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Title: A Chronology of the development of the city of Sanford, Florida
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00099622/00001
 Material Information
Title: A Chronology of the development of the city of Sanford, Florida
Physical Description: 24p.
Language: English
Creator: Mills, Jerry W.
Publisher: Jerry W. Mills
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Copyright Date: 1975
Subject: Historic preservation
Sanford, Florida
General Note: AFA HP document 139
General Note: Course number: AE629
General Note: Professor F. Blair Reeves
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00099622
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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Full Text


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with major emphasis on early growth...

AE 684

Florida History


Professor F. Blair Reeves


Jerry W. Mills

Fall, 1975





The purpose of this paper was to cover the history of one town, Sanford,
Florida.dating back to the earliest sources of documented information and
extending to the present. Tracing the growth, the population increases and
decreases, and describing the architectural developments were important
topics studied. The deepest concentration of study occurred during the late
1800's, at the beginning of the 1870's. From then until 1895 occurred what
appears to have been the most intensive development of the town, until the
early 1920's. Reflecting this then, the following essay places most of its
emphasis during that period of time, describing important events that occurred
during those 25 years.

Several things should be discussed at this point to help clarify certain
items found within the text of the paper.

Photographs the pages on which pictures are found throughout the text
of the essay will not be numbered. The photos, themselves, however, will
be. The numbers corresponding to the photos will also be found, along
with a brief caption relating to that particular photograph on the page

Footnotes and Quotes two numbers will be found at the end of most para-
graphs (i.e. 11-56). The first number indicates the source of the same
number, as found in the bibliography. The second number indicates the page
from which some reference or quote was made. Some entries will not be
footnoted. These entries have either come from personal interviews that
were held during the course of research, or from maps studied.

References to the Inventory in conjunction with this essay, during the
fall term, this author conducted a brief architectural survey of all
buildings within a specific area of Sanford including buildings of cultural
or architectural singificance outside of said area. Within the text of this
essay, an "Inventory Form #..." is referred to quite often. This form
number corresponds to the page in the Inventory on which the building,
previously mentioned in the entry, will be found.

Appendices Appendix A and B can be found at the end of this essay.
"A" consists of pertinent maps of the area and "B" consists of advertise-
ments, some from 1892 newspapers and others from the 1910 Progress Edition,
of "The Sanford Herald." References to these will be made throughout the
text of the essay and both will be numbered for the readers' convenience.

Note: a city map will be provided in the back to help orient the reader.
Having the map folded out, while reading the essay will provide the maximum
feeling of orientation.

I would like to thank Mrs. Julia Chase and Mr. Bill Vincent, Sr., both of
Sanford, for the use of their photographs, information, time, and tremendous
patience with me throughout my research, for without their help, a valid essay
could not have been complete. Also, and as always, a great deal of thanks are
in order to my mother, father, grandmother and aunt for their monetary and psy-
chological support.

1817 A Spanish Grant of more than 12,000 acres was confirmed
on Philip R. Young .iiong the south shore of Lake Monroe,
then called "Second."5-1 This was probably the same 12,000
plus acres bought later by General H. S. Sanford (see Appendix
A, Maps 1 & 2.)

1819 Florida was acquired from the Spanish by the United States.1-1

1834 P. R. Younge somehow lost control of his land and the United
States Supreme Court granted this and other land to Moses E. Levy,5-1
including the 12,000 acres on Lake Monroe and some 13,000 acres to
the south on Lake Jessup.13-1

1836 December Camp Monroe was established for the protection of
the settlers in the area. Colonel Fanning was in charge of the
men which consisted of two companies of artillery and four compa-
nies of dragoons.4b-l (Its location was just northeast of the
present intersection of Second Street and Mellonville Avenue.)

1837 February eighth Four hundred Seminoles led by King Philip and
his son, Coacoochee, unsuccessfully attacked Camp Monroe killing
Captain Charles Mellon, the only American fatality. The camp was
later renamed Fort Mellon in his memory.4b-l Indian attacks subsid-
ed and eight two story buildings were erected at Fort Mellon. A
mile and a half further south a one story block house was built and
called Fort Read. (Today's Mellonville Avenue once connected the
two by way of a sand road.)4b-1

To attract settlers to the area the government offered land,
six months worth of supplies and some protection from the Indians.3b-2

* In payment for services to the government,
land warrants were issued known as floats,
which gave the privilege of locating on any
government land desired. If a settlement
happened to occur on a Spanish Grant, the
claim was allowed to stand and the owner of
the grant reimbursed by a float claim to the
United States government.15-3

1843 Almost directly across the lake from Fort Mellon, Enterprise,
the southernmost inland port of Mosquito County, became the County
Seat for Mosquito County.l-1 (See Development of Counties-Appendix
A, Maps 11-13.)

1844 Dr. Algernon Speer moved form Georgia with his family and slaves
to Mellonville.

The original Dr. Speer's house was built of
logs, very substantial, with good sized rooms,
a hallway through the middle with two rooms on
either side. It was often used as a refuge from
Indians when an attack was threatened.12-2

1845 Dr. Speer began a steamer service, The St. John's River
Boat Service,3b-2 with two boats, the "Hancock", and the "Tom
Thumb", the latter was the smaller of the two. The "Hancock"
was the first to provide regular passenger service on the St.
John's River south of Palatka,12- Several years after the
"Tom Thumb" had been in service, it capsized in Lake George
drowning Dr. Speer. His son however, was saved when some of
the crew (slaves) managed to tie a keg to the boy.12-2
March third Florida became a State.3b-2
July sixteenth Orange County was created with Mellonville
becoming the County Seat.1-1, 18-13 Mr. Arthur Ginn, whose office
was temporarily located in one of the Government Buildings at
Fort Mellon, was appointed clerk of the court. He was also res-
ponsible for the planting of Speer Grove, said to have been the
most famous grove in the state.18-13 (A marker is located at the
northwest corner of Mellonville Avenue and 19th Street.) ( Arthur
Ginn was probably the grandfather of the Ginn brothers, who con-
structed, between 1904 and 1908, their residence on South Sanford
Avenue. See Inventory form #21.)

1849 On November fifth, General Joseph Finegan, at a foreclosure
sale, bought the Levy Grant for a total sum of $40.00!13-1

1854 The north end of Mosquito County became Volusia County.

1856 A settlement had formed north of Fort Gatlin and later be-
came known as Orlando.3b-2 On December thirtieth the seat of
Orange County was moved from Mellonville to Orlando.3b-3

1857 Army troops were withdrawn from Florida.
A log church-schoolhouse was erected on Mellonville Avenuel-1
1860's General Henry Shelton Sanford visited Florida and was impressed
with its future growth possibilities.2-32
1865 Civil War

1866 The close of the Civil War saw an influx of both tourists
and settlers into the area. To best describe the flow of settlers
into the state and into this area the following quote is provided.

* Then began to surge a tide of immigration.
Almost every boat that came up the river
brought prospectors and new settlers. Lands
suitable for orange groves rapidly increased
in price. The planting and culture of orange
groves were the object and ultimatum of hope.
Orange seeds were planted in nurseries. Native
wild orange trees growing in certain localities
were eagerly sought and planted in groves and
budded with the native sweet orange. The high-
er lands away from the river were preferred for
groves and Fort Read became the center of a re-
fined and cultured neighborhood. Among her citizens
were graduates of the best schools and colleges in
our country and men representing all the professions.15-12

1866 The Government buildings at Mellonville were removed
(continued) leaving but one structure; this was the store of Doyle and
Brantley and the following quote gives us a good description:

* It might tax a modern department store to
show a greater variety of articles than it
contained; drugs, and dry-goods, hardware and
unnumberable details, for there was no other
store short of Tampa with the exception of one
small store shop kept by William Lovell at
Orlando, open only at certain hours or upon
demand. So from all parts of South Florida
people came to Mellonville in wagons drawn mainly
by oxen, with from one to five yoke to a wagon.
Twice a year they came, for mail and to purchase
supplies of cloth, tobacco, coffee, matches, etc.15-9

The steamboat "Darlington", which was larger and better
equipped than the "Hancock", began making regular weekly trips
to Jacksonville. The "Hancock" by this time had ceased to run.
Monday, "Boat Day", brought the arrival of the steamboat so most
settlers tried to plan their trips in anticipation of the boat's

1867 The first medical doctor, Dr. Andrew C. Caldwell, arrived,
settling in the Fort Read area. 1-1 He had come south for his
health rather than his profession, however he responded to the
settlers' desperate need of his abilities.18-20

1868 Major J. H. Whitner purchased a small grove at Fort Read.1821

1869 Colonel B. F. Whitner (J. N. Whitner's son) purchased a
homesteaded tract of land, four miles south of Lake Monroe,
near Mellonville Avenue, from a Mr. Munday.18-21 (For location
of residence see Map #2, Appendix A; see Inventory, Form # 28.)

