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El Pitirre

Material Information

Title:
El Pitirre
Uniform Title:
Pitirre (Camarillo, Calif.)
Abbreviated Title:
Pitirre (Camarillo Calif.)
Creator:
Wiley, James W
Wiley, James W
Society of Caribbean Ornithology
Society for the Study of Caribbean Ornithology
Place of Publication:
Camarillo Calif
Camarillo, Calif
Publisher:
Society for the Study of Caribbean Ornithology
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Bimonthly
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Ornithology -- Periodicals -- Caribbean Area ( lcsh )
Birds -- Periodicals -- Caribbean Area ( lcsh )
Genre:
periodical ( marcgt )
serial ( sobekcm )

Notes

Language:
In English, with some Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1, no. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1988)-
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Ceased in 2002.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Vol. 1, no. 3 covers the period May-Aug. 1988.
Issuing Body:
Newsletter of the Society for the Study of Caribbean Ornithology, Jan/Feb.-Mar./Apr. 1988; the Society of Caribbean Ornithology, May/Aug. 1988-
General Note:
Editor, 1988- James W. Wiley.
General Note:
Latest issue consulted: Vol. 15, no. 1 (spring 2002) (Surrogate)

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Copyright Society for the Study of Caribbean Ornithology. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
23284416 ( OCLC )
sn 99004863 ( LCCN )
1527-7151 ( ISSN )

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SOCIEDAD CARIBEITA DE ORNITOLOGIA


CONTENTS


A NEW FAMILY AND GENUS OF BIRD (AVES: CAPRIMULGIFORMES: NYCTIBIIDAE) FOR CUBA.
Orestes Martinez, Orlando H. Garrido, George B. Reynard, William Sudrez, Arturo Kirkconnell, and
J a m e s W . W iley ......................................................... ................. ..... ........................ .................................................... 6 5
MEETING ANNOUNCEMENT: 2001 MEETING OF THE SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY .............. 67
AVIFAUNA ASSOCIATED WITH THE AQUATIC AND COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS OF CAYO COCO, CUBA.
B rbara S nchez and D aysi R odriguez ............................................................................... .................................... 68
REQUEST FOR ASSISTANCE: COLOR BANDED LITTLE EGRETS ................................................................ 75
OBSERVACIONES Y ADICIONES A LA ORNITOFAUNA DEL ARCHIPELAGO SABANA-CAMAGUEY,
CUBA, 1998-2000. Frangois I.i , , Pedro Blanco Rodriguez, Michel Roberty Elieser Socarrds Torres ........... 76
NEW PUBLICATION: PUERTO RIco's BIRDS IN PHOTOGRAPHS, Second Edition, by Mark W. Oberle ......................... 81
LISTA PRELIMINARY DE LA AVIFAUNA MARINO-INSULAR Y LITORAL DEL PARQUE NATIONAL
MOCHIMA, VENEZUELA. Gedio Marin E., Jose R. Rodriguez, Marti Vdsquezy Roberto Egdciez ................... 82
REVIEW ERS FOR EL PITIRRE VOLUM E 13 .................................................................................................................... 87
LEUCISM IN CRESCENT-EYED PEWEE (CONTOPUS CARIBAEUS) IN WESTERN CUBA. GuyM. Kirwan and
A rtu ro K irk c o n n e ll .......................................................................................................................................................... 8 8
GIANT COWBIRD (SCAPHIDURA ORYZIVORA): A NEW BIRD FOR BARBADOS AND THE WEST INDIES.
Martin Frost . ....................... .......................................... .... 89
AN OBSERVATION OF ANTILLEAN NIGHTHAWK (CHORDEILES GUNDLACHII) ON BARBADOS.
M a rtin F r o s t ................................................................................................................................................................... 9 0
NESTING OF THE ORANGEQUIT (EUNEORNIS CAMPESTRIS) IN JAMAICA. Marcia Mundle .............................. 91
IM PORTANT NOTICE: NEW ADDRESS FOR SOCIETY TREASURER ................. ............ ................................ ...... 91
GRENADA HOOK-BILLED KITE SURVEYS AND NESTING ACTIVITY. Russell Thorstrom, EdwardMassiah,
and Christi Hall ............................ ............. ............................. 92
WINGED AMBASSADORS: BIRD CONSERVATION IN THE CARIBBEAN. U. S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Office of
International rr, . , . .................................... ........................................................................ ......... 93
INMEMORIAM: LISA SALMON, 10 NOVEMBER 1907 - 2 AUGUST 2000. Leo Douglas ................................ 97
NEW PUBLICATIONS ON W EST INDIAN BIRDS........................ .................................................. ............................ 98
STATUS AND CONSERVATION OF WEST INDIAN BIRDS, Edited by E. A. Schreiber and D. S. Lee ............................ 98
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ORNITHOLOGY IN THE WEST INDIES, by James W. Wiley .................. ............................... 98
BIRD SONGS IN JAMAICA, by George B. Reynard and Robert L. Sutton ....................................... INSIDE BACK COVER
FIELD GUIDE TO THE BIRDS OF CUBA, by Orlando H. Garrido and Arturo Kirkconnell .............. INSIDE BACK COVER
SU G GESTION S TO A U TH O R S ........................................................................................................ OUTSIDE BACK COVER


EL PITIRRE


SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY

Fall 2000 Vol. 13, No. 3
(ISSN 1527-7151)


Yrvuw~ :;











EL PITIRRE


THE BULLETIN OF THE SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY
EL BOLETIN INFORMATIVE DE LA SOCIEDAD CARIBENA DE ORNITOLOGIA


Editor: James W. Wiley, 2201 Ashland St., Ruston, Louisiana 71270 USA Telephone: (318) 274-2499 or 274-
2399; Fax: (318) 274-3870; e-mail: wileyjw@alpha0.gram.edu
Assistant Editors: Barbara Keesee, Shawn O'Brien, Alma Ramirez, and Herlitz Davis, Grambling Cooperative
Wildlife Project, PO Box 841, Grambling State University, Grambling, Louisiana 71245 USA.
Special thanks to Jos6 Julian Placer and Alma Ramirez for providing assistance with Spanish-language manu-
scripts.

News, comments, requests, and manuscripts should be mailed to the editor for inclusion in the newsletter.
Noticias, comentarios, peticiones y manuscritos deben ser enviadas al editor para inclusion en el boletin.



THE SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY

PRESIDENT: Mr. Eric Carey
VICE PRESIDENT: Mr. Maurice Anseleme
SECRETARY: Dr. Marcia Mundle
TREASURER: Dr. Rosemarie S. Gnam

The Society of Caribbean Ornithology is a non-profit organization whose goals are to promote the scientific
study and conservation of Caribbean birds and their habitats, to provide a link among island ornithologists and
those elsewhere, to provide a written forum for researchers in the region, and to provide data or technical aid to
conservation groups in the Caribbean.

La Sociedad Caribefia de Ornitologia es una organizaci6n sin fines de lucro cuyas metas son promover el estu-
dio cientifico y la conservaci6n de la avifauna caribefia, auspiciar un simposio annual sobre la ornitologia caribe-
fia, ser una fuente de comunicaci6n entire ornit6logos caribefios y en otras areas y proveer ayuda t6cnica o datos
a grupos de conservaci6n en el caribe.



MEMBERSHIP AND SUBSCRIPTIONS

Any person interested in West Indian birds may become a member of the Society of Caribbean Ornithology.
All members receive the Society's bulletin, El Pitirre. Regular membership rates are US$20 per year. Institu-
tional subscriptions are US$120 per year. Memberships of interested persons who are not able to pay regular
dues may be subsidized by the Society. Send check or money order in U. S. funds with complete name and
address to: Dr. Rosemarie S. Gnam, PO Box 863208, Ridgewood, NY 11386 USA.









The Society of Caribbean Ornithology thanks the Office of International Affairs of the
U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service for their support, including a grant for publishing El Pitirre.












SOCIEDAD CARIBERA DE ORNITOLOGIA



S EL PITIRRE

SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY

Fall 2000 Vol. 13, No. 3




A NEW FAMILY AND GENUS OF BIRD (AVES: CAPRIMULGIFORMES: NYCTIBIIDAE) FOR CUBA

ORESTES MARTINEZ', ORLANDO H. GARRIDO2, GEORGE B. REYNARD3,
WILLIAM SUAREZ2, ARTURO KIRKCONNELL2, AND JAMES W. WILEY4
1Estacidn Ecol6gica Cienaga de Zapata, Carretera a Playa Larga km 26, Cienaga de Zapata, Matanzas, Cuba; 2M1useo
National de Historia Natural de Cuba, La Habana, Cuba; 3105 Midway, Riverton, New Jersey, 08077 USA; 4Grambling
Cooperative Wildlife Project, US Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, PO Box 841, Grambling, Louisiana
71245 USA

Abstract.-The Northern Potoo (Nyctibius jamaicensis) is reported for the first time from Cuba, based on vocali-
zations, sightings, and feathers from the Ci6naga de Zapata (Matanzas province) and Sierra de Anafe (La Habana
province). In the West Indies, N. jamaicensis has been reported only from Hispaniola (including Ile de la Gonave)
and Jamaica.
Resumen.-UNA NUEVA FAMILIAR Y GENERO DE AVE (AVES: CAPRIMULGIFORMES: NYCTIBIIDAE) PARA CUBA. El
Potu (Nyctibius jamaicensis) se report por primera vez para Cuba de dos localidades, Ci6naga de Zapata
(provincia de Matanzas) y Sierra de Anafe (provincia de la Habana). Su presencia ha sido detectada en base a voca-
lizaciones grabadas y a la identificaci6n de plumas halladas en los alrededores de su percha.
Key words: Cuba, distribution, Northern Potoo, Nyctibius jamaicensis, record, status, vocalization


PERHAPS THE MOST SENSATIONAL DISCOVERIES of
birds in the West Indies within the last 100 years
have been Fermin Z. Cervera's finding of three new
species (Ferminia cerverai, Torreornis inexpectata,
and Cyanolimnas cerverai) in the Cienaga de Zapata
of Cuba (Barbour 1926, Barbour and Peters 1927)
and Angela Kay and Cameron B. Kepler's discovery
of a new species of warbler (Dendroica angelae) in
Puerto Rico (Kepler and Parkes 1972). Here, we re-
port on an exciting discovery of a bird species new to
Cuba: the Northern Potoo (Nyctibius jamaicensis),
found in the same area of Cervera's discoveries in
the 1920s.
The potoo was first reported from Cuba in the 19t
century, when Hartlaub (1852:54) listed it among
material obtained by the Duque Paul Wilhelm von
Wiirttemberg: "32. Nyctibius jamaicensis in Cuba.
Fehlt bei de la Sagra und Gundlach." Previously, von


Wiirttemberg (1835) published a list of 89 species of
birds collected by him in Cuba in 1835, as reported
by Gundlach (1876:3,9). Gundlach (1876) did not
recognize the potoo as a Cuban bird, however, as he
wrote "El Dr. Hartlaub menciona ademds Mergus
cucullatus, lo que esta bien, y Nyctibius jamaicensis,
que no se encuentra en la Isla de Cuba, donde hay
cuatro species de Caprimulgidae."
In his Check-list of birds of the West Indies, Bond
(1956) does not include N. jamaicensis for Cuba, but
in a footnote in his Birds of the West Indies
(1936:192), Bond, probably based on Gundlach
(1876), stated "there is an old, apparently erroneous
record of this species from Cuba." Recently, Ba-
callao Mesa et al. (1999) included Nyctibius ja-
maicensis in their list of birds of the Cienaga de Za-
pata
At the beginning of the 1980s, Reynard and Gar-









MARTINEZ ETAL.-NORTHERN POTOO IN CUBA

rido were recording nocturnal birds for their album
of Cuban bird vocalizations (1988). Reynard de-
tected a low, faint sound of a potoo in the distance
while recording in the outskirts of Motel Los
Caneyes, near Santa Clara, but Garrido was unable to
discern anything.
In 1997, Martinez informed Garrido that local
boys spotted an unfamiliar bird near Santo Tomis,
Cidnaga de Zapata. Martinez was shown the bird, but
did not pay much attention to it. But when, months
later, he saw it again in the same spot, he decided to
inform Garrido. When Garrido heard of the "bird
that looks like a Guabairo [nightjar], but larger, that
was sitting upright on a fence post," he concluded it
was a potoo and encouraged Martinez to search for
the bird.
A year elapsed without luck, but one evening at
sunset, in a different locality near Santo Tomis,
Martinez not only was fortunate enough to spot the
bird again, but also recorded its voice. Martinez then
contacted Garrido and played his recording through
the telephone. Garrido immediately recognized the
voice of a potoo and urged Martinez to obtain a
specimen. The bird, however, has not been observed
again. Unfortunately, while Martinez was copying
the recording, the tape recorder malfunctioned, and
most of the recording was erased, leaving only a
faint fragment of it. Reynard listened to the remain-
ing fragment of the recording, but was unable to dis-
tinguish anything. Later, Reynard received a fresh
recording, in better condition, and this time he recog-
nized the voice of a potoo.
In the meantime, Garrido suggested to Nelson
Garcia, the son of a former Zapata bird guide,
Rogelio Garcia, that he search for the potoo by imi-
tating its voice. In one of his trips to Cidnaga de Za-
pata, Arturo Kirkconnell was informed by Nelson
Garcia that one night he heard a sound similar to
Garrido's potoo imitation in the vicinity of Molina,
but no further information has been obtained by Gar-
cia since then.
Garrido also urged paleontologist William Suarez
to search for the potoo near Caimito, near the Sierra
de Anafe, a poorly known region about 25 km south-
west of La Habana and 140 km west of the Cidnaga
de Zapata site. In one of the searches, SuArez, in the
company of three local residents, saw a potoo
perched on a dead stump within the woods. The bird
allowed them to approach to within 10 m before it
flew. Months later, Suarez saw the bird again in the
same spot, but in subsequent visits, he failed to find
it. His last sighting was in 1999.
At the beginning of 2000, Martinez sent Garrido


some feathers that he had gathered at the Santo
Tomis site where the bird had been seen earlier. Gar-
rido examined all of the available skins of the genus
Nyctibius deposited at the Academy of Natural Sci-
ences of Philadelphia and the American Museum of
Natural History (New York). He identified the feath-
ers as possibly from a Nyctibius species. Subse-
quently, Suarez, Kirkconnell, Storrs Olson, and Carla
Dove compared the feathers with those of Nyctibius
skins in the collection of the Smithsonian Institution.
They reached the conclusion that the feathers be-
longed to Nyctibius jamaicensis. The only step re-
maining to taxonomically verify the Cuban popula-
tion is to secure a specimen.
In August 2000, Martinez observed a perched po-
too near Palpite, Cidnaga de Zapata. Two months
later, Martinez and D. Mirecki briefly saw a potoo in
a separate locality in the Cidnaga de Zapata. Most
recently, Guy Kirwan heard and saw a potoo near
Baconao, in eastern Cuba.
The genus Nyctibius is distributed from Mexico to
southern South America (Cory 1918, Peters 1940,
Bond 1956, Clements 1978). Seven species of the
genus have been described: Nyctibius grandis
(Gmelin) 1789; N. aethereus (Wied), 1820; N. gri-
seus (Gmelin), 1789; N. leucopterus (Wied), 1821;
N. bracteatus Gould, 1846; N. maculosus Ridgway,
1912 (placed by some within N. leucopterus); and N.
jamaicensis (Gmelin), 1789 (Monroe and Sibley
1963). Of these, grandis and bracteatus are the only
monotypic taxa. Nyctibius jamicacensis occurs from
Mexico to Costa Rica, and in the Greater Antilles,
where two races are represented: N. j. abbotti in His-
paniola (including Ile de la Gonfve) and N. j. ja-
maicensis in Jamaica.
We thank Storrs L. Olson and Carla Dove for their
collaboration in the identification of the feathers.

LITERATURE CITED
BACALLAO MESA, L., O. MARTINEZ, AND A.
LLANES SOSA. 1999. List of the birds of the Zapata
Swamp. Pitirre 12(3):82-123.
BARBOUR, T. 1926. A remarkable new bird from
Cuba. Proc. New England Zool. Club 9:73-75.
BARBOUR, T., AND J. L. PETERS. 1927. Two more
remarkable new birds from Cuba. Proc. New Eng-
land Zool. Club 9:95-97.
BOND, J. 1936. Birds of the West Indies. Acad. Nat.
Sci. Philadelphia.
BOND, J. 1956. Check-list of the birds of the West
Indies. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia.


El Pitirre 13(3)


Page 66











CLEMENTS, J. 1978. Birds of the world: A check-list.
New York: Two Continents Publishing Group,
LTD.
CORY, C.B. 1918. Catalogue of birds of the Ameri-
cas. Field Mus. Nat. Hist.-Zool., Vol. XII.
GUNDLACH, J. 1876. Contribuci6n a la ornitologia
cubana. La Habana, Cuba: Imp. "La Antilla."
HARTLAUB, G. 1852. Pp. 1-119 in Naumania Archiv.
ftir die Ornithologie, vorzugsweise Europa's. Or-
gan der deutschen Ornithologen-Gesselschaft.
Herausgegeben von Eduard Baldanus. Stuttgart.
KEPLER, C. B., AND K. C. PARKES. 1972. A new spe-
cies of warbler (Parulidae) from Puerto Rico. Auk
89(1):1-18.


MARTINEZ ETAL.- NORTHERN POTOO IN CUBA

MONROE, B. L., JR., AND C. G. SIBLEY. 1993. A
world checklist of birds. New Haven, Connecticut:
Yale University Press.
PETERS, J. L. 1940. Check-list of birds of the world.
Cambridge Harvard Univ. Press. Vol. 4:v-xII, 1-
21.
REYNARD, G. B., AND O. H. GARRIDO. 1988. Bird
songs in Cuba/Cantos de aves en Cuba. Ithaca,
NY: Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology (in coop-
eration with the Museo Nacional de Historia Natu-
ral, Habana, Cuba).
WIRTEMBERG, P. W. VON. 1835. Erste Reise nach
dem n6rdlichen Amerika in den Jahren 1822 bis
1824. Stuttgart.


MEETING ANNOUNCEMENT

2001 MEETING OF THE SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY


The next meeting of the Society for Caribbean Ornithology (SCO) will be held in Topes de Collante, Cuba
from July 15 to July 22, 2001. Topes de Collante is a national park in the Sierra del Escambray, Sancti Spiritus
Province, about 340 km east of Havana and about 21 km northwest of the nearest town, which is Trinidad.
A formal announcement, call for papers, and registration materials will be mailed by SCO by mid-January.
Information will also be posted on the SCO website (http://www.nmnh.si.edu/BIRDNET/SCO/index.html),
Ornith-L and NEOORN. For instructions on subscribing to Orith-L and NEOORN (and other ornithology
listservers, see http://www.nmnh.si.edu/BIRDNET/mainindex.html#Proflnfo). The same information will also
be posted on the Caribbean Biodiversity Conservation listserv on http://www.egroups.com/group/caribbean-
biodiversity. Information may also be obtained from Dr. Hiram Gonzalez, Cuba Local Committee, at ecolo-
gia@unepnet.inf.cu and ecologia@ceniai.inf.cu, as well as on the web page of the Instituto de Ecologia y Sis-
tematica: http://www.cuba.cu/ciencia/CITMA/AMA/ecologia. It is critical that conference attendees arrive no
later than July 15, because the only way to get to this location is by private bus arranged by the tour operator.
The tour operator has arranged for everyone to stay at the Novohotel in Miramar (a suburb of Havana) on the
first night. The bus to the meeting site will leave from that hotel the next day. There may be public bus service
to Trinidad, but there is probably no public transportation from Trinidad to the park or the hotel. Those who do
not arrive on time (e.g., the day before) may not be able to get to the meeting. Renting a car in Cuba is not
really any more expensive than elsewhere, but renters must pay an enormous cash deposit as well as the entire
fee up front, so for a week's rental, in excess of $900 in cash is needed for the least expensive car.
The registration fee will be $75 per person prior to May 15; $100 thereafter. The banquet fee is $25.
At this time, the anticipated cost is U.S.$550 per person inclusive of all travel (including airport transfers),
lodging, and meals (with the exception of the banquet). U.S. citizens planning to attend this meeting should
note that information pertaining to U.S. Treasury Dept. requirements for legal travel to Cuba will be included in
the announcements.


El Pitirre 13(3)


Page 67












AVIFAUNA ASSOCIATED WITH THE AQUATIC AND
COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS OF CAYO COCO, CUBA


BARBARA SANCHEZ AND DAYS RODRIGUEZ
Institute de Ecologiay Sistemdtica, Apartado 8029, La Habana, C.P. 10800, Cuba; e-mail: ecologia@ceniai.inf cu


Abstract.-We present the distribution and abundance of waterbirds, along with an assessment of the four habitats
(beach, coastal and interior lagoons, and temporarily flooded areas) of Cayo Coco, Archipielago de Sabana-
Camaguey, Cuba. A total of 73 bird species is present at Cayo Coco, including seven new records for the cay
(Botaurus lentiginosus, Anas americana, Aythya uttini.. Mergus serrator, Calidris fuscicollis, Calidris mauri and
Sterna dougallii). The temporarily flooded areas were the most important habitat for waterbirds in Cayo Coco. The
Greater Flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber) was the most abundant and attractive bird in the cay during our observa-
tions.
Resumen.-AVIFAUNA ASOCIADA A LOS ECOSISTEMAS ACUATICOS Y COSTEROS DE CAYO COCO, CUBA. Se dan a
conocer la distribuci6n de los habitats disponibles para las aves acuaticas y la abundancia de estas aves en cuatro
habitats diferentes de Cayo Coco, Archipielago de Sabana-Camagiey, Cuba (playas, lagunas costeras, lagunas inte-
riores y zonas temporalmente inundadas). Un total de 73 species de aves estin presents en Cayo Coco, incluyendo
7 nuevos reports para esta localidad (Botaurus lentiginosus, Anas americana, Aythya atltini. Mergus serrator, Cali-
drisfuscicollis, Calidris mauri y Sterna dougallii). Las areas temporalmente inundadas fue el habitat mas divers,
destacandose entire las species mas abundantes y de mayor atracci6n turistica al Flamenco (Phoenicopterus ruber).
Key words.-aquatic ecosystems, Archipielago de Sabana-Camagiiey, biodiversity, bird abundance, Cayo Coco,
coastal ecosystems, Cuba, waterbirds, wetlands


IN THE CUBAN SATELLITE, CAYO COCO, beaches,
coastal and interior lagoons, temporarily flooded ar-
eas, and mangrove vegetation contribute to the pres-
ence of a high diversity and abundance of water-
birds, which find adequate resources for their feed-
ing, shelter, and reproduction in these habitats. Previ-
ous observations of the avifauna in Cayo Coco have
been reported by Garrido (1976), Regalado (1981),
Acosta and Berovides (1984), Rodriguez et. al.
(1990), Sanchez et. al. (1994), Wallace et. al. (1994),
and Rodriguez and Sanchez (1995), among others.
Nevertheless, the abundance and distribution of wa-
terbirds in Cayo Coco are poorly known. Conse-
quently, the goal of our investigations was to estab-
lish the geographic location of the available habitats
suitable for aquatic and coastal birds, as well to de-
termine the composition and abundance of the spe-
cies in those habitats.

STUDY AREA AND METHODS
Cayo Coco (N22030', W78027) is part of the Sa-
bana-Camagiiey Archipelago off the northern coast
of Cuba (Fig. 1). With an area of 370 km2, Cayo
Coco is the fourth largest island in the Cuban archi-
pelago, after Cuba proper, the Isla de la Juventud
(formerly Isla de Pinos), and Cayo Romano.
Cartographic charts 4483 I, II and 4583 III, IV of
the series of Cuba's 1:50 000 maps were used to lo-


cate the potential habitats available for waterbirds,
including beach, coastal lagoon, interior lagoon, and
wetland habitats. Beaches are on the northern coast
of Cayo Coco and extend along an area over 20 km
(Fig. 2). The width of the beach sand strip ranges
from 5 to 30 m. The sand is fine and it is of a cream-
yellow color (I. C. G. C. and A. C. C. 1990). These
beaches are characterized by being shallow, with the
exception of La Concha beach. In many beaches,
sargassum (Sargassum sp.) is plentiful.


a


CAYO COCO


Scale
1:500 000
0 10 20 30km
I I I I


Fig. 1. Cuba, in silhouette, showing the Cayo Coco study area
(within circle) within Archipielago de Sabana-Camagiiey and an
enlargement of Cayo Coco.


El Pitirre 13(3)


Page 68









SANCHEZ AND RODRIGUEZ-WATERBIRDS OF CAYO COCO, CUBA


N















Scale
1: 50 000


Fig. 2. Distribution of the habitats available for the aquatic birds of Cayo Coco. Beaches: Las Coloradas (1),
Larga (2), La Concha (3), Prohibida (4), Loma del Puerto (5), Flamenco (6), La Jaula (7), Uva Caleta (8), La
Petrolera (9), and Los Perros (10). Coastal lagoons: Las Coloradas (A), Larga (B), Farallon del Negro (C), Fla-
menco (D), Tiburon (E), and La Jaula (F). Interior lagoons: El Hoyo (G), Vereda de Los Marquez (H) and Pot-
rero del Cinco (I). Temporarily flooded areas (J) and Bahia de los Perros (K).


A system of six coastal lagoons extends parallel to
the beaches (Fig. 2). The coastal lagoons are elon-
gated, surrounded by mangrove vegetation, are gen-
erally shallow (1-2 m), and their water is brackish.
The interior lagoons, are distributed inside the cay.
They are generally small (Fig. 2), and somewhat
deeper than the coastal lagoons. Interior lagoons are
circular or oval in shape and are also surrounded by
mangrove forests.
Lastly, the temporarily flooded zone (low zone), in
the southern part of the islet (Fig. 2), belongs to a
low plain, practically at sea level, and thus remains
flooded most of the year. This zone is characterized
by its mangrove vegetation and halophyte communi-
ties. Accessibility is limited and difficult. Other areas
that are devoid of vegetation make up the salt flat
and marshes or playas that are temporarily drained in
the dry season (November to April). The marshes
become veritable lagoons during the rainy season
(May to October). The low zones in the innermost
part of Cayo Coco are characterized by vegetation
mainly composed of Conocarpus erecta trees.
To determine the area of each lagoon, we trans-
ferred the map image to a blueprint and using lined
graph paper we counted all the totally occupied
squares. Partially occupied squares were additionally
grouped until a square was completed. The number
of the totally occupied squares was added to that of


the squares resulting from summation of the partially
occupied ones and, thus, the area of the lagoon water
surface was calculated. This procedure was repeated
three times for each lagoon and the total number of
calculated squares was averaged for the estimate of
mean lagoon size. We visited each lagoon to deter-
mine its visibility and to select our observation
points. If any part of the lagoon was found to be hid-
den from our view, that portion was subtracted from
the total area of the lagoon.
We used observation points in the coastal and inte-
rior lagoons to determine the composition and abun-
dance of birds there. We used one observation point
at lagoons having an area of less than 10 ha, such as
Farallones del Negro, El Hoyo, Vereda de Los
Marquez, and Potrero del Cinco. At lagoons having
an area of 19-20 ha, such as La Jaula and Flamenco,
two observation points were used. We used three
observation points at Tibur6n lagoon (70 ha). At
these observation points, all birds seen or heard were
recorded.
In the beach and temporarily flooded zones, we
used the itinerary transect method (Blondel 1969),
which consisted of recording all birds either seen or
heard on both sides of the transect. The width of
beach transects was limited by the coastal strip (5-30
m), whereas width of transects in temporarily
flooded zones ranged from 100 m to 500 m, depend-


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SANCHEZ AND RODRIGUEZ-WATERBIRDS OF CAYO COCO, CUBA


Table 1. Bird species using the wetlands of Cayo Coco, Archipielago de Sabana-Camagiiey, Cuba,
February 1993 to March 1994. PR= Permanent Resident, WR= Winter Resident, SR= Summer Resi-
dent, TR= Transient, A= Accidental.


Family


Status
in Cuba


Species


Podicipedidae

Pelecanidae
Phalacrocoracidae
Anhingidae
Fregatidae
Ardeidae










Ciconiidae
Threskiorithidae



Phoenicopteridae
Anatidae









Accipitridae


Falconidae
Aramidae
Rallidae



Jacanidae
Haematopodidae
Charadriidae




Recurvirostridae
Scolopacidae


Least Grebe Tachybaptus dominicus
Pied-billed Grebe Podilymbus podiceps
Brown Pelican Pelecanus occidentalis
Double-crested Cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus
AnhingaAnhinga anhinga
Magnificent Frigatebird Fregata magnificens
Great Blue Heron Ardea herodias
Great Egret Ardea alba
Snowy Egret Egretta thula
Little Blue Heron Egretta caerulea
Reddish Egret Egretta rufescens
Tricolored Heron Egretta tricolor
Green Heron Butorides stratus
Black-crowned Night-Heron Nycticorax nycticorax
Yellow-crowned Night-Heron Nyctanassa violacea
American Bittern Botaurus lentiginosus *
Wood Stork Mycteria americana
Glossy Ibis Plegadisfalcinellus
White Ibis Eudocimus albus
Scarlet Ibis Eudocimus ruber
Roseate Spoonbill Ajaza ajaja
Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber
West Indian Whistling-Duck Dendrocygna arborea
Blue-winged Teal Anas discors
Northern Pintail Anas acuta
White-cheeked Pintail Anas bahamensis
Gadwall Anas strepera
American Wigeon Anas americana*
Northern Shoveler Anas clypeata
Lesser ScaupAythya ,,
Red-breasted Merganser Mergus serrator*
Common Black-Hawk Buteogallus anthracinus
Northern Harrier Circus cyaneus
Osprey Pandion haliaetus
Crested Caracara Caracara plancus
Limpkin Aramus guarauna
Clapper Rail Rallus longirostris
Purple Gallinule Porphyrula martinica
Common Moorhen Gallnula chloropus
American Coot Fulca americana
Northern Jacana Jacana spinosa
American Oystercatcher Haematopus palliatus
Semipalmated Plover Charadrus semipalmatus
Piping Plover Charadrus melodus
Wilson's Plover Charadrus wilsonia
Killdeer Charadrus vociferus
Black-bellied Plover Pluviahs squatarola
Black-necked Stilt Himantopus mexicanus
Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus
Greater Yellowlegs Tringa melanoleuca
Lesser Yellowlegs Tringaflavipes
Solitary Sandpiper Tringa soitara
Spotted Sandpiper Actitis macularia
Willet Catoptrophorus semipalmatus
Short-billed Dowitcher Limnodromus grzseus
Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria interpres
Sanderling Caidrns alba
Semipalmated Sandpiper Caldrns pusilla
Western Sandpiper Caldrns maurz*
White-rumped Sandpiper Caldris fuscicolls*
Least Sandpiper Caldrns minutilla


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SANCHEZ AND RODRIGUEZ-WATERBIRDS OF CAYO COCO, CUBA


Table 1. Bird species using the wetlands of Cayo Coco (continued).


Laridae









Alcedinidae


Herring Gull Larus argentatus
Laughing Gull Larus atricilla
Common Tern Sterna hirundo
Roseate Tern Sterna dougalln*
Bridled Tern Sterna anaethetus
Sooty Tern Sternafuscata
Least Tern Sterna antillarum
Royal Tern Sterna maxima
Sandwich Tern Sterna sandvicensis
Caspian Tern Sterna caspia
Brown Noddy Anous stolidus
Belted Kingfisher Ceryle alcyon


*= New report from Cayo Coco.


ing on habitat complexity.
Observations of bird abundance were conducted in
November 1993 and March 1994 in beach, coastal
lagoon, interior lagoon, and temporarily flooded
zone habitats. Interior lagoons were additionally
sampled in February and June 1993. Counts were
made from dawn through ca. 11:00 hr. Some addi-
tional observations were made at dusk to determine
use of resting or roosting habitat. The Sorensen in-
dex was used to determine similarities among habi-
tats (Sorensen 1948).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The avifauna of Cayo Coco wetlands is composed
of 73 species belonging to 8 orders and 21 families,
which account for 50% of the aquatic birds reported
in Cuba (Table 1). Of these species, 40 are perma-
nent residents, 22 winter residents, 4 summer resi-
dents, 3 transients and 4 accidental or vagrants.
Seven of these species are reported for the first time
at Cayo Coco: American Bittern (Botaurus ,. 1,r,,. ,-
sus), American Wigeon (Anas americana), Lesser
Scaup (Aythya affinis), Red-breasted Merganser
(Mergus serrator), White-rumped Sandpiper
(Calidris fuscicollis), Western Sandpiper (Calidris
mauri), and Roseate Tern (Sterna dougallii) (Table
1).
Most of the families are represented by all or
nearly all the species reported in Cuba. Nonetheless,
the families Anatidae, Rallidae, Scolopacidae, and
Laridae were scarcely represented at Cayo Coco,
since many of the species are considered rare or va-
grant in Cuba (Raffaele et al. 1998).
We detected 50 bird species during our abundance
samplings conducted in the four wetland habitats.
We recorded the fewest species (N = 12) in beach
habitat (Table 2). Las Coloradas and Larga beaches


had the largest diversity and abundance of birds
among beach habitat sites. These beaches, unlike the
others, were characterized by the presence of sargas-
sum, where small invertebrates serving as food for
the birds seek shelter. The most abundant species in
beach habitat were Ruddy Turnstone (Arenaria inter-
pres), Sanderling (Calidris alba), Royal Tern (Sterna
maxima), and Semipalmated Plover (Charadrius
semipalmatus).
The coastal lagoons (Table 3) and the interior la-
goons (Table 4) were characterized by being rich in
species (34 and 25, respectively). The Black-necked
Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus) is abundant in this
habitat, mainly in Flamenco Lagoon (Table 3). The
variety of species and numbers of individuals present
in coastal and interior lagoons depends on the degree
of flooding of the lagoons and the season of the year.
For example, late in the dry season the Killdeer
(Charadrius vociferus) was the most abundant spe-
cies in the La Jaula lagoon, where it associated with
a dry area of the lagoon (sandy soil area) (Table 3).
Ducks occurred in the coastal (Table 3) and the
interior lagoons (Table 4). The area of the surface
water and the depth of the lagoons favor the presence
of ducks, including West Indian Whistling-Duck
(Dendrocygna arborea) in the Potrero del Cinco in-
terior lagoon. Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata) and
Blue-winged Teal (A. discors) were the most abun-
dant birds in the Farallones del Negro lagoon, which
is one of the deepest of the lagoons .
Temporarily flooded areas showed the greatest
diversity of bird species, with 41 species (Table 5).
This diversity was to be expected if we bear in mind
that in this zone there are different microhabitats,
from areas with low levels of water, and even nearly
dry, to veritable lagoons. This variability in micro-
habitats contributes, to a large extent, to increase the
structural complexity of these habitats and, at the


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SANCHEZ AND RODRIGUEZ-WATERBIRDS OF CAYO COCO, CUBA


Table 2. Relative abundance (birds/km) of waterbirds at beaches sampled using transects in Cayo Coco, Archipielago de Sabana-
Camagiiey, Cuba, November 1993 and March 1994.


