A historical review of the organization and development of teacher education in the State of Florida

Material Information

A historical review of the organization and development of teacher education in the State of Florida a case study
Keck, Judith Diane, 1947- ( Dissertant )
Lewis, Arthur J. ( Thesis advisor )
White, Arthur D. ( Reviewer )
Parkay, Forrest W. ( Reviewer )
Smith, David C. ( Degree grantor )
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
University of Florida
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
Physical Description:
x, 305 leaves ; 28 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
College instruction ( jstor )
Colleges ( jstor )
Education ( jstor )
Educational research ( jstor )
Learning ( jstor )
Professional education ( jstor )
Professional schools ( jstor )
Schools ( jstor )
Teacher education ( jstor )
Teachers ( jstor )
Curriculum and Instruction thesis Ph. D ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Curriculum and Instruction -- UF ( lcsh )
Teachers -- Training of -- Florida ( lcsh )
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


The purpose of this study was to examine the historical development of pre-service teacher education in the State of Florida. More specifically, answers to the following questions were sought: 1. What strategies have been used in training teachers in the State of Florida? 2. What has influenced the development of certain strategies? 3. What procedures have been employed by the State of Florida to monitor the effectiveness of teacher education programs? The research method of historiography was applied to this problem in educational history. Central to the development of this investigation was the use of the case study approach in the research of Florida teacher education. The school law of 1369 was the foundation upon which the present school system in Florida was constructed. The law directed the state board of education to provide for the preparation of teachers. With the enactment of the uniform teacher certification law in 1893, the emphasis in teacher training shifted from teaching students how to teach to preparing them to pass the certification examinations. The graduate certification law of 1913 initiated the transition from the practice of issuing certificates based on examination results only to issuing them based on training students for the work to be performed. The 1939 school code established the state board of education as the state agency that determined regulations for teacher education program accreditation. Beginning in 1953, teacher training program approval by the state department of education was required. Following the statewide teachers' strike in 1968, legislative mandates regarding education and teacher education increased. Because of the Educational Accountability Act of 1971, teacher education programs placed greater emphasis on classroom management and the teaching of the basics. Pre-certification examinations were re-instituted in 1980; passing this competency examination, coupled with completion of a yearlong beginning teacher program, was required for full certification in Florida in 1982. It is recommended that this study concerning the historical development of teacher education in Florida be updated every 10 to 15 years. Through the study of historical trends, educators can improve teacher education, a fundamental part of our educational system.
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1985.
Bibliography: leaves 264-304.
General Note:
General Note:
Statement of Responsibility:
by Judith Diane Keck.

Record Information

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
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AEH5154 ( NOTIS )
014772037 ( OCLC )


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Copyright 1935

Judith Diane Keck


This dissertation is dedicated to the memory of my confidant,

Buclair Cummins, and to the memory of my mother, Claudine Hershiser

Keck. The remembrance of their love, acceptance, and understanding

sustained my spirit throughout my graduate studies.


The author wishes to express her gratitude to Or. Arthur J. Lewis,

chairman of the supervisory committee, for his time, effort and

continuous guidance throughout this study. The writer is also grateful

to the other committee members, Dr. Arthur 0. White, for his interest in

Florida educational history and historigraphical expertise, and

Dr. Robert S. Soar for his contributions in teacher education research.

Special thanks are extended to Or. William E. Kline for his

confirmation and corroboration throughout the author's Ph.D. program.

Perseverance has been educed because of his insights and advice.

Sincere appreciation is expressed to the author's father, Ray E.

Keck; her sister, Joan Keck Whitis; and her niece, Sue J. Whitis for

their interest and support. The writer is also indebted to her friend,

Denise Johnson, for her kindness during the research and writing of this



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................................... iv

ABSTRACT.............................................................. ix


ONE INTRODUCTION................................ ....................

Statement of the Problem....................................... .2
Design of the Study.............................................2
Definition of Teacher Education................................ .5
Delimitations .................................................... 7
Overview of the Dissertation.................................... 8


Early Background: Beginnings of Teacher Preparation,
Colonial Times 1839..................................9
Religious, Political, Social, and Economic Factors...........10
Nature of the Education Institutions .........................11
Oualifications of Teachers.................................. 14
Establishment of the First Teacher Preparation
Institutions in America................................... 16
Establishment and Growth of Normal Schools and Normal
Departments in Colleges and Universities, 1839-1865.......20
Status of Teachers .............................. ...........20
Certification of Teachers....................................22
Establishment and Growth of State Normal Schools.............22
Growth of City Training Classes and Schools..................76
Decline of Teacher Preparation in the Academies..............27
Teacher Preparation in Normal Departments of Colleges........27
Rapid Growth of Normal Schools and Beginnings of
Departments of Pedagogy, 1865-1890........................28
Status of Teachers ........................................ 30
Rapid Growth of State Normal Schools.........................32
Private and Black Normal Schools.............................37

Decline of Normal Departments: Rise of Departments
of Pedagogy ............................................... 38
Evolution of Teachers Colleges and Growth of Schools
and Colleges of Education, 1890-1933......................41
Increased Certification Requirements.........................42
Improvements in Teacher Status...............................46
Changes in the Number, Organization, Control, and Support
of Normal Schools and Teachers Colleges...................48
Lengthening and Differentiation of Curricula.................52
Enrichment of Content; Development of New Courses............53
Observation, Student Teaching, and the Training School .......55
Changing Theories and Methodology............................56
Staff and Students...........................................57
Changing Status of Special-Type Teacher Preparation
Institutions .............................................. 59
Growth of Teacher Preparation in Colleges and Universities...60
Land-Grant Colleges; Vocational Education....................67
Municipal Colleges and Universities ..........................67
Colleges for Women......................................... 68
Junior Colleges........................................... 68
Low Years of the Depression and the Early Years
of the War-Born Recovery, 1933-1938.......................69
Scientific Approach of the Educational Process...............70
Changing Methodology in Teacher Education....................71
Changing Theories as a Base for Teacher Education............73
Implications for Teacher Education...........................75
Training from the Internship Experience......................76
Raising Standards of Preservice Preparation of Teachers......80
Raising Professional Standards...............................81
Years of Continuing Recovery from the Depression
and Beginnings of World War II, 1938-1943.................83
Cooperation among Schooling Agencies in Furthering
Programs Already Started..................................84
Reciprocal Effects of Education and War..................... g90
Transformation of Teachers Colleges into State Colleges
and Accreditation of Teacher Education, 1943-1965.........93
Transformation of Teachers Colleges into State Colleges......93
Academic Orientation Movement and Teacher Education..........94
Continuing Work of the Commission on Teacher Education.......98
Usage of New Educational Techniques and Devices.............102
Foundation Funding in Teacher Preparation...................104
Teaching Profession: Standards and Control.................106
Conflict in Teacher Preparation, 1965-1975.....................109
Personalistic Reformers .................................. 111
Comptency Orientation..................................... 115
Innovations and Reforms in Teaching Techniques..............118
Civil Rights Movement ...................................... 121
Teacher Certification.................................... 123

Teacher Education in a Changing World, 1975-1984...............126
Competence versus Humanism..................................128
Research and Development in Teacher Education...............129
Curricular and Instructional Innovations....................134
Transitional Influences in Teacher Education................138


