Title: Notes on Pensacola
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00099623/00001
 Material Information
Title: Notes on Pensacola
Physical Description: 102p. : photocopies.
Language: English
Creator: Mills, Jerry W.
Publisher: Jerry W. Mills
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Copyright Date: 1976
Subject: Historic preservation
Pensacola, Florida
General Note: AFA HP document 226
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00099623
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Full Text

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Pu lis hed 15 --A(rawn before 1555-reproduced directly from the original in
the historical collection of T. T. Wentworth, Jr. Pensacola, Florida.



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PL A N igMe San f7T-e PENSACOI.A

representingC it5r i ptset State ;

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Pensacola was first settled in 1559 by Don Tristram DeLuna.
De Arriola planted his settlement here in 1396.


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Scarce One Dollar Bank Note on the Bank of Pensacola, Pensacola, Florida
dated ;'ay 4th 1840 the original in collection of T. T. Wentworth, Jr.

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Scarce Two Dollar 3:nk Note on t-'ie .arnk of Pensacola, Pensacola, Florida
dtted April 20 1840. The original.l in collection of T. VT."ntwor-th, Jr.

Scrce Three Dol&-r Snk "'ote on the Bank of Pensacola, Pensacola, Florida
dated May 4 1838. The -irinril in collection of T. T. Wentworth, Jr.

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THE BATTLE AT SANTA ROSA. Santa Rosa Island. Wehave heretofore described and drove back the enemy; and that the rout of have made another attempt to disturb our forces
the affair very fully, and will only now add that the assailants was completed by the appearance on Santa Rosa Island. They landed about a mile
WE herewith publish. from sketches by Mr. the rebels, under General Anderson, crossed over on the scene of some companies of regulars, *ho and a half from Wilson's camp, but were discov-
Charles F. Allgouer, Sixth Nei? York Volunteer:, by niaht and surprised Colonel Wilson's camp; cha-ed them to their boats, and peppered them well ered by one of the men-of-war, and shelled off with
two illustrations of the battle of 9th Otaober on that Wilson's men, af;er a short retreat, rallied, as they were embathing. Since then the rebels ccnsi(erable loss and in great confusion.




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LITTLE has survived from the eighteenth century to the present
day of the numerous houses, forts, and public buildings erected by
the French and Spanish in their colonial frontier areas of East and
West Florida. In all the vast extent of this territory, from the At-
lantic coast to the Mississippi River, to the northern border of
Florida and the northern border of eastern Louisiana (excluding
the Isle of Orleans and the city of New Orleans), very few struc-
tures remain that can be positively documented as dating from this
century that encompassed almost the beginning and almost the end
of European settlement in the Gulf coastal region. Thus, to under-
stand and appreciate the architecture of this colonial period, it is
necessary to rely largely on drawings and documents in French and
Spanish archives and on some surviving structures of the period that
are beyond but near the area in question.
The French began settlement in 1699, when Pierre LeMoyne
d'Iberville established Fort Maurepas on Biloxi Bay, the year after
Andres de Arriola founded a new colony at Pensacola.' Iberville's
fort is well documented in his journals' and, according to the plan
attributed to his engineer, Remy Reno,' he employed many of the
1. William Bridge.water and Elizabeth J. Sherwood, eds., The Columbia
Encyclopedia. 2d ed. (New York, 1950), p. 1513.
2. Pierre Margry, Decoautertcs ct etabli',.emnents des francais dant le .sid de
I'Amcrique septcntionale (1614-1754) (Paris, 1879-82), 4:125, 195-98. 447.
3. Paris, Service Hydrographique de la Marine, Atlas 4044-C. f. 68. Illus-
trated in Samuel Wilson. Jr., Biencille's New Orleans (New Orleans, n.d.
[1968]), p. 6.

,constructit-n technique's t"at w\erec to be cd n t rea FoI UIot
the French colonial period. T\v-o of the fort's four Ibastions were of
picce sur piece, heavy squared timbers laid horizontally, one upon
another, dovetailed at the corners to form a rigid and solid wall.
The other two bastions were of poicaux en terrc. "good palisades,
well doubled . made of such heavy stakes that it takes four men
to carry them ..
These construction methods were employed in the first buildings
erected at Fort Louis when the French transferred their center of
activity to the banks of the Mobile River in 1702. The largest of
these structures was described in a 1704 report as "a house 6S feet
long i:- 16 w-ide, with an upper story. of piece sur piecc, of squared
wood. with a roof of timber framing. roofed with shingles, and a
gallery from end to end ... "4 Other buildings were described as
being of charpente (timber framing) and a small warehouse was of
picux dcebout (upright stakes). A brick kiln was also established at
Fort Louis, probably for supplying bricks for chimneys: this mate-
rial did not come into common use for building until nearly 1730.
Stone was practically unknown as a building material in the French
colony. although orders were issued from Versailles to a Captain
Bajot in 1715 for the construction of a fort at Dauphin Island which
"His Majesty wishes . might be constructed of masonry. . The
stone for the construction of the masonry shall be taken from the
nearest spot which is said to be on the other side of the bay to-
wards the Spanish fort of Pensacola."5 Actually nothing more than
a fort of upright stakes was ever built by the French at Dauphin
Island, although rough stone, faced with brick, was used in the
construction of the massive bastions of Fort Conde at Mobile when
that fort, first built of palisades in 1711, was rebuilt in masonry in
the 1720s and 1730s.
The Spaniards. however, had made use of masonry in the building
of the Castillo de San Marcos in St. Augustine, between 1672 and
1695, said to be the oldest masonry fort in existence in the United
States." The material employed here was coquina, a native shell-
rock. The design was typical of the military architecture of the
period, a symmetrical structure of four bastions. It was the type per-
fected by Louis XlV's great military engineer, Sebastien Le Pretre,
4. Paris, Archives Nationales C-13A II, 468; hereafter PAN.
5. PAN. C-13A III, 687.
6. Columbia Encyciopcdia, p. 1731.

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Marechal de Vauban (1633-1707), 'and was fJo1 ; :;i, st of
the European colonies in America.
The first fort built by the Spaniards at Persacola followed this
general form. a square fort of four bastions, but like the first French
forts at Biloxi and Mobile, it was of palisades, Ihavy timbers set
upright in the ground. According to an early Sp;a-'sh plan of this
fort (fig. 1),- the bastions and curtains were of squared timbers
with a platform between the seaward bastions on w-hich about
fourteen cannons were mounted. Within the fort were only a pow-
der magazine in one of the other bastions, a small corps de garden,
and a house for the governor. This was a comparatively large,
apparently gable-ended structure, surmounted by a cross, indicat-
ing the presence of a chapel. Another similar structure outside the
fort is marked "church" and near it a "house for the priests," with a
bell and a large cross erected nearby. A house for the captain and
a few cabins are the only other structures shown on this interesting
This fort was captured by the French on May 22. 1719. retaken
by the Spanish in August, then taken again by the French on
September 17, 1719.s From observations made by Bienville's
brother de Serigny at that time, a chart of the bay and a plan of
the fort were drawn up (fig. 2).9 The fort faced southward to the
entrance channel of the bay, directly opposite and north of the
western tip of Santa Rosa Island on which another small fort is
indicated. The platform on which the cannons were shown on the
earlier plan does not appear on this later one. Instead the space
is occupied by barracks and the director's lodging. Outside the
curtain, between the bastions, is a large garden for the director,
indicating that an attack from the sea was not anticipated. Numerous
other structures are shown within the fort, including a large chapel,
a new corps de garde, warehouses, and an oven.
The Jesuit Father Antoine Laval, in his Voyage de la Louisianc,
published in 1728, quoted M. de Vienne, captain of one of the
French vessels at the capture of Pensacola: "The fort of Pensacola
is situated on a height of sand that commands the entrance of the
harbor .... It is built of round logs planted as upright pickets to
defend it only against the savages. There are 24 pieces of canon on

7. Peter J. Hamilton, Colonial Mobile (New York, 1910), p. 48.
8. P. Laval. 'Voyace dc la Louiiione (Paris, 1725). p. 103.
9. Paris, Archives Nationailcs, Sietion Outreaicer. No. 85: iereaftei PANO.



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four bas;.:i!i;s. but the arc \verv ill-mui,-n"ited. ." H-1 a;so s!aid that.
in anticipation of the F;,rnch attack on P,'sa.cola the Span11ards
had "cut down a great number of tr~es in order to construct a fort
of stakes on the point of Santa Rosa Island: it was done in twelve
days time: they made our soldier and sailor prisoners work on it."
IIn spite of the Spanish efforts, the French took both forts and de-
Sstroyed them. On their return, the Spaniards rebuilt the fort at the
- site of the present city of Pensacola.
The directors of the Company of the Indies in France, hoping to
establish its forts and buildings in Louisiana on as pelrmalnent a
^ basis as possible, began to concern themselves with the problems
of obtaining masonry materials in the colony. On April 14. 171S,
the company appointed a Monsieur Perrier as first engineer-in-
c chief of Louisiana. lHe was instructed that, after landing at Dau-
Sz phin Island. he should make a study of Mobile Bay as far up as
Fort Louis. His instructions also stated, "In visiting the east coast
of the bay, the said sieur Perrier could see about the spot at Fish
? S River from where one is supposed to be able to draw the stone for
the fortification of Dauphin Island. He shall examine what the no-
ture of this stone is, if it is difficult to get out and to load and at
how much per cubic fathom it might come to. delivered either at
t Dauphin Island or at Fort Louis of Mobile. calculating the expense
of a large boat and its crew. .. He shall likewise examine what
sort of oyster shell mounds there are that are said to be near
c S Dauphin Island and which could be used for making lime . ."l
S.*= Besides looking into the availability of stone a nd lime, Perrier
? was also told to investigate the timber situation: "While the said
C. 3 sieur Perrier will be at Fort Louis of Mobile, he shall so to visit the
saw mill that the sieur Mean has constructed on a stream which is
a league away. lHe shall examine if it is well established, how much
it could saw of planks or other wood in 24 hours, how many men
are needed to serve it, and if these same men could not. in certain
times, work at some cultivation or other works."
SPerricr was to make use of the services of the Engineer 3Baot
x/ who had been sent to build the Dauphin Island fortifications. The
company's instructions were, "For the execution of these sorts of
works, he could charge the sieur Bajot. captain, who was sent four
years ago as engineer and is very capable of conducting building

1(P. MI,:gr D. (0 u'rh s ut tiux( na tert.5.5uJ 603.

op:atin's beuse tlitt is \itl which he !,s a!'.-rs been oincu-
He was also told to do what was necessary at Fort Louis of
Mobile and at Dauphin Island. and to decide if the site selected
for New Orleans was the proper one. Perrier .never 1:.d the oppor-
tunity of carrying out these assignments; he died at Havana en
route to Louisiana."1 To avoid a recurrence of the problems caused
by this event, the company appointed four enginei.rs with Pierre
LeBlond de la Tour as engineer-in-chief; the others were the
Chevalier de Boispinel. Adrien de Pauger, and Charles Franquet
de Chaville. By the instructions issued to them on November 8,
1719, the ship on which they were to sail was to anchor first at
Pensacola which had been taken by the French that same year.
They were to examine the port and draw up a plaa of it. then to
"think seriously about the fortification of the port of Pensacola.
The Company has already given orders for the disposition of part
of the materials necessary for this purpose, such as framing wood,
timbers and others.... ..When the fortifications of the port of Pen-
sacola shall have been begun, as they will not require the presence
of all the engineers . the Sieur LeBlond de la Tour alone could
suffice to conduct the works . [and] will make his ordinary head-
quarters at Pensacola. . He shall put it in security by the forti-
fications that he must have constructed there on arriving. ."12
The engineers were also to recruit workmen in France to labor
on the colonial fortifications. They were to sign contracts "to serve
the Company during three consecutive years at the agreed wages,
which must be mediocre while the Company engages itself to feed
them at the ordinary ration and to maintain them properly. The
three years of their service must begin to run. for their wages from
the day of engagement and for the time of service from that of their
arrival in Louisiana." The workmen required by the company were
listed as:

Masons. dressers, and cutters of stone
Locksmiths. blacksmiths, and edge tool makers
Long sawyers

11. Mare de Villiers, Histoirc de la foundation de la Noucelle Orleans (Paris,
1917). p. 34.
12. Margry, Decourcrtes et ctablissemcnts. 5:610.


n rckoakers, tile makers, aud lin burners
Tile floor layers
Turfers and excavators
Woodcutters and wh-clhwrihts1s


Persons of these trades and skills were recruited and accom-
panied the engineers to Louisiana.14 Many of them died en route
and more soon after they arrived, but enough survived to carry
on the work, and their arrival may mark the real beginning of
architectural development on the Gulf coast and in West Florida.
LeBlond de la Tour. who had served in France and Spain under
the Marquis d'Asfeld, the successor of Vauban as Director General
of Fortifications of France, was also appointed the director of the
d'Asfeld-LeBlanc Concessions in Louisiana.15 Ignace Francois
Broutin was in charge of the troops of these extensive concessions;
he eventually succeeded de la Tour and Pauger as King's Engineer,
becoming the most important architect of the French colonial
period in Louisiana.1 In 1745 he designed the most notable if not
the only surviving building of that period, the second Ursuline Con-
vent in New Orleans.'1 Also arriving in the colony in 1720. as de la
Tour's draftsman, was Bernard Deverges. Upon Broutin's death in
1751. Deverges became engineer-in-chief of Louisiana. serving until
his death in 1766,s1 as the colony passed from the control of France
to that of Spain and England. Thus these military engineers, who
all arrived in 1720, shaped the architectural development of the
colony for as long as it remained under French jurisdiction, and
buildings designed by them appeared not only in New Orleans but
in almost every French settlement in the colony.
Among the first projects of LeBlond de la Tour in Louisiana were
several plans for a fort and town at New Biloxi with a military hos-
13. PAN, B 42 bis., 312-13.
14. PAN, C-13A VI. 158.
15. Louisiana State Museum, "Records of the Superior Council," October 22,
16. Samuel Wilson. Jr., Ignace Frainois Broutin, in John Francis McDer-
miott, ed., Frenclmien and French W\ays in the Misississiti Valley (Urbana, Ill.,
1969), pp. 231-94.
17. Samuel Wilson, Jr., "An Architectural History of the Royal Hospital
and the tUrsuline Convent of New Orleans," Louisiana Historical Quarterly
29 (July 1946):559-659; hereafter LHQ.
18. George C. H. Kernion, "Reminiscences of the Chevalier Bernard de
Verges. an Early Colonial Engineer of Louiia,na." LHQ 7 (January 1924):56-

! '*" ,54

pital to be built adjacent to it.' Thr sc. d' s s ere all based on
current French i military engine erig princip' but wre never exe-
cuted because of the transfer of the capital to the newly founded
city of New Orleans. At the site of the proposed new fort. camps
were set up by the directors of the various concessions arriving
from France (fig. 3). No doubt the plan of the d'Asfeld-LeBlanc
concession was laid out by Broutin; it appears on a contemporary
plan in the Paris archives.i" The elaborate view of the Law con-
cession camp drawn by Jean Baptiste Michel Le Bouteux, now in
Chicago's Newberry Librar.y is one of the most extraordinary doc-
uments illustrating the early construction practices of these colo-
nists (fig. 4). It shows elaborate tents and simple tentlike palmetto
covered structures, no doubt based on Indian precedent. The large
warehouse in the background is of colombage or timber frame
construction built on sills laid directly on the ground, the spaces
between the vertical wall timbers apparently filled in with vertical
planks. The high-hipped. shingle roof pierced by several small
dormer windows gives the structure an unmistakable French char-
acter. The sketch also shows men working to construct shallow-
draft boats to transfer the concession to its ultimate location on the
Mississippi and other men squaring construction timbers with a
sort of pit saw arrangement.
Another interesting drawing of this early French period, made by
the architect Alexandre DeBatz in 1732. presents the more archi-
tectural elevations of a temple and chief's cabin from a Colapissa
village near New Orleans." The form of these structures certainly
suggests an ethnic connection between the Gulf coast natives and
the Mayas of Yucatan and Central America. It was from these
Indian structures that the French adapted the use of bonzillage,
a mixture of mud and moss used in place of brick to fill in the wall
spaces between the timbers of colombage frames, a material that
continued to be used in Louisiana until after the mid-nineteenth
Numerous drawings of the buildings designed by French military
engineers to be constructed at Mobile have survived in Paris ar-
chives. Many of these are plans for Fort Cond6, the strongest French
19. PAN, C-13A-6, 121-24, January 8, 1721, LeBlond de la Tour to the
Company of the Indies.
20. Paris, Service Hydrographique de la Marine, Atlas 4044-C f. 58.
21. Illustrated in Samuel Wilson, Jr., "Louisiana Drawings by Alexander
DeBatz," Journal of the Society of Architectural Historiaon 22 (May 196'3;:S4.

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Fig. 4. Warehouse and other structures; detail from a "View of the Camp of
the Concession of Monseigneur Law at New Biloxi, coast of Louisiana, drawn

by Jean Baptiste Michel Le Bouteux, 10 December, 1720" (Newberry Library).
See also endleaves.

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Fig. 6. "Plan, section and elevation of the barracks Ibilding-and pavilion---or ort Coond; for
lodging the officers, employees and soldiers of the garrison." Signed D)e Pauger, 29 May 1721
(PANO, 122).

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Fig. 7. "Plan, section and elevation of the warehouse on which they are actually working . at Fort
Cond6." Signed De Pauger, 29 May 1724 (PANO, 123).

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L~/71~ Py(i(;l ,I I~:lrvan.ln ilii ill.lOjl(;l) IIII j:'ll 11.'\.,1!(' ' 11111111111111~1 111.111]111. 1: 1'1 l~(.nl lill tl'll till


tih me 1 -' 'gs at F.t Co- soon rdrt'.i r:aht d and in April
1739 the engineer De .;s bn:-itt.d a i' .' e'ev-tlonn and section
for tv\, barracks projected to be built of brick masonry at Fort
Conde of Mobile. in place of those that are falling in rotten ess
(fig. S). Ti ese proposed two-story structures, with masonry quoins
enmphasizing the corners and entrances, were quite similar in char-
acter to those that had then just been completed flanking the Place
d'Armes in New Orleans. Such heavy masonry structures were
found not to be the answer to construction problems in Louisiana,
for with the exception of the Ursuline Convc.nt of 1745, all such
buildings failed because of foundation problems and dampness in
the walls. Deverges' impressive barracks for Fort Conde were prob-
ably never constructed.
On April 1. 1751. Broutin. just a few months before his death,
submitted a "Plan of the buildings projected to be built at Mobile
on a large site belonging to the king, commonly called le terrain
de la Direction." These were three hipped-roof, one-story brick
buildings arranged around three sides of a square, the front and
the two rear corners of which were enclosed with fences of
stakes in the ground. These new barracks were handsome structures
somewhat similar to the military hospital that Broutin had built in
New Orleans in 1734 next to the first Ursuline Convent. By 1751
the French engineers had reached the conclusion that brick build-
ings in this area should not be built more than one story high and
that, where a second story was required, it should be constructed
of light-weight brick between posts. Ironically, the second Ursuline
Convent with solid brick walls was the only one of their structures
to survive to the present time.
After Broutin's death, additional drawings were made by Alex-
andre DeBatz of these Mobile barracks as built, with gables rather
than hipped roofs. The soldiers' barracks were described as "120
feet in length by 23 feet 4 inches in width, over all . .constructed
in masonry of stone and brick, on the site and land of the Direction,
belonging to the King, which is opposite the principal entrance
gate of Fort Conde of Mobile. The above dimensions, the 7 Feb-
ruary 1752, have been taken on the grounds." The DeBatz and
Broutin drawings for these barracks are now in the Archivo Gen-
eral de Indias in Seville. A plan, signed Phelyppeaux and dated
at Mobile, November 22, 1763 (fig. 9), now in the Paris archives.