Beach


Coloradas


Species'


Larga


Flamenco


La Jaula Prohibida


Nov 1993 Mar 1994 Nov 1993 Mar 1994 Nov 1993 Mar 1994 Nov 1993 Mar 1994


Pelecanus occidentahs
Fregata magnificens
Pandion hahaetus
Pluvialis squatarola
Charadrus wilsoma
Charadrus semipalmatus
Arenaria nterpres
Cahdrns alba

Caldris pusilla
Sterna maxima
Sterna caspia


1
4 4 1
3 3
10 7 10
21 52 8
41 30 5

1
9 19 2


'See Table 1 for common names.
*= New report from Cayo Coco.


same time, facilitates the presence of a variety of
avian species having different capabilities to exploit
the available resources. About 4500 Greater Flamin-
gos (Phoenicopterus ruber) were observed in shal-
low water at an approximate distance of 10 m at each
side of the rock-fill road. The flamingo's beauty,
abundance, and easy observation make this bird the
most important tourism attraction in the area.
Wilson's Plover (Charadrius wilsonia) was found
in all the habitats, whereas most of the species (74%)
were limited to two or three habitats. The combina-
tion of temporarily flooded areas, coastal lagoons,
and interior lagoons had the largest number of spe-
cies in common. The greatest similarity was found
between the temporarily flooded areas and the inte-
rior lagoons, and between the latter and the coastal
lagoons, both having an equal percentage of species
(57.6%).
Twelve species were only observed in one habitat;
i.e., American Bittern, Yellow-crowned Night-Heron
(Nyctanassa violacea), and Gadwall (Anas strepera)
in the coastal lagoon (Table 3); American Wigeon,
Lesser Scaup, West Indian Whistling-Duck, Com-
mon Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus), and Least Tern
(Sterna antillarum) in the interior lagoons (Table 4);
and Red-breasted Merganser, Limpkin (Aramus
guarauna), Northern Jacana (Jacana spinosa),
Laughing Gull (Larus atricilla), and Roseate Tern in
the temporarily flooded areas (Table 5). Notwith-
standing, we cannot consider their distribution as
being very specific, since most of them were de-


tected in one count in particular. Thus, a larger num-
ber of samples will allow us to determine a more ex-
act distribution of these birds.
The findings of our study show that the high struc-
tural diversity of the vegetation and the maintenance
of the temporarily flooded areas allow a notable di-
versity and abundance of water birds in Cayo Coco.
Furthermore, these areas are sites of regional impor-
tance for the communities of resident and migratory
birds that find adequate resources for feeding, shel-
ter, and reproduction. These resources guarantee the
protection of this group and, at the same time, they
provide a high potential for the development of ecot-
ourism, especially the observation of birds. The in-
corporation of ecotourism within the current tourist
development in Cayo Coco is particularly timely in
conservation of habitat and wildlife.

LITERATURE CITED
ACOSTA, M., AND V. BEROVIDES. 1984. Omitoceno-
sis de los cayos Coco y Romano, Archipidlago de
Sabana-Camagiiey, Cuba. Poeyana (274): 1-10.
BLONDEL, J. 1969. M6thodes de d6nombrement des
populations des oisseaux. Pp. 97-151 in M.
Lamotte et F. Bourlier (Eds.). Problems d' ecolo-
gie: L' 6chantillonage des peuplement animaux des
milieux terres tres. Masson et Cie, Paris.
GARRIDO, O. H. 1976. Aves y reptiles de Cayo
Coco, Cuba. Miscelinea Zoologia, Instituto Zoolo-
gia, Academia de Ciencia Cuba (3):3-4.


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SANCHEZ AND RODRIGUEZ-WATERBIRDS OF CAYO COCO, CUBA


Table 3. Density of waterbirds (birds/ha) of the coastal lagoons sampled using observation points in Cayo Coco, Ar-
chipielago de Sabana-Camagiiey, Cuba, November 1993 and March 1994.


Coastal lagoon


Tibur6n


La Jaula


Flamenco


Farall6n del Negro


Nov 1993 Nov 1993 Mar 1994 Nov 1993 Mar 1994 Nov 1993 Mar 1994


Pelecanus occidentahs
Phalacrocorax aurltus
Fregata magnificens
Ardea alba
Ardea herodias
Egretta thula
Egretta caerulea
Egretta rufescens
Egretta tricolor
Butorides stratus
Botaurus lentzginosus*
Nyctanassa violacea
Eudoczmus albus
Ajaza ajaja
Phoenicopterus ruber
Anas strepera
Anas clypeata
Anas discors
Pandion hahaetus
Buteogallus anthracinus
Pluvialis squatarola
Charadrus wilsoma

Himantopus mexicanus
Tringa melanoleuca
T, , . I
Catoptrophorus semipalmatus
Actitis macularia
Arenaria interpres
Caldris minutilla
Cahdrns maurn*
Sterna maxima
Sterna caspla
Ceryle alcyon


2 5
3
1 3


2 1
2 8 3


10 24
1

14 25
1
2 13


2 5
1


2 2


22 33 50
6 28


120
15 27


3
7 295
26
1


'See Table 1 for common names.
*= New report from Cayo Coco.


I. C. G. C. INSTITUTEO CUBANO DE GEODESIA Y
CARTOGRAFIA) AND A. C. C. (ACADEMIA DE
CIENCIAS DE CUBA). 1990. Estudio de los grupos
insulares y zonas litorales del Archipidlago Cu-
bano con fines turisticos. Cayos Coco, Guillermo y
Pared6n Grande. Editorial Cientifico-Thcnica, La
Habana.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, O. GARRIDO, A. KEITH,
AND J. RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of
the West Indies. Princeton University Press,
Princeton, NJ.


REGALADO, P. 1981 El g6nero Torreornis (Aves:
Fringillidae). Descripci6n de una nueva subespecie
en Cayo Coco, Cuba. Ciencia Agricultura (2):87-
112.
RODRIGUEZ, D., A. GONZALEZ, L. BIDART, L. GON-
ZALEZ, J. ESPINOSA, A. KIRKCONNELL, A. R.
ESTRADA, A. LLANES, AND A. HERNANDEZ. 1990.
Fauna silvestre e introducida. ICGC y ACC, Eds.
Estudio de los grupos insulares y zonas litorales
del Archipidlago Cubano con fines turisticos.
Cayos Guillermo, Coco y Pared6n Grande. Edito-
rial Cientifico Thcnica, La Habana.


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Species'


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SANCHEZ AND RODRIGUEZ-WATERBIRDS OF CAYO COCO, CUBA


Table 4. Density of waterbirds (birds/ha) of the interior lagoons sampled using observation points in Cayo Coco, Ar-
chipielago de Sabana-Camagiiey, Cuba, February, June, and November 1993, and March 1994.

Interior lagoon


Vereda de Los Marquez


Potrero del Cinco


Feb 1993 Nov 1993 Mar 1994 Jun 1993


Podlymbus podiceps
Phalacrocorax aurztus
Ardea alba
Ardea herodias
Egretta thula
Egretta caerulea
Egretta rufescens
Egretta tricolor
Butorzdes stratus
Eudoczmus albus
Phoenicopterus ruber
Anas clypeata
Anas discors
Anas americana*
Aythya ..
Dendrocygna arborea
Caracara plancus
Gallinula chloropus
Charadrnus wilsonia

Himantopus mexicanus
Trnga melanoleuca
Catoptrophorus semipalmatus
Sterna antillarum
Ceryle alcyon

'See Table 1 for common names.
*= New report from Cayo Coco.


RODRIGUEZ, D., AND B. SANCHEZ. 1995. Avifauna
del matorral xeromorfo en la region oriental de
Cuba durante la migraci6n otofial (octubre de
1989, 1990 y 1991). Poeyana (447):1-12.
SANCHEZ, B., D. RODRIGUEZ, AND A. KIRKCON-
NELL. 1994. Avifauna de los cayos Pared6n
Grande y Coco durante la migraci6n otofial de
1990 y 1991. Avicennia (1):31-38.
SORENSEN, T. 1948. The method of establishing
groups of equal amplitude in plant sociology based


Nov 1993


Jun 1993 Nov 1993


200 17


2 4
7 1
1


on similarity of species content and its applications
to analyses of the vegetation on Danish commons.
Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab Co-
penhagen, Oversigt af Forhandlinger 5:1-34.
WALLACE, G. E., H. GONZALEZ, M. K. McNICHOLL,
D. RODRIGUEZ, R. OVIEDO, A. LLANES, B.
SANCHEZ, AND E. WALLACE. 1996. Forest-
dwelling Neotropical migrant and resident birds
wintering in three regions of Cuba. Condor 98
(4):745-768.


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SANCHEZ AND RODRIGUEZ-WATERBIRDS OF CAYO COCO, CUBA


Table 5. Relative abundance (birds/km) of aquatic birds in the temporarily flooded zones sampled
using transects in Cayo Coco, Archipielago de Sabana-Camagiey, Cuba, November 1993 and March
1994. () Estimated data.


Temporarily flooded zones Bahia de Los Perros

Species' Nov 1993 Mar 1994 Nov 1993 Mar 1994

Podilymbus podiceps 3
Pelecanus occidentahs 25 36 1 1
Phalacrocorax auritus 207 12 1020 147
Fregata magnificens 1 3
Ardea alba 15
Ardea herodias 5
Egretta thula 7 5 3
Egretta caerulea 6
Egretta rufescens 10 12
Egretta tricolor 27 4 6
Butorides stratus 2
Eudocimus albus 4
Ajaza ajaja 6 3
Phoencopterus ruber (4000) (4600) 385
Mergus serrator* 4
Pandion hahaetus 1
Buteogallus anthracinus 3
Caracara plancus 2 1
Aramus guarauna 3
Pluviahs squatarola 1
Charadrius wilsona 6
Charadrius vociferous 5 1 1
Charadrius semipalmatus 1
Himantopus mexicanus 13 15
Jacana spinosa 3
Trnnga melanoleuca 32 9
Tringaflavipes 14
Catoptrophorus semipalmatus 1
Actitis macularia 1
Arenaria interpres 13
Caidris alba 1
Caidris minutilla 10
S.. 1
Caidris pusilla 1
Caidris maurz* 134 34
Larus atricilla 6 57 11
Sterna maxima 51
Sterna caspia 1
Sterna dougalhl* 6
Ceryle alcyon 3 2

'See Table 1 for common names
*= New report from Cayo Coco..


REQUEST FOR ASSISTANCE

COLOR BANDED LITTLE EGRETS


During 2000, several Little Egrets (Egretta garzetta) were ringed with US Fish and Wildlife Service alu-
minum and color bands at Graeme Hall, Barbados, the only location in the Western Hemisphere where
this species is known to breed. The objective of this study is to determine egret movements within, and
away from, Barbados. If you have observed such color-banded birds, please contact Martin Frost with
full information at Featherbed Lane, St. John, Barbados, or by e-mail at mfrost @sunbeach.net


El Pitirre 13 (3)


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OBSERVACIONES Y ADICIONES A LA ORNITOFAUNA DEL
ARCHIPELAGO SABANA-CAMAGUEY, CUBA, 1998-2000

FRANqOIS SHAFFER', PEDRO BLANCO RODRIGUEZ2, MICHEL ROBERT' Y ELIESER SOCARRAS TORRES3
1Service canadien de lafaune, 1141 Route de I 'Eglise, CP10100, Sainte-Foy, Quebec, Canada, G1 V4H5; 2Instituto de
Ecologia y Sistemdtica, Carretera de Varona Km 3.5, AP 10800, Boyeros, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba; y 3Centro de In-
vestigaciones de Ecosistemas Costeros, CP 69400, Cayo Coco, Municipio Mordn, Provincia Ciego de Avila, Cuba

Resumen.-Presentamos una lista comentada de las principles species de aves que hemos observado en el
curso de los inviemos de 1998 al 2000, en el Archipielago Sabana-Camagiiey. Ademas, para las islas de ese archi-
pielago sobre las que existia poca informaci6n relative a la omitofauna, presentamos la lista complete de las espe-
cies observadas. Se notaron algunas species consideradas raras en el Archipielago Sabana-Camagiiey, a saber:
Aythya lttini%. Oxyura jamaicensis, Calidris canutus, Tyto alba, Coerebaflaveola y Guiraca caerulea. Estas ob-
servaciones complementan los conocimientos sobre la omitofauna de ese archipielago.
Resumn.-OBSERVATIONS ET ADDITIONS A L'AVIFAUNA DE L'ARCHIPEL SABANA-CAMAGIUEY, CUBA, 1998-
2000. Dans cette publication, nous pr6sentons une liste comment6e des principles especes d'oiseaux que nous
avons observes au course des hivers 1998 a 2000, dans l'archipel Sabana-Camagiey. De plus, pour les iles de cet
archipel pour lesquelles peu d'information sur l'avifaune existait, nous pr6sentons la liste complete des especes
observes. Quelques especes consid6eres rares dans l'archipel Sabana-Camaguey ont ete notees: Aythya attini.
Oxyurajamaicensis, Calidris canutus, Tyto alba, Coerebaflaveola, et Guiraca caerulea. Ces observations vien-
nent complete les connaissances sur l'avifaune de cet archipel.
Abstract.-OBSERVATIONS AND ADDITIONS TO THE AVIFAUNA OF THE ARCHIPELAGO SABANA-CAMAGITEY,
CUBA, 1998-2000. We present an annotated list of the major species of birds that we observed during surveys in
the Archipelago Sabana-Camagiiey from 1998 to 2000. For Cayo Cruz, Cayo M6gano Grande, and Cayo Anton,
for which few data exist on the avifauna, we also present complete lists of the species observed. Several species
considered rare were observed in the Archipelago, including Aythya attini%. Oxyurajamaicensis, Calidris canutus,
Tyto alba, Coereba flaveola, and Guiraca caerulea.
Key words: Archipielago Sabana-Camagiiey, Cayo Anton, Cayo Coco, Cayo Cruz, Cayo Guillermo, Cayo Megano
Grande, Cayo Pared6n Grande, Cayo Romano Cuba, habitat, status


INTRODUCTION
EL ARCHIPIELAGO SABANA-CAMAGIEY, se en-
cuentra situado al Norte de Cuba y se extiende a lo
largo de 465 km aproximadamente. En los uiltimos
afios, el desarrollo de un notable numero de investi-
gaciones ornitol6gicas ha permitido elevar conside-
rablemente el nivel de conocimientos acerca de la
avifauna existente en esta region de Cuba en diferen-
tes periods (Garrido 1973, Garrido y Garcia 1975,
Garrido 1976, Acosta y Berovides 1984, Kirkconnell
y Garrido 1991, Gonzalez et al. 1992, Blanco et al.
1998, Kirkconnell 1998, Gonzalez et al. 1999, Wa-
llace et al. 1999, Sanchez y Rodriguez 2000). No
obstante, se consider que la informaci6n obtenida
hasta el moment es aun insuficiente, ya que quedan
aun muchas islas de este territorio insular que no han
sido estudiadas, por lo que cualquier esfuerzo de in-
vestigaci6n sobre la avifauna de dicho territorio
constitute una important contribuci6n al conoci-
miento y conservaci6n de la ornitofauna cubana en
un future.
En el present trabajo se exponen algunas consi-
deraciones y observaciones acerca de la ornitofauna
de algunos cayos del Archipidlago Sabana-Cama-


giiey tales como: Cayo Guillermo (22036'N, 780
40'W), Cayo Coco (22030'N, 78030'W), Cayo Pare-
d6n Grande (22028'N, 78009'W), Cayo Romano
(22023'N, 78009'W ), Cayo Ant6n (22025'N, 780
05'W), Cayo M6gano Grande (22020'N, 77055'W) y
Cayo Cruz (22015'N, 77�50'W) realizadas durante
los meses de enero y febrero de los afios 1998, 1999
y 2000.
Los resultados en este trabajo se presentan en dos
parties: la primera trata de todas las observaciones de
interns realizadas que podrian contribuir a la crea-
ci6n de nuevos criterios sobre el status o categories
de algunas species de aves existentes en el Archi-
pidlago de Sabana-Camagiiey o en el territorio cuba-
no en sentido general. En la segunda parte, se brinda
un listado de las aves observadas en tres de los site
cayos visitados: Cayo Ant6n, Cayo M6gano Grande
y Cayo Cruz por ser estos uiltimos, territories insula-
res en donde se han desarrollado pocas investigacio-
nes ornitol6gicas en comparaci6n con el resto de los
cayos estudiados. Para obtener observaciones preci-
sas sobre este trabajo comuniquese con el primer au-
tor.


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SHAFFER ETAL.-ORNITOFAUNA DEL ARCHIPELAGO SABANA-CAMAGIEY, CUBA, 1998-2000


RESULTADOS
Especies
Tachybaptus dominicus. Cayo Coco: 3 indivi-
duos el 31 de enero de 1999, 1 individuo el 8 febrero
1999, 2 individuos el 29 de enero del 2000. Segfin
Raffaele et al. (1998), esta especie es un resident
permanent comun en Cuba, aunque Kirkconnell
(1998) la consider muy rara para Cayo Coco y sefia-
la ademis la observaci6n de un solo individuo duran-
te el period de cuatro afios. Por nuestra parte la ob-
servaci6n de esta especie en tres oportunidades du-
rante tres afios consecutivos, sugiere que al menos
esta ave es mas comfin que lo referido por Kirkcon-
nell (1998). Los individuos registrados de esta espe-
cie, fueron observados en lagunas interiores de agua
dulce del cayo.
Podilymbus podiceps. Cayo Coco: 15 indivi-
duos el 31 de enero de 1999, 1 individuo el 8 de fe-
brero de 1999, 1 individuo el 29 de enero del 2000, 3
individuos el 5 de febrero del 2000. Cayo Romano: 1
individuo el 26 enero del 2000. Estas observaciones
muestran que esta especie no es tan rara como sefiala
Kirkconnell (1998). Dicho autor le atribuye a esta
especie la categoria de muy rara en Cayo Coco.
Nuestras observaciones y la realizaci6n de futures
investigaciones dirigidas a esta especie pueden co-
rroborar el status actual de esta ultima en el territo-
rio.
Sula leucogaster. Cayo Coco: 1 individuo el 25
de enero del 2000. Cayo Pared6n Grande: 1 indivi-
duo el 7 de febrero del 2000. Considerada como po-
co comfin en Cuba por Raffaele et al. (1998), esta
especie no aparece reportada para el territorio de los
Cayos Coco y Pared6n Grande, por lo que este cons-
tituye entonces el primer registro de la especie para
ambos sitios. Durante los periods de observaci6n
sefialados para la especie, los vientos fueron notable-
mente fuertes.
Ardea herodias. El 4 de febrero del 2000, fue
observado en Cayo Guillermo un individuo de Ardea
herodias de la forma Wurdemann. Dicha forma esti
asociada por lo general a los cayos de la Florida
(Butler 1992). Ninguna de la bibliografia consultada
hasta el moment sefiala la presencia de la forma
Wurdemann en Cuba, por lo que este constitute el
primer report en el territorio cubano. La subespecie
A. h. occidentalis, se observ6 en varias oportunida-
des en la cayeria Norte durante el period de 1998-
2000, estas observaciones se citan a continuaci6n.
Cayo Coco: 2 individuos el 28 de enero de 1998, 1
individuo el 1 febrero de 1999, 2 individuos el 8 de


febrero de 1999, 1 individuo el 12 de febrero de
1999, 1 individuo el 24 de enero del 2000, 1 indivi-
duo el 27 de enero del 2000. Cayo Guillermo: 2 indi-
viduos el 11 de febrero del 2000. Cayo M6gano
Grande: 1 individuo el 9 de febrero del 2000. Pedra-
pl6n que vi a Cayo Cruz: 1 individuo el 3 de febrero
del 2000. Raffaele et al. (1998) menciona ademis
que A. h. occidentalis es muy rar en las Antillas,
pero no parece ser asi en base a nuestros registros.
Anas americana. Cayo Coco: 40 individuos el
31 de enero del 1999, 15 individuos el 5 de febrero
del 2000. Cayo Pared6n Grande: 200 individuos 6 de
febrero de 1998. Kirkconnell (1998) menciona esta
especie como rara para Cayo Coco, mientris que
Raffaele et al. (1998) la citan como un ave comfin en
Cuba. Tomando en consideraci6n la frecuencia de
observaci6n y el numero de individuos registrados
durante los periods de observaciones (1998-2000),
A. americana debe ser considerada como una especie
relativamente comfin al menos en Cayo Coco.
Aythya collaris. Cayo Coco: 7 individuos el 5 de
febrero del 2000, 2 individuos el 11 de febrero del
2000. Esta especie no aparece registrada en la lista
de Kirkconnell (1998). Estas son entonces las prime-
ras observaciones de la especie en Cayo Coco. Sin
embargo es necesario sefialar que esta especie esti
considerada como invernante comfin en Cuba
(Garrido y Garcia 1975, Raffaele et al. 1998).
Aythya affinis. Cayo Coco: 4 individuos el 2 de
febrero de1998. Kirkconnell (1998), no menciona
esta especie en Cayo Coco. Se trata entonces de la
primera observaci6n de esta especie en Cayo Coco.
En Cuba, esta ave esti considerada como un residen-
te internal relativamente comun (Garrido y Garcia
1975).
Mergus serrator. Cayo Coco: 16 individuos el 1
de febrero de 1999. Pedrapl6n de Cayo Coco: 18 in-
dividuos el 3 de febrero de 1999, 51 individuos el 5
de febrero de 1999, 43 individuos el 7 de febrero de
1999, 32 individuos el 11 de febrero de 1999, 40 in-
dividuos el 28 de enero del 2000, 320 individuos el
31 de enero del 2000, 874 individuos el 10 de febre-
ro del 2000. Pedrapl6n de Cayo Romano: 26 indivi-
duos el 3 de febrero del 2000. Una labor de censo en
optimas condiciones meteorol6gicas permiti6 contar
con bastante exactitud el numero de aves registradas
el 10 de febrero del 2000. Los 16 individuos obser-
vados en Cayo Coco, contituyen el primer registro de
esta especie para dicho cayo. La observaci6n de
otros individuos a lo largo del pedrapl6n que part
desde Jigiiey hasta Cayo Romano indica que esta ave


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SHAFFER ETAL.-ORNITOFAUNA DEL ARCHIPIELAGO SABANA-CAMAGUEY, CUBA, 1998-2000


puede ser vista en otros cayos del Archipidlago Saba-
na-Camagiiey. De forma general nuestras observa-
ciones coinciden con los arguments expuestos por
Wallace et al. (1999), quien cita aM. serrator como
una especie comim localmente.
Oxyura jamaicensis. Cayo Coco: 60 individuos
el 2 de febrero de 1998, 4 individuos el 5 de febrero
del 2000. De acuerdo con lo expuesto por Kirkcon-
nell (1998), nuestra observaci6n constitute el primer
report de esta especie en Cayo Coco. En las Antillas
Mayores esta ave ha sido considerada con la catego-
ria de comiin (Raffaele et al. 1998).
Charadrius wilsonia. Cayo Guillermo: 1 indivi-
duo el 29 de enero del 2000. Cayo Coco: 1 individuo
el 27 de enero de 1998, 2 individuos el 7 de febrero
de 1998, 2 individuos el 24 de enero del 2000, 2 in-
dividuos el 29 de enero del 2000, 1 individuo el 5 de
febrero del 2000, 1 individuo el 6 de febrero del
2000. Cayo Pared6n Grande: 1 individuo el 25 de
enero de 1998, 3 individuos el 30 de enero de 1998,
14 individuos el 4 de febrero de1998, 1 individuo el
8 de febrero de 1998, 2 individuos el 7 de febrero del
2000, 1 individuo el 10 de febrero del 2000. Cayo
Anton: 17 individuos el 26 de enero del 2000, 57
individuos el 8 de febrero del 2000. Cayo M6gano
Grande: 8 individuos el 9 de febrero del 2000. Cayo
Cruz: 48 individuos el 1 de febrero del 2000, 12 indi-
viduos el 2 de febrero del 2000, 18 individuos el 3 de
febrero del 2000. Wallace et al. (1999) sugieren con-
siderar esta ave como un raro resident invemal muy
local, sin embargo nuestras observaciones muestran
que por el contrario, la especie puede ser observada
con frecuencia y abundancia en algunos territories
insulares, por lo que esta ultima debe ser considerada
mas bien un resident bimodal comun del Archipid-
lago Sabana-Camagiiey.
Calidris canutus. Cayo Coco: 4 individuos el 8
de febrero de 1999, 4 individuos el 9 de febrero de
1999, 10 individuos el 4 de febrero del 2000, 34 indi-
viduos el 5 de febrero del 2000, 45 individuos el 7 de
febrero del 2000, 50 individuos el 9 de febrero del
2000. Aunque esta especie ha sido reportada para el
Archipidlago Sabana-Camagiiey por Wallace et al.
(1999), los registros que brindamos en este trabajo,
constituyen las aglomeraciones mis notables de la
especie en el territorio insular del Norte de Cuba.
Calidris pusilla. Pedrapl6n de Cayo Coco: 6 in-
dividuos el 10 de febrero del 2000. Esta especie ha
sido reportada en muy pocas oportunidades para Ca-
yo Coco. Sin embargo Raffaele et al. (1998), la citan
como una limicola comin en Cuba durante el perio-
do de migraci6n otofial. El limitado numero de regis-
tros de la especie en el cayo hasta el moment, puede


estar asociado a la ausencia de observaciones durante
el inviemo. Estos criterios estin basados en el hecho
de que C. pusilla, es much mis comun en Las Anti-
llas durante el otofio que en inviemo (Gratto-Trevor
1992).
Calidris mauri. Cayo Pared6n Grande: 40 indi-
viduos el 6 de febrero de 1998, 1 individuo el 8 de
febrero de 1998. Cayo Cruz: 10 individuos el 1 de
febrero del 2000, 3 individuos el 2 de febrero del
2000. Cayo M6gano Grande: 2 individuos el 9 de
febrero del 2000. Esta especie fue observada en com-
pafiia de C. minutilla. Si bien los registros de obser-
vaci6n de esta especie durante el meses de enero y
febrero son poco comunes en Cuba, compartimos los
criterios expuestos por Wallace et al. (1999), quien
argument que esta especie puede ser observada con
regularidad en pequefios bandos durante todo el in-
viemo.
Larus delawarensis. Cayo Guillermo: 1 indivi-
duo el 4 de febrero del 2000, 3 individuos el 11 de
febrero del 2000. Estas observaciones complementan
la informaci6n expuesta por Blanco et al. (1998) pa-
ra Cayo Guillermo. Se trata entonces del tercer y
cuarto registro en el Archipidlago Sabana-Camagiiey
de esta especie considerada como rar en Cuba
(Raffaele et al. 1998). Los individuos observados
fueron subadultos, lo que coincide tambidn con Raf-
faele et al. (1998), quien expone que la mayoria de
los individuos observados en las Antillas han sido
subadultos.
Sterna caspia. Cayo Guillermo: 2 individuos el
1 de febrero de 1998, 1 individuo el 29 de enero del
2000, 1 individuo el 4 de febrero del 2000, 1 indivi-
duo el 11 de febrero del 2000. Esta especie esti con-
siderada un resident invemal raro que no se repro-
duce en Cuba (Raffaele et al. 1998).
Sterna sandvicensis. Pedrapl6n de Cayo Coco:
20 individuos el 11 de febrero de 1999, 10 indivi-
duos el 28 de enero del 2000, 5 individuos el 31 de
enero del 2000, 3 individuos el 10 de febrero del
2000. Estas observaciones son adiciones a los regis-
tros de la especie con categoria de rar sefialada por
(Wallace et al. 1999). La regular observaci6n de esta
ave a lo largo del pedrapl6n de Cayo Coco, demues-
tra que esta especie es localmente comin en dicho
cayo.
Coccyzus minor. Cayo Guillermo: lindividuo el
29 de enero del 2000. Cayo Coco: 1 individuo el 11
de febrero del 2000 (hallado muerto). Esta especie
esti considerada como un resident permanent en
las Antillas (Raffaele et al. 1998). En cambio Kirk-
connell (1998), la cita como un resident estival en
Cayo Coco. Nuestras observaciones sugieren que


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SHAFFER ETAL.-ORNITOFAUNA DEL ARCHIPELAGO SABANA-CAMAGIEY, CUBA, 1998-2000


seria mis adecuado considerarla un resident perma-
nente en Cuba, mis aun si se toma en consideraci6n
la informaci6n expuesta por Wallace et al. (1996),
quien report el registro de un individuo de esta es-
pecie en Cayo Coco durante el invierno. La dificul-
tad de observaci6n de esta ave dado sus hibitos y
comportamiento, puede ser la causa principal de la
escasez de registros de la especie durante el inviemo.
Tyto alba. Cayo Coco: 1 individuo el 11 de fe-
brero de 1998, 1 individuo el 4 de febrero de 2000 y
1 individuo el 5 de febrero del 2000. Kirkconnell
(1998), consider a esta especie como un ave muy
rara para el territorio de Cayo Coco. Las nuevas ob-
servaciones aportadas en este trabajo podrian ayudar
a puntualizar la categoria actual de esta especie en el
area insular del cayo antes referido.
Vireo crassirostris. Cayo Pared6n Grande: 3
individuos el 27 de enero del 2000. La presencia de
esta especie en los cayos Coco y Pared6n es conoci-
da (Kirkconnell y Garrido 1991, Wallace et al.
1999), no obstante nuestras observaciones corrobo-
ran nuevamente la presencia de la especie en estos
cayos.
Mimus gundlachii. Cayo Guillermo: 3 indivi-
duos el 29 de enero del 2000. Cayo Pared6n Grande:
1 individuo el 30 de enero de 1998. Cayo Cruz: 2
individuos el 1 de febrero del 2000. Estas observa-
ciones deben ser consideradas adiciones a los resul-
tados obtenidos en afios anteriores en el territorio
insular de Sabana-Camagiiey por Kirkconnell (1998)
y Wallace et al. (1999).
Dendroica petechia. Cayo Coco: 1 individuo el
12 de febrero de 1999. Esta especie es considerada
comiin para Cayo Coco (Kirkconnell 1998). Sin em-
bargo nos referimos a la forma de D. petechia de las
Antillas Menores. Segun Raffaele et al. (1998), la
Dendroica petechia present en Bahamas y en Cuba
posee la corona de color amarillo, mientris que el
individuo observado presentaba las caracteristicas de
la especie de las Antillas Menores, una corona de
color marr6n rojizo en la parte superior de la cabeza.
Nuestras observaciones indican que la forma de D.
petechia circunscrita para las Antillas Menores pue-
de ser observada de forma occasional en Cuba, parti-
cularmente en Cayo Coco.
Coereba flaveola. Cayo Cruz: 1 individuo el 2
de febrero del 2000. Esta especie se registra rara-
mente en Cuba y la informaci6n que brindamos es el
primer report para Cayo Cruz. La mayoria de los
reports obtenidos en Cuba de esta especie corres-
ponden a otros sitios del Archipidlago Sabana-
Camagiiey (Garrido 1973, Garrido y Garcia 1975,
Kirkconnell 1998, Wallace et al. 1999). El individuo


observado frecuentaba la vegetaci6n arbustiva coste-
ra del cayo, lo que coincide con el habitat de obser-
vaci6n descrito por otros observadores de la especie
en Cuba en afios anteriores.
Guiraca caerulea. Cayo Coco: 1 individuo el 3
de febrero de 1998. Esta especie esti considerada
como un ave muy rara para Cayo Coco (Kirkconnell
1998) y una invernante rara para Cuba en sentido
general (Raffaele et al. 1998). El individuo observa-
do fu6 registrado en un sitio con vegetaci6n arbustiva
escasa con ciertos grades de alteraci6n o modifica-
ci6n antr6pica.