Florida Teacher Education during Colonial Times
through the Civil War Era................................142
Educational Development in Territorial Florida..............143
State Seminaries of Higher Learning.........................145
Teacher Certification.......................................147
Florida Teacher Education in the Era of
Reconstruction, 1864-1876................................148
Educational Development during the Reconstruction Period.... 148
Teacher Certification....................................... 150
Florida Teacher Education in the Era of
Redemption, 1876-1900 ................................... 151
Creation of Normal Departments in the State Seminaries......151
Normal Departments in Other State Institutions..............153
Normal Departments in Private Institutions..................154
Establishment of State Normal Schools and Normal Colleges...156
Private Normal Schools and Normal Colleges..................156
The Florida Education Association...........................158
Teacher Certification.......................................159
Florida Teacher Education during the Building of the
Florida State Public Education System, 1900-1929.........162
Teacher Education in State Institutions.....................164
Teacher Education in Private Institutions...................169
Teacher Certification.................................... 172
Florida Teacher Education during the
Era of the Depression, 1929-1941.........................181
Advisory Groups for Teacher Education.......................182
Teacher Education in State Institutions.....................184
Teacher Education in Private Institutions...................185
Teacher Certification.................................... 188
Florida Teacher Education during the War Years, 1941-1947......191
Advisory Groups for Teacher Education.......................192
Preservice Internship Program in Florida....................193
Florida's Minimum Foundation Program........................196
Teacher Education in State Institutions.....................198
Teacher Education in Private Institutions...................199
Teacher Certification.......................................201
Florida Teacher Education in the Postwar Years, 1947-1968......203
Advisory Groups for Teacher Education .......................206
Preservice Internship Program in Florida....................211
Teacher Education in State Institutions.....................214
Teacher Education in Private Institutions...................219
Teacher Certification............................ ........223

Florida Teacher Education in the Modern Era, 1968-1984......... 232
Multi-State Teacher Education Project.......................237
Teacher Education Centers ...................................239
Florida Council on Teacher Education........................240
Competency Orientation......................................241
Teacher Education in State Institutions .....................243
Teacher Education in Private Institutions...................245
Teacher Certification....................................... 245


Strategies in Training Teachers in Florida.....................252
Influences on the Development of Teacher Training Strategies...256
State Procedures for Monitoring the Effectiveness
of Teacher Education Programs............................261
Recommendations ...............................................263

REFERENCES ....................................................... 264

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .................................................. 305

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy



Judith Diane Keck

August 1985

Chairman: Arthur J. Lewis, Professor
Major Department: Curriculum and Instruction

The purpose of this study was to examine the historical development

of preservice teacher education in the State of Florida. More

specifically, answers to the following questions were sought:

1. What strategies have been used in training teachers in

the State of Florida?

2. What has influenced the development of certain


3. What procedures have been employed by the State of

Florida to monitor the effectiveness of teacher education


The research method of historiography was applied to this proble'n

in educational history. Central to the development of this

investigation was the use of the case study approach in the research of

Florida teacher education.

The school law of 1869 was the foundation upon which the present

school system in Florida was constructed. The law directed the state

board of education to provide for the preparation of teachers. With the

enactment of the uniform teacher certification law in 1893, the emphasis

in teacher training shifted from teaching students how to teach to

preparing them to pass the certification examinations. The graduate

certification law of 1913 initiated the transition from the practice of

issuing certificates based on examination results only to issuing them

based on training students for the work to be performed.

The 1939 school code established the state board of education as

the state agency that determined regulations for teacher education

program accreditation. Beginning in 1953, teacher training program

approval by the state department of education was required.

Following the statewide teachers' strike in 1968, legislative

mandates regarding education and teacher education increased. Because

of the Educational Accountability Act of 1971, teacher education

programs placed greater emphasis on classroom management and the

teaching of the basics. Precertification examinations were reinstituted

in 1980; passing this competency examination, coupled with completion of

a yearlong beginning teacher program, was required for full

certification in Florida in 1982.

It is recommended that this study concerning the historical

development of teacher education in Florida be updated every 10 to 15

years. Through the study of historical trends, educators can improve

teacher education, a fundamental part of our educational system.


The strength of an educational system depends upon the quality of

its teachers. However enlightened the aims, however up to date and

generous the equipment, however efficient the administrators, the value

of education to the children is determined by the teachers. There is,

therefore, no more important matter than that of securing a sufficient

supply of the right kind of people to the teaching profession, providing

them with the best possible training, and ensuring to them a status and

esteem commensurate with the importance and responsibility of their

work. With the rapid expansion of schooling, both in numbers and extent

of education, these problems have acquired a new importance and urgency.

The problems of teacher education are among those nagging realities

which simply will not go away. How to prepare large numbers of young

people to be effective teachers of our children, and then, how to keep

those teachers performing at a high level are perennial challenges in

education. While teacher education has its fads, frills, and trends, it

is basically an unglamourous subject. It is, nevertheless, a burning

presence that underlies all of the proposals to improve the schools,

and, therefore, cannot be ignored.

As established by our system of government, it is a constitutional

function of the state to maintain and supervise the public schools. In

discharging this responsibility, each state should provide competent and

capable teachers for its public schools. The policy of the regulation

of teacher training is developed through the state legislature.

The focus of this study is upon the development of teacher

education in the State of Florida. To devote a study to teacher

education within a state system of education reflects not only the

centrality of teacher education to the entire field of education but

also recognizes that much has happened in teacher education

historically. An understanding of these historical developments can

help to shape sound policy decisions.

Statement of the Problem

The purpose of this study is to seek a general understanding of the

history of the preservice preparation of teachers for the elementary and

secondary schools of Florida. More specifically, answers to the

following questions are sought:

1. What strategies have been used in training teachers in the

State of Florida?

2. What has influenced the development of certain strategies?

3. What procedures have been employed by the State of Florida to

monitor the effectiveness of teacher education programs?

Design of the Study

The research method of historiography is applied to this problem in

educational history. In brief, historiography or the historical method,

as delineated by historiographers, is a process of determining the

accuracy of statements made about events (?arzumn & Graff, 1962;

Brickman, 1982; The Social Sciences, 1954). It is obvious that a

historian, that is, one who desires to write a reliable account of

certain occurrences, is rarely in a position to describe direct

observations of his or her own. In as much as a historian must rely

upon the testimony of others, he or she must make use of techniques to

verify and evaluate those statements. Accordingly, Brickman (1982)

stated that the writing of history involves

1. The selection and delimitation of a research problem;
2. The accumulation, classification, and criticism of
source materials;
3. The consequent determination of the facts;
4. The formulation of tentative hypotheses to explain the
facts; and
5. The synthesis and presentation of the facts in a
logically organized form. (p. 91)

Central to the development of this investigation is the use of the

case study approach in the research of Florida teacher education. A

case study is an intensive analysis of an individual, an institution, a

community, any group, or, in this case, a single state that is

considered as a unit of study. The case study approach emphasizes the

total situation or combination of factors, the description of the

process of sequence of events in which the behavior occurs, and the

study and analysis of the developmental factors in relation to the

environment within which these factors are found and function (Young,

1933). The intensive character of the case study approach allows for

its descriptive nature to be, if accurate, always a true record of what

has occurred and still is occurring.

Young (1933) referred to the case study approach as the historical-

genetic method since it provides a more or less continuous picture

through time of the experiences, social forces, and influences which the

unit of study (teacher education in the State of Florida) has exerted or

to which the unit of study has been subjected and conditioned in the

activities of other environmental forces. Thus the case study method

includes a picture of past situations which furnish new meanings and new

responses. "This is particularly valuable in giving information to

crises which are significant in the development of new attitudes,

meanings, and habits" (Young, 1933, pp. 27, 28).