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Fig. 8. "Plan, elevation and section of two barracks projected to be built of
brick masonry at Fort Cond. .. Signed Deverges, 18 April 1739 (PANO, 3).
brick masonry at Fort Con~de. .." Signed Deverees, 18 April 11-39 (PANO, 3).

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shoes Fort Condc as it %vwas at the time it vwas tra.i-nd to
England. The 1751 barracks were shown sex era hundred fe:et n. m
the fort and connected to it by fences of stakes.
The British changed the name of Fort Conde to Fort Charlotte
in honor of George III's queen, and on No ember 30, 1763, Major
Robert Farmnar submitted a report on the poor condition of the fort
and its auxiliary buildings. He noted that there were barracks
for 216 men within the fort "in very bad repair and wants to be
rebuilt a!'d enlarged by adding another store. . The officers bar-
racks are detached from the fort about 100 yards and want a good
many repairs. the floors being mostly rotten, as are many of the
\windows: they are sashed but mostly all the panes broke."'' These
latter barracks were the ones that had been built just ten years
In 1780, during the American Revolution, all of West Florida. in-
cluding Mobile, Pensacola. Baton Rouge, and Natchez. was captured
by the Spanish under Louisiana Governor Bernardo de Gilvez. Two
years earlier Gilvez had sent Captain Jacinto Panis to Mobile.
He reported that the fort was in almost ruinous condition and that
the barracks were uninhabitable, having been nearly destroyed by
fire, with only the walls remaining.2" In 1793 the architect-engineer
Gilberto Guillemard prepared plans for a proposed barracks build-
ing at Fort Charlotte of Mobile (fig. 10), plans so similar to the
DeBatz plan of 1752 in the arrangement of doors, windows, and
fireplaces as to suggest the probability that the walls of the old
barracks were reused with a new, low, pitched tile roof and
decorative quoins at each end in the manner of Broutin's earlier
French buildings. Thus the French influence is seen to persist here
throughout the colonial period. Further evidence of this is apparent
in the series of sketches of old Mobile houses made in 18S7 by
Roderick D. McKenzie.
Even less remains of the early architecture of Pensacola. When
the British took possession, Major Will. Forbes reported to the
secretary of state in 1764 that "The place which is called the Fort
consists of about half a mile of ground in circumference, surrounded
with a rotten stockade without a ditch, so defenceless that any one

23. Dunbar Rowland, Mississippi Provincial Archives (Nashville, 1911),
English Dominion, 1:19;, hereafter MPA.
24 H. Mrtimer Fa\rot, "Colonial Forts of Iouisiana," LHQ 26 (July
19.3 ):7-44.


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can step in at pleasure. TIh barracks of the and soldiers
are nothing more than nmisciTable bark huts. withoutt any sort of fire
places or windows, void of every necessary utencil [sic]. I enclose to
your Lordship a plan of the Fort which appears fifty times better
upon paper than it really is."25
/ Th interestingg plan (fig. 11) shows new fortifications with cor-
ner bastions "begun by Major Forbes but not finished." Within the
enclosure were the governor's house with extensive gardens behind
it, barracks arranged around a large parade ground, hospital,
arsenal, and the other usual buildings of a fortified post. This fort
was located in what is now the historic district of Pensacola, the
area around Seville Square. In this area are Pensacola's oldest
houses, including the Barklev House which may have been built
in the 1830s on the foundations and perhaps some of the walls of
a house of the 1770s. The Lavalle house, recently restored by the
Pensacola Historical Restoration and Preservation Commission (now
Historic Pensacola Preservation Board), and other houses of similar
form that have come to be known as "French Creole" cottage-
having a gallery across the front over which the slope of the gable-
ended roof extends-are probably typical of the earlier houses of
Pensacola and suggest an influence from the French in Mobile and
New Orleans.
In 1787 the architect-engineer Guillemard prepared elaborate
plans for the construction of a new fort on the site of the old Span-
ish fort of 1698, Fort San Carlos and Battery San Antonio, an elab-
orate masonry fortification in the Vauban manner (fig. 12). The
buildings he proposed for construction within the fort were of
colombage construction on brick piers, with mansard roofs and
dormer windows, almost identical to Pauger's designs for the bar-
racks at Mobile's Fort Cond6 in 1724. Little change had occurred
in architectural style here in over half a century.
One of the most interesting and perhaps one of the earliest sur-
viving structures on the Gulf coast is the so-called Krebs House or
Old Spanish Fort at Pascagoula. This is a house built with a typical
colombage or heavy timber frame, but here the filling between the
wall timbers is a form of shell concrete, used in the earliest houses
at Mobile, rather than the usual brick or mud and moss (bouzil-
lage). Parts of this old house are believed to be one of the buildings
of the De la Pointe concession established at Pascagoula in the
25. Rowland, MPA, English Dominion, 1:141.





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Fig. 11. Plan and section of the Fort of Pensacola, 1761 (MI'A I, 141), courtesy of the Pensacola His-
torical Museum.

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Fig. 12. "Plan of the project of the Fort of San Carlos and lower battery of San Antonio for the defense of the entrance of tie
Bay of Santa Maria d(e Galvez of Pensacola." Signed Gilberto Cuili.ma.rd, May 1787 (Seville, Archivo General de Indias).

172ns. b! tt it i no t -,adiv i. ,,!:tir:,]e- in DuP ;.,,'t i x ir en 's
noap ald sketch of this concession. made around 1730." It is un-
liikely that one of these very early structures could have survived.
but the form and construction of the Krebs house definitely link it
\ ith the buildings of the early French settlement ot West Florida.
The early architecture of New Orclans is perhaps the best docu-
nmented of any American city of comparable age. through p-ius
and drawings that have been preserved in Paris archives. These
were all prepared by military engineers and all reflect the influence
of Vauban and his ideas of military architecture and fortification
design. The city plan, designed by Pierre LeBlond de la Tour and
laid out on the site in 1721 by Adrien de Pauger. is typical of the
French fortified town of the period. The streets are laid out in a
regular gridiron pattern with a parade ground or Place d'Armes in
the center.2" The early plans of New Orleans show enclosing forti-
fication walls, but these were not built until after the fall of Quebec
to the English. when Deverges built a palisade fortification some-
what different in design from the one originally proposed by his
mentor. LeBlond de la Tour.
The first buildings were all of timber frame colombage construc-
tion covered on the outside with wide horizontal boards. These
included "la Direction,"" the large house for the directors of the
Company of the Indies to which galleries and two-story end pavil-
lions were later added, barracks for the company's workmen and
soldiers, and a windmill for which complete specifications exist
and which appears in the remarkable perspective of Newx Orleans
drawn by Jean Pierre Lassus in 1726.2'. The first building known to
have been built with a brick foundation and brick between the
timbers of its colombage frame was the parish church of St. Louis,30
designed by Pauger in 1724 and dedicated at Christmas 1727. It is
remarkably similar in design to Vauban's chapel in the citadel at
Besancon, France. The timbers and brickwork of these "bricks be-
tween posts" buildings were always protected by wood siding or
a coating of cement plaster, except for a brief period around 1730

26. Wilson, Bienvillc's New Orleans, p. 21.
27. Illustrated in Samuel Wilson. Jr., The Vicux Carrn. New Orleans, Its
Plan. Its Growth, Its Archit,(ctur (New Orleans, 1968), pp. 5-33.
28. PANO, No. 67, illustrated in Wilson, Biencille's New Orleans, pp. 17-18.
29. PANO, No. 71, illustrated in 'Wilon, The Vicux Carrt, p. 20, and Bien-
villi's New Orleans, p. 22.
30. PANO, No. 70, illustrated in Wilson, Biunrillc,' Nezz Orlean.s p. 20.

Svhi.,n Pierre BE- liked the piiit,'u,. -iu e appearance of the exposed timber frames and
left them i tlit vway in the house he designed for himself in 1730,"'
in the large building for the first Ursuline Convent, and in various
other structures built under his direction. This xas Iin p: ticalal in
the humid New Orleans climate. for the timbers soon l;ttedi and
the bricks deteriorated.
There followed a period of construction of large two-story brick
buildings which Baron's successor. Ignace Frangois Broutin. pre-
ferred. Thus he built the impressive barracks on the two sides of
the Place d'Armes in the 1730s", and the second Ursilic Convent
in 1745.a" By the 1750s the barracks had collapsed because of
faulty foundations and dampness in the walls. The Ursuline Con-
vent has survived and gives an excellent idea of the impressive and
monumental architectural style that appeared in the early years of
French colonial Louisiana, a style originating in France and
adapted by local architect-engineers from the Vauban-inspired
publications on fortifications and civil and military architecture.
In more remote outposts of the French colony. buildings of a
simpler t\pe were constructed, such as the interesting colombage
structures designed for Fort Tombecbe in Alabama by Bernard
Deverges in 1751-59 (fig. 13). At the Balise at the mou.;; of the
Mississippi, where Deverges served for many years, he also con-
structed in 1734 a small corps de garden with a hipped roof and
with a gallery on two sides (fig. 14). The chapel there, not unlike
the church at New Orleans, was built by Deverges from Pauger's
design of about 1723.35 Buildings of private owners on their
concessions and plantations in various parts of the colony followed
the same simple form as the official buildings. Dumont de Montigny
depicted some of these in his crude sketches of the 1720s and
1730s, among which are the Belle Isle concessions at Natchez which
show these early plantation buildings.36
31. PANO, Nos. 19-23, illustrated ibid., pp. 31. 32, 33.
32. PANO. No. 6. illustrated ibid.. p. 38.
33. PAN, C-13A XVIII, 128, illustrated in Wilson, Ignacc Franfois Broutin,
p. 262.
34. PANO, Nos. 10, 25, 33, illustrated in Wilson, Bicncille's Neu Orleans,
pp. 40. 11, 42.
35. PANO. No. 104, illustrated in WNilson, An Architectural History, p. 567.
36. Samuel Wilson, Jr, "Gulf Coast Architecture," in Ernest F. Dibble and
Earle W. Newton, eds., Spain and Her Rivals on the Gulf Coast (Pensacola,

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i 13. Elevation and sections of the corps de garden and prison cell at Fort Tornmb(cb. By Bernard Dcverges, 1701 (Seville,
Archivo General de Indias).

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'Ven Sp.in acquired Louisiaria fromr France in 163 te pi't's
post at tih n south of the iisissippi. the BIlise, was falling into
ruin and was moved to a nkew site which, ihow',ever, proved to be no
more stable than the original. Some new buildings were erected,
including a large one-story house for the cor0'mmandant and .' ;
of the garrison. Thlis housc co,:,tairadi tea- square rooms. five- on ( :'
side of a center partition. The house was surrounded by a bload
gallery and had a large hipped roof. The gallery column s were
simple wood posts, probably chamfcred, w ith a balustrade of
flat boards cut out in the form of classical balusters. Nearby was
an open-work wood tower to serve as a lookout station from which
flew the Spanish flag. These structures and their kitchens and other
outbuildings are shown on an interesting but undated drawing in
the Archivo General de Indias at Seville (fig. 15). A somewhat
similar lookout tower still existed and was sketched by the architect
B. H. Latrobe when he visited the Balise in 1819.0,
Farther up the river at Plaquemines Bend, the French first pro-
posed to build forts in 1747 on opposite sides of the river to defend
the approaches to New Orleans.3" These forts, St. Philip and Bour-
bon, were struck by a hurricane in July 1795: the west bank of the
river was undermined by the action of the storm, and Fort Bourbon,
a small masonry redoubt, was destroyed, collapsing into the river.":
Plans of these two forts had been drawn up in January that year
by the engineer Juan Perchet and show these two heavy masonry
structures with the various buildings within them (fig. 16). In Fort
Bourbon only one large barracks building existed, but Fort St.
Philip contained several buildings including a large barracks, hos-
pital. prison, warehouse, and powder magazine. Some of these were
probably built by an American builder, Jacob Cowperthwait, who
contracted with Spanish Governor Louis Hector de Carondelet for
construction work at the Plaquemines fort in June 1792.4" The
French military engineer Vinache, who accompanied Pierre Cle-
ment Laussat to receive the colony for France from Spain in 1803,

37. Benjamin Henry Boneval Latrobe, Impri'ssions Rcspecting New Orleans,
ed. Samuel Wilson, Jr. (New York, 1951), pp. 12, 123, 166.
38. PANO, Plan of two forts at Plaquemines Bend: Nos. 56. 57, May 9,
39. Seville, Archivo General de Indias Legajo 1443B. Letter No. 738.
Carondelet to I.as Casas. August 30, 1795: hereafter AGI.
40. New Orleans Notarial Archives. Acts of CGrlos Xiniines, \ol. 2, n,. 310,
June 20, 1792; hereafter NONA.



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Fig. 15. Plans of the Commandant's house and various other buildings at the
Balize. Unsigned, 1787.

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Fig. 16. "Plan of the Castillo de Sr. Filipe of Plaquemines and Fort Bourbon.
." Signed Juan Bta. Perchet, 10 January 1795 (Seville, Archivo General de

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visited Fort St. Philip and also drew a plan of it (fig. 17), quite
similar to Perchet's plan of 1795. Unfortunately neither of these
plans show the appearance of the buildings within the fort. Vinache
mentions in his report "Some warehouses built in bricks and cov-
ered with tiles and terraces, the whole well constructed and in the
best state."41 Other buildings of frame construction were "the large
building where the commandant resides, the large barracks, the
bakery . and . some houses situated outside the fort. These
houses serve as hospital, as lodging to the employees, etc. all these
edifices are in very good state and well built. ... ." Vinache also
reported that the rebuilt Fort Bourbon was only a wooden struc-
ture, its only masonry being two chimneys.
When the French regime came to an end in 1763, many of their
most important buildings in New Orleans, such as the barracks
on the sides of the Place d'Armes, had already disappeared. The
Deverges-designed fortifications built in 1760 were new but useless.
The majority of the houses were of frame construction, raised on
brick walls and piers, similar to the one now known as Madame
John's Legacy. This house. though not built until 1788. followed the
form and construction methods of the earlv French houses in the
colony. This was the residence of Don Manuel Lanzos, a Spanish
army captain and commandant at Mobile. whose New Orleans
house was burned in the terrible Good Friday fire of 1788. Only a
few days after the fire, he contracted with an American builder,
Robert Jones, to build the still existing house-a Spaniard's house
built by an American in the French manner.42
In spite of the great destruction caused by the fire of 1788 be-
cause so much wood was used in construction, the rebuilding after
the fire continued in the same way, largely with brick between posts
walls covered with wood siding and wood framed roofs covered
with wood shingles. However, when a second conflagration devas-
tated the city on December 8, 1794. new laws were passed re-
quiring that roofs be covered with tiles and that the walls of brick
between posts structures be protected by at least an inch of cement
plaster.43 These new laws caused considerable change in the char-
acter of the city, and tile-roofed buildings took on more of a Spanish

41. PAN, C-13A LIII. 155.
42. NONA, Acts of Pedro Pedesclaux, vol. 2, f. 427, April 1, 1788, illus-
trated in WVilson, Gulf Coast Architecture, p. 113.
43. New Orleans Public Library, Records of the Cabildo, October 9, 1795.


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Fig. 18. "Geometrical plan and elevation of the facade of a'house ... to be
constructed by Don Nicholas Gravier on lot no. 147 of the Faubourg Ste.
Marie." Signed Carlos Trudeau, 23 Mav 1796.



.-^c'i:.-'-t in W,,.St FFW !/ ]:37

flavor. such as thsehose built for B rthtleme Bosque, a Majoran,
in 1795 and Bernard Trr< icou lelts house of about 1796.'4 Both these
houses, which still exist. iiginally had ni arly flat roofs covered with
square flat tiles as terraces. Houses with more steeply pitched roofs,
like the Spanish school on Royal Street, used the more usual round
tiles. Many of these tiles were brought from Pen sacola. An adver-
tisement in the newspaper Monitcur de la Louisiane for October 2,
1802, offered "Round tiles from Pensacola of the best quality that
are fabricated in this country."
A few days after the 17SS fire, Carlos Laveau Trudeau. the
Spanish royal surveyor, drew a plan for the subdivision of the
Gravier plantation4" adjacent to the city; it would go beyond the
limits of the fortifications into what had first been part of the plan-
tation of the city's founder. Bienville, and from 1726 until its con-
fiscation in 1763 the plantation of the Jesuit fathers. In this new
area that became known as the Faubourg St. Mary, frame con-
struction was still permitted after the fire of 1794 and some colom-
bage houses were built such as the one Trudeau designed for
Nicolas Gravier in 1796 (fig. 18)."46 Within the area of the fortifi-
cations, however, the new buildings were mostly of all brick con-
struction, such as the new warehouse. the new buildings around
the Plaza de Armas, and the new Cabildo, Cathedral, and Presbytere
all designed bv Gilberto Guillemard; the Presbytere was still un-
finished at the time of the Louisiana Purchase in 1803.
Many new buildings were built in the extreme western part of
West Florida and other Spanish territories adjacent to it. In Baton
Rouge a new fort was drawn by the engineer De Finiels in 1798,47
and a new jail (fig. 19) the same year in Natcenez, drawn by William
Dunbar because there was no engineer there.4" Also in Natchez,
Connelly's Tavern and King's Tavern were built in the 1790s, both
showing increasing American influences in the Spanish colony.49
Nearby on the Natchez Trace, Mount Locust. a simple frame, one-
story, gable-end house with a gallery across the front and a re-

44. Wilson, The Vieux Carrc, p. 104, illustrated on p. 105.
45. F. P. Burns, "The Graviers and the Faubourg Ste. Marie," LHQ 22
(April 1939):385-427.
46. NONA, Acts of Carlos Ximines, Court Proceedings, Feb. 1801, fol. 197.
47. Madrid, Archivo Historico Militar; 7269 (Kb9-45) No. 56.
48. Archivo General de Simancas, No. 3.
49. J. W\s!ey Cooper, VNatchez, a Trea.uic of Antc-llBcum IHom, (NaNtchez,
1957), pp. 32-33, 144-45.

L' L_ 1

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of a jail for the plaza of Natchez." Drawn by William Dunbar,
General de Simanrcas)l


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Fig. 19. "Plan
1798 (Archivo

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ces~c! porc' ini t ~ ri\1 dat~es also fo- t C; l 2"! r i r li ci.'n-
turv aid r ects the 1 ?nce of settlers from Ken:tuclky and
Along the Mi ssissppi. between New Orleans and Baton Rouge.
the Am.erican influence v'-as less apparent in the late-eightee;th-
century )plantation houses. One of the finest of these. W\'itehaL],
was probably designed by Guillerard. architect of the New Or-
leans Cabildo, and was in much the same style according to
Christophe Colomb's early painting -hicih records the appearance
of this long-vanished mansion."'' The Chapdu plantation in St.
James Parish looked like a tiny French chateau with a tvo-story,
square, pyramidal-roofed central clement flanked by sc m 1 trical
one-story wings."'I omeiplace. at Tlallii-ille, built about 179(. is
more typical of the earlier French style plantation house. raised
on a brick basx i.nt with walls of bouzillage on the upper floor.
The surrounding galleries have plastered brick columns below
turned wood ones above. the great whipped roof extending over
these broad galleries.," Homeplace has been designated by the
Secretary of the Interior as a National Historic Landmark.
Few eighteenth-centurv buildings have survived in the F liciana
parishes above Baton Rouge. One of the most significa,:. of taese
is Oakley,53 a raised house with two stories and an attic above
the basement. The lout er-enclosed upper galleries are an interesting
element of this fine house which also reflects the American influence
in West Florida. Smaller houses such as those built along the bavous
and rivers across Lake Pontchartrain from New Orleans show a
little more French feeling. The early-nineteenth-century lodge at
the Boy Scout Camp Sahnen is not unlike the typical so-called
Creole cottage of Pensacola. Thus did French, Spanish, and Ameri-
can influences affect the character of the architecture of eighteenth-
century West Florida. and continued to influence its development
through most of the succeeding century.