Listas de Especies Observaron en Cayo Cruz,
Cayo M6gano Grande y Cayo Ant6n

Cayo Cruz.- Durante el period de observaci6n del 1
al 3 de febrero del 2000, se observaron en el territo-
rio de Cayo Cruz 50 species de aves de ellas 25 co-
rrespondieron a nuevos registros para este cayo de
acuerdo con la informaci6n aportada para Cayo Cruz
en 1987 y 1988 por Gonzalez et al. (1992). Las espe-
cies marcadas con un asterisco (*) son comentadas
con mayores detalles en la primera parte de este tra-
bajo. Las species observadas fueron: Pelecanus oc-
cidentalis, Fregata ,-,i ;; f.... Ardea herodias
(herodias y occidentalis* grupos), Ardea alba,
Egretta caerulea, Egretta rufescens, Nyctanassa vio-
lacea, Eudocimus albus, Cathartes aura, Pandion
haliaetus, Buteogallus anthracinus, Caracara plan-
cus, Falco sparverius, Pluvialis squatarola, Chara-
drius wilsonia*, Charadrius semipalmatus, Chara-
drius melodus, Charadrius vociferus, Tringa mela-
noleuca, Actitis macularia, Arenaria interpres, Cali-
dris alba, Calidris mauri *, Calidris minutilla, Sterna
maxima, Columbina passerina, Chlorostilbon ricor-
dii, Ceryle alcyon, Xiphidiopicus percussus, Conto-
pus caribaeus, Myiarchus sagrae, Tyrannus caudi-
fasciatus, Polioptila lembeyei, Turdus plumbeus, Mi-
mus polyglottos, Mimus gundlachii *, Dendroica pe-
techia, Dendroica caerulescens, Dendroica discolor,
Dendroica palmarum, Setophaga ruticilla, Seiurus
aurocapillus, Seiurus noveborancensis, Geothlypis
trichas, Teretistris fornsi, Coereba flaveola*, Spin-
dalis zena, Melopyrrha nigra, Quiscalus niger, Icte-
rus dominicensis.
Cayo Mdgano Grande.- Durante una visit efectua-
da a Cayo M6gano Grande durante el mes de febrero
del 2000 se lograron registrar 32 species de aves.
Las observaciones se realizaron durante un recorrido
efectuado a todo lo largo de la linea costera Norte del
cayo (10 km). La relaci6n de aves observadas fu6 la
siguiente: Pelecanus occidentalis, Ardea herodias


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SHAFFER ETAL.-ORNITOFAUNA DEL ARCHIPIELAGO SABANA-CAMAGUEY, CUBA, 1998-2000


(herodias y occidentalis* grupos), Egretta tricolor,
Egretta rufescens, Butorides virescens, Eudocimus
albus, Cathartes aura, Buteogallus anthracinus, Fal-
co columbarius, Rallus longirostris, Pluvialis squa-
tarola, Charadrius wilsonia, Charadrius melodus,
Actitis macularia, Arenaria interpres, Calidris alba,
Calidris mauri*, Calidris minutilla, Limnodromus
griseus, Larus atricilla, Sterna maxima, Columbia
passerina, Chlorostilbon ricordii, Ceryle alcyon,
Contopus caribaeus, Myiarchus sagrae, Tyrannus
caudifasciatus, Polioptila lembeyei, Dendroica dis-
color, Dendroica palmarum, Seiurus noveborancen-
sis, Quiscalus niger.
No se hacen comentarios adicionales sobre las es-
pecies observadas en este cayo, puesto que estas ulti-
mas constituyen species comunes para el territorio
insular del Archipidlago Sabana-Camagiiey.
Cayo Ant6n.- Las observaciones en este cayo se de-
sarrollaron durante los dias 26 de enero, 8 y 9 de fe-
brero del 2000. Las aves observadas fueron las si-
guientes: Ardea herodias, Ardea alba, Egretta rufes-
cens, Butorides virescens, Cathartes aura, Buteoga-
llus anthracinus, Caracara plancus, Falco sparve-
rius, Falco columbarius, Pluvialis squatarola, Cha-
radrius wilsonia, Charadrius semipalmatus, Actitis
macularia, Arenaria interpres, Calidris alba, Cali-
dris minutilla, Larus atricilla, Sterna maxima, Xiphi-
diopicus percussus, Contopus caribaeus, Tyrannus
caudifasciatus, Mimus polyglottos, Dendroica pete-
chia, Dendroica discolor, Dendroica palmarum,
Mniotilta varia, Setophaga ruticilla, Seiurus novebo-
rancensis, Geothlypis trichas. En el caso particular
de la observaci6n del Charadrius wilsonia, se brin-
dan detalles en la primera parte del present trabajo.


DISCUSSION
Las observaciones presentadas en este trabajo
aportan nuevos elements y complementan el nivel
de conocimientos alcanzado hasta la fecha acerca de
la composici6n y distribuci6n de la ornitofauna de
Archipidlago Sabana-Camagiiey. Estos resultados
pueden servir de aporte en la proyecci6n de estrate-
gias futuras dirigidas a la conservaci6n de la ornito-
fauna de los sistemas insulares del Norte de Cuba y
sus habitat naturales.


AGRADECIMIENTOS
Queremos dejar constancia de nuestros agradeci-
mientos al Programa Latinoamericano del Servicio
Canadiense de la Fauna de la region de Quebec y al
Institute de Ecologia y Sistemitica del Ministerio de
Ciencia, Tecnologia y Medio Ambiente de Cuba, por


el financiamiento y apoyo logistico brindado que
permiti6 el exitoso desarrollo de este trabajo. Agra-
decemos ademis al Dr. Hiram Gonzalez Alonso, Dr.
Celso Pasos Alberdi, Dr. Pedro P6rez Alvarez, Sr.
Pierre Laporte, al personal del Centro de Investiga-
ciones de Ecosistemas Costeros de Cayo Coco y en
particular a los choferes: Eugenio P6rez Osuna y Pe-
dro Pent6n Roque por la ayuda prestada en la organi-
zaci6n y ejecuci6n de las labores en el campo.


LITERATURE CITADA
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yos Coco, Pared6n Grande y Guillermo, Cuba.
Pitirre 11(2):41.
BUTLER,, R. W. 1992. Great Blue Heron. In The
birds of North America, No. 25 (A. Poole, P. Stet-
tenheim y F. Gill, Eds.). Philadelphia: the Acade-
my of Natural Sciences; Washington, DC: Ameri-
can Ornithologists' Union.
GARRIDO, O. H. 1973. Anfibios, reptiles y aves del
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GARRIDO, O. H. 1976. Aves y reptiles de Cayo Co-
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GARRIDO, O. H. Y F. GARCIA MONTANA. 1975. Ca-
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de Ciencias de Cuba.
GONZALEZ, A., J. ALVAREZ Y A. KIRKCONNELL.
1992. Aves observadas in Cayo Cruz, Archipidla-
go de Sabana-Camagiiey, Cuba. Comunicaciones
breves de Zoologia, Instituto de Ecologia y Siste-
mitica, Academia de Ciencias de Cuba, Cuba: 25-
26.
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GUEZ, E. PEREZ, P. BLANCO, R. OVIEDO Y A. PE-
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piper. In The birds of North America, No. 6 (A.
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KIRKCONNELL, A. Y O. H. GARRIDO. 1991. The
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reonidae), a new addition to the Cuban avifauna.


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pidlago de Sabana-Camagiiey. Torrreia 43:22-39.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, O. GARRIDO, A. KEITH Y J.
RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of West In-
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Press.
RODRIGUEZ, D. Y B. SANCHEZ. 1995 Avifauna del
matorral xeromorfo en la region oriental de Cuba
durante la migraci6n otofial (octubre de 1989,
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PRIETO, A. LLANES SOSA, B. SANCHEZ ORIA Y E.
A. H. WALLACE. 1996. Forest-dwelling Neotropi-
cal migrant and resident birds in three regions of
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WALLACE, G. E., E. A. H. WALLACE, D. R. FROEH-
LICH, B. WALKER, A. KIRKCONNELL, E. S. TO-
RRES, H. A. CARLISLE Y E. MACHELL. 1999. Her-
mit Thrush and Black-throated Gray Warbler, new
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Cuba, 1995-1997. Florida Field Nat. 27(2):37-76.


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jects in biology, geography, music, and art.
Over 80 professional and amateur ornithologists from Puerto Rico and the USA collaborated on this effort.


Available from
Sociedad Ornitol6gica Puertorriquefia
PO Box 1112
Ciales, PR 00638-1112
e-mail: sopi@coqui.net
http://home.coqui.net/sopi/


El Pitirre 13(3)


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LISTA PRELIMINARY DE LA AVIFAUNA MARINO-INSULAR Y LITORAL DEL
PARQUE NATIONAL MOCHIMA, VENEZUELA


1'5GEDIO MARIN E., 2JOSE R. RODRIGUEZ, 3MARTi VASQUEZ Y 4ROBERTO EGANEZ
1Centro de Investigaciones Ecol6gicas Guayacdn; 2Departamento de Biologia, Escuela de Ciencias, Nicleo de Sucre, Uni-
versidad de Oriente, Cumand; 3Oficina Regional de INPARQUES, Cumand, Venezuela; y 4Comisi6n de Ambiente y Orde-
naci6n Territorial del Senado de la Reptblica, Caracas, Venezuela
5Direcci6n Postal: Urb. "Villa Olimpica, " Bloque 03, Apto. 01-03, Cumand, Sucre. C6digo Postal 61-01, Apartado Postal
#30; e-mail: gmarin @sucre.udo.edu.ve; fax: 58-093-521981

Resumen.-El Parque Nacional Mochima abarca parte del territorio marino-continental de los estados Sucre
(NO) y Anzoategui (NE), comprendiendo una gran diversidad de ecosistemas; e. g., islotes, playas, costas abrup-
tas, caletas, manglares y bosques (xer6filo, trop6filo y ombr6filo). Con la fmalidad de identificar las species pre-
sentes en sus costas, cayos y bahias, se emprendieron inventarios que incluyeron observaci6n con binoculars,
captures con redes de niebla y guias de aves de Venezuela. Se sefialan un total de 15 6rdenes, 30 families y 91
species. Los mas representatives fueron: en el area insular, los Pelecaniformes; e.g., Phalacrocorax olivaceus
(Phalacrocoracidae), Sula leucogaster (Sulidae), Pelecanus occidentalis (i c1c. 1.id... IL I en el espinar xer6filo cos-
tero, los Falconiformes, e. g., Buteo spp., Buteogallus spp. (Accipitridae), Coragyps atratus (C .lli.ii l..l.c. i Cara-
cara plancus (Falconidae) y los Passeriformes; e. g., Saltator spp., Volatinia jacarina, Tiaris bicolor, Tachyp-
honus rufus, Thraupis spp. (Emberizidae), Elaenia spp., Tyrannus melancholicus, Pitangus sulphuratus
(Tyrannidae), Icterus nigrogularis, Gymnomystax mexicanus (Icteridae); en el manglar, Ceryle torquata, Chloro-
ceryle amazona (Alcedinidae), Dendroica petechia, Conirostrum bicolor (Parulidae) y Actitis macularia
(Scolopaciae). Cabe destacar la nidificaci6n de Phaethon aethereus y la presencia de Anhinga anhinga, inusuales
en ambientes marino-costeros continentales. La topografia abrupta y cercania a la costa del piedemonte, en algu-
nos sectors, parece influir en la ocurrencia de species tipicas del bosque trop6filo premontano en el matorral
xer6filo costero. Por otro lado, se notaron diferencias en el numero de species observadas en los diferentes islo-
tes; siendo 6ste mayor en los mas cercanos a la costa, a pesar de su menor area.
Abstract.-PRELIMINARY LIST OF THE MARINE-INSULAR AND LITTORAL AVIFAUNAS OF THE MOCHIMA NA-
TIONAL PARK, VENEZUELA. The Mochima National Park of Venezuela contains representatives of marine and
terrestrial habitats in the states of northwestern Sucre and northeastern Anzoategui, including widely diverse eco-
systems; e. g., cays, beaches, steep coasts, rivers, mangroves, and various forests. With the objective of identify-
ing species present in coastal, cay, and bay habitats, inventories were undertaken including observations using
binoculars, captures with mist-nets, and Venezuelan bird guides. Totals of 15 orders, 30 families, and 91 species
are reported. The most representative forms for the islands were Pelecaniformes (e.g., Phalacrocorax olivaceus,
Sula leucogaster, Pelecanus occidentalis); in the dry coastal throry scrub, Falconiformes (Buteo spp., Buteogal-
lus spp., Coragyps atratus, Caracara plancus) and Passeriformes (e.g., Saltator spp., Volatinia jacarina, Tiaris
bicolor, Tachyphonus rufus, Thraupis spp., Elaenia spp., Tyrannus melancholicus, Pitangus sulphuratus, Icterus
nigrogularis, Gymnomystax mexicanus); in mangrove forest, Ceryle torquata, Chloroceryle amazona, Dendroica
petechia, Conirostrum bicolor, and Actitis macularia. We report breeding by Phaethon aethereus and the pres-
ence of Anhinga anhinga, which are rare in the marine-coastal environment of the mainland. The abrupt topogra-
phy and proximity to the piedemonte coast, in some sectors, seems to influence the occurrence of species typical
of the submontane forest in the dry coastal scrub. Conversely, we noted differences in the number of species ob-
served in the various islands, with more species in the islands nearest the mainland, even though those islands
were smaller in size than more distant cays.



INTRODUCCION escasos studios son en su mayoria floristicos
EL PARQUE NACIONAL MOCHIMA abarca parte de (Cumana 1997), y a excepci6n de Naveira (1983),
la region marino-continental de los Estados Sucre con exiguas citas sobre la fauna, practicamente nada
(sector NO) y Anzoitegui (sector NE), Venezuela. se conoce, especialmente en material de aves.
Comprende una gran diversidad de ecosistemas; i.e., Hasta el moment no existe una lista fehaciente de
islotes, playas, costas abruptas, caletas, manglares y la avifauna del parque, ni de su distribuci6n, a pesar
bosques xer6filo, trop6filo y hlimedo premontano y de que varias species que ocurren dentro de su am-
montano. Siendo un parque marion y continental, el bito son sefialadas como nuevos registros para el Es-
area marina ha sido relativamente mis estudiada tado Sucre; i.e., el Chiparo (Phaethon aethereus), la
(Egifiez 1989); en cambio, en el area continental, los Paloma Ala Blanca (Columba corensis), la Cotfia


El Pitirre 13(3)


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MARIN ETAL.- AVIFAUNA DEL PARQUE NATIONAL MOCHIMA, VENEZUELA


Agujita (Anhinga anhinga) (Marin and Rodriguez
1992; Rodriguez 1999). Otros son endemismos su-
bespecificos - e. g., el Chivi Silbador (Basileuterus
culicivorus olivascens) y la Candelita Gargantipiza-
rra (Myioborus miniatus pallidiventris) - o especifi-
cos - e. g.; el Chivi Cabecigris (Basileuterus grisei-
ceps) y la Diglosa Negra (Diglossa venezuelensis)
(Phelps y Meyer 1994) - del Macizo Oriental (que
incluye parte del area continental del parque), el
cual, conjuntamente con la Peninsula de Paria, cons-
tituye un subcentro de endemismos en Sudamerica
(Phelps 1966, Cracraft 1985, Phelps and Meyer
1994).
Asi, con la finalidad de hacer un levantamiento de
su avifauna se iniciaron inventarios preliminares, sin
establecer estimaciones estadisticas comparativas, en
la franja marino-insular y litoral, para identificar las
species presents en sus costas, cayos y bahias, de
manera de contribuir con cualquier plan de manejo e
investigaci6n que conlleve, en filtima instancia, a su
aut6ntica conservaci6n (Jacome 1986, Flores 1992,
M.A.R.N.R. 1989, G6mez et al. 1997).


MATERIALS Y METODOS
Area de Estudio
El area de studio comprendi6 gran parte del lito-
ral continental e insular (cayos e islotes), desde el
golfete de Santa Fe hasta la Bahia de Mochima, 100
21'00"y 10024'00" N; 64�19'33" y 69022'30" O. Es-
ta enmarcada fitofisiogrfficamente dentro de las sub-
regiones insular costera y continental costera; viz, 0 y
100 m s.n.m.; TMA > 280C; PMA entire 300 y 1000
mm (Huber 1997).
La mayoria del area esta caracterizada por una ve-
getaci6n xer6fila, tipo espinar costero (predominante
en el sector insular), manglares y monte espinoso
tropical (Ewell et al. 1976, Cumana 1997). No obs-
tante, debido a la intervenci6n antr6pica (incendios
y/o actividades agricolas) existen zonas con vegeta-
ci6n de sabana, con notorious afloramientos rocosos
en algunas zonas a consecuencia de la erosion, que
conforman ecotonos interesantes con el bosque xero-
morfo y deciduo (Zurita 1983). Tambien existen,
especialmente en las hondonadas, bosques de galle-
ria con arboles de altura considerable y cultivos de
frutales.


Procedimientos
Se practicaron salidas de campo de un dia de dura-
ci6n (08:00 a 16:00 hr), dos veces por mes, durante
los meses de abril y mayo de 1998. Por otro lado, se
realizaron recorridos en botes "pefieros," a todo lo


largo de la linea de costa continental y de los islotes,
para identificar aves marinas y del manglar. Las aves
fueron identificadas mediante el uso de binoculars,
captures con redes de niebla (3 x 12 m, 32 mm de
abertura de malla) - con transectos de z 50 m, per-
pendiculares a la linea de costa - y guias de las aves
de Venezuela (Phelps and Meyer 1994, Lentino
1997).
La situaci6n (status) y el orden hipot6tico de los
diferentes taxa listados fueron establecidos segfin
Phelps and Meyer (1994); mientras que la ubicaci6n
en las diferentes categories y los nombres cientificos
se basaron en la recopilaci6n de Lentino (1997).


RESULTADOS
Se registraron 15 6rdenes, 39 families y 91 espe-
cies (Ap6ndice 1), siendo los mds representatives: en
el area marino-insular, los Pelecaniformes; e. g., Co-
tias Olivdceas (I /hl.... ...... \ olivaceus), Alcatra-
ces (Pelecanus occidentalis), y Bobas Marrones
(Sula leucogaster). En el matorral xer6filo costero,
los Falconiformes; e. g., los lechoseros (Saltator
spp.), Semilleros Chirri (Volatinia jacarina), Tordi-
llos (Tiaris bicolor), bobitos copetones (Elaenia
spp.), Pitirres Chicharreros (Tyrannus melancholi-
cus), Cristofues (i a,,11,,' sulphuratus), Chocolate-
ros (Tachyphonus rufus), azulejos (Thraupis spp.),
Gonzalitos (Icterus nigrogularis), Maiceros
(Gymnomystax mexicanus) y Conotos (Psarocolius
decumanus). En el manglar, Martines Pescadores
(Ceryle torquata), Martin Pescador Matraquero
(Chloroceryle amazona), Canarios de Mangle
(Dendroica petechia), Mieleros Mangleros
(Conirostrum bicolor) y Playeros Coleadores (Actitis
macularia). Para este censo preliminary, no se hicie-
ron valoraciones estadisticas comparativas de abun-
dancia, uniformidad y diversidad, entire la avifauna
litoral continental e insular. Sin embargo, es perti-
nente integrar anflisis cualicuantitativos de algunos
parhmetros ecol6gicos en este sentido.


DISCUSSION
Dos species, la Cotua Aguijita (Anhinga anhinga)
y el Chiparo (Phaethon. aethereus), destacan en este
primer inventario; la primera porque se le sefiala por
vez primera, al menos en Venezuela, como nidifican-
te en un area continental (Peninsula de Manare, sec-
tor El Aguirre), y la segunda por ser una especie in-
usual en ambientes marino-costeros, puesto que se le
halla generalmente en ecosistemas acuidulces
(Lentino 1976). Cabe destacar que las poblaciones
del Chiparo a nivel del Caribe, en los filtimos inven-


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MARIN ETAL.- AVIFAUNA DEL PARQUE NATIONAL MOCHIMA, VENEZUELA


tarios, informan de menos de 2000 parejas nidifican-
tes. Por otro lado, segin models estadisticos recien-
tes, un total de 10,000 individuos en panmixia se ne-
cesitarian para mantener una viabilidad evolutiva,
por lo que, a largo plazo, esta especie podria extin-
guirse (Walsh y Lee 1998).
Ahora bien, las caracteristicas geomorfol6gicas del
area continental del parque, presentando laderas con
pendientes abruptas, hace que el piedemonte se en-
cuentre muy cercano al mar, por lo que los ecotonos
entire el bosque premontano y el bosque trop6filo y
xer6filo est6n poco definidos y, en algunos sectors,
relativamente cercanos a la costa intercambiandose
regularmente, al menos en esta 6poca, species orni-
ticas de uno a otro ecosistema. En la vecina Peninsu-
la de Araya, por ejemplo, se han realizado inventa-
rios (el primer y Segundo autor) en el bosque acan-
toxeromorfo litoral, para los mismos meses, y no se
ha sefialado la presencia de algunas species obser-
vadas en Mochima; e. g., el Lechosero Pechiblanco
(Saltator orenocensis), el Semillero Ventricastafio
(Oryzoborus angolensis) y la Cotara Caracolera
(Aramides cajanea). Sin embargo, factors como la
fenologia, disponibilidad de recursos alimentarios y
los rigores climiticos severos (exceso de lluvias o
sequias prolongadas) pudieran influir en la presencia
o no de algunas species en determinados meses o
afios (Karr 1976, McNeil 1982, Poulin et al. 1992); a
esto se uniria, 16gicamente, la poca cantidad de
muestreos practicados.
La topografia de las zonas supralitorales insulares
y continentales combinadas con factors antr6picos,
parecen impedir el establecimiento de colonies de
nidificaci6n de species de aves marinas excepto P.
aethereus), sino mis bien de sesteo y alimentaci6n.
Por el contrario, algunas species continentales han
colonizado algunos cayos. En efecto, se pudo obser-
var nidificaci6n en el Carpintero Pechipunteado
(Colaptes ptmi,r. 1,,i l, y la Paraulata Llanero (Mimus
gilvus). Si bien la colonizaci6n insular depend de
factors como diversidad de habitat, distancia de tie-
rra fire, extension territorial, capacidad de disper-
si6n, tasas de inmigraci6n y extinci6n (Gorman
1991), en nuestro caso, en principio, parece ser la
diversidad de habitat y la distancia de tierra fire los
factors predominantes. Ciertamente, la mayor abun-
dancia y diversidad de species (basadas solo en el
nuimero de captures y aves observadas) se encontr6
en los cayos mis cercanos a la costa y de vegetaci6n
mis exhuberante, e. g., Isla Larga (freos de 500 m),
Isla Arapo (freos <1 km); pues en los otros cayos,
aunque de mayor extension territorial; e. g., Isla Ve-
nado, Isla Caracas, solo se observaron aves marinas;
lo que pudiera obedecer, en parte, a su ubicaci6n en


mar abierto, expuesta a los constantes vientos sali-
nos, que impiden el establecimiento de una flora con
una entomofauna asociada relativamente abundante,
al contrario de Isla Larga e Isla de Arapo las cuales
se ubican resguardadas dentro de bahias.
Finalmente se debe sefialar un aspect conductual
interesante, observado en Isla Arapo, y es la natura-
leza pasiva de algunas species, e. g., el Canario de
Mangle y el Granero Cabecita de F6sforo (Chloro-
spingus pileatus), ante la presencia humana, permi-
tiendo un acercamiento notorio, inusual en las pobla-
ciones continentales. Este "comportamiento insular"
ha sido observado en otras species; e. g., la Reinita
(Coereba flaveola) en Bonaire (R. Egafiez, com.
pers.), el Colibri Jamaiquino (Trochilus polytmus),
en Jamaica (Bond 1985). La ausencia de depredado-
res y competidores y el aislamiento territorial (Lack
1969) parecen contribuir, parcialmente, a la apari-
ci6n de este tipo de conduct, e indicarian que estas
species, mIs que intercambiarse consuetudinaria-
mente con las poblaciones de tierra fire, mantienen
grupos residents permanentes en dichos cayos.
Los factors ecoetol6gicos antes sefialados, inelu-
diblemente, deberin tomarse en cuenta, a la hora de
disefiar las estrategias de ordenamiento, uso y con-
servaci6n de las areas insulares y marino-costeras
continentales del parque (Eginez 1989).


LITERATURE CITADA
BOND, J. 1985. Birds of the West Indies. UK: Co-
llins, London.
CRACRAFT, J. 1985. Historical biogeography and
patterns of differentiation within the South Ameri-
can avifauna: areas of endemism. Ornithological
Monographs 36:49-84.
CUMANA, L. J. 1997. Flora (Magnoliophyta) del Par-
que Litoral Mochima. Mem. XIII Congreso Vene-
zolano de Botinica:37.
EGANEZ, R. A. 1989. Reconocimiento de las areas
marinas y submarines del Parque Nacional Mochi-
ma, entire Punta Gorda y Punta el Pefion, Estado
Sucre. Tesis de Grado. Universidad de Oriente,
Cumani, Venezuela.
EWELL, J., A. MADRIZ Y J. TosI. 1976. Zonas de vi-
da de Venezuela. Ministerio de Agricultura y Cria
y FONAIAP, Caracas, Venezuela.
FLORES, C. 1992. El espacio marino-costero: active
patrimonial. Yolauca 1:55-64.
GOMEZ, J. A., J. MARTINEZ, M. V. FUENTES, M.
GUEVARA Y H. GIL. 1997. Evaluaci6n de la cali-
dad ambiental, vulnerabilidad y sustentabilidad de
un sector de manglares de Mochima, Estado Sucre,


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MARIN ETAL.- AVIFAUNA DEL PARQUE NATIONAL MOCHIMA, VENEZUELA


Venezuela. Saber 8(2):5-10.
GORMAN, M. L. 1991. Ecologia insular. Espafia: Edi-
ciones Vedrd.
HUBER, 0. 1997. Ambientes fisiogrificos y vegetables
de Venezuela. Pp. 143-202 en: Vertebrados actua-
les y f6siles de Venezuela.
JACOME, J. C. 1986. Parque Nacional Mochima, un
reservorio que desaparece. Carla Ecol6gica Lago-
ven 29:1-4.
KARR, J. R. 1976. Seasonality, resource availability,
and community diversity in tropical bird commu-
nities. Am. Nat. 110:973-994.
LACK, D. 1969. The numbers of bird species on is-
lands. Bird Study 16:193-209.
LENTINO, M. 1976. La cotuia aguijitaAnhinga anhin-
ga. Natura 58:11.
LENTINO, M. 1997. Lista actualizada de las aves de
Venezuela. Pp. 143-202 en: Vertebrados actuales y
f6siles de Venezuela. E. La Marca (Ed.). Venezue-
la: Museo de Ciencias y Tecnologia de Merida.
M.A.R.N.R. 1989. Decisiones para la acci6n ambien-
tal (decretos, convenios, acuerdos): Ref. Decreto
270 sobre Saneamiento del Parque Nacional Mo-
chima.
MARIN, G., AND J. R. RODRIGUEZ. 1992. Nuevos
registros y extensions territoriales de species de
aves para el Estado Sucre. Acta Cientifica Venezo-
lana 44(1):338.
MCNEIL, R. 1982. Winter resident repeats and re-


turns of austral and boreal migrant birds banded in
Venezuela. J. Field Omithol. 53(2):125-132.
NAVEIRA. J. L. 1983. Efectos ecol6gicos de los in-
cendios forestales en el Parque Nacional Mochi-
ma. Tesis de Grado. Venezuela: Universidad de
Oriente, Cumand.
PHELPS, W. H., JR. 1966. Contribuci6n al anhlisis de
los elements que componen la avifauna subtropi-
cal de las Cordilleras de la costa de Venezuela.
Bol. Acad. Cienc. Fis. Matem. Nat. Vzla. 26:7-43.
PHELPS, W. H., JR., AND R. MEYER. 1994. Una guia
de las aves de Venezuela. Caracas, Venezuela:
Grificas Armitano.
POULIN, B., G. LEFEVBRE, AND R. MCNEIL. 1992.
Tropical avian phenology in relation to abundance
and exploitation of food resources. Ecology 73
(6):2295-2309.
RODRIGUEZ, J. R. 1999. Contribuciones ecol6gicas,
nuevos registros y estensiones territoriales de dis-
tribuci6n para la avifauna del Estado Sucre, Vene-
zuela: una revision actualizada. Trabajo de Ascen-
so. Venezuela: Universidad de Oriente, Cumani.
WALSH, M., AND S. LEE. 1998. Estado actual de la
conservaci6n de chirres en Las Antillas. Pitirre 11
(2):61.
ZURITA, R. 1983. Caracterizaci6n de las posibles
causes que regulan el limited sabana-bosque en el
Parque Nacional Mochima. Tesis de Grado. Uni-
versidad de Oriente, Cumani, Venezuela.


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MARIN ETAL.- AVIFAUNA DEL PARQUE NATIONAL MOCHIMA, VENEZUELA

Ap6ndice 1. Lista de aves marino-insulares y del matorral acantoxeromorfo litoral del Parque Nacional Mochima, Venezuela. Status:
Residente (R), Migratoria Neartica (mN), Migratoria Austral (mA), Migratoria Local (mL). Habitat: Marino-costero (M), Xerofitico
(X), Manglar (Mg).


Family


Species


Status Habitat


Pelecaniformes Phaethontidae
Pelecanidae
Sulidae
Phalacrocoracidae
Anhingidae
Fregatidae
Ciconiiformes Ardeidae



Threskiornithidae
Falconiformes Cathartidae

Accipitridae






Pandiondae
Falconidae


Galliformes
Gruiformes
Charadriiformes



Columbiformes


Cracidae
Rallidae
Scolopacidae
Laridae
Stemidae

Columbidae


Psittaciformes Psittacidae


Cuculiformes


Strigiformes
Caprimulgiformes

Apodiformes


Cuculidae


Strigidae
Caprimulgidae

Trochilidae


Coraciiformes Alcedinidae

Piciformes Picidae

Bucconidae
Passeriformes Dendrocolaptidae
Furnariidae
Formicariidae
Tyrannidae


Chiparo Phaethon aethereus
Alcatraz Pelecanus occidentalis
Boba Marr6n Sula leucogaster
Cotua Olivacea Phalacrocorax brastiianus
Cotua Agujita Anhinga anhinga
Tijereta de Mar Fregata magnificens
Garza Blanca Real Ardea alba
Chusmita Egretta thula
Garcita Azul Egretta caerulea
Chicuaco Cuello Gris Butorides stratus
Corocoro Colorado Eudocimus ruber
Zamuro Coragyps atratus
Oripopo Cathartes aura
Cernicalo Gampsonyx swainsonn
Gavilan Tej6 Buteo albicaudatus
Gavilan Habado Buteo magnirostris
Gavilan Andapi6 Parabuteo unicinctus
Gavilan Cangrejero Buteogallus anthracinus
Aguila Negra Buteogallus urubitinga
Aguila Pescadora Pandion halhaetus
Halc6n Macagua Herpethoteres cachinnans
Caricare Sabanero Milvago chimachima
Caricare Encrestado Caracara plancus
Halc6n Peregrino Falco peregrinus
Guacharaca del Norte Ortals ruficauda
Cotara Caracolera Aramides cajanea
Playero Coleador Actitis maculana
Guanaguanare Larus atrncila
Tirra Medio Cuchillo Sterna hirundo
Gaviota Pico Amarillo Sterna supercilarns
Paloma Ala Blanca Columba corensis
Paloma Sabanera Zenaida aurnculata
Tortolita Grisacea Columbina passerna
Tortolita Rojiza Columbina talpacoti
Palomita Maraquita Columbina squammata
Paloma Turca Leptottla verreauxi
Perico Cara Sucia Aratinga pertinax
Periquito Forpus passernus
Pizcua Paya cayana
Garrapatero Comtin Crotophaga am
Sauce Tapera naevia
Pavita Ferruginea Glaucidium brasihanum
Aguaitacamino Chiquito Chordedles acutipennis
Aguaitacamino Rastrojero Caprnmulgus cayennesis
Colibri Verdecito Chlorostilbon mellsugus
Colibri Anteado I ..
Martin Pescador Grande Ceryle torquata
Martin Pescador Matraquero ( .. . . amazona
Carpintero Pechipunteado Colaptes punctigula
Carpintero Habado Melanerpes rubrncapillus
Bobito Hypnelus, * .
Trepador Subesube Xyphorhynchus picus
Gfiitio Gargantiblanco a albescens
Coicorita Formicivora grisea
Pitirre Chicharrero Tyrannus melanchoicus
Cristofu6 Pitangus sulphuratus
Atrapamoscas de Venezuela Mylarchus venezuelensis
Bobito Copet6n Vientre Amarillo.. "
Bobito Copet6n Pico Corto Elaena parvirostrns
Atrapamoscoas Tijereta Tyrannus savanna
Gran Atrapamoscas Listado Mylodynastes maculates


El Pitirre 13(3)


Order


M
M
M
M
M
M
Mg
Mg-M
Mg
Mg
Mg
X-Mg
X
X
X
X
X-Mg
Mg
X
M
X
X
X
X-Mg
X
X-Mg
Mg
M
M
M
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X-Mg
X
X-Mg
X
X
X
X
X
X
Mg
Mg
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X


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MARIN ETAL.- AVIFAUNA DEL PARQUE NATIONAL MOCHIMA, VENEZUELA


Apendice 1. Lista de aves del Parque Nacional Mochima, Venezuela (continued).


Passeriformes Tyrannidae

Hirundinidae
Troglodytidae

Mimidae
Sylviidae
Vireonidae







Parulidae



Emberizidae


Pico Chato Vientre Perla Hemztrzccus margarntaceiventer
Pico Chato Amarillento T - - 1 .
Golondrina de Agua Tachycineta albiventer
Cucarachero Currucuchu Campylorhynchus grzseus
Cucarachero Comun Troglodytes aedon
Paraulata Llanera Mlmus gilvus
Chirito de los Chaparrales Pohoptla plumbea
Julian Chivi Ojirrojo Vireo olivaceus
Siriri Czclarhis gujanenensis
Tordo Pirata Molothrus bonarensis
Tordo Comun Quiscalus lugubris
Gonzalito Icterus nigrogularns
Maicero Gymnomystax mexicanus
Conoto Negro Pasarocollus decumanus
Canario de Mangle Dendroica petechia
Mielero Manglero Conmrostrum bicolor
Reinita Comtin . . *.
Reinita de Charcos Sezurus noveboracensis
Currunata Saucito Euphona trnntatzs
Azulejo de Jardin Thraupis episcopus
Azulejo Verdeviche Thraupis glaucocolpa
Chocolatero Tachyphonus rufus
Lechosero Ajicero Saltator coerulescens
Lechosero Pechiblanco Saltator orenocensis
Lechosero Pechirrayado Saltator striatpectus
Granero Cabecita de F6sforo Coryphospingus pileatus
Tordillo Comun Tanrs bicolor
Semillero Ventriacastanio Oryzoborus angolensis
Semillero Chirri Volatinajacarna
Semillero Ventriamarillo Sporophila nigrcollis


El Pitirre 13(3)


X
x
X
M
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
x
X
X
Mg
Mg
X-Mg
X-Mg
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
x
X
X
X
X


REVIEWERS FOR EL PITIRREVOLUME 13

The Editor thanks the following reviewers for their help in the preparation of volume 13 of El Pitirre:
Wayne J. Arendt, Herlitz Davis, Catherine Levy, Douglas B. McNair, Shawn O'Brien, Jos6 Julidn Placer,
Herbert A. Raffaele, Alma Ramfrez, Brigitte Wotzkow-Straub, and Carlos Wotzkow.