1870 A wharf and packing house were built at the foot of the pre-
sent Palmetto Avenue by Judge Tucker, who had purchased the
fifty acres from General Finegan; Tucker's home was built at
the intersection of 3rd Street and Pine Avenue, 601 East 3rd
Street.1-1 (Several sources indicate that this was the first
residence built in Sanford, however, one source claimed that
Tucker's residence was constructed over the foundation of an
earlier home.)
General H. S. Sanford purchased, at a total cost of $18,200
from General Finegan, 12,547 acres.10-158,1-1 This was the
northern section of the Levy Grant, earlier the P. R. Younge
Grant which bordered the south shore of Lake Monroe. The land,
thus became the Sanford Grant (see Maps 1 & 2, Appendix A).
Captain R. H. Marks and J. A. MacDonald were employed by General
Sanford to make a plat of the town, resulting in the laying out
of Sanford Avenue.1-1 (This is Map #1, Appendix A). At this
time General Sanford was the U. S. Minister to Belgium under
U. S. Grant; H. L. DeForest became the General's agent, charged

1870 with the responsibility of establishing a new town.2-32
(cont'd) A general store was opened, Tucker's packinghouse and wharf
were purchased, and a sawmill was built. The second house in
Sanford was erected.1-1
St. Gertrude, General Sanford's first orange grove, was
started on a hundred acretract, just west of the new town.2-1
(See Map #1, Appendix A). Also in this same year Belair Grove,
H. S. Sanford's Experimental grove was started southwest of the
town (northeast bank of Crystal Lake, Maps # 1 & 2, Appendix A).
By the end of September, 4,300 orange seedlings and 700 banana
trees had been planted at St. Gertrude and some 4,000 more orange
trees at Belair.10-164
The white "natives", crackers, of the area surrounding the
new town were averse to strangers and didn't care to do much
work themselves. As a result, labor, at least labor of some
worth was difficult to come by:

Labor then being scarce, he(Sanford), imported
from middle Florida some sixty colored laborers
for clearing and planting the land. This also
was resisted by the natives, who, one night, at-
tacked the laborers' camp with shotguns and drove
the men away, killing one and wounding several.
This obstacle, in the end, had beneficial results
for the undertaking and for Florida. General
Sanford failing to get native labor, sent an
agent to Sweden and engaged 100 adults to work
a year for their expenses, including the heavy
cost of their transportation.2-33

1871 During the winter of 1871, the first church to be construct-
ed south of Palatka was built at Fort Read Silver Lake Pres-
byterian Church.36-4
May thirtieth The first Swedes, brought in under the
Contract Labor Law, arrived.
Miss Louisa Tucker, Judge Tucker's daughter, suggested the
name "Sanford" for the new town.(See Photo 3.)
August Sanford Wharf was washed away in a storm.
October The second group of Swedes arrived (this brought
the total to one hundred). Since there wasn't sufficient work
to keep all the Swedes busy on Sanford's two groves, he hired
them out in the town as carpenters and laborers. 10-165
An essay, written in 1941 by T. F. Davis, describing the
history of the orange in Florida, gave, what seems to be a
concise, accurate description of Belair Grove:

* The outstanding grove of this period, and in
some respects in the whole history of the orange
in Florida, was that of Henry S. Sanford, begun
in 1870-71 in the spirit of a hobby. Mr. Sanford
imported citrus stock (not seed) from every part
of the citrus-growing world, some 140 varieties,
and tried them out on his plantation "Belair" four
miles from the present city of Sanford, where by far
the greatest variety of citrus ever privately assem-

1. View looking southeast from the 200 block of Palmetto Avenue
Holy Cross Church No. 1 early 1880's.

2. Mellonville Wharf. Taken around 1875 by a traveling photo-

3. Miss Louisa Tucker, daughter of Judge Tucker. She suggested
naming the town after its founder, 1880's.

4. "The Scandanavian Club" and school built by and for the
Swedish Immigrants. 1880's.

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1871 bled in America was tested. These stocks were all
(cont'd) in bearing by 1878. People visited the plantation
in great number. Grove owners often went away
with budwood, through which the stocks of "Belair"
became widely distributed and found their way into
most of the important groves in the State. Besides
citrus, a multitude of semi-tropical fruits and
plants were tested at "Belair". 7-19,20

Also at Belair were ten acres which were entirely devoted to
nursery stock including some 30,000 trees.3d
Charles du Puy, Jr. who was Mrs. Sanford's first cousin was
engaged to survey and plat the town (no maps have been found to
verify this.)
"Several small single family residences were constructed as
rental property in the embryo city."10-197 The purpose of this
was to attract settlers in Mellonville, still a separate town,
to Sanford.
New Upsala, the community for the Swedish colony, was founded,
near Sanford's Belair Grove.

General Sanford gave a five acre lot in the colony to
each man who chose to remain,and Belair was assured of
its supply of labor. The new village of the Swedes
soon had its own church, school and clubhouse.2-34

1873 The first church in Sanford, The Church of the Holy Cross,
designed by Richard Upjohn of New York was built at the south-
west corner of Magnolia Avenue and 4th Street. The land and
one-quarter of the cost of construction was donated by H. S.
Sanford. The church was in the Gothic style, though simple, 60'X
24', with a 90' spire and had 12 stained glass windows made by
David and Son of Utica.3e-2,3
The land at St. Gertrude Grove was found to be unsuitable for
productive citrus growth due to the "hard pan" soil condition. The
grove was moved to Belair. H. S. Sanford imported approximately
2,500 bearing Italian citrus trees.3d-3

1874 Judge Tucker and his son, Howard, started the first graded

1875 Construction for the Sanford House, the first large tourist
hotel in south Florida began and was built by Alexander Martin
and Charles Evans;1-1 W. R. Brown was the master carpenter, and
also directed construction for several other buildings in Sanford.
(for location of the Sanford House, see Appendix A, Map #3.)
The first boarding house in Sanford was built, the Monroe
House, and later became Moyle's Store.
The first newspaper in south Florida,"The Weekly South Florida
Journal,"was published founded by Fred L. Robertson and establish-
ed by H. S. Sanford.1-1
At this time Sanford had some six schools, including a voca-
tional school and an accredited high school.

1876 On January 1st the Sanford House opened. (See photos 17 & 18b.)
The following descrip ion of the Sanford House was taken
from the "Greater Saiford Illustrated," 1916, when it
changed ownership and was renamed "Hotel Carnes:"

It is a spacious three-story building,
containing all modern conveniences, such
as electric lights, hot and cold running
water, free sample rooms, etc. The build-
ing contains 63 gpest rooms, a large number
of which are provided with private and
connecting bath. All rooms are spacious,
well ventilated, light and neatly furnished.
The lobby, which is situated on the ground
floor, is an exceptionally large and invi-
ting one and in addition to this feature
the building contains approximately 750 feet
of wide verandas provided with comfortable
rockers, chairs and swings. The building
and grounds cover more than a half city
block. The park in front of the Hotel Carnes
is one of the real beauty spots of the city
and is of more than passing interest to
visitors and tourists.21-8

W. J. Hill opened his hardware business at the southeast
corner of First Street and Palmetto Avenue.22-255 It is said
to be "the oldest business of this kind in the State."23-9c
Hill first came to the area in 1873 and lived in the wilderness,
with the Indians and also used large barrels as his first resi-

1877 The city of Sanford was incorporated with T. E. Pierson as
the first Mayor. Mellonville, still a separate town, was linked
to Sanford by Union Street (2nd Street)18-23 East First Street,
then called "Main Street," ended at Sanford Avenue, and it wasn't
until well into the twentieth century that First Street was
opened to Mellonville Avenue. (See buildings at the end of East
Main Street in photos 18a & 21.)

1878 August All responsibilities of H. S. Sanford's interest in
this area were placed in the "particularly capable hands of
James E. Ingraham."10-212
October James Ingraham, in order to raise property values
and ultimately make more money for H. S. Sanford, sold lots on
the block between Fourth and Fifth Streets and Magnolia and
Palmetto Avenues for an extremely low $40.00 per lot, influencing
the increased construction of residences there, thus raising pro-
perty values on the surrounding blocks.10-218

1879 The South Florida Railway Company received the right-of-way
charter for the construction of a line from Sanford to Tampa.1-1
On January 14, 1879, an earthquake was felt in Sanford. No
damage was sustained, however it did produce a good deal of

1879 fright among the townspeople.10-217
(cont'd) April 30 The Sanford Telegraph Company opened a telegraph
line communicating Sanford with the rest of the world.10-220
H.S. Sanford was running low on money and credit to him and
his agents was stopped. In order to raise funds, the General
decided to liquidate all holdings, with the exception of Belair
Grove, with a new company he was forming in England.10-228

1880 President Elect U. S. Grant turned the first shovelful of
dirt, in Sanford, to begin the construction of the South Florida
Railway, the southernmost railroad in the United States. When
completed, it became part of the Plant System and extended to
Outside capital was required for improvements necessary to
carry out H. S. Sanford's plans for the city. The new company
he formed was called the Florida Land Colonization Company, and
he became its first president. He was also the majority stock-
holder. General Sanford sold the Sanford Grant and other various
outlying parcels in South Florida to his new company for $300,000.
(See photo # 19 for the Florida Land and Colonization Company's
main office in Sanford.)
June 26 The first passenger train service from Sanford to
Longwood began.3a-2
August 28 & 29 A hurricane destroyed a church, a number of
houses, an orange crop, and many trees. The church was the
Holy Cross Episcopal Church at Fourth and Magnolia.3e-3 (See
photo#14.) Sometime between September and November, two lots
were bought at the southeast corner of Fourth Street and Park
Avenue, adjacent to the property already owned by the church,
and construction of a new church, similar to the old one began.3e-3
October The railroad was opened to Orlando.
An estimated $800,000 worth of commercial business was conduct-
ed in Sanford this year.1-1
The Reverend Lyman Phelps, his Holy Cross Church now destroyed,
became General Sanford's overseer at Belair. He later proved that
raising pineapples could be financially profitable.10-3

1881 January 29 James Ingraham accepted the presidency of the
South Florida Railway.
75 more Swedes came to Sanford.
March The Florida Land and Colonization Company carried
the responsibility of developing the city, the Sanford Grant,
plus the handling of 100,000 acres of land in South Florida.

