentioned were the options for students to

choose a representational spirit animal or an animal from the local environment. There

could have been more background mentioned, but the teacher suggested it wasn't a

good idea to deliver all the information at once, but supplement it throughout. This

seems like the best route for explaining the art backgrounds, but would be more difficult









once the students are engaged. A teacher could supplement a little information at the

beginning of class. The current contemporary artist wasn't mentioned when I observed.

Students were really excited about the project and started brainstorming ideas for

their projects. Students came up with their own ideas for the animals, for the most part:

some mythical creatures, their interests, and others they considered imaginative. The

connections made were mostly based on what they conceived as "cool" or fun to make,

but I felt it was successful because they expressed their interests through the animal

choice and decoration.

The inexpensive materials used, such as newspaper, tape, and art paste were

easy materials for the students to use and manipulate for the most part. Using

inexpensive and easy-to-use materials was important for my sculpture resource. The

teacher did a great job demonstrating the building of body structures, legs, wings, etc.

and the students were able to translate these techniques for their own designs. This

modeling worked well and could be related to my online resource demonstrations or

YouTube sculpture videos. The students only had problems rolling the newspaper

tightly for legs and antennae. I thus created a demonstration for my resource showing

how to tightly roll newspaper. The construction and designs of the creatures were done

well, but some aesthetic or construction questions were asked and dealt with by teacher

facilitation. The only material other than those above was wire for one student's praying

mantis legs. Paper legs were too thin, so wire was taped to support the weight and

gravitational effects (Smith, 2001; Golomb, 2004).

Overall, the students enjoyed the experience and used the everyday materials

well. As for the introduction methods, I felt they could have been explained a little more,









but I was there to observe and view how the students responded to the information

provided. This project was a test in itself, because of the difficulty of making personal

connections and choice of subject matter, e.g. animals. The project overall was a

success because of the energy of the students and their enduring interest and creativity

in their final artworks. The teacher excelled in the art of demonstration and modeling a

medium, considering the students' final products. I learned that offering too much

introductory background information at once creates a loss of interest, so I would

deduce that the information given throughout would be more received.









CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSION


Throughout the research, numerous factors led to the creation of a sculpture

resource for art educators to use in the classroom. The initial research for this project

emphasized sculpture as an important area of art study. Sculpture provides

opportunities to grow as an artist by experiencing the spatial engagement, sequences of

construction, and unique elements, such as gravity. The most important findings in the

survey showed that teachers want all-in-one online project outlines containing themes,

inexpensive materials, and examples of artists' work. The survey data provided ideas

regarding what resources are available to teachers, as well as what resources would be

appreciated and used to encourage sculpture curriculum. The Oak Hall observations

and literature review supported the teacher comments in the survey; such as how to

approach students with a sculpture project, such as artists or concept-related

introductions, media demonstrations, and the use of inexpensive materials. The

literature review, survey data, and observations of project trials at Oak Hall led to the

development of an online sculpture curriculum resource that provides practical project

outlines, finished project examples, and inexpensive, everyday material demonstrations.

My online resource is just the beginning. I plan to make the website a source

composed of my projects and results, and also those of teachers who use the website. I

would like to think of it as a cooperative of teachers to post project outlines,

photographs of the students work, and hyperlinks relating to sculpture education.

This project gave me the opportunity to research what is currently available to

teachers and how they teach sculpture. I feel that the sculpture curriculum resource will









contribute to sculpture education by making it easier obtain complete project outlines

and other sculpture information, in order to teach sculpture effectively.

The project was successful because I was able to establish solid purposes for

teaching sculpture, and observed the current state of sculpture education through my

teacher curriculum survey. I was able to address the issues that arose from the

teachers' responses, such as creating complete projects that include current artists and

the use of inexpensive materials.









APPENDIX
Teacher Curriculum Survey

Teacher Curriculum Survey

1. How often do you include sculpture within your art curriculum?

Never
One to two per year
Three or more per year

2. If so, what resources do you use when developing sculpture curricula? Check all
that apply.

Online resources
Artists
Art education literature
Convention workshops

3. Which resources would you find beneficial for creating sculpture lessons?" Check
all that apply.

Project/curriculum ideas/lessons
Techniques for media usage
Themes/concepts/meanings

4. What mediums would you consider using in your sculpture lessons?

Clay
Found materials
Paper
Wire
Paper mache
All of the above

5. How do you include art history in your sculpture curriculum and what artists are
covered? Please write your answer.









LIST OF REFERENCES

Ace Gallery. (2010). Ace Gallery. Retrieved from www.acegallery.net

Addison, N. & Burgess, L. (2000). Learning in art and design. In N. Addison & L.

Burgess, Learning to teach art & design in the secondary school: A companion to

school experience. (pp. 31-56). London, UK: Rutledge Falmer.

Artnet. (2010). The art world online. Retrieved from www.art

Art: 21. (2001-2009). Art: 21. Retrieved from www.pbs.org/art21.

Ash, A. (2000). Sculpture in secondary schools: a neglected discipline. In N. Addison &

L. Burgess, Learning to teach art & design in the secondary school: A companion

to school experience. (pp. 210-219). London, UK: Rutledge Falmer.

Briggs, J. (2009). Star wars, model making, and cultural critique: a case for film study

in art classrooms. Art Education, 62(5), 39-45.

Cikanova, K. (1995). Teaching mixed media to children. New York, NY: STBS Ltd.

The Compleat Sculptor. (2010). The Compleat Sculptor, Inc. Retrieved from

http://www.sculpt.com

Cottrell, M. (2010). Imagillaboration. Retrieved from www.imagillaboration.org

Exama, T. (2007). Conceptualization of ratio: How children learn through creating 3-D

models. Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses. (AAT 1444775).

Feinstein, C. H., NetLibrary, I., & Thomas, M. (2002). Making history count [electronic

resource]: A primer in quantitative methods for historians. New York, NY:

Cambridge University Press.

Forbes, L. Lynn. (2009). Forbes gallery and school of sculpture. Retrieved from

http://www.sculptureschool.net









Garchik, M. (1988). Art fundamentals : Basics of drawing, painting, sculpture, and

printmaking. New York, NY: Stravon Educational Press.

Golomb, C. (2004). Sculpture : Representational development in a three-dimensional

medium. In Day, M. D. & Eisner, E. W., Handbook of research and policy in art

education. (pp. 329-359). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence.

Hispanic Research Center at Arizona State University. (2001). Chicana and chicano

space: A thematic, inquiry-based art education resource. Retrieved from

mati.eas.asu.edu:8421/ChicanArte/unit2/index.html

Hume, H. D. (2000). A survival kit for the elementary/middle school art teacher. San

Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Hume, H. D. (1990). A survival kit for the secondary school art teacher. West Nyack:

Center for Applied Research in Education.

International Sculpture Center. (2009). Educating sculptors: Past, present, and future.

Sculpture, 28(8), 14.

Johnson, M.F. (1983). Visual workouts. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Klaustermeier, D. (1997). Art projects by design: A guide for the classroom.

Englewood: Teacher Ideas Press. Erlbaum Associates.

Levin, G. (2010). Golan Levin and Collaborators. Retrieved from www.flong.com

Little, B. E., & National Art Education Association. (1990). Secondary art education: An

anthology of issues. Reston, VA: National Art Education Association.

Museum of Modern Art. (2009). Exhibitions and the collection. Retrieved from

www.moma.org/explore/collection/index









Punch, K.F. (2005). Introduction to social research: Quantitative and qualitative

approaches. London, UK: SAGE

Rakowitz, M. (2010). Michael Rakowitz. Retrieved from www.michaelrakowitz.com

Sculpture. (2005). [Roundtable discussion with Ken Lum, Robin Peck, Maren

Hassinger, Jay Willis, Edward Mayer, and Rita McBride]. Key issues for sculpture

education today. Sculpture. (Washington, DC). 24(8), p 12-13.

Sculpture House, Inc., (2009). Sculpture house. Retrieved from

www.sculpturehouse.com

Smith, S. L. (2001). Sculpture: A conversation with frank capello. In S. L. Smith, The

power of the arts (pp. 99-01). Baltimore: Paul H. Brooks.

Rogers, M. (2009a). Matt's blog. Message posted to http://oakhallresearch.blogspot.com/

Rogers, M. (2010). Matt's second blog spr '10. Message posted to

http://mattssecondblogspr10.blogspot.com.

Rogers, M. (2009b). Sculpture projects in art education journals. Unpublished pilot

study.

Rohrer, K. (20110). Incredible art department. Retrieved from www.incredibleart.org.

Wachowiak, F., & Clements, R. D. (2001). Emphasis art: a qualitative art program for

elementary and middle schools. New York, NY: Longman.

Wiggins, G. & McTighe, J. (1998). Understanding by design. Alexandria, VA:

Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.









BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Matt Rogers was born in Clarksburg, West Virginia, in 1981, to Dave and Judy

Rogers. Growing up on a farm outside of the small town of Lumberport, WV, he

explored the land his family has been working for over two hundred years. Matt's

mother was a first grade school teacher and his father was a dairy farmer. Matt had and

still has many hobbies including car restoration, model building, and sculpture.

After graduating high school in 1999, Matt enrolled at Glenville State College to

pursue an art education degree, but after three years, the college cut the program and

Matt was unable to finish before their deadline. That summer, Matt moved in with his

brother in Memphis, Tennessee, to find a job as a funeral director. Matt's sister-in-law,

however, thought Matt shouldn't give up his art so quickly and urged him to go to

special effects school. In special effects school, Matt found his love for sculpture and

three-dimensional form.

After graduating, he moved to Los Angeles and worked as a special effects artist

for television and film. Although he enjoyed working on shows such as CSI, NCIS, and

Sky High, Los Angeles wasn't his cup of tea. His realization that he enjoyed showing

people "how to do things" led him to reenter college to finish his Bachelor of Fine Arts

with K-12 certification, which he received from West Virginia University, in May 2008.

He decided to go to graduate school at the University of Florida that fall while he was

still in student mode. He graduated with a Master of Arts in May 2010.

Matt, his wife Katie, and dog Zero currently reside in Gainesville, but look forward

to moving to North Carolina to find careers and be closer to their families.




Full Text

PAGE 1

1 RESOURCES FOR TEACHING THREE DIMENSIONAL ART By MATTHEW D ROGERS SUPERVISORY COMMITTEE: CRAIG ROLAND, CHAIR MICHELLE TILLANDER, MEMBER ROBIN POYNOR, MEMBER A PROJECT IN LIEU OF THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UN IVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2010

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2 © 2010 Matthew D . Rogers

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3 To my Mom, the best teacher I ever had.

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank the followin g people who have assisted me with this project. Graduate school has been a wonderful experien ce with many things learned and many friendships made. I thank my supervisory committee chair Craig Roland for his wisdom, guidance, and sense of humor. He has g iven me new ways of looking at teaching and especially education ever imagined I would end up doing anything online . I thank Michelle Tillander for her passion for art education, research, and her students. I can alw ays say she was happy to see or help me whenever I walked up to her office door , regardless of what meeting she had just attended. Robin Poyno r has been more than a committee member. He has been a good neighbor, a great friend, and an inspiration. There w as always time and place to talk , no matter how busy, whether it was about school or funny stories, in his office or in the front yard. I would also like to thank many others who have helped me directly or indirectly with my work. My good friend Lindsay Lovequist, who kept me on my toes and always had something intelligent to say or argue. Celeste Roberge, who always gave me new w ays to think and speak about sculpture . I thank Gary Bone and Robert Ponz io at Oak Hall School in Gainesville for t heir motivat ional words and assistance . I thank all of the staff in the art office who always helped with a smile. Finally, I thank my wife Katie, who showed patience as I worked on this project.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS............................. .............................. .............................. ..... . . .4 LIST OF TABLES..................................................................... .............................. ..... . . . 6 LIST OF FIGURES.............................................. .............................. ...................... . . ... . . 7 ABSTRACT......................................................................................................... ..... ..... .8 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION............................................ ............................ ................ ........ 10 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................ ......... .......... ................. ......14 3 METHODOLOGY ............................................. ....................... ................ ......... .. 26 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION........................ ............................... ................ .. .. 43 5 CONCLUSION................................................. ..... ................ ........................... ... 54 A P PENDIX ............................................................................... ............... .. .............. ......56 REFER E NCES ................................................................................... .................. .. .......57 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.......................................................... ............................ .. ... . 60

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6 LIST OF TABLES Table page 1 1 Arts and Activities 1999 2008 ...................................................... ........... ............ ...19 1 2. School Arts 1999 200 8 ............................................................................. ........... ..19 4 1. Teacher Survey question 1 ............................................... .......................... ........... ..46 4 2. Tea cher Survey question 2 ............................................. ......................... ........... .....47 4 3. Teacher Survey question 3 ................................................................ ........... ......... ..47 4 4. Teacher Survey ques tion 4 ............................................. ......................... ........... .....48

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7 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 3 1. Day of the Dead project taken 2009 at Oak Hall ............................ ...... ............ ......31 3 2. Oaxacan project int roduction/demonstration taken 2010 at Oak Hall ........ ............ .33 3 3. Oaxacan project student construction taken 2010 at Oak Hall ................. ............ ..34 3 4. Yahoo Sitebuilder with sculpture resource main page .. ........................... ... ......... ...36 3 5. Yahoo Sitebuilder with sculpture resource about page . ......................... ............ .....37 3 6. Sculpture resource site specific project page, top section .................... ........... .. . ....40 3 7. Sculpture resource site spe cific project page, background section ......... ............ ... 41 3 8. Sculpture resource site specific project page, project section .......... ............ ..........42

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8 Abstract Of Project In Lieu Of Thesis Presented To The Graduate School of The Univers ity Of Florida In Partial Fulfillment Of The Requirements For The Degree Of Master Of Arts RESOURCES FOR TEACH ING THREE DIMENSIONAL ART By Matthew D Rogers May 2010 Chair: Craig Roland Major: Art Education The purpose of this project in lieu of thesis is to create a sculpture curriculum resource for art teachers. Sculpture offers a spatial engagement with depth and form to students that other artistic practices cannot. After reviewing art education literature for a pilot study conducted in 2009 , it I recognized that sculpture resources were not as available to 6 grade to 12 grade art educators as to drawing, painting, or other 2 D resources were . Since then, my research has focused on addressing the limited availability of sculpture resou rces for 6 12 art educators by developing an online curriculum resource with project outline s, project examples, and links regarding bringing sculpture into their classroom. The methods I used in this study include reviewing previous research and art edu cation literature on sculpture and curricula. I also developed and conducted a survey for practicing 6 12 art educators concerning their sculpture curriculum resources. In addition, I was able to observe local art teachers to examine practical strategies f or introducing lessons. While in the school, I field tested sculpture project outline s developed through the research.

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9 The aim of this project is to provide a convenient resource to encourage sculpture practice in the classrooms. As a result of my resear ch, I have developed an online sculpture curriculum resource that provides art teachers with practical project outline s, finished pr oject examples, material demonstrations , and links .

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10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION I first worked with three dimensional (3 D) objects when I was a young boy , makin g models and creating train dioramas. I took art classes through middle and high school but only made sculptur e once or twice. It did no t matter at the time , because I was still trying to find my artistic outlet. A t Gle nville State College, in Glenville, WV, I enrolled in the art education program , which allowed me to sample all media . This is where I really discovered s culpture for the first time. My sculpture class mainly focu sed on ceramic sculpture, but wire and wood were used as well. The professor of the class told me at the end of the se mester that I had found my medium , sculpture think much of it until I went to special effects school in Pennsylvania , where my love for sculpture surfa ced from within . It felt natural to use my hands to manipulate clay , plaster, and other media . This feeling of creating 3 D works was important to me and I feel that younger students should have the opportunity for experiencing this feeling as well. Accor ding to Smith (2001), sculpture production provides students with experiences to develop and refine fine motor skills, 3 D planning strategies, and tactile processes. Sculpture gives students the opportunities for P 211) and 1988 , p 111). Statement of the Problem Based on my experiences observing a nd teaching in art classrooms over the last four years, I had the impressio n that sculpture is taught less frequently in middle and high school classes in comparison to drawin g and painting . Why is sculpture taught less in art classrooms? Wa nting to find out why this seems to be a fact , I conducted a pilot

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11 study (Rogers, 2009 b ) t o see how sculpture was represented in the popular art education magazines , SchoolArts and Arts and Activities . R esults showed that sculpture projects were represented significantly less than drawing and painting projects . How can art educators teach sc ulp ture effectively with seeming dearth of sculpture resources ( Wachowiak & Clements, 2001) ? After experiencing how I was not offered sculptural opportunities in middle and high school and only experienced sculpture in college and work, I believe that sculptu re should be an equal part of the curriculum . I asked myself what I could do to encourage teacher s to teach more s culpture in the classroom. This led me to the question : How can I provide an accessible resource to encourage sculpture practice in middle thr ough high school art classrooms ? In my teacher curriculum survey (see appendix ), I found that art educators are indeed teaching sculpture . However, in many cases they relate the projects to mainly Modernist work instead of including more c ontemporary scu lpture . A lack of current contemporary artist r esources seem s to be a large part of the pro blem for teachers in regard to creating a meaningful sculpture experience . I attempted to create a solution to the limitation of online sculpture resources by formin g an easily accessible online sculpture resource . The resource consists of simple lessons , or project outlines , with problem solving opportunities ; project examples connecting to current contemporary artists . Overview of the Project This project in lieu o f thesis concentrated on developing an online resource for teaching middle and high school sculpture through the data gathered from my survey, review of art educational literature, and my observations and testing of sculpture