Page 87











LEUCISM IN CRESCENT-EYED PEWEE (CONTOPUS CARIBAEUS) IN WESTERN CUBA


GuY M. KIRWAN1 AND ARTURO KIRKCONNELL2
174 Waddington Street, Norwich NR2 4JS, UK; and 2Mluseo Nacional de Historia Natural de Cuba, La Habana, Cuba

Resumen.- LEUCISM EN EL BOBITO CHICO (CONTOPUS CARIBAEUS) EN EL OESTE DE CUBA. Leucism se report
en dos individuos del Bobito Chico (Contopus caribaeus) de la Ci6naga de Zapata y Pinar del Rio, Cuba.
Key words: coloration, Contopus caribaeus, Crescent-eyed Pewee, Cuba, leucism, plumage


LEUCISM AMONG PEWEES of the genus Contopus
appears to be virtually unknown. Kimball Garrett (in
litt., February 2000) has drawn our attention to a leu-
cistic specimen of Western Wood-Pewee (Contopus
sordidulus), in the Los Angeles County Museum
(LACM 46036), with typical plumage except for a
pure white chin and throat, and numerous pure white
primaries (p4-10 on the right wing and p8-10 on the
left wing). It was taken in Orange County, Califor-
nia, USA, in September. In addition, George Wallace
(in litt., February 2000) noted the presence of a leu-
cistic Eastern Phoebe (Sayornis phoebe) wintering in
Florida in 1999-2000, and reports that the only other
known instance of such aberration in this species was
also recorded in Florida in winter.
We possess extensive experience with the Cres-
cent-eyed Pewee (C. caribaeus), having observed
probably over 1000 individuals over the years, and
have not noted any instances of albinism or leucism
in the species. Neither Wallace, nor Allan Keith,
who shared the observations below, is aware of any
instances of leucism in C. caribaeus.
On 10 February 2000, in an area of Cidnaga de
Zapata, Matanzas Province, western Cuba, known as
La Majagua, ca. 5 km east of Soplillar, we noted a
striking individual of C. caribaeus. It had a gleaming
white crown, streaked darker, forehead and supralo-
ral, whereas the majority of the underparts from the
chin to the belly were off-white, with tiny dark


streaks. The tertials were broadly fringed creamy-
white (but asymmetrically patterned), extending nar-
rowly onto the greater coverts, as well as onto at
least one primary. The rectrices were also exten-
sively fringed and, with the exception of the two out-
ermost pairs, tipped creamy-white. It was very ap-
proachable, although this behavior is entirely
"normal," and it continued to feed unconcernedly
despite our presence. On 16 February 2000, at Par-
que Nacional La Giiira, Pinar del Rio Province, we
found a second leucistic individual, although it was
substantially less marked than the first. This individ-
ual was much less well marked, with the wing and
tail markings being more normal, and the leucistic
coloration being largely confined to the head and
underparts.
We consider it extraordinary to have discovered
two leucistic individuals within a matter of days
when such an aberration appears unknown within the
species, and is apparently extremely rare for the ge-
nus.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We are grateful to Kimball Garrett and George
Wallace for drawing our attention to records of leu-
cism among Contopus and Sayornis, and Robert Fox
for supplying photographs of the La Majagua indi-
vidual.


El Pitirre 13(3)


Page 88











GIANT COWBIRD (SCAPHIDURA ORYZIVORA): A NEW BIRD
FOR BARBADOS AND THE WEST INDIES

MARTIN FROST
Featherbed Lane, St. John, Barbados

Resumen. - EL TORDO GIGANTE (SCAPHIDURA ORYZIVORA): UNA NUEVA AVE PARA BARBADOS Y LAS ANTILLAS.
Se report el primer avistamiento del Tordo Gigante (Scaphidura oryzivora) en las Antillas, en Barbados. Aunque
aparentemente esta especie, un estricto parasito de nidos, se esta dispersando hacia el norte desde America del Sur,
no se espera que se establezca en las Antillas Menores al menos que las species hu6spedes de esta ave tambi6n co-
lonicen estas islas.
Key words: Barbados, Giant Cowbird, habitat, Lesser Antilles, range expansion, record, Scaphidura oryzivora


ON 9 MARCH 2000, while at Palm Beach, Hast-
ings, Christ Church with Yvonne Robinson, I ob-
served a Giant Cowbird (Scaphidura oryzivora) in a
mahogany tree (Swietenia mahagoni) at eye level, no
more than 7.5 m away. I was immediately struck by
its size since it was longer and considerably more
robust, due to its deep-chested appearance, than the
familiar Carib Grackle (Quiscalus lugubris). The
second feature that caught my attention was its eye
coloration, which I noted as a pale red with a yellow-
ish tinge. The eye coloration contrasted noticeably
with its entirely black plumage, which had no gloss
or sheen. The tail was "normally shaped" and lacked
the "V" or keel shape of a Carib Grackle. Its sturdy
legs were black as was the pointed bill, which was
longer than that of a Carib Grackle, but considerably
deeper at its base. A single, harsh call was heard. I
was able to view the bird at this close range for about
1 min before it flew off to perch about 6 m up in a
nearby almond tree (Terminalia catappa). Here I was
able to compare it directly with a Carib Grackle al-
most side-by-side, about 60 cm apart, and appreciate
its heavier-bodied appearance as well as estimate
that it was about 1.5 times the length of a Carib
Grackle. It remained in the same position in the al-
mond tree for about 3 min before returning to the
original mahogany tree.


This observation represents the first report of the
Giant Cowbird from Barbados and the West Indies.
The Giant Cowbird is an obligate brood parasite
which occurs in Trinidad and Tobago, as well as
throughout most of northeastern South America,
where its occurrence is generally linked to oropen-
dola (Psarocolius sp.) and cacique (Cacicus sp.)
colonies (Ridgely and Tudor 1989). It was first re-
ported from Tobago in 1937 (ffrench 1992) and is
now well established there (F. Hayes, pers. comm.).
Thus, it appears that this species is spreading north-
wards, much as the Shiny Cowbird (Molothrus bon-
ariensis) did about a century ago, and future reports
from the southern Lesser Antilles should be ex-
pected. It is unlikely, however, to establish itself on
any of the Lesser Antilles unless it is preceded by
successful colonization by one of its preferred hosts.
I thank Floyd Hayes for providing additional infor-
mation and Edward Massiah for reviewing this note.


LITERATURE CITED
FFRENCH, R. 1992. A guide to the birds of Trinidad
and Tobago. London: Christopher Helm.
RIDGELY, R. S., AND G. TUDOR. 1989. The birds of
South America, Volume 1. Oxford, UK: Oxford
University Press.


El Pitirre 13(3)


Page 89











AN OBSERVATION OF ANTILLEAN NIGHTHAWK (CHORDEILES GUNDLACHII) ON BARBADOS

MARTIN FROST
Featherbed Lane, St. John, Barbados

Resumen. AVISTAMIENTO DEL QUEREQUETE (CHORDEILES GUNDLACHII) EN BARBADOS. Se report el primer avis-
tamiento del querequete (Chordeiles gundlachii) en Barbados, y en las Antillas Menores. Este observacion provee
evidencia tentative de la teoria que el Querequete se migra hacia y por las Antillas Menores.
Key words: Antillean Nighthawk, Barbados, behavior, Chordeiles gundlachii, Lesser Antilles, record, vocalization


AROUND 18:25 HR, shortly after sunset, on 17 May
2000 while at Bailey Hill, St. Thomas, I heard an
unfamiliar call which caused me to look skyward. A
few moments later the source of the calling - a bird -
flew over, almost overhead, at about 18 m (60 ft). It
flew around for about a minute before heading east-
ward calling continuously and I immediately deter-
mined that it was a vocalizing nighthawk species. In
the twilight I could see that the bird was relatively
slim in appearance, about the length of a Zenaida
Dove (Zenaida aurita), with long, slim wings, which
were well angled at the carpal joint. The under parts
appeared silvery brown, as did the underwings ex-
cept for a white patch on the primaries. Although not
clearly seen as the bird flew away, the upper parts
appeared dark. The flight was direct, but there were
at least two sudden changes of direction. The call
was a rapid, rhythmic four-syllable call which I re-
corded as "pu-du-du-dunt," rising on the last sylla-
ble, and audible at a distance, even when the bird
was no longer visible.
Voice provides one of the best methods of identi-
fying nighthawk species, which are notoriously diffi-
cult to separate in the field. Within an hour of the
observation, I was able to confirm that it was an An-
tillean Nighthawk ( .. ,. ,,. , gundlachii) by per-
fectly matching the call heard to a tape recording of
this species' call in the Dominican Republic
(Reynard 1981). This represents the first report of
this species from Barbados and the Lesser Antilles.
The Antillean Nighthawk breeds in the Bahamas,
Cuba, Cayman Islands, Jamaica, and Hispaniola, and
less commonly in Puerto Rico and US Virgin Is-
lands. It may occur in the Lesser Antilles on migra-
tion to and from its presumed winter range in South
America (Raffaele et al. 1998). Although apparently
no confirmed records exist from the mainland, Sep-
tember and April specimens occur from Curacao,
Netherland Antilles (Voous 1983). Based on the de-
parture from the breeding grounds by late August to
mid-September, it has been suggested by some au-
thors that nighthawks seen in the Lesser Antilles in
August and early September may be Antillean rather
than Common Nighthawks (C. minor), which likely


migrate later through the region (Norton 1984, Evans
1990). At this time of the year, however, birds are
invariably silent and therefore not safely identified
without a specimen. There appear to be few night-
hawk specimens from the Lesser Antilles. A recent
examination confirmed that a specimen collected on
Barbados on 29 September 1887 was a Common
Nighthawk (Feilden 1889), whereas one collected on
Martinique on 16 October (year not stated) was also
identified as this species (Bond 1956). The possibil-
ity of specifically identifying a nighthawk in the
Lesser Antilles is greatest in spring and early sum-
mer when calling is more likely. The Barbados ob-
servation provides the first evidence supporting the
notion that Antillean Nighthawks may migrate
through the Lesser Antilles. This evidence, however,
should be considered as tentative because it is possi-
ble that the bird could have been a vagrant, well off
its usual course.
I thank Edward Massiah for providing the tape of
Dominican Republic bird songs, which permitted
identification, and for reviewing this note, as well as
Phil Hansbro for examining the Barbados Common
Nighthawk specimen.


LITERATURE CITED
BOND, J. 1956. First supplement to the Check-list of
birds of the West Indies (1956). Acad. Nat. Sci.
Philadelphia.
EVANS, P. G. H. 1990. Birds of the eastern Carib-
bean. London: Macmillan Press Ltd.
FEILDEN, H.W. 1889. On the birds of Barbados. Ibis,
Ser. 6, 1:477-503.
NORTON, R. 1984. West Indies region. Am. Birds 38
(2):251-253.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, O. GARRIDO, A. KEITH
AND J. RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of
the West Indies. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton
University Press.
REYNARD, G. B. 1981. Bird songs in the Dominican
Republic. Ithaca, NY: Lab. Ornithol., Cornell
Univ.
Voous, K.H. 1983. Birds of the Netherland Antilles.
Utrecht: De Walburg Press.


El Pitirre 13(3)


Page 90











NESTING OF THE ORANGEQUIT (EUNEORNIS CAMPESTRIS) IN JAMAICA


MARCIA MUNDLE
Jamaica Conservation and Development Trust, 95 Dumbarton Avenue, Kingston 10, Jamaica

Resumen. -ANIDAJE DE EUNEORNIS CAMPESTRIS EN JAMAICA. Se reportan datos del anidaje de Euneomis campes-
tris, un paseriforme end6mico y comun en Jamaica. Ambos sexos atendieron a los dos pichones en el nido, una masa
holgada de bambui y enredaderas colocada en la rama de un arbol a 6 m de altura sobre una carretera.
Key words: behavior, breeding, Euneomis campestris, habitat, Jamaica, nest, Orangequit


I remember some years ago there was a discussion
in the Gosse Bird Club (now BirdLife Jamaica)
about the nesting of the Orangequit (Euneornis
campestris). There existed very few reports on the
nesting of this common endemic species of bird. The
Jamaica Conservation and Development Trust
(JCDT) started a bird monitoring program in 1998.
During this time I encouraged my co-workers to look
for the nest of the Orangequit. On 11 May 2000,
Dwight Pryce and Ryan Love, Park Rangers of the
Blue and John Crow Mountains National Park, found
a nest with two young birds at Silver Hill in St An-
drew.
The nest was approximately 6 m from the ground
on a branch of a woman wood tree (Alcornea latifo-
lia), overhanging the road. It was hidden in the fork
of the branch behind some berries of the tree. The
nest was approximately 12 cm in diameter and made
of loosely woven bamboo leaves and small woody
vines. The inside of the nest was lined with moss.
The sighting of this nest would have been missed
had it not been for the noisy chirping of the nes-
tlings. Both male and female Orangequits visited the
nest. The male perched by the nest briefly and then


left to feed in a nearby tree. He was seen chasing a
Bananaquit (Coereba flaveola) and a hummingbird
from the tree in which he was feeding. The female
would visit the nest periodically and she would stay
away for up to 10 min before returning to feed the
nestlings. No observation was made of the type of
food given to the young birds. One nestling was seen
climbing out of the nest onto a branch of the tree
while the other remained in the nest.
The nest was photographed using a digital camcor-
der with the photographer precariously perched on a
small branch overhanging the road. The nest was
visited again on 15 May but, by then, the young birds
had fledged.


LITERATURE CITED
LEVY, C. 1997. Nesting of an endemic Orangequit,
Euneornis campestris (Emberizidae). Caribb. J.
Sci. 33(3-4):283-284.
LEVY, C. 1996. Orangequit Euneornis campestris.
Gosse Bird Club Broadsheet 67:11.
LEVY, C. 1997. Nesting of Euneornis campestris, the
Orangequit. Pitirre 10(1):30.


El Pitirre 13(3)


IMPORTANT NOTICE

Dr. Rosemarie S. Gnam, Treasurer of the Society of Caribbean Ornithology, has recently moved to New
York. Correspondence regarding the Society, including membership, should be addressed as follows:
Dr. Rosemarie Gnam
PO Box 863208
Ridgewood, NY 11386 USA

Membership renewals for 2001 will be mailed early in 2001. The Treasurer encourages all members to
pay their 2001 membership dues and notes that only members who have paid their dues will be eligible to
vote in Society elections.


Page 91











GRENADA HOOK-BILLED KITE (CHONDROHIERAX UNCINATUSMIRUS)
SURVEYS AND NESTING ACTIVITY


RUSSELL THORSTROM1, EDWARD MASSIAH2, AND CHRISTI HALL3
'The Peregrine Fund, 566 WestFlying Hawk Lane, Boise, ID 83705 USA ( i.-, 0.. .;... /" Ii, ., I- I,,! ...rg); 2Nelson Apart-
ments, Johnson Road, Fitts Village St. James, Barbados, West Indies; and 35914 Marvin St., Boise, ID 83709 USA

Resumen.-INVENTARIOS Y NIDIFICACION DE LA GAVILAN DE GRENADA (CHONDROHIERAX UNCINATUS MIRUS). En
febrero y agosto de 2000, investigamos a los Milanos Pico Ganchudo y observamos 15 individuos. En agosto, locali-
zamos dos parejas anindando y coleccionamos datos sobre la nidificacion de este especie.
Key words: Chondrohierax uncinatus mirus, conservation, diet, ecology, Grenada, habitat, Hook-billed Kite, nest,
status


WE SURVEYED FOR Grenada Hook-billed Kites
(Chondrohierax uncinatus mirus) from 22 to 28 Feb-
rary and 2 to 10 August 2000. In February we spent
63.5 hrs, covered 487 km by car, and observed from
selected sites throughout the island. We had 19 sight-
ings of kites, which represented an estimate of 15
individual Grenada Hook-billed Kites. Fifteen of
these sightings were in the southwestern section of
the island. From the information we collected during
this survey, it appears that the kites were in some
areas and habitats different from the reported pre-
ferred habit of the southwestern xeric forests. Our
sighting at Palmiste Lake in the wet forest, in the
western part of the island, was the first record for a
kite in that area. We also detected several birds in the
south-central interior region where the species has
not been recorded in the wet forest. No nesting activ-
ity was observed during this period.
In August we spent 50 hrs searching for kites in
the same areas by the same method used in February
and conducted 36 hrs of nest observations. Two nest-
ing pairs were located in the southern part of Gre-
nada and two pairs exhibiting nesting behavior were
observed in the south-central part of the island. Nests
were 15 m and 17 m above ground in 67.5-cm di-
ameter-at-breast (DBH) Ceiba pentandra and 59.9-
cm DBH Erythrina micropteryx trees, respectively.
Nest #1 contained a nestling approximately 2-3
weeks of age and at Nest #2 the pair was incubating.
We recorded 156 Grenada Hook-billed Kite prey
items, predominantly at nest #1; 133 were identified


to species level. Three species of snails comprised all
of the identified prey: Drymaeus dominicus 55% (N
= 76), Orthalicus undatus 34.6% (N = 46), and Pleu-
rodonte perplexa 9.8% (N = 13). During nest obser-
vations, the male delivered 46.8% (73) and the fe-
male 53.2% (83) of the snails. The distance between
nest #1 and #2 was 2.7 km.
In general, we feel optimistic about the chances of
survival of the Grenada Hook-billed Kite and we
speculate that the species is more common than pre-
viously thought. Perhaps these birds may be adapt-
able to human-modified habitat to a limited degree.
Kites need mature trees for nesting and woodlands
for food resources. The survival of this endangered
insular kite will depend on maintaining both nesting
and foraging habitat. Further investigation is needed
to determine kite distribution island-wide, its taxo-
nomic relationship with the mainland subspecies, the
existence of breeding pairs in the wetter habitat of
the central region of the island, insular movements,
survival rate, and general natural history characteris-
tics.
We thank Rick Watson and Bill Burnham of The
Peregrine Fund for their support of this project. The
survey work was conducted in cooperation with the
Grenada Government, Ministry of Agriculture, For-
estry Division, with thanks to Alan Joseph and An-
thony Jeremiah. A special thanks to Lloyd Kiff,
David Blockstein, Bonnie Rusk, J. Peter Jenny, Fred
G. Thompson, and Jim Wiley for their advice and
interest in this project.


El Pitirre 13(3)


Page 92











WINGED AMBASSADORS
Bird Conservation in the Caribbean

, Focus on Wildlife Fact Sheet Series
U. S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Office oflnternational .!11 ...


From large, gaudy parrots to small, migratory
warblers, the birds of the Caribbean represent a
wide diversity of species. Many of the islands have a
special endemic avifauna found no where else in the
world. Hundreds of migratory birds are dependent
upon the islands either as a stopover site for resting
and refueling, or as a place to spend the nonbreed-
ing season. These species are a source of pride to
the Caribbean people who treasure their uniqueness
and value their role as consumers of agricultural
insect pests and seed dispersers. As a key tourist at-
traction, they also provide an important boost to
the local economy.
The long-term survival of these birds is in jeop-
ardy. Deforestation, wetland loss, over hunting,
and predation from
introduced predators
threaten most bird
species. Several en-
demics (restricted
species), such as the
Cuban Macaw and
the Grand Cayman
Thrush are now ex-
tinct. Islanders con-
cerned about these
problems are dedi-
cated to preventing
further extinctions.
Winged Ambassa-
dors, the hemisphere-
wide conservation
initiative of the Fish
and Wildlife Service,


is assisting Caribbean efforts to protect birds. For
more than 15 years, the initiative has helped local
people in the region conserve key bird habitat, and
has provided training to resource managers in bird
conservation techniques, and promoted environ-
mental education programs to inform communities
about the plight of birds. The Society of Caribbean
Ornithology is one of the Service's key partners, in
addition to numerous national organizations. Pro-
jects such as the Conservation Education Campaign
to Save the St. Vincent Parrot, The Birds of Our
Islands Poster Series, and the Conservation of the
West Indian Whistling Duck support local endeav-
ors to help birds.
Winged Ambassadors recently produced "A Guide
to the Birds of the West Indies." Published by
Princeton University Press, the book focuses on
conservation issues. Artwork from the guide is be-
ing used for environmental projects including a
poster series featuring endemic birds from 12 dif-
ferent islands. The birds that appear in this bro-
chure are all from the guide.


El Pitirre 13(3)


011


Page 93









WINGED AMBASSADORS


from Jamaica...

Jamaica has more endemic bird species than any
other island in the Caribbean. And from September
to May, almost two-fifths of the songbirds in Ja-
maica are migrants from North America. This rich
birdlife is threatened by the country's extremely
high deforestation rate of 5.3% per year, which is
one of the highest in the world. At least three en-
demic bird species are considered extinct and many
are endangered. Conservation efforts are hampered


Some of Jamaica's many endemics include (from left to right, top to
bottom): Crested Quail-Dove, Jamaican Tody, Chestnut-bellied
Cuckoo, Jamaican Lizard-Cuckoo, Ring-tailed Pigeon, Red-billed
Streamertail, Black-billed Streamertail, Black-billed Parrot, Yellow-
billed Parrot, Jamaican Mango, Jamaican Becard, Jamaican Petrel,
Jamaican Woodpecker, Jamaican Owl, and Jamaican Poorwill.


by the general population's lack of environmental
awareness and knowledge of Jamaica's natural heri-
tage.
Environmental education is a high priority for
Jamaica and Winged Ambassadors has supported
several projects to enhance people's understanding
of their local wildlife and the importance of pro-
tecting it. Highlights include:
Teacher's Guide to the Birds of Jamaica. BirdLife
Jamaica (formerly Gosse Bird Club) published a
guide to help teachers develop children's apprecia-
tion of birds and other wildlife. The guide compli-
ments the book, "Birds of Jamaica," by A. Downer
and R. Sutton, and includes a series of activities to
make students aware of birds and their habitats,
and the need to conserve them. Using the guide,
students learn how to identify birds, collect basic
data, and set up simple conservation projects on
school or community grounds. An accompanying
color poster illustrates five birds, which are dis-
cussed in the guide.
Library of Natural Sounds. West Indies College
produced a recording of songs and calls from many
of Jamaica's birds. The College used a combination
of previously existing recordings along with new
ones obtained from the field to create this definitive
collection. Software accompanies the recordings,
which identifies each species and discusses pertinent
natural history and conservation issues. The Library
of Natural Sounds is used to train young people,
and, provide information to ornithologists, educa-
tors and natural resource managers about Jamaica's
birds.
Wildlife Slide Show, "Why Conserve?". Jamaica
Junior Naturalists created a special narrated slide
show about the country's wildlife. The show intro-
duces basic conservation concepts and issues aimed
at stimulating the interest of Jamaica's youth to
protect the environment. The 10 minute narration
emphasizes the need to use natural resources wisely
and the value that ecosystems such as mangrove
forests and coral reefs provide for both wildlife and
humans. Jamaica Junior Naturalists presented the
show to each parish library in Jamaica for an audi-
ence of older schoolchildren and adults.


El Pitirre 13(3)


Page 94








WING'ED A-MBIASSADORS


Dominica ...

Known as the "Nature Island of the Caribbean,"
Dominica's pristine forests and lush green valleys
are home to more bird species than any other island
in the Lesser Antilles. Two charismatic parrots, the
Imperial Parrot, and the Red-necked Parrot, are
found only in Dominica.
Winged Ambassadors partnered with several or-
ganizations to raise public awareness about the need
to conserve wildlife in Dominica. The Conserva-
tion Education Campaign to Save the Imperial and
Red-necked Parrots, conducted by the Forestry Di-
vision of Dominica and RARE Center for Tropical
Conservation, delivered a conservation message to
every person on the island through songs, music
videos, publications, posters, bumper stickers, ser-
mons, and school visits. As a result of the cam-
paign, 200 acres of forest were set aside as a Parrot
Reserve. Winged Ambassadors has also collaborated
with the Forestry Division to publish the booklet,
"Wildlife of Dominica."



Dominican Republic ...

The Dominican Republic forms the eastern two-
thirds of the island of Hispaniola and is the second
largest country in the Caribbean. Endemism is high
on the island and 26 bird species are found only
here. Among these is the Bay-breasted Cuckoo,
which is endangered due to habitat loss and its use
as a cure for arthritis.
WingedAmbassadors works with local partners to
implement environmental education projects in the
Dominican Republic. Through evening classes, the
"Postgraduate Studies in Environmental Educa-
tion" of the Instituto T&cnologico de Santo Do-
mingo trains actively employed professionals in en-
vironmental education techniques. Participants can
apply these lessons immediately during their day
jobs.
Winged Ambassadors is collaborating with the _ -
Vermont Institute of Natural Science and Ameri- / '
can Bird Conservancy to study the ecology of the
Bicknell's Thrush. This research will provide crucial
information about the endangered thrush's winter .
habitat in the Dominican Republic. / .


El Pitirre 13(3)


Page 95







WINGED AM'BASSADO'RS


Bahamas...


The Bahamas are an extensive chain of 2,700 is-
lands and cays located just southeast of Florida.
Only 30 of these islands are permanently inhabited
by approximately 280,000 people. A large number
of birds migrate between the Bahamas and North
America. Endemic species include the Bahama
Woodstar, Brace's Hummingbird, and the Bahama
Yellowthroat.
Winged Ambassadors is partnering with the Baha-
mian Department of Agriculture to enhance bird
conservation in the archipelago. Efforts include the
publication of a booklet entitled, "Natural Winged


History of Cat Island,"
with a special section
on migrant and resident
birds. The Department ,.
is also producing a
hunter's guide listing all
the species found in the
Bahamas and detailing their protection status. This
year, the Bahama Woodstar will be featured on a
poster, which will be accompanied by a conserva-
tion information factsheet.


Antigua, Barbuda, Cayman Islands, Grenada, quade oupe, H-aiti,
.Montserrat, Nevis, St. Xitts, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Turks & Caicos...


Winged Ambassadors collaborates with conserva-
tion organizations on most of the Caribbean is-
lands. Working with the Society of Caribbean Or-
nithology, important regional projects have been
developed. The "West Indian Whistling-Duck and
Wetland Conservation Project" connects groups
from Antigua, Barbuda, Bahamas, Cayman Is-
lands, Dominican Republic, Jamaica, and the
Turks & Caicos in an effort to protect this endan-
gered duck. The main focus is a Caribbean-wide
education and awareness program to lessen wetland
loss and reduce illegal hunting pressure. Activities
include: production of a duck conservation and
natural history slide show, a coloring book for chil-
dren, and a wetland
education workbook;
construction of Watch-
able Wildlife Ponds
where the public can
view ducks; and distri-
bution of identification
cards for hunters which
distinguish the ducks
that can be hunted le-
gally.
The "Birds of Our
Islands" poster series is


L '


another region-wide effort to conserve birds in the
Caribbean. Winged Ambassadors partnered with the
Caribbean Conservation Association to produce
educational posters focused on both resident and
migratory birds of the Lesser Antilles. The posters
are used in schools and other public facilities to in-
crease local awareness about bird conservation is-
sues.
"Decattiere Nature Trail" is an example of an
island specific project supported by WingedAmbas-
sadors. Managed by St. Lucia's Forestry Depart-
ment, the income-generating trail attracts ecotour-
ists and provides excellent viewing of the magnifi-
cent St. Lucia Parrot. RARE Center for Tropical
Conservation assisted in the design of the trail.
RARE Center also was involved in the Conserva-
tion Education Campaigns for Montserrat and St.
Vincent. These campaigns elevated local knowledge
and appreciation for the Montserrat Oriole and the
St. Vincent Parrot.
To further bird conservation in Haiti, Winged
Ambassadors collaborated with the University of
Florida and Haiti-NET in "Green Actions," a series
of training workshops on wildlife conservation and
protected areas management for Haiti.


Reprinted from a color brochure available from the Office of
International Affairs, US Fish and Wildlife Service.


El Pitirre 13(3)


Page 96













IN MEMORIAL


LISA SALMON
10 NOVEMBER 1907 -2 AUGUST 2000


LEO DOUGLAS


LISA SALMON, THE FIRST LADY of Jamaican Orni-
thology, passed away on 2 August 2000 at the age of
92. In her lifetime, Lisa's eccentric passion for birds
made her a national figure, and her independent
style, spunk, and wit in all she said and did was a
hallmark of The Lisa Experience. She was best
known for her home - Rocklands Bird Sanctuary and
Feeding Station - near Anchovy, St. James. Here, by
great patience, Lisa trained wild birds to be hand-fed,
to the delight of multitudes of people that came from
far and wide.
Lisa's close friend, Audrey Downer, remembers
her: "Lisa was mad keen on animals. She wouldn't
even use an oven when a mouse nested in it. To Lisa,
bird shooters/hunters were the worst. She was a
woman determined as she was fearless, packing her
licensed .45 [caliber pistol] where-ever she went.
Nothing was going to scare her."
Lisa's campaign against the hunting of birds was
"fought" both on the local and international front,
from the neighborhood young boys with their sling
shots to as far afield as a letter to the Pope protesting
the Italian practice of eating lark's tongues. In re-
sponse, the Pope reportedly sent her a picture of him-
self.
Miss Lisa, as she was affectionately called, was an
avian ecologist of no mean order. In her younger
days, she spent extensive periods roaming western
Jamaica observing, photographing, and taking de-
tailed notes on all aspects of bird biology. She cared
for abandoned nestlings and injured birds with the
patience of a saint, calling many of them by name.
But Lisa was much more than a researcher and bird
lover. She was an educator, who invested much time
and resources in using the print media, her artwork,
and photographs to do bird education. In addition to
giving slide shows at local schools and libraries,
along with guided field trips, Lisa was a strong be-
liever in teacher training.


The fame of Lisa Salmon, a woman who could
coax beautiful hummingbirds to sit on the fingers of
visitors to Rocklands, eventually spread internation-
ally. Subsequently, Lisa's bird-feeding pastime was
featured in numerous documentaries and publica-
tions from Vogue magazine, to National Geographic,
to the BBC's - the "Really Wild Show." In its hey-
day from the 1950s to 1980s, Rocklands Bird Sanc-
tuary and Feeding Station became one of the most
popular tourist attractions in the Montego Bay area.
Her porch and forest garden, the centers of her bird
feeding activities, were graced by the presence of
American Presidents, among other international
heads of state, European royalty, and celebrities.
"Everybody who was anybody who came to Jamaica
went to see Lisa and her birds," her friend Audrey
remembers. The late James Bond (author of Birds of
the West Indies), who it is said was equally blunt and
vivacious, also reportedly spent much time at Rock-
lands knocking heads with Lisa.
Lisa Salmon was a founding member of the Gosse
Bird Club (now BirdLife Jamaica), the only Jamai-
can organization specifically interested in birds and
their habitats, and one of the oldest environmental
non-government organizations of the island. In rec-
ognition of her tremendous contribution to this or-
ganization, she was made an Honorary Member at
the inaugural meeting of the Club in 1963. Beyond
this, Lisa received many citations and awards from
numerous organizations, among which are the Silver
Musgrave Medal and the Centenary Medal from the
Institute of Jamaica and a Grace Kennedy Award.
She received citations from the Natural History Soci-
ety of Jamaica, The Jamaica Tourist Board, The St.
James Cultural Society, and the Anchovy Cultural
Society. In addition, she was made an honorary
member of the Natural History Society of Jamaica.
Lisa will be greatly missed by many, and her con-
tribution to the knowledge and appreciation of our
natural history will long be remembered.


El Pitirre 13(3)


Page 97







NEW PUBLICATIONS ON WEST INDIAN BIRDS


STATUS AND CONSERVATION
OF WEST INDIAN SEABIRD5

EDITED BY E. A. SCHREIBER AND DAVID S. LEE
Society of Caribbean O, ,ri,. ,i. ,- Special Publication No. 1
2000
v + 225 pp. 25 maps, 30 tables, figs. 21.5 x 28 cm. Contains 20 papers and a bibliography.
Paper: ISBN 0-9677824-0-6


Copies may be ordered from:
Jim Wiley
2201 Ashland St.
Ruston, Louisiana 71270 USA
Telephone: 318-274-2399
Facsimile: 318-274-3870
e-mail: wileyjw@alpha0.gram.edu
Within USA - US$12.00; includes shipping


- , � A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ORNITHOLOGY

IN THE

'WEST INDIES


by James W. Wiley
Proceedings of the Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology, Volume 7 2000
817 pp.
11,648 bibliographic entries, each annotated
3 indices taxonomicc, geographical, and subject)
6 appendices. Paper: ISSN 0511-7550
Available from:
Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology
439 Calle San Pablo
Camarillo, California 93012 USA
Price: US$42.50; includes shipping


El Pitirre 13(3)


Page 98


~8~"L~~


P









NEW PUBLICATIONS ON WEST INDIAN BIRDS


BIRD SONGS IN JAMAICA
by
GEORGE B. REYNARD AND ROBERT L. SUTTON

Library of Natural Sound, Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology
Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850-1999


This sound guide identifies 119 species found in Jamaica, including such characteristic species as Chestnut-bellied Cuckoo,
Jamaican Euphonia, Jamaican Oriole, Jamaican Owl, Ring-tailed Pigeon, Crested Quail-Dove, and White-eyed Thrush. It is
designed as an audio companion to Jamaican field guides such as A Field Guide to the Birds of the West Indies, by Herbert
Raffaele et al., and Birds of Jamaica, A Photographic Field Guide, by Audrey Downer and Robert L. Sutton, photographs
by Yves-Jacques Rey-Millet. The guide includes recordings of all resident land birds, including more than two dozen en-
demic species, many never before available. Also, many water birds and calls of 17 migrants, mostly warblers, are pre-
sented. This is a must-have guide for birders traveling to Jamaica. Two compact disks or cassettes.

Prices:
2 CDs - US$18.95 + US$1.87 postage and handling
2 Cassettes - US$18.95 + US$2.09 postage and handling


Available from:
Cornell Lab Birding Shop OR
c/o Duncraft Service Center
102 Fisherville Road
Concord, NH 03303-3086 USA
Order by telephone (in USA): 877-274-3716;
Fax: 603-226-3735: E-mail: info-comell-lab aduncraft.com


Wild Birds Unlimited
159 Sapsucker Woods Road
Ithaca, NY 14850 USA
Telephone: 877-266-4928


FIELD GUIDE TO THE BIRDS OF CUBA
by
ORLANDO H. GARRIDO AND ARTURO KIRKCONNELL
Foreword by Lester L. Short
Illustrated by Roman F. Compafiy

Cornell University Press
2000


This field reference contains 51 color plates and 662 images that illustrate male, female, and juvenile plumages (in some
cases for the first time) of Cuban birds. Many migratory species are depicted in both winter and breeding colors, providing
a glimpse of many common North American birds as they appear when away from northern surroundings. In the compre-
hensive Field Guide to the Birds of Cuba, Orlando H. Garrido and Arturo Kirkconnell share their vast wealth of knowledge
about birds - and habitats - that are too little known.
Field Guide to the Birds of Cuba contains:
* Species accounts including habitat descriptions, similar species, range, status, nesting and feeding habits, and vo-
calizations.
* Checklists of endemic species and subspecies.
* Background on the geography, climate, geology, paleontology, and natural history of Cuba.
* 144 maps that show regional boundaries and vegetative habitats as well as the local distribution of each species.