1882 March Dr. F. H. Caldwell established the first Plant System
Freight on oranges from Sanford to Boston was $.65 per box;
starch was $.80 per barrel.
An early newspaper of the area, the "Orange County Reporter"
printed an article written by Major Marks and the Honorable John
G. Sinclair some of which described the natural resources,
availability of land and cost of loans:

Much valuable land is now open to the actual
settler, and may be had by others from

5. Sanford Depot at First Street. Before 1887.

6. "The First Anniversary of the Sanford Fire Department." CA 1882.

7. Crippen's Brass Band. First band south of Jacksonville.
General Sanford's store, behind. Early 1880's.

8. A view of Lake Monroe looking north. From Ensminger Studio
on North Park Avenue, to the left is Parramore's Livery.
Early 1880's.

9. View from the Sanford House. Dated 1882.

10. The Welborne Building, southeast corner of Park Avenue and
Commercial Avenue, mid 1880's.

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1882 Government price, at points remote from
(cont'd) transportation, to five, ten, twenty, thirty,
and up to one hundred dollars or more per acre
at points immediately on the railroads, or
lakes connecting with the rail. Ten acres of
land is amply sufficient for a grove of five
hundred trees. Here as elsewhere there is
more danger of cultivating too much than too
little land, and it is generally better to
buy five acres near transportation than fifty
acres more remote, for the purpose of fruit-
growing, on account of the trouble, expense,
and damage to fruit by teaming.

We are asked if capital can be profitably
invested here. There are virgin forests of
the finest pine, cedar, cypress, and oak in
the Union for sale at low prices. The rapid
disappearance of that class of timber in the
North and West, and the immense local demand
for building and fencing for here we have
no stone for fencing and the material for
boxes for fruit and vegetables will give a
sure and more rapid advance to these timber-
lands than has been witnessed in any State
in the Union. Here, too, money can be
loaned on security as safe as United States
bonds, at from ten to fifteen per cent. per
annum. Here, too, are gigantic unimproved
water powers, surrounded by the finest
cotton-growing lands in the Union. We need
tanneries, boot and shoe and furniture
manufactories, carriage-building, etc.

The State laws exempt to every head of a
family a homestead of one hundred and
sixty acres in the country, or half an acre
in town, together with one thousand dollars'
worth of such personal property as the owner
may select. The legal rate of interest is
eight per cent., but contracts may be made
for any rate. Taxes are rather high, the
present rate of assessment in this county
for all purposes being one dollar and fifty-
five cents per hundred dollars. But this
is on a valuation entirely too low. The
State Treasury is solvent, paying cash on
all warrants drawn against it, and the
bonded debts of the State are gradually
being reduced, and interest is paid thereon

1882 A proposed three-story addition to the Sanford House was
(cont'd) designed and drawn out. The original tracing is now in the
possession of Mrs. Julia Chase, Sanford. The drawing is in
pencil with some color and is signed and dated: "Bill Beardall -
architect; 1882." This addition was never built.
The second Holy Cross Church was completed according to the
modified Upjohn Plans.24-11

1883 An Act of the State Legislature cancelled the town of Mellon-
ville.3b-4 (See 1875 photo of Mellonville Wharf, photo #2.)
March As the tracks for the South Florida Railway approached
and were completed at Sanford, H. S. Sanford "granted fifty feet
of right-of-way through the grant and land at the foot of Myrtle
Street for a wharf." 10-233
George Fernald established his Hardware Company.2115
(See advertisement Page 1, Appendix B; His residence,
advertisement Page 14, Appendix B.)

1884 President Arthur, with several of his cabinet members, came
to Sanford for three days as the guest of General Sanford.
"Mr. M. D. Darnwell, while endeavoring to sink a pitcher
pump in his yard was called to dinner and upon his return found
(the) land overflowed with sulphur water, this was the beginning
of flowing wells." 3a-3
In May, S. O. Chase and his brother, Joshua, founded Chase
and Company. Their organization grew to such an extent that
even as early as 1894 they were the largest fruit packers and
shippers in the state. Their office was in the Lyman Bank
Building at the southwest corner of First and Park.8 This
building, according to Sanborn Maps of 1884, was the first
brick building in Sanford and housed the bank, the Post Office,
and Chase and Company, who also maintained an insurance agency.
(See advertisement 1, Appendix B; This building still exists,
though many exterior alterations have been made; see Inventory,
Form #XVI-1.)
The "Annual Report" of the Florida Land and Colonization
Company stated sales totaling $106,804.17. 10-291 This seems
to be the only year that resulted in a large profit for stock-
holders. From this year on, sales declined and in 1889 the
company operated at a loss.

1885 A twenty page pamphlet, "Sanford and Beyond," was published
by the Florida Land and Colonization Company.7 Besides Jackson-
ville, Sanford was the only city in the state with a waterworks.7-3
The city also claimed a population of 2,500.7-3 A quote taken
from the "Sanford Journal" and reprinted in "Sanford and Beyond"
gives an idea of the productiveness of the area:
From the experimental acre at Belair Grove,in
Sanford Grant,there was sold in July $461 worth
of pineapples and plants, and thus far in August
100 boxes of lemons, making a total of $711;
and yet there are to be gathered a great many
more lemons, a few more pineapples, and the
entire orange crop. Who else in this country
can show an acre of land which will give
better returns?

1885 The celebrated Speer Grove, near Sanford, of
(cont'd) 4 acres of land, yielded in 1884, a net profit
of over ten thousand dollars. This was NET,
over and above expense of care and cultivation.
There are a number of younger groves near Sanford
yielding over $600 per acre.

The transportation facilities of Sanford have
been enumerated, and shown to be so favorable
and complete, to locate anywhere on the Sanford
Grant means to be within a mile of a railroad.

Transportation is as important to the producer
as to the merchant. From actual experience it
is known that to move fruit and vegetables a
distance of ten miles to load on cars or boats
adds to the cost of shipping 25 cents per crate.
Think of what this amounts to on the crop of a
10-acre orange grove of say 10,000 boxes. By
actual calculation the sum is $2,500, while one
mile distant only $250, a saving alone in this
one item of $2,250. This is well worth careful

Several other topics worth noting and quoting are printed below:

Living Expenses in Florida:
We quote prices of some articles as now prevail-
ing in Sanford: Flour, $5 to $6.50 per barrel;
bacon, $6 to $8 per 100';sugar, 7 to 8 cents per
pound; butter, 20 to 30 cents per pound; coffee,
15 to 25 cents per pound, and drygoods, hardware,
etc., fully as cheap as North.

Household servants (colored) are obtainable
easily from $5 to $10 per month; farm laborers
from $25 to $30 and board themselves; wood need
not cost anything except cutting and hauling,
and very little is required except for cooking.
By the day, wages are from $1 to $1.25; common
mechanics, $2 to $3. 7-13a

With household matter, we add that horses and
mules (mules the best in every way) range from
$50 to $150; carts, $26 to $50; harness $5 to
$10; plows usually used here $3 to $6, all of
which, with other agricultural implements, can
be purchased here as cheap as anywhere, freight
added. 7-13b

Cost of Construction:
A plain frame building, with four or five rooms
will cost $250 to $400. The ordinary northern
or western farmer, if not a regular mechanic,
yet is handy enough with a hammer and saw to

1885 build the house with the help of a good mechanic
(cont'd) (now $2 per day) he ought to have everything done
the best. The sills, posts, rafters and shingles
can be got out on the spot. Lumber of fair quality,
from $12 to $16 per 1,000 feet at mills. Shelter
from the rain and sun is the main requirement.

Cellars are superfluous additions. Wide hall,
broad vine-covered piazza, building set well up
from the ground, should be the chief characteristics
of a southern home, whether the log cabin of the
piney woods immigrant or the mansion of the owner
of extensive plantations or magnificent orange

Cost of Clearing Land:
To clear ordinary pine land and remove the timber
will cost from $15 to $25 per acre; hammock lands
will cost more, from $30 to $50, according to
density and size of timber. For a new place the
Virginia rail fence is cheapest, as rails are on
the spot and split freely. Barbed wire and board
fences are in very general use.7-14

Lands that were for sale by the Florida Land and Colonization
Company included choice tracts in many counties: 6,000 acres in
Marion, 25,000 acres in Polk, 5,000 acres in Brevard, 14,000 acres
in Hernando, 10,000 acres in Manatee, 14,000 acres in Sumteg, 15,000
in Alachua, and 10,000 acres in Hillsborough and Monroe.

1886 The Jacksonville, Tampa and Key West Railroad was completed
from the north into Sanford.3a-3 Up to this time the track for
the South Florida Railway was narrow gauge; it was changed to
standard gauge. 3a-3
Western Union opened an office in Sanford.
Orange County Fair was held for the first time and it was
attended by President and Mrs. Grover Cleveland on their honeymoon.3a-3
The land for the fairgrounds was on the Sanford Grant and donated
for that purpose by General Sanford. (See Appendix A, Map #2.)

1887 The first part of January, H. S. Sanford returned to the city
of his namesake after a two-year absence. Although the town held
an official welcome for him and he responded by way of a speech
expressing pleasure and assurances of growth, he wrote a different
story in a letter to his wife:

I am very much disgusted with the people here.
All have made what they have mostly through me
(sic) very liberalities here. All have speculated
in lots and made money. Yet all hold back for me
or the Co. (sic) to provide for faster expansion.
Manufacturers coming here need encouragement, but
they don't (sic) seem disposed to give it. They are
not united and they lack public spirit. I am hoping
now to get a palmetto fibre and paper mill here that

11. Recent elevation of the Pico Hotel.

12. Recent elevation of the Pico Hotel.

Built 1887.

Built 1887.

Photographs .

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15. Late 1880's looking west on Commercial Avenue. Buildings left to
right Welborne Building, Train Station, Pico Hotel (with onion
dome) and Florida Land and Colonization Company Building.