50. H. Parrott Bacot. 7Th Louisiana Landcape 1800-1969 (Baton Romue,
1969), p. 8.
51. Historic New Orleans Collection. The Kemper and Leia iilliams
Foundation; Riichard Koch bequest.
52. Library of Congress. Historic American Buildings Survey, La. 155.
53. J. Wesley Cooper. A Treasure of Louisiana Plantation Homes (Natchez,
1961), pp. 60-61.

6 0

A QUARTER CENTURY AGO a man completed his edu-
cation, then began work with The Pensacola Home and
Savings Association. Soon after, he left to serve his
country in wartime, then returned, to move, step by step,
through the many responsibilities of this Association. As
he did so, he turned his hands and heart to the community,
working in health, welfare, cultural and government circles
to the end that hardly an area of this city failed to benefit
from his wisdom and works. At length, he became the
Association's president, and the city's Mayor. Then, sud-
denly, in his 44th year, death came as it must to all men,
to Reinhardt Holm, calling him from his family, his legion
of friends, his church, his community and this Association.
All who knew him agree: he cannot be replaced. However,
his memory will be preserved. To that end, this booklet
is dedicated.


For over two generations, Pensacolians have looked approvingly at their
military neighbor, the Naval Air Station, admiring it both as an economic
asset and a friendly part of life along the Gulf Coast. Few recall that the
origin of this vast training service dates from obscure events in the early
1820's, and that the Navy's relationship to Pensacola dates from a time
when travel by railroad was unknown and the lighter-than-air craft was
considered impossible by all except a few dreamers.
Pensacola from the early 1820's to the year 1911 was a Navy
Yard, a point of perimeter defense and an outpost. Then, as the national
image, strength and size changed, and as forces within the hemisphere were
reshaped, the need for the base at Pensacola was downgraded. In 1911 the
Navy Yard was closed, only to reopen a few years later to herald the age
of naval air.
This is the story of Pensacola's Navy Yard. The authors are indebted
to many persons and sources for materials, and in particular to Rear
Admiral Lucien Young, who in 1910 compiled a similar story in an attempt
to halt federal plans to close the station.


"THE STORY OF THE NAVY YARD" is one in a continuing series
of historical monographs prepared for the community by PENSA-
COLA HOME & SAVINGS ASSOCIATION. Preparation and editing
were by the John Appleyard Agency; research assistance was pro-
vided by The Pensacola Historical Museum and its director, Norman
Simons; by The University of West Florida Library; by The Naval
Library, NAS Pensacola; and the picture collection of the T. T.

Looking back at America's begin-
nings, there was almost always one
element present when a settlement
was founded: water; a harbor, a bay,
an anchorage, a place where goods
and ships might land, and where com-
merce and defense could be encour-
aged, side by side.
Choosing such sites was the assign-
ment of early cartographers. On those
first charts Pensacola frequently en-
joyed a prominent place, for the land
area and waters provided one of the
continent's best sheltered, most easily
defended harbors.
No one really knows who arrived
Some believe that the first white ex-
plorer was the legendary Welshman,
Prince Madoc (or Maddog) who may
have arrived in this area about the
year 1170. There is some evidence of
his exploration and settlement in the
Pensacola-Mobile area.
In 1966, further examination of the
famed Cantino Map of the Cabots sug-
gest that John & Sebastian, father and
son, surveyed this Gulf shore in 1498,
sailing perhaps as far west as New

Pensacola was explored by many early Spanish adventurers:
Narvaez, Maldonado, Cabeza de Vaca-but DeLuna's colonial
organization, 1500 strong, marked the first effort to plant
roots in the northern hemisphere. They chose the area be-
cause of its harbor facilities.

Orleans. The map, now in a museum
at Medina, Italy, outlines this coastline.
A Spanish expedition led by Panfilo
de Narvaez certainly included Pensa-
cola in its findings, altho mapping was
difficult, since the three survivors in-
cluding the legendary Cabeza de Vaca,
finished the journey on foot.
A dozen years later Hernando de
Soto was commissioned to examine the

Floridas. Using earlier notes to locate
this harbor, DeSoto arranged a rendez-
vous here with his fleet, captained by
Diego Maldonado. The latter arrived
in 1540 and explored the region,
naming it Auchuse, but DeSoto failed
to keep the appointment, even though
he was nearby. He refused to admit
his failure in discovering a golden
kingdom and thus pushed on to-
wards the Mississippi and his death.
Nearly 20 years later came the ex-
pedition of Don Tristan de Luna with
its 13 vessels, 1500 settlers and friars
and efforts to found a permanent buf-
fer settlement. DeLuna rechristened
the harbor, naming it Santa Maria
Filipina; but even the protection of this
bay could not save his ships from a
severe hurricane which destroyed the
material substance for the settlement.
A century passed. Then, with Eu-
rope's political intrigues over rights of
succession again at fever pitch, and
with France claiming the Gulf region
as a result of LaSalle's voyage, another
expedition of exploration was sent
forth by Spain, captained jointly by
Adm. Andreas de Pez and the scholarly
Doctor Don Carlos Siquenza. Their
mission: to locate a site for a perma-
nent settlement. After scouting the
entire Gulf, Pensacola, or Santa Maria,
was selected. De Pez altered the name,
listing it on his charts as "Santa Maria
de Galve".

After a delay of five years, an ex-
pedition of settlers arrived, led by
Adm. Andreas de Arriola. Under his
guidance and that of a later governor,
Don Pedro de Matamoros, a tiny city
was constructed on the mainland near
the mouth of the harbor; a fort, named
for Spain's King Charles, was erected!
Other fortifications were dug at the
western tip of what now is called
Santa Rosa Island, to provide a defen-
sive crossfire.
Less than a year later, French settlers
arrived, captain by Pierre Le Moyne,
Sieur d'lberville, and his brother, Jean
Baptist Le Moyne, Sieur d'Bienville,
who went on to carve out posts at
Mobile, Biloxi and New Orleans.
An uneasy peace was maintained,
to be broken ultimately in 1719 as
war again erupted in Europe. In that
summer, three separate battles were
fought here, during which the Spanish
settlement was destroyed. The fortress
too was heavily damaged, and the
bastion on Pt. Siguenza was blown up.
In 1722 Spanish control was re-
stored, and a new settlement was
located across the harbor, facing the
bay, on Santa Rosa Island. Ft. San Car-
los, on the mainland, was apparently
restored in part, and a companion fort
was built as part of the tiny trading
village. This settlement was battered
by hurricane thirty years later, and
survivors moved across the bay to
found still another settlement on the
mainland, near the heart of present
day Pensacola. The year was 1752.

7N '',;

NDREW JACKSON 3n ch.:.~_.-,: Tr-r,,.:.I CG.:-.r,..:r 6,i
Hand-o-hand fighting climaxed the sea duel Florida largely because of his knowledge of the people and
Hand- to- hand fighting climaxed the sea duel be- the area. He invaded Florida three times prior to the change
tween the Spanish and Admiral Champmeslin's French
squadron. lags.

A decade later Britain gained con-
trol of LaFlorida by treaty as The Seven
Years War ended. New fortifications
were added, and the city itself was ex-
tended; then, in 1781, Spanish allies of
our rebelling colonists, under Spain's
governor at New Orleans, Bernardo de
Galvez, laid siege to the city by land
and water. British Gen. Sir John Camp-
bell placed his defenses in newly-built
Ft. George, on the highlands above the
city, abandoning Ft. San Carlos and
the bay to the invaders. The struggle
ended when mortar fire struck the
British powder magazine, and de-
stroyed the fort.
Thus Spain returned for a final bow
- one which was to end in 1821, with
the sale of Florida to The United States.
This final period was not without inci-
dent and romance, and included the
development of the great Panton-Leslie
trading empire, the use by Great Brit-
ain of the harbor and Ft. San Carlos as
invasion points in the War of 1812,
and incidents involving renegade In-
dians and the Seminoles who mounted
raids out of Florida against American
Then, on July 21st, 1821, with Gen.
Andrew Jackson acting for The United
States, and Gov. Jose Callava for
Spain, the transfer of territory was
effected and a new era began.
Andrew Jackson's tenure as gover-
nor of Florida was relatively short, due
to his political ambitions and to Rachel

S. as Secretary of State,
he negotiated with Spain

Jackson's dislike for Pensacola, which
she described as ". . a wicked place,
with gaming and dancing on the
Sabbath . ."
But while he was here, Old Hickory
set numerous forces in motion which
ultimately resulted in establishing The
Navy Yard.
While he was no confidant of Presi-
dent Monroe, Jackson was recognized
as one of the nation's more successful
military leaders, and his words were
heeded. The governor did his home-
work, studying not only his own cam-
paign against the British in 1814, but
also the hostilities between the Spanish
and French a century earlier.
His reports coincided with those of
others familiar with the Gulf area, and
funneled into the hands of Secretary
of State John Quincy Adams a host of
material needed to establish policy.
This was an unusual time for the
young Republic. Less than 20 years
before, President Jefferson had per-
suaded a reluctant Congress to ap-
prove the purchase of Louisiana, with
its base on the Gulf; this assured
free trade access up and down the
The addition of hundreds of miles
of Gulf coastline introduced new prob-
lems of staggering magnitude for a
relatively impoverished nation which
had only recently come out of a war
with tarnished military laurels.
Americans still were concerned with
the presence in Caribbean waters of
British and French agents, who still cast

S.. his government
purchased Florida


covetous eyes toward the southern
sector of the new nation.
To the south, Spain's grip on Central
and South American areas were re-
laxing; Simon Bolivar and his contem-
poraries were sparking revolutions;
there was little love lost between early
American settlers in the Texas area and
their Spanish-Mexican counterparts.
Roads from north to south were
fragmentary; only Jackson's military
road from Montgomery to Pensacola
could be called a true "road" in the
sense of those times. And there still
was danger of Indian attack on every
side. White settlers in the Alabama
and Florida areas averaged less than
one per square mile.
Fortifications, of course, cost money.
So did standing armies and navies, and
there many in the Congress who were
unwilling to appropriate large sums to
maintain standing forces in peacetime.
Such forces, said Virginia representa-
tive John Randolph, represented "... a
waste of public monies to support the
drunkards, ne'er-do-wells and rabble,
men who are unable or unwilling to
perform an honest day's work . "
Needed also was a plan which
would accommodate the growing in-
terest in internal trade. Interest in
canals and toll roads was high (the rail-
roads' first successful experiment was
12 years away). Some, working in
Washington far removed from practi-
calities and using only fragmentary
charts, encouraged canal proposals
that even today would be considered
highly impractical.
All of these factors were under con-
sideration, and to reach meaningful
decisions the Congress, on May 24th,
1824, approved an act establishing a
Naval station to be located at Pensa-
cola, as Jackson had recommended.
On March 3rd of the following year,
the Secretary of the Navy appointed a
board of examination of three Navy
captains, Biddle, Bainbridge and War-
rington, to repair to Pensacola and
choose a site.
On December 22nd, Maj. Gen. Alex
Macomb wrote to Secretary of War J.

herewith a copy of a letter from Gen.
Bernard dated the 19th of September
last which contains all of the desired
information in the possession of the
Engineer Department at this time, with
the exception of the fact, that the sur-
vey and chart of soundings, to which
it refers, have been completed.
"The projects and estimates for those
fortifications have not been com-
menced, . and it is the opinion of
the Board of Engineers that it will be
necessary for them to examine the
ground before those required for the
immediate defense if the naval depart-
ment can be determined on . ."
Then, attached, was this letter from
Gen. Bernard, a member of the Board
of Engineers, which is reproduced al-
most en toto:

New York, September 19th, 1825.
From the Letter of the Hon. Secretary of the Navy,
It appears that the Government has decided that the
Naval Depot on the Gulf of Mexico should be at
Pensacola, and has appointed Naval Commissioners
to select a site for a Navy Yard at that place.
That decision makes Pensacola the road of rendez-
vous, and the depot of our Navy upon the Gulf of
Such an establishment will, therefore, require two
sorts of defensive works: those to defend the entrance
of the Bay; the others to shelter from an attack by
land the Navy Yard and the ships at anchor in the
Bay. The works destined to fulfil the first object,
have been just pointed out; as to those which should
accomplish the other objects, they cannot be desig-
nated, until the Naval Commissioners shall have
recommended the site of the Navy Yard; the system
of those works will altogether depend upon the loca-
tion of that Navy Yard, and the topographical circum-
stances of the adjacent ground.
It becomes, therefore, desirable, that the site
adopted for the Navy Yard, should not only enjoy the
naval requisites, but also require, for its protection,
as few defensive works as possible. To shelter it
from attacks by water should not suffice; it must
also be defended against attempts made by land -
objects which are to be attained either by the natural
strength of the position, or by fortification, or by
both combined.
We must remark on that subject, that Pensacola
does not seem to be possessed of the same local ad-
vantages which led the Naval Commissioners and
the Board of Engineers to recommend Charleston,
(Mass.) and Burwell Bay on James' River, as Naval
Depots of the first class, upon our Atlantic maritime
frontiers: owing to local circumstances, those Navy
Yards need no artificial defences in their vicinity.
But the state of things is different at Pensacola;
there a Navy Yard will find itself in the same pre-
dicament as most of the European Navy Yards; that
is to say, near to the seashore, and easy of access
by land. Besides, owing to the nature of the sandy
country surrounding Pensacola, the population in that
quarter shall never be able to afford alone, com-
petent means to defend the Navy Yard against a
sudden attack.
The Navy Yard at Pensacola will, therefore, re-
quire to be fortified, and the only efficient, but ex-
pensive system, in such a case, shall consist of a
chain of detached and advanced works, the object of
which is to keep out of range the incendiary bat-
teries of the invader, and prevent him from burning
the establishments on the first days of his landing;
and besides that chain, a line of fortification around
the perimeter of the Navy Yard, to resist a regular
attack. The strength of those defensive works must

to allow, to the forces of the country, the time neces-
sary to reach Pensacola and relieve the defenders
of the works. As to the extent and number of these
works, the local circumstances of the site will decide.
Whilst Pensacola is destined to become the strong-
hold of our Navy upon the Gulf of Mexico-to protect
the outlets of the Mississippi, and therefore the com-
merce of exportation and importation of the Western
States, these states will furnish Pensacola with naval
supplies and articles of consumption. It was with
such a view, that the Naval Commissioners and the
Board of Engineers recommended, in their Report,
(1822.) the opening of a sloop canal, connecting the
Mississippi with Lake Ponchartrain. Besides the
military advantages of affording the facilities to con-
centrate the forces of the country, in time of emer-
gency, either to New Orleans, or Mobile, or Pensa-
cola; besides the commercial relations, which then
will take place between the Western States and those
of the Mississippi and Alabama, that canal will pro-
cure to the naval station of Pensacola, the great
advantage of receiving, without any annoyance, and
a cheap rate, in time of war, the naval supplies and
ammunitions necessary to its establishments. With
such a canal, and a small one from Mobile Bay io
the Bay of Pensacola, the communication would be-
come short and easy, and in time of emergency,
Pensacola might avail itself of the large resources
that a city like New Orleans can afford.
Such are the only informations I am able to furnish
on this subject, at the present stage of the operations
intrusted to the Naval Commissioners and the Board
of Engineers: I wish that they could answer the
object of the Hon. Secretary of the Navy.
I have the honor to be,
Sir, very respectfully,
Your obedient servant,
BERNARD, Brigadier General,
Member Board Engineers.
Chief Engineer, Washington City.
The tract of land approved by the
commissioners had several factors to
recommend it; it was close to the
mouth of the Pensacola Bay, hence
offered little problem with maneuver-
ing or distance. It was close, also, to
tracts of live oak forest, wood consid-
ered necessary for ship construction
and repair. It included old Ft. San
Carlos, now in disrepair after its demo-
lition by the British in 1812 but never-
theless of value in developing new
mainland fortifications. Also, the land
area was largely unoccupied, and the
small personal holdings presented little
problem in acquisition. Titles subse-
quently were obtained to those tracts
through purchases by Federal agents
and recorded in the courts of The Terri-
tory of Florida.
Just exactly what transpired then,
and through the next seventeen years
. . is difficult to document. A series
of commandants were in charge of
operations which included some con-
struction on the Navy Yard proper and
upon fortifications to defend it. Five
men, each a Commodore, are listed in
official records: Lewis Warrington,
M. T. Woolsey, Isaac Chauncey, Alet J.

the latter completing his tour of duty
in 1851.
Apparently construction was begun
on the Navy Yard almost at once, for
a report written by Auditor O. A. Day-
ton, Secretary of the Navy A. P. Upshur
in 1842 listed expenditures approved
by Congress for 1827 forward. These
included monies broken down by cate-
gory, and totalled $547,590.
Apparently, however, all was not
going according to the wishes of many
Navy men. Lewis Warrington reported
as a member of the Board of Navy
Commissioners in that same year as
"With respect to the amount actually
expended for the Navy Yard at Pensa-
cola, the Commissioners, not having
cognizance of the accounts, can form
no satisfactory estimate. There being
in the Treasury no portion of the sums
appropriated, and no balance in the
hands of the present Navy agents on
the 1st of January 1842, it would ap-
pear that the whole sum . has been
expended; yet this cannot be the fact.
By referring to the agents' requisitions,
approved by the board, there should
now be in the Treasury $50,535.54;
and the former agent acknowledged
a larger balance in his hands at the
termination of his agency of the
application of which, no account has
been received by the Board.
"For want of a plan of that yard,
an insuperable difficulty existed in
applying some portions of the money
appropriated. It is indispensable that
a plan be adopted with reference to
any future improvements that may be
authorized. No part of the monies ap-
priated for that yard has, in the knowl-
edge of the Board, been applied for
any other purpose.
"I have the honor to be, with great
respect, sir, your obdt. servant,
L. Warrington, for The Board
of Navy Commissioners."
From this report and others, Mr.
Upshur made his statement to Samuel
L. Southhard, president of the Senate,
a month later. That report, which gave
some details of activities of the South-
ern Fleet, explained why not a single

bean waters: no appropriation had
been made by Congress to support
such a fleet! Writing specifically with
respect to Pensacola, he said:
". it will appear that the Navy
Yard at Pensacola, is not in a condition
for any extensive works on ships of
war. No general plan of the yard has
yet been agreed on, which is probably
the reason why no further progress
has been made in the several parts of
the establishment. Repairs to a small
extent, and such as do not require the
docking of the ship, may now be made
at that yard but no vessel can be built
there, and even extensive repairs are
difficult for want of the necessary
docks and wharves, and a naval con-
structor, for which last no appropria-
tion has been made.
"It is my intention to proceed as
rapidly as the means at my disposal
will allow, in the completion of all the
necessary works, so as to render the
yard useful for all naval purposes. But
little can be effected, however, with
the small means heretofore placed
under the control of the Department,
and applicable to that subject . it is
perfectly evident that the navy yard
at Pensacola ought to be immediately
complete, upon the most enlarged and
useful score, and that every prepara-
tion should be made for the full and
perfect protection of the commerce of
the Gulf of Mexico . The naval force
designed for the Gulf of Mexico should
be stationary there . ."
This report was something of a slam
at a Board of Commissioners which
had been assigned to complete a scale
plan as far back as 1836. The com-
missioners, Commodores Charles A.
Stewart, A. J. Dallas and William C.
Bottom, apparently either were super-
ceded or moved ahead with greater
vigor, for by the time of the Texas War
of Independence three years later, the
yard was described as being in good
repair to serve as a supply depot for
the Gulf Squadron which sailed in de-
fense of our position in a boundary
dispute with Mexico. A similar service
was rendered as the nation out forth

still-flourishing and illegal slave trade,
and nests of pirates whose ships oper-
ated out of West Indian strongholds,
preying upon small trading vessels
moving in and out of Gulf ports.
But the Congress never really
learned the lesson of the value of
Pensacola and the Gulf. So irregular
were its appropriations that in the
months prior to the war with Mexico,
the navy yard had again sunk into a
kind of torpor, under manned, under-
supplied and incapable of supplying or
assisting any kind of major maneuver.
Adm. Young, in his account, recalls
one instance in which the frigate
"POTOMAC" called at Pensacola to
take supplies for a three-month cruise.
So inadequate was Pensacola's com-
missary that thirty days were required
to bake bread for that one need. At
another time, when the yard's cisterns
failed, ships could not obtain an ade-
quate supply of fresh water short of
sending small boats on a round trip
to downtown Pensacola.
When President Polk maneuvered
this country into war with Mexico, the
chief of naval operations made extra-
ordinary efforts to put Pensacola in
readiness to support a blockading and
transportation effort.
The U. S. entered that war in what
some might say is its usual sense of
preparedness: there were fewer than
8,000 men under arms (Mexico had a
standing army four times as large);
the Navy was in a "mothball" con-
dition, and there was not a navy yard
in the South in combat readiness.
Gen. Zachary Taylor's force, en-
camped near the Texas border, re-
quired supply service, and a blockade
of the 600-mile Mexican coastline and
an amphibious invasion were contem-
With great efforts, Pensacola's navy
yard was readied and performed ably
in supplying both the blockading
squadron and the armies of invasions.
In the words of the historian Adm.
Young, reviewing the events from his
vantage point in time in 1910:
"All of the brilliant achievements of

successfully accomplished had it not
been for the access and use of the
Pensacola Navy Yard, the great naval
base on the Gulf .. "

Thus in 1847-48 Pensacola played
its first wartime role under the Ameri-
can flag. When on February 2, 1848,
Nicholas P. Trist signed the treaty of
Guadalupe Hidalgo, Pensacola was
ready to come of age as the defensive
pivot point on the Gulf. It was ready
- but things never quite worked out
that way.