253 pp., with appendices, glossary, bibliography, and index. Available in hard-bound (ISBN: 0-8014-3718-0; $59.95) and
paperback (ISBN: 0-8014-8631-9; $29.95) from:
Comell University Press
Sage House
512 East State Street
Ithaca, NY 14850 USA
Telephone: 607-277-2211; Fax: 800-688-2877
Web site: http://www.corellpress.comell.edu












SOCIEDAD CARIBENA DE ORNITOLOGIA


EL PITIRRE

:P SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY

Fall 2000 Vol. 13, No. 3




SUGGESTIONS TO AUTHORS

SUBMITTAL OF MANUSCRIPTS, ANNOUNCEMENTS, AND OTHER MATERIALS TO EL PITIRRE,
THE BULLETIN OF THE SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY
See El Pitirre 13(1) for more detailed instructions

Form of submission
Authors are encouraged to submit manuscripts as a MS Word file attachment to an e-mail message sent to the editor
[wileyjw@alpha0.gram.edu]. A hard-copy back-up also should be mailed to the editor. As an alternative format, au-
thors may submit the manuscript on a 3.5" floppy disk, in PC or Macintosh environment, preferably using WordPer-
fect or MS Word software. Authors should also submit a hard copy with the computer disk. Mail to Jim Wiley, 2201
Ashland St., Ruston, Louisiana 71270, USA.

Language
Contributions can be in English, Spanish, or French. Translation of the entire text in an alternate language is encour-
aged. At a minimum, an abstract should be provided in at least one other language.

Format of submitted materials
* The manuscript should conform to usage in recent issues of El Pitirre.
* Double space all written materials, including tables and figure legends.

For %c iieritic papers and notes:
* Number pages through the Literature Cited.
* Do not hyphenate words at the ends of typewritten lines.
* Type tables separate from the text.
* Type figure legends consecutively on separate pages.
* Title page (numbered) - should contain full title, and authors' names and addresses at the time of the research.
The author's present address, if different, should be indicated as a footnote. The title page also includes running
heads (less than 36 characters), and the name and contact information for the author who can be contacted most
easily.
* An Abstract (less than 5% of paper length) should precede each longer article. It should summarize important
premises, summarize findings, and give conclusions.
* Text Citations - should include the author and year (e.g., Smith 1990, Smith and Jones 1991, Smith et al.
1992). Multiple citations should be arranged chronologically.
* Acknowledgments - precede the Literature Cited.
* Scientific and common names are given at first mention and, for birds, follow the AOU's Check-list of North
American Birds, 7h ed. (1998) and its supplements.
* Measurements should be in metric units.
* Use continental dating (e.g., 14 October 1992) and the 24-hour clock (e.g., 08:00 and 21:35).
* Tables and figures should not duplicate material in the text or in each other. Each table requires a short heading,
including descriptive information that would answer the reader's questions of what, where, and when.
* Literature Cited: Follow the most recent issue of the bulletin for style.




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CONTENTS A NEW FAMILY AND GENUS OF BIRD (AVES: CAPRIMULGIFORMES: NYCTIBIIDAE) FOR CUBA. Orestes Martnez, Orlando H. Garrido, George B. Reynard, William Surez, Arturo Kirkconnell, and James W. Wiley .............................................................................................................................. ................................. 65 MEETING ANNOUNCEMENT: 2001 MEETING OF THE SO CIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY .............. 67 AVIFAUNA ASSOCIATED WITH THE AQUATIC AND COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS OF CAYO COCO, CUBA. Brbara Snchez and Daysi Rodrguez ......................................................................................................................... 68 REQUEST FOR ASSISTANCE: COLOR BANDED LITTLE EGRETS ......................................................................... . 75 OBSERVACIONES Y ADICIONES A LA ORNITOFAUNA DEL ARCHIPILAGO SABANA-CAMAGEY, CUBA, 1998-2000. Franois Shaffer, Pedro Blanco Rodrguez, Michel Robert y Elieser Socarrs Torres ............. 76 NEW PUBLICATION: PUERTO RICO’S BIRDS IN PHOTOGRAPHS, Second Edition, by Mark W. Oberle ........................... 81 LISTA PRELIMINAR DE LA AVIFAUNA MARINO-INSULAR Y LITORAL DEL PARQUE NACIONAL MOCHIMA, VENEZUELA. Gedio Marn E., Jos R. Rodrguez, Mart Vsquez y Roberto Egez ....................... 82 REVIEWERS FOR EL PITIRRE VOLUME 13 ................................................................................................................... . 87 LEUCISM IN CRESCENT-EYED PEWEE ( CONTOPUS CARIBAEUS ) IN WESTERN CUBA. Guy M. Kirwan and Arturo Kirkconnell .............................................................................................................................. ............................ 88 GIANT COWBIRD ( SCAPHIDURA ORYZIVORA): A NEW BIRD FOR BARBADOS AND THE WEST INDIES. Martin Frost .............................................................................................................................. ..................................... 89 AN OBSERVATION OF ANTILLEAN NIGHTHAWK ( CHORDEILES GUNDLACHII ) ON BARBADOS. Martin Frost .............................................................................................................................. ..................................... 90 NESTING OF THE ORANGEQUIT ( EUNEORNIS CAMPESTRIS ) IN JAMAICA. Marcia Mundle .............................. 91 IMPORTANT NOTICE: NEW ADDRESS FOR SOCIETY TREASURER ................................................................................... 91 GRENADA HOOK-BILLED KITE SURVEYS AND NESTING ACTIVITY. Russell Thorstrom, Edward Massiah, and Christi Hall .............................................................................................................................. ................................ 92 WINGED AMBASSADORS: BIRD CONSERVATION IN THE CARIBBEAN. U. S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Office of International Affairs .............................................................................................................................. ......................... 93 IN MEMORIAM: LISA SALMON, 10 NOVEMBER 1907 – 2 AUGUST 2000. Leo Douglas ...................................... 97 NEW PUBLICATIONS ON WEST INDIAN BIRDS ......................................................................................... ................... 98 STATUS AND CONSERVATION OF WEST INDIAN BIRDS, Edited by E. A. Schreiber and D. S. Lee ............................... 98 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ORNITHOLOGY IN THE WEST INDIES, by James W. Wiley ........................................................... 98 BIRD SONGS IN JAMAICA, by George B. Reynard and Robert L. Sutton .......................................... INSIDE BACK COVER FIELD GUIDE TO THE BIRDS OF CUBA, by Orlando H. Garrido and Artu ro Kirkconnell ................ INSIDE BACK COVER SUGGESTIONS TO AUTHORS ......................................................................................................... OUTSIDE BACK COVER SOCIEDAD CARIBEADE ORNITOLOGA EL PITIRRE SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY Fall 2000 Vol. 13, No. 3 (ISSN 1527-7151)

PAGE 2

EL PITIRRE THE BULLETIN OF THE SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY EL BOLETN INFORMATIVO DE LA SOCIEDAD CARIBEA DE ORNITOLOGA Editor: James W. Wiley, 2201 Ashland St., Ruston, Louisiana 71270 USA Telephone: (318) 274-2499 or 2742399; Fax: (318) 274-3870; e-mail: wileyjw@alpha0.gram.edu Assistant Editors: Barbara Keesee, Shawn O’ Brien, Alma Ramrez, and Herlitz Davis, Grambling Cooperative Wildlife Project, PO Box 841, Grambling State University, Grambling, Louisiana 71245 USA. Special thanks to Jos Julin Placer and Alma Ramrez for providing assistance with Spanish-language manuscripts. News, comments, requests, and manuscripts should be mailed to the editor for inclusion in the newsletter. Noticias, comentarios, peticiones y manuscritos deben se r enviadas al editor para inclusin en el boletn. THE SOCIETY OF CA RIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY PRESIDENT: Mr. Eric Carey VICE PRESIDENT: Mr. Maurice Anseleme SECRETARY: Dr. Marcia Mundle TREASURER: Dr. Rosemarie S. Gnam The Society of Caribbean Ornithology is a non-profit organization whose goals are to promote the scientific study and conservation of Caribbean birds and their habitats, to provide a link among island ornithologists and those elsewhere, to provide a written forum for researchers in the region, and to provid e data or technical aid to conservation groups in the Caribbean. La Sociedad Caribea de Ornitolog a es una organizacin sin fines de lucr o cuyas metas son promover el estudio cientfico y la conservacin de la avifauna caribea, auspiciar un simposio anual sobre la ornitologa caribea, ser una fuente de comunicacin en tre ornitlogos caribeos y en otras reas y proveer ayuda tcnica o datos a grupos de conservacin en el caribe. MEMBERSHIP AND SUBSCRIPTIONS Any person interested in West Indian birds may become a member of the Society of Caribbean Ornithology. All members receive the Society’s bulletin, El Pitirre . Regular membership rates are US$20 per year. Institutional subscriptions are US$120 per year. Memberships of interested persons who are not able to pay regular dues may be subsidized by the Society. Send check or money order in U. S. funds with complete name and address to: Dr. Rosemarie S. Gnam, PO Box 863208, Ridgewood, NY 11386 USA. The Society of Caribbean Ornithology thanks th e Office of International Affairs of the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service for their support, including a grant for publishing El Pitirre.

PAGE 3

SOCIEDAD CARIBEA DE ORNITOLOGA EL PITIRRE SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY Fall 2000 Vol. 13, No. 3 65 A NEW FAMILY AND GENUS OF BIRD (AVES: CAPRIMULGIFORMES: NYCT IBIIDAE) FOR CUBA ORESTES MARTNEZ1, ORLANDO H. GARRIDO2, GEORGE B. REYNARD3, WILLIAM SUREZ2, ARTURO KIRKCONNELL2, AND JAMES W. WILEY4 1Estacin Ecolgica Cinaga de Zapata, Carretera a Playa Larga km 26, Cinaga de Zapata, Matanzas, Cuba; 2Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Cuba, La Habana, Cuba; 3105 Midway, Riverton, New Jersey, 08077 USA; 4Grambling Cooperative Wildlife Project, US Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, PO Box 841, Grambling, Louisiana 71245 USA Abstract. —The Northern Potoo ( Nyctibius jamaicensis ) is reported for the first time from Cuba, based on vocalizations, sightings, and feathers from the Cinaga de Zapata (Matanzas province) and Sierra de Anafe (La Habana province). In the West Indies, N. jamaicensis has been reported only from Hispaniola (including le de la Gonve) and Jamaica. Resumen. —UNA NUEVA FAMILIA Y GNERO DE AVE (AVES: CAPRIMULGIFORMES: NYCTIBIIDAE) PARA CUBA. El Pot ( Nyctibius jamaicensis ) se reporta por primera vez para Cuba de dos localidades, Cinaga de Zapata (provincia de Matanzas) y Sierra de Anafe (provincia de la Habana). Su presencia ha sido detectada en base a vocalizaciones grabadas y a la identificacin de plumas halladas en los alrededores de su percha. Key words: Cuba, distribution, Northern Potoo, Nyctibius jamaicensis , record, status, vocalization PERHAPS THE MOST SENSATIONAL DISCOVERIES of birds in the West Indies within the last 100 years have been Fermin Z. Cervera’s finding of three new species ( Ferminia cerverai, Torreornis inexpectata, and Cyanolimnas cerverai ) in the Cinaga de Zapata of Cuba (Barbour 1926, Barbour and Peters 1927) and Angela Kay and Cameron B. Kepler’s discovery of a new species of warbler ( Dendroica angelae ) in Puerto Rico (Kepler and Parkes 1972). Here, we report on an exciting discover y of a bird species new to Cuba: the Northern Potoo ( Nyctibius jamaicensis ), found in the same area of Cervera’s discoveries in the 1920s. The potoo was first reported from Cuba in the 19th century, when Hartlaub (1852:54) listed it among material obtained by the Duque Paul Wilhelm von Wrttemberg: “32. Nyctibius jamaicensis in Cuba. Fehlt bei de la Sagra und Gundlach.” Previously, von Wrttemberg (1835) published a list of 89 species of birds collected by him in Cuba in 1835, as reported by Gundlach (1876:3,9). Gundlach (1876) did not recognize the potoo as a Cuba n bird, however, as he wrote “El Dr. Hartlaub menciona adems Mergus cucullatus , lo que est bien, y Nyctibius jamaicensis, que no se encuentra en la Isla de Cuba, donde hay cuatro especies de Caprimulgidae.” In his Check-list of birds of the West Indies , Bond (1956) does not include N. jamaicensis for Cuba, but in a footnote in his Birds of the West Indies (1936:192), Bond, probably based on Gundlach (1876), stated “there is an old, apparently erroneous record of this species from Cuba.” Recently, Bacallao Mesa et al. (1999) included Nyctibius jamaicensis in their list of birds of the Cinaga de Zapata . At the beginning of the 1980s, Reynard and Gar-

PAGE 4

Page 66 El Pitirre 13(3) rido were recording noctur nal birds for their album of Cuban bird vocalizations (1988). Reynard detected a low, faint sound of a potoo in the distance while recording in the outskirts of Motel Los Caneyes, near Santa Clara, but Garrido was unable to discern anything. In 1997, Martnez informed Garrido that local boys spotted an unfamiliar bird near Santo Toms, Cinaga de Zapata. Martnez was shown the bird, but did not pay much attention to it. But when, months later, he saw it again in the same spot, he decided to inform Garrido. When Garrido heard of the “bird that looks like a Guabairo [nightjar], but larger, that was sitting upright on a fence post,” he concluded it was a potoo and encouraged Martnez to search for the bird. A year elapsed without luck, but one evening at sunset, in a different lo cality near Santo Toms, Martnez not only was fortunate enough to spot the bird again, but also record ed its voice. Martnez then contacted Garrido and play ed his recording through the telephone. Garrido immediately recognized the voice of a potoo and urge d Martnez to obtain a specimen. The bird, however, has not been observed again. Unfortunately, while Martnez was copying the recording, the tape r ecorder malfunctioned, and most of the recording was erased, leaving only a faint fragment of it. Reynard listened to the remaining fragment of the recording, but was unable to distinguish anything. Later, Reynard received a fresh recording, in better condition, and this time he recognized the voice of a potoo. In the meantime, Garrido suggested to Nelson Garcia, the son of a former Zapata bird guide, Rogelio Garca, that he search for the potoo by imitating its voice. In one of his trips to Cinaga de Zapata, Arturo Kirkconnell was informed by Nelson Garca that one night he heard a sound similar to Garrido’s potoo imitation in the vicinity of Molina, but no further information has been obtained by Garca since then. Garrido also urged paleontologist William Surez to search for the potoo near Caimito, near the Sierra de Anafe, a poorly known region about 25 km southwest of La Habana and 140 km west of the Cinaga de Zapata site. In one of the searches, Surez, in the company of three local residents, saw a potoo perched on a dead stump within the woods. The bird allowed them to approach to within 10 m before it flew. Months later, Surez saw the bird again in the same spot, but in subsequent visits, he failed to find it. His last sighting was in 1999. At the beginning of 2000, Martnez sent Garrido some feathers that he had gathered at the Santo Toms site where the bird had been seen earlier. Garrido examined all of the available skins of the genus Nyctibius deposited at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia and the American Museum of Natural History (New York). He identified the feathers as possibly from a Nyctibius species. Subsequently, Surez, Kirkconnell, Storrs Olson, and Carla Dove compared the feathers with those of Nyctibius skins in the collection of the Smithsonian Institution. They reached the conclusion that the feathers belonged to Nyctibius jamaicensis. The only step remaining to taxonomically verify the Cuban population is to secure a specimen. In August 2000, Martnez observed a perched potoo near Palpite, Cinaga de Zapata. Two months later, Martnez and D. Mirecki briefly saw a potoo in a separate locality in the Cinaga de Zapata. Most recently, Guy Kirwan heard and saw a potoo near Baconao, in eastern Cuba. The genus Nyctibius is distributed from Mexico to southern South America (Cory 1918, Peters 1940, Bond 1956, Clements 1978). Seven species of the genus have been described: Nyctibius grandis (Gmelin) 1789; N. aethereus (Wied), 1820; N. griseus (Gmelin), 1789; N. leucopterus (Wied), 1821; N. bracteatus Gould, 1846; N. maculosus Ridgway, 1912 (placed by some within N. leucopterus ); and N. jamaicensis (Gmelin), 1789 (Monroe and Sibley 1963). Of these, grandis and bracteatus are the only monotypic taxa. Nyctibius jamicacensis occurs from Mexico to Costa Rica, and in the Greater Antilles, where two races are represented: N. j. abbotti in Hispaniola (including le de la Gonve) and N. j. jamaicensis in Jamaica. We thank Storrs L. Olson and Carla Dove for their collaboration in the identification of the feathers. LITERATURE CITED BACALLAO MESA, L., O. MARTNEZ, AND A. LLANES SOSA. 1999. List of the birds of the Zapata Swamp. Pitirre 12(3):82-123. BARBOUR, T. 1926. A remarkable new bird from Cuba. Proc. New England Zool. Club 9:73-75. BARBOUR, T., AND J. L. PETERS. 1927. Two more remarkable new birds from Cuba. Proc. New England Zool. Club 9:95-97. BOND, J. 1936. Birds of the West Indies. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. BOND, J. 1956. Check-list of the birds of the West Indies. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. MARTNEZ ET AL.— NORTHERN POTOO IN CUBA

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El Pitirre 13(3) Page 67 CLEMENTS, J. 1978. Birds of the world: A check-list. New York: Two Continents Publishing Group, LTD. CORY, C.B. 1918. Catalogue of birds of the Americas. Field Mus. Nat. Hist.–Zool., Vol. XII. GUNDLACH, J. 1876. Contribucin a la ornitologia cubana. La Habana, Cuba: Imp. “La Antilla.” HARTLAUB, G. 1852. Pp. 1-119 in Naumania Archiv. fr die Ornithologie, vorzugsweise Europa’s. Organ der deutschen Ornithologen-Gesselschaft. Herausgegeben von Eduard Baldanus. Stuttgart. KEPLER, C. B., AND K. C. PARKES. 1972. A new species of warbler (Parulidae) from Puerto Rico. Auk 89(1):1-18. MONROE, B. L., JR., AND C. G. SIBLEY. 1993. A world checklist of birds. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. PETERS, J. L. 1940. Check-list of birds of the world. Cambridge Harvard Univ. Press. Vol. 4:V-XII, 121. REYNARD, G. B., AND O. H. GARRIDO. 1988. Bird songs in Cuba/Cantos de aves en Cuba. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology (in cooperation with the Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Habana, Cuba). WRTEMBERG, P. W. VON. 1835. Erste Reise nach dem nrdlichen Amerika in den Jahren 1822 bis 1824. Stuttgart. MARTNEZ ET AL.— NORTHERN POTOO IN CUBA MEETING ANNOUNCEMENT 2001 MEETING OF THE SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY The next meeting of the Society for Caribbean Ornithology (SCO) will be held in Topes de Collante, Cuba from July 15 to July 22, 2001. Topes de Collante is a na tional park in the Sierra del Escambray, Sancti Spiritus Province, about 340 km east of Havana and about 21 km northwest of the nearest town, which is Trinidad. A formal announcement, call for papers, and registration materials will be mailed by SCO by mid-January. Information will also be posted on the SCO website (http://www.nmnh.si.edu/BIRDNET/SCO/index.html), Ornith-L and NEOORN. For instructions on subscribing to Ornith-L and NEOORN (and other ornithology listservers, see http://www.nmnh.si.edu/BIRDNET/mainindex.html#ProfInfo). The same information will also be posted on the Caribbean Biodiversity Conservation listserv on http://www.egroups.com/group/caribbeanbiodiversity. Information may also be obtained from Dr. Hiram Gonzalez, Cuba Local Committee, at ecologia@unepnet.inf.cu and ecologia@ceniai.inf.cu, as well as on the web page of the Instituto de Ecologia y Sistematica: http://www.cuba.cu/ciencia/CITMA/AMA/ecologia. It is critical that conference attendees arrive no later than July 15, because the only way to get to this location is by private bus arra nged by the tour operator. The tour operator has arranged for everyone to stay at the Novohotel in Miramar (a suburb of Havana) on the first night. The bus to the meeting site will leave from that hotel the next day. There may be public bus service to Trinidad, but there is probably no public transportatio n from Trinidad to the park or the hotel. Those who do not arrive on time (e.g., the day before) may not be able to get to the meeting. Renting a car in Cuba is not really any more expensive than elsewhere, but renters mu st pay an enormous cash deposit as well as the entire fee up front, so for a week's rental, in excess of $900 in cash is needed for the least expensive car. The registration fee will be $75 per person prior to May 15; $100 thereafter. The banquet fee is $25. At this time, the anticipated cost is U.S.$550 per person inclusive of all travel (i ncluding airport transfers), lodging, and meals (with the exception of the banquet). U.S. citizens planning to at tend this meeting should note that information pertaining to U.S. Treasury Dept. requirements for legal travel to Cuba will be included in the announcements.

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Page 68 El Pitirre 13(3) AVIFAUNA ASSOCIATED WITH THE AQUATIC AND COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS OF CAYO COCO, CUBA BRBARA SNCHEZ AND DAYSI RODRGUEZ Instituto de Ecologa y Sistemtica, Apartado 8029, La Habana, C.P. 10800, Cuba; e-mail: ecologia@ceniai.inf.cu Abstract .—We present the distribution and abundance of waterbirds, along with an assessment of the four habitats (beach, coastal and interior lagoons, and temporarily flooded areas) of Cayo Coco, Archipilago de SabanaCamagey, Cuba. A total of 73 bird species is present at Cayo Coco, including seven new records for the cay (Botaurus lentiginosus , Anas americana , Aythya affinis , Mergus serrator , Calidris fuscicollis , Calidris mauri and Sterna dougallii ). The temporarily flooded areas were the most important habitat for waterbirds in Cayo Coco. The Greater Flamingo ( Phoenicopterus ruber ) was the most abundant and attractive bird in the cay during our observations. Resumen .—AVIFAUNA ASOCIADA A LOS ECOSISTEMAS ACUTICOS Y COSTEROS DE CAYO COCO, CUBA. Se dan a conocer la distribucin de los hbitats disponibles para la s aves acuticas y la abundancia de estas aves en cuatro hbitats diferentes de Cayo Coco, Archipilago de Sabana -Camagey, Cuba (playas, lagunas costeras, lagunas interiores y zonas temporalmente inundadas). Un total de 73 especies de aves estn presentes en Cayo Coco, incluyendo 7 nuevos reportes para esta localidad ( Botaurus lentiginosus, Anas americana, Aythya affinis, Mergus serrator, Calidris fuscicollis, Calidris mauri y Sterna dougallii ). Las reas temporalmente inundadas fue el hbitat ms diverso, destacndose entre las especies ms abundantes y de mayor atraccin turstica al Flamenco ( Phoenicopterus ruber ). Key words .— aquatic ecosystems, Archipilago de Sabana-Camagey, biodiversity, bird abundance, Cayo Coco, coastal ecosystems, Cuba, waterbirds, wetlands IN THE CUBAN SATELLITE, CAYO COCO, beaches, coastal and interior lagoons, temporarily flooded areas, and mangrove vegetation contribute to the presence of a high diversity and abundance of waterbirds, which find adequate resources for their feeding, shelter, and reproduction in these habitats. Previous observations of the avifauna in Cayo Coco have been reported by Garrido (1976), Regalado (1981), Acosta and Berovides (1984), Rodrguez et. al. (1990), Snchez et. al. (1994), Wallace et. al. (1994), and Rodrguez and Snchez (1995), among others. Nevertheless, the abundance and distribution of waterbirds in Cayo Coco are poorly known. Consequently, the goal of our investigations was to establish the geographic location of the available habitats suitable for aquatic and coas tal birds, as well to determine the composition and abundance of the species in those habitats. STUDY AREA AND METHODS Cayo Coco (N2230' , W7827' ) is part of the Sabana-Camagey Archipelago off the northern coast of Cuba (Fig. 1). With an area of 370 km2, Cayo Coco is the fourth largest island in the Cuban archipelago, after Cuba proper, the Isla de la Juventud (formerly Isla de Pinos), and Cayo Romano. Cartographic charts 4483 I, II and 4583 III, IV of the series of Cubas 1:50 000 maps were used to loFig. 1. Cuba, in silhouette, showing the Cayo Coco study area (within circle) within Archipilago de Sabana-Camagey and an enlargement of Cayo Coco. cate the potential habitats available for waterbirds, including beach, coastal lagoon, interior lagoon, and wetland habitats. Beaches are on the northern coast of Cayo Coco and extend along an area over 20 km (Fig. 2). The width of the beach sand strip ranges from 5 to 30 m. The sand is fine and it is of a creamyellow color (I. C. G. C. and A. C. C. 1990). These beaches are characterized by being shallow, with the exception of La Concha beach. In many beaches, sargassum ( Sargassum sp.) is plentiful.

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El Pitirre 13(3) Page 69 A system of six coastal lagoons extends parallel to the beaches (Fig. 2). The coastal lagoons are elongated, surrounded by mangrove vegetation, are generally shallow (1-2 m), and their water is brackish. The interior lagoons, are distributed inside the cay. They are generally small (Fig. 2), and somewhat deeper than the coastal la goons. Interior lagoons are circular or oval in shape and are also surrounded by mangrove forests. Lastly, the temporarily flooded zone (low zone), in the southern part of the islet (Fig. 2), belongs to a low plain, practically at se a level, and thus remains flooded most of the year. This zone is characterized by its mangrove vegetation and halophyte communities. Accessibility is limited and difficult. Other areas that are devoid of vegetation make up the salt flat and marshes or playas that are temporarily drained in the dry season (November to April). The marshes become veritable lagoons during the rainy season (May to October). The low zones in the innermost part of Cayo Coco are characterized by vegetation mainly composed of Conocarpus erecta trees. To determine the area of each lagoon, we transferred the map image to a blueprint and using lined graph paper we counted all the totally occupied squares. Partially occupied squares were additionally grouped until a square was completed. The number of the totally occupied squares was added to that of the squares resulting from summation of the partially occupied ones and, thus, the area of the lagoon water surface was calculated. This procedure was repeated three times for each lagoon and the total number of calculated squares was averaged for the estimate of mean lagoon size. We visited each lagoon to determine its visibility and to select our observation points. If any part of the lagoon was found to be hidden from our view, that portion was subtracted from the total area of the lagoon. We used observation points in the coastal and interior lagoons to determine the composition and abundance of birds there. We used one observation point at lagoons having an area of less than 10 ha, such as Farallones del Negro, El Hoyo, Vereda de Los Marquez, and Potrero del Cinco. At lagoons having an area of 19-20 ha, such as La Jaula and Flamenco, two observation points were used. We used three observation points at Tiburn lagoon (70 ha). At these observation points, all birds seen or heard were recorded. In the beach and temporarily flooded zones, we used the itinerary transect method (Blondel 1969), which consisted of recording all birds either seen or heard on both sides of the transect. The width of beach transects was limited by the coastal strip (5-30 m), whereas width of transects in temporarily flooded zones ranged from 100 m to 500 m, dependFig. 2. Distribution of the habitats available for the aquatic birds of Cayo Coco. Beaches: Las Coloradas (1), Larga (2), La Concha (3), Prohibida (4), Loma del Puerto (5), Flamenco (6), La Jaula (7), Uva Caleta (8), La Petrolera (9), and Los Perros (10). Coastal lagoons: Las Coloradas (A), Larga (B), Faralln del Negro (C), Flamenco (D), Tiburn (E), and La Jaula (F). Interior lago ons: El Hoyo (G), Vereda de Los Marquez (H) and Potrero del Cinco (I). Temporarily flooded areas (J) and Baha de los Perros (K). SNCHEZ AND RODRGUEZ—WATERBIRDS OF CAYO COCO, CUBA

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Page 70 El Pitirre 13(3) Table 1. Bird species using the wetlands of Cayo Coco, Archipilago de Sabana-Camagey, Cuba, February 1993 to March 1994. PR= Permanent Re sident, WR= Winter Resident, SR= Summer Resident, TR= Transient, A= Accidental. _________________________________________________________________________________ Status Family Species in Cuba _________________________________________________________________________________ Podicipedidae Least Grebe Tachybaptus dominicus PR Pied-billed Grebe Podilymbus podiceps PR Pelecanidae Brown Pelican Pelecanus occidentalis PR Phalacrocoracidae Double-crested Cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus PR Anhingidae Anhinga Anhinga anhinga PR Fregatidae Magnificent Frigatebird Fregata magnificens PR Ardeidae Great Blue Heron Ardea herodias PR Great Egret Ardea alba PR Snowy Egret Egretta thula PR Little Blue Heron Egretta caerulea PR Reddish Egret Egretta rufescens PR Tricolored Heron Egretta tricolor PR Green Heron Butorides striatus PR Black-crowned Night-Heron Nycticorax nycticorax PR Yellow-crowned Night-Heron Nyctanassa violacea PR American Bittern Botaurus lentiginosus * WR Ciconiidae Wood Stork Mycteria americana PR Threskiornithidae Glossy Ibis Plegadis falcinellus PR White Ibis Eudocimus albus PR Scarlet Ibis Eudocimus ruber A Roseate Spoonbill Ajaia ajaja PR Phoenicopteridae Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber PR Anatidae West Indian Whistling-Duck Dendrocygna arborea PR Blue-winged Teal Anas discors WR Northern Pintail Anas acuta WR White-cheeked Pintail Anas bahamensis PR Gadwall Anas strepera A American Wigeon Anas americana * WR Northern Shoveler Anas clypeata WR Lesser Scaup Aythya affinis * WR Red-breasted Merganser Mergus serrator* A Accipitridae Common Black-Hawk Buteogallus anthracinus PR Northern Harrier Circus cyaneus WR Osprey Pandion haliaetus PR Falconidae Crested Caracara Caracara plancus PR Aramidae Limpkin Aramus guarauna PR Rallidae Clapper Rail Rallus longirostris PR Purple Gallinule Porphyrula martinica PR Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus PR American Coot Fulica americana PR Jacanidae Northern Jacana Jacana spinosa PR Haematopodidae American Oystercatcher Haematopus palliatus A Charadriidae Semipalmated Plover Charadrius semipalmatus WR Piping Plover Charadrius melodus WR Wilson’s Plover Charadrius wilsonia PR Killdeer Charadrius vociferus PR Black-bellied Plover Pluvialis squatarola WR Recurvirostridae Black-necked Stilt Himantopus mexicanus PR Scolopacidae Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus TR Greater Yellowlegs Tringa melanoleuca WR Lesser Yellowlegs Tringa flavipes WR Solitary Sandpiper Tringa solitaria WR Spotted Sandpiper Actitis macularia WR Willet Catoptrophorus semipalmatus PR Short-billed Dowitcher Limnodromus griseus WR Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria interpres WR Sanderling Calidris alba WR Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla WR Western Sandpiper Calidris mauri * TR White-rumped Sandpiper Calidris fuscicollis * TR Least Sandpiper Calidris minutilla WR SNCHEZ AND RODRGUEZ—WATERBIRDS OF CAYO COCO, CUBA

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El Pitirre 13(3) Page 71 ing on habitat complexity. Observations of bird abundance were conducted in November 1993 and March 1994 in beach, coastal lagoon, interior lagoon, and temporarily flooded zone habitats. Interior lagoons were additionally sampled in February and June 1993. Counts were made from dawn through ca. 11:00 hr. Some additional observations were made at dusk to determine use of resting or roosting habitat. The Sorensen index was used to determine similarities among habitats (Sorensen 1948). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The avifauna of Cayo Coco wetlands is composed of 73 species belonging to 8 orders and 21 families, which account for 50% of the aquatic birds reported in Cuba (Table 1). Of these species, 40 are permanent residents, 22 winter residents, 4 summer residents, 3 transients and 4 accidentals or vagrants. Seven of these species are reported for the first time at Cayo Coco: American Bittern ( Botaurus lentiginosus ), American Wigeon ( Anas americana ), Lesser Scaup ( Aythya affinis ), Red-breasted Merganser ( Mergus serrator), White-rumped Sandpiper ( Calidris fuscicollis ), Western Sandpiper ( Calidris mauri ), and Roseate Tern ( Sterna dougallii ) (Table 1). Most of the families are represented by all or nearly all the species repor ted in Cuba. Nonetheless, the families Anatidae, Rallidae, Scolopacidae, and Laridae were scarcely represented at Cayo Coco, since many of the species are considered rare or vagrant in Cuba (Raffaele et al. 1998). We detected 50 bird species during our abundance samplings conducted in the four wetland habitats. We recorded the fewest species ( N = 12) in beach habitat (Table 2). Las Coloradas and Larga beaches had the largest diversity and abundance of birds among beach habitat sites. These beaches, unlike the others, were characterized by the presence of sargassum, where small invertebrates serving as food for the birds seek shelter. The most abundant species in beach habitat were Ruddy Turnstone ( Arenaria interpres ), Sanderling ( Calidris alba), Royal Tern ( Sterna maxima ) , and Semipalmated Plover ( Charadrius semipalmatus ). The coastal lagoons (Table 3) and the interior lagoons (Table 4) were characterized by being rich in species (34 and 25, respectively). The Black-necked Stilt ( Himantopus mexicanus ) is abundant in this habitat, mainly in Flamenco Lagoon (Table 3). The variety of species and numbers of individuals present in coastal and interior lagoons depends on the degree of flooding of the lagoons and the season of the year. For example, late in the dry season the Killdeer ( Charadrius vociferus ) was the most abundant species in the La Jaula lagoon, where it associated with a dry area of the lagoon (sandy soil area) (Table 3). Ducks occurred in the coastal (Table 3) and the interior lagoons (Table 4). The area of the surface water and the depth of the lagoons favor the presence of ducks, including West Indian Whistling-Duck ( Dendrocygna arborea ) in the Potrero del Cinco interior lagoon. Northern Shoveler ( Anas clypeata ) and Blue-winged Teal ( A. discors) were the most abundant birds in the Farallones del Negro lagoon, which is one of the deepest of the lagoons . Temporarily flooded areas showed the greatest diversity of bird species, with 41 species (Table 5). This diversity was to be expected if we bear in mind that in this zone there ar e different microhabitats, from areas with low levels of water, and even nearly dry, to veritable lagoons. This variability in microhabitats contributes, to a large extent, to increase the structural complexity of these habitats and, at the Laridae Herring Gull Larus argentatus WR Laughing Gull Larus atricilla PR Common Tern Sterna hirundo SR Roseate Tern Sterna dougallii * SR Bridled Tern Sterna anaethetus SR Sooty Tern Sterna fuscata PR Least Tern Sterna antillarum SR Royal Tern Sterna maxima PR Sandwich Tern Sterna sandvicensis PR Caspian Tern Sterna caspia WR Brown Noddy Anous stolidus PR Alcedinidae Belted Kingfisher Ceryle alcyon WR _________________________________________________________________________________ *= New report from Cayo Coco. Table 1. Bird species using the wetlands of Cayo Coco (continued). SNCHEZ AND RODRGUEZ—WATERBIRDS OF CAYO COCO, CUBA