16. Towards the north from the balcony of the Sanford House.
Late 1880's.

17. View of the Sanford House. 1880's.

18a. Looking east on Main (First) Street form the intersection of
Park Avenue (at fountain). Early 1890's.

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1887 will bring 2 or 300 hands, also some Railroad car
(cont'd) works employing 150 hands, but there is no spirit
to back me in offering inducements and its(sic)
disheartening. The best part of the town is now
occupied by these men whose interests as a whole are
greater than ours as a Co. (sic). The town is growing
rapidly, it is now over run by Railroads. You would
scarcely know it. Think of it. 100 houses built
in the last 12 months! and many very nice ones.10-293

The construction for the Pico Hotel was completed. The word
"Pico" is actually an abbreviation for the Plant Investment
Company and they appear to be responsible for the construction
of not only the hotel but also a brick Railroad Depot, and a
large two-story structure just to the north of the hotel (see Plant
System Headquarters Building 1888), as well. The onion dome,
which ornamented the southwest corner of the hotel, along with
the extremely thin mortar joints, and several other details, are
very similar to the work of the old Tampa Bay Hotel (now University
of Tampa). (See photos 11 & 12)
The Lyman Bank became the First National Bank.18-24 (See
advertisement 10, Appendix B.)
September 20 The "Great Fire" destroyed four blocks and
numerous stores in the business district. The fire burned for
two days, the waterworks not having an adequate system to fight
the fire (Photo #18b). Only $400 in damage was sustained by the
Sanford House, but with that and the responsibility of the
reconstruction of the area, the Colonization Company expended
great sums of money.10-295 This fire resulted in the city's
increased fire protection by improving water pressure and
construction of numerous hydrants.3-8U (Compare the difference
of the Sanborn Map of 1887, Appendix A, Map #4, with the map
of 1890, Appendix A, Map #7, in the vicinity of Commercial Avenue
to Second Street and east of Sanford Avenue to Magnolia Avenue.)

1888 A system of perforated piping was placed underground from an
artesian well to moisten the downtown sand streets and thus
compact the roads for easier mule team transportation. The idea
was conceived by Reverend Dr. F. H. Moore.3a-3
The Plant System Headquarters Building was finished with
Chase and Company as its first tenant, their offices on First
Street.8 The building is the present Welaka Block Building,
with many exterior alterations. (corners of First and Fulton
and Commercial; See photos #20 & 35.)

1889 The city boasted a population of 4,000 with seven railroad
lines entering the city at a rate of more than fifty trains per
day, with daily mail service north, south, east and west.
Sanford had "Two banks, one state, one national, eight churches,
many hotels, a public library, two public schools, four newspapers,
two weekly, two daily, and all the appliances of a thriving
business town." 3-73 As General Sanford had termed it, Sanford

1889 was indeed the "Gate City" to the south. All goods shipped
(cont'd) into southern Florida and all products shipped northward
moved through Sanford. "Its water works are probably the best
in the state, considering the plentiful supply of pure water and
pressure for fire purposes." 3-73
Two steamer lines were running daily between Sanford and
Jacksonville; there were two telegraph and one telephone lines,
a gas works which lighted the city, stores and homes, four
restaurants, thirteen business blocks with two more under
contract, no saloons (from the outset Sanford was a "dry" town),
and the lowest death rate of any city of comparable size in the
There were three machine shops, car shops for the South
Florida Railway, an iron foundry and machine shop, two saw mills,
one marble works, two carriage factories, a fibre factory, an ice
factory, ten artesian wells, a bottling plant, an orange wine
manufactory two fertilizer factories, a moss factory and a fence
A U. S. Government physician checked the town for the yellow
fever epidemic which plagued cities further north and proclaimed
Sanford to be the "healthiest town in the state." 3-73
Georgetown, a suburb east of Sanford Avenue, was laid out for
blacks. Free lots were given for churches and schools and long
term credit was available to individuals for improvements on their
homes. Included in this area were three churches, a school build-
ing and "over one hundred neat buildings owned by their prosperous
and contented occupants, and supplied with water and gas." 3-75

1890 The Rectory for the Episcopal Church was built at Fourth and
George Fernald's Hardware Company was thriving and "not only
had hardware, but a machine shop and did plumbing and various
installations. I believe the plumbing and waterworks in the old
Tampa Bay Hotel were done by this firm, also, the winter hotels
at Florence Villa, Rockledge, and other hotels on the East Coast."

1891 James E. Ingraham left the Plant System to become president
of Henry Flagler's Model Land Company, for which he supervised
the 1893 construction of West Palm Beach, Florida.10-233
The "Revised Ordinances of the City of Sanford" was published.
Several sections from Chapter Twelve are worth reprinting here,
as they provided construction guidelines which had to be adhered
to following the fire of 1887. (Since the "Ordinance" publication
was a revised edition, there must have been earlier printings.
One was published in 1890, however, neither copies of this nor
earlier editions have become available.)

Fire Limits: (Section 171)
No person shall build, contract or enlarge, or
authorize the construction or enlargment of any
frame or wooden building, or any tent or booth
upon, nor shall remove any such building, tent

1891 or booth to or upon any lot or parcel of land
(cont'd) within the following limits That is to say,
between Lake Monroe on the north, and north
side of Second street on the south, and between
the first alley east of Sanford avenue on the
east, and east side of Elm avenue on the west.

Veneered and Corrugated Buildings: (Section 172)
No person shall build, construct or enlarge
any veneered building (a frame building encased
in brick), or any wooden building covered with
corrugated or other iron, within the limits as
defined in Section 171 hereof Provided, however,
it shall not be unlawful to encase any wooden
building heretofore erected within said fire
limits with corrugated iron or brick; And provided
further, that owners or occupants of premises
within said fire limits, may build sheds, shops,
or storage room in the rear of the main building
and not fronting on a street and not less than
twelve feet of any building, providing, the
shed, shop or storage room shall be one story in
height, and the sides not over twelve feet high,
andsaid shed, shop or storage room shall not
occupy over two hundred and twenty-five square
feet of ground; and the entire building, sides,
end, and roof shall be corrugated or other iron
or steel, and no stove or fireplace shall be
permitted therein. The doors and window shutters
shall be covered with iron. Provided, however,
the Council by a two-thirds vote may modify the
conditions of this section when there are good
reasons for so doing.

Requirements for Buildings: (Section 173)
The walls of all brick or artificial stone buildings
hereafter erected within the fire limits defined
in Section 171 hereof, shall be of the following
thickness, viz: For buildings of three or more
stories, the first story not less than fifteen
inches thick, the second story not less than
twelve inches thick, the third and fourth stories
not less than eight inches thick; for buildings
of two stories only, the first story not less than
twelve inches thick, and the second story not less
than eight inches thick; for buildings of one
story only, not less than eight inches thick.

And for every building, the roof or covering shall
be of slate, tile, zinc, tin, iron, steel, or
other incombustible material.

All fire walls must extend at least twelve inches

18b Late September, 1887. Smouldering remains after the "Great
Fire", looking west, down Main (First) Street; Sanford
Avenue running from left to right.

19. "North view from veranda" at Ensminger's Studio. Late 1880's,
looking towards the main office of the Florida Land and

20. Sanford Depot, with Main Street from left to right.Building
to right in background is the Plant System Headquarters
Building. (Welaka Block, presently). Many exterioraltera-
tions have been made. (Note man with bicycle, lower right.)

21. View on Main Street (First) looking east. Note buildings
at the end of Main, at Sanford Avenue. The intersection
approximately where the streetcar is, is First and Magnolia

22. View on Main Street (First) looking west. The building on
the right is the Woodruff-Garner-Yowell Building.

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1891 above the roof.
Awnings may be constructed over the sidewalk with
iron or steel posts and roof, and not less than
ten feet high at the outer edge.

Dangerous Occupations: (Section 176)
No carpenter shop, saw mill or other wood-
working establishment, nor manufactory of
any kind wherein combustible material is
used, shall be permitted within the fire
limits of the City as defined in Section
171 hereof. 9-42,43

In Chapter Fourteen, the organization of the Fire Department
is outlined:

The Fire Department as heretofore organized
by the Mayor, under the director of the City
Council, is hereby declared to be the Fire
Department for the City of Sanford, and shall
be known and designated as the "Sanford Fire

The officers of the Sanford Fire Department shall
consist of a Chief and Assistant Chief, a Secre-
tary, a Treasurer and a Foreman for each Company.
The said officers shall constitute and be known
as the "Board of Fire Commissioners." 9-44,45

In the Appendix, listed under "Franchises," Three Railroad
Companies were granted special privileges: The Orange Belt
Railway Company, The Palatka and Indian River Railway Company,
and the J. T. and K. W. Railway Company. The special privi-
leges granted certain rights-of-way and allowed for construction
of platforms, but also charged them with the responsibility of
maintaining all crossings. 9-55-58 Article IV was an ordinance
which granted a franchise to the Sanford Water Works Company,
owned by H. S. Sanford. The term of the franchise was to last
fifty years from the twentieth day of July, 1882. The rates
of the day were as follows:


100 to 500 gallons per day . . $1.00 per 1,000 gallons
500 to 1,500 gallons per day . . .80 per 1,000 gallons
1,500 to 3,000 gallons per day .... .70 per 1,000 gallons
3,000 to 5,000 gallons per day . . .60 per 1,000 gallons

Article V granted to Thomas G. Eaton, his heirs and assigns, the
exclusive privilege of constructing and maintaining a system for
gas, a system for generating electricity, and that the privileges
should last twenty-five years from December 1, 1886.9-60 The rate
for electrical consumption was not given, however the rate for gas
was never to exceed 1C per burner or jet per hour, at 18 candle
power. 9-66