.. defense"

The second phase in the overall
"Pensacola Plan" involved erection of
fortifications to defend the Navy Yard
and to form a pivot in the overall
coastal defense.
The United States had in 1825 very
few military engineers skilled in the
design of coastal fortifications; to make
matters more complex, major changes
were taking place which served to
obsolete both ordnance and defenses.
At length, the Department of Engi-
neers selected young Captain William
H. Chase to design and build the series
of forts to protect the naval base and
the city.
Chase's designs called for a four-
point defense, patterned in part after
the. classical system first employed by
the Spaniards, Ariola and Matamoros,
at the beginning of the Eighteenth
The first and principal unit was to
be a five-sided fort of earth and brick
located on the western tip of Santa
Rosa Island. Chase, in his later treatise
on southern fortress construction, de-
scribed this as a defense in which five
corner bastions enjoyed overlapping
fire and a crossfire pattern in concert
with other forts on the mainland and
a smaller position across the narrows
^ l1 L -..

and built Pensacola's three fortifications.

Accordingly, appropriations were
approved by the Congress and con-
struction began in 1829 on Ft. Pickens,
named for South Carolina's Revolution-
ary War General, Andrew H. Pickens.
Because the fort was located on an
island, millions of bricks and other
construction materials had to be hauled
over water, yet in five years Chase
and his engineers completed the job.
The original cost estimate had been
approved for $677,000, yet by its
completion in 1834 the figure had run
some $80,000 higher. The fort was
designed to hold 250 cannon and a
normal complement of 600 men;
a seige garrison of 1200 could be
Actually, many of the cannon never
were properly seated; in 1856 Colom-
biad rifles were installed, replacing
the older models, but these too were
only partially prepared for hostilities.
Only 40 were serviceable in 1861.
The second flank of the system of
forts was smaller than Pickens, and
was constructed across the narrows on
the western shore. Unlike the first fort.

-~8asu~a~JI Dbrr~sr~RrS-c '--

_4C L_ L_1

"All of the brilliant achievements of

This recent view shows old
pround), backed up by FT.
had been reconstructed by
the Spanish in the 1780's.

CHASE'S PLAN OF FT. PICKENS. The fort followed the basic design of coastal fortifications of that day,
with five strong points plus forward entrenchments. At full strength it was to hold 600 men.

this commanded only the narrow ap-
proach through the bay's inlet. Work
was commenced in 1834, and con-
tinued intermittently until 1844 when
the project was certified. Its name was
approved in a letter written to Chase
on March 7, 1840, by Chief Engineer
Jos. G. Totten, in which he said:
"In answer to your letter of the 22d
ult. I have to state that yours of the
20th Novr 1839 suggesting that the
Fort on Foster's bank be named Fort
McRee was referred to the Secretary
of War on the 23d December, and the
suggestion approved by him .. ."
The third fort was an extension of
Fort San Carlos de Barrancas, recon-
structed by the Spanish troops during
the 1790's. This fort, on the mainland
near the heart of the Navy Yard, added
a "U" shaped brick and earthworks
with -ounted cannon, 300 feet on a
side. This was given the continuing
name of Barrancas.
Nearby, a fourth anchor to the sys-
tem employed smaller but similar con-
struction and was called Fort Redoubt.
Chase's designs embraced a defense
rlnct al ^r~lr, .,|:,-, r

.I, Icae

Mt ( .'''



It was much like the Spanish plan of 1719, but also
made provision for defense against land attack.

and frontal assault. In addition to
cannon and mortar, there was a series
of advanced positions in which rifle-
men might meet waves of invaders;
walls, rifle ports and successive heights
were involved, especially before
Pickens and Barrancas. In his writings,
Chase recognized the danger of attack
from the rear; but strangely, the major
,.pal.np- in the defense of Ft. Pickens

brick and earth construction, and provided for heavy
coastal defense guns. However, it never was fully
manned by U. S. troops ,and many of the designed
features were not installed.

lay in its vulnerability from the land
side. This was to be the direction from
which its only major attack was to
Remembering the fate of the Span-
ish in 1719, he had attempted to pro-
tect Ft. Barrancas in the conventional
manner front and rear, and assumed
that Barrancas and Redoubt would
safeguard Ft. Pickens.

-':- i" 4-:, -. 7--- 2 .

When Lt. Adam Slemmer's troops occupied the fort
in 1861, it was in serious disrepair. Slemmer's troops
worked around the clock ot effect a defense. When
Col. Chase asked for a meeting with Slemmer under
a truce flag, the latter insisted that the meeting take
place outside the walls.

Work pushed ahead on three forts
simultaneously once construction was
started, and 1844 is generally the
accepted date for completion of pri-
mary building.
As in the case of the Navy Yard,
little provision was made by the Con-
gress for manning and maintaining the
works once they were completed. In
1834, when Ft. Pickens was declared


ready, only 34 men were assigned
to it.
And in 1845, at the time that Navy
leadership was decrying the slow pace
in ship construction capability there,
a delegation of nine leading Pensa-
colians, including Eben Dorr, the U. S.
Marshal; E. D. Avery, Francisco Moreno
and Juan Brosnaham, were addressing
a petition to the Congress which said
in part:
". .. do request appropriations for
proper garrisons at the three forts, at
the site of Barrancas the healthiest
location in the neighborhood of the
forts and so conveniently situated as
to be within minutes run of either Fts.
Pickens or McRee. The Memorialists
take upon themselves to draw the
attention of your honorable body to
this subject through motives of hu-
manity and justice to the soldiers who
are stationed here and on whose lives
we trust the defence of our families
and our . they are now living in
temporary sheds at Barrancas erected
by their own labour hardly sufficient
to protect them from the storm
and not from the inclemency of the
weather. "
In 1847-48, with the nation at war
with Mexico, the forts, like the Navy
Yard, were properly supplied and
heavily garrisoned. With that crisis
gone, troops were withdrawn. For the
next decade McRee and Pickens stood
virtually unoccupied; reports indicated
the need for maintenance. But when
Federal forces fled the mainland into
Pickens in 1861 they inherited a
station which required frantic efforts
to make livable and defendable.

As the Navy Yard finally came into
its own, its commanders faced prob-
lems involving civilian workmen as
well as naval personnel.
The lard areas purchased for the
Navy Yard were removed from the
City of Pensacola by almost ten miles,
the road to Mobile being the closest
thing to an artery passing in that
direction. There was no public trans-
portation, of course, and the earliest
contacts were by small boat.

There were almost no men in the
tiny Gulf coast city who met the skills
requirements of a Navy Yard; from the
first, the mechanics, shipwrights, even
some skilled laborers were imported
along with their families. Many came
from the Boston Navy Yard, largest in
the nation in the late 1820's.
Because of the distance factor, the
Navy Department elected to grant per-
mits to all employees who wished to
do so to build houses, at their own
expense, and the other service build-
ings that a community might require.
Thus two villages developed within
the reservation, guided by its inhabi-
tants yet supervised by the command-
ant of the station. Both were named
for early commandants, Lewis Warring-
ton and McLancthon Woolsey.
The development of the villages was
remarkable, and at a later date War-
rington in particular became something
of a fashion spot, with a number of
the prominent families allied with the
military taking up residence there.
These included Col. Chase and the
Strong family. Chase's residence, called
Chasefield, was among the celebrated
social settings. In the words of Adm.
Young in 1910:
"The elite of Pensacola were fre-
quent visitors to Warrington to join in
the gaieties of the place. Dallas Street
then was the fashionable promenade,
with a broad walk extending from the

reservation. This photo (1924) shows the appearance
after some improvements, including electrification
and the arrival of the automobile.

Western Gate of the Navy Yard past
the Naval Hospital and terminating at
Ft. Barrancas. The street also was em-
bellished by the imposing Catholic and
beautiful Episcopal Churches, large
stores, attractive residences and many
pretty cottages, with a lovely bathing
beach close by."
There were problems along the way,
however. Residences of Warrington
paid no taxes; their streets, sewage
and other public facilities were pro-
vided by the government, and in the
disputed election of 1876 (between
William Tilden and Rutherford B.
Hayes) commissioners contested the
propriety of these ballots. From that
time forward these citizens were dis-
The Civil War, too, was unkind to
the villages. The bombardment of No-
vember 1861 and the fire which de-
veloped during the evacuation of the
city the next spring severely damaged
both communities. Both were rebuilt
in subsequent years. In a later date,
when naval air had replaced the Navy
Yard function, the privilege of resi-
dence on the station property was
terminated, and worker families in the
main moved outside the gates to found
a new Warrington.
Following the Mexican War the
Navy Department and local citizens
were determined that the errors of
the past not be repeated, and pres-
sures were applied to complete the
Navy Yard's construction potential
and to man it for service for the Gulf
As a result, in the next seven years
a substantial building slip was con-
structed, and a floating dry dock was
built, along with ". . the other neces-
sary appliances for the docking, re-
pairing and building of the largest
ship types contemplated for naval war-
fare." News reports in 1861 declared
the dry dock alone to be worth $1
million, but this is questionable.
Using the live oak timbers cut
nearby, the Navy Yard thus began to
make the ships repairs originally en-
visioned for it, and between 1855-59
built two frigates, the 800-ton SEMI-
NOLE and thp 9nnn.t+r, DC IC nr-l A


2000 tons, was completed at the Navy Yard in 1859.

The latter remained in use in govern-
ment service with several changes in
power plants until about 1911, when
it was sold to a private source for
Meanwhile, quarters were com-
pleted too for Navy personnel. A
sketch of the yard in 1859 showed 60
different structures listed by the yard
engineer. In general, Pensacola be-
came a place where naval officer per-
sonnel of merit sought assignment;
there was, however, one failing which
science had not yet provided for: ade-
quate sewage disposal and treatment
were lacking, and the water system
was dependent upon rooftop runoff
caught in cisterns; the combination
would foster several epidemics before
it was remedied.

The Navy Yard,

The Forts and the

Civil War
As the national elections of 1860
unfolded, the possibility of secession
hung about the entire Southland. Flor-
ida's governor, Madison S. Perry, a
stern advocate of states rights, called
the Legislature into special session on
January 31, 1861, to consider pro-
posals for separation similar to those
drafted in South Carolina.
Florida's two United States Senators,
Mallory and Yulee, asked for inven-
tories of all Federal military establish-
ments in the state. These were denied.
President Buchanan, striving to main-
tain an uneasy peace and to avoid a
confrontation at all costs, urged his
military commanders to take necessary
precautions to safeguard reservations.
G. C. Pendergast, Commanding
Officer of the Home Squadron, then
stationed in the Gulf, ordered extra-
ordinary precautions at Pensacola, ex-
pected to be the state's powderkeg,
along with the arsenal at Chattahoo-
chee. Military personnel were ordered
to proceed with utmost circumspection
to prevent giving offense or provoking
a warlike incident.
For a week the legislators in Talla-
hassee debated the issue of secession,
while in other capitol similar discus-
sions proceeded. On January 10 Flor-
ida voted to withdraw from the Union,
the third state to do so.
Gov. Perry took immediate action
to seize federal military properties.
Already, many seasoned military and
naval men had either come forward
from retirement and offered their serv-
ices to the new Republic of Florida,
or had resigned U. S. commissions to
do so.
In some installations like St. Au-

gustine-tiny garrisons simply handed
properties over to local militia. In
almost no case was resistance offered.
At Pensacola, militia from Florida
and Alabama were combined into a
force of approximately 550 men; these
were placed under the command of
aging Col. Chase and ordered by Gov.
Perry to seize the Navy Yard and its
In command of the yard was Com-
modore James Armstrong, with Capt.
E. Ferrand his executive officer. Under
Armstrong's command were 38 ma-
rines, 80 seamen plus the steamer
WYANDOTTE with 72 men and six
guns. At Barrancas was Company G
of the 1st U.S. Artillery, Lt. Adam
Slemmer commanding, seconded by
Lt. J. H. Gillman. Ft. Pickens and Ft.
McRee were unmanned.
Exactly what occurred is clouded.
One report stated that no opposition
was offered to the seven militia com-
panies as they marched from Pensa-
cola to the gate of the Navy Yard.
However, writing some months later,
the northern publication "REVIEW OF
REVIEWS" showed pictures of the
Alabama and Florida companies and
stated that a skirmish developed be-
tween the army group under Slemmer
and the advancing militia under Chase.
Said the magazine:
". .after a heated exchange, the
members of Company G, 1st U.S.
Artillery, retreated into Ft. Barrancas.
. These were the first shots ex-
changed in the war."
But whichever account is correct,
both agree on the next events:
The Florida-Alabama forces arrived
at the gate and three commissioners
appointed by Gov. Perry, Col. Lomax,
Capt. Randolph and Mr. Campbell, de-
manded an audience with Commodore
The latter is described by Adm.
Young as sitting in his office as one
dazed. He made no effort to secure his
command, destroy or remove stores.
Instead, he tamely accepted the de-
mands for the total surrender of his
command. Officers who wished to
leave were given paroles for them-

L, -~- $'-C-'

he refused to surrender . commanded troops
his forces, at Pensacola.
defended Ft. Pickens.

selves and their families, and were
permitted to return to the north, taking
with them their personal effects.
Most of those of southern birth
chose to resign their commissions or
rank, and to accept posts with the new
One of these was Capt. V. H. Ran-
dolph, one of the commissioners, who
was immediately named- commandant
of the Navy Yard by Chase. This
subsequently was confirmed by Gov.
Perry, who had this authority since
technically the area was now governed
as the Republic of Florida.
Following the surrender on January
12, Commodore Armstrong asked his
executive officer, Capt. Ferrand, to
order the colors hauled down. The
order was transmitted first to an an-
cient quartermaster named William
Conway who refused to obey it, an
action for which he was later to be
commended by the Secretary of the
Ultimately the Stars and Stripes were
lowered. This caused something of a
problem, however. Governor Perry's
wife had designed a new state ensign
which was to be prepared locally and
flown. However, no one could inter-
pret her directions, hence Chase re-
paired to his house and designed an-
other flag, patterned after the lone
star insignia of the Republic of Texas.
This was raised the following day and
was flown for the month before the
Confederate States of America offi-

... helped make the Navy FARRAGUT
Yard operable. . brought his fleet here
for repairs following battle
at New Orleans.
cially came into being. At that time
the first version of the Stars and Bars
replaced Chase's flag. However, for
one month Pensacola was governed
under this sixth flag.
Commodore Armstrong ultimately
made his way to Washington, D. C.,
where he asked for a full inquiry into
his conduct. On February 8, a Court
of Inquiry directed that he be tried
by a court martial. A General Court
Martial on March 12 convicted Arm-
strong of neglect of duty and dis-
obedience of orders, and conduct un-
becoming an officer. He was sentenced
to be suspended from duty for a term
of five years with loss of pay for half
that period. The sentence later was
upheld by the Secretary of the Navy,
Gideon Welles.