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Page 72 El Pitirre 13(3) same time, facilitates the presence of a variety of avian species having different capabilities to exploit the available resources. Ab out 4500 Greater Flamingos ( Phoenicopterus ruber ) were observed in shallow water at an approximate distance of 10 m at each side of the rock-fill road. The flamingo’s beauty, abundance, and easy observation make this bird the most important tourism attraction in the area. Wilson’s Plover ( Charadrius wilsonia ) was found in all the habitats, whereas most of the species (74%) were limited to two or three habitats. The combination of temporarily flooded areas, coastal lagoons, and interior lagoons had the largest number of species in common. The greatest similarity was found between the temporarily flooded areas and the interior lagoons, and between the latter and the coastal lagoons, both having an equal percentage of species (57.6%). Twelve species were only observed in one habitat; i.e., American Bittern, Yellow-crowned Night-Heron ( Nyctanassa violacea ) , and Gadwall ( Anas strepera ) in the coastal lagoon (Table 3); American Wigeon, Lesser Scaup, West Indian Whistling-Duck, Common Moorhen ( Gallinula chloropus ) , and Least Tern ( Sterna antillarum ) in the interior lagoons (Table 4); and Red-breasted Merganser, Limpkin ( Aramus guarauna), Northern Jacana ( Jacana spinosa), Laughing Gull ( Larus atricilla ) , and Roseate Tern in the temporarily flooded ar eas (Table 5). Notwithstanding, we cannot consider their distribution as being very specific, since most of them were detected in one count in part icular. Thus, a larger number of samples will allow us to determine a more exact distribution of these birds. The findings of our study show that the high structural diversity of the vegetation and the maintenance of the temporarily flooded areas allow a notable diversity and abundance of water birds in Cayo Coco. Furthermore, these areas are sites of regional importance for the communities of resident and migratory birds that find adequate resources for feeding, shelter, and reproduction. Thes e resources guarantee the protection of this group and, at the same time, they provide a high potential for the development of ecotourism, especially the obse rvation of birds. The incorporation of ecotourism wi thin the current tourist development in Cayo Coco is particularly timely in conservation of habitat and wildlife. LITERATURE CITED ACOSTA, M., AND V. BEROVIDES. 1984. Ornitocenosis de los cayos Coco y Romano, Archipilago de Sabana-Camagey, Cuba. Poeyana (274):1-10. BLONDEL, J. 1969. Mthodes de dnombrement des populations des oisseaux. Pp. 97-151 in M. Lamotte et F. Bourlier (Eds.). Problemes d' ecologie: L' chantillonage des peuplement animaux des milieux terres tres. Masson et Cie, Paris. GARRIDO, O. H. 1976. Aves y reptiles de Cayo Coco, Cuba. Miscelnea Zoologia, Instituto Zoologia, Academia de Ciencia Cuba (3):3-4. Table 2. Relative abundance (birds/km) of waterbirds at beaches sampled using transects in Cayo Coco, Archipilago de SabanaCamagey, Cuba, November 1993 and March 1994. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Beach __________________________________________________________________________________ Coloradas Larga Flamenco La Jaula Prohibida ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ _________ __________ Species1 Nov 1993 Mar 1994 Nov 1993 Mar 1994 Nov 1993 Mar 1994 Nov 1993 Mar 1994 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Pelecanus occidentalis 1 2 1 2 Fregata magnificens 1 1 1 Pandion haliaetus 1 1 1 Pluvialis squatarola 4 4 1 Charadrius wilsonia 3 3 Charadrius semipalmatus 10 7 10 Arenaria interpres 21 52 8 Calidris alba 41 30 5 Calidris fuscicollis * 1 Calidris pusilla 1 Sterna maxima 9 19 2 1 1 1 Sterna caspia 1 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1See Table 1 for common names. *= New report from Cayo Coco. SNCHEZ AND RODRGUEZ—WATERBIRDS OF CAYO COCO, CUBA

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El Pitirre 13(3) Page 73 I. C. G. C. (INSTITUTO CUBANO DE GEODESIA Y CARTOGRAFA) AND A. C. C. (ACADEMIA DE CIENCIAS DE CUBA). 1990. Estudio de los grupos insulares y zonas litorales del Archipilago Cubano con fines tursticos. Cayos Coco, Guillermo y Paredn Grande. Editorial Cientfico-Tcnica, La Habana. RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, O. GARRIDO, A. KEITH, AND J. RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of the West Indies. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. REGALADO, P. 1981 El gnero Torreornis (Aves: Fringillidae). Descripcin de una nueva subespecie en Cayo Coco, Cuba. Ciencia Agricultura (2):87112. RODRGUEZ, D., A. GONZLEZ, L. BIDART, L. GONZLEZ, J. ESPINOSA, A. KIRKCONNELL, A. R. ESTRADA, A. LLANES, AND A. HERNNDEZ. 1990. Fauna silvestre e introducida. ICGC y ACC, Eds. Estudio de los grupos insulares y zonas litorales del Archipilago Cubano con fines tursticos. Cayos Guillermo, Coco y Paredn Grande. Editorial Cientfico Tcnica, La Habana. Table 3. Density of waterbirds (birds/ha) of the coastal lagoons sampled using observation points in Cayo Coco, Archipilago de Sabana-Camagey, Cu ba, November 1993 and March 1994. ___________________________________________________________________________________________ Coastal lagoon _____________________________________________________________________ Tiburn La Jaula Flamenco Faralln del Negro _________ ___________________ ___________________ __________________ Species1 Nov 1993 Nov 1993 Mar 1994 Nov 1993 Mar 1994 Nov 1993 Mar 1994 ___________________________________________________________________________________________ Pelecanus occidentalis 1 10 24 Phalacrocorax auritus 1 Fregata magnificens 2 Ardea alba 2 5 1 14 25 3 Ardea herodias 3 1 1 Egretta thula 1 3 10 2 13 1 Egretta caerulea 1 1 Egretta rufescens 2 1 Egretta tricolor 2 8 3 2 5 1 Butorides striatus 1 Botaurus lentiginosus * 1 Nyctanassa violacea 1 Eudocimus albus 7 Ajaia ajaja 2 2 5 1 Phoenicopterus ruber 1 Anas strepera 3 Anas clypeata 22 33 50 Anas discors 6 28 Pandion haliaetus 1 Buteogallus anthracinus 1 Pluvialis squatarola 2 Charadrius wilsonia 2 2 1 Charadrius vociferous 1 120 3 1 Himantopus mexicanus 12 15 27 7 295 2 Tringa melanoleuca 7 26 9 Tringa flavipes 38 1 Catoptrophorus semipalmatus 7 1 Actitis macularia 2 16 Arenaria interpres 2 Calidris minutilla 3 3 Calidris mauri * 3 Sterna maxima 6 3 Sterna caspia 2 1 Ceryle alcyon 1 1 ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 1See Table 1 for common names. *= New report from Cayo Coco. SNCHEZ AND RODRGUEZ—WATERBIRDS OF CAYO COCO, CUBA

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Page 74 El Pitirre 13(3) RODRGUEZ, D., AND B. SNCHEZ. 1995. Avifauna del matorral xeromorfo en la regin oriental de Cuba durante la migracin otoal (octubre de 1989, 1990 y 1991). Poeyana (447):1-12. SNCHEZ, B., D. RODRGUEZ, AND A. KIRKCONNELL. 1994. Avifauna de los cayos Paredn Grande y Coco durante la migracin otoal de 1990 y 1991. Avicennia (1):31-38. SORENSEN, T. 1948. The method of establishing groups of equal amplitude in plant sociology based on similarity of species c ontent and its applications to analyses of the vegetation on Danish commons. Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab Copenhagen, Oversigt af Forhandlinger 5:1-34. WALLACE, G. E., H. GONZLEZ, M. K. MCNICHOLL, D. RODRGUEZ, R. OVIEDO, A. LLANES, B. SNCHEZ, AND E. WALLACE. 1996. Forestdwelling Neotropical migrant and resident birds wintering in three regions of Cuba. Condor 98 (4):745-768. Table 4. Density of waterbirds (birds/ha) of the interior lagoons sampled using observation points in Cayo Coco, Archipilago de Sabana-Camagey, Cuba, February, June, and November 1993, and March 1994. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Interior lagoon ________________________________________________________________________ Vereda de Los Marquez Potrero del Cinco El Hoyo _______________________________ ___________________ ___________________ Species1 Feb 1993 Nov 1993 Mar 1994 Jun 1993 Nov 1993 Jun 1993 Nov 1993 ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Podilymbus podiceps 1 1 Phalacrocorax auritus 25 Ardea alba 1 2 2 2 1 1 Ardea herodias 1 1 Egretta thula 1 1 1 Egretta caerulea 1 1 1 Egretta rufescens 1 Egretta tricolor 2 1 2 1 2 Butorides striatus 2 Eudocimus albus 1 18 Phoenicopterus ruber 100 66 Anas clypeata 10 Anas discors 5 25 5 Anas americana* 40 Aythya affinis * 47 Dendrocygna arborea 13 200 17 Caracara plancus 2 Gallinula chloropus 1 Charadrius wilsonia 2 Charadrius vociferous 3 4 Himantopus mexicanus 2 4 2 Tringa melanoleuca 1 7 1 Catoptrophorus semipalmatus 1 Sterna antillarum 5 Ceryle alcyon 1 1 ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1See Table 1 for common names. *= New report from Cayo Coco. SNCHEZ AND RODRGUEZ—WATERBIRDS OF CAYO COCO, CUBA

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El Pitirre 13(3) Page 75 Table 5. Relative abundance (birds/km) of aquatic birds in the temporarily flooded zones sampled using transects in Cayo Coco, Archipilago de Sabana-Camagey, Cuba, November 1993 and March 1994. ( ) = Estimated data. _________________________________________________________________________________ Temporarily flooded zones Baha de Los Perros __________________________ __________________________ Species1 Nov 1993 Mar 1994 Nov 1993 Mar 1994 _________________________________________________________________________________ Podilymbus podiceps 3 Pelecanus occidentalis 25 36 1 1 Phalacrocorax auritus 207 12 1020 147 Fregata magnificens 1 3 Ardea alba 15 Ardea herodias 5 Egretta thula 7 5 3 Egretta caerulea 6 Egretta rufescens 10 12 Egretta tricolor 27 4 6 Butorides striatus 2 Eudocimus albus 4 Ajaia ajaja 6 3 Phoenicopterus ruber (4000) (4600) 385 Mergus serrator * 4 Pandion haliaetus 1 Buteogallus anthracinus 3 Caracara plancus 2 1 Aramus guarauna 3 Pluvialis squatarola 1 Charadrius wilsonia 6 Charadrius vociferous 5 1 1 Charadrius semipalmatus 1 Himantopus mexicanus 13 15 Jacana spinosa 3 Tringa melanoleuca 32 9 Tringa flavipes 14 Catoptrophorus semipalmatus 1 Actitis macularia 1 Arenaria interpres 13 Calidris alba 1 Calidris minutilla 10 Calidris fuscicollis * 1 Calidris pusilla 1 Calidris mauri * 134 34 Larus atricilla 6 57 11 Sterna maxima 51 Sterna caspia 1 Sterna dougallii * 6 Ceryle alcyon 3 2 _________________________________________________________________________________ 1See Table 1 for common names *= New report from Cayo Coco.. SNCHEZ AND RODRGUEZ—WATERBIRDS OF CAYO COCO, CUBA REQUEST FOR ASSISTANCE COLOR BANDED LITTLE EGRETS During 2000, several Little Egrets ( Egretta garzetta ) were ringed with US Fish and Wildlife Service aluminum and color bands at Graeme Hall, Barbados, the only location in the Western Hemisphere where this species is known to breed. The objective of this study is to determine egret movements within, and away from, Barbados. If you have observed such co lor-banded birds, please contact Martin Frost with full information at Featherbed Lane, St. John, Barbados, or by e-mail at mfrost@sunbeach.net

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Page 76 El Pitirre 13(3) INTRODUCCI”N EL ARCHIPILAGO SABANA-CAMAGEY, se encuentra situado al Norte de Cuba y se extiende a lo largo de 465 km aproximadamente. En los ltimos aos, el desarrollo de un notable numero de investigaciones ornitolgicas ha permitido elevar considerablemente el nivel de conocimientos acerca de la avifauna existente en esta regin de Cuba en diferentes periodos (Garrido 1973, Garrido y Garcia 1975, Garrido 1976, Acosta y Berovides 1984, Kirkconnell y Garrido 1991, Gonzlez et al. 1992, Blanco et al. 1998, Kirkconnell 1998, Gonzlez et al. 1999, Wallace et al. 1999, Snchez y Rodrguez 2000). No obstante, se considera que la informacin obtenida hasta el momento es aun insuficiente, ya que quedan aun muchas islas de este territorio insular que no han sido estudiadas, por lo que cualquier esfuerzo de investigacin sobre la avifauna de dicho territorio constituye una importante contribucin al conocimiento y conservacin de la ornitofauna cubana en un futuro. En el presente trabajo se exponen algunas consideraciones y observaciones acerca de la ornitofauna de algunos cayos del Archipilago Sabana-Camagey tales como: Cayo Guillermo (2236N, 78 40W), Cayo Coco (2230N, 7830W), Cayo Paredn Grande (2228N, 7809W), Cayo Romano (2223N, 7809W ), Cayo Antn (2225N, 78 05W), Cayo Mgano Grande (2220N, 7755W) y Cayo Cruz (2215N, 7750W) realizadas durante los meses de enero y febrero de los aos 1998, 1999 y 2000. Los resultados en este trabajo se presentan en dos partes: la primera trata de todas las observaciones de inters realizadas que podr an contribuir a la creacin de nuevos criterios so bre el estatus o categoras de algunas especies de aves existentes en el Archipilago de Sabana-Camagey o en el territorio cubano en sentido general. En la segunda parte, se brinda un listado de las aves observadas en tres de los siete cayos visitados: Cayo Antn, Cayo Mgano Grande y Cayo Cruz por ser estos ltimos, territorios insulares en donde se han desarrollado pocas investigaciones ornitolgicas en comparacin con el resto de los cayos estudiados. Para obtener observaciones precisas sobre este trabajo comuniquese con el primer autor. OBSERVACIONES Y ADICIONES A LA ORNITOFAUNA DEL ARCHIPILAGO SABANA-CAMAGEY, CUBA, 1998-2000 FRANOIS SHAFFER1, PEDRO BLANCO RODRGUEZ2, MICHEL ROBERT1 Y ELIESER SOCARRS TORRES3 1Service canadien de la faune, 1141 Route de l’glise, CP10100, Sainte-Foy, Qubec, Canada, G1V 4H5; 2Instituto de Ecologa y Sistemtica, Carretera de Varona Km 3.5, AP 10800, Boyeros, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba; y 3Centro de Investigaciones de Ecosistemas Costeros, CP 69400, Cayo Coco, Municipio Morn, Provincia Ciego de vila, Cuba Resumen .—Presentamos una lista comentada de las principales especies de aves que hemos observado en el curso de los inviernos de 1998 al 2000, en el Archipilago Sabana-Camagey. Adems, para las islas de ese archipilago sobre las que exista poca informacin relativa a la ornitofauna, presentamos la lista completa de las especies observadas. Se notaron algunas especies consideradas raras en el Archipilago Sabana-Camagey, a saber: Aythya affinis, Oxyura jamaicensis, Calidris canutus , Tyto alba, Coereba flaveola y Guiraca caerulea. Estas observaciones complementan los conocimientos sobre la ornitofauna de ese archipilago. Rsum .—OBSERVATIONS ET ADDITIONS L'AVIFAUNA DE L'ARCHIPEL SABANA-CAMAGEY, CUBA, 19982000. Dans cette publication, nous prsentons une liste commente des principales espces d’oiseaux que nous avons observes au cours des hivers 1998 2000, dans l’archipel Sabana-Camagey. De plus, pour les les de cet archipel pour lesquelles peu d’information sur l’avifaune existait, nous prsentons la liste complte des espces observes. Quelques espces considres rares dans l’archipel Sabana-Camagey ont t notes: Aythya affinis, Oxyura jamaicensis, Calidris canutus , Tyto alba, Coereba flaveola, et Guiraca caerulea. Ces observations viennent complter les connaissances sur l’avifaune de cet archipel. Abstract .—OBSERVATIONS AND ADDITIONS TO THE AVIFAUNA OF THE ARCHIPELAGO SABANA-CAMAGEY, CUBA, 1998-2000. We present an annotated list of the major species of birds that we observed during surveys in the Archipelago Sabana-Camagey from 1998 to 2000. For Cayo Cruz, Cayo Mgano Grande, and Cayo Antn, for which few data exist on the avifauna, we also present complete lists of the species observed. Several species considered rare were observed in the Archipelago, including Aythya affinis, Oxyura jamaicensis, Calidris canutus , Tyto alba, Coereba flaveola , and Guiraca caerulea. Key words: Archipilago Sabana-Camagey, Cayo Antn, Cayo Coco, Cayo Cruz, Cayo Guillermo, Cayo Mgano Grande, Cayo Paredn Grande, Cayo Romano Cuba, habitat, status

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El Pitirre 13(3) Page 77 RESULTADOS Especies Tachybaptus dominicus .— Cayo Coco: 3 individuos el 31 de enero de 1999, 1 individuo el 8 febrero 1999, 2 individuos el 29 de enero del 2000. Segn Raffaele et al. (1998), esta especie es un residente permanente comn en Cuba, aunque Kirkconnell (1998) la considera muy rara para Cayo Coco y seala adems la observacin de un solo individuo durante el periodo de cuatro aos. Por nuestra parte la observacin de esta especie en tres oportunidades durante tres aos consecutivos, sugere que al menos esta ave es ms comn que lo referido por Kirkconnell (1998). Los individuos registrados de esta especie, fueron observados en lagunas interiores de agua dulce del cayo. Podilymbus podiceps .— Cayo Coco: 15 individuos el 31 de enero de 1999, 1 individuo el 8 de febrero de 1999, 1 individuo el 29 de enero del 2000, 3 individuos el 5 de febrero del 2000. Cayo Romano: 1 individuo el 26 enero del 2000. Estas observaciones muestran que esta especie no es tan rara como seala Kirkconnell (1998). Dicho au tor le atribuye a esta especie la categora de muy rara en Cayo Coco. Nuestras observaciones y la realizacin de futuros investigaciones dirigidas a esta especie pueden corroborar el estatus actual de esta ultima en el territorio. S ula leucogaster . — Cayo Coco: 1 individuo el 25 de enero del 2000. Cayo Paredn Grande: 1 individuo el 7 de febrero del 2000. Considerada como poco comn en Cuba por Raffaele et al. (1998), esta especie no aparece reportada para el territorio de los Cayos Coco y Paredn Grande, por lo que este constituye entonces el primer registro de la especie para ambos sitios. Durante los periodos de observacin sealados para la especie, los vientos fueron notablemente fuertes. Ardea herodias . — El 4 de febrero del 2000, fue observado en Cayo Guillermo un individuo de Ardea herodias de la forma Wurdemann. Dicha forma est asociada por lo general a los cayos de la Florida (Butler 1992). Ninguna de la bibliografia consultada hasta el momento seala la presencia de la forma Wurdemann en Cuba, por lo que este constituye el primer reporte en el territ orio cubano. La subespecie A. h. occidentalis , se observ en varias oportunidades en la cayera Norte durante el periodo de 19982000, estas observaciones se citan a continuacin. Cayo Coco: 2 individuos el 28 de enero de 1998, 1 individuo el 1 febrero de 1999, 2 individuos el 8 de febrero de 1999, 1 individuo el 12 de febrero de 1999, 1 individuo el 24 de enero del 2000, 1 individuo el 27 de enero del 2000. Cayo Guillermo: 2 individuos el 11 de febrero del 2000. Cayo Mgano Grande: 1 individuo el 9 de febrero del 2000. Pedrapln que v a Cayo Cruz: 1 individuo el 3 de febrero del 2000. Raffaele et al. (1998) menciona adems que A. h. occidentalis es muy rara en las Antillas, pero no parece ser as en base a nuestros registros. Anas americana . — Cayo Coco: 40 individuos el 31 de enero del 1999, 15 individuos el 5 de febrero del 2000. Cayo Paredn Grande: 200 individuos 6 de febrero de 1998. Kirkconnell (1998) menciona esta especie como rara para Cayo Coco, mientrs que Raffaele et al. (1998) la citan como un ave comn en Cuba. Tomando en consideracin la frecuencia de observacin y el numero de individuos registrados durante los periodos de observaciones (1998-2000), A. americana debe ser considerada como una especie relativamente comn al menos en Cayo Coco. Aythya collaris .— Cayo Coco: 7 individuos el 5 de febrero del 2000, 2 individuos el 11 de febrero del 2000. Esta especie no aparece registrada en la lista de Kirkconnell (1998). Estas son entonces las primeras observaciones de la especie en Cayo Coco. Sin embargo es necesario sealar que esta especie est considerada como invernante comn en Cuba (Garrido y Garca 1975, Raffaele et al. 1998). Aythya affinis . — Cayo Coco: 4 individuos el 2 de febrero de1998. Kirkconnell (1998), no menciona esta especie en Cayo Coco. Se trata entonces de la primera observacin de esta especie en Cayo Coco. En Cuba, esta ave est co nsiderada como un residente invernal relativamente comn (Garrido y Garca 1975). Mergus serrator . — Cayo Coco: 16 individuos el 1 de febrero de 1999. Pedrapln de Cayo Coco: 18 individuos el 3 de febrero de 1999, 51 individuos el 5 de febrero de 1999, 43 individuos el 7 de febrero de 1999, 32 individuos el 11 de febrero de 1999, 40 individuos el 28 de enero del 2000, 320 individuos el 31 de enero del 2000, 874 individuos el 10 de febrero del 2000. Pedrapln de Cayo Romano: 26 individuos el 3 de febrero del 2000. Una labor de censo en optimas condiciones meteorol gicas permiti contar con bastante exactitud el numero de aves registradas el 10 de febrero del 2000. Los 16 individuos observados en Cayo Coco, contituyen el primer registro de esta especie para dicho cayo. La observacin de otros individuos a lo largo del pedrapln que parte desde Jigey hasta Cayo Romano indca que esta ave SHAFFER ET AL.—ORNITOFAUNA DEL ARCHIPILAGO SABANA-CAMAGEY, CUBA, 1998-2000

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Page 78 El Pitirre 13(3) puede ser vista en otros cayos del Archipilago Sabana-Camagey. De forma general nuestras observaciones coinciden con los argumentos expuestos por Wallace et al. (1999), quien cita a M. serrator como una especie comn localmente. Oxyura jamaicensis .— Cayo Coco: 60 individuos el 2 de febrero de 1998, 4 individuos el 5 de febrero del 2000. De acuerdo con lo expuesto por Kirkconnell (1998), nuestra observacin constituye el primer reporte de esta especie en Cayo Coco. En las Antillas Mayores esta ave ha sido considerada con la categora de comn (Raffaele et al. 1998). Charadrius wilsonia .— Cayo Guillermo: 1 individuo el 29 de enero del 2000. Cayo Coco: 1 individuo el 27 de enero de 1998, 2 individuos el 7 de febrero de 1998, 2 individuos el 24 de enero del 2000, 2 individuos el 29 de enero del 2000, 1 individuo el 5 de febrero del 2000, 1 individuo el 6 de febrero del 2000. Cayo Paredn Grande: 1 individuo el 25 de enero de 1998, 3 individuos el 30 de enero de 1998, 14 individuos el 4 de febrero de1998, 1 individuo el 8 de febrero de 1998, 2 individuos el 7 de febrero del 2000, 1 individuo el 10 de febrero del 2000. Cayo Anton: 17 individuos el 26 de enero del 2000, 57 individuos el 8 de febrero del 2000. Cayo Mgano Grande: 8 individuos el 9 de febrero del 2000. Cayo Cruz: 48 individuos el 1 de febrero del 2000, 12 individuos el 2 de febrero del 2000, 18 individuos el 3 de febrero del 2000. Wallace et al. (1999) sugieren considerar esta ave como un raro residente invernal muy local, sin embargo nuestras observaciones muestran que por el contrario, la especie puede ser observada con frecuencia y abundancia en algunos territorios insulares, por lo que esta ultima debe ser considerada mas bien un residente bimodal comn del Archipilago Sabana-Camagey. Calidris canutus .— Cayo Coco: 4 individuos el 8 de febrero de 1999, 4 individuos el 9 de febrero de 1999, 10 individuos el 4 de febrero del 2000, 34 individuos el 5 de febrero del 2000, 45 individuos el 7 de febrero del 2000, 50 individuos el 9 de febrero del 2000. Aunque esta especie ha sido reportada para el Archipilago Sabana-Camagey por Wallace et al. (1999), los registros que br indamos en este trabajo, constituyen las aglomeraciones ms notables de la especie en el territorio insular del Norte de Cuba. Calidris pusilla .— Pedrapln de Cayo Coco: 6 individuos el 10 de febrero del 2000. Esta especie ha sido reportada en muy pocas oportunidades para Cayo Coco. Sin embargo Raffaele et al. (1998), la citan como una limcola comn en Cuba durante el periodo de migracin otoal. El limitado numero de registros de la especie en el cayo hasta el momento, puede estar asociado a la ausencia de observaciones durante el invierno. Estos crterios estn basados en el hecho de que C. pusilla, es mucho ms comn en Las Antillas durante el otoo que en invierno (Gratto-Trevor 1992). Calidris mauri .— Cayo Paredn Grande: 40 individuos el 6 de febrero de 1998, 1 individuo el 8 de febrero de 1998. Cayo Cruz: 10 individuos el 1 de febrero del 2000, 3 individuos el 2 de febrero del 2000. Cayo Mgano Grande: 2 individuos el 9 de febrero del 2000. Esta especie fue observada en compaa de C. minutilla. Si bien los registros de observacin de esta especie durante el meses de enero y febrero son poco comunes en Cuba, compartimos los criterios expuestos por Wallace et al. (1999), quien argumenta que esta especi e puede ser observada con regularidad en pequeos bandos durante todo el invierno. Larus delawarensis .— Cayo Guillermo: 1 individuo el 4 de febrero del 2000, 3 individuos el 11 de febrero del 2000. Estas observaciones complementan la informacin expuesta por Blanco et al. (1998) para Cayo Guillermo. Se trata entonces del tercer y cuarto registro en el Archipilago Sabana-Camagey de esta especie considerada como rara en Cuba (Raffaele et al. 1998). Los individuos observados fueron subadultos, lo que coincide tambin con Raffaele et al. (1998), quien expone que la mayora de los individuos observados en las Antillas han sido subadultos. Sterna caspia. — Cayo Guillermo: 2 individuos el 1 de febrero de 1998, 1 individuo el 29 de enero del 2000, 1 individuo el 4 de febrero del 2000, 1 individuo el 11 de febrero del 2000. Esta especie est considerada un residente invernal raro que no se reproduce en Cuba (Raffaele et al. 1998). Sterna sandvicensis .— Pedrapln de Cayo Coco: 20 individuos el 11 de febrero de 1999, 10 individuos el 28 de enero del 2000, 5 individuos el 31 de enero del 2000, 3 individuos el 10 de febrero del 2000. Estas observaciones son adiciones a los registros de la especie con categora de rara sealada por (Wallace et al. 1999). La regular observacin de esta ave a lo largo del pedrapln de Cayo Coco, demuestra que esta especie es lo calmente comn en dicho cayo. Coccyzus minor .— Cayo Guillermo: 1individuo el 29 de enero del 2000. Cayo Coco: 1 individuo el 11 de febrero del 2000 (hallado muerto). Esta especie est considerada como un residente permanente en las Antillas (Raffaele et al. 1998). En cambio Kirkconnell (1998), la cita co mo un residente estival en Cayo Coco. Nuestras observaciones sugieren que SHAFFER ET AL.—ORNITOFAUNA DEL ARCHIPILAGO SABANA-CAMAGEY, CUBA, 1998-2000

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El Pitirre 13(3) Page 79 sera ms adecuado consider arla un residente permanente en Cuba, ms aun si se toma en consideracin la informacin expuesta por Wallace et al. (1996), quien reporta el registro de un individuo de esta especie en Cayo Coco durant e el invierno. La dificultad de observacin de esta ave dado sus hbitos y comportamiento, puede ser la causa principal de la escasez de registros de la especie durante el invierno. Tyto alba. — Cayo Coco: 1 individuo el 11 de febrero de 1998, 1 individuo el 4 de febrero de 2000 y 1 individuo el 5 de febrero del 2000. Kirkconnell (1998), considera a esta especie como un ave muy rara para el territorio de Cayo Coco. Las nuevas observaciones aportadas en es te trabajo podran ayudar a puntualizar la categora actu al de esta especie en el rea insular del cayo antes referido. Vireo crassirostris. — Cayo Paredn Grande: 3 individuos el 27 de enero del 2000. La presencia de esta especie en los cayos Coco y Paredn es conocida (Kirkconnell y Garrido 1991, Wallace et al. 1999), no obstante nuestras observaciones corroboran nuevamente la presencia de la especie en estos cayos. Mimus gundlachii . — Cayo Guillermo: 3 individuos el 29 de enero del 2000. Cayo Paredn Grande: 1 individuo el 30 de enero de 1998. Cayo Cruz: 2 individuos el 1 de febrero del 2000. Estas observaciones deben ser consideradas adiciones a los resultados obtenidos en aos anteriores en el territorio insular de Sabana-Camagey por Kirkconnell (1998) y Wallace et al. (1999). Dendroica petechia .— Cayo Coco: 1 individuo el 12 de febrero de 1999. Esta especie es considerada comn para Cayo Coco (Kirkconnell 1998). Sin embargo nos referimos a la forma de D. petechia de las Antillas Menores. Segn Raffaele et al. (1998), la Dendroica petechia presente en Bahamas y en Cuba posee la corona de color amarillo, mientrs que el individuo observado presentaba las caracteristcas de la especie de las Antillas Menores, una corona de color marrn rojizo en la parte superior de la cabeza. Nuestras observaciones indican que la forma de D. petechia circunscrita para las Antillas Menores puede ser observada de forma ocasional en Cuba, particularmente en Cayo Coco. Coereba flaveola. — Cayo Cruz: 1 individuo el 2 de febrero del 2000. Esta especie se registra raramente en Cuba y la informacin que brindamos es el primer reporte para Cayo Cruz. La mayora de los reportes obtenidos en Cuba de esta especie corresponden a otros stios del Archipilago SabanaCamagey (Garrido 1973, Garrido y Garcia 1975, Kirkconnell 1998, Wallace et al. 1999). El individuo observado frecuentaba la ve getacin arbustiva costera del cayo, lo que coincide con el habitat de observacin descrito por otros ob servadores de la especie en Cuba en aos anteriores. Guiraca caerulea .— Cayo Coco: 1 individuo el 3 de febrero de 1998. Esta especie est considerada como un ave muy rara para Cayo Coco (Kirkconnell 1998) y una invernante rara para Cuba en sentido general (Raffaele et al. 1998). El individuo observado fu registrado en un stio con vegetacin arbustiva escasa con ciertos grados de alteracin o modificacin antrpica. Listas de Especies Observaron en Cayo Cruz, Cayo Mgano Grande y Cayo Antn Cayo Cruz .– Durante el periodo de observacin del 1 al 3 de febrero del 2000, se observaron en el territorio de Cayo Cruz 50 especies de aves de ellas 25 correspondieron a nuevos registros para este cayo de acuerdo con la informacin aportada para Cayo Cruz en 1987 y 1988 por Gonzlez et al. (1992). Las especies marcadas con un asterisco (*) son comentadas con mayores detalles en la primera parte de este trabajo. Las especies observadas fueron : Pelecanus occidentalis, Fregata magnificens, Ardea herodias (herodias y occidentalis* grupos ), Ardea alba, Egretta caerulea, Egretta ru fescens, Nyctanassa violacea, Eudocimus albus, Cathartes aura, Pandion haliaetus, Buteogallus anthracinus, Caracara plancus, Falco sparverius, Pluvialis squatarola, Charadrius wilsonia*, Charadrius semipalmatus, Charadrius melodus, Charadrius vociferus, Tringa melanoleuca, Actitis macularia, Arenaria interpres, Calidris alba, Calidris mauri*, Calidris minutilla, Sterna maxima, Columbina passerina, Chlorostilbon ricordii, Ceryle alcyon, Xiphidiopicus percussus, Contopus caribaeus, Myiarchus sagrae, Tyrannus caudifasciatus, Polioptila lembeyei, Turdus plumbeus, Mimus polyglottos, Mimus gundlachii*, Dendroica petechia, Dendroica caerulescens, Dendroica discolor, Dendroica palmarum, Setophaga ruticilla, Seiurus aurocapillus, Seiurus noveborancensis, Geothlypis trichas, Teretistris fornsi, Coereba flaveola*, Spindalis zena, Melopyrrha nigra, Quiscalus niger, Icterus dominicensis. Cayo Mgano Grande .– Durante una visita efectuada a Cayo Mgano Grande durante el mes de febrero del 2000 se lograron registrar 32 especies de aves. Las observaciones se realizaron durante un recorrido efectuado a todo lo largo de la lnea costera Norte del cayo (10 km). La relacin de aves observadas fu la siguiente: Pelecanus occidentalis, Ardea herodias SHAFFER ET AL.—ORNITOFAUNA DEL ARCHIPILAGO SABANA-CAMAGEY, CUBA, 1998-2000