1893 Sanford was the largest interior city in the state and the
largest orange shipping area in the world.3a-3
The first commercial nursery in the state was established at
A city charter was granted to the city by an Act of Legisla-
ture. "Prior to that all matters customarily included in a char-
ter were handled by ordinance."3b-5

1894 December 31 First of two disastrous freezes, the "Big

1895 February 8 The second freeze occurred bringing the total
damage to $100,000,000. Seven of eight banks in the county
closed with only The First National Bank of Sanford remaining.
Since the freeze froze the only source of income for most of the
populous of the area, there was a large migration to the north.3a-4
Citrus shipments were reduced from over five million boxes
annually to less than 150,000.8

1896 I. H. Terwilliger planted the first celery grown in Sanford.2219
1897 J. W. and B. F. Whitner planted 3/4 acre of celery.22-19
1898 The first attempt was made at truck farming with celery and
lettuce. It was several years later, however, before it became
commercially profitable.3a-4

1899 Henry Flagler, who became familiar with Chase and Company
through J. E. Ingraham, visited and inspected the packinghouses
of Chase and Company and discussed his citrus plans for South
Florida with S. 0. Chase.16-102

Sydney had only admiration for Flagler; the
feeling was apparently reciprocated. In their
business activities each complemented the other.
Without Flagler's Florida East Coast Railroad to
Miami, the Chases could not have built a fruit
and vegetable kingdom in South Florida. Had the
Chases not proved that tropical fruit and vege-
table production could be profitable, The Flagler
railroad would have been extremely unprofitable.16-102

1902 April 1 S. O. Chase purchased the remnants of Belair Grove
from Stephen Sanford, H. S. Sanford's nephew and son-in-law.
The first brick school building was completed between Seventh
and Eighth Streets and Myrtle and Elm Avenues; the form and de-
tails including tower and belfry were similar in appearance to
the school built in Gainesville in 1900 (Kirby-Smith). See
Inventory Form #16.

1906 W. J. Thigpen and Company succeeded the Florida Land and
Colonization Company;they dealt in Real Estate, as well as
fire insurance.21-6
The People's Bank of Sanford was established in a new building
at the southeast corner of Magnolia and First. Of the original
structure, only a portion of the west elevation still exists.

1906 (See Advertisement #12, Appendix B.)

1908 July A great need was felt to improve the transportation
of the celery from the outlying fields into Sanford. To attract
the attention of the existing railroad companies in Sanford as to
the seriousness of this concept, five businessmen (A. T. Rossiter,
J. N. Whitner, A. P. Connelly, S. O. Chase, and F. P. Forster)
organized the Sanford and Everglades Railroad. It was to extend
250 miles to Okeechobeeand supposedly give the Atlantic Coastline
(ACL) competition. Though never actually constructed to the
Everglades, some track was laid. These same five men several
months later organized the Sanford Traction Company.6-81
The "Sanford Chronical" (later the "Sanford Herald") published
a special edition, a progress report of the city, "Autumn Number
One, The Celery City, Sanford, Florida."3a-5
S. O. Shinholser began his construction company in Sanford.

1909 April The Sanford Traction Company began regular passenger
service with eight daily round trips to Cameron City, distribu-
ting laborers to the fields and children to school. An interest-
ing description of the two cars used by the company follows:

Passenger service was operated with two single-truck
Fairbanks-Morse gasoline rail cars, with bodies
resembling streetcars, steam-coach roofs and a
heavy metal pilot on each end.

Perhaps the most interesting feature was starting
the gasoline engine in the days before self-starters.
"We started them with a cartridge," Harry Kent re-
lates. "The cartridge was inserted in the proper
place, I hit it on the end with a hammer, and off
she went." Needless to say, once started, the en-
gine was kept turning over all day, unless there
was a long layover.6-82

(See Photo and route, original and existing, Appendix A,
Map #10.)

1910 An average of one train car of vegetables per hour was being
shipped from North Orange County.
A new high school building was completed at a cost of $20,000.1-2
(Southwest corner of Sanford Avenue and Ninth Street.)
December The Sanford and Everglades Railroad completed the
track to Mecca Junction, where it connected with ACL tracks leading
back to Sanford, (Appendix A, Map #10.)
(NOTE: Apparently the Sanford Traction Company consisted of two
street cars which ran on the tracks of both the S.& E. Railroad
and ACL and was used primarily for passenger service. The S. &
E. Railroad was built to reduce the distance between the "fields"
and the "market", however no clues have been discovered to indicate
the type and ownership of the equipment used to haul this produce.
The entire loop was called the "Celery Belt Line".)
"Chase and Company was one of the largest citrus shippers in the

23. Early celery farming. I believe the troughs led to an
underground irrigation system. CA 1910.

24. Land fill and bulkhead. Automobile helps understand scale.
Mid 1920's.

25. Interior of Roumilatt and Anderson's Drugstore. Note marble
fountain and tin ceiling. Northeast corner Park and First
Street 1923.

26. Fourth of July Parade, 1917; looking west down First Street.
Bishop Block and Hotchkiss Block on south side of First;
Stone-Grove Block on north side note graphics on wall of
Stone-Grove Block.

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1911 Sanford Traction Company abandoned passenger service. Two
apparent reasons should be mentioned. First of all, Celery
Avenue, which parallels the S.&E. Railroad from Sanford east,
was brick paved, thus making automotive transportation more
convenient. Secondly, this year saw the beginning of school
bus service, reducing public use of the street car even more.
Two photos #21 and #22 are dated 1915 and both show one of the
Traction Company's streetcars. Either some use was made of
them through 1915 or the dates found on the photos are incorrect.

1913 The Florida State Legislature, on April thirteenth officially
separated Orange County, dividing it into Orange and Seminole 6
Counties, with Sanford becoming the County Seat for Seminole.
See resulting Business Map, Appendix A, Map #9.
The Atlantic Coastline Railroad officially dedicated its new
passenger terminal on West Ninth Street.11-7 (Construction was
brick; the building has been demolished.)
The ACL bought the Sanford and Everglades Railroad.-84
May The first bulkhead on Lake Monroe was authorized by the
City Council and was to extend from Myrtle Avenue to Sanford
Avenue. On August fifth a $50,000 bond issue was passed for
money necessary to begin the construction.11-10
August A new two-story brick building was completed for the
Elks. The building was located on North Park Avenue and later
became the County Courthouse.
September 27 The Seminole County Bank was established and
located in the Welborne Building, at the southeast corner of
Commercial and Park.21-16 The Welborne Building was a three-
story brick structure and can be seen for the first time on the
1887 Sanborn Map, Appendix A, Map #4. (Also Photo #10.)

1914 Chase and Company became incor orated. Their main office had
been in Jacksonville since 1904.
January 19 The river steamer "Osceola" made its first run
from Jacksonville to Sanford.22-53
The cornerstone was laid for the United Methodist Church at the
northeast corner of Fifth Street and Park Avenue.11-15 S. O.
Shinholser was the contractor. (See Inventory Form #10.)
November 22 the new Sanford Baptist Church, of red brick and
"the most imposing church edifice in the city at that time"
opened.1-14 It was located at the northeast corner of Sixth
Street and Park Avenue. S. 0. Shinholser was the contractor.

1915 Sanford was divided into nine fire districts; February thirteenth,
the new electric bell fire alarm system was introduced.1-16
June Th _rst city bus service started along with a bus line
to Orlando.
September 12 The First Presbyterian Church was completed at
the southeast corner of Oak Avenue and Third Street. S. O. Shin-
holser was the contractor.11-18 (See Inventory Form #3.)
On November eighth, at 113 West First Street, The Allen Theatre
opened. -1 (This later became the Princess Theater and is
presently Sanford Auto Parts; (See Inventory Form #XVI-10.)

1915 John Musson, a contractor and builder, constructed the first
(cont'd) odorless, filtered swimming pool in the county.11-9

1916 Transportation was further improved with a new busline from
Maitland, where there were several large winter hotels, to the
Clyde Line Docks in Sanford.11-20 The Clyde Steamship Company,
not mentioned previously, but well established in Sanford for
many years, probably had the most successful steamer line on
the St. Johns River. They also operated ocean steamers which
traveled from Jacksonville to Charleston, New York and Boston,
and had the resources to advertise for freight and passengers in
the north coming south.12-5

The river freight traffic continued to be pro-
fitable until about World War I when the govern-
ment took over all railroads. The Interstate
Commerce Commission was also functioning then
and they equalized all freight rates, practically
eliminating any water rate advantage. The river
service on freight declined considerably and, as
the automobiles came, the busses, and better train
service, the river passenger business declined, too.
In 1928, the Clyde Line discontinued their river

Two "T" wings, designed by architect Elton J. Moughton, were
added to the old high school at Seventh Street and Elm Avenue.
By this time it was and as it is today, a grammar school.

The Sanford House changed ownership and was renamed Hotel
Carnes. It boasted rates of $2.50 and $3.00 per day, the
latter for rooms with private baths.21- (See January 1, 1876
for description.)
A sixteen page pamphlet entitled "The Greater Sanford Illustrat-
ed. 'The Celery City'" was published and was very similar to the
progress issue of the "Sanford Herald". Many businesses in Sanford
were listed along with brief architectural descriptions of their
building and their location. Several pertinent quotes concerning
businesses of importance to the growth of the city are listed below:

The Sanford Celery Delta is famed throughout
the Nation as the greatest vegetable producing
section in the United States.