As to the contribution of the case study approach to history, one

authority said that there is no other method which can better deal with

historical data "for it alone provides the essential order and

consistency in the field" (Bernard, 1934, p. 270). Thus viewed, the

case study approach appears to be a legitimate type of research approach

to employ in investigating teacher education as developed by the State

of Florida. Not only does it seek to secure all possible data with

regard to the unit (teacher education in the State of Florida) being

studied, but also it derives from these data a unified, coherent concept

concerning the part played by a variety of influences in determining the

character and the experiences of the unit in its existence as a whole.

To shed light upon the activities of the field, Chapter 2 sets the

preparation of teachers in this country in a historical perspective; it

describes the major patterns of training and the institutional

arrangements. From that background, Chapter 3 presents a historical

review of the organization and development of teacher education in


Sources of information employed in this investigation included

histories of Florida; official records; articles; newspapers; logs,

diaries, correspondence, oral history, and interviews; and economic and

social indicators. Extensive use was made of the P. K. Yonge Library of

Florida History (a division of the University of Florida main library)

for historical documentation and of the University of Florida Law

Library for legislation. Additional information was obtained from

interviews with present and past leaders in teacher education in


Definition of Teacher Education

Teacher education is a preparation program designed to train people

for a career in teaching. Contemporary writers (Cogan, 1975; Conant,

1963; Cremin, 1961; Masoner, 1963; Woodring, 1963) include the following

specific components in a teacher education program: (a) an extensive

background in general or liberal education; (b) an examination of the

foundations of education; (c) an exploration in depth and breadth in the

field in which the person is preparing to teach; (d) a concentration in

professional studies or pedagogy; and (e) a supervised clinical practice

teaching and internship.

The general education or liberal arts study is intended to supply a

broad view of the areas of knowledge in the humanities, social sciences,

and natural sciences. It provides for the student an understanding and

appreciation of the contributions of the fields of knowledge, selected

educational experiences in them, something of the concepts and methods

underlying them, and the development of both an interest and ability to

continue further explorations in learning. Some of the general courses

are deemed especially appropriate for an aspiring teacher.

The foundations of education study includes courses derived from

the behavioral sciences and the humanities for the purpose of

familiarizing aspiring educators with the function of the schools in the

social order, how best to improve effectiveness of schools in that

social order, and what constitutes the dynamics of student personality

development and learning styles.

The subject matter training builds a knowledge base in the proposed

teaching fields) of a prospective teacher. Education in subject matter

should lead to a respect for learning and to an appreciation of the role

of an expert or scholar in the field.

The professional studies or pedagogy training is designed to enable

the student to acquire information regarding teaching techniques,

curricular designs, principles and procedures of classroom teaching and

organization, and evaluation and measurement. It involves content from

many disciplines, notably psychology, philosophy, and sociology.

The supervised clinical practice teaching and internship

experiences are focused upon the specific behaviors or skills to be

employed in teaching. Under the guidance of college supervisors and of

supervising teachers, the student teacher can utilize these specific

behaviors or skills and receive specific feedback on his or her use of

these skills.


There are boundaries, exceptions, reservations, and qualifications

inherent in this study. These delimitations include the following three


1. The perimeters of this study are specifically

established within the confines of the State of

Florida. A national overview of the history of

teacher education is included in the review of

related literature.

2. Because the research method employed in this

study is the case study approach and, as such,

presents a unified, coherent picture through time

of the experiences, social forces, and influences

in which the education of teachers in Florida has

been subjected, a type of survey review is

given. The comprehensive overview presents a

continuous depiction of the data but it is not an

indepth inspection of it.

3. An effort has been made to find and use all of

the materials available concerning teacher

training in the United States and Florida from

colonial time to the present. In spite of the

fact that numerous primary and secondary sources

were consulted, the investigation may have missed

some pertinent information. Some of the

materials cited in secondary sources were not


4. There was no intensive criticism of the sources

used so their validity may vary.

Overview of the Dissertation

The beginning of this historical study emphasizes the background

and history of teacher education in the United States from colonial

times to the present. The review of the literature that provides this

national context is presented in Chapter 2.

From the setting provided by the background information, the study

presents a historical review of the organization and development of

teacher education in the State of Florida. Chapter 3 describes teacher

education in Florida during a series of time periods. The time periods

were selected to designate major shifts in the development of education

within the State of Florida.

A summary chapter, Chapter 4, offers answers to the three questions

identified in the section concerning the statement of the problem.

Conclusions are presented, and recommendations for further study are

proposed in Chapter 4.


The Seventy-First Congress authorized a survey of the education of

teachers on a nationwide scope from 1933-1935. Benjamin W. Frazier,

senior specialist in teacher training in the U.S. Office of Education

during those years, headed a team who prepared the historical background

for the survey. In that treatment of the history of teacher education

in the United States (Frazier, 1935), the team identified certain trends

or tendencies which have affected the teacher education policies within

this country. They organized the history of teacher education into a

series of time frames which emphasized significant shifts in teacher

education. This history of teacher education in the United States

follows these divisions of time.

Early Background: Beginnings of Teacher Preparation,
Colonial Times 1839

The oldest form of teacher education is the observation and

emulation of a master. Plato learned to teach by sitting at the feet of

Socrates. Aristotle learned from Plato. Throughout the course of

history, others have learned how and what to teach from their own


Advice to teachers and instruction in methods were available in

written form long before there were special schools for teacher

training. Roman teachers could read Quintilian's advice on teaching;

sixteenth-century teachers could read the Didactica Magna which

emphasized that teachers should teach less and learners should learn

more (Woodring, 1975) .

A form of teacher education was provided by medieval universities

where the master's degree was a certificate of admission to the guild of

professional teachers. Within this training setting, the word "doctor"

meant scholar or teacher long before it came to refer to a physician.

Special schools devoted primarily to the education of teachers developed

much later, however.

Religious, Political, Social, and Economic Factors

The American colonies were influenced in their educational outlook

and activities by the contemporary ideas and practices of their mother

country England (Frazier, 1935). The influence of other western

European counties was felt, but only in limited geographical areas.

Provisions for schooling made by the early settlers appear, when judged

by modern standards, to have been exceedingly meager. The difficult

physical environment and the unstable and primitive living conditions of

a pioneer country handicapped progress.

For two centuries or more the matter of specific professional

education of teachers was given almost no attention (Frazier, 1935;

Woodring, 1975). More basic tasks confronted the colonies and the early

states. Only, after victories to establish free, tax-supported public

schools were gained, could the establishment of state-supported teacher

preparation institutions occur.

As in Europe, the church was predominantly the institution of early

America through which not only the religious hut also the educational

heritage was preserved and extended (Frazier, 1935; Holmes, 1963;

McMahon, 1950; Woodring, 1975). Its existence operated toward the

advancement of the whole idea of common school education. The ability

to read the Bible was deemed essential by the Protestant churches, and

the establishment of elementary schools was motivated by the desire to

impart this ability to all of the people. This extension of public

education to all social classes greatly increased the demand for

teachers (Knight, 1945).

During the eighteenth-century (Woodring, 1975), Prussia led the way

in the training of teachers. Frederick William I, who first promoted a

compulsory school law, issued in 1734 his Principia Regulativa which

prescribed the training of teachers as well as the school curriculum

(Alexander, 1929).