On April 13, 1861, the U. S. Ship BROOKLYN arrived
off Pensacola and disembarked reinforcements for
Ft. Pickens. The action ended Confederate hope for
an eaWv ronnoptst

Meanwhile, back at Pensacola the
action was far from over.
Lts. Slemmer and Gilman refused to
accept Commodore Armstrong's sur-
render decision, despite the fact that
he was the senior U. S. officer present.
With frantic haste, the two New
York State soldiers mustered their 51
men and succeeded in gaining 30 ad-
herents from among the ordinary sea-
man complement of the Navy Yard.
These were joined by Lt. Henry Enbar
of the provision vessel SUPPLY which
had just made port and a frantic
rush ensued to make a retreat across
the narrows into Ft. Pickens, destroy-
ing what they could not carry.
With Chase's troops just a few blocks
away, Slemmer and his company suc-
ceeded in damaging many of the ord-
nance pieces within Ft. Barrancas, and
in loading the SUPPLY and another
small boat with provisions. Meanwhile,
a crew from the SUPPLY rowed to Ft.
McRee and destroyed power and other
stores there.
Then, the men loyal to the federal
government made a final crossing into
Ft. Pickens.
Two days later Col. Chase crossed
to Santa Rosa Island under a flag of
truce and asked for a conference in
Slemmer's quarters. This was denied,
Slemmer fearing that details of his de-.
fense would aid the enemy. Chase
replied that since he had built the fort
he certainly was aware of the position.
Nonetheless, their conversations were
held in the outdoors, and Chase with-
drew, telegraphing his situation to
Senator Mallory, who still was in
It was then that Mallory and Presi-
dent Buchanan negotiated their agree-
ment which was to have a lasting
effect on the war. Both believed that
the division of lands and differences
of opinion might be settled without re-
sort to arms. And so, pending further
negotiations, Buchanan agreed not to
attempt to relieve or reinforce Ft.
Pickens, and Mallory agreed not to
attempt to seize the fortress by assault.
Chase reportedly was outraged, and
warned that a golden opportunity was
hpinn allnwprI t"n lin hv


. Confederate Secretary ... Florida's Governor
of the Navy

Weeks passed; additional troops
arrived to reinforce the southern posi-
tion; the Confederacy was born in
Montgomery, and on March 11 Gen.
Braxton Bragg was placed in charge
of the area.
Meanwhile, from Washington, the
U.S.S. Brooklyn and other escort ves-
sels were dispatched to the Gulf,
carrying reinforcements. A similar
sailing attempted to relieve Ft. Sumter
at Charleston. Capt. H. A. Adams of
the "Brooklyn" was still under Navy
orders governed by the Mallory-Buch-
anan truce and would not land troops
without a direct presidential order.
This was on March 31.
Then on April 12 an order arrived
for Adams from Secretary of the Navy
Welles, ordering him to proceed by
night with the unloading. First ashore
were men commanded by Capt. Israel
Vogdes and Lt. John C. Cash; when
morning came, Confederate forces in
Ft. McRee saw what had occurred.
The "Brooklyn" and her escorts were
plainly visible; small boats continued
the task of ferrying ashore the blue-
coated soldiers. Legend says that Mc-
Ree's defenders set loose small arms
fire across the narrows towards Pick-
ens, venting their wrath at the broken
But Pickens was secured. The
golden opportunity WAS gone.
Over the next weeks additional re-
inforcements arrived for both sides,
and hv ninht mpvprrl -mall vpemlk

slipped by Ft. Pickens to the Navy
Yard, where efforts were begun to
convert them to privateers. Fighting,
however, was negligible. Pickets met
in a friendly way, and diaries of the
time tell of the monotony and bore-
dom in both camps.
Then on September 13, came the
first attack.
Federal scouts were aware that the
schooner JUDAH was being recondi-
tioned in the Yard. On the moon-
less night, small boats were lowered
from the U.S.S. Colorado; rowing with
muffled oars, the sailors and marines
crept alongside the JUDAH, and set
fire to her. An exchange of small arms
fire caused only limited casualties, but
the JUDAH went up in flames.
Less than a month later the South
attempted to retaliate.
Massing 2698 troops under Gen.
Robert H. Anderson, in command of
local forces, the Confederate ferried to
Santa Rosa Island at a point between
three and four miles east of Ft. Pickens.
Marching three and four abreast down
the beach, they mounted a night at-
tack, hitting against the camp of the
New York 6th Regular Volunteers,
commanded by William "Billy" Wilson.
This unit and others was encamped
outside the walls of the fort; their
shelters of boughs and canvas were
dried by the summer sun. The attack
began as a tactical surprise, and Wil-
son's camp was burned. Firing was

On September 13, 1861, Federal troops moved in small
boats by night to attack the sloop JUDAH, under-
going modifications at the Navy Yard. The sloop

wild, and in the darkness troops be-
came separated and objectives con-
fused. After about an hour's exchange,
the Confederates withdrew, leaving 30
killed, 39 wounded and 30 missing
or captured. Federal losses were 13
killed, 27 wounded and 22 missing.
From this point desultory cannon
fire passed between both camps, with
a single great bombardment on No-
vember 22-23, when Pickens' crews
succeeded in silencing batteries in Ft.
McRee and in damaging others in Bar-
rancas, as well as badly damaging
portions of the dry dock and the vil-
lages of Warrington and Woolsey.
Early in 1862, New Orleans was be-
sieged by Federal naval forces under
Adm. Farragut and Pensacola became
vulnerable to a flanking attack by land.
At the same time things were going
poorly in Tennessee; added Confed-
erate troops were needed there.
On February 8, Confederate Secre-
tary of War Judah P. Benjamin ordered
Bragg to transfer the majority of his
forces to the Tennessee front, and a
gradual evacuation of the more than
6500 troops here was begun.
Bragg left in charge Col. Thomas M.
Jones, who was ordered to:
". . burn all from McRee to the Mo-
bile Road; save the guns and if neces-
sary destroy your gunboats and all
other boats. Destroy all machinery,
public and private, useful to the
enemy, especially the saw mills, and

In October, 2698 troops, led by General Robert H.
Anderson, landed east of Ft. Pickens and mounted an
attack. Fought in darkness, the battle was inconclusive.

burn the lumber. Break up the rail-
road to the junction, carrying the iron
(rails) to a safe place ..

y --"v-..--y.r

Orders to burn malor installations and destroy sup-
plies were issued, countermanded, finally carried out.
Later, another cancellation of plans arrived-too late.

A final evacuation and demolition
was scheduled for March 10, but at
this time Jones could see no Federal
action which indicated any attack. He
telegraphed Richmond for a stay, and
was told that the evacuation and with-
drawal from the Pensacola position
was in his hands.
By the first week in May, however,
the troop and naval build-up off-
shore made it apparent that an attack
was forthcoming. Col. Jones therefore
made plans to carry out his orders.
Using blue signal lights from the tower
of the Naval Hospital, he ordered Lt.
Col. W. K. Beard, in charge of the
demolition crews, to proceed.
This they did, in a most thorough
manner. Beginning at 11:30 P.M. on
May 9, all military stores and other
buildings on the Navy Yard were put
to the torch, as was the oil plant and
mills, as Bragg had ordered. Later,
Jones was called upon to defend his
actions in destroying public and pri-
vate buildings usable to the enemy;
this he did successfully. Ironically, four
days after the demolition a wire was
sent by Secretary of War Benjamin
cancelling the scorched earth policy.
By then it was toon late

. ..Secretary of War

On May 10 Federal troops under
Gen. Arnold moved out of Pickens
across the bay to occupy the city.
Arriving in the U.S.S. HARRIET LANE,
they found the fortifications and Navy
Yard a shambles. Commodore D. D.
Porter, arriving to inspect the Navy
construction site, cabled his superiors:
"The Confederates have done their
work well. The Navy Yard is a ruin."
Thus virtually ended the story of
Pensacola in the war. Much of its
population fled into Alabama or east
towards Tallahassee (At one time Dr.
Brosnaham's diary reported but 72
white and 10 colored persons present
in the town). Porter urgently requested
supplies to recondition the yard, and
by August 30 Adm. Farragut reported
that Pensacola was one of the few
places where his fleet, badly damaged
at New Orleans, might receive repairs.
Porter remained in command until
Farragut's arrival on August 20, re-
maining through December while re-
pairs were rushed on the BROOKLYN
and the SUSQUEHANNA, both needed
for the anticipated push past Ft. Mor-
gan at Mobile.
Naval repairs continued in signifi-
cant numbers through much of 1863;
then, however, the course of the war
changed, and a parallel attack of yel-
low fever did much to wither the
population left here. As Navy Yard
personnel and their defenders were
laid low, Confederate forces scouted
the perimeters, perhaps hopefully
nlanninn ;n ;ntardk that npevr rAmpe

Later, in his memoirs, Adm. Farragut
paid heavy tribute to Pensacola and
the Navy Yard for the role played in
supporting naval operations in the
Gulf. But by the war's end the staffing
had been decreased, and the main
concern was care for hundreds of de-
pendent civilians who were clustered
about the yard in a sort of shantytown,
dependent upon the government for

With the close of the war and the
beginnings of reconstruction, work
was programmed for restoration of the
destroyed portions of the Navy Yard
and for long sought ship repair addi-.
tions. Beginning in 1867 clearance of
rubble left by the Confederate demo-
lition began, and the following year
Congress made a significant appropria-
tion to rebuild housing, shops, gates to
the dock basin; in 1868 other work
shops were rebuilt.
However, in 1869 work lagged, and
for the next seven years little of a
major nature was done.
The Chapel, which had been a tem-
porary hospital during the latter war
years, was repaired and a new Ord-
nance Building was completed in 1875
- and then work ground to a halt.
The lessons of 1867 and 1862
were forgotten; appropriations ceased,
workmen were terminated and the
yard was placed on little more than a
standby basis; frequently, only clerical
personnel remained in charge. Forts
were unmanned, improvements ended.
Briefly, as the Spanish-American
War erupted, efforts were made to
bolster the defenses and the Navy
Yard proper. Ft. Pickens was fitted
with new guns and its structuring was
strengthened; garrison troops were
added. However, fort and Navy Yard
saw no action.
At war's end plans again were
initiated tO implement the ship repair
function. With the Panama Canal under
construction, Navy leaders predicted
the need for an adequate repairs
station in the Gulf and pushed hard to
supply it.

The yard by then had been partially rebuilt following
wartime damage, but plans made during wartime
were never fully carried out.

A 10,000-ton steel floating dry dock
was purchased in Havana and towed to
Pensacola: a new permanent wooden
525-foot long wharf was built, and a
coal wharf was added, along with

Few photos remain of the 19th Century Navy Yard.
This sketch shows the Commandant's quarters, about

Following the Spanish-Ameri.
can War a floating dry dock
was purchased in Havana and
moved here. Used for both
military and civilian craft, the
dock is shown in use in 1904
with the L&N Railroad steamer,

In 1898, the Navy Yard
was quickly refurbished
for a role in the war
against Spain. This barge
was constructed there
for Navy supply use.

modern wireless stations. A modern
power plant was built, and beginnings
of a water and sewage system were
installed. Then all the area was
lashed by the most violent hurricane
in man's memory!
The Navy Yard and city were hor-
ribly mangled; virtually every major
building and wharf was destroyed;
only the steel dry dock survived; the
nearby villages of Woolsey and War-
rington were severely damaged; sev-
eral small vessels were sunk in ad-
jacent channels.
The destruction at Pensacola was
such that naval officials in Washington
considered the possibility of closing
the yard. Emergency appropriations
for reconstruction were issued, then
cancelled, then in part re-approved.
For the next four years the matter was
debated, while some reconstruction
moved ahead. Ultimately, however,
the decision was made to close the
yard, over the vocal objections of
many naval leaders.
One other aspect of the Navy Yard's
career which deserves notice is the
Naval Hospital. Originally built as part
of the plan approved in 1846, the

hospital was located in an ideal spot
removed from other yard activities,
and quickly established itself as a
haven for the sick of the base and for
mariners. Two houses for physicians
accompanied the hospital proper, and
for a time it was recognized as one of
the finer naval medical facilities.
The hospital's first great test came
in the late 1840's when a French sur-
veying vessel visited here and brought
with it yellow fever. Within five days
the epidemic swept through the yard,
Woolsey and Warrington; many died,
and the onslaught was not soon con-
trolled. For years thereafter the hos-
pital bore the nickname "The French
A second fever epidemic began with
the arrival at the yard of the U. S. sur-
vey ship VIXEN in 1853; and in 1863-
64 a third epidemic swept through
Farragut's fleet here, carried by a ship
arriving from Yucatan.
During this time, however, all cas-
ualties had to be treated in the base
chapel, the hospital proper having
been destroyed by the retreating Con-
federate forces. Farragut constructed
a series of wooden wings or wards to
the chapel proper; these later were
destroyed by fire.

Still another yellow fever epidemic
appeared in 1882-83, a scourge so bad
that thousands fled the. fown and the
Navy Yard. Even the commandant
fled, deserted his post by small boat.
He was subsequently court martialed
and dismissed from the naval service.
A new hospital building was con-
structed in 1875 under contract to R. E.
Anson, and for a time was considered
a medical showplace. Respiratory cases
from many naval commands were re-
ferred here, and the mild climate
helped assure its prominence.
But, with the reduction in manpower
here, the hospital too was almost aban-
doned. In the brief rebirth following
the Spanish American War efforts
were made to gain funds for moderni-
zation; Navy leaders criticized the lack
of sanitary facilities, the use of oil
lamps, the poor drainage; in 1902,
$25,000 was appropriated for renova-
tions; this was rescinded, re-approved,
then again withdrawn. Like the rest
of the station, the hospital was in a
serious state of decay, and in the
words of Adm. Young, who arrived
in 1910, ". . a public disgrace."

M- 1ALa
ft. ,


Ships such as these from Porter's fleet
were repaired at Pensacola.

* * _________ __


In 1910-11, the debate over the fate
of the Navy Yard raged. Its future role
in connection with the two ocean canal
was highlighted; its fortifications were
declared to be obsolete. The growth
of Navy shipbuilding in Baltimore,
Philadelphia, Norfolk, Boston and
Brooklyn overshadowed the potential
here. The great stands of timber, once
the pride of shipbuilders, now were
of no value.
Arguments in its favor could not
overcome the economics that stood
against Pensacola. And so . in 1911,
the order finally came: "Close the
Navy Yard."
In that year the flight of the Wright
Brothers and the subsequent interest
in aviation had not yet stirred the
imagination of naval leaders or the
Congress. Only a few, like former
President Theodore Roosevelt, seemed
to understand. Within three years the
yard would reopen to a new and vital
career, a new arm of the Navy.
And in the years ahead, naval avia-
tion would develop in the shadow of
old Ft. San Carlos and its satellites,
Ft. Pickens and Ft. Barrancas.

YARD, circa 1886. The men in the foreground are
"dandies" from Old Warrington.

--< .- -

Orders to destroy military installations were given
and countermanded several times but at length
the Navy Yard and other installations of use to the
enemy were put to the torch.

,=,,.,=- -'. .

Many pieces of ordnance pertaining to the early days
of the strategic triangle still may be seen in displays
made by Florida's parks.

P~j K


--_ -

From vantage points such as this Spanish, French,
British, Confederate and U. S. military men have
viewed battle situations.

Historic signs now mark many of
the famed points of interest in the
old forts.

made operational in the early days of
the Navy Yard, still is maintained

West, was transported to prison in Ft. Pickens in the
1880's. He is shown (arrow) at a railroad stop en-
route here. His cell in the fort still is marked.



_- > "( * T _

(7) ... _.^. (.. ...._ *











General Manager Pensacola R.. R. /i '/"





-OFTEN with the tourist,
/ :J still more frequently
-.-- with the pleasure-seeker,
-, _-- .- .- -. and always with the in-
valid or emigrant, the
question, "How shall I
get theree" is of the first
Importance, n ot being
"'*'- : secondary to the desti-
2-. ~ nation. It seems, then,
entirely appropriate to
give first the best route
to Florida. and tell after-
wards of the soft, balmy
Strni.: lh.,- ..,'I tl L attractions for the sportsman
.' h r,..I ...r Lin. Tr 'i.lers from Pittsburg and
I I'l .. nI. d i:t ithl r::.'f, find their shortest line
SLO Jackbonville via Mouiigomery, Alabama.
Consider these figures:
Montgomery to Jacksonville, . . . . . . ... 425 miles.
Montgomery to Pensacola,. . . . . . . ... 163 miles.
Difference in favor of Pensacola, . . . . . 262 miles.
Travelers from all the great Middle and North-western States must go
to Montgomery to get to Jacksonville, if they are ticketed by the short
line. Arriving at Montgomery, they can reach the Land of Flowers, at
Pensacola, within seven (7) hours, against twenty-five (25) hours, the best
known time to Jacksonville.
At Pensacola, the resident of a colder and less genial clime will enjoy
the most perfect transformation. The senses are rapt by the novelty


of the surroundings, the suddenness and entirety of the change. As will
be shown later, the traveler will experience, in addition to the charms of
climate, attractions and excitements unknown to other parts of Florida.
From the East, passengers will find the distance by the most direct
routes as follows:
New York to Jacksonville, ... ... . . 1262 miles.
New York to Pensacola, . ... 1218 miles.
Difference in favor of Pensacola, . . . . 44 miles.

With the further difference that Pensacola can be reached by a number
of lines, all in perfect order, running double daily trains and long lines of
sleepers, giving fewer changes than are encountered in reaching any other
point in Florida.


The splendid Bay of Pensacola, unrivaled for its beauty, depth, and
security, was discovered by Panfilo-de-Narvaez, in 1525. Various adven-
turers gave it different names, as Port-de-Ancluse and St. Mary's Bay, but
that of Pensacola, which prevailed, was the true name among the Indians,
the natives of the country. The first settlement was made by the Span-
iards, in 1686. The first governor was Andre Arivola, who constructed a
small fort, called San Carlos, and erected a church upon the present site
of Fort Barrancas. The French took Pensacola in 1719; the Spanish
re-took it, and the French again took it in the same year and kept it until
1722, when it was restored to Spain. In the mean time, Pensacola had


been removed to
the west end of
Santa Rosa Island,
near the present
site of Ft. Pickens,
where the Spanish
constructed a fort.
which afterwards
was improved by
the English General -
Haldemand. The
settlement remain-
ed on the island un- --.
til 1754, when, the
town being partly
inundated, the site
was removed to the
magnificent loca-
tion which it now
la was ceded to the English in 1763, by whom it was laid off in regular
form in 1765. The town surrendered to the Spanish arms in 1781. On
the 7th of November, 1814, General Andrew Jackson, with the American
army, entered the town, when the English fleet in the bay destroyed the

forts, San Carlos (at
Barrancas) and San-
ta Rosa. Spain rec-
ognized "manifest
destiny" in I8i9,
and ceded to the
United States the
entire territory of
Florida. She was
admitted into the
Union as a State in
2845. During the
war between the
States, a consider-
able portion of the
old Spanish build-
__ ings were destroyed


main, and their quaint appearance strikes the stranger immediately. Since
the war Pensacola's advance has been marked. Its population has been
more than doubled, and its progress in architecture can be seen by the
illustrations in this book. Extensive docks have been constructed, and
other improvements accomplished, which stamp Pensacola as a growing

S'uI--.=----I II -


As this publication is for the eye of the pleasure-seeker, invalid, tourist
and sportsman, but brief mention will be made of Pensacola's commercial
importance. Pensacola Bay, spacious enough to accommodate the navies
of the world, and deep enough to load and discharge the largest vessel
alongside the railroad docks, renders Pensacola's position unrivaled. Its
easy access to and from the Gulf, its direct accessibility to and from the
Western, North-western, and Central Southern States, must furnish a very
large regular and rapidly increasing business in transportation to and from
its ports, not only of lumber, but also of cotton, grain, coal, iron, and all
the products of the West Indies and South America.
It is but necessary to add Pensacola's Annual Marine Statement for the
year ending July i, 1877, to astonish the uninformed.
Foreign vessels entered. . 270, tonnage 200,801, men in crew 4,273.
American . II10, 35,560, 987.
Coasting . .210, 59,208, 2,198.
Total vessels ... 590, 295,569, 7,458.
The value of Exports from Pensacola during the same year amounted to $2,291,822,


Consider 7,458 men coming to Pensacola each year from every quarter
of the Globe, the 200 stevedores and assistants who make Pensacola their
winter home, and its resident population of 6,000, and it can truly be said
that Pensacola offers more stir, variety, and reality of life than any city in
Florida. What port in the State, or in America, can show over 200 square
rigged vessels in its harbor at one time, as is often the case at Pensacola?
This attraction will steadily enhance, as arrangements are being perfected
to export iron and coal in increased quantities, via Pensacola; and cotton
and grain shippers have at last awakened to the remarkable facilities
that are offered by the port, and the exportation of both has been fairly

Florida has been called the Italy of America, and the thousands who
have breathed its genial, healthy, life-giving atmosphere will cheerfully
testify that it is no misnomer. In summer the heat is tempered by a gulf
breeze of softness and purity unsurpassed, and the thermometer seldom
reaches 920. Dr. J. C. Whiting, from thermometrical observations at his
hospital, in Pensacola,
gives the following ta-
ble of mean tempera-
ture for 1876:
January .....54-7'
March .......64.9S
April . . 62.93
May ...... 7540
June ....... 8i.oo
.J ly . . . 84 55
August ........S4.io
SSeptemer 14
October ..... 71-34
November ..... 5S.S9
December .... 49.6o
-. The "Indian Sum-
mer" of the Middle
7and more Northern
'. TStates closely resem-
bles a Florida winter,
_. 'and will convey a bet-
ter idea than can be
written of a season
which in Florida ad-
S mits of life in the open



the North are hovering
over great fires or shiv-
ering in heavy wraps, as
the rude blasts of winter
cut to the bone. The
fact that the thermom-
eter rarely falls below
320 fits Pensacola as a
grand sanitarium for the '
whole country. Three i s
times within twenty-five
years yellow fever has. ,
scourged Pensacola, but P
in every instance the ep- F S .p
idemic was traceable to
some ship from an infect- -
ed port. In no instance -
has the disease ever orig- fd f t
inated in the city, nor
does it ever exteiqd into RESIDENCE OF CO. 4 ANDANT AT NAVY VAwD.
the country beyond the city limits. A proper quarantine always protects
the city, and in 1875 it kept Pensacola free from fever, even when it was
raging at the navy yard, where it was carried by a marine who surrepti-
tiously visited an infected vessel for the purpose of trading.
Liability to yellow fever being controlled, Pensacola's baths, boating,
ar:d fishing are rapidly increasing its popularity as a summer resort. Winter
and summer its healthfulness is marvelous, except during epidemics. To
winter visitors the fever is of no concern, as it is gone before they come.
They luxuriate in a soft, salubrious atmosphere, with health in every
breath. All classes of chronic diseases, such as diarrhea, dysentery,
rheumatism, diseases of the kidneys, and incipient pulmonary cases are
benefited and relieved by a visit to Pensacola.
Invalids in the advanced stages of phthysis pulmonalis who have visited
St. Augustine have experienced the too stimulating effect of the salt air.
This class will find the same difficulty at Pensacola, with this difference
and advantage: They can remove into the interior, and among the piney
woods breathe the salt air of the gulf modified into gentle zephyrs, which
the invalid may safely inhale, and which never fail to re-animate and ben-
efit. At the same time the location is not out of the world, but within less
tkan twelve hours' journey from the cities of New Orleans, Mobile, Pensa-
cola, and Montgomery. Statistics testify to the healthfulness of Florida.
Notwithstanding the fact that so many thousands of consumptives resort


to the State for relief, the proportion of deaths from pulmonary complaints
in it is less than in any other State in the Union. The census of 1870
showed that these deaths
were as follows:
Massachusetts . one in 283
y Maine d....... .. 315
Vermont. ..... 463
- Neew York..... 379
Pennsylvania. 470
Ohio ....... 507
California .. ... ..." 450
Virginia ... 585
Indiana........ 599
Illinois.......... 698
Florida.. ..... "1,433
The Presbyterian, Meth-
odist, Episcopal, Baptist,
and Catholic congregations
have comfortable church
buildings. The illustration
shows the Episcopal Church
EPISCOPAL CHURCH. the oldest house of worship
in the city, having been constructed more than half a cen-
tury ago. The system of public schools is liberal and
efficient, and in addition a number of private schools are well supported.
Principal among the charms of Pensacola is its society. The people are
pleasant, refined, and intelligent, and the stranger is surprised at the cor-
dial hospitality extended from every quarter.