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12 project s at Oak Hall School in Gainesville, FL . Based on my observations , sculpture survey, and previous research ( Rogers (2009 b ) , I believe there are not enough sculpture resources available to art teachers considering current contemporary a rtists and inexpensive material related proj ect s . I created eight projects using inexpensive materials in easy to use project outline s to aid in the development of middle and high school sculpture curricula. Significance of the Project This project aids middle and high school art te achers by pro viding a sculpture focused curriculum resource that contains project outline s, material demons trations, and project examples. My hope is that this online resource will make it easier for teachers to bring more s culpture into their classrooms considering it s online availability, inexpensive material s or found object s , and diverse themes relating to current contemporary artists . Definition of Terms Sculpture : In this study, sculpture is defined as three dimensional ( 3 D ) forms consisting of various materia ls (wood, paper, metal, and clay) and installation. Project outline : Project plan or overview, which includes concepts and production. Maquette : Small model of a larger object Project Limitations Based on my research f rom t his project , I created a scul pture resource and made it available to art teachers online. F indings from my initial research indicated that there was a lack of answers to questions regarding why sculpture would be taught less often than two dimensional (2 D) media in the middle to high school art curriculum . Therefore, I created a survey. T he teacher curriculum survey was posted to two art education -

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13 based websites , Art Ed ucation 2.0 and The Getty Teacher Art Exchange , and left open for response for two weeks . There were a few limitation s to the survey s uch as time and the posting availability to only two online groups. While the survey could have been made available for a longer period , the data collected was none the less significant . In addition, the survey was only made available t o members of the two art education websites. C lassroom observations were limited to one school and my time there was split between two teachers, one more than the other. The Yahoo SiteBuilder program worked very well, but would experience data loss on occa sion if there were too many hyperlinks. Even with these limitations, I acquired adequate data through other research avenues for the online sculpture resource.

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14 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW I reviewed s everal types of literature regarding sculpture curri cula, materials, and methods in current art education for this project , including art education books , journal articles , and web sites . T he art education articles and texts in the S upporting Sculpture section below give s examples of important sculptural pr operties and skills students cannot learn through experiencing only 2 D media. Initially, it was necessary to find out why sculpture was important and what it offers to students. The next part of the review , in the Education Methods section , explores sculp ture teaching methods and project s over the last twenty years, such as Frank experience in over 50 years of curriculum development in art education ( Wachowiak & Clements, 2001) . The last section, Online Resource s , provides samples of what sculp ture education related information is currently available to art educators on the World Wide Web . This review was helpful in discover ing what types of projects are currently being taught in art classrooms , as well as finding out what popular methods and ma terials are being used . Understanding why sculpture is important to teach and import ant for students to experience was the driving force behind this project. A lso finding out what was taught and is currently being taught was vital to guiding my effort to b uild connections among current materials, sculptors , and curricula . Supporting Sculpture What makes sculpture worth teaching? Sculpture offers many experiences , materials, and skill building opportunities that 2 D media do not. The following literature re view investigates the work of art edu cators who recognize the special skills and media experiences that support scul pture as an important medium . Golomb (2004) suggests

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15 there are differences in sculpture and drawing development in children in relation to t heir experiences . She found that students were able to represent the human figure more effectively in regard to anatomy and proportion during some developmental stages through the use of clay than through the use of 2 D drawing . It can be said that student s understand and represent forms in clay better than they do in attempting to translate their environment onto a flat surface. Hume (2000) suggests in her book, that sculptur e encourages abstract thinking and visualization , and allows students not adept at drawing the opportunity to do well in art . This stateme suggestion that some students may do better when working in real space with 3 D materials than trying to translate 3 D form into 2 D terms . ulpture depends upon the difficulty of responding to form in three . t treats sculpture as a problem solving tool. Hume (1990) suggests that students , who typically work two dimensionally , may have problems ana lyzing how something looks (Hume, 1990, p. 125) . Drawing an object and transforming it into a 3 D version takes careful planning and observation. This is an important method and skill that students could use in sculpture and ot her studio areas to improve their work through observation. Sculptors make use of the same visual e lements of art that painters do, such as space , form , color, texture, line , and value, but sculpture is unique . Garchik (1988) states that sculpture engages 1988 , p . 111) . supports the unique spatial relationship qualities of sculpture , such as the students opportun ities an a rtwork ( Garchik, 19 88; Klaustermeier, 1997) . Depth and volume are the special

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16 qualities sculpture has in contr ast to the 2 D arts. When one is able to hold or walk around a sculpture , there is a g reater sense of reality than when experiencing 2 D works. A necdotal evidence a lso shows that sculpture improves skills. In a conversation with Smith (2001), special needs educator Frank Capello explained the benefits of teaching sculpture to his students. Capello states that the student s sculpture projects address many important de velopmental areas such as improvin g fine motor skills and problem solving skills: sequencing steps necessary to complete a proje ct and project planning. Techniques and materials vary with sculpture, but Edward Mayer , 2009) explains that sculpt ure incorporates m any techniques, materials, and concepts that integrate together, unlike 2 D arts that consist of only flat media . Sculpture students can use any media or material available to create form with depth and volume. Media C onstructive experie nces with materials vary , such as using clay and paper mâché , but elements of building and gravity play a role in all sculpture. What mak es sculpture media different fro m 2 D media , and what are the benefits of experiencing sculpture ? Smith (2001) explain s the importance of sculpture in developing fine motor skills and the importance of sequential steps when working in a 3 D medium that needs structural support. A good sculptural foundation and comprehension of gravity need to be established when experimen ting with media. Golomb (2004) focused play dough from pres chool to late middle school. research shows that

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17 developments are different from their 2 D development when rep resenting the human figure because o f the stability of the 3 D medium. Other authors ( Ash , 2000; Klaustermeier, 1997) support this idea that sculpture offers a different learning opportunity to students. As students grow older, they begin to understand th e way objects need to be structured sequentially to support their own weight. Three dimensional media such as clay or toothpicks each have their own consistent sequences of c reation that need to be followed in particular order to assure student success in sculpture projects. What type of materials can art teacher s use to create sculpture? According to Klaustermeier (1997) (p.181) . This concept supports teachers creating projects from inexpensive or free materials such as paper, natural or man ufactured found objects in order to help with budget ing (Wachowiak & Clements, 2001) . Hume ( 2000) and Jo h nson (1983) also suggest s ubst ituting found materials for typically mo re expensive media such as clay an d wood . According to a round table discussion among post secondary art educators fro m the United States, Canada, and Germany , the concept of using found materials is global Key Issues 2009). Most of the educators agree d that budgets are a large factor in ho w the y teach and organize their programs. Using found materials is one way to lower media expenses. Wachowiak and Clements (2001) , Cikanova (1995), and Johnson, (1983) also mention the use of simple material, such as cardboard.

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18 Pilot Study To deter mine how sculpture projects and resources were represented in art education magazines, I conducted a pilot study (Rogers, 2009 b ) to discover the ratio of suggested sc ulpture proje ct articles to 2 D project s from 1999 through 2009 in Arts and Activities and School Arts . I found that sculpture pro ject articles ( Table s 1.1 and 1.2 ) were significantly fewer in number and thus seemingly underrepresented in these two popular magazines . Over of the ten years reviewed, Arts and Activities had a total of 831 project ideas . Of those, only 149 were sculpture based. The findings for School Arts were similar . W ith 862 total projects, only 158 were sculpture related. The 2 D project ideas make up approximately 82% of the project s in these two popular art education magazines . I established f our variables for categorizing the curriculum ideas I collecte d: 2 D , 3 D , 4 D , and 3/ 4 D hybrid. The 2 D category contained all flat surfaced, or work and low relief work, such as tiles . Sculpture was defined as th ree dimensional forms consisting of various materials (wood, paper, metal, and clay) (Feinstein & Thomas, 2002) . T he 3 D category did not include sculpture projects involving low re lief work, pottery, or jewelry (Hume, 2000). For the purpose of this study 4 D consist ed of digital, p erformance, and time based work. I used 3/ 4 D to categorize three dimensional work used along with 4 D criteria (Table 1 1).

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19 Table 1 1. Arts and Ac tivities 1999 2008 Table 1 2. School Arts 1999 2008 I found in this pilot st udy that sculpture projects are underrepresented in Arts and Activities and School Arts magazines considering that only 18% of the projects were sculpture related based on my definitions. From the results of this literature review , I concluded there were si gnificantly fewer sculpture articles than 2 D artic les. This information led me to conduct a survey to find out where teachers get their project information ( Appendix ) .