Shortly after the U. S. Revolution, the founding fathers began to

follow the European example and to extend the systems of the public

schools that had been established during the colonial period. Several

decades were to elapse, however, before any concrete effort was made to

prepare the teachers for those schools (Woodring, 1975).

Nature of Educational Institutions

The status of elementary schools in 1839 was still low although the

methods of teaching were being gradually improved. The content of the

instruction was expanding and more attention was being given to the

schools in general. Memory work and drill were stressed.

The forerunner of the American secondary schools was the Latin

grammar school. The first such school was established in Boston in 1635

(Frazier, 1935). The classics--Latin, Greek, Hebrew, religion,

philosophy, and ethics--were the subjects offered for study; the classes

were traditional, formal, and limited in scope. preparation for college

was stressed (Brown, E. E., 1907). Although many teachers received a

general education in the Latin grammar schools, the specific education

of teachers was not undertaken in these schools. The services of this

school were confined to rather distinct social classes; this reinforced

the idea that education should only be allowed for a select and small

minority of the population (Holmes, 1963). Women were not allowed to

attend. Toward the time of the Revolution, the limitations of the Latin

grammar school became increasingly evident. As a more comprehensive

institution, the academy arose. Benjamin Franklin, in his plan for the

establishment of the Adademy and Charitable School of the Province of

Pennsylvania (chartered in 1753), made mention of the need for teacher


A number of the poorer sort will hereby be
qualified to act as schoolmasters in the country,
to teach children reading, writing, arithmetic,
and grammar of their mother tongue, and being of
good morals and known character, may be
recommended from the academy to country school
for that purpose the country suffering very
much at present for want of good schoolmasters.
(Wickersham, 1886, p. 60)

Prior to 1800, there were no systematic efforts to prepare teachers

for their responsibilities (Elsbree, 1963). The earliest date when

anything like a planned effort appeared to have been made was in 1806.

At that time the Lancastrian method of teaching with its model schools

for demonstration purposes was instituted in New York, Massachusetts,

and Pennsylvania. Many individuals who aspired to teach attended those

model schools. Whatever the limitations of that instructional method,

it stimulated great interest in teacher preparation. Elsbree (1963)

indicated that the method "is often referred to as the forerunner of the

normal school" (p. 177). The Lancastrian method, in turn, led to the

establishment in 1823 of a seminary in the form of an academy in

Concord, Vermont.

The period from 1800-1836 was not marked by any widespread

establishment of teacher seminaries/academies. Rather, it was a period

of agitation prior to the Civil War. The academy actually contributed

little to the solution of the teacher training problem (Elsbree,

1963). The academy program for the preparation of teachers did not vary

significantly from the general program available to regular students.

As an educational institution, however, the academy did move forward the

educational activities surrounding teacher preparation (Frazier, 1935).

In 1821, the high school, a more democratic institution than the

academy, was established. While that institution contributed little to

the development of the specific preparation of teachers during the

period, its advent marked an important step in the democratization of


Nine colleges were established during the colonial period: four in

the New England states, four in the Middle Atlantic states, and one in

Virginia (Frazier, 1935; Tewksbury, 1932). Many teachers in the Latin

grammar schools, academies, and high schools received their general

education in the colleges. The colleges were usually small and were

controlled predominantly by the several competing church

denominations. This form of goverance supported the belief of the

church as the guardian of education (Holmes, 1963).

Qualifications of Teachers

Before the establishment of the first normal schools, the status of

common school teachers in the U. S. was extremely poor. Specific

professional preparation of teachers was almost unknown (Elsbree, 1963;

Frazier, 1935; Ulich, M. E., 1958). The academic preparation of the

typical elementary teacher included little more than nominal mastery of

the subjects that he or she taught in the schools. The salaries were

very low, the school term was short, teacher tenure was brief, the

prestige of teachers was low, and emphasis upon methodology and

pedagogical principles was almost non-existent (Elsbree, 1963; Frazier,


The teachers were a product of the particular social order of their

day. According to Samuel R. Hall, founder of the Concord Academy in

1823, different classes of persons engaged in teaching.

A portion of those who engage in teaching are
such as have received no instruction, except what
they derived from common schools. The employment
is little more respectable, in their estimation,
than manual labor. . .
Another class of teachers are those, who, in
addition to the benefits of the district school,
have resorted to an academy for a single season.
. Some are instrumental in raising the
character of their schools, while others do more

hanrm than good. . Yet all lack instruction in
those things which regard the business of
There is another class who engage in teaching
for a season, for the sake of pecuniary
compensation. They are preparing for
college . and while they are paying exclusive
attention to classical studies . their
qualifications are not better than those who were
included in the class before mentioned, and they
are perhaps even inferior. (Hall, 1829,
pp. 26-27)

According to Hall, therefore, teachers represented a cross section of

the population as a whole.

Certification of teachers during the colonial days was regulated by

the local ministers and town authorities. The applicants were to be

"sound in faith" and possess a smattering knowledge of the subjects to

be taught (Martin, 1894). The requirements for conjoined civil and

ecclesiastical teaching licenses existed as early as 1645 (Dunshee,


While certification practices were gradually taken over by civil

authorities, requirements were low everywhere in 1839. For a long time

thereafter, according to M. T. Mann (1891), even the requirements that

were set up were laxly administered. For example, the legally required

examinations of teachers appeared to have been perfunctory, when they

were given at all.

Practically all of the agencies issuing certificates were local,

and the certificates had local validity only. Certification served

chiefly as a safeguard against the admission of incompetent or

undesirable teachers.

Establishment of the First Teacher Preparation Institutions in America

The first noteworthy advocacy of teacher preparation in this

country followed the establishment of "a public grammar school in each

county of the State [of Massachusetts]. ." (Ticknor, cited in

Mann, H., 1842, pp. 169-170). In 1816, Professor Denison Olmstead, of

Yale College, in a commencement address at that institution, made an

appeal for a free, state-supported seminary for schoolmasters.

Professor James L. Kingsley in 1823, William Russell in 1823, Thomas H.

Gallaudet in 1825, Walter R. Johnson in 1825, Henry E. Dwight in 1829,

Charles C. Brooks in 1835, Calvin E. Stowe in 1837, and others spoke and

wrote upon the subject (Gordy, 1891).

The academy constituted the first significant agency in this

country to attempt the specific professional education of teachers on

any considerable scale (Elsbree, 1963; Frazier, 1935). Beginnings were

said to have been made at Zion Parnassus Academy near Salisbury, North

Carolina, in 1785. Other academies that included teacher preparation

programs were established at Westtown Boarding School by the Society of

Friends in Pennsylvania in 1799, and at Nazareth Hall in the same state

in 1807.

The academies were content with a single course in pedagogy,

"principles of teaching" (Annual Report, 1840, p. 77). The academies

gave little or no attention to student teaching. The preparation of

teachers was not their primary objective.