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Page 80 El Pitirre 13(3) (herodias y occidentalis* grupos ), Egretta tricolor, Egretta rufescens, Butorides virescens, Eudocimus albus, Cathartes aura, Buteogallus anthracinus, Falco columbarius, Rallus longirostris, Pluvialis squatarola, Charadrius wilsonia, Charadrius melodus, Actitis macularia, Arenaria interpres, Calidris alba, Calidris mauri*, Calidris minutilla, Limnodromus griseus, Larus atricilla, Sterna maxima, Columbia passerina, Chlorostilbon ricordii, Ceryle alcyon, Contopus caribaeus, Myiarchus sagrae, Tyrannus caudifasciatus, Polioptila lembeyei, Dendroica discolor, Dendroica palmarum, Seiurus noveborancensis, Quiscalus niger . No se hacen comentarios adicionales sobre las especies observadas en este cayo, puesto que estas ultimas constituyen especies comunes para el territorio insular del Archipilago Sabana-Camagey. Cayo Antn .– Las observaciones en este cayo se desarrollaron durante los das 26 de enero, 8 y 9 de febrero del 2000. Las aves observadas fueron las siguientes: Ardea herodias, Ardea alba, Egretta rufescens, Butorides virescens, Cathartes aura, Buteogallus anthracinus, Caracara plancus, Falco sparverius, Falco columbarius, Pluvialis squatarola, Charadrius wilsonia, Charadrius semipalmatus, Actitis macularia, Arenaria interpres, Calidris alba, Calidris minutilla, Larus atricilla, Sterna maxima, Xiphidiopicus percussus, Contopus caribaeus, Tyrannus caudifasciatus, Mimus polyglottos, Dendroica petechia, Dendroica discolor, Dendroica palmarum, Mniotilta varia, Setophaga ruticilla, Seiurus noveborancensis, Geothlypis trichas. En el caso particular de la observacin del Charadrius wilsonia , se brindan detalles en la primera parte del presente trabajo. DISCUSI”N Las observaciones presentadas en este trabajo aportan nuevos elementos y complementan el nivel de conocimientos alcanzado hasta la fecha acerca de la composicin y distribucin de la ornitofauna de Archipilago Sabana-Camagey. Estos resultados pueden servir de aporte en la proyeccin de estrategias futuras dirigidas a la conservacin de la ornitofauna de los sistemas insulares del Norte de Cuba y sus hbitat naturales. AGRADECIMIENTOS Queremos dejar constancia de nuestros agradecimientos al Programa Lati noamericano del Servicio Canadiense de la Fauna de la regin de Quebec y al Instituto de Ecologa y Sistemtica del Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnologa y Medio Ambiente de Cuba, por el financiamiento y apoyo logstico brindado que permiti el exitoso desarrollo de este trabajo. Agradecemos adems al Dr. Hiram Gonzlez Alonso, Dr. Celso Pasos Alberdi, Dr. Pedro Prez Alvarez, Sr. Pierre Laporte, al personal del Centro de Investigaciones de Ecosistemas Costeros de Cayo Coco y en particular a los choferes: Eugenio Prez Osuna y Pedro Pentn Roque por la ayuda prestada en la organizacin y ejecucin de las labores en el campo. LITERATURA CITADA ACOSTA, M. Y V. BEROVIDES. 1984. Ornitcenosis de los cayos Coco y Romano. Poeyana 274:1-10. BLANCO P., F. SHAFFER, M. ROBERT Y E. SOCARRAS. 1998. Adiciones a la ornitofauna de los Cayos Coco, Paredn Grande y Guillermo, Cuba. Pitirre 11(2):41. BUTLER,, R. W. 1992. Great Blue Heron. In The birds of North America, No. 25 (A. Poole, P. Stettenheim y F. Gill, Eds.). Philadelphia: the Academy of Natural Sciences; Washington, DC: American Ornithologists’ Union. GARRIDO, O. H. 1973. Anfibios, reptiles y aves del Archipilago de Sabana-Camagey, Cuba, Torreia 27:1-72. GARRIDO, O. H. 1976. Aves y reptiles de Cayo Coco, Cuba. Miscelnea Zoologica, Academia de Ciencias de Cuba 3:3-4. GARRIDO, O. H. Y F. GARCA MONTAA. 1975. Catlogo de las aves de Cuba. La Habana: Academia de Ciencias de Cuba. GONZLEZ, A., J. ALVAREZ Y A. KIRKCONNELL. 1992. Aves observadas in Cayo Cruz, Archipilago de Sabana-Camagey, Cuba. Comunicaciones breves de Zoologa, Instituto de Ecologa y Sistemtica, Academia de Ciencias de Cuba, Cuba: 2526. GONZLEZ, H. A. LLANES, B. SNCHEZ, D. RODRGUEZ, E. PREZ, P. BLANCO, R. OVIEDO Y A. PREZ. 1999. Estado de las comunidades de aves residentes y migratorias en ecosistemas cubanos. Programa Nacional de Ciencia y Tnica. Instituto de Ecologa y Sistemtica, La Habana. GRATTO-TREVOR, C. L. 1992. Semipalmated Sandpiper. In The birds of North America, No. 6 (A. Poole, P. Stettenheim y F. Gill, Eds.). Philadelphia: the Academy of Natural Sciences; Washington, DC: American Ornithologists’ Union. KIRKCONNELL, A. Y O. H. GARRIDO. 1991. The Thick-billed Vireo, Vireo crassirostris (Aves: Vireonidae), a new addition to the Cuban avifauna. SHAFFER ET AL.—ORNITOFAUNA DEL ARCHIPILAGO SABANA-CAMAGEY, CUBA, 1998-2000

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El Pitirre 13(3) Page 81 Ornithologia Neotropical 2:99-100. KIRKCONNELL, A. 1998. Aves de Cayo Coco, Archipilago de Sabana-Camagey. Torrreia 43:22-39. RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, O. GARRIDO, A. KEITH Y J. RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of West Indies. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. RODRGUEZ, D. Y B. SNCHEZ. 1995 Avifauna del matorral xeromorfo en la regin oriental de Cuba durante la migracin otoal (octubre de 1989, 1990, y 1991). Poeyana 447:1-12. SNCHEZ, B., Y D. RODRGUEZ. 2000. Avifauna associated with the aquatic and coastal ecosystems of Cayo Coco, Cuba. Pitirre 13(3):68-75. WALLACE, G. E., H. GONZLEZ ALONSO, M. K. MCNICHOLL, D. RODRGUEZ BATISTA, R. OVIEDO PRIETO, A. LLANES SOSA, B. SNCHEZ ORIA Y E. A. H. WALLACE. 1996. Forest-dwelling Neotropical migrant and resident birds in three regions of Cuba. Condor 98(4):745-768. WALLACE, G. E., E. A. H. WALLACE, D. R. FROEHLICH, B. WALKER, A. KIRKCONNELL, E. S. TORRES, H. A. CARLISLE Y E. MACHELL. 1999. Hermit Thrush and Black-throated Gray Warbler, new for Cuba, and other significant bird records from Cayo Coco and vicinity, Ciego de vila province, Cuba, 1995-1997. Florida Field Nat. 27(2):37-76. NEW PUBLICATION PUERTO RICO’S BIRDS IN PHOTOGRAPHS Second Edition, 2000 MARK W. OBERLE Editorial Humanitas Seattle, Washington, USA Color Photo Book and Computer CD-ROM with Audio Clips and 1,250 Photos 132 pages, softcover, plus CD-ROM ISBN 0-9650104-1-4 Price US $29.95, plus $3.50 shipping and handling for USA addresses. The book is the first to illustrate with color photographs all of Puerto Rico’s breeding birds and common migrants. Over 300 color photos of 181 species of Puerto Rican birds appear in th e publication. The Englishlanguage text is designed for birders, students, teacher s, tourists, and anyone who wants to understand Puerto Rico’s natural heritage by learning about its fascinating birds. The species’ life histories are written in a nontechnical style for the general reader , and include important lessons for conservation of natural resources. Most common birds of the Virgin Islands and Lesser Antilles are also illustrated. The accompanying CD-ROM contains detailed Spanis h and English life history accounts and bibliographies of 350 species, plus audio clips and over 1,250 photographs. The CD-ROM is written in HTML, which is easy to read without special installation on a PC or Macintosh computer, and makes files accessible for student projects in biology, geography, music, and art. Over 80 professional and amateur ornithologists from Puerto Rico and the USA collaborated on this effort. Available from Sociedad Ornitolgica Puertorriquea PO Box 1112 Ciales, PR 00638-1112 e-mail: sopi@coqui.net http://home.coqui.net/sopi/ SHAFFER ET AL.—ORNITOFAUNA DEL ARCHIPILAGO SABANA-CAMAGEY, CUBA, 1998-2000

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Page 82 El Pitirre 13(3) LISTA PRELIMINAR DE LA AVIFAUNA MARINO-INSULAR Y LITORAL DEL PARQUE NACIONAL MOCHIMA, VENEZUELA 1,5GEDIO MARN E., 2JOS R. RODRGUEZ, 3MART VSQUEZ Y 4ROBERTO EGEZ 1Centro de Investigaciones Ecolgicas Guayacn ; 2Departamento de Biologa, Escuela de Ciencias, Ncleo de Sucre, Universidad de Oriente, Cuman ; 3Oficina Regional de INPARQUES, Cum an, Venezuela ; y 4Comisin de Ambiente y Ordenacin Territorial del Senado de la Repblica, Caracas, Venezuela 5Direccin Postal: Urb. “Villa Olmpica,” Bloque 03, Apto. 01-03, Cuman, Sucre. Cdigo Postal 61-01, Apartado Postal #30 ; e-mail: gmarn@sucre.udo.edu.ve ; fax: 58-093-521981 Resumen .—El Parque Nacional Mochima abarca parte del territorio marino-continental de los estados Sucre (NO) y Anzotegui (NE), comprendiendo una gran diversidad de ecosistemas; e. g., islotes, playas, costas abruptas, caletas, manglares y bosques (xerfilo, tropfilo y ombrfilo). Con la finalidad de identificar las especies presentes en sus costas, cayos y bahas, se emprendieron inventarios que incluyeron observacin con binoculares, capturas con redes de niebla y guas de aves de Venezuela. Se sealan un total de 15 rdenes, 30 familias y 91 especies. Los ms representativos fueron: en el rea insular, los Pelecaniformes; e.g., Phalacrocorax olivaceus (Phalacrocoracidae), Sula leucogaster (Sulidae), Pelecanus occidentalis (Pelecanidae); en el espinar xerfilo costero, los Falconiformes, e. g., Buteo spp., Buteogallus spp. (Accipitridae), Coragyps atratus (Cathartidae), Caracara plancus (Falconidae) y los Passeriformes; e. g., Saltator spp., Volatinia jacarina , Tiaris bicolor, Tachyphonus rufus, Thraupis spp. (Emberizidae), Elaenia spp., Tyrannus melancholicus, Pitangus sulphuratus (Tyrannidae), Icterus nigrogularis, Gymnomystax mexicanus (Icteridae); en el manglar, Ceryle torquata, Chloroceryle amazona (Alcedinidae), Dendroica petechia, Conirostrum bicolor (Parulidae) y Actitis macularia (Scolopaciae). Cabe destacar la nidificacin de Phaethon aethereus y la presencia de Anhinga anhinga , inusuales en ambientes marino-costeros continentales. La topografa abrupta y cercana a la costa del piedemonte, en algunos sectores, parece influir en la ocurrencia de especies tpicas del bosque tropfilo premontano en el matorral xerfilo costero. Por otro lado, se notaron diferencias en el nmero de especies observadas en los diferentes islotes; siendo ste mayor en los ms cercanos a la costa, a pesar de su menor rea. Abstract .—PRELIMINARY LIST OF THE MARINE-INSULAR AND LITTORAL AVIFAUNAS OF THE MOCHIMA NATIONAL PARK, VENEZUELA. The Mochima National Park of Venezuela contains representatives of marine and terrestrial habitats in the states of northwestern Sucre and northeastern Anzotegui, including widely diverse ecosystems; e. g., cays, beaches, steep coasts, rivers, mangroves, and various forests. With the objective of identifying species present in coastal, cay, and bay habitats, inventories were undertaken including observations using binoculars, captures with mist-nets, and Venezuelan bird guides. Totals of 15 orders, 30 families, and 91 species are reported. The most representative forms for the islands were Pelecaniformes (e.g., Phalacrocorax olivaceus , Sula leucogaster , Pelecanus occidentalis ); in the dry coastal throrny scrub, Falconiformes ( Buteo spp., Buteogallus spp., Coragyps atratus , Caracara plancus ) and Passeriformes (e.g., Saltator spp., Volatinia jacarina , Tiaris bicolor, Tachyphonus rufus, Thraupis spp., Elaenia spp., Tyrannus melancholicus, Pitangus sulphuratus , Icterus nigrogularis, Gymnomystax mexicanus ); in mangrove forest, Ceryle torquata, Chloroceryle amazona , Dendroica petechia, Conirostrum bicolor , and Actitis macularia. We report breeding by Phaethon aethereus and the presence of Anhinga anhinga , which are rare in the marine-coastal environment of the mainland. The abrupt topography and proximity to the piedemonte coast, in some sectors, seems to influence the occurrence of species typical of the submontane forest in the dry coastal scrub. Conversely, we noted differences in the number of species observed in the various islands, with more species in the islands nearest the mainland, even though those islands were smaller in size than more distant cays. INTRODUCCI”N EL PARQUE NACIONAL MOCHIMA abarca parte de la regin marino-continental de los Estados Sucre (sector NO) y Anzotegui (sector NE), Venezuela. Comprende una gran diversidad de ecosistemas; i.e. , islotes, playas, costas abruptas, caletas, manglares y bosques xerfilo, tropfilo y hmedo premontano y montano. Siendo un parque marion y continental, el rea marina ha sido relativamente ms estudiada (Egez 1989); en cambio, en el rea continental, los escasos estudios son en su mayora florsticos (Cumana 1997), y a excepcin de Naveira (1983), con exiguas citas sobre la fauna, prcticamente nada se conoce, especialmente en material de aves. Hasta el momento no existe una lista fehaciente de la avifauna del parque, ni de su distribucin, a pesar de que varias especies que ocurren dentro de su mbito son sealadas como nuevos registros para el Estado Sucre; i.e. , el Chparo ( Phaethon aethereus ), la Paloma Ala Blanca ( Columba corensis ), la Cota

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El Pitirre 13(3) Page 83 Agujita ( Anhinga anhinga ) (Marn and Rodrguez 1992; Rodrguez 1999). Otros son endemismos subespecificos – e. g., el Chiv Silbador (Basileuterus culicivorus olivascens) y la Candelita Gargantipizarra ( Myioborus miniatus pallidiventris ) – o especficos – e. g.; el Chivi Cabecigris ( Basileuterus griseiceps ) y la Diglosa Negra ( Diglossa venezuelensis ) (Phelps y Meyer 1994) – del Macizo Oriental (que incluye parte del rea continental del parque), el cual, conjuntamente con la Pennsula de Paria, constituye un subcentro de endemismos en Sudamrica (Phelps 1966, Cracraft 1985, Phelps and Meyer 1994). As, con la finalidad de hacer un levantamiento de su avifauna se iniciaron inventarios preliminares, sin establecer estimaciones estadsticas comparativas, en la franja marino-insular y litoral, para identificar las especies presentes en sus costas, cayos y bahas, de manera de contribuir con cualquier plan de manejo e investigacin que conlleve, en ltima instancia, a su autntica conservacin (J come 1986, Flores 1992, M.A.R.N.R. 1989, Gmez et al . 1997). MATERIALES Y METODOS rea de Estudio El rea de estudio comprendi gran parte del litoral continental e insular (cayos e islotes), desde el golfete de Santa Fe hasta la Baha de Mochima, 10 21' 00 '' y 1024' 00 '' N; 6419' 33 '' y 6922 ' 30 '' O. Est enmarcada fitofisiogrficamente dentro de las subregiones insular costera y continental costera; viz , 0 y 100 m s.n.m.; TMA > 28C; PMA entre 300 y 1000 mm (Huber 1997). La mayora del rea est caracterizada por una vegetacin xerfila, tipo espinar costero (predominante en el sector insular), manglares y monte espinoso tropical (Ewell et al. 1976, Cumana 1997). No obstante, debido a la intervencin antrpica (incendios y/o actividades agrcolas) existen zonas con vegetacin de sabana, con notorios afloramientos rocosos en algunas zonas a consecuencia de la erosin, que conforman ecotonos interesantes con el bosque xeromorfo y deciduo (Zurita 1983). Tambin existen, especialmente en las hond onadas, bosques de gallera con rboles de altura considerable y cultivos de frutales. Procedimientos Se practicaron salidas de campo de un da de duracin (08:00 a 16:00 hr), dos veces por mes, durante los meses de abril y mayo de 1998. Por otro lado, se realizaron recorrid os en botes “peeros,” a todo lo largo de la lnea de costa continental y de los islotes, para identificar aves marinas y del manglar. Las aves fueron identificadas mediante el uso de binoculares, capturas con redes de niebla (3 x 12 m, 32 mm de abertura de malla) – con transectos de 50 m, perpendiculares a la lnea de costa – y guas de las aves de Venezuela (Phelps and Meyer 1994, Lentino 1997). La situacin (status) y el orden hipottico de los diferentes taxa listados fueron establecidos segn Phelps and Meyer (1994); mi entras que la ubicacin en las diferentes categoras y los nombres cientficos se basaron en la recopilacin de Lentino (1997). RESULTADOS Se registraron 15 rdenes, 39 familias y 91 especies (Apndice 1), siendo los ms representativos: en el rea marino-insular, los Pelecaniformes; e. g., Cotas Olivceas ( Phalacrocorax olivaceus ), Alcatraces ( Pelecanus occidentalis), y Bobas Marrones ( Sula leucogaster ). En el matorral xerfilo costero, los Falconiformes; e. g., los lechoseros ( Saltator spp.), Semilleros Chirr ( Volatinia jacarina ), Tordillos ( Tiaris bicolor ) , bobitos copetones ( Elaenia spp.), Pitirres Chicharreros ( Tyrannus melancholicus ), Cristofus ( Pitangus sulphuratus ), Chocolateros ( Tachyphonus rufus), azulejos ( Thraupis spp.), Gonzalitos ( Icterus nigrogularis ), Maiceros ( Gymnomystax mexicanus ) y Conotos ( Psarocolius decumanus ). En el manglar, Martnes Pescadores ( Ceryle torquata) , Martin Pescador Matraquero ( Chloroceryle amazona ), Canarios de Mangle ( Dendroica petechia ), Mieleros Mangleros ( Conirostrum bicolor ) y Playeros Coleadores (Actitis macularia ). Para este censo preliminar, no se hicieron valoraciones estadsticas comparativas de abundancia, uniformidad y diversidad, entre la avifauna litoral continental e insular. Sin embargo, es pertinente integrar anlisis cualicuantitativos de algunos parmetros ecolgicos en este sentido. DISCUSI”N Dos especies, la Cota Aguijita ( Anhinga anhinga ) y el Chparo ( Phaethon. aethereus), destacan en este primer inventario; la primera porque se le seala por vez primera, al menos en Venezuela, como nidificante en un rea continental (Pennsula de Manare, sector El Aguirre), y la segunda por ser una especie inusual en ambientes marino-costeros, puesto que se le halla generalmente en ecosistemas acuidulces (Lentino 1976). Cabe dest acar que las poblaciones del Chparo a nivel del Caribe, en los ltimos invenMARN ET AL.– AVIFAUNA DEL PARQUE NACIONAL MOCHIMA, VENEZUELA

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Page 84 El Pitirre 13(3) tarios, informan de menos de 2000 parejas nidificantes. Por otro lado, segn modelos estadsticos recientes, un total de 10,000 individuos en panmixia se necesitaran para mantener una viabilidad evolutiva, por lo que, a largo plazo, esta especie podra extinguirse (Walsh y Lee 1998). Ahora bien, las caractersticas geomorfolgicas del rea continental del parque, presentando laderas con pendientes abruptas, hace que el piedemonte se encuentre muy cercano al mar, por lo que los ecotonos entre el bosque premontano y el bosque tropfilo y xerfilo estn poco definidos y, en algunos sectores, relativamente cercanos a la costa intercambindose regularmente, al menos en esta poca, especies ornticas de uno a otro ecosistema. En la vecina Pennsula de Araya, por ejemplo, se han realizado inventarios (el primer y Segundo autor) en el bosque acantoxeromorfo litoral, para los mismos meses, y no se ha sealado la presencia de algunas especies observadas en Mochima; e. g., el Lechosero Pechiblanco ( Saltator orenocensis ), el Semillero Ventricastao ( Oryzoborus angolensis ) y la Cotara Caracolera ( Aramides cajanea ). Sin embargo, factores como la fenologa, disponibilidad de recursos alimentarios y los rigores climticos severos (exceso de lluvias o sequas prolongadas) pudieran influir en la presencia o no de algunas especies en determinados meses o aos (Karr 1976, McNeil 1982, Poulin et al . 1992); a esto se unira, lgicamente, la poca cantidad de muestreos practicados. La topografa de las zonas supralitorales insulares y continentales combinadas con factores antrpicos, parecen impedir el establecimiento de colonias de nidificacin de especies de aves marinas (excepto P. aethereus), sino ms bien de sesteo y alimentacin. Por el contrario, algunas especies continentales han colonizado algunos cayos. En efecto, se pudo observar nidificacin en el Carpintero Pechipunteado ( Colaptes punctigula ) y la Paraulata Llanero ( Mimus gilvus ). Si bien la colonizacin insular depende de factores como diversidad de hbitat, distancia de tierra firme, extensin territorial, capacidad de dispersin, tasas de inmigracin y extincin (Gorman 1991), en nuestro caso, en principio, parece ser la diversidad de hbitat y la distancia de tierra firme los factores predominantes. Ciertamente, la mayor abundancia y diversidad de especies (basadas solo en el nmero de capturas y aves observadas) se encontr en los cayos ms cercanos a la costa y de vegetacin ms exhuberante, e. g., Isla Larga (freos de 500 m), Isla Arapo (freos <1 km); pues en los otros cayos, aunque de mayor extensin territorial; e. g . , Isla Venado, Isla Caracas, solo se observaron aves marinas; lo que pudiera obedecer, en parte, a su ubicacin en mar abierto, expuesta a los constantes vientos salinos, que impiden el establecimiento de una flora con una entomofauna asociada relativamente abundante, al contrario de Isla Larga e Isla de Arapo las cuales se ubican resguardadas dentro de bahas. Finalmente se debe sealar un aspecto conductual interesante, observado en Isla Arapo, y es la naturaleza pasiva de algunas especies, e. g., el Canario de Mangle y el Granero Cabecita de Fsforo ( Chlorospingus pileatus ), ante la presencia humana, permitiendo un acercamiento notorio, inusual en las poblaciones continentales. Este “comportamiento insular” ha sido observado en otras especies; e. g . , la Reinita ( Coereba flaveola ) en Bonaire (R. Egez, com. pers.), el Colibr Jamaiquino (Trochilus polytmus ), en Jamaica (Bond 1985). La ausencia de depredadores y competidores y el aislamiento territorial (Lack 1969) parecen contribuir, parcialmente, a la aparicin de este tipo de conducta, e indicaran que estas especies, ms que intercambiarse consuetudinariamente con las poblaciones de tierra firme, mantienen grupos residentes permanentes en dichos cayos. Los factores ecoetolgicos antes sealados, ineludiblemente, debern tomarse en cuenta, a la hora de disear las estrategias de ordenamiento, uso y conservacin de las reas insulares y marino-costeras continentales del parque (Egnez 1989). LITERATURA CITADA BOND, J. 1985. Birds of the West Indies. UK: Collins, London. CRACRAFT, J. 1985. Historical biogeography and patterns of differentiation within the South American avifauna: areas of endemism. Ornithological Monographs 36:49-84. CUMANA, L. J. 1997. Flora (Magnoliophyta) del Parque Litoral Mochima. Mem. XIII Congreso Venezolano de Botnica:37. EGEZ, R. A. 1989. Reconocimiento de las areas marinas y submarinas del Parque Nacional Mochima, entre Punta Gorda y P unta el Peon, Estado Sucre. Tesis de Grado. Universidad de Oriente, Cuman, Venezuela. EWELL, J., A. MADRIZ Y J. TOSI. 1976. Zonas de vida de Venezuela. Minister io de Agricultura y Cra y FONAIAP, Caracas, Venezuela. FLORES, C. 1992. El espacio marino-costero: activo patrimonial. Yolauca 1:55-64. G”MEZ, J. A., J. MARTNEZ, M. V. FUENTES, M. GUEVARA Y H. GIL. 1997. Evaluacin de la calidad ambiental, vulnerabilidad y sustentabilidad de un sector de manglares de Mochima, Estado Sucre, MARN ET AL.– AVIFAUNA DEL PARQUE NACIONAL MOCHIMA, VENEZUELA

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El Pitirre 13(3) Page 85 Venezuela. Saber 8(2):5-10. GORMAN, M. L. 1991. Ecologia insular. Espaa: Ediciones Vedr. HUBER, O. 1997. Ambientes fisiogrficos y vegetales de Venezuela. Pp. 143-202 en : Vertebrados actuales y fsiles de Venezuela. JCOME, J. C. 1986. Parque Nacional Mochima, un reservorio que desaparece. Carla Ecolgica Lagoven 29:1-4. KARR, J. R. 1976. Seasonality, resource availability, and community diversity in tropical bird communities. Am. Nat. 110:973-994. LACK, D. 1969. The numbers of bird species on islands. Bird Study 16:193-209. LENTINO, M. 1976. La cota aguijita Anhinga anhinga. Natura 58:11. LENTINO, M. 1997. Lista actualizada de las aves de Venezuela. Pp. 143-202 en : Vertebrados actuales y fsiles de Venezuela. E. La Marca (Ed.). Venezuela: Museo de Ciencias y Tecnologa de Mrida. M.A.R.N.R. 1989. Decisiones para la accin ambiental (decretos, convenios, acuerdos): Ref. Decreto 270 sobre Saneamiento del Parque Nacional Mochima. MARN, G., AND J. R. RODRIGUEZ. 1992. Nuevos registros y extensions territoriales de especies de aves para el Estado Sucre. Acta Cientifica Venezolana 44(1):338. MCNEIL, R. 1982. Winter resident repeats and returns of austral and boreal migrant birds banded in Venezuela. J. Field Or nithol. 53(2):125-132. NAVEIRA. J. L. 1983. Efectos ecolgicos de los incendios forestales en el Parque Nacional Mochima. Tesis de Grado. Venezuela: Universidad de Oriente, Cuman. PHELPS, W. H., JR. 1966. Contribucin al anlisis de los elementos que componen la avifauna subtropical de las Cordilleras de la costa de Venezuela. Bol. Acad. Cienc. Fis. Matem. Nat. Vzla. 26:7-43. PHELPS, W. H., JR., AND R. MEYER. 1994. Una gua de las aves de Venezuela. Caracas, Venezuela: Grficas Armitano. POULIN, B., G. LEFEVBRE, AND R. MCNEIL. 1992. Tropical avian phenology in relation to abundance and exploitation of food resources. Ecology 73 (6):2295-2309. RODRGUEZ, J. R. 1999. Contribuciones ecolgicas, nuevos registros y estensiones territoriales de distribucin para la avifauna del Estado Sucre, Venezuela: una revision actualizada. Trabajo de Ascenso. Venezuela: Universidad de Oriente, Cuman. WALSH, M., AND S. LEE. 1998. Estado actual de la conservacin de chirres en Las Antillas. Pitirre 11 (2):61. ZURITA, R. 1983. Caracterizacin de las posibles causas que regulan el lmite sabana-bosque en el Parque Nacional Mochima. Tesis de Grado. Universidad de Oriente, Cuman, Venezuela. MARN ET AL.– AVIFAUNA DEL PARQUE NACIONAL MOCHIMA, VENEZUELA

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Page 86 El Pitirre 13(3) Apndice 1. Lista de aves marino-insulares y del matorral acantoxeromorfo litoral del Parque Nacional Mochima, Venezuela. Statu s: Residente (R), Migratoria Nertica (mN), Migratoria Austral (mA), Migratoria Local (mL). Habitat: Marino-costero (M), Xerofiti co (X), Manglar (Mg). ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Order Family Species Status Hbitat ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Pelecaniformes Phaethontidae Chparo Phaethon aethereus R M Pelecanidae Alcatraz Pelecanus occidentalis R M Sulidae Boba Marrn Sula leucogaster R M Phalacrocoracidae Cota Olivcea Phalacrocorax brasilianus R M Anhingidae Cota Agujita Anhinga anhinga R M Fregatidae Tijereta de Mar Fregata magnificens R M Ciconiiformes Ardeidae Garza Blanca Real Ardea alba mL Mg Chusmita Egretta thula mL Mg-M Garcita Azul Egretta caerulea mL Mg Chicuaco Cuello Gris Butorides striatus R Mg Threskiornithidae Corocoro Colorado Eudocimus ruber mL Mg Falconiformes Cathartidae Zamuro Coragyps atratus R X-Mg Oripopo Cathartes aura R X Accipitridae Cernicalo Gampsonyx swainsonii R X Gaviln Tej Buteo albicaudatus R X Gaviln Habado Buteo magnirostris R X Gaviln Andapi Parabuteo unicinctus R X-Mg Gaviln Cangrejero Buteogallus anthracinus R Mg Aguila Negra Buteogallus urubitinga R X Pandiondae Aguila Pescadora Pandion haliaetus mN M Falconidae Halcn Macagua Herpethoteres cachinnans mL X Caricare Sabanero Milvago chimachima R X Caricare Encrestado Caracara plancus R X Halcn Peregrino Falco peregrinus mN X-Mg Galliformes Cracidae Guacharaca del Norte Ortalis ruficauda R X Gruiformes Rallidae Cotara Caracolera Aramides cajanea R X-Mg Charadriiformes Scolopacidae Playero Coleador Actitis macularia mN Mg Laridae Guanaguanare Larus atricilla mL M Sternidae Tirra Medio Cuchillo Sterna hirundo mN M Gaviota Pico Amarillo Sterna superciliaris mL M Columbiformes Columbidae Paloma Ala Blanca Columba corensis mL X Paloma Sabanera Zenaida auriculata mL X Tortolita Griscea Columbina passerina R X Tortolita Rojiza Columbina talpacoti R X Palomita Maraquita Columbina squammata R X Paloma Turca Leptotila verreauxi R X Psittaciformes Psittacidae Perico Cara Sucia Aratinga pertinax R X Periquito Forpus passerinus R X-Mg Cuculiformes Cuculidae Pizcua Piaya cayana R X Garrapatero Comn Crotophaga ani R X-Mg Sauc Tapera naevia R X Strigiformes Strigidae Pavita Ferruginea Glaucidium brasilianum R X Caprimulgiformes Caprimulgidae Aguaitacamino Chiquito Chordeiles acutipennis R X Aguaitacamino Rastrojero Caprimulgus cayennesis R X Apodiformes Trochilidae Colibri Verdecito Chlorostilbon mellisugus R X Colibri Anteado Leucippus fallax R X Coraciiformes Alcedinidae Martin Pescador Grande Ceryle torquata R Mg Martin Pescador Matraquero Chloroceryle amazona R Mg Piciformes Picidae Carpintero Pechipunteado Colaptes punctigula R X Carpintero Habado Melanerpes rubricapillus R X Bucconidae Bobito Hypnelus ruficollis R X Passeriformes Dendrocolaptidae Trepador Subesube Xyphorhynchus picus R X Furnariidae Gitio Gargantiblanco Synallaxis albescens R X Formicariidae Coicorita Formicivora grisea R X Tyrannidae Pitirre Chicharrero Tyrannus melancholicus R X Cristofu Pitangus sulphuratus R X Atrapamoscas de Venezuela Myiarchus venezuelensis R X Bobito Copetn Vientre Amarillo Elaenia flavogaster R X Bobito Copetn Pico Corto Elaenia parvirostris mA X Atrapamoscoas Tijereta Tyrannus savanna mA X Gran Atrapamoscas Listado Myiodynastes maculates R X MARN ET AL.– AVIFAUNA DEL PARQUE NACIONAL MOCHIMA, VENEZUELA

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El Pitirre 13(3) Page 87 Passeriformes Tyrannidae Pico Chato Vientre Perla Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer R X Pico Chato Amarillento Tolmomyias flaviventris R X Hirundinidae Golondrina de Agua Tachycineta albiventer R M Troglodytidae Cucarachero Currucuch Campylorhynchus griseus R X Cucarachero Comn Troglodytes aedon R X Mimidae Paraulata Llanera Mimus gilvus R X Sylviidae Chirito de los Chaparrales Polioptila plumbea R X Vireonidae Julin Chivi Ojirrojo Vireo olivaceus R X Siriri Ciclarhis gujanenensis R X Tordo Pirata Molothrus bonariensis R X Tordo Comn Quiscalus lugubris R X Gonzalito Icterus nigrogularis R X Maicero Gymnomystax mexicanus R X Conoto Negro Pasarocolius decumanus R X Parulidae Canario de Mangle Dendroica petechia R? Mg Mielero Manglero Conirostrum bicolor R Mg Reinita Comn Coereba flaveola R X-Mg Reinita de Charcos Seiurus noveboracensis mN X-Mg Emberizidae Curruata Saucito Euphonia trinitatis R X Azulejo de Jardin Thraupis episcopus R X Azulejo Verdeviche Thraupis glaucocolpa R X Chocolatero Tachyphonus rufus R X Lechosero Ajicero Saltator coerulescens R X Lechosero Pechiblanco Saltator orenocensis R X Lechosero Pechirrayado Saltator striatipectus R X Granero Cabecita de Fsforo Coryphospingus pileatus R X Tordillo Comn Tiaris bicolor R X Semillero Ventriacastao Oryzoborus angolensis R X Semillero Chirri Volatinia jacarina R X Semillero Ventriamarillo Sporophila nigricollis R X __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Apndice 1. Lista de aves del Parque Nacional Mochima, Venezuela (continued). MARN ET AL.– AVIFAUNA DEL PARQUE NACIONAL MOCHIMA, VENEZUELA REVIEWERS FOR EL PITIRRE VOLUME 13 The Editor thanks the following reviewers for their help in the preparation of volume 13 of El Pitirre : Wayne J. Arendt, Herlitz Davis, Catherine Levy, Douglas B. McNair, Shawn O’Brien, Jos Julin Placer, Herbert A. Raffaele, Alma Ramrez, Brigitte Wotzkow-Straub, and Carlos Wotzkow.