By consulting the map of Pensacola and its surroundings, the reader will
observe the net-work of water-courses, bays, and bayous centering at that
city. The water is clear, bright, and beautiful Surf bathing upon Santa
Rosa beach as enjoyable as language can express, the salt water bathing in
the bath-houses of the bay, and bathing in fresh water as clear as crystal.
can all be had within a distance of seven miles. One may weary of St. John
River, which at first impresses the beholder as grand, but soon becomes
monotonous. How different the broad, beautiful Bay of Pensacola! On
its rolling waters one can never tire. For lovers of St. John scenery the
Santa Rosa Sound offers a magnificent substitute, with Live Oak Planta-
tion skirting its bank on one side, and only Santa Rosa Island, with its
narrow strip of soil, between it and the blue waters of the Gulf of Mexico
on the other. The Perdido Bay is one of the loveliest sheets of water in the


State, rivaled by the Escambia Bay, with its bluffs and ever-movings fleets.
Any attempt to particularize becomes confusing, as the special beauties and
attractions of the different bays and bayous are remembered. Escambia
River is the "Ocklawaha" of West Florida. The stranger who wishes to
enjoy a short trip will be pleased as the steamer plows through the broad,
placid waters of Escambia Bay, and then delighted with the luxuriance of
the tropical growth as the vessel winds its way up the narrow and tortuous
channel of Escambia River to Molino. At this point the excursionist can
take the train and return by rail to Pensacola.
The fresh water fishing is superb. The waters literally swarm with all
kinds of fish, notably trout, black bass, and pike. All varieties of perch
abound, including a special kind, a very game fish, called bream. It is
not unusual for a good angler to pull out fifty to sixty of these fish in an
houri weighing from a half to one pound. Both in salt and fresh water
fishing is carried on with pleasure and profit the entire year. In the bay
and bayous every description of salt water fish abound, and in the season
fifty cents will purchase half a dozen Spanish mackerel of the size for
which the epicure pays seventy-five cents for one half in the restaurants
of New York City. These fish, and the salt water trout, give special
excitement to those who love a contest with a very game fish. No one
can claim to have seen what fishing is until they have visited the snapper
banks off Santa Rosa Island. There the famous red snapper can be
caught, two at a time,
.weighing from five
.... pounds to sixty, as
rapidly as the line is
thrown in. The limit
to the quantity catch-
able is commensurate
L with the physical en-
durance of the catch-
er. An illustration is
here given (from a
photograph) of four
fish caught by a party
in Pensacola Bay.
One weighing 214
w pounds was drawn
out after it was killed
., by shooting, by Thos.
-- R. Hopkins, No.i94


claimed that no one can know the flavor of fresh fish until he has
Pompano, at Pensacola. Pensacola's importance as a fishing point
is best described by
-the true statement
S---- that its dealers ship
all kinds of fish to
Mobile,New Orleans
Sand other points, by
___ the car load. An-
oether very attractive
--- ui amusement is turtle
hunting, on Santa
Rosa Island. It is
not unusual to find
as many as x 80 eggs
in one nest. From
____ tthe Junction to Pen-
i sacola, all around
the city, and oppo-
site it, in Live Oak
Plantation, every de-
scription of game
mbers, including deer, turkeys, and partridges, with an occasional
t should impress every one that it is not necessary to exile one's
endure all the imaginary pleasures of camp life, to secure the best
sport with rod and gun; both are within from one to three hours'
il, or walk of the hotels. The splendid duck shooting at the
of the rivers, in season, should not be forgotten. Oysters of the
ze and flavor are taken in any quantity wanted. Attention has
ned to planting the bivalve, with fine results. Last winter, Mr
er Stoddard, of No. 175 Broadway, set out 750,000 in Bayou
long the water front of his fine estate.
chapter would not be complete without mentioning the facilities
thing, via Pensacola, St. Andrews' Bay, St. Joseph, Apalachicola,
r famous fishing grounds and hunting fields of the Florida coast.
turkeys are seen between the rails of the Pensacola Railroad, and
line partridges roam apparently without fear. From its coaches
of the rifle can be heard as it brings down a deer. It is when
sman tires of this game, and desires an encounter with a bear,
or panther, that he needs to seek St. Andrews and the contiguous


The pleasure of boating at Pensacola is not confined to fishing a c idly
rolling on the mighty wave, or smoothly plowing the placid watte4r-s _: bu t
added to these charms are the numerous places in the vicinity rtooa' .g to-
The stranger who may visit it will not wonder at finding first on t:h- i ; list
Santa Rosa Island. Upon its beach, mid-day in its overflowing br'illJli an rrcyY
makes the beholder feel as if, according to Milton, "Another m oor-rn lhan-
risen on mid-noon." The sunset comes with a splendor and gl'crr-y- Tun-
known to more Northern climes. As the ever-moving waves roll, w-i itl"r I1c'er
meated and ever-varying colors, upon the. snow-white sand, one feesel.s -the
awful supremacy of the Almighty, and the littleness of man, in a rna.ra nrner
conveyed by no other sight in nature. While on the island, ve-r _y' iff ew
visitors fail to find an interest in collecting shells and sea-beans. "'T .' i- cen
comes a visit to Fort Pickens; this grand and historic old edifice, tl--co>,uu :gh
denuded of a portion of the iron dogs of war that used to bay, not "* acdlce-ctP
mouthed welcome home," but roars of defiance, still possesses a mul't iitii-ac- e
of pleasant and interesting sights and objects that make a visit there 1,>-C. t_
profitable and agreeable.
Across the bay s'the Navy Yard, and just west of the Navy Ya.r-cd :i'
Fort Barrancas. 3oth are beautiful and will interest the most indiffe.r rern t --
Added to the novelties to be seen, is the delightful society enjoyeald IR>-
all who know the hos-
pitable and intelli-
gent officers of both i
the garrisons. Below
Barrancas is the Pen
sacola Light-house,
illustrated on the
cover of this book
from a photograph,
and said to be the
finest light on the
Gulf. Near by is
Fort McRae, once
familiar with all the
"pomp and circum-
stance of glorious
war," but where now
the solemn bat reigns
supreme, in a silence
only broken by the CENTRAL AVENUE, NAVY YARD.


never-ceasing roll of the mighty ocean, as the wild waves dash upon its
once proud walls. Years ago it was built upon a foundation which seemed
as enduring as granite, _
but the Gulf threatened,
and for a time its fall was o giS
r 1- I
averted by the construc- e _
tion of an immense sea -
wall. The rolling waters
could not be withstood, i
and the illustrations will '
show the condition of its i
ruined battlements,case- !
mates, ramparts, and
posterns, which are now a
tumbling to decay. It
is at McRae that the
searcher after shells and
other marine treasures is
most successful. With I
the old Spanish fort, the
pretty villages of Milton -
Plantation, bays, bayous, sounds, and rivers, this chapter might be extended
indefinitely. Suffice it to say that the visitor at Pensacola must tire of going,
seeing, enjoying, long before the list of attractive places to go to have been

West Florida is in no respect an agricultural country at present, for the
reason that heretofore the timber interest has absorbed the entire energies ,I
of the country. The timber wealth is on the surface, but under the surface
lies hidden wealth which is yet to be dug out of the soil. The climate, as
explained in a previous chapter, is semi-tropical and devoid of extremes in

fulness is as near perfect as that of any section of the Globe. It is only I
necessary to let its attractions and advantages be known to see in a few
years the entire State dotted with happy homes, churches, schools, and .
villages.' Great fertility by virtue of soil the lands of West Florida do not
possess, nor can the combination of extreme fertility and health be found
in any new country. But vegetation here performs the prodigy once attrib-
uted to the chamelion, it lives on air. Let it but obtain a hold in the earth,
and an atmosphere which seldom knows a freeze seems to compel it to grow


and come to bloom and fruitage in the fine yields of the country. Drouths
are not usual, but when they occur crops seem to stand them much better
than in higher lati-
tudes. The soil gives
a generous return for
all applications of fer-
tilizers. Nothing is
grown in East Florida
north of Melonville,
that will not grow in
West Florida,with the
difference that eligible
land can be bought in
the latter section for _
one tenth the prices
charged in the form- --
er. The first settlers r
in West Florida will
find a large and re l
find a large and re- BACKWATER (FORMERLY BAGDAD). SIMIYON & C.6s MitL.
munerative market at
home for their truck and other products; articles nDw brought from the
up-country by the train-load to supply the resident and visiting population.
When the home supply has been met, the farmer will find the lines of trans-
portation cheap, quick, and reliable, leading to the great Middle and North-
western States, where the fruit shipper from Florida will not encounter the
disastrous island competition met with in the cities of the East, where East
Florida finds its principal markets. The nearer proximity of West Florida
to the interior markets, by nearly twenty:four hours express and over thirty-
six hours freight train travel, must create a steady and rapid advance in its
agricultural interests.
The new-comer will find lands on the railroads for sale, but should other
points be preferred it requires but a glance at the map to note how all the
rivers, bays, sounds, and bayous, from the Perdido to the Choctawhatchee
River, center in Pensacola Bay, making Pensacola their natural business
metropolis, to whose market crops can be floated safely and cheaply.
Every description of melon and vegetable, and all the cereals can be
grown, and of the latter suitable kinds can be used successfully for green
soiling or for winter pasturage, to assist the immense ranges during the
months when the grass and cane are least nutritious. It would astonish a
down-country" planter to see the yield of rice upon these uplands; and
sugar cane also makes a remunerative return. It is when fruits are consid-
ered that the advantages of the country appear pre-eminent. Lands within



a stone's throw of the railroad, worth from $2 to $3 per acre, make the
finest peach orchards in America, the yield being of superior size and flavor,
and the trees are remarkably long lived. Lands for oranges, lemons, and
other semi-tropical fruits, unsurpassed by any in the State, can be had at
from $5 to $25 per acre, which with similar location in East Florida would
cost $50 to $1oo per acre, notwithstanding the advantage of transportation
is with the cheaper lands. It would be a grave oversight to omit mention-
ing the prolific pecan tree, the luscious pears and plums and very fair
apples which the soil produces.
West Florida seems to be nature's vineyard, so great is the yield of the
numerous varieties of grapes. First, the fruit can be sent to supply the
early markets of the North, and later, wine can be manufactured. For the
latter purpose the scuppernong, which grows to special perfection, is very
greatly prized. Lord Raleigh landed in North Carolina, near Newbern,
nearly two centuries ago; he there tasted the scuppernong for the first time,
from a vine still in existence, which three years ago, it is said, yielded
forty-two barrels of wine.
White, in his description of this grape, says: "We consider this very
peculiar grape one of the greatest boons to the South. It has very little
resemblance to any of the grapes of the other sorts. It is a rampant
grower and requires little, if any, cultivation. It blooms from the fifteenth
to the last of June, and ripens its fruit in West Florida about the latter part
of August. It has no disease in wood, leaf, or fruit, and rarely, if ever,
fails to produce a heavy crop. We have never known it to fail. Neither
birds nor insects ever attack the fruit. We are credibly informed that a
vine of this variety is growing near Mobile, which has produced two hun-
dred and fifty bush-
__- -_ els of grapes in a
- year, and we know
,that vines ten years
--___ old have given and
will give thirty bush-
.- els per vine. From
L three to three and
a half gallons of
-juice can be gotten
i from a bushel of
- these grapes, ac-
--_ -- cording to ripeness.
--- _ It is the sweetest
and most luscious

of any grape Nve



have ever seen or tasted, makes a fine, heavy, high-flavored, fruity wine,
and is peculiarly adapted to making foaming wines."
It would run this theme through innumerable pages to dwell upon the
luscious strawberries and other delicacies, but, at the risk of being prosy,
the fig must not be overlooked. This fruit, so delightful when eaten ripe
from the tree, is the best dried fruit known, and is without a parallel as a
preserve or pickle. Mr. Alexander Stoddart, of 175 Broadway, New York,
has now every known variety (twenty-two) on his place, and in a few years
the pickling for market from his place alone will reach a large amount
annually. Mr. Stoddart added sixty acres last year to his orange and
pecan groves and orchards of peaches and figs. His vineyards and straw-

berry beds have been more than doubled, and in another year he will
be running refrigerator cars to the various markets of the North.
The Escambia bluffs shown in illustration above are on the place of
the Yniestra Brothers. At this beautiful spot, a veritable Eden, can be
found all the products of Florida, including several thousand orange trees.
The buildings under the bluff are the sheds under which the bricks for the
Dry Tortugas forts were made. These bluffs extend for miles, offering the
most desirable location in all Florida for orange groves.
The land is slightly rolling, dry and arable, except occasional swamps
near the mouths of rivers and heads of some of the bayous and bays.
The rain fall is sufficient, and on the streams,with which the country is so
magnificently watered, can be found numerous and superior water-powers.


Santa Rosa Island is a sand key of the Gulf, forty miles long, and
varying in breadth from a fifth of a mile to over a mile across; it is the
breakwater of Pensacola Harbor, and receives the shock of the rolling
seas of the Gulf of Mexico which often break against it in fury, while the
waters of the bay within are still as a mill-pond and scarce a ripple washes
the beach of the city front seven miles away, though the water at the city
is as salt as that in the center of the Gulf. The sea beach of the island is
a gently sloping expanse of white sand, back and forth on which the
S advancing and receding waves will glide for hundreds of feet. You can
stand where no water is
one moment, and the
next be struggling waist
deep against a surging
wave that is climbing up
the strand. This beach
is the incubator of the
great turtles of the Gulf. i
Its gradual incline, the
easily excavated'sand
beyond, and the twa rm
southern exposure,adapt
it to their approach, the
making of nests, and u
hatching of their eggs.
So they resort to it for
this purpose, and in due
time the young turtles
are hatched, unless the RESIDENCE OF HON. C. W. JONES, U. S. SENATOR.
eggs are captured by the various creatures, biped and quadruped, who seek
them in the season. From Pensacola over to the island is about seven miles,
and as the land breeze of the night sets fair across the bay, it is a pleasant
trip of moonlight nights to run over- on a sail-boat, land on the bay shore,
walk across the island, which is not a third of a mile wide opposite the city,
and seek for ''turtle crawls" on the Gulf beach, or bathe luxuriously in the
surf. The "crawl" shows on the sand where the under shell has been
dragged along, and following this up to a point above the wash of the
highest waves, the nest is found, usually about two and a half feet below
the surface. A single nest will contain from 1oo to 300 eggs. At Sabine
Pass, on Santa Rosa Island, alligators are found by the ten thousand, and
are killed in large numbers by hunters who frequent the place.


The immense forests of
_--- -- pitch pine tributary to Pen-
-- sacola, notwithstanding the
.' large business annually trans-
acted, have as yet only been
worked on the edges lying
'': alongside the creeks, rivers,
lakes and bayous. Untold
acres of virgin forests remain
to be stripped of the growth
of many centuries, to give
place to the farmer, whose
labor will make the land smile
MUSCOGEE SOUTH MILL. with a luxuriant wealth of
vegetation. This transition must be gradual, and for years to come Pen-
sacola's superior supply, in connection with its absolutely secure harbor
and a depth of water which can load a vessel to twenty-three feet within
six feet of cars on the railroad docks, must continue it as the chief timber
port of the country. The busy whirr of the saw will be heard for at least
a quarter of a century before existing forests are gone, and as one growth
is cut away another will spring up where the plow of the farmer does not
prevent. On the line of the Pensacola Railroad are four mills, two belong-
ing to the Muscogee Lumber Company, the Molino and Bluff Springs, with
a cutting capacity of over sixty millions of superficial feet per annum. At
Millview, connected with Pensacola by the Pensacola & Perdido Railroad,
are six mills, with a capacity of sixty-five millions of superficial feet each
twelve months. Simpson's mills, Blackwater, Skinner's,Wright's,Bay Point,
Bayou, and others make the aggregate cutting capacity of mills contiguous
to Pensacola exceed two hundred million feet per annum. In addition to
this sawn stuff, thousands of pieces of hewn timber are floated down the
streams to market. Even the forests of the Tombigbee and Alabama rivers
have been made tributary to Pensacola, by an arrangement to float the
timber to Tensas Station, Alabama, and transport from that point by rail,
after it has been loaded by steam machinery. This timber will be dis-
charged at Pensacola into a boom whose capacity exceeds ten thousand
sticks. As it is alongside the railroad docks, within the corporate limits of
the city, and not more than three hundred feet from water thirty feet deep,
the arrangement must give a wonderful impetus to Pensacola's timber trade.
It affords absolute security against blows, and avoids the expense and risk
of towage from Ferry Pass-in short, it is perfect.





(Popular in Pensacola thirty years ago.)

Sweet Florida, good-bye to thee!
Thou land of song and flowers,
Where generous hearts and beauty dwell
Amid thy fragrant bowers.
The interest deep, the love I feel,
Bound by each genial tie, '
Bloom like thy sweet magnolia.
Sweet Florida, good-bye!
Sweet Florida, good-bye!

I go to seek another clime,
But go where e'er I may,
The love I bear to thee and thine
No change can chase away.
Santa Rosa's snow-white sands
Are fading from my sight;
Farewell awhile to thee and thine.
Sweet Florida, good-night!
Sweet Florida, good-night!