The early practices and offerings in teacher preparation from the

Canadaigua Academy (New York) are representative:

About four years since, a teachers department was
organized on the following plan: 1st. That those
young gentlemen who entered this school to
prepare themselves for teachers, should enter the
classes pursuing those branches in which they
wished, or it was deemed necessary, to perfect
themselves. 2nd. The teachers to be organized
into a class and to receive a specific course of
instruction on the following plan: To meet 5
evenings each week and spend 2 or 3 hours
together. On 3 evenings of each week, Hall's
lectures on school-keeping are recited till the
book is finished and throughly reviewed. . .
The remaining evening of the week is devoted to
the consideration of a series of subjects; one
being discussed on each evening. Each member of
the class brings in a written subject. . .
Mutual conversation is called forth. . The
subjects discussed on these evenings are nearly
the following, and in the order mentioned:
1. The defects in common schools.
2. The circumstances which restrain and
discourage the efforts of the teacher.
3. The best modes of teaching the alphabet,
reading, and spelling.
4. The best modes of teaching arithmetic, and
the best books.
5. The best modes of teaching geography.
6. The best modes of teaching English grammar.
7. The best modes of teaching writing and
making pens.
8. Pestalozzi and his mode of instruction.
q. Government of schools.
10. Best methods of arresting the attention of
11. How to teach composition.
12. What plans can the teacher adopt to render
his labors more extensively useful to his
13. Construction of schoolhouses.
This course of instruction is designed to
continue one quarter of each year. (Annual
Report, 1835, pp. 65-67)

In 1823, Samuel R. Hall founded the first private normal school at

Concord, Vermont (Hofstadter & Hardy, 1952). In 1830, Hall moved that

normal school from Concord to Andover, Massachusetts, where the normal

or teachers' course was three years in length. The courses were

designed to give students, most of whom enrolled with training

equivalent to that of the upper elementary or junior high school level,

an education preparatory to the work of the professional teaching course

(Barnard, 1858). Instruction in the common branches and special

lectures in the "art of teaching" were offered. The boys department of

the academy served as a model school.

By 1836, there were several teachers' seminaries in existence in

New York and Massachusetts; in addition, there were one or more of the

seminaries in Indiana, Illinois, New Hampshire, and Maine. Usually the

units were departments of academies. The institutions in New York, and

those later in Wisconsin, best illustrated the growth of teacher

preparation in state-subsidized academies.

As early as 1821, the Regents of the University of the State of New

York stated in their report to the legislature that the seminaries must

supply the teachers for the common schools. In 1826, Governor DeWitt

Clinton of New York recommended the establishment of a seminary for

teachers. In 1827, an act was passed in New York which increased the

literature fund and contained a provision designed "to promote the

education of teachers" (Finegan, 1917, p. 2; Hough, 1885, p. 526). In

the U. S. the first law passed making a provision for the education, in

separate departments, of teachers for the common schools was in New York

in 1834 (Finegan, 1917).

Publicly supported institutions for the preparation of teachers in

the U. S. developed slowly. The first step was usually state aid to

academies to be spent on teacher preparation. Following this came

separate schools for teachers. In 1839, Massachusetts became the first

state to establish full state support and control of normal schools for

teacher education (Elsbree, 1953; Frazier, 1935; Russell, W. E., 1940).

The work of James G. Carter of Boston directed the attention of

leaders in Massachusetts to the relationship between teacher education

and school improvements (Barnard, 1851; Messerli, 1963). Early in the

1820s, Carter had written a series of articles entitled "As is the

teacher, so is the school" in the Boston Patriot citing teacher

incompetence as a primary problem of the elementary school (Cremin,

1953a). From that series of essays came the impetus to establish the

first publicly supported normal school at Lexington, Massachusetts, on

July 3, 1839 (Cremin, 1953a; Elsbree, 1963; Frazier, 1935; Hofstadter &

Hardy, 1952; Rowland, 1945; Russell, W. E., 1940; Woodring, 1975).

Cyrus Peirce, the principal of that school, described his task in an

early journal article (Peirce and Swift, 1926). He taught ten subjects

in a single term and 17 different subjects in the course of a year,

supervised a model school of 30 pupils, acted as a demonstration

teacher, developed the professional materials to be taught, and served

as janitor of the building (Cremin, 1953a; Elsbree, 1963; Messerli,

1963; Peirce and Swift, 1926).

In summary. Throughout the period, the educational system in the

United States began to grow. Educational trends and ideas were greatly

influenced by practices in England. Institutions for teacher education

gradually developed. As the period closed, the first publicly supported

normal school for teacher training was established.

Establishment and Growth of Normal Schools and Normal
Departments in Colleges and Universities, 1839-1365

The population of the United States more than doubled between

1840-1870. The country was still predominantly rural but the number of

people moving to the cities was increasing. The estimated national

wealth of the country was increasing even more rapidly than the

population. With the majority of students enrolled in the public

elementary schools, the problem of teacher preparation was still chiefly

concerned with prospective elementary teachers or untrained elementary

teachers in service (Frazier, 1935).

Growth of state support and control of the normal schools continued

steadily. Centralization of educational controls within the state was

beginning to make substantial gains. After stronger centralized state

departments of education were established, growth and effective control

of the normal schools could be attained (Elsbree, 1963; Frazier, 1935).

The growth of these state-supported normal schools was slow

throughout this period. A few municipal normal schools and teacher

training schools to satisfy local demands were founded. Among these

were schools in Boston, New York City, Philadelphia, San Francisco,

Baltimore, St.Louis, and Trenton (Elsbree, 1963; Woodring, 1975).

Status of Teachers

The characteristics of the ideal teacher as envisioned by educators

during this period included many of the traits and qualities commonly

advocated today (Elsbree, 1963). Moral character ranked high; the

teacher needed to lead an exemplary life (Ulich, M. E., 1958).

Cooperation and fairness in action were key traits to possess. Judging

by the reports of early examiners, competency in the three R's, together

with some knowledge of orthography, English grammar, and geography, and

capacity to govern a school were considered essential in teaching.

The status of teachers improved very slowly. Occupational prestige

increased gradually in conjunction with increases in salary,

professional preparations, and certification standards (Ulich, M. E.,


The typical elementary teachers throughout this period had little

more than an upper elementary school preparation. There were not enough

normal schools, normal departments, or teachers' institutes to do more

than make good beginnings toward meeting the needs for trained teachers

(Frazier, 1935). For those who did graduate even from a normal school,

they could claim little more than a certain amount of secondary school

preparation even though mastery of subject matter was emphasized

(Cremin, 1953a). There was limited professional work.

Many books were written on education and means of improving schools

(Russell, W. E., 1940). State association journals multiplied in

numbers; established were the American Journal of Education, later

called the American Annals of Educaton, and Henry Barnard's American

Journal of Education (Frazier, 1935). Educational Journal was often

used as much as a tool for teacher training as a professional guide for

teachers ("Growth of Teacher," 1963).

As various private societies and associations for the promotion of

schools were organized, the teachers began to organize groups to improve

their professional status. The National Teachers' Association, later

called the National Education Association, held its first organizational

meeting in 1857 ("Organization Meeting," 1858).

Certification of Teachers

Changes in methods of certification of teachers and in requirements

for certification were made slowly. During its history, the locus of

control of certification was gradually shifted from the local, to the

county, to the state level (Bush, R. N. & Enemark, P., 1975). During

this period county control of licensing was emerging (Kinney, 1964).

The prevailing feature of certification was the teacher examination--

dominated by elementary school subjects. Each state emphasized

evidences of proficiencies in language, writing, and arithmetic. By the

end of the period, beginnings toward recognizing normal school and/or

college preparation as a basis for certification were made.

Establishment and Growth of State Normal Schools

After the opening of the normal school in Lexington, Massachusetts,

in 1839, similar institutions were gradually established in other

states. The locations of the institutions and the dates of their legal

establishment and opening are shown in Table 1 (Humphreys, 1923).