This is the place of which the Year Book of the
United States Agricultural Department for 1911,
on page 316 has this to say: "A combination of
irrigation and drainage at Sanford, Florida has
transformed worthless lands into those producing
crops of celery valued at $2,000 per acre for
one crop." Celery is only one of the many crops
we grow and our lands are made to produce an
average of three crops each season during the
fall, winter and spring, when all kinds of
vegetables bring top prices in the northern

1916 Three institutions that enter directly into the
(cont'd) smooth workings of almost every business house
as well as a majority of the homes of Sanford,
are the Sanford Light and Fuel Co., Sanford Ice
and Water Co., and the Crystal Ice Co., the par-
ent company of which is The Southern Utilities
Company, who maintain headquarters at Jacksonville
and plant throughout the State.

The history of these enterprises takes us back
more than a quarter century. The Sanford Light
and Fuel Co., was organized about 25 years ago;
the Sanford Ice and Water Co., which was origi-
nally organized as the Sanford Water Works Co.,
was established in 1887 and the Crystal Ice Co.,
came into being about 8 years ago. In 1913 the
Southern Utilities Co., assumed control of all
three, although they are still conducted under
the same name as they had been prior to that

Electric Plant:
The electric light and power plant is situated
out on First street, about one and a half miles
from the business section. The plant is per-
fectly modern in construction and equipment and
has five generating units with an aggregate
capacity of about 540 kw. The system of the
company covers every part of the city.21-3

Gas Plant:
The Gas Plant is located near the water works.
It has a capacity of 100,000 cubit feet every
24 hours. Owing to the reasonable prices at
which gas service is furnished, it is used
extensively for cooking and other purposes.21-3

Water Works:
The source of Sanford's water supply is a
system of deep wells. The supply is unlimited
and it has been shown by analysis that it is
pure, wholesome and healthful. They maintain
a reservoir with a capacity of 120,000 gallons
also a 60,000 gallon tank which is mounted on a
steel tower.21-3

The Hill Hardware and Lumber Company: Oldest
House in State, South of Jacksonville.
The trade in hardware is an important one, em-
bracing as it does a variety of articles abso-
lutely indispensable to various other industrial
pursuits, as well as necessities in every house-
hold. The Hill Hardware and Lumber Company
occupies a very important position in the hardware

1918 Because of the effects of World War I, the Elks Club had
(cont'd) to sell their new building to the County. The building was
then used as the Seminole County Courthouse. (Building was
demolished in the early seventies for a parking lot.)

1919 The residence of George H. Fernald, at the southwest corner
of Oak Avenue and Fifth Street was donated to house a hospital.11-29
(See original residence Appendix B, Photo #14; See Inventory form
August 15 Seminole County had more automobiles and garages
(13) per person than any other county in the nation.11-29

1920 The Valdez Hotel opened on January twenty-ninth in the recent-
ly renovated Welborne Block. (See Photo #10, for early view;
this building, also torn down, replaced by its present parking
April 23 The Hotel Carnes (Sanford House) was sold and de-
molished in May.
Construction of Chase and Company's new building at 200 Oak
Avenue was started.11-31 (See Inventory form #XXV-1.)

1921 Electric (street) lights in1 h city were turned on for the
first time on April nineteenth.

1922 The southeast corner at Park Avenue and First Street was bought
by the Seminole Bank and plans to construct a six-story, $100,000
"Skyscraper" were released.11-37
The Sanford Country Club Golf Course opened in late August in
part of the old Belair Grove, with S. O. Chase as president.
(See photo #28, before construction.)

1923 End of January Two stores opened in the new Meisc Building
on First Street, one was Sanford's first cafeteria.
May 5 A new four-story steel frame, brick veneer office
building at the northeast corner of Park Avenue and First Street
opened. Roumilatt and Anderson's Drugs was the first tenant.11-42
(See Photo #25 .) The interior third and fourth floors of this
building were never finished; the staircase does not even reach
the fourth floor and the tongue and groove finished flooring still
lies unused in a pile along with many molding strips.
May 23 Southside school, a one-story brick and stucco primary
school opened at Fourteenth between Magnolia and Palmetto Avenues.11-45
(See Inventory form #20.)
August 2 The Milane Theater opened on the southeast corner of
Second and Magnolia; cost of construction was #80,00 4The theater
was named after its owners Frank Miller and Ed Lane. (See
Inventory form #XXII-5.)
On October fourth the First National Bank opened at the southeast
corner of First Street and Park Avenue.11-43 It was Sanford's
tallest building at six stories and remained so until the early
seventies when Bram Towers, an eleven story highrise apartment
building was completed. (See Inventory form # XX-3.)
November 27 The Episcopal Church, Rectory and Parrish House
burned down. Low pressure in the city's water system was blamed
for the structures' total destruction.11-43

27. Looking west towards City Hall and County Jail (right,
background) from edge of Bulkhead. 1926.

28. Part of Belair Grove. This part became Country Club Golf
Course. Prior to 1922.

29. Looking east with Forrest Lake Hotel in center background.
Bulkhead extends only to Sanford Avenue. Note tree line
at far right. All land to the left is man-made. 1926.

30. Interior view of City Hall, 1926.

31. Interior view of City Hall, 1926.

32. Park Avenue heading south at right. People's Congregational
Church is centered and was located at the northeast corner
of Third and Park. Dome and cupola of First Methodist
Church in background, CA 1926.

photographs .



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1923 Construction began for a new bandshell which was to cost
(cont'd) $67,000.11-44
A total damage estimate of $63,200 was sustained in over
forty-four fires,this year.22-13

1924 January The city voted to purchase the independent utilities:
Water, electricity, and gas.1-46
February Promoter Harry Bodwell opened Mayfair Subdivision
east of Mellonville Avenue on the lake front.
September 11 Sanford's new $35,000 ball park and steel
framegrandstand opened, seating capacity was one thousand.11-48
November 11 The log cabin Legion home was dedicated.
(See Inventory form #II-2.)

1925 June 25 The new City Hall, designed by E. J. Moughton was
dedicated.11-52 (See photos #44 & 45.)

An all-time local real estate purchase record
was set on December 9, when W.M. Scott, Ed Markell,
and Joe D. Chittenden paid $10,000 per acre for
the 10-acre lakefront tract owned by S.C. Brumley, Jr.
that was located at the east end of the lakefront
boulevard. Just a few days before, Mr. Scott,
Calvin Teague, J.E. Ritchie, and Mr. Chittenden
had acquired the adjoining 20 acres. The two
tracts were then consolidated to become a portion
of the Marvania sub-division.11-53,54

1926 Sanford's population was 13,461. By this time the area was
in the midst of a "Boom" and four contributing factors can credit
this: 1) rapid population increase, 2) Realty values increased
tremendously 3) increases of all business transactions, and 4)
the rise in the value of the agricultural output of the State.3f-

Activity was going on in every line of work.500
laborers were employed by the city and the city
contractors on improvements and these laborers
were paid from $2.70 to $3.00 a day and it was
almost impossible to secure enough at any price.
The bulk head was three fourths finished, at a
cost of $760,000. Things were really moving,
tremendous amounts were spent on options; the city
was boiling over with real estate speculators, one
feature of the boom which while it gave intensity,
also gave it instability.f

Improvements in transportation, with the new roads and better
automotive products also added a great deal of influence. Building
permits for the first six months of 1925 totaled $63,690. While
in the last six months of 1926 they had jumped to $1,207,197.
Practically everyone in Sanford was engaged in buying and selling
real estate. Hotels, usually open only during the winter remained
open throughout the summer months and more people than were during

1926 any previous winter, were there that summer. So tremendous was
(cont'd) the influx of people that "the railroads found it necessary to put
temporary embargoes on non-perishable freight"3f-5
January 4 The Hotel Forrest Lake opened. This huge three-
story hotel, with little detail, was a rush job for architect
E. J. Moughton. The working drawings were completed by Moughton
and several draftsmen in just eleven days! (This information
came from an interview with Mrs. E. J. Moughton. See Inventory
form # 1.)
January 23 Real estate values had reached such a peak that
Scruggs-Scoggan Realty Company paid $2,500 per front foot for a
brick building at the southwest corner of First and Sanford Avenue 11-55
(This building has been demolished.)
August 28 The new $50,000 County Jail opened. Designed by
E. J. Moughton, the building was a two-story brick and stucco
structure. (See Photo #27.) The building has been demolished.
The celery crop, Sanford's largest industry was estimated at
$8 million for this year.

1927 February 28 The $245,000 Seminole High School on South French
Avenue was dedicated, but was not to be occupied until after the
following Christmas. The structure was designed by E. J. Moughton,
Frank Lossing was the contractor. (See Inventory form #18.) The
school, with many additions is now Sanford Middle School.
May 21 This was the end of the celery season and farmers
found their crop selling for almost half the price per crate of
the previous season. The price had dropped from $2.25 to $1.35.1-63
This was apparently the first indicator of what lay ahead.

1928 January 3 The SanfordAtlantic National Bank opened11-68 at the
southeast corner of First Street and Magnolia Avenue, in the earlier
People's Bank.
January 23 Florida Power and Light Company was awarded a thirty
year franchise by The City Commission.11
September 28 J. C. Penney and Company opened its first store
in Florida on First Street in the Meisch Building.23-9c
November 14 Sanford's population was down 3,835 from the 1926
census. The population was now 9,626 of which there were 5,095
white and 4,581 black.11-20

1929 July 12 The First National Bank closed with the newspaper
saying that the bank was "simply a victim of state and nation-
wide circumstances.1"11-75 Four other Florida banks closed the
same day.