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20 Educational Methods The sculpture section of book briefly list s diffe rent materials and techniques ( e.g. sculpting the human head and mold making) used in making sculpt ure , as well as an art history example focusing on maste r sculptor Donatello (Forbes, 2009 ). Garchik mentions four compositional aspects of sculpture : symmet rical, asymmetrical, repetitive, and radial (Garchik, 1988) . These concepts could be evaluated by students in a class critique or evaluation. What instructional methods or examples of sc ulpture education create a learning environment with challenges and pe rsonal connections ? To create a p roject resource with project plans , it was necessary to review different methods of lesson introduction , sculptor or concept themes, and media demonstration . Addison & Burgess (2000) explore d methods such as student questio n ing and discussion criteria for teaching art and desi gn that are also used in the classroom observations discussed in Chapter 3 of this project . The method s of Addison and Burgess (2000) stru c ture how sculpture instruction and project content for overall student learning effectiveness should be evaluated . T o have a successful project, t he teacher must have a clear plan showing p. 324). What criteria can teachers use to ev aluate student sculpture? Ash (2000) provides a framework for strengthening sculpture curricula in a classroom based on 12 simple elements : for m , volume, space, gravity, material, rhythm (composition), process, scale, color, environment, surface, and weigh t (balance), ( Ash, 2000 ) . Garchik (1988) adds to a list of

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21 (pg.181). These consist of subtraction, manipulation, addition, and substitution. These are all foundational sculpture techniques (Wachowiak & Clements, 2001) . While s listed elements are general, environment and gravity are very different from the typical elements of art such as space and form (Garchik, 1988) . Questi ons sculptors have to consider : Where does the sculpture go or does the environment change the work? What about gravity? Gravity works against the sculptor, so sculptors must make decisions on foundation and structure in ord er for the form not to collapse (Smith, 2000; Golomb, 2004). What teaching pr oblems arise when working with new materials in a collegiate sculpture setting ? The author (unknown) of Educating Sculptors: Past, P resent, and F uture (2009) suggests that art educators should look to the past to find answers for the future of art educatio n. Past pedago gical methods considered were for m analysis, technical drawing, nature study, and lif e drawing , which some may still consider found ations of college art education Educating Sculptors 2009). Form analysis is a typical foundation al skill f or student questioning and critique (Addison &Burgess, 2000). In critiques , students should indentify what they see visually and allow them selves to Life drawing is important a s well for considering aspects of sculpture design. When planning a project , what do teachers take into account for planning sculpture ? Wachowiak & Clements (2001) list some sculpture project issues teachers face when project media and skill instruction a re encountered by large classes. This means the teacher must plan ahead regarding class size and s pace available for certain sizes of sculptural media (Wachowiak & Clements, 2009).

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22 Where are they supposed to put all of that work? Little (1990) addressed c lassroom space issues facing art educators. Spa ce is an important factor when considering sculpture in the classroom , especially when a n art teacher ha s 600 or more students. The idea of budgeting space in the classroom is a recurring issue addressed throu ghout t he literature (Ash, 2000; Wachoviak & Clements, 2001), but no clear answers were determined . Exama ( 2007) conducted an exercise by making models of ideal classrooms by experimenting with different configurations. Teachers could experiment using this method. Only general possibilities , such as smaller work or rotation of class schedules were offered . How should an art teacher integrate cultural ideas into a sculpture project? Briggs (2009) shared a sculpture project based on the Star Wars film and i ts s cientific, historical and cultural influences. S tudents had to understand what the u nderlying questions and moral codes the movie suggested to viewers such as God and good vs. evil. The students created their own characters to be used later in a st udent produced movie. Star Wars is a film most students have seen, but they may not understand the underlying messages of religious oppression . Students would watch the film in a different way if this was learned , and might make more personal connections w hen relating to conflicts in their own culture or current news , such as issues surrounding the Gaza Strip . This article is a good example of a contemporary 3 D lesson that encompasses sculpture, and also cultivates connections to the ir interest i n the movie and calls their attention to current global conflicts .

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23 Online Resources Many online sites address sculpture curricula. S ome are tightly structured while others are simple and loosely organi z ed . The first three websites are what a teacher woul d get on the first page on Google These first few sites contain much information and many curriculum resources for art teachers. The website Art 21 ( Art:21, 2001 2009 ) focuses on current contemporary artists , such a s Mark Dion, and is organized into themes T he site is formatted to be user friendly and complete with artist backgrounds, videos, and project plans. The project plans list artist/wor k related questions as well as activities for students of all ages. T he Incredible Art Department website ( www.incredibleart.org ) is another art teacher resource that provides lesson plans developed by the art teacher site members. Incredible Art is organized into sections for different age gro ups. 2 D media is represented more than sculpture. M any museums also provid e lesson resources for teachers. For example, the St. Louis Art Museum (SLAM) p rovides a teacher resource section with cu rriculum relating to their art collections . Also, SLAM p r ovides an online gallery of collections the museum holds. The Harn Museum of Art in Gainesville, FL provides lesson plans and art teacher workshops. also focus on their collection such as African figur Rory sculpture. The lessons provide art history about the particular work, discussion questions, and project goals. The teacher workshops include a curriculum unit packet based on a theme , such as the ir co llections. Along with the curriculum packet, a material

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24 demonstration and project activity are provided . The Museum of Modern Art ( MoMA ) and Ace Gallery provide many high resolution photographs of their current and past exhibitions and also PDFs of exhibit ion press releases. Teachers can use these images to teach about a particular artist or work. In addition to the above web sites, there are many sites with specific sculpture concepts or projects . Some address cultural identification and others emphasize collaboration and teamwork . The Chicana and Chicano Space 2001) , for example, significant themes, gender balance, geographic breadth, and historical (resource page) regarding in a sculpture unit. The Chicano resource provides project introductions and questions for student connection building. Artnet.com (Artnet, 2010) is a website dedicated to the buying, selling, and research of fine art. The site lists 39,000 global artists an d their works . The Flong (Levin, 2010) website dis plays videos and photographs on interactive collaborative art by Golan Levin and his partners (2010) site is great when considering interactive collaborative sculptures . These examples are just a s ample of the many websites that can provide projects or resources for project development. Lynne Forbes (2009 ) sculpture school website concentrate s on the formal classical quali ties of figure sculpture (Garchik, 1988). The school teaches people, from children as young as three , to professional sculptors. In a discussion with Forbes , she described an interesting quality of sculpture engaging in clay sculpture. She said the students move around the work as if dancing , but also l ooking at the different planes created in the space.

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25 , by allowing the student to experience the manipulation of sculpture in the round . Since the teacher curriculum survey, the materials have focused on inexpensive found objects, but I wanted to include two companies that supply a wide variety of materials . Sculpture House ( www.sculpturehouse.com ) is another resource for teachers that offers a v ariety of literature, materials, and tools for ceramics, stone carving, clay sculpture, wood carving, and mold making. It is comparable to The Compleat Sculptor ( www.sculpt.com ), but offers some alternate types of clay and casting materials. The Compleat S culptor is a sculpture supply resource providing a variety of materials and tools such as clays and casting products. There is also technical support available for help if there is a question regarding the use of materials. The company offers demonstration s in the New York City area where it is based, but also demonstrates around the country at art trade shows .

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26 CHAPTER 3 MET H ODS OF RESEARCH Overview My initial question asked if sculpture and 2 D art were taught proportionally in grade 6 12 art classes. My pilot study (Rogers, 2009 b ) demonstrated that two popular art education magazines did not publish as many s culpture project s as 2 D projects . The pilot study led to the review of art education literature and online sculpture curriculum resources to discov er regarding sculpture curricula ; an examination of the benefits of teaching sculpture; and identification of online resources available to art teacher s. In addition to my reviewing art education literature and online r esources , I posted a teacher curriculum survey to a forum on the Art Education 2.0 website , a global social network for art educators , and on Teacher Art Exchange , an art educator email list serve ( Appendix ) . I relied on this survey to select and w rite the online sculpture resource content and materials . Am ong the things I ascertained fro m this survey was the need for current contemporary artist s related themes and the use of found materials . Among of the online resources I discovered, they involved personal websites, for example that of sculptor Michael Rackowitz (2010) . Others such as the Imagillaboration (Cot t rell, 2010) , a collective sculpture program page , inform ed projects I then developed for my sculpture resource pro jects . In addition to resources for project outlines, I found YouTube sculpture demonstrations and formulas for inexpensive materials such as cornstarch clay. I observed and implemented several project s at Oak Hall School to understand more positive projec t introduction methods, practical materia ls, and understandable themes for middle school students . T his