The establishment of state normal schools during the period was

usually brought about after considerable agitation and effort. Their

existence was precarious after their founding. The state was trustee of

Table 1

State and Location Date of Date
of Institution Legal Opened

1 2 3

Lexington (West Newton,
Framinghan) 1838 1839
Barre (Westfield) 1838 1839
Bridgewater 1838 1840
New York: Albany 1844 1844a
Connecticut: New Britain 1849 1850
Michigan: Ypsilanti 1849 1853
Massachusetts: Salem 1853 1854
Rhode Island: Providence 1854 1854
New Jersey: Trenton 1855 1855
Illinois: Normal 1857 1857
Millersville 1857 1859
Edinboro 1857 1861
Mansfield 1857 1862
Louisiana: New Orleans 1858 1858
Minnesota: Winona 1858 1860
New York: Oswego 1861 1861c
California: San Francisco
(San Jose) 1862 1862
Maine: Farmington 1863 1864
Kansas: Emporia 1863 1865

aTraining classes established in academies in 1834.

bThe State Normal School of
period from 1858-1862.

Louisiana (New Orleans) existed in this

CCity training school until 1866, when it was made a state normal
school. State aid authorized in 1863.

the property and responsible for its support ("A Normal School,"

1857). Modest appropriations for their maintenance was usually made for

a year or two by the state legislatures.

In the beginning, courses of study in state normal schools were one

year in length. After about a decade, the courses were advanced to

approximately one and a half years in length (Cremin, 1953a; Elsbree,

1963; Frazier, 1935; Russell, W. E., 1940).

At first the curricula consisted largely of upper elementary and

lower secondary grade subjects and included a review of those common

branches/subjects, with discussion on the methods of teaching them

(Triosi, 1960; Woodring, 1975). Core subjects, arithmetic, grammar,

geography, and reading, were emphasized (Elsbree, 1963). Courses of

pedagogy were in evidence under varying titles: theory, art, practice,

or science of teaching; principles of teaching; model school work or

practice teaching, including observation; method courses in various

subjects; school laws; history of education; philosophy of education

(Cremin, 1953a; Elsbree, 1963; Frazier, 1935; Russell, W. E., 1940;

Sunderman, 1945; Woodring, 1962b). H. I. Schmidt's History of

Education, published by Harper's Family Library in 1842, was probably

the first textbook on the subject of the history of education written in

English in this country. During this period texts discussed the history

of education and reforms in Europe.

In most normal schools, textbooks were meager (Frazier, 1935).

Toward the end of the period, Theory and Practice of Teaching, written

in 1847 by David P. Page, was undoubtedly the most widely used

pedagogical work in the country (Knight, 1945).

Throughout this period, it was necessary to allow for a flexibility

of the course organization in the normal schools; the students came to

the institutions with widely varying degrees of preliminary preparation.

Some were experienced teachers. Others were just beginning their

study. Requirements for admission to the early normal schools were

usually based on examinations in elementary school subjects. Evidence

of good, moral character was to be submitted (Cremin, 1953a; Frazier,

1935). A declaration of intention to teach was a necessity. The

minimum age of the applicant was to be 16 years old for a female and

17 years old for a male.

Many of the normal school students came from impoverished

environments. A quote from a letter by H. B. Norton, a student at

Illinois State Normal University in 1858, helps to identify the time and


We were shabbily dressed in those days. I
think my pantaloons were generally too short, and
my coat seemed to have been made for some other
person. We were very poor, but very plucky. 'We
boarded ourselves, mainly on corn mash, washed
the floors and built the fires at the Normal
Hall, worked hard, lived hard, and were poorly
provided with all things; our parents were sad-
faced struggling pioneers of the prairies; but we
were cheery, resolute, and happy in our life and
our work. To the toiling youth of frontier
homes, thirsting for knowledge, the Illinois
Normal University opened the gateways of a new
life. .. (Norton, cited in Cook & McHugh,
1882, pp. 173-174)

Educational form and structure will constantly be influenced by the

culture of which it is a part (Wayland, 1963). The socio-economic

problems of urbanization, industrialization, minority and subcultural

group structures, and ideological struggles will continually affect

these teacher training areas: (a) the level of training on which

teacher education is provided; (b) the recruitment of students; (c) the

content of teacher education programs; and (d) the relationship of

teacher education to other forms and levels of education (Lafferty,


Growth of City Training Classes and Schools

Development of city normal schools resulted largely from

municipalities wanting to add to their supply of teachers specifically

prepared for local service and to improve the performance of teachers

already employed. These institutions typically had high admission

levels and offered considerable practice work. Founding of these

schools did not appreciably affect the flow of teachers from usual

academic sources. Cremin (1953a) indicated that excellent progress in

teacher training was continually maintained by use of these ingredients:

1. To guarantee command of elementary subject matter

and to ensure the ability to teach effectively,

complete secondary education or higher;

2. To enhance subject matter, include an extensive

treatment of the theoretical principles of


3. To enhance advanced secondary studies, give

attention to a method of forming "helpful hints

regarding teaching"; and


4. To augment the art of teaching, develop a

practical sense of application.

Decline of Teacher Preparation in the Academies

The academies continued to increase in numbers and in students

until 1850. Thereafter they slowly began to decline in number, and

eventually they were supplanted by the normal schools in teacher


Teacher Preparation in Normal Departments of Colleges

As colleges began to provide a great number of students with a

general collegiate education, some efforts were made to incorporate

teacher training in a normal department within the college. For

example, in 1838, Lafayette College in Pennsylvania erected a building

for a model school. Normal department courses never became accepted for

any length of time as an integral part of regular collegiate

offerings. Concerning these attempts, a noted historian, James

Wickerham (1886), expressed his opinion:

The experience of educating teachers in the
colleges failed--because there was not then much
demand for teachers thus prepared, and for the
stronger reason that the general work of a
college and the special work of a teachers'
school can never be made to harmonize. (p. 381)

Eventually the normal departments were either discontinued or evolved

with difficulty into regular collegiate departments of pedagogy.

In summary. Although the population of the United States was

predominantly rural, migration to the cities was increasing. The focus

of teacher preparation was centered in an effort of supplying elementary

teachers as primary student enrollments grew. Normal schools were

established as institutions for teacher training. Centralization of

educational controls was concentrated in the hands of the state.

Rapid Growth oF Normal Schools and Beginnings of
Departments of Pedagogy, 1865-1890

The population of the United States grew approximately by one-

fourth, 6 or 7 million people, during each decade from the close of the

Civil War to 1890. Expansion of the West continued. Population of the

cities increased by 10 percent. The beginnings of the Industrial

Revolution directly affected the schools and the training of the

teachers for those schools (Joyce, 1975).

Schooling as a social institution lies close to the value core of

the society (Joyce & Weil, 1972; Lafferty, 1939b; Wayland, 1963). Most

schools during this period were reflections of the basic cultural themes

and the predominant economic conception of nan. The schools, therefore,

were shaped by the educational needs of the society in the early days of

the Industrial Revolution. Thus, the mode of education of the teachers

for those schools represented the current conception of the nature of

man and the place of education in his life (Joyce, 1975). Roth

schooling and the process of educating the teachers became supportive of

the culture (Lafferty, 1939b).