1930 The following excerpt from P. Schaals's first book on Sanford
begins to describe the city's own problems during the depression:

The City Commissioners were grim-faced and tight-
lipped at the Commission meeting November 22, when
they got the word that morning that their "pleading
of poverty or misfortune" was no reason for the

1926 any previous winter, were there that summer. So tremendous was
(cont'd) the influx of people that "the railroads found it necessary to put
temporary embargoes on non-perishable freight"3f-5
January 4 The Hotel Forrest Lake opened. This huge three-
story hotel, with little detail, was a rush job for architect
E. J. Moughton. The working drawings were completed by Moughton
and several draftsmen in just eleven days! (This information
came from an interview with Mrs. E. J. Moughton. See Inventory
form # 1.)
January 23 Real estate values had reached such a peak that
Scruggs-Scoggan Realty Company paid $2,500 per front foot for a
brick building at the southwest corner of First and Sanford Avenue. -55
(This building has been demolished.)
August 28 The new $50,000 County Jail opened. Designed by
E. J. Moughton, the building was a two-story brick and stucco
structure. (See Photo #27.) The building has been demolished.
The celery crop, Sanford's largest industry was estimated at
$8 million for this year.

1927 February 28 The $245,000 Seminole High School on South French
Avenue was dedicated, but was not to be occupied until after the
following Christmas. The structure was designed by E. J. Moughton,
Frank Lossing was the contractor. (See Inventory form #18.) The
school, with many additions is now Sanford Middle School.
May 21 This was the end of the celery season and farmers
found their crop selling for almost half the price per crate of
the previous season. The price had dropped from $2.25 to $1.3511-63
This was apparently the first indicator of what lay ahead.

1928 January 3 The Sanford Atlantic National Bank opened11-68 at the
southeast corner of First Street and Magnolia Avenue, in the earlier
People's Bank.
January 23 Florida Power and Light Company was awarded a thirty
year franchise by The City Commission. 11-
September 28 J. C. Penney and Company opened its first store
in Florida on First Street in the Meisch Building.23-9c
November 14 Sanford's population was down 3,835 from the 1926
census. The population was now 9,626 of which there were 5,095
white and 4,581 black.11-20

1929 July 12 The First National Bank closed with the newspaper
saying that the bank was "simply a victim of state and nation-
wide circumstances."11-75 Four other Florida banks closed the
same day.

1930 The following excerpt from P. Schaals's first book on Sanford
begins to describe the city's own problems during the depression:

The City Commissioners were grim-faced and tight-
lipped at the Commission meeting November 22, when
they got the word that morning that their "pleading
of poverty or misfortune" was no reason for the

33. McLaulin's Jewelry Store. This photo looks to be the same
as in the advertisement; Appendix B, Number 1. This is not
the present store of John Kader's Jewelry.

34. City Dock, Palmetto Street Wharf.

35. First Street looking east (mid-1920's). Smith Brothers
Garage on the right (corner of Oak Avenue) has been
demolished; on the left is the Welaka Block, which
originally was built for the Plant Investment Company

36. The first motorized vehicle of the Sanford Fire Department.
The print from the negative is reversed.

37. Southwest corner of First Street and Magnolia Avenue.
Seminole County Bank, which later became Touchton's Drug
Store. The cornice is presently intact, however the front
facade of the ground floor has been extremely altered.

38. Between Second and Third Street on Magnolia Avenue. This
was the original location, left bay, of the Sanford A & P.

39. Masonic Temple. Some first floor alterations have been
made on the front facade. E.J. Moughton was the architect.

photographs .

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40. The Ku Klux Klan, by the turn of the century was well organized.
Their wrath descended on, not only black, but also white

41. Fort Mellon marker, northeast corner of Second Street and
Mellonville Avenue.

42. Fort Read marker, south Mellonville Avenue.

43. Speer Grove marker, northeast corner of Mellonville Avenue
and Nineteenth Street.

44. East elevation, City Hall, 1926. E.J. Moughton, Architect.

45. North elevation, City Hall.

photographs .

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1930 City not to pay its just debts. The City owed
(cont'd) the staggering sum of $6,500,000 as a bonded
debt-$800,000 as interest to that date!

Strapped as it was, the City somehow scraped up
enough on December 4 to pay $43,756.18 for the
Forrest Lake Hotel property, which sold later to
the New York Giants Baseball club at a large pro-
fit. The name was changed to "The Mayfair" on
December 22.11-81

1931 October 12 Building permits for the year totaled $14,4351l-96
Compare this with the two year span between 1925-1926.

1932 By June, Sanford and Seminole County were so deep into the
Depression that free flour and vegetables were being distributed
among some four-hundred families.11-93

1933 Building permits for 1932 had totaled $15,165.
February 28 Frank Evans, of Lake Mary, bought the six-story
First NationAl Bank Building for a total $49,030. Original cost
of construction, ten years earlier, was $225,000.11-98
July 21 Dr. W. C. Touchton bought the old Seminole Bank
Building at the southwest corner of First Street and Magnolia
Avenue for $15,000.11-100 (See Photo #37; The building today
is Touchton's Drug Store.)

November 27 brought a change in the handouts of
pork, flour, lard, and other foods, in that the
new CWA (Civil Works Administration) announced it
was hiring 625 men for work on city streets and
county roads. Each would be paid $12 per week, but
given no more food. Someone had convinced FDR that
there was nothing more degrading than bread or food
lines-most people wanted nothing more than a chance
to work. That led to the CWA and other agencies
that went down every avenue seeking a solution on
a national level.11-103

1934 Despite the Depression, Chase and Company were doing so well
that they were bringing in $2,000,000 annually for fertilizer
alone. Still in the insurance business, their clients included
"practically all the Flagler Railroad and Hotel interests and
all the major businesses in the Orange Belt."6-04
April 6 Governor Dave Sholtz dedicate the 7new steel draw
bridge over Lake Monroe, west of Sanford,"
June 30 Twenty acres of land south of Thirteenth Street on
French Avenue were donated to the State for the construction of
a Farmer's Market.11-109

The CWA had been eliminated by mid-July, replaced
by the FERA (Federal Emergency Relief Administration),
which had a $3,500 payroll the week of July 23. The
money was spread among 964 people, about 70 percent
of them Negroes. Eleven projects were under way,
mostly street and sewer work.11-109

1934 December 18 The dedication was held for the new $80,000
(cont'd) Farmers' Market.

1935 March 8 Seminole Boulevard, the lakefront road, was finally
completed at a cost of $250,000; State Road Department Head,
Chester Treadway, declared Sanford's lakefront to be the most
modern in the State.11-15
Since before the turn of the century, ideas to construct a
canal from Sanford to Titusville had been formulated. The two
following quotes express the dissent from Sanford's agricultura-
lists, when in this year, he possibilities of the canal again
came into the limelight:

The Associated Press, "was unalterably opposed
to a sea level canal, because of what the infil-
tration of salt-water might do to local celery
farms and citrus groves. The statement was di-
directed to President Roosevelt in the form of a

Charges and countercharges came from local persons
about the real reasons for opposition. The few
proponents I (P. Schaal) heard express themselves,
claimed that Chase and Company's main concern was
that Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi citrus and
vegetable growers would be able to reach eastern
markets with early crops. These growers would also
have the advantage of the proposed low-rate shipping
charges for users of the canal. Stories to this
effect were earrie %i1~he state press, especially
in the Ocala area.

November 11 $80,000 in WPA funds were released for the
widening of Park Avenue,11-119
Construction in the city this year totaled $83,315.22-52

1936 March 17 United States voted down the $12,000,000 appropri-
ation for the cross-state canal, by a margin of 39 to 34.2-0
April 13 The old Clyde Line Dock was ordered demolished by
the City Commission.22-2
May Sanford's population was 10,903.
July 15 Ground was broken for the construction of the first
house in Sanford aided by an FHA Loan.22-34
Construction in the city totaled $118, 315.22-52

1837 By this year city taxes had been cut by 65% since 1927.
December 30 The area of land between Sanford Avenue, The
Mayfair Hotel, the lakefront and First Street was approved by the
WPA as a $30,000 park.22-72

1938 Sanford Atlantic Bank boasted a total of $1,709,087.75 in

1938 February 23 "The Sanford Herald" claimed that better than 50%
(cont'd) of the property owners in the city had avoided paying taxes for
five to ten years.277
April 2 A question quite often raised by those concerned with
Orlando's rapid growth in comparison to that of Sanford was par-
tially answered by the editor of "The Sanford Herald", "Orlando
was growing because issues are widely debated whereas Sanford
seems 'lulled into a complete state of inertia by its own
complacence and quiescence.'"22-79
August 3 WPA released $19,000 and $89,000 respectively for
the Farmers' Market and the Sewing Center, creating a total of
149 jobs.
November 30 Of the $46,500 cost for the construction of the
bulkhead east of the Municipal Pier, on Lake Monroe, the WPA
alotted $28,000.11-93

1939 January 30 Sanford filed a bankruptcy claim under the new
Wilcox Municipal Bankruptcy Act and wasthe first Florida city
to do so.22-98
February 27 A U.S.G.S. study found that local water supplies
would be damaged if a sea-level cross-state canal were built.22-100
May 17 The U. S. Senate voted against further construction
of the canal.22-105
June 2 The Florida State Bank opened at the southwest corner
of First Street and Park Avenue in the old Lyman Bank Building.

1940 January Ten days of sub-freezing weather cost growers a loss
of $4,000,000.22-120
April 30 City building permits were the highest in years at
$52,00022-124 and by September twentieth they had reached $155,000.

1941 April 9 The largest WPA project to date was started with the
construction of a new airport southeast of Sanford on 270 acres
of land.22-144
July 31 The Civil Aeronautics Authority alotted $215,000
for four runway strips, with the WPA to clear and grade the land.
October 20 One hundred were employed when the airport construc-
tion officially began with an $800,000 budget.22-155

1942 April 24 -

Navy Gets Sanford Airport.
This streamer headline set to rest a month long
rumor that was viewed as the city's only salvation,
what with the celery industry virtually eliminated.
Story said $5,000,000 would be spent by the Navy and
between 1,200 and 1,500 men and 150 officers would
be at the base, to be used for pilot training. Rep.
Joe Hendricks sent the word. Mayor Hill, who said
the city had spent $36,000 to Aug. 1 for land, clear-
ing, and hauling, said the port will be deeded to the
Navy for $1 per year, Navy to keep the site for the
duration of the war or "as long as they use it",
then it is to be deeded back to the city for $1. Mayor

1941 Hill added that "should additional land be required,
(cont'd) the Navy will purhcase it, and this land will be
included in the airport when it reverts to the city".