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27 information was used to guide the project in troductions and material demonstrations (Wachowiak & Clements, 2001). E xamples of the projects created used inexpensive or free materials, which were the criteria teachers seem ed to implement , according to the survey. ( Table 4 4 ) Teacher Curriculum Survey The purpose of the curriculum survey was to determine how frequently sculptural projects are taught in the 6 12 art curriculum and what resources art teachers use or would use to teach sculpture. The survey consisted of five questions : how many sculpture project s are typically taught by art teachers in a school year , the resources used or considered beneficial for project development, the media used, which artists have been covered , and how they were addresses in the curriculum . The use of an online survey with only fiv e brief questions made it easy for educators to participate considering their time and schedul e (Punch, 2005). The survey was posted on Art Education 2. 0 and on Teacher Art Exchange list serve for two weeks . Seventy eight anonymous middle to high school art educators were posted from around the world . I rounded all percentages to the ne arest whole number to report results . The most important finding from the survey was that most of art teachers want online project outlines contain ing themes, inexpensive materials, and artwork examples. ( Table 4 2 ) Oak Hall Observations At a local middle/ high school in Gainesville, Florida, I observed current art education practice and was also given an opportunity to test teaching strategies and projects I developed . The Oak Hall S chool has a n exceptional art program . Two art teachers share responsibiliti es in the 6 12 Upper School. One teacher focuses on 3 D

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28 arts, while the other focuses on 2 D art . I observed for seven months and noted their teaching methods. I recorded my w eekly observation on Blogger (Rogers, 2009a; Rogers, 2010) from September 2009 to April 2010 My schedule for providing project plans depended on the 3 D I observed b oth of the teachers , for the most part, use d inexpensive or everyday materials , such as cardboard and acrylic paint, on a regular basis (Wachoviak & Cle ments, 2001; Cikanova, 1995; Klaustermeier, 1997). My observati ons used a framework of objectives given by Addison & Burgess (2000). This simple framework ( below ) helped organize my thoughts, visual observations, and data synthesis. U nderstand the functio n and potential of pedagogic metho ds and their effect on learning; U se conceptual frameworks to focus your classroom observation and inform your lesson planning ; C onsider how conceptual and sensuous responses to the world effect the way students learn (p. 21). I viewed how each teacher introduced projects via brief art history and media demonstrations or project explanations (Addison & Burgess, 2001) . I noted how different ly the two teachers approached project introduction. One provided an in dep th explanation of the forth coming project , including cultural backgroun ds and media demonstrations. The other gave very brief cultural backgrounds or art origins, and demonstrated the project media briefly , or showed student examples . These two methods ass ociate with dat a from the survey: media driven and media associated. ( See page 49 ) .

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29 I chose to observe th e teacher who taught 3 D art and sculpture. For my first trial , the cooperating teacher and I decided to experiment with a new medium for a seventh gr ade sculpture project . The teacher wanted to carry out a pro ject he had not done in a while that introduces the Mexican festival, and had students create their own versions of the Day of the Dead skeletons. This seemed like a good project , given the fact t hat Halloween and All Saints Day were soon. I nstead of using pap er mâché , which he had used in the past, the supervising teacher wanted to t est a new medium in the class . The material we decided to use was DAS brand self drying paper based clay. This was a wonderful opportunity to observe how students interact ed with the material , as well as the properties of the m edium , such as malleability . This is an example of a media driven project similar to that listed in the teacher curriculum survey ( See page 48 ) . Before the student s used the DAS clay, they had to create a wire armature, which they had not done before. The Day of the Dead project was preconceived by the cooperating teacher. W hile I assisted with some information, I primarily focused on the medium d emonstrations : building wire armatures and adding the medium to the armature . We introduced this co taught project by providing students with background information on the Mex ican Day of the Dead festival. T he purpose behind the festival and the sculpture s used in it were briefly explained . The students asked a couple of questions about the aesthetic qualities of the sculpture . T he teacher then explained that they would create a character based on their own interest. A few examples fo r possible characters were mentioned by the teacher as he showed e xamples f r o m past classes . The students began to think about what character s they wanted to create. S ome of the

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30 ideas offered by the students were original. O thers were taken from the suggestions or examples prov ided . After the introduction, I started the production by giving a demonstration on building wire armatures. Building a sturdy armature is an important step for sculpture support and is a part of sequences that must be addressed in such a lesson , according to Frank Capello, (Smith, 2001). I showed the students how to cut lengths of garden wire , and where to bend with pliers . I showed students to begin with the head, then the neck, the arms , and down the rest of the body. I showed how to twist the wire for t orsos and legs for stronger support , since the legs , and torso would position the armature , according to character . The feet were looped and stapled to a piece of scrap wood , to be used as a base. T he students then began apply ing the DAS clay to the armat ures. I instructed them to start at the bottom and move upward , to provide stability . The clay dried relatively quickly as the students worked with it, but it could be moistened with water to keep it pliable for longer periods . After the sculptures finis hed drying, the students personalized the ir characters by using paint, found objects, and fabrics to clothe the skeletons. There was not a critiques held, but the s tudents were very interested in explaining who the figures w ere and why the y made their mate rial choices . After the Day of the Dead project, I developed a trial project outline for the teacher to use to instruct students. The teacher wanted a project that used paper mâché and Oaxacan animal sculptures, so I developed one c onsidering the component s .

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31 Figure 3 1 . D ay of the Dead p roject at Oak Hall School (2009) My Designed Project O utline for Oak Hall Based on a project concept by the cooperating teacher , I conducted a trial curriculum similar to those I developed for the online resource . F r om the Day of the Dead observation , I learned to consider the way one introduces the project to and allow the media to drive the project. Paper mâché was a material the teacher had not used in some time, so he wanted a pro ject based on this material. The new project was to be media based followed by lessons on the subject of Oaxacan sculpture of Mexico . I made the decision to include background information on Oaxacan people who carve animal sculptures ; and their methods and craft. In an attempt to create a st udent connection , I thought questions should be asked about cultural myths iconography such as animals , and discuss other interesting objects or people in the environment or culture .

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32 It was so mewhat difficult to create student connections because of the mythical purposes behind the original Oaxacan sculpture and also the ways the Mexican groups use found materials . The Oaxacan carvers select pieces of wood that suggest to them a particular anim al , not an object ; like a p ap er mâché piece, which is a construction . This difference furthers the student disconnection and understanding of the Oaxacan medium choices and methods. Instead of showing a variety of Oaxacan sculptures, in this project outline , I preferred the students make three sketches based on their ideas of a character using cultural myths or animals. Once the students ca me up with a few ideas, the teacher would show them exa mples of original carvings. The introduction to the project outline included four pictures of carvings: two creatures and two human based works. T hese objects seemed to generalize the sculptural designs of Oaxacan sculpture instead of showing the typical animals. In addi tion to the information provided in the project outline , I included the current contemporary artist Sergio Hernandez , whose work was influence d by Oaxacan folk art details , such as color. The Oaxacan Project Outline Trial I provided the Oax acan project outline to the art teacher a week before the project started. The art teacher introduced the project by explaining that the students would create a paper mâché project relating to the Oaxacan carvings. The teacher briefly explaine d where the O axacan people live and how they chose the wood for the carvings. The teacher did not mention the contemporary artist whose works related to

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33 the Oaxacan sculptures. He asked the students to brainstorm , to think of different animals or creatures they could c reate , based on their interests. The teacher then demonstrated how to construct different forms with newspaper and tape . In addition to forms, the teacher showed students how to roll tubes for legs and make cardboard wings ( F ig . 3 2) . Figure 3 2 . Oaxaca n project introduction/ demonstration Oak Hall School (2010) The teacher decided to use art paste for the paper mâché gluing agent. A rt paste is very inexpensive , and a small box ma kes one gallon of glue. The teacher mixed it in a Tupperware bin about 20 i nches long, 12 inches wide, and seven inches deep. The large size of the bin made it possible for multiple students to use the glue at once. The teacher demonstrated how to dip the newspaper and slide the excess off with their straight index and middle fin gers. He mentioned three layers of lightly glue d newspaper were required for proper rigidity . While most of the students continued to build, a few started gluing and seem ed to do well applying the glue dipped newspaper. When time ran out, the students put their projects onto lunch tray s to store until the next class

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34 meeting. The students finished the projects with three layers and painted them using chosen colors. Once the st udents finished brainstorming (F ig. 3 3) , they created dragons, a sheep, a flying pig, a shark, and a few insects. Some of the students chose the animals based on their interests After the demonstration, t he students began constructing their own creature forms fro m the newspaper and ta pe . The students seemed to translate the creature de signs very well with the media, which is a Sculpture Concept in my online resource. The only problems seem to be leg stability and proportions, which were solved with teacher intervention. Figure 3 3 . Oaxacan project student construction Oak Hall School (2010) Designing the Sculpture Curriculum Resource The initial idea for this project was to create a sculpture resource in a form similar to a museum travel kit . Such kits could be used by teachers wanti ng to learn a new sculpture medium or wanting to use one of the provided project outline s . The problem with the intended design was the production of th is travel kit Some teachers may not be able to afford them or have the space to store them . Considering

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35 that teacher s use the Internet for project planning , I decided to create an online resource that would always be avail able and at no cost to teachers . What would I include in this online sculpture resource? T he teacher curriculum s urvey I conducted provided me with ideas of what resources current teacher s were using in their curricula ( Appendix ) . What resources would I use to create such an online resource? Yah oo SiteB uilder seemed the most convenient program to use. I had used it t o create my personal website. I decided to link the sculpture resource s site through my sculpture portfolio site address ( www.rogersfx.com ) , but the appearance and layout of the two are very different. To maintain a separation of sites, I created no direct link back to my sculpture por t folio site. Yahoo SiteB uilder is a user friendly program , even if one do es not understand html coding. The program resembles PowerPoint with respect to its applications, tools, and options. T he tools are set up with the help menu on the left, tools on the top bar, and the web page files on the right (F ig. 3 4) . The interface orientation is very similar to mo st graphics programs and even Microsoft Word. The page components are contained in a size adjustable box that can be mad e larger or smaller, and dragged around with the mouse. On the right side , e ach file is assigned the title of the project outline or page concept and can be opened with a click . Yahoo SiteB uilder offers many choices of templates, fonts, and navigation bars for quick use . U ser s can also create their own components , since each is in a separate box and easily interchangeable or moved .