Mobile lies in latitude 300 41', at the head of the bay and mouth of the
river of the same name. The surrounding country, broken into beautiful
undulations, is covered with pine timber, the resinous exhalations from
which give such celebrity to this region as conducive to health. These
hills and valleys are carpeted all the year with green grass which grows
luxuriantly amid the tall pines of the forest.
Mobile possesses peculiar attractions to the seeker after pleasure, com-
fort, or health. Its climate is mild and salubrious; its inhabitants genial,
hospitable, and refined; its residences abound with evidences of a culti-
vated taste, and here may be
seen during the entire win- -
ter flowers in full bloom and
trees loaded with oranges.
Here also the mere seeker
after ease may enjoy that com- ----
fort denied in a.'colder and -
more inl suitablee climate,and -. -
the more robust may enjoy
field sports within easy reach
of the city. The bay swarms i' '
with fish and ducks. Snipe -4
and woodcock frequent the
savannahs of the pine lands,
and the rolling hills, rising
hundreds of feet, are haunts --- --
of the partridge and deer. WOOLSEY ENTRANCE TO NAVY YARD, PENSACOLA.
of the partridge and deer.
The water of all this pine region is peculiarly pure, and its streams are
clear and beautiful. The soil is sandy, and consequently, even in wettest
weather, there is practical freedom from mud. Fruits and vegetables are
grown during the entire year in the open air, while fresh and salt water
fish, and game, complete the attractions of the market.
No place affords more delightful drives or smoother roads. The visitor
is confined to no special one, though the loveliest of all is ;.e shell road,
which leads through groves of magnificent magnolias along the margin
of the broad and lovely bay.
This bay lies between many points of interest to the student of history.
Near its outlet is Fort Morgan, occupying the site of old Fort Bowyer,

ESCAMBIA 1V. ..n..

I---1~ -~ --


which once repelled a large British fleet, and where recently a yet more
famous strife took place. Near this and opposite is Fort Gaines, and
further on Fort Pow-
ell, while at the head _
of the bay is Spanish W---
Fort. Around all of ----
these manymemories
cluster. At various
contiguous points are
mounds erected by
an unknown people, N (M
and in these mounds
are found the re-
mains of these ex-
tinct races.
Near the city, on
the line of the Mobile
& Ohio Railroad, are
many healthful re- -
sorts, chief among ...-
which is Citronelle,
a village rapidly becoming famous for the salubritry of its atmosphere, so
peculiarly favorable to those suffering from pulmonary disease. This town
is reached by a special accommodation train in addition to the daily mail
service. And along the eastern shore of the bay are villages, with cheap
and comfortable accommodations for boarders, as far as Point Clear, where
there is a large, commo-
dious, and well-kept ho-
tel, all reached daily by
a pleasant trip on a fine
-low-pressure steamer.
_From Mobile to New Or-
leans, distant 140 miles,
the railroad skirts the
Gulf of Mexico, and all
along are villages and
cottages where may be
-'- combined the peculiar
attractions of this coast
and all the appliances of
civilization-daily mails,


transit to near and great centers of population. All this region is expedi-
tiously and pleasantly reached by the Mobile & Ohio R. R., which stretches
out its arms 500 miles northward, and by the Montgomery & Mobile R'y,
extending to Montgomery, with connections to all points west and north,
inviting from colder climes the pleasure seeker, tired man of business, and
invalid, to enjoy themselves and recuperate in its balmy air.


New Orleans! How the mere sound comes freighted with visions of
pleasure, luxury and comfort. The Paris of America it certainly is, but
its delights are not confined to the gayeties of life. Within its abundant
resources every taste and disposition find their full measure of pleasure
and ease. It would be a superfluity for these pages to dwell upon the
attractions of this glorious old city, for they would repeat things charming
enough in themselves, but as familiar all over the country as household
The tourist would be well repaid by a visit to this grand old city, filled
with monuments of historic lore. Here are the famous plains of Chal-
mette, memorable by the rout of the British by Jackson. Here also Forts
St. Philip and Jackson defending the entrance to the city.



The French Market is a unique feature of New Orleans, with its many
varied and attractive stalls laden with every luxury in the shape of game,
fruit, vegetables, fish, oranges, etc. One meets representatives of all the
nations of the earth, all talking at the same time in their respective tongues,
and making a perfect Babel of sounds. This market is celebrated over the
entire country for its delightful coffee, and no visitor to the city fails to visit
the market for the purpose of trying it.
Numberless lines of city railway cars traverse the principal streets,
affording rapid transit from one point of interest to another. The Branch
Mint, on Esplanade Street, when in operation, is well worth a visit. A ride
on the levee, with its forests of masts and shipping, steamers, flat-boats,
and barges which line its side for miles, is novel and pleasant.
The Jockey Club Course, Fair Grounds, and the various cemeteries,
monuments, churches, and other public buildings, afford innumerable
points of attraction. In fact it would take too much time and space to begin
to enumerate the many points of interest or places of amusement, for their
name is legion. This city is noted for the hospitality of its people and the
beauty and elegance of its women.
Previous to the opening of the New Orleans & Mobile Railroad tlhe
attractions of the Gulf Coast of Mississippi, either as a summer or winter
resort, were of comparatively local celebrity. The only means of commu-
nication was a daily line of steamers, running between New Orleans and
Mobile, and stopping at the various points along the coast; and yet thou-
sands of families from
the interior of the states
adjoining were regular
visitors, season after
season, while a great
many built residences
and occupied them per-
manently. But from
the date of the opening
of the railroad, and the
more i-apid, frequent,
and convenient com-
munication thus estab-
lished, the advantages
of a sojourn on the
the coast became more
widely known, and peo-
ple from all parts of the


summer and winter

a remarkably mild,
pleasant and healthy
climate, fanned by -
the salt day breezes
from the Gulf, the
shade heat of sum-
mer rarely exceeds
850, and the cold of i
winter scarcely ever
reaches the freezing
point. The great
abundance of game,
fish,and oysters, and l
the fine sailing, row-
ing, and bathing, en-
tice the visitor to that
healthful out-door il
makes-a sojourn at any of the points along the coast no less enjoyable than
beneficial to health.
Beginning at Waveland Station-about forty-five miles from New Or-
leans-a line of residences, almost unbroken except by the bays and inlets
of the coast, extends for nearly fifty miles. Clustering together here and
there, by the side of some broad and quiet bay, these seaside homes form
themselves into villages, at which the railroad company has established
stations, and where the visitor finds hotel or boarding-house accommo-
dations, churches, schools, and all facilities for healthful enjoyment.
A vast pine forest, seventy-five to one hundred miles wide, and reach-
ing almost the whole length of the coast, mingles its balsamic odors with
the salt breezes of the Gulf, bringing health to the feeble and pleasure to
all. .Millions of wild fowl of all descriptions swarm about the bays and
marshes during the winter months, and the hunter never fails to bring back
abundance of game from his excursions among the neighboring islands.
Oranges of unsurpassed flavor are grown in abundance along the whole
coast. Not a residence or hotel that does not have its bearing orange
trees, and at various places extensive orchards of this most delicious fruit
are to be seen flourishing side by side with the peach, pear, apple, fig, and
olive tree. In addition to the attractions of a healthful, mild and equable
climate, fully equal in all respects to that of Florida, a short ride over one
of the finest and best equipped railroads in the country, takes the visitor


sojourning on this coast to New Orleans or Mobile, and thus combines all
the pleasures and comforts of city life with those of the winter resort. No
traveler, seeking either health or pleasure,will fail to appreciate the advan-
tage of this nearness to the unvarying round of winter amusements for
which New Orleans is so justly celebrated.



WAVELAND STATION-47 Miles from New Orleans.
At this point the residences on the coast begin, and extend side by side,
to the bay of St. Louis. There are as yet no hotels, but several private
boarding-houses will accommodate visitors. The soil is well adapted to
the culture of almost all fruits and vegetables. Several extensive orange
orchards and scuppernong vineyards are now under successful cultivation.

BAY ST. LOUIS-52 Miles from New Orleans.
This thriving village is situated on the western shore of the Bay of St."
Louis, and extends around on the Gulf front. There are three very com-
fortable hotels and many private boarding-houses. Population about 2,000.
Episcopal, Presbyterian, Methodist, and Catholic congregations. Two
public and several excellent private schools for both sexes. One of the
loveliest views in the South is that presented to the traveler approaching
Bay St. Louis by the railroad from the east. The broad Bay on the right,
and the waters of the Gulf on the left, with the beautiful sweep of the


shore, covered with verdure, and crowned with its line of neat white cot-
tages, form a picture of calm and lovely beauty which can not but charm
the senses of the traveler seeking rest or health. The railroad company
has erected a costly and handsome station-house at this point, where pas-
sengers breakfast and dine.
Commencing far up the shore of the Bay, a well kept shell road, eight
miles in length, runs along the top of the bluff around the point, and west-
ward on the Gulf shore for several miles, making one of the finest drives
in the country. Several large oak groves in the vicinity of the station are
being fitted up by the railroad company for picnic grounds.

PASS CHRISTIAN-58 Miles from New Orleans.
Pass Christian has a permanent population of about 2,000. There are
three handsome church edifices: Episcopal, Presbyterian, and Catholic.
Three public schools, a fine school for young ladies, and a very excellent
private school for boys; also a Catholic institution for small children.
Several good hotels and private boarding-houses. Furnished houses can
be had at reasonable rates by the month or season. Pass Christian is justly
celebrated for the number of handsome residences it contains, and for its
fine shell road, extending along the entire water front of the village.

MISSISSIPPI CITY-70 Miles from New Orleans.
Mississippi City is the county seat of Harrison County. It has a per-
manent population of about 400. Two good hotels-the Tegarden Hotel,
situated near the station, and convenient to the water, and Barnes Hotel,
directly on the front. Excellent fishing and boating all the year around.



BILOXI-8o Miles from New Orleans.
Biloxi has a permanent population of over 2,1oo, and is one of the
most thriving towns on the coast. It is situated on a peninsula formed by
the Back Bay of Biloxi and the Gulf, being thus almost surrounded by fine
fishing and ducking ground. Deer Island, a narrow strip of land, a short
distance off the front of the town, is a favorite resort for both hunters and
fishermen. There are four churches: Methodist, Baptist, Episcopal, and
Catholic. Good public schools, and several fine private educational insti-
tutions. The Montross House and other fine hotels and boarding-houses
offer excellent accommodation to visitors.

-- -- - _
OCEAN SPRINGS-85 Miles from New Orleans.
The situation of Ocean Springs differs from other towns along the coast,
in the fact that the land here rises to a greater altitude and is more broken
or rolling. On the west it faces the Bay of Biloxi, and on the south the
Gulf. At various points in the town and vicinity mineral springs, posses-
sing rare medicinal qualities, are found, the virtues of which were tradi-
tional with the Indians who formerly inhabited the coast. The population
of the town is about i,900. There are four churches: Methodist, Baptist,
Episcopal, and Catholic. One public school and four private institutions
of learning. The Ocean Springs Hotel has been recently purchased by
Northern parties, and completely furnished, with a view to the entertain-
ment of Northern visitors. In addition to the fishing, hunting, and boat-
ing to be enjoyed at this point, the mineral springs are highly recommended
by the medical faculty for the relief of many chronic diseases.

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Unsurpassed Hunting, Boatings Sailt and Fresh Water P. .B thing all wtr an hour'e tide of Pensacola,


"Varatillo" (Junk Shop), where the expedition discovered Indian encampments. The local
.inhabitants were cooking buffalo meat-. Siguenza's group noted other live buffalo along
the east side of the Bay near Yellow River. Courtesy of Professor Irving A. Leonard.
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This map (1693) by Siguenza was the first survey of Pensacola Bay area, complete with
soundings. At the mouth of East River, Siguenza plotted "Robledad" (Grove of Oaks) and
"Varatillo" (Junk Shop), where the expedition discovered Indian encampments. The local
inhabitants were cooking buffalo meat. Siguenza's group noted other live buffalo along
the east side of the Bay near Yellow River. Courtesy of Professor Irving A. Leonard.

This unusual map of the coast of Pensacola, Santa Rosa Island and Dauphin Island in 1712
shows an inset of the Spanish fort at today's Pensacola Naval Air Station. It was located
on rather low ground dominated by the hills where San Carlos de Barrancas and the
lighthouse stand.

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Tri; PenLsacola in the 1760's or 1770's, by George Gauld. George Gauld was employed by
w Britishi Navy to chart the coast along West Florida. He probably painted this
.- )temporancous picture in the mid-to-late 1760's, for it resembles Dunford's 1765 and 1767
,',tiu'd plans of the Fort at Pensacola. In any case, it was published by Thomas Jeffrey's
Lundon in the 1770's.

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The Pensacola occupied by the British in 1763 consisted of about 100 huts. According to tho

laziness of the Spaniards, remains still uncultivated, the woods are close to the village,
from all of British West Florida. Pensacola served as capital for the colony.
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The Pensacola occupied by the British in 1763 consisted of about 100 huts. According to the
commander ~of the occupational forces, Augustin L'rovost, "The country, from the insufferable
laziness of thle Spaniards, remains still uncultivated, the woods are close to the village,
and a few paltry gardens show the only improvements." Under British rule, Pensacola doubled
in size in a few short years, developed the public gardens, and greatly expanded the exports
from all of British West Florida. Pensacola served as capital for the colony.

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During the first years of the last
period of Spanish occupation
in Pensacola the great trading
firm of Panton, Leslie and
Company opened their trading
house. By 1785 William Panton
was living in Pensacola, and
made this area his headquarters.
The firm was deeply involved
in Spanish policy, as most of the
trade involved deer and other
skins brought to them by the
Creek, Chickasaw, and Choctaw.
This rarely seen land plat shows
the trading post in its last years
of operation in the early 1830's
under the ownership of John and
James Innerarity, nephews of
the original owner, William Panton.
The long building to the lower
right was a handsome two-story
brick dwelling belonging to
William Panton.

Although planned in the late
1780's, these fortifications
(located on the site of the
Pensacola Naval Air Station),
vital to the proper defense of
Pensacola Harbor were not
constructed until just after Spain
declared war on Britain in 1796.
Work was commenced on the
brick media-luna battery in 1797,
S called by some the Battery of
San Antonio, and others Fort San
Carlos. In reality, the fort shown
on thetep half was Fort San
Carlos de Barrancas, and it was
this earthenwork and palisade
fortification that the British blew
up in 1814. The upper fortification
was removed to make way for
Fort Barrancas built by the U.S.
Corp of Engineers in the 1840's.
They are now maintained by
the Gulf Islands National


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Juan Baptiste C(azenave built Tivoli High House in 1805 during the second Spanish period. It
stood on the southeast corner of Zaragoza and Barracks Streets until 1935. It is restored on
its original site.
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Juan atst ('znv ul i3itih[os n185drn h eodSaihpro.I
stood o the s uihatcre fZrgz n .rak tet ni 95 ti etrdo
'its oriia site

This building, sketched in middle
nineteenth century, was built
during the British period in
Pensacola, and under the Spanish
{.. g became the residence of the
';''Intendant, the Royal Treasurer,
(apparently Intendant Juan
Buenauentura Morales in 1807-12)
Long destroyed, the home was
located on the lot which is now the
S --northwestern corner of Jefferson
S' and Intendencia Streets, the
:' latter named after the Intendant,
Sor the Intendancy, of course.

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4 t^413, i4-4". e S* 4- Pitado, .urveyor..... Ge.al of Wes Flri .4a subdvide. m of the land
,jetji : 'th od "ort at Pe .nsa **oa.. . 4. .in1 te at f vl S f..4C.is. ..y44i.i 4D isr.it, to rais mo

a.ir the local civil government. The following year, Plaza Constitution bordering Palafox Street
* intt.Uic Plaza Ferdinand, and Seville Square received its name.

The Charles Lavalle House is a typical
"French" Gulf Coast cottage built about 1810
It employs a simple architecture with
plastered brick interior walls, an apron roof,
and a Bahamian-type railing on the front
porch. Now owned by the Historic Pensacola
Preservation Board, and located at the
corner of Barracks and Church Streets.
It was moved to its present location in 1969.

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The Dorothy Walton House was built about
1810 and reflects the basic lines of the
Creole cottage. Restored in the late 1960's,
the house is now owned by the Iistoric
Pensacola Preservation Board and open to
visitors during part of the year. The House
was constructed by either Gabriel Hernandez
or Madame Folch, wife of Vincente Folch y
Juan, the Spanish governor, and was occupied
after the Americans took Pensacola by
Dorothy Walton, wife of a signer of the
Declaration of Independence from Georgia.

Desiderio Quina, an Italian soldier in Spanish
service, built the Quina House about i815
during the last Spanish period in Pensacola.
Reflecting a French colonial architecture,
the house features a "butterfly" roof,
common in Key West, and designed to
catch rain water for household use. The
Quina House was acquired by the Pensacola
Historical Preservation Society in 1967.

The Suzannah Cottage was built about 1804
for a free woman of color, Suzannah
Crespo, and reflects a French colonial
architecture once wide-spread along the
Gulf Coast. Although the Spanish
occupied Pensacola when the cottage was
built, it was probably built by French
artisans from the West Indies, New Orleans,
or Canada. The house is located at 433
East Government Street in the Seville
Square District and is occupied by a shop
open to the public.





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The Barkley House (410 South Florida
Blanca St.) was built about 1818.
George Barkley a prominent local
merchant, made this his home from
1835 until his death in 1854.
The Barkley House is located in the
Seville Square Historical District.
Painted by Mrs. Emma D. Chandler.

The Gonzalez House at Gull Point
(early 1800's) from a watercolor by
Emma D. Chandler in the 1880's. A fine
example of one of the large homes
along Scenic Highway 90 that existed
in the early 1800's. The Gonzalez family
arrived in the last Spanish period;
their descendants have contributed
significantly to the development of
business, politics, and civic affairs in
Pensacola for nearly 200 years.


~ -

The Calaboza (old Spanish Jail) was
located on the southwest corner of
Alcaniz and Intendencia Streets. T! the
1770's the British constructed on this
site a small "gaol," that the Spanish
also used as their jail from 1781 until
S 1821. Andrew Jackson jailed Lt. Col.
Jose Callava, the last Spanish Governor
here in a dispute over transfer of
governing power. Later, local authorities
imprisoned Jonathan Walker, a
Massachusetts shipwright accused of
, stealing slaves, in this jail. Walker's
imprisonment and subsequent branding
with "SS" inspired John Greenleaf
Whittier's poem, "The Branded Hand."
Painted in the 1880's by Miss Emma
D. Chandler.



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Florida became a territory of the United States by an Act of Congress,
March 30, 1822. The Territorial Period in Pensacola was marked by prosperity
in the 1830's largely through the building of Forts Pickens and McRee under the
direction of Captain William H. Chase, and the opening in 1826 and continuous
ante-bellum development of the navy yard under the initial supervision of
Captain Lewis Warrington. The Navy also assumed control of a live-oak
plantation on the Santa Rosa Peninsula (part of the Gulf Islands Seashore today),
in order to supply timber for the construction of naval vessels.

The Territorial and Ante-bellum Periods are noteworthy for the development
of the local brick industry, created in response to Chase's successful attempts
to convince the U.S. government to fortify the entrance to Pensacola Harbor as
protection for the newly established navy yard. Tens of millions of bricks were
burned in Pensacola between 1829 and the late 1850's for Forts Pickens, Barrancas,
McRee and the Redoubt. Necessities for production of bricks quickly prompted
inventions. As a consequence, shortly before the war, Mr. J. W. Crary, a
superintendent at the Abercrombie Brickyards, invented a rotary brick machine
which revolutionized the industry by fabricating some 40,000 bricks a day.