May 6 Contracts totaling $4.35 million were awarded to Watt
and Sinclair Construction Company and Belcher Oil Company for
the construciton of the Air Base.

1943 The celery crop of this season was marketed at the highest
prices since World War I.22-219

1944 January 14 The Florida Power Corporation was formed when
four utilities firms merged.22-220
February 28 -

Ralph B. Chapman reported that local farmers had
borrowed $6,600,000 from Central Florida Produc-
tion Credit Ass'n., in the past 10 years, with 22
borrowing in 1934, 292 in 1943 ... Under ex-cofc
prexy Leffler, the cofc claimed it helped secure
SNAS, opening of Vocational Technical school, new
county health unit, rec facilities for all service-
men, extension of city waterworks plant, mobile
migrant labor camp, parks on Roads 44-203, US aid
for farmers, with the financial and numerical
strength of cofc increased.22-225

April 23 With McCleod Construction Company as low bidder at
$76,453 the Park Avenue widening from Tenth to Twenty-third Streets.
June 30 W. E. Kader bought McLaulin's Jewelry Store (between
First and Second Streets, on Park Avenue); Henry McLaulin had
learned his jewelry trade from H. B. Lord.22-23 (See advertise-
ment #1 Appendix B and compare with Photo #33.)
July 7 Total crop sales for this season reached $1,987,177,
one-half million dollars of which was in oranges.

1945 January 8 Florida State Bank deposits increased 37% to
January 12 Sanford Atlantic Bank deposits increased to $5,524,501.
February 28 The lower east coas2056 glorida outshipped Sanford's
celery crop for the first time ever.
May 7 Germany unconditionally surrendered. "The Sanford Herald"
printed a story describing events that would occur due to the war's

Midnight curfew was abolished immediately; horse-dog
racing could resume; rationing of food would continue
since supplies now are 10% under 1944 levels; "A" card
drivers should get more gasoline soon; convention
restrictions still stood; price, wage and tax controls
also would stand; There'd be a few new autos in six-
nine months; production starts at once on washing
machines and refrigerators, with steam irons due again
3-6 months; 48-hour week to continue in war-oriented
plants, dropped gradually elsewhere; draft calls to

1945 continue large; between 250,000-4000,000 new homes
(cont'd) should be built within year; low cost clothing to
be plentiful soon.22-267

Local crops were valued at $18,000,000.
June 12 This is the date on which the State Road Depart-
ment first told a large group of civic leaders that a "Post-
War Super Highway" was going to be built, passing west of the
July 13 Florida State Bank deposits reached $3,856,948
while those at Sanford-Atlantic Bank were $8,074,049.22-274
August 14 The Japanese surrendered.
September 14 Post-War Sanford was now considering changing
the emphasis in advertising from farming to tourism.22-280
December 31 Building permits were at $173,042 nearly
doubling that of the previous year.
Sanford Atlantic Bank deposits were now at $7,306,713
while the Florida State Bank deposits were at $3,614,944.22-293

Two sources, both by Peter Schaal on the history of
Sanford, covering the years 1912-1945, were used extensively.
His single source of information was "The Sanford Herald"
and this author feels that, as a whole, and within certain
limits, the information is valid.

The next portion of this paper shall confine itself
to the description of only a few events occurring from
1945 to the present, which influenced further development
of Sanford, without referring to thousands of pages of
reading the "Herald" required to properly date these events.
Some footnotes however, will be included.


- Agriculture was a $6 million/year business in the area.

1956 -
1957 First industry in many years was estimated on West 1st
Street, Sanford Manufacturing, a clothing plant.23.2

1961 The Sanford-Seminole Development Company was organized
by Sanford people to locate industry in Seminole County.

1967 Agriculture was a $30 million dollar business.232

Holiday Ilse and the marina opened offering excellent
facilities for both dry and wet boat storage and food and
sleeping accommodations.

1969 Sanford Naval Air Station closed and withdrew all military
personnel, the land reverted back to the city. Since very
little military housing was provided on the base, the real
estate market was flooded with vacant houses.

Interstate 4 was completed from Daytona to Tampa
(making Orlando more accessible). This appears to have
taken even more business from the "downtown" area.

1970's Auto Train, extending from Washington. D.C. to Sanford,
has put Sanford "on the map", with its nationwide television
advertisements. Since the R.R. station is west of the
city and I-4 is west of the R.R. station, many passengers
probably drive straight to the Interstate and head for
Daytona. Orlando, Disney World or Tampa without actually
seeing downtown Sanford.

Since the opening of Disney World which caused a flurry
of over-development in the Orlando area, population in
Central Florida has rapidly increased. Even Sanford,
with many of its central business district structures still
vacant, has seen tremendously rapid growth, most of which
has occurred on the outskirts of town.

The old Navy Base, now a low density, industrial park,
is beginning to show signs of life, with businesses be-
coming more permanent than earlier attempts and new com-
panies showing interest in the future use of the facilities

Through the especially aggressive personality of Ms.
Sara Jacobson and the more than passing interest of Jeno
Paulucci, the city of Sanford is beginning to wake its
sleepy eyes in a move to revitalize the downtown area.

If not done so before, Jeno Paulucci could be compared
in certain respects to the late, General Henry Shelton
Sanford. Though neither one has had a permanent residence
here both seem to share an intense desire to make the city
and its people as aware, progressive,and as productive
as possible. Both have funneled large sums of money

and business into the area. H.S. Sanford had problems
communicating with the businessmen of the early town
in his efforts to enhance future companies to locate
in Sanford and it seems that up till now Jeno Paulucci
shared that same problem. When H.S. Sanford died
most of his wealth had been drained and I'm sure
a goodly percentage of it was done so in Sanford...
I sincerely hope that the community of Sanford with
its new Downtown Development Corporation will awaken and
reach the level of productiveness that the present scale
of the town is capable of.


The numbers proceeding the books or articles listed below corres-
pond to the first number in each footnote.

1. "Sanford, the First 100 Years." Article from "The Sanford Herald,"
by Virginia Scruggs. 1 p.

2. Henry Shelton Sanford, 1823-1891, a Bibliography. Leo T. Malloy, 1952.

3. "Some Account of Belair, Also the City of Sanford, with a Brief Sketch
of Their Founder." Author unknown, 1889.
Also with this essay were six others, these from the Federal Writers'
a. "Sanford,Florida." Margaret Barnes, 1936. 17 p.
b. "Field Notes." Margaret Barnes, 7/8/36. 5 p.
c. "Sanford," Author, date unknown. 3 p.
d. "Belair." S. O. Chase, 1936. 7 p.
e. "The Foundation and Continuance of the 'Church of the Holy Cross'
in Sanford." Margaret Barnes, 10/5/36. 5 p.
f. "The Boom of 1926. Its effect on Sanford." Margaret Barnes, 11/12/36.
6 p.

4. a. "Historical Facts on Sanford, Florida." Newspaper article, no
author or date. 1 p.

5. "Growing Pains." Author, date unavailable.

6. "The Sanford & Everglades Railroad, The Celery Belt Line." Article
by Felix Reifschneider. "Railroad Magazine," October. 1950.

7. "Sanford & Beyond." Written by the Florida Land & Colonization Company:
1885. 20 p.

8. "Chase & Company, 1959 our 75th Anniversary." 12 page pamphlet.

9. Revised Ordinances of the City of Sanford, Florida. 1892. Published
by "The Gate City Chronicle."

10. The American Life of Henry Shelton Sanford. Richard J. Amundson.
Florida State University, 1963.

11. Sanford as I Knew It. 1912-1915. Orlando, Florida. 1970. Peter Schaal.

12. "Steamboats on the Saint Johns River." Author and date unknown. 11 p.

13. "Memorandum of Some Interesting Points Concerning the Purchase of Moses
Levy Grant." By General Joseph Finnigan (Spelled Finegan throughout the
text.) 1 p.

Working Bibliography

14. Florida for Tourists, Invalids and Settlers. George M. Barbour,

15. "History of Sanford The Annals of Sanford." Mrs. J. N. Whitner.
May, 1910. 12 p.

16. Chapter Ten "More of Two Brothers and How They Planned an
Agricultural Empire." Untitled, unpublished book in possession of
Mrs. Julia Chase.

17. "A Narrative History of the Orange in the Floridian Peninsula."
T. F. Davis. 1941.

18. "A Tale of a Mosquito." Mrs. J. N. Whitner, 1910. 25 p.

19. "Armed Occupation Act." No author, or date. 1 p.

20. Early Settlers of Orange County, Florida. C. E. Howard, Publisher,
1915. Orlando, Florida.

21. "Greater Sanford Illustrated The Celery City." 1916. Publisher

22. Sanford and the World War II Years: 1936-1945. Peter Schaal.

23. "The Evening Herald," '48th Annual Progress Edition." Sanford,
Florida, 1975.

24. "Holy Cross Church the First 100 Years." 1973. 32 p.

Recent publications for further reading describing Sanford, presently and
planning for its future.

1. "Sanford's Form and Appearance." Orange-Seminole-Osceola Planning
Commission, early 1970's. 33 p.

2. "Comprehensive Development Plan, Sanford, Florida." May, 1975.
47 pgs. Many map studies.

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