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36 Figure 3 4 . Y ahoo SiteB uilder with sculpture resource main page Yahoo SiteBuilder provides a variety of web page templates a vailable to use when initially building the pages. The template I us ed throughout the site circles bluegold , seemed a good choice because of the simple, mildly colorful background and airy appearance. The top left area contains the title of the site, The F orm Factory , followed by an identifying phrase sculpture project outline resource for art educators right. The left side of the page contains the navigation bar or menu that directs the viewer to various pages: the About page , Sculpture Concepts p age , Project Outlines page , Materials/ References page , Contact page , and a link back to the Home page ( Fig. 3 5 ) . Under the navigation bar on each page are quotes that range from those of artists to scientists, such as Bruce Nauman . In the central area of the page is the main content , ranging from key ideas to project outline menus.

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37 Figure 3 5 . Yahoo Sitebuilder with sculpture resource A bout page The home page introduces the viewer with a brief statement describing the website. T he A bout page consists of a brief statemen t about the resource and its background. A brief biographical statement explains my background as a sculptor and art educator. The resource statement explains how sculpture project resources could not be found in one place, and that I deci ded t o create that one place . This section needed to be brief, but explain my background and intention. The S culpture C oncepts page central section lists fiv e important sculpture concepts I chose to incorporate throughout the project outline s . Students sh ould: E xpress themselves through various 3 D materials and processe s K now past and present sculptors and their contributions to art, culture, and society T ranslate ideas into 3 D media to create various sculptures V alue the real or actual space a nd time qualities of sculpture

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38 S peak critically and constructively about sculpture. sculpture that I listed in my literature review. These elements, similar to the elements and pri nciples of art, mainly focus on the qualities of sculpture. The Media/References page contains links to ste p by step media demonstrations I conducted, s uch as building a wire armature; or a link to YouTube demonstration videos, such as figure sculpture. Be low the media section are links to the references I used to create the project outlines. Some of these include artist websites, photographs used, and journal articles. The Contact page allows the viewer to contact me with any comment s, questions, or proje ct ideas they would like to share. The message is sent to a hotmail account created for this purpose. Project Outline Development The project outline s pa ge lists the projects I created: Collaborative Exchange, Collective Conceptions, Formally Functional , Structural Community, Site Specific, Online Environments, Folk Art, and Figure it Out. The project s needed to be simple, to the point, and easily modifiable for any middle or high school level. The structure of the project outline s was based on a traditi onal art teaching format: studio production, art history , and critical analysis. I considered this format , but the rigid structures of production and art history were discarded . I attempted to use an open ended str ucture based on student problem solving, c reativity, art history, and production. T he format needed to be kept flexible and t he project outline s needed to make it easy to peruse the

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39 main points highlighted. Also, I intentionally placed the background information close to the supporting artist exam ples . D ecisions on what project s to use and their components were based partly on inf ormation gathered from the sculpture survey, classroom observation , and literature review. All of these research methods provided clues on materials, such as everyday ob jects, the need for current artists or project background, and project introduction methods or student motivational tactics. I created each of the project outlines by referencing the backward curriculum design by Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe (1998). The first aspect to consider for method is to identify the learning goal. W hat will the students under stand as a result of this project? Each project outline has an The objective is project specific, but is accompanie d with sculpture concept(s) which may be included in other projects. I wanted to create pro blems for the students to solve. For might suggest they brainstorm ideas, make personal connections, or experiment with materials unfamiliar to t hem ( Johnson, 1983 ) . With this in mind , the students would have more control over the project and be able to make personal decisions pertaining to its execution. Online Project Outlines The P roject O utline s page is set up as a navigation page with project links in the center section in columns and range from collaborative sculpture to figurative sculpture. The viewer goes directly to the project outline page upon clicking the link on the navigation bar . The project outline pages in ( F ig. 3 6 ) , are all form atted the same, but

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40 the content varies. On each project outline page, there are Sculpture Concept and O bjective sections explaining what will be lea rned from this particular project (F ig. 3 6) . The Student Preparation section ( F ig. 3 6 ) , below the objectiv e gives quick suggestions to prompt student or classroo m discussion about the p roject (Addison & Burgess, 2000; Wachowiak & Clements, 2001) . These prompts may be in the form of questions or project related ideas for the studen ts to commen t on or brainstorm (Hume, 1990). This is an important section , giving the students the opportunity to think creatively about the concepts and make connections to their environment or lives. Figure 3 6 . Sculpture resource site specific project page , top section As the view er s croll s down the page , he/she comes to the background section ( F ig. 3 7 ) , which contains historical information related to the topic or artists covered. The amount of information in the background varies , depending on the type of project. For instance, the site specific project outline has a background on artists such as Richard Serra and his work. P roject backgrounds may vary in contain ing additional questions or bulleted data . In addition to backgrounds on artists, there are links to other

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41 websites reg arding more information on the topic Tilted Arc , and the controversy around it. Figure 3 7 . Sculpture resource site specific project page, background section The last portion s of the page are the Project and Project Mat erials section s ( F ig. 3 8 ) , which contains step by step instructions for the actual studio production and suggested media for the project . The Project section highlights in the text the key actions or activities , such as write, desi gn , and demonstrate , to complete the work . Under the Project is the Assessment section that lists possibilities qualities and discussion. Finally, to the right side of t he Project section is the list of Beneath Assessment is a link to a printable PDF version for the teacher. I chose to keep the pages simple and free from clutter , to keep it easily readable. Throughout each proj ect outline page there are visuals that consist of related artist work, provided by F lickr C reative C ommons or other public domain sources, and

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42 finished e xamples of the project that I provided. Below the project is a photograph of the project example. F igure 3 8. Sculpture resource site specific project page, project and material section

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43 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSI ON This project was guided by the question : How can I provide an accessible resource to encourage sculpture practice in middle through hig h school classrooms ? The literature rev iew and survey were the main focus es of this project in order to support the need for sculpture to design projects relating to current contemporary artists and make the use of inexpensive materials . The sculpture reso urce website needed to be simple , e asily adaptable, and contain relevant content that creates challenging projects with studen t connections to contemporary art . The teacher curriculum survey showed what current art teachers are using for project content an d materials , e.g. Modernist sculpture. Their responses indicated how projects were structured , such as basing a project on an artist or focusing a project on the use of media . After reviewing the literature that supports my project , I w as able to a nswer the question: w hat makes sculpture worth teaching? Sculpture offers the opportunity for the strengthening of motor skills and for following sequences of instruction to maintain sculptural form because of gravitational effects . I have addressed the equencing of on my Media/Reference page in my sculpture resource . In addition to the sequential steps, I created opportunities in my projects to allow students to experience . These qualities allow students to w ork with and understand actual depth and volume (K laustermeier, 1997; Forbes, 2009 ). In my resource, I also addressed the use of everyday materials to alleviate bud geting constraints , which was mentioned throughout my review (Smith, 2001; Klaustermeier, 1997 ; Wachowiak & Clements, 2001) .