Advancement within the socio-economic structure of society was

rooted in getting an education. According to Superintendent Francis

Parker of the Cook County (Chicago) Normal School,

education is the generation of power; and the
generation of power in the right way is the very
highest economy of which man can conceive. We
learn to do by doing, to hear by hearing, and to
think by thinking. We see with all we have seen,
we do with all we have done, and we think with
all we have thought. ("The County Normal," 1883,
p. 4)

The educational training of children was regarded as one of the

most potent sources upon which the aspirations of the world were based

("The Training of Teachers," 1874). "That work which substantially

improves the human race continues a beneficient power, forever and ever,

and such work the true teacher does," stated Richard Edwards, the

Illinois State Superintendent, at an educational convention in Chicago

in 1887 ("A Great Educational," 1887, p. 4). The teacher was urged to

stress thoroughness in schoolroom work, greater attention to details of

the lessons, closer observation of the students' efforts, and increased

drill in fundamental principles ("A Great Educational," 1887).

The period reflected the belief in mental discipline in education

(Russell, W. E., 1940). The Lockian psychology of traditional order and

of individual authority was the chief instrumentality of instructional

progress (Frazier, 1935; Joyce, 1975). A stern, regimented environment

promoted the value of strict discipline and moral authority.

Toffler (1970) summarized the form, structure, and substance of

that early training:

The whole idea of assembling masses of students
(raw material) to be processed by teachers
(workers) in a centrally located school (factory)
was a stroke of industrial genius. The whole
administration hierarchy of education, as it grew

up, followed the model of industrial
bureaucracy. The very organization of knowledge
into permanent discipline was grounded on
industrial assumptions. (p. 355)

Status of Teachers

Throughout the period, the preparation of teachers was a growing

challenge. In 1890, the number of teachers employed was one-third of a

million with the number of school children increasing by about 3 million

each decade.

Salaries were higher. An article, "The Schoolmarms Well Enough

Paid," in the Chicago Tribune, in January 1890, contended that the

female school teachers were the best paid women in Chicago and did not

deserve an increase in salary for "work which does not call for an

intellectual ability of higher order" (p. 4). The writer of the article

contended that school teachers worked 1,200 hours yearly and should

receive no more than 80 for each work hour. In 1880 across the U. S.,

monthly salaries ranged from $35 for a female teacher and less than $45

for a male teacher (Frazier, 1935); the salaries had increased from

$12.75 per month for a female teacher and $33.08 per month for a male

teacher in 1839-1840 (Frazier, 1935).

Improvement of teacher status was appreciably slow. In July 1837,

an article in the Chicago Tribune reported on a discussion of the status

of teachers at the convention of the National Teachers' Association.

E. E. Higbee, State Superintendent of Schools in Pennsylvania, reported


public sentiment is so well settled on the
importance of retaining teachers who have shown
themselves efficient and suitable that no school
board would think of removing them. A well-
equipped, zealous, and effective teacher who
adopts her business and profession and devotes
herself to it earnestly and enthusiastically,
with no thought of marriage, has a sure tenure of
office as if she were elected for life. ("Some
Educational Topics," 1887, p. 4)

Three causes for removal were acknowledged: (a) the personal desire of

the teacher to quit, (b) marriage, and (c) inefficiency.

In September 1890, the same newspaper addressed the question of a

married teacher. Single women were generally preferred as teachers for

the reason that no domestic obstacles stood in the way of their

efficiency. A married woman who had a husband to support her would

unjustly deprive a single (unmarried) woman of having a means of

support. The newspaper presented the idea that a married woman could

reach the same standard of efficiency as an unmarried woman, and if her

husband was unwilling or unable to support her, it was unjust if she

could not earn a living in a position for which she was suited. The

newspaper stated, "There is never any danger that the roll of teachers

in any city will be overcrowded with married women. It is a matter

which always will regulate itself without difficulty" ("Married School

Teacher," 1890, p. 4).

Certification requirements became more and more centralized under

the control of state authorities (Stinnett, 1969). Certification by

examination prevailed. John Swett (1867) contended that

no one cause has done so much to render the
occupation of a public school teacher so
distasteful as the old system of annual
examinations. Teachers are condemned to be
tried, not by a jury of their peers, but too
often by men who knew little or nothing of
practical teaching. . Actual trial in the
school-room is the best test of fitness to teach;
and when a teacher has once passed examination,
and proved successful in school, subsequent
examinations are uncalled for and unnecessary.
(p. 172)

The real significance of the growth of state control was that the power

to certify was taken from the layman, who too often placed certification

into the arena of politics.

Rapid Growth of State Normal Schools

After 1860, the normal school was regarded as the proper

institution for preparing teachers (Cremin, 1953a). The years

immediately following the Civil War saw an expansion of the normal

school movement (Elsbree, 1963). By the end of this period, 92 state

normal schools for white students were in existence (Frazier, 1935).

Political and local influences, rather than any intellectual

forecasts of future institutional and state needs, directly determined

the location of these normal schools. The old German tradition that a

small-town or village environment was best suited for preparing

prospective teachers decided the location of some normal schools

(Humphreys, 1923).

In 1867, the Cook County Normal School at Englewood (Chicago),

Illinois, was founded by the Board of Supervisors of the county "for the

educational training of school teachers" ("The County Normal," 1869,

p. 2). The establishment of the Cook County Normal School made it

possible for its common schools to partially meet their requirements for

trained teachers (Cremin, 1953a).

The design of the Cook County Normal School encouraged the

production of teachers rather than scholars. Thus, prospective teachers

were expected to achieve a degree of proficiency in the ordinary school

studies in the two year course and were required to sign a declaration

of intent to teach ("The County Normal," 1869). During the two years

following its establishment, 96 pupils were in attendance of whom 74 had

attended both years; 28 of these had taught before entering the school

("Cook County Normal," 1869). Twelve of the 28 members of the first

graduation class (1869) were appointed as teachers within the schools of

Cook County at salaries ranging from $450 to $1,200 per year ("Cook

County Normal," 1869).

The incomes of these state institutions from state appropriations

and tuition were decidedly low. In 1870, $8,000 to S9,000 could be

estimated as the yearly income of the typical institution. Each student

was charged an average tuition fee of $173 per year (U. S. Office of

Education, 1875). Around 1880, the county of Cook contributed about

$15,000 annually to the Cook County Normal School, and a tuition fee of

$30 per year was charged to nonresidents of Cook County to attend the

school ("Cook County Normal," 1869). These funds were used to purchase

school furniture and works of reference. Private contributions went to

the colleges rather than the normal schools (II. S. Office of Education,

1875). Thus, the bulk of maintenance of these schools came from

appropriations by state legislatures.

Special facilities and apparatus were meager. In respect to

library books, in 1870, a high estimate would be 1,300 volumes per

institution; in 1890, 3,800 volumes (U. S. Office of Education, 1875).

Textbooks were usually supplied by the normal schools; however, students

were encouraged to bring with them whatever books they had.

The academic courses taught in the normal schools of this period

were intermixed with a review of elementary subjects. The development

of the courses and curricula in the normal schools rested upon the often

limited ability of the students to achieve high academic scholarship

("Illinois Normal School," 1865).

A steady development of professional courses grew out of the

application of scientific methods of research to the field of education

and the accumulation and organization for instructional purposes of

materials based upon field experience. As a result a wide range of

courses emerged ("Educational Problems," 1887). The study of psychology

had a marked growth (Frazier, 1935). Theory and art of teaching became

"method courses" with an average time of six months given to their study

("Educational Problems," 1887). History of education was becoming a

clear cut and distinctive field and was taught an average of 13 weeks

("Educational Problems," 1887).