Though Pensacola prospered during this period, largely through federal
appropriations, the population remained small, only 2,876 people in 1860. The
community was still characterized by a strong European flavor, its foreign born
and their first generation descendants occupying a prominent role in local
affairs. The census of 1850 shows that there were 741 slaves in the city as well
well as 350 free Negroes, many of whom were skilled or held small businesses.


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Pensacolians made numerous
attempts to generate a railroad to
link Pensacola with rails to the
north in Alabama. Efforts made
directly by William H. Chase
produced tangible results with the
incorporation of the Alabama and
Florida Railroad. Shortly before
the Civil War the railroad opened
with a line going to Pollard,
Alabama. During the evacuation of
Pensacola in 1862, Confederate
forces ripped up much of the rail
and confiscated the rolling stock.


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J W. (rary's Rotary Brick Machine was developed and installed at the Bacon and Abercrombie
liikard along Scenic Highway not far from Gaberonne. It almost doubled the output of brick
.i. reduced the number of workers and slaves to a minimum. This machine could produce on
*' average of 40,000 brick a day, and actually set a record of 47,000 in a single day's
Sriei.!ation. Although the local machine was destroyed in 1862 by evacuating Confederate troops,
. r,:ceived a U.S. patent, and helped to revolutionize brickmaking in the eastern United States.




* Two days after Florida seceded from the Union on January 10, 1861,
ii0sacola volunteer companies and Alabama units, under the command of
,V'!iai H. Chase of Pensacola, occupied the Navy Yard. Forts Barrancas and
,Mlee were also occupied by Confederates without firing a shot. But the Union
,c!:tded to make a stand at Ft. Pickens on Santa Rosa Island. For a time it
h,,,'vd that President Lincoln wanted to use Ft. Pickens as his test case to
:i utrate that the Union would resist rebellion, a function later served by Fort
,iter, South Carolina. The first major battle in Florida occurred on October 9,
: .!, when Southern troops unsuccessfully assaulted Santa Rosa Island in an
i i'mpt to capture Ft. Pickens. Fighting before Ft. Pickens proved indecisive
it Confederate forces withdrew; hence entrance to the harbor remained under
,ltri! of Union forces. As a consequence, the Confederates pulled out of
i'!-isacula, which Union troops occupied after May 10th, 1862. During 1863,
,:'1e'rous raids and skirmishes occurred north and east of Pensacola. In August,
.-sil, Admriral Farragut used Pensacola as a supply base before the Battle of
:ki!)le Bay.
Toward the end of the war, Major General Frederick Steele led thousands of
i:iin soldiers from Barrancas through Escambia County to wipe out the remnant
Confederate resistance in Blakeley, Pollard, and Spanish Fort near Mobile,


I ie


Pensacola's economic life in the period 1865 to 1900 depended largely on the
amount of hewn timber shipped through the port. By 1900, Pensacola had
become the timber-shipping capital of the Gulf. The Southern States Land and
Timber Company was the largest producer of lumber at that time, owning over
340,000 acres of land in Florida and Alabama. Southern States near Pensacola
* operated four large sawmills and six locomotives and employed more than 900
--- _- :'-= -.
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men. Another major company, Alger-Sullivan ran log trains more than
forty miles from Century to the port of Pensacola. By 1900, with the aid of the

railroad, it became possible for these industries to obtain and cut a thousand
logs a day and to ship them rough-sawn to the points of the globe. From 1875 to
1895 the value of land in exporida and Alabama. Southern States near the port of Pensacola amounted to
operated four large sawmills and six locomotives and employed more than 900
men. Another major company, Alger-Sullivan ran log trains more than
forty miles from Century to the port of Pensacola. By 1900, with the aid of the
railroad, it became possible for these industries to obtain and cut a thousand
logs a day and to ship them rough-sawn to the points of the globe. From 1875 to
1895 the value of timber exports from the port of Pensacola amounted to

-7-- __ __
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An unusual view from a print of South Palafox Street in 1874. It illustrates the
dominant role of the port in the local economy.

50 -1 9 00)

f:iv million dollars. Pensacola's population for the same period grew
hmn ;,.sj15 to 17,747. The timber economy began to falter after 1900 as forests
', cleared without replacements.

The yellow pine became not merely a source of employment and wealth,
.it :he. basis of a social life of distinctive quality of tasteful styles in
.,-:hitcture, house interiors, fashions, dress, education, and recreation. Lumber
.,:',ctt(.d every facet of life in Pensacola. It explained, for example, why bright
, ,i! men from Pensacola could attend Chapel Hill, the University of Virginia,
',l:, r 'Princeton at a time when such opportunities were rare and it accounted
ll, ..it for the quality of entertainment at the Pensacola Opera House and the
,;:ir aspirations of numerous women's organizations in the community.


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The Commandant's Quarters located on ground of today's Naval Air Station was built in 1874.
The building is architecturally noteworthy, combining classical and eclectic Victorianl
features. Courtesy of University of West Florida.

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A print of the Commandant's loc on ground of today's Naval Air Station was built i 174.
Quarters budng s archteescribing theurally noteworthy, combining classical and eclectic Victorian
feCotures. Courtesy of U.S. university of West loria.
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A printof the ommandat's '/=- ! :r -]- ;- r -'. '-", 'S.
Quarters describing ther ;3!i _.I: ., ,_ .- __.i~~; -., ,-, _
neihbrh od(crca180) ", -...z. 7_ _:.
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Above: What the well-dressed naval officer
wore in 1885 frock-coat, white pants and straw
hat. This picture was made in front of one of
the officer's quarters. Courtesy of U.S. Navy.

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Pensacola Lighthouse, a landmark to generations
of sailors, is located on the Naval Air Station,
on San Carlos Road, one mile west of Ft.
Barrancas. The lighthouse was erected in 1859.
An earlier lighthouse had been built nearby
in 1824. Courtesy of U.S. Navy.

The old Escambia County Court House
magnificent architectural statement of
was demolished in the late 1930's.

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was built in 1885 .iid cost, $44,000. It was a
the eclectic Victorian of the times. The building



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The customss Iouse and Post
Office, today's Escambia
County Court House is
situated on northwest corner
of Government and Palafox.
The Customs House was built
in 1885 at a cost of $200,000.
The size and beauty of the
building, hence the investment
of the Federal Government,
establishes the fact that
Pensacola was then the chief
port in the state of Florida.

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.'uotiher attractive home of the period, belonged to Dr. J. L. Cravey, at 127 West Gregory.
.i'v mixed sty!e with its numerous embellishments is indicative of the taste of the upper
,;,:,s of tie Floi. t 1890's.

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. !rint of General Edward Alesworth Perry's house which he purchased in 1882. Perry was
,;i)icrnor of Florida from 1885 to 1889. His house is located on Wright and Palafox.

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Comimendec'ia Street Wharf in 1903. The wharf was originally constructed in 1856, rebuilt
in 1869 and greatly extended with the advent of timber boom at the turn of the century. It was
then one of the largest wharves in the world. Courtesy of University of West Florida.


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'flhe Tarragona Street Wharf (Coinmendencia Street Wharf is on the left) was a railroad wharf
which belonged to the L ouisville and Nashville. Its storage facilities and chutes could supply
numerous vessels at one time (circa 1903). Courtesy of University of West Florida.


The William It. Turner home at 823 North Baylen Street was built in 1896 in the Queen
Anne style. Later, among other changes, the columns were replaced, and it is now classified
as Transitional Neo-Classic. By period and by design, the house typifies the structures
built on North Hill during the lumber boom era around the turn of the century.


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N ORTH HILL 1890-1920

During the lumber and fishing boom of the late 19th century Pensacola's
prosperous families moved into the area called "North Hill," lying north and west
of the older waterfront commercial district. The North Hill was an especially
desirable area to live because it was elevated and exposed to cooling summer
breezes. It was also close to Palafox Street, the main transportation axis of the
city. The North Hill area had been platted after the Civil War as a residential
ifract with space set aside for three large parks called Alabama, Georgia, and
ilorida Squares. It provided sufficient land for the spacious houses and landscaped
grounds of the "Picturesque" movement in American architecture. This involved
a restless search for variety in building, a seeking for the unusual or the
piquant, and a blending of styles in almost whimsical ways. It also served, of
course, important status requirements for the well-to-do who lived in these houses.
By 1890 the "Queen Anne" style was the reigning rage. On North Hill today
many fine "Queen Anne" houses survive, recognizable by their Gothic dormers,
H;ays, overhanging eaves, fancy brackets and posts, and elaborate patterns in
Singles on roofs and walls.
Although "Queen Anne" styles dominated house-building in Pensacola from
i;iO0 to 1910, several North Hill turn-of-the-century homes also display
characteristics of the ante-bellum Greek Revival (American Classical). Such
divergent styles as the "Queen Anne" and the American Classical encouraged
,,.her "revivals" in architecture. In 1915 the California-Pacific Exposition inspired
( decade of Spanish Colonial Revival buildings; good examples of this style may
,e seen today in North Hill. Even in the 1920's, as Bayshore and Bayou Texar
;wcaime choice areas for residence, homes built on the North Hill continued to
.how distinctive styles, especially Georgian, Colonial, and Tudor revival.
Today, North Hill preserves a visual study of more than seven decades of
0langing house styles in America, all contained in a cohesive neighborhood
:il1anced by long established trees and gardens. To save this area and its
distinctive structures the City of Pensacola in 1973 established the North Hill
;'reservation District, a move initiated by the North Hill residents themselves
,- and a hopeful sign that recognition of our more immediate past is as important
:;s the study of earlier centuries.



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    The late 19th century spirit of eclecticism in architecture produced these frame "Queen Anne"
    houses on North Hill. Irregular in plan and in facade, and with applied decorations which
    the modern architect decries as "non-functional," the "Queen Anne' homes are, nevertheless,
    comfortably spacious and pleasant to live in. Fortunately, for their preservation these large
    homes are easily adaptable today to attractive apartments.

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    The Amejrican Classical idea, a fitting statement of the cultural aspirations of its prosperous
    ,viCners, wa.s conspicuous in North Hill houses at the turn of the century. Here two rectilinear
    !i;anni houses are eimbllislhed with those columns which created the broad, shaded porches
    * suo pleasantt in the southern climate. In these homes the competing popular Queen Anne style
    ircvei.als itself in window and door treatments, in asymmetrical plans, and in projecting bay
    windows. Thesc houses still stand in the contemporary North Hill Historical District.
    'ourtesv of tlhe Hilstorical Pensacola Preservation Board.

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    :!.I Spal sh (Colonial style appeared first in (California in the early 1900's and was brought to
    national atten lition by the ('al Ifornia-Paciflc Exposition at San lDiego in 1915. During the 1920's
    'Pensacola's North Hill an(quired IHispanic style houses probably derived from similar houses
    iolsti'ulcted at P aliii lHeach. Even ltoday, these houses seem comfortable and congenial in their
    u!ft Cioast landsca s e.as. Note thc curved arches, patios, porches, and Spanish tile roofs common
    to tils style house. Courtesy of the Historic I'ensacola Preservation Board.

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    The broad eaved American bungalow of the 1915-1930 period has the overhanging roof and
    (urved brackets of' a Swiss Chalet. '['he house also incorporates romantic broken line qualities
    and window trim reminiscent of tile American Classical. '['his was a period nationally il which
    tie prosperous attempted to impress others with their power to command a variety of' styles
    even in "ne saie structure. North Hill was no exception. Courtesy of the Historic lPensacola
    Preservation Board.
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    The.~ bra ae mrcnbna' fte11-90pro a h vrhanin rofa

    Preservation Bloardl.

    North Hill houses exemplified nearly every
    major European arc ltectural vogue, in
    part because Europe connoted taste and
    sophistication to the "new rich" in America.
    Even the (othic had its adherents with
    houses in Tudor or Elizabethan style. This
    handsome house on North Hill has its
    precedents in English half-timbered country
    houses. It was built in the 1930's. Courtesy
    of Historic Pensacola Preservation Board.


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    The central business district in the period 1900-1920 continued to expand
    north along Palafox Street, particularly in the area from Garden to Wright
    Streets. The period was also characterized Iby a high-rise building boom which
    included the construction of the American National Bank Building, the City Hall,
    the Blount and Brent Buildings and the San Carlos Hotel. The building boom
    reflected great confidence in the future of the economy, in part, based on
    expectations that the opening of the Panama Canal would benefit Pensacola. The
    appearance of the community changed significantly during this period with
    the aviing of roads and sidewalks, the comining of the automobile, a modern hotel,
    a mall on Palafox Street and improved lighting on several streets. The Newport
    Company developed a subsidiary in Pensacola in rosins and turpentine in 1916
    and provided the city with cosmopolitan management and economic and social
    diversification. More important, however, both for the economy and sophistication
    of 11he area was O.le establishment of the Naval Air Station in 1914 and its
    .,,.'A.th during World War 1.

    Opposite, top: Looking north on Palafox Street approximately 1905. Traffic was two-way on
    * )1th sides of the "Parkway." Note street paving on Palafox extended only to Chase Street, and
    ;!WI young palms recently planted on the "P'arkway." The San (arlos Hotel was to be built
    .utti of the site of St. Michaels seen on the lower left. Note the meager economic development
    !1t the area. Courtesy of University of West Florida.
    )lposite, bottom: Palafox Street looking north from Garden was becoming a major part of
    i',nsacola's business district in the 1920's. This fact is demonstrated by the numerous
    ,iulualobiles, sophisticated lighting, and large number of stores in the picture. Courtesy of
    i. T. Wentworth.

    The San Carlos as conceived in the
    planning stages was to be an elegant,
    almost florid hotel. Though it never
    incorporated some of the extravagant
    features shown here, the San Carlos
    would have a decorative design.
    Pensacolians looked upon the hotel as
    essential to developing the tourist trade,
    and subscribed most of the money
    themselves for the half million dollar
    hotel. Courtesy of Historic Pensacola
    Preservation Board.


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    'The Sain C(arlos openedJ iln February, 1910, and was considered one of the finest hotels in
    the Soulth. Located on the corner of Garden and Palafox Streets, it served to extend the
    business district northward. As its style suggests, the San ('arlos was a tasteful hotel which
    appealed to lthe fashionable. PIensacolians dined there. especially after the theatre and on
    Sunday evenings when a female orchestra played classical music. Dances were held on the
    seventh floor; the balconies could make the dances even more interesting. Courtesy of



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    Fountains in "the era of horse and buggy" were as important as automobile repair shops
    would later become; hence, this remarkable view of Garden Street in 1912, looking west
    between the Brent Building, built in 1906, and the San Carlos Hotel. Courtesy of T. T.


    'irie(ti's il transportation on bricked-in ~Plafox Street about 1905. The driver of the buggy has
    nt 'passed (overnment2A Street and is approaching the intersection of Palafox and Intendencia.

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    S ll t Naiial Bank. It was built in 1 and opened in 1908. The structure

    is striking classical s n i licative o the dowint own buil ding boomp identified with a
    hini ns tim .l iliulis.ry. C'o rtesy olf University of West Florida.
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    v,,wr f'!,m lyteI'>; ain! Bak tw sb iti 97ad pndi 98 h tutr
    is :<)ili~l: 'a.,. i'a!(tes .,tt ndiatie o lh do ntow I~ild ng oom den ifid w th
    lhtiIhiU jil)q m t-l.cy ('uIe f U ie st fW s llia

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    i'l'. l,,ir ':;i (' !v Iall, I i (;atld It. l(' c( rn r il' ofl ffTerson and Zaragoza Streets, was built in
    i,0',' ]inld oril y i oitiitnll l 111 i'nMach, (1908l. T'ihe builtliil L i.s ni otewortlhy form its Spanish Hl c ulaisa nci
    il si.n, il s ()" on j st off the business district of the lime, and its part in the building boom
    ,i| 1b1iaul liall.hn of 'ii.saol; bietw)teii 1905 and 1910. Courtesy of' Ashlt'y lile.


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    Opposite, top: The intersection of Garden and Palafox Streets looking east (circa 1913). The
    pedestrian is probably walking on wood blocks which were considered less noisy than bricks,
    but, of course, the choice of wood blocks for paving also helped the local economy. The
    uOilding on the corner was later the Isis Theater, then the First Bank and Trust Company.
    lie-modeled and enlarged, it is the Cary Building today. Courtesy of University of West Florida.

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    uiuu.ti rides of the perioti. The large grain elevator in the background, later destroyed in the
    1916 4. riune, illustrates conomi diversifcaton. Courtesy of Ashley file.
    ,T ; . r f,,. 1 -^ ,.o A


    AND 1930'S
    In the 1920's and 1930's Pensacola's population grew from 30,000 to 37,000
    inhabitants while its suburban areas grew extensively as a result of better roads
    and hence automobile and, after 1932, bus transportation. Most of the new residents,
    c:me from South Alabama. Their strong religious attachments and parochial
    values derived from their rural heritage sometimes prompted wariness over the
    cosmopolitan changes occurring in the city and the society. Klan activity in Pensacola
    was evident and ministers expressed concern over the effects of the new technology,
    especially movies and the automobile. The standardizing impact of news media,
    advertising and the movies created uneasiness among the traditional minded. The
    young fliers and cadets of the Naval Air Station and its auxiliary field, Corry,
    brought additional cosmopolitan influences to the community. Generally speaking,
    they did not support the Prohibition Amendment, yet they won some of the
    community's most desirable young women. By 1930 over one hundred Pensacola
    girls had married naval aviators.
    Pensacola participated in the Florida land boom in the 1920's. In 1925 land sales
    were reaching unprecedented totals of $3,000,000 a week and land that had sold for
    $1,000 per acre on Gulf Beach Highway was, only a few weeks later, selling at $1500.
    The coming of the Frisco Railroad, already planned by 1925, added to the optimism.
    But in 1927-1928 the boom was over, the local newspaper acknowledging at that
    time that "The United States Naval Air Station at Pensacola was the city's most
    important commercial asset." While the presence in 1930 of 275 officers, 2,000
    enlisted men and 900 civilian employees at NAS and Corry Field were major assets
    to the local economy, a remarkable road and bridge building period undertaken in
    the late 1920's and 1930's also helped. Long isolated by rivers and bays, Pensacola
    benefitted from the building of the Escambia River Bridge and viaduct (1926),
    Scenic 1 highway (1929), Pensacola Bay and Santa Rosa Sound Bridges (1931) and
    the Lillian Highway Bridge (1931) which broadened Pensacola's retail markets
    and made the area more attractive to visitors and tourists.
    The depression did not have serious effects in Pensacola until 1932 largely
    because of the effect of the Navy's presence and the construction economy. The
    federal government was the mainstay for the local economy through the remainder
    of the 1930's. For instance, the Civilian Works Administration expended $50,000
    per week on work projects in 1933. Later the PWA and the WPA made similar
    contributions. The municipal post office, the viaduct over the L and N Tracks on
    Cervantes Street, and many paved streets testify to their presence. By 1934
    Pensacola appeared to be coming out of the depression. Largely responsible was the
    rapid expansion of the Naval Air Station and attendant fields for fixed wing aircraft.
    Federal monies (R.F.C.) also helped found one of Pensacola's most promising new
    industries in 1939, The Florida Paper and Pulp Company (St. Regis).
    Opposite page: Newport Company, today's Reichhold Chemicals, Inc., located on Pace
    Boulevard, south of Garden Street, was one of Pensacola's first industries of national scope.
    The plant opened in 1916 and had a major effect on the economy of the area. With its
    management, drawn from all parts of the country, Newport had a cosmopolitan effect on
    Pensacola society.

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