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44 Ash (2000) provided valuable insights for my research , addressing the concern around the lack of sculpture in art education. Within the sculpture curriculum resource developed, e listed under the sculpture concepts. S even of the twelve elements were included in the project outlines , such as environment , in the site specific project. I wanted to include these elements to assist teachers in the identification of sculptural properti es. The format and step by step provided an example of demonstration staging for the project outlines , all of which helped to give insight on teaching methods . Ly nn Forbes classes in Greek classical figure sculpture do not provide current contemporary artist examples, but the classes allow students to experience the manipulative engagement and dance like qualities sculpture provides to students (Forbes, 2009 ) . Creating a sculpture environment p rovides students with an engaging experience with form as opposed to that provided by 2 D surf ace artworks. The Sculpture journal article 2009) was written to suggest what students face in college when studying sculpture, so I provide d a re source that encourages sculpture in their pre secondary curriculum Educating ). It gave m e the opportunity to think about what is being said regarding sculpture education in the college setting and what to consider if high school students are going to study fine arts in college . Including fo rmal analysis during a critique prepares them for this . One type of planning strategy suggested keep ing sculptures relatively small to medium size or to create the p roject out of the classroom (Little, 1990 ; Wachowiak & Clements , 2001). One of my projects focuses on large , site specific sculpture s , but

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45 stud ents cannot create these in class. I thus created the opportunity for t hem to think large, but to create a maquette for a larger piece in an open envi ronment. My pilot study (Rogers, 2009 b ) provided me with the information to further research sculpture resources available to art teachers . I found a lack of representation considering that 82% of Arts and Activities and SchoolArts consisted of 2 D related projects . The online resources I reviewed provided many different types of information regarding sculpture and art education. Some of the websites such as the Incredible Art Department (Rohrer, 2010) and Art: 21 ( Art: 21, 2009 ) provided full lesson p lans . The se website s are both useful to my research , but the Art : 21 site structures the projects within themes and allows the teac her to teach sculpture and also other media under a common topic projects focus on current conte mporary artists. Museum websites such as MoMA p rovide project ideas, but allow educators to view and use photographs of artwork in their collections , for research and curriculum development. In addition to these museums, t he Harn Museum of Art provides t ea cher workshops and curricula based on their collections , and over arching themes, such as African art or sculpture. The Harn type resources that museums provide work well if used abroad, but work even better if the students are able to visit the facilities . I addressed the idea of current c ontemporary artists in my sculpture resource because of the current cultural themes in . The Chicana and Chicano Space website provides questions for creating student discourse on personal connections to the project or topic 2001). Museum web sites and online galleries , such as the Ace Gallery and the Museum of Modern Art, provide

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46 sculptor information and work from their past and current exhibitions (Ace Gallery, 2010; of 2009). These online exhibitions are beneficial to an art teacher when observing a variety of sculptors an d their artworks for projects. The exhibitions provide the opportunity for teachers to preview works quickly in order to find an artist to research later. Curriculum Survey Results and Discussion R esults for question one of the survey showed that 63 % of the 78 participants teach more than three sculpture lessons throughout the year, whereas 36% sa id they do one to two per year ( Table 4 1) . Table 4 1. Question 1 Data Of the 77 participants for question two, 90% answered that t hey mainly use online resources f or creating sculpture curricula , while artist information came in at 79%. The third highest answer was a rt education literature (e.g. SchoolArts ) with 69 % ( Table 4 2) .

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47 Table 4 2. Question 2 Data In question three, the project/curriculum ideas/lessons item encompassed the sub concepts of media, techniques , and related artists, Techniques for media usage considered step by step demos for material s, and Themes/concepts/meanings included topics and ideas for project development . P articipants were also given the opportunity to elaborate on the choices they made. As seen in ( Table 4 3 ) , 91% considered project/curriculum ideas/lessons to be the most beneficial in creating a sculpture curriculum, while 81% considered techniques for media usage important. And finally, 61% were interested in themes/concepts/meanings . Table 4 3. Question 3 Data F or question four about media ( Table 4 4 ) , all 78 respondents answered the question, but only 22 wrote additional comments. 76% said they use all of the materials

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48 listed above, whereas 24% chose materials individually . Found materials ranked the highest , being 47%, while wire came in second at 43%, then paper at 41 %. Table 4 4. Question 4 Data In question f ive the respondent s w ere asked to gauge how they include art history in their lesson s and what artists are be ing included in the curricula. It was su rprising to see that nearly two thirds of the participating art teachers are teaching a fair number of sculpture project s in comparison to the one third who are not. Data from question two s howed that 90% of the participants use online resources for designing lesson plans . Mo re than half of the art teachers, 69 %, used journals such as School Arts to shape their lessons. In question three, 91% of participants wanted complete lesson plans or pro jects that included artists, media, and techniques. Closely, 81% of participants regarded information on media techniques as important to curriculum development. The lowest choice was 61% of the teachers chose themes or concepts as in important resource. F or question four, I was pleased to observe that 75% of the participants considered using all of the basic materials listed. The most interesting aspect of this data was the high number of teachers considering found materials fo r use in their curriculum. In expensive, yet diverse materials such as wire and paper came in

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49 second . More surprising was the low use of clay and paper mâché , coming in last. F ound objects and inexpensive materials were the most popular selection. In addition to the available choices for question four, there was an optional writing area where the participants could write comments. Twenty two teachers left responses and I grouped them under four average terms: everyday/found objects, plaster, wood, and wire. The written responses from t eachers are summarized in ( T able 4 4 ) , with the most common answer being Everyday/Found Objects : c ardboard, tape, foil, recycled, fabrics, and plaster. I was specifically looking for two concepts in the answers of question five: what art movement or arti sts were addressed and how was art history included in the curriculum . Almost 75% of the participants mentioned including an artist within their project s. What artists are being covered? 21% of art teacher participants said they used current contemporary a rtists, while nearly 54% said they covered Modernist artists. The sculpture bears little reference to dictionary d efinitions and school sculpture 2000, pg. 216 ) . This m ay be why current c Modernism is so easy because of its classification. It was even more surprising when 12 of the 53 teachers listed both Modern and Contemporary artists . How are these practicing teachers using art ists , or what is the 6 12 curricula? Common derived themes : Artist Driven, Artist Associated, and Material Associated . Artist D riven focuses totally on the artist. Artist A ssociated Material Associated r eferred to projects focused on media . Thirty eight of the 71 said they centered a lesson on a particular

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50 artist or art movement, while 25 of them said their projects link to an artist. Thirteen stated that artist media was important when creating a lesson and six explained it had did little or no art history. The number of responses collected was satisfactory within the two week time frame. I was surprised to see the number of sculpture projects the teachers said that they taught. This information changed low amount of sculpture I was also pleased to receive many written res ponses , which contained detailed information of t he artists and materials they use with their instruction . Overall it seems that most of the tea chers base their lessons on artists or movements, while the rest relate an artist or material to their projects . As a result of the survey, I decided my sculpture resource project s should balance an artist o r movement with a theme or id ea; or concept. The data indicated that current art teachers mainly use online resources for their sculpture curriculum, they want lesson plans or project outlines , they use a variety of materials (most commonl y found objects), and they base their curricula on artist based themes (most of which are Modernist ). The idea of an all inclusive project outline is desirable when considering the helpful aspects of self education or step by step projects , fresh concepts, and less time for lesson research and development. D ata directed my resource to contain current contemporary sculptors, to incorporate inexpensive or found objects , surroundings.

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51 Oak Hall Trial I Discuss ion B ackground information given by the teacher on the Day of the Dead skeletons was very brief . I thought the teacher should have explained more of the Day of the Dead information regarding the purposes of the skeleton sculpture s , such as festival imagery and how they are celebrated visually in our culture in events such as Halloween . As for character development and keeping work original, it would have been best to have students create a list of or iginal ideas or characters they could transfe r to the pie ce. I also would not show them personalized finished examples, but provide one example showing the basic unadorned possibili ty. This allows the students to create a personalized sculpture freely , while knowing basically what the product could look like, bu t not specifically. Measuring their own proportions would have made the figures a little more personal, which was a part of the figure project in my sculpture resource. I have , and lear ned that students are not afraid to use new materials, but take to them very well. This information helped me create a project outline for th e cooperating teacher to test theories learned here and from the survey. Oak Hall Trial II Discussion The histor ical background of the Oaxacan sculpture was explained briefly by the teacher. The only personal connections mentioned were the options for students to choose a representational spirit animal or an animal from the local environment. There could have been m ore background mentioned, but the teacher suggested it wasn good idea to deliver all the information at once, but supplement it throughout. This seems like the best route for explaining the art backgrounds , but would be more difficult

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52 once the students are engaged. A teacher could supplement a little information at the beginning of class. The current S tudents were really excited about the project and started brainstorming ideas for their projects. S tudents came up with their own ideas for the animals, for the most part: som e mythical creatures, their interests , and others they considered imaginative. The , but I felt i t was successful because they expressed their interests through the animal choice and decoration. The inexpensive materials used, such as n ewspaper, tape, and art paste were easy materials for the students to use an d manipulate for the most part . Using i nexpensive and easy to use materials was important for my sculpture resource. The teacher did a great job demonstrating the building of body structures, legs, wings, etc. and the students were able to translate these techniques for their own designs. This modeling worked well and could be related to my online resource demonstrations or YouTube sculpture videos. The student s only had problems rolling the newspaper tightly for legs and antennae . I thus created a demonstration for my resource showing how to ti ghtly roll newspaper. The construction and designs of the creatures were done well, but some aesthetic or construction que stions were asked and dealt with by teacher f acilitation. The only material mantis legs. Paper legs were too thin, so wire was taped to support the weight and gravitational effects (Smith , 2001 ; Golomb, 2004). Overall, the students enjoyed the experience and used the everyday materials well. As for the introduction methods , I fe lt they could have been explained a little more,

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53 but I was there to observe and view how the students responded to the information provided. This project was a test in itself , because of the difficulty of making personal connections and choice of subject m atter, e.g. animals. The project overall was a success because of the energy of the students and their enduring interest and creativity in their final artworks . The teacher excelled in the art of demonstration and modeling a medium , considering the student s final p roducts . I learned that offering too much introductory background information at once creates a loss of interest, so I would deduce that the information given throughout would be more received.