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Page 88 El Pitirre 13(3) LEUCISM AMONG PEWEES of the genus Contopus appears to be virtually unknown. Kimball Garrett ( in litt., February 2000) has drawn our attention to a leucistic specimen of Western Wood-Pewee (Contopus sordidulus ), in the Los Angeles County Museum (LACM 46036), with typical plumage except for a pure white chin and throat, and numerous pure white primaries (p4 on the right wing and p8–10 on the left wing). It was taken in Orange County, California, USA, in September. In addition, George Wallace ( in litt ., February 2000) noted the presence of a leucistic Eastern Phoebe ( Sayornis phoebe ) wintering in Florida in 199900, and reports that the only other known instance of such abe rration in this species was also recorded in Florida in winter. We possess extensive experience with the Crescent-eyed Pewee ( C. caribaeus ), having observed probably over 1000 indivi duals over the years, and have not noted any instances of albinism or leucism in the species. Neither Wallace, nor Allan Keith, who shared the observations below, is aware of any instances of leucism in C. caribaeus. On 10 February 2000, in an area of Cinaga de Zapata, Matanzas Province, western Cuba, known as La Majagua, ca. 5 km east of Soplillar, we noted a striking individual of C. caribaeus. It had a gleaming white crown, streaked darker, forehead and supraloral, whereas the majority of the underparts from the chin to the belly were off-white, with tiny dark streaks. The tertials were broadly fringed creamywhite (but asymmetrically patterned), extending narrowly onto the greater coverts, as well as onto at least one primary. The rectrices were also extensively fringed and, with the exception of the two outermost pairs, tipped creamy-white. It was very approachable, although this behavior is entirely “normal,” and it continued to feed unconcernedly despite our presence. On 16 February 2000, at Parque Nacional La Gira, Pinar del Ro Province, we found a second leucistic individual, although it was substantially less marked than the first. This individual was much less well marked, with the wing and tail markings being more normal, and the leucistic coloration being largely confined to the head and underparts. We consider it extraordinary to have discovered two leucistic individuals within a matter of days when such an aberration appears unknown within the species, and is apparently extremely rare for the genus. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We are grateful to Kimball Garrett and George Wallace for drawing our atte ntion to records of leucism among Contopus and Sayornis , and Robert Fox for supplying photographs of the La Majagua individual. LEUCISM IN CRESCENT-EYED PEWEE (CONTOPUS CARIBAEUS ) IN WESTERN CUBA GUY M. KIRWAN1 AND ARTURO KIRKCONNELL2 174 Waddington Street, Norwich NR2 4JS, UK; and 2Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Cuba, La Habana, Cuba Resumen .— LEUCISM EN EL BOBITO CHICO ( CONTOPUS CARIBAEUS) EN EL OESTE DE CUBA. Leucism se reporta en dos individuos del Bobito Chico ( Contopus caribaeus ) de la Cinaga de Zapata y Pinar del Ro, Cuba. Key words : coloration , Contopus caribaeus, Crescent-eyed Pewee , Cuba , leucism , plumage

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El Pitirre 13(3) Page 89 ON 9 MARCH 2000, while at Palm Beach, Hastings, Christ Church with Yvonne Robinson, I observed a Giant Cowbird ( Scaphidura oryzivora) in a mahogany tree ( Swietenia mahagoni) at eye level, no more than 7.5 m away. I was immediately struck by its size since it was longer and considerably more robust, due to its deep-chested appearance, than the familiar Carib Grackle ( Quiscalus lugubris ). The second feature that caught my attention was its eye coloration, which I noted as a pale red with a yellowish tinge. The eye coloration contrasted noticeably with its entirely black plumage, which had no gloss or sheen. The tail was “normally shaped” and lacked the “V” or keel shape of a Carib Grackle. Its sturdy legs were black as was the pointed bill, which was longer than that of a Carib Grackle, but considerably deeper at its base. A single, harsh call was heard. I was able to view the bird at this close range for about 1 min before it flew off to perch about 6 m up in a nearby almond tree ( Terminalia catappa ). Here I was able to compare it directly with a Carib Grackle almost side-by-side, about 60 cm apart, and appreciate its heavier-bodied appearance as well as estimate that it was about 1.5 times the length of a Carib Grackle. It remained in the same position in the almond tree for about 3 min before returning to the original mahogany tree. This observation represents the first report of the Giant Cowbird from Barbados and the West Indies. The Giant Cowbird is an obligate brood parasite which occurs in Trinidad and Tobago, as well as throughout most of northeastern South America, where its occurrence is gene rally linked to oropendola (Psarocolius sp . ) and cacique ( Cacicus sp . ) colonies (Ridgely and Tudor 1989). It was first reported from Tobago in 1937 (ffrench 1992) and is now well established there (F. Hayes, pers. comm. ). Thus, it appears that this species is spreading northwards, much as the Shiny Cowbird (Molothrus bonariensis ) did about a century ago, and future reports from the southern Lesser Antilles should be expected. It is unlikely, however, to establish itself on any of the Lesser Antilles unless it is preceded by successful colonization by one of its preferred hosts. I thank Floyd Hayes for providing additional information and Edward Massiah for reviewing this note. LITERATURE CITED FFRENCH, R. 1992. A guide to the birds of Trinidad and Tobago. London: Christopher Helm. RIDGELY, R. S., AND G. TUDOR. 1989. The birds of South America, Volume 1. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. GIANT COWBIRD (SCAPHIDURA ORYZIVORA ): A NEW BIRD FOR BARBADOS AND THE WEST INDIES MARTIN FROST Featherbed Lane, St. John, Barbados Resumen . – EL TORDO GIGANTE ( SCAPHIDURA ORYZIVORA): UNA NUEVA AVE PARA BARBADOS Y LAS ANTILLAS. Se reporta el primer avistamiento del Tordo Gigante (S caphidura oryzivora ) en las Antillas, en Barbados. Aunque aparentemente esta especie, un estricto parsito de nidos, se est dispersando hacia el norte desde Amrica del Sur, no se espera que se establezca en las Antillas Menores al menos que las especies huspedes de esta ave tambin colonicen estas islas. Key words: Barbados, Giant Cowbird, habitat, Lesser Antilles, range expansion, record, Scaphidura oryzivora

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Page 90 El Pitirre 13(3) AROUND 18:25 HR, shortly after sunset, on 17 May 2000 while at Bailey Hill, St. Thomas, I heard an unfamiliar call which caused me to look skyward. A few moments later the source of the calling – a bird – flew over, almost overhead, at about 18 m (60 ft). It flew around for about a minute before heading eastward calling continuously and I immediately determined that it was a vocalizing nighthawk species. In the twilight I could see that the bird was relatively slim in appearance, about the length of a Zenaida Dove ( Zenaida aurita ), with long, slim wings, which were well angled at the carpal joint. The under parts appeared silvery brown, as did the underwings except for a white patch on the primaries. Although not clearly seen as the bird flew away, the upper parts appeared dark. The flight was direct, but there were at least two sudden changes of direction. The call was a rapid, rhythmic four-syllable call which I recorded as “pu-du-du-dunt,” rising on the last syllable, and audible at a dist ance, even when the bird was no longer visible. Voice provides one of the best methods of identifying nighthawk species, which are notoriously difficult to separate in the field. Within an hour of the observation, I was able to confirm that it was an Antillean Nighthawk ( Chordeiles gundlachii ) by perfectly matching the call heard to a tape recording of this species’ call in the Dominican Republic (Reynard 1981). This represents the first report of this species from Barbados and the Lesser Antilles. The Antillean Nighthawk breeds in the Bahamas, Cuba, Cayman Islands, Jamaica, and Hispaniola, and less commonly in Puerto Rico and US Virgin Islands. It may occur in the Lesser Antilles on migration to and from its presumed winter range in South America (Raffaele et al. 1998). Although apparently no confirmed records exist from the mainland, September and April specimens occur from Curacao, Netherland Antilles (Voous 1983). Based on the departure from the breeding grounds by late August to mid-September, it has been suggested by some authors that nighthawks seen in the Lesser Antilles in August and early September may be Antillean rather than Common Nighthawks ( C. minor ), which likely migrate later through the region (Norton 1984, Evans 1990). At this time of the year, however, birds are invariably silent and theref ore not safely identified without a specimen. There appear to be few nighthawk specimens from the Lesser Antilles. A recent examination confirmed that a specimen collected on Barbados on 29 September 1887 was a Common Nighthawk (Feilden 1889), whereas one collected on Martinique on 16 October (year not stated) was also identified as this species (Bond 1956). The possibility of specifically identifying a nighthawk in the Lesser Antilles is greatest in spring and early summer when calling is more likely. The Barbados observation provides the first evidence supporting the notion that Antillean Nighthawks may migrate through the Lesser Antilles. This evidence, however, should be considered as te ntative because it is possible that the bird could have been a vagrant, well off its usual course. I thank Edward Massiah for providing the tape of Dominican Republic bird songs, which permitted identification, and for reviewing this note, as well as Phil Hansbro for examining the Barbados Common Nighthawk specimen. LITERATURE CITED BOND, J. 1956. First supplement to the Check-list of birds of the West Indies (1956). Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. EVANS, P. G. H. 1990. Birds of the eastern Caribbean. London: Macmillan Press Ltd. FEILDEN, H.W. 1889. On the birds of Barbados. Ibis, Ser. 6, 1:477-503. NORTON, R. 1984. West Indies region. Am. Birds 38 (2):251-253. RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, O. GARRIDO, A. KEITH AND J. RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of the West Indies. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. REYNARD, G. B. 1981. Bird songs in the Dominican Republic. Ithaca, NY: Lab. Ornithol., Cornell Univ. VOOUS, K.H. 1983. Birds of the Netherland Antilles. Utrecht: De Walburg Press. AN OBSERVATION OF ANTILLEAN NIGHTHAWK ( CHORDEILES GUNDLACHII ) ON BARBADOS MARTIN FROST Featherbed Lane, St. John, Barbados Resumen.— AVISTAMIENTO DEL QUEREQUET ( CHORDEILES GUNDLACHII) EN BARBADOS. Se reporta el primer avistamiento del querequet ( Chordeiles gundlachii ) en Barbados, y en las Antillas Menores. Este observacin provee evidencia tentativa de la teora que el Querequet se migra hacia y por las Antillas Menores. Key words: Antillean Nighthawk, Barbados, behavior, Chordeiles gundlachii, Lesser Antilles, record, vocalization

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El Pitirre 13(3) Page 91 I remember some years ago there was a discussion in the Gosse Bird Club (now BirdLife Jamaica) about the nesting of the Orangequit (Euneornis campestris). There existed very few reports on the nesting of this common en demic species of bird. The Jamaica Conservation and Development Trust (JCDT) started a bird monitoring program in 1998. During this time I encouraged my co-workers to look for the nest of the Orangequit. On 11 May 2000, Dwight Pryce and Ryan Love, Park Rangers of the Blue and John Crow Mountains National Park, found a nest with two young birds at Silver Hill in St Andrew. The nest was approximately 6 m from the ground on a branch of a woman wood tree ( Alcornea latifolia ), overhanging the road. It was hidden in the fork of the branch behind some berries of the tree. The nest was approximately 12 cm in diameter and made of loosely woven bamboo leaves and small woody vines. The inside of the nest was lined with moss. The sighting of this nest would have been missed had it not been for the noisy chirping of the nestlings. Both male and female Orangequits visited the nest. The male perched by the nest briefly and then left to feed in a nearby tree. He was seen chasing a Bananaquit ( Coereba flaveola ) and a hummingbird from the tree in which he was feeding. The female would visit the nest periodically and she would stay away for up to 10 min before returning to feed the nestlings. No observation was made of the type of food given to the young birds. One nestling was seen climbing out of the nest onto a branch of the tree while the other remained in the nest. The nest was photographed using a digital camcorder with the photographer precariously perched on a small branch overhanging the road. The nest was visited again on 15 May but, by then, the young birds had fledged. LITERATURE CITED LEVY, C. 1997. Nesting of an endemic Orangequit, Euneornis campestris (Emberizidae). Caribb. J. Sci. 33(3-4):283-284. LEVY, C. 1996. Orangequit Euneornis campestris. Gosse Bird Club Broadsheet 67:11. LEVY, C. 1997. Nesting of Euneornis campestris, the Orangequit. Pitirre 10(1):30. NESTING OF THE ORANGEQUIT ( EUNEORNIS CAMPESTRIS ) IN JAMAICA MARCIA MUNDLE Jamaica Conservation and Development Trust, 95 Dumbarton Avenue, Kingston 10, Jamaica Resumen . –ANIDAJE DE EUNEORNIS CAMPESTRIS EN JAMAICA. Se reportan datos del anidaje de Euneornis campestris , un paseriforme endmico y comn en Jamaica. Ambos sexos atendieron a los dos pichones en el nido, una masa holgada de bamb y enredaderas colocada en la rama de un rbol a 6 m de altura sobre una carretera. Key words: behavior, breeding, Euneornis campestris, habitat , Jamaica, nest, Orangequit IMPORTANT NOTICE Dr. Rosemarie S. Gnam, Treasurer of the Society of Caribbean Ornithology, has recently moved to New York. Correspondence regarding the Society, including membership, should be addressed as follows: Dr. Rosemarie Gnam PO Box 863208 Ridgewood, NY 11386 USA Membership renewals for 2001 will be mailed early in 2001. The Treasurer encourages all members to pay their 2001 membership dues and notes that only members who have paid their dues will be eligible to vote in Society elections.

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Page 92 El Pitirre 13(3) WE SURVEYED FOR Grenada Hook-billed Kites ( Chondrohierax uncinatus mirus ) from 22 to 28 February and 2 to 10 August 2000. In February we spent 63.5 hrs, covered 487 km by car, and observed from selected sites throughout the island. We had 19 sightings of kites, which represented an estimate of 15 individual Grenada Hook-billed Kites. Fifteen of these sightings were in the southwestern section of the island. From the information we collected during this survey, it appears that the kites were in some areas and habitats different from the reported preferred habit of the southwestern xeric forests. Our sighting at Palmiste Lake in the wet forest, in the western part of the island, was the first record for a kite in that area. We also detected several birds in the south-central interior region where the species has not been recorded in the we t forest. No nesting activity was observed during this period. In August we spent 50 hrs searching for kites in the same areas by the same method used in February and conducted 36 hrs of nest observations. Two nesting pairs were located in the southern part of Grenada and two pairs exhibiting nesting behavior were observed in the south-central part of the island. Nests were 15 m and 17 m above ground in 67.5-cm diameter-at-breast (DBH) Ceiba pentandra and 59.9cm DBH Erythrina micropteryx trees, respectively. Nest #1 contained a nestling approximately 2-3 weeks of age and at Nest #2 the pair was incubating. We recorded 156 Grenada Hook-billed Kite prey items, predominantly at nest #1; 133 were identified to species level. Three species of snails comprised all of the identified prey: Drymaeus dominicus 55% ( N = 76), Orthalicus undatus 34.6% ( N = 46), and Pleurodonte perplexa 9.8% ( N = 13). During nest observations, the male delivered 46.8% (73) and the female 53.2% (83) of the sn ails. The distance between nest #1 and #2 was 2.7 km. In general, we feel optimistic about the chances of survival of the Grenada Hook-billed Kite and we speculate that the species is more common than previously thought. Perhaps these birds may be adaptable to human-modified habitat to a limited degree. Kites need mature trees for nesting and woodlands for food resources. The survival of this endangered insular kite will depend on maintaining both nesting and foraging habitat. Further investigation is needed to determine kite distribution island-wide, its taxonomic relationship with the mainland subspecies, the existence of breeding pairs in the wetter habitat of the central region of the island, insular movements, survival rate, and general natural history characteristics. We thank Rick Watson and Bill Burnham of The Peregrine Fund for their support of this project. The survey work was conducted in cooperation with the Grenada Government, Minist ry of Agriculture, Forestry Division, with thanks to Alan Joseph and Anthony Jeremiah. A special thanks to Lloyd Kiff, David Blockstein, Bonnie Rusk, J. Peter Jenny, Fred G. Thompson, and Jim Wi ley for their advice and interest in this project. GRENADA HOOK-BILLED KITE (CHONDROHIERAX UNCINATUS MIRUS ) SURVEYS AND NESTING ACTIVITY RUSSELL THORSTROM1, EDWARD MASSIAH2, AND CHRISTI HALL3 1The Peregrine Fund, 566 West Flying Hawk Lane, Boise, ID 83705 USA (rthorstrom@peregrinefund.org); 2Nelson Apartments, Johnson Road, Fitts Village St. James, Barbados, West Indies; and 35914 Marvin St., Boise, ID 83709 USA Resumen.— INVENTARIOS Y NIDIFICACI”N DE LA GAVILN DE GRENADA ( CHONDROHIERAX UNCINATUS MIRUS). En febrero y agosto de 2000, investigamos a los Milanos Pico Ganchudo y observamos 15 individuos. En agosto, localizamos dos parejas anindando y coleccionamos datos sobre la nidificacon de este especie. Key words: Chondrohierax uncinatus mirus, conservation , diet, ecology, Grenada, habitat, Hook-billed Kite, nest, status

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El Pitirre 13(3) Page 93 F rom large, gaudy parrots to small, migratory warblers, the birds of the Caribbean represent a wide diversity of species. Many of the islands have a special endemic avifauna found no where else in the world. Hundreds of migratory birds are dependent upon the islands either as a stopover site for resting and refueling, or as a place to spend the nonbreeding season. These species are a source of pride to the Caribbean people who treasure their uniqueness and value their role as consumers of agricultural insect pests and seed dispersers. As a key tourist attraction, they also provide an important boost to the local economy. is assisting Caribbean efforts to protect birds. For more than 15 years, the initiative has helped local people in the region conserve key bird habitat, and has provided training to resource managers in bird conservation techniques, and promoted environmental education programs to inform communities about the plight of birds. The Society of Caribbean Ornithology is one of the Service’s key partners, in addition to numerous national organizations. Projects such as the Conservation Education Campaign to Save the St. Vincent Parrot, The Birds of Our Islands Poster Series, and the Conservation of the West Indian Whistling Duck support local endeavors to help birds. Winged Ambassadors recently produced “A Guide to the Birds of the West Indies.” Published by Princeton University Press, the book focuses on conservation issues. Artwork from the guide is being used for environmental projects including a poster series featuring endemic birds from 12 different islands. The birds that appear in this brochure are all from the guide. St. Vincent Parrot WINGED AMBASSADORS Bird Conservation in the Caribbean The long-term survival of these birds is in jeopardy. Deforestation, wetland loss, over hunting, and predation from introduced predators threaten most bird species. Several endemics (restricted species), such as the Cuban Macaw and the Grand Cayman Thrush are now extinct. Islanders concerned about these problems are dedicated to preventing further extinctions. Winged Ambassadors , the hemispherewide conservation initiative of the Fish and Wildlife Service, Focus on Wildlife Fact Sheet Series U. S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Office of International Affairs

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Page 94 El Pitirre 13(3) From Jamaica Jamaica has more endemic bird species than any other island in the Caribbean. And from September to May, almost two-fifths of the songbirds in Jamaica are migrants from North America. This rich birdlife is threatened by the country’s extremely high deforestation rate of 5.3% per year, which is one of the highest in the world. At least three endemic bird species are considered extinct and many are endangered. Conservation efforts are hampered by the general population’s lack of environmental awareness and knowledge of Jamaica’s natural heritage. Environmental education is a high priority for Jamaica and Winged Ambassadors has supported several projects to enhance people’s understanding of their local wildlife and the importance of protecting it. Highlights include: Teacher’s Guide to the Birds of Jamaica . BirdLife Jamaica (formerly Gosse Bird Club) published a guide to help teachers develop children’s appreciation of birds and other wildlife. The guide compliments the book, “Birds of Jamaica,” by A. Downer and R. Sutton, and includes a series of activities to make students aware of birds and their habitats, and the need to conserve them. Using the guide, students learn how to identify birds, collect basic data, and set up simple conservation projects on school or community grounds. An accompanying color poster illustrates five birds, which are discussed in the guide. Library of Natural Sounds . West Indies College produced a recording of songs and calls from many of Jamaica’s birds. The College used a combination of previously existing recordings along with new ones obtained from the field to create this definitive collection. Software accompanies the recordings, which identifies each species and discusses pertinent natural history and conservation issues. The Library of Natural Sounds is used to train young people, and, provide information to ornithologists, educators and natural resource managers about Jamaica’s birds. Wildlife Slide Show, “Why Conserve?”. Jamaica Junior Naturalists created a special narrated slide show about the country’s wildlife. The show introduces basic conservation co ncepts and issues aimed at stimulating the interest of Jamaica’s youth to protect the environment. The 10 minute narration emphasizes the need to use natural resources wisely and the value that ecosystems such as mangrove forests and coral reefs provide for both wildlife and humans. Jamaica Junior Naturalists presented the show to each parish library in Jamaica for an audience of older schoolchildren and adults. Some of Jamaica’s many endemics include (from left to right, top to bottom): Crested Quail-Dove, Jamaican Tody, Chestnut-bellied Cuckoo, Jamaican Lizard-Cuckoo, Ring-tailed Pigeon, Red-billed Streamertail, Black-billed Streamertail, Black-billed Parrot, Yellowbilled Parrot, Jamaican Mango, Jamaican Becard, Jamaican Petrel, Jamaican Woodpecker, Jamaican Owl, and Jamaican Poorwill. WINGED AMBASSADORS

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El Pitirre 13(3) Page 95 Dominican Republic The Dominican Republic forms the eastern twothirds of the island of Hispaniola and is the second largest country in the Caribbean. Endemism is high on the island and 26 bird species are found only here. Among these is the Bay-breasted Cuckoo, which is endangered due to habitat loss and its use as a cure for arthritis. Winged Ambassadors works with local partners to implement environmental education projects in the Dominican Republic. Through evening classes, the “Postgraduate Studies in Environmental Education” of the Instituto Tcnologico de Santo Domingo trains actively employed professionals in environmental education techniques. Participants can apply these lessons immediately during their day jobs. Winged Ambassadors is collaborating with the Vermont Institute of Natural Science and American Bird Conservancy to study the ecology of the Bicknell’s Thrush. This research will provide crucial information about the endangered thrush’s winter habitat in the Dominican Republic. Dominica Known as the “Nature Island of the Caribbean,” Dominica’s pristine forests and lush green valleys are home to more bird species than any other island in the Lesser Antilles. Two charismatic parrots, the Imperial Parrot, and the Red-necked Parrot, are found only in Dominica. Winged Ambassadors partnered with several organizations to raise public awareness about the need to conserve wildlife in Dominica. The Conservation Education Campaign to Save the Imperial and Red-necked Parrots, conducted by the Forestry Division of Dominica and RARE Center for Tropical Conservation, delivered a conservation message to every person on the island through songs, music videos, publications, posters, bumper stickers, sermons, and school visits. As a result of the campaign, 200 acres of forest were set aside as a Parrot Reserve. Winged Ambassadors has also collaborated with the Forestry Division to publish the booklet, “Wildlife of Dominica.” Imperial Parrot Bay-breasted Cuckoo WINGED AMBASSADORS

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History of Cat Island,” with a special section on migrant and resident birds. The Department is also producing a hunter’s guide listing all the species found in the Bahamas and detailing their protection status. This year, the Bahama Woodstar will be featured on a poster, which will be accompanied by a conservation information factsheet. Antigua, Barbuda, Cayman Island s, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Montserrat, Nevis, St. Kitts, St. Lu cia, St. Vincent, Turks & Caicos another region-wide effort to conserve birds in the Caribbean. Winged Ambassadors partnered with the Caribbean Conservation Association to produce educational posters focused on both resident and migratory birds of the Lesser Antilles . The posters are used in schools and other public facilities to increase local awareness about bird conservation issues. “Decattiere Nature Trail” is an example of an island specific project supported by Winged Ambassadors . Managed by St. Lucia’s Forestry Department, the income-generating trail attracts ecotourists and provides excellent viewing of the magnificent St. Lucia Parrot. RARE Center for Tropical Conservation assisted in the design of the trail. RARE Center also was involved in the Conservation Education Campaigns for Montserrat and St. Vincent . These campaigns elevated local knowledge and appreciation for the Montserrat Oriole and the St. Vincent Parrot. To further bird conservation in Haiti , Winged Ambassadors collaborated with the University of Florida and Haiti-NET in “Green Actions,” a series of training workshops on wildlife conservation and protected areas management for Haiti. Bahamas The Bahamas are an extensive chain of 2,700 islands and cays located just southeast of Florida. Only 30 of these islands are permanently inhabited by approximately 280,000 people. A large number of birds migrate between the Bahamas and North America. Endemic species include the Bahama Woodstar, Brace’s Hummingbird, and the Bahama Yellowthroat. Winged Ambassadors is partnering with the Bahamian Department of Agriculture to enhance bird conservation in the archipelago. Efforts include the publication of a booklet entitled, “Natural Winged Bahama Woodstar Winged Ambassadors collaborates with conservation organizations on most of the Caribbean islands. Working with the Society of Caribbean Ornithology, important regional projects have been developed. The “West Indian Whistling-Duck and Wetland Conservation Project” connects groups from Antigua, Barbuda, Bahamas, Cayman Islands, Dominican Republic, Jamaica, and the Turks & Caicos in an effort to protect this endangered duck. The main focus is a Caribbean-wide education and awareness program to lessen wetland loss and reduce illegal hunting pressure. Activities include: production of a duck conservation and natural history slide show, a coloring book for children, and a wetland education workbook; construction of Watchable Wildlife Ponds where the public can view ducks; and distribution of identification cards for hunters which distinguish the ducks that can be hunted legally. The “Birds of Our Islands” poster series is Page 96 El Pitirre 13(3) West Indian Whistling-Duck WINGED AMBASSADORS Reprinted from a color brochure available from the Office of International Affairs, US Fish and Wildlife Service.

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El Pitirre 13(3) Page 97 IN MEMORIAM LISA SALMON 10 NOVEMBER 1907 – 2 AUGUST 2000 LEO DOUGLAS LISA SALMON, THE FIRST LADY of Jamaican Ornithology, passed away on 2 August 2000 at the age of 92. In her lifetime, Lisa’s eccentric passion for birds made her a national figure, and her independent style, spunk, and wit in all she said and did was a hallmark of The Lisa Experience. She was best known for her home – Rocklands Bird Sanctuary and Feeding Station – near Anchovy, St. James. Here, by great patience, Lisa trained wild birds to be hand-fed, to the delight of multitudes of people that came from far and wide. Lisa’s close friend, Audrey Downer, remembers her: “Lisa was mad keen on animals. She wouldn’t even use an oven when a mouse nested in it. To Lisa, bird shooters/hunters were the worst. She was a woman determined as she was fearless, packing her licensed .45 [caliber pist ol] where-ever she went. Nothing was going to scare her.” Lisa’s campaign against the hunting of birds was “fought” both on the local and international front, from the neighborhood young boys with their sling shots to as far afield as a le tter to the Pope protesting the Italian practice of eating lark’s tongues. In response, the Pope reportedly sent her a picture of himself. Miss Lisa, as she was affectionately called, was an avian ecologist of no mean order. In her younger days, she spent extensive periods roaming western Jamaica observing, photographing, and taking detailed notes on all aspects of bird biology. She cared for abandoned nestlings and injured birds with the patience of a saint, calling many of them by name. But Lisa was much more than a researcher and bird lover. She was an educator, who invested much time and resources in using the print media, her artwork, and photographs to do bird education. In addition to giving slide shows at local schools and libraries, along with guided field trips, Lisa was a strong believer in teacher training. The fame of Lisa Salmon, a woman who could coax beautiful hummingbirds to sit on the fingers of visitors to Rocklands, eventually spread internationally. Subsequently, Lisa’s bird-feeding pastime was featured in numerous documentaries and publications from Vogue magazine, to National Geographic , to the BBC’s – the “Really Wild Show.” In its heyday from the 1950s to 1980s, Rocklands Bird Sanctuary and Feeding Station became one of the most popular tourist attractions in the Montego Bay area. Her porch and forest garden, the centers of her bird feeding activities, were graced by the presence of American Presidents, am ong other international heads of state, European royalty, and celebrities. “Everybody who was anybody who came to Jamaica went to see Lisa and her birds,” her friend Audrey remembers. The late James Bond (author of Birds of the West Indies), who it is said was equally blunt and vivacious, also reportedly spent much time at Rocklands knocking heads with Lisa. Lisa Salmon was a founding member of the Gosse Bird Club (now BirdLife Jamaica), the only Jamaican organization specifically interested in birds and their habitats, and one of the oldest environmental non-government organizations of the island. In recognition of her tremendous contribution to this organization, she was made an Honorary Member at the inaugural meeting of the Club in 1963. Beyond this, Lisa received many citations and awards from numerous organizations, among which are the Silver Musgrave Medal and the Centenary Medal from the Institute of Jamaica and a Grace Kennedy Award. She received citations from the Natural History Society of Jamaica, The Jamaica Tourist Board, The St. James Cultural Society, and the Anchovy Cultural Society. In addition, she was made an honorary member of the Natural History Society of Jamaica. Lisa will be greatly missed by many, and her contribution to the knowledge and appreciation of our natural history will long be remembered.

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Page 98 El Pitirre 13(3) by James W. Wiley Proceedings of the Wester n Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology, Volume 7 – 2000 817 pp. 11,648 bibliographic entries, each annotated 3 indices (taxonomic, geographical, and subject) 6 appendices. Paper: ISSN 0511-7550 Available from: Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology 439 Calle San Pablo Camarillo, California 93012 USA Price: US$42.50; includes shipping IN IN THE THE W WEST EST I INDIES NDIES A B A BIBLIOGRAPHY IBLIOGRAPHY OF OF O ORNITHOLOGY RNITHOLOGY STATUS AND CONSERVATION OF WEST INDIAN SEABIRDS EDITED BY E. A. SCHREIBER AND DAVID S. LEE Society of Caribbea n Ornithology Special Publication No. 1 2000 v + 225 pp. 25 maps, 30 tables, figs. 21.5 x 28 cm. Contains 20 papers and a bibliography. Paper: ISBN 0-9677824-0-6 Copies may be ordered from: Jim Wiley 2201 Ashland St. Ruston, Louisiana 71270 USA Telephone: 318-274-2399 Facsimile: 318-274-3870 e-mail: wileyjw@alpha0.gram.edu Within USA – US$12.00; includes shipping NEW PUBLICATIONS ON WEST INDIAN BIRDS

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This sound guide identifies 119 species found in Jamaica, including such characteristic species as Chestnut-bellied Cuckoo, Jamaican Euphonia, Jamaican Oriole, Jamaican Owl, Ring-taile d Pigeon, Crested Quail-Dove, and White-eyed Thrush. It is designed as an audio companion to Jamaican field guides such as A Field Guide to the Birds of the West Indies , by Herbert Raffaele et al ., and Birds of Jamaica, A Photographic Field Guide , by Audrey Downer and Robert L. Sutton, photographs by Yves-Jacques Rey-Millet. The guide includes recordings of al l resident land birds, including more than two dozen endemic species, many never before available. Also, many water birds and calls of 17 migrants, mostly warblers, are presented. This is a must-have guide for birders traveling to Jamaica. Two compact disks or cassettes. Prices: 2 CDs – US$18.95 + US$1.87 postage and handling 2 Cassettes – US$18.95 + US$2.09 postage and handling Available from: Cornell Lab Birding Shop OR Wild Birds Unlimited c/o Duncraft Service Center 159 Sapsucker Woods Road 102 Fisherville Road Ithaca, NY 14850 USA Concord, NH 03303-3086 USA Telephone: 877-266-4928 Order by telephone (in USA): 877-274-3716; Fax: 603-226-3735; E-mail: info-cornell-lab@duncraft.com FIELD GUIDE TO THE BIRDS OF CUBA by ORLANDO H. GARRIDO AND ARTURO KIRKCONNELL Foreword by Lester L. Short Illustrated by Romn F. Compay Cornell University Press 2000 This field reference contains 51 color plates and 662 images that illustrate male, female, and juvenile plumages (in some cases for the first time) of Cuban birds. Many migratory species are depicted in both winter and breeding colors, providing a glimpse of many common North American birds as they appear when away from northern surroundings. In the comprehensive Field Guide to the Birds of Cuba , Orlando H. Garrido and Arturo Kirkconnell share their vast wealth of knowledge about birds – and habitats – that are too little known. Field Guide to the Birds of Cuba contains: Species accounts including habitat descriptions, similar species, range, status, nesting and feeding habits, and vocalizations. Checklists of endemic species and subspecies. Background on the geography, climate, geology , paleontology, and natural history of Cuba. 144 maps that show regional boundaries and vegetative habitats as well as the local distribution of each species. 253 pp., with appendices, glossary, bibliography, and index. Available in hard-bound (ISBN: 0-8014-3718-0; $59.95) and paperback (ISBN: 0-8014-8631-9; $29.95) from: Cornell University Press Sage House 512 East State Street Ithaca, NY 14850 USA Telephone: 607-277-2211; Fax: 800-688-2877 Web site: http://www.cornellpress.cornell.edu NEW PUBLICATIONS ON WEST INDIAN BIRDS BIRD SONGS IN JAMAICA by GEORGE B. REYNARD AND ROBERT L. SUTTON Library of Natural Sound, Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850-1999

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SOCIEDAD CARIBEADE ORNITOLOGA EL PITIRRE SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY Fall 2000 Vol. 13, No. 3 SUBMITTAL OF MANUSCRIPTS, ANNOUNCEMENTS, AND OTHER MATERIALS TO EL PITIRRE, THE BULLETIN OF THE SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY See El Pitirre 13(1) for more detailed instructions Form of submission Authors are encouraged to submit manuscripts as a MS Word file attachment to an e-mail message sent to the editor [wileyjw@alpha0.gram.edu]. A hard-copy back-up also should be mailed to the editor. As an alternative format, authors may submit the manuscript on a 3.5” floppy disk, in PC or Macintosh environment, preferably using WordPerfect or MS Word software. Authors should also submit a hard copy with the computer disk. Mail to Jim Wiley, 2201 Ashland St., Ruston, Louisiana 71270, USA. Language Contributions can be in English, Spanish, or French. Translation of the entire text in an alternate language is encouraged. At a minimum, an abstract should be provided in at least one other language. Format of submitted materials The manuscript should conform to usage in recent issues of El Pitirre. Double space all written materials, including tables and figure legends. For scientific papers and notes: Number pages through the Literature Cited. Do not hyphenate words at the ends of typewritten lines. Type tables separate from the text. Type figure legends consecutively on separate pages. Title page (numbered) — should contain full title, and authors’ names and addresses at the time of the research. The author’s present address, if different, should be indicated as a footnote. The title page also includes running heads (less than 36 characters), and the name and contact information for the author who can be contacted most easily. An Abstract (less than 5% of paper length) should precede each longer article. It should summarize important premises, summarize findings, and give conclusions. Text Citations — should include the author and year (e.g., Smith 1990, Smith and Jones 1991, Smith et al . 1992). Multiple citations should be arranged chronologically. Acknowledgments — precede the Literature Cited. Scientific and common names are given at first mention and, for birds, follow the AOU’s Check-list of North American Birds , 7th ed. (1998) and its supplements. Measurements should be in metric units. Use continental dating (e.g., 14 October 1992) and the 24-hour clock (e.g., 08:00 and 21:35). Tables and figures should not duplicate material in the text or in each other. Each table requires a short heading, including descriptive information that would answer the reader’s questions of what, where, and when. Literature Cited: Follow the most recent issue of the bulletin for style. SUGGESTIONS TO AUTHORS