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54 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION Throughout the research , num erous factors led to the creation of a sculpture resource for art educators to use in the classro om. The initial research for this project emphasized sculpture as an important area of art study . Sculpture provides opportunities to grow as an artist by expe riencing the spatial engagement, sequences of construction, and unique elements, such as gravity. The most important findings in the survey showed that teacher s want all in one online project outlines contain ing themes, inexpensive materials, and examples work. The survey data provided ideas regarding what resources are available to teacher s , as well as what resources would be appreciated and used to encourage sculpture curriculum. The Oak Hall observations and l iterature review supported the t eacher comments in the survey; such as how t o approach stude nts with a sculpture project, such as artist s or concept related introductions, media demonstrations, and the use of inexpensive materials . T he literature review , survey data , and observations of project trials at Oak Hall le d to the development of an online sculpture curriculum resource that provides practical project outline s, finished project examples, and inexpensive, everyday material demonstrations. My online resource is just the beginning . I p lan to make the website a source composed of my projects and results, and also those of teachers who use the website . I would like to think of it a s a cooperative of teachers to post project outlines, photographs of the students work, and hyperlinks r elating to sculpture education. This project gave me the opportunity to research what is currently available to teachers and how they teach sculpture. I feel that the sculpture curriculum resource will

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55 contribute to sculpture education by making it easie r obtain complete project outlines and other sculpture information , in order to teach sculpture effectively. The project was successful because I was able to establish solid purposes for teaching sculpture , and observed the current state of sculpture edu cation through my teacher curriculum survey. I was able to address the issues that arose from the , such as creating complete projects that include current artists and the use of inexpensive materials.

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56 APPENDIX T eacher Curriculum S ur vey Teacher Curriculum Survey 1. How often do you include sculpture within your art curriculum? Never One to two per year Three or more per year 2. If so, what resources do you use when developing sculpture curricula? Check all that apply. Online resources Artists Art education literature Convention workshops 3. Which resource Check all that apply. P roject/curriculum ideas/lessons T echniques for media usage Themes/concepts/meanings 4. What mediums would you consider u sing in your sculpture lessons? Clay F ound materials Paper Wire Paper mâché A ll of the above 5. How do you include art history in your sculpture curriculu m and what artists are covered? Please write your answer.

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57 LIST OF REFERENCES Ace Gallery. (2010). Ace Gallery . Retrieved from www.acegallery.net Addison, N. & Burgess, L. (2000). Learning in art and design. In N. Addison & L. Burgess, Learning to teach art & design in the secondary school: A companion to school experience . (pp. 31 56). London , UK : Rutledge Falmer. Artnet. (2010). The art world online. Retrieved from www.art Art: 21. (2001 2009 ). Art: 21. Retrieved from www.pbs.org/art21. Ash, A. (2000). Sculpture in secondary schools: a neglected discipli ne. In N. Addison & L. Burgess, Learning to teach art & design in the secondary school: A companion to school experience . (pp. 210 219) . London , UK : Rutledge Falmer. Briggs, J. (2009). Star wars, model making, and cultural critique: a case for film study in art classrooms. Art Education , 62 (5), 39 45. Cikanova, K. (1995). Teaching mixed media to children. New York , NY : STBS Ltd. The Com p leat Sculptor. (2010). The Compleat Sculptor, Inc. Retrieved from http:// www.sculpt.com Cottrell, M. (2010). Imagillaboration . Retrieved from www.imagillaboration.org Exama, T. (2007). Conceptualization of ratio: How children learn through creating 3 D models . Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses. (AAT 1444775). Feinstein, C. H., NetLibrary, I., & Thomas, M. (2002). Making history count [electronic resource] : A primer in quantitative methods for historians . New York , NY : Cambridge University Press. Forbes, L. Lynn. (2009). F orbes gallery and school of sculpture . Retrieved from http://www.sculptureschool.net

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58 Garchik, M. ( 1988 ). Art fundamentals : Basics of drawing, painting, sculpture, and printmaking . New York , NY : Stravon Educational Press. Golomb, C. (2004). Sculpture : Representational development in a three dimensional medium. In Day, M. D. & Eisner, E. W. , Handbook of research and policy in art education . (pp. 329 359). Mahwah , NJ : Lawrence . Hispanic Research Center at Arizona State University. ( 2001). Chicana and chicano space: A thematic, inquiry based art education resource. Retrieved from mati.eas.asu.edu:8421/ChicanArte/unit2/index.html Hume, H. D. (2000). A survival kit for the elementary/middle school art teacher . San Francisco , CA : Joss ey Bass. Hume, H. D. (1990). A survival kit for the secondary school art teacher . West Nyack: Center for Applied Research in Education . International Sculpture Center. (2009). Educating sculptors: Past, present, and future. Sculpture, 28 (8), 14. Johnson, M.F. (1983). Visual workouts. Englewood Cliffs , NJ : Prentice Hall. Klaustermeier, D. (1997). Art projects by design : A guide for the classroom . Englewood : Teacher Ideas Press. Erlbaum Associates. Levin, G. (2010). Golan Levin and Collaborators . Retrieved from www.flong.com Little, B. E., & National Art Education Association. (1990). Secondary art education : A n anthology of issues . Reston , VA : National Art Education Association. Museum of Modern Art. (2009). Exhibitions and the collection. Retrieved from www.moma.org/explore/collection/index

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59 Punch , K.F. (2005). I ntroduction to social research: Quantitative and q ualitative a pproaches . London , UK : SAGE Rakowitz, M. (2010). Michael Rakowitz. Retrieved from www.michaelrakowitz.com Sculpture. (2005). [ Roundta ble discussion with Ken Lum, Robin Peck, Maren Hassinger, Jay Willis, Edward Mayer, and Rita McBride ] . Key issues for sculpture education today. Sculpture . ( Washington, DC ). 24 (8), p 12 13. Sculpture H ouse , Inc. , ( 2009 ). Sculpture house . Retrieved from www.sculpturehouse.com Smith, S. L. (2001 ). Sculpture: A conversation with frank capello. In S. L. Smith, The power of the arts (pp. 99 01). Baltimore: Paul H. Bro oks. Rogers, M. (2009a ). g . Message posted to http://oakhallresearch.blogspot.com/ Rogers, M. (2010). . Message posted to http://mattssecondblogspr10.blogspot.com . Rogers, M. (2009 b ). Sculpture projects in art education journals . Unpublished pilot study . Rohrer, K. (20110). Incredible art department. Retrieved from www.incredibleart.org . Wachowiak, F., & Clements, R. D. (2001). Emphasis art: a qualitative art program for elementary and middle schools. New Y ork , NY : Longman. W iggins , G. & McT ighe , J. (1998 ). Understanding by design. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development .

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60 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Matt R ogers was born in Clarksburg, West Virginia , in 1981 , to Dave and Judy Rogers. Growing up on a farm outside of the small t own of Lumberport, WV , he explo red the land his family has been working mother was a first grade school teacher and his father was a dairy farmer. Matt had and still has many hobbies including car restoration, model build ing, and sculpture. After graduating high school in 1999, Matt enrolled at Glenville State College to p ursue an art education degree, but a fter three years, the college cut the program and Matt was un able to finish befo re their deadline . That summer, Matt moved in with his brother in Memph is , Tennessee , in law , however, thought and urged him to go to special effects school . In special effects school , Matt found his love for sculpture and three dimensional form . After graduating , he moved to Los Angeles and worked as a special effects artist for television and film. Although h e enjoyed working on shows such as CSI, NCIS, and Sky High, ea. His realization that he enjoyed showing led him to reenter college to finish his Bachelor of Fine Arts with K 12 certification, which he received from West Virginia U niversity , in May 2008. He decided to go to graduate school at the University of Florida that fall while he was still in st udent mode. He graduated with a Master of Arts in May 2010. Matt, his wife Katie, and dog Zero currently reside in Gainesville, but look forward to moving to North Carolina to find careers and be closer to their families.