An expanding rationale for professional courses is illustrated by

William Jolly's plan for basing a science of education course on a

recognition of the mental, physical, and moral organism of the child

("The Training of Teachers," 1874); instruction was 15 2/3 weeks in

length. Jolly declared,

In short, the professor of education would have,
on the one hand, to investigate and expound to
his students all parts of all science that bear
on education, as physiology, psychology,
phrenology, moral philosophy, the history of
education, the experience of educators, and the
like; and deduce from them the true principles of
education. On the other hand, he would have to
show the best application of those principles to
the various subjects of school instruction, and
criticize existing methods and present and past
systems of education by their light. ("The
Training of Teachers," 1874, p. 6)

There existed a universal opinion that practice teaching was

indispensable; it was to be done under wise supervision. Thus, student

teaching and observations were included in teacher education. The

average time given to practice work in 1887 was about 175 lessons of 45

minutes each. Student teachers engaged in critical work by watching an

instructing teacher; they would freely criticize the methods used and

report successes or state faults ("The County Normal," 1883).

Under the leadership of Edward Sheldon, the Oswego Normal School in

New York became the tested example of a model school (Troisi, 1960).

From this normal school radiated the natural and simple methods and

philosophy of Pestalozzi. The principles of the system included these


1. The instruction should be based upon the natural
development of children, their instincts,
capacities, and interests;
2. The teacher's knowledge of the nature of children
is fundamental in teaching;
3. The child is an individual;
4. The materials of his instruction are means, not
ends; and
5. The immediate environment and experiences of the
child are the most valuable materials of
instruction. (Knight, 1945, p. 155)

Pestalozzi's method, known as object teaching, gave the teacher a

more active role than that of just hearing recitation; rather, it led to

curriculum expansion--oral language, nature study, home geography, and

primary arithmetic (Hockett & Bond, 1953). Enthusiasts of this method

were not content to let the simple principles remain simple; the

informal was formalized and specialized. As Pestalozzi had foreseen,

the outward form of the procedure began to appear as the real substance

of his method--a danger which has always menaced good ideas in education

(Knight, 1945). "To mistake the clothing of an idea for the idea

itself" caused the Pestalozzianism advocates to misinterpret his

principles and led to the discrediting of the method.

Following closely on the heels of the loss of status of

Pestalozzi's method, the pedagogical interpreters promoted Herbart's

doctrine of interest. Herbart believed in individualized instruction

with emphasis placed on history and literature in the elementary school

curriculum. His "five formal steps" method of teaching consisted of

preparation, presentation, comparison, generalization, and application

(Hockett & Bond, 1953). Herbart thought that pedagogy should not merely

be taught but also be demonstrated and practiced (Dunkel, 1967). His

educational ideas were not popular and therefore did not spread. Thus

teacher education, for the most part, continued to be guided by the

principles that prevailed when normal schools were first established.

The length of the regular normal school courses of study ranged

from two to four years in 1870. After 1890, as the normal schools

became teachers colleges or colleges of education, four-year curricula

were gradually introduced.

Admission requirements to the normal schools rose slowly.

Admission standards of a normal school in Farmington, Massachusetts, in

1889-1890, are illustrative of the period:

A candidate of admission must be at least 16
years old (one who lacks more than a few days of
that age need not apply); and it is very
desirable that she should be several years older.
. She must bring from a former teacher, or,
if that is not possible, from some other
responsible person, a certificate of such
intellectual and moral qualities as are essential
to a teacher; she must pass a satisfactory
examination in arithmetic, geography, history of
the United States, and the English language
(including reading, writing, spelling,
definition, grammar, and composition); and must
pledge herself to teach, after completing the
course of study, in the public schools of
Massachusetts for at least one year. . A
thorough high-school course, or its equivalent in
some other good school, and some experience in
teaching, though not conditions for entrance, are
very desirable as preparation for normal-school
work. . (Catalog and Circular, 1890, p. 14)

Student mortality in the institutions was high. The students had

little incentive to undertake much advanced work, since the salaries

paid a teacher were extremely low.

Private and Black Normal Schools

In 1880, there were 14 private normal schools listed by the

U. S. Office of Education. As the states entered the field of teacher

preparation education, the number of private normal schools began to

pass out of existence.

Since 1865, the number of blacks in this country increased an

average of a million per decade. At first, illiteracy was prevalent.

Then the Industrial Revolution stressed their need of education. The

establishment of elementary and secondary schools for blacks was

followed by the founding of institutions for training black teachers.

The institutions not only prepared teachers for black schools but also

encouraged the vocational, cultural, and religious upbuilding of the

race (Dickerman, cited in Jones, T. )., 1917).

Decline of Normal Departments: Rise of Departments of Pedagogy

The general characteristics of the normal departments of the

colleges remained much the same during this period as they were before

the close of the Civil War (Frazier, 1935). The approximate number of

colleges established in this country between 1860-1869 was 93; between

1870-1879, 85; and between 1880-1889, 99 (U. S. Office of Education,

1921). Normal departments were primarily interested in preparing

elementary teachers. By 1890, however, high school grade courses were

found in about one-fourth of these colleges.

The academic status of the normal departments of the colleges was

not high. For example, Addis (1893) stated:

It may be said that an intelligent graduate of a
thoroughly taught high school who had attentively
read Compayre's History of Pedagogical Ideas, a
book on methods and management, and Sully's
Psychology, for example, might graduate
immediately and with honor from the great
majority of the normal departments or teacher
courses of our colleges and universities.
(p. 1020).

The normal departments of the colleges eventually evolved into

regular college departments of pedagogy or education. After 1879,

because of the rapid development of public high schools and school

systems, the evolved departments began preparing teachers for the

secondary schools (Frazier, 1935).

The department of pedagogy was the true progenitor of teacher

education today. The first genuine department of education was

established as a chair of science and the art of teaching at the

University of Michigan in 1879. William Payne, M. A., was appointed as

head by the board of regents at a salary of $2,200 per year (University

of Michigan, 1881). The purposes of that school's department of

pedagogy were listed in the school catalog as follows:

1. To fit university students for the higher
positions in the public-school systems;
2. To promote the study of educational science;
3. To teach the history of education, and of
educational systems and doctrines;
4. To secure the rights, prerogatives, and
advantages of a profession; and
5. To give a more perfect unity to our State
educational system by bringing the secondary
schools into closer relations with the
university. (University of Michigan Calendar,
1880, pp. 44-45)

The early growth of departments of pedagogy was slow. Michigan and

Iowa developed their departments at about the same time, 1379.

Establishment of a department of pedagogy then followed at the

University of Wisconsin, 1885, headed by John W. Stearns; Indiana

University, 1886, under Richard G. Boone; Cornell University, 1886-1887,

headed by Or. S. R. Williams. In all, possibly 12 institutions,

Michigan, Iowa, Wisconsin, Indiana University, Cornell University, the

University of California, John Hopkins, Clark University, Ohio

University, Iowa College, Northwestern University, and Teachers College

at Columbia, had founded chairs or departments of pedagogy or education

by 1891 (Kandel, 1924; Knight, 1945).

The pedagogical courses offered by several higher institutions

changed little during this period. The following courses offered by the

University of Michigan can be considered representative of the leading

college grade departments of pedagogy in 1889-1890:


1. Practical: The arts of teaching and governing;
methods of instruction and general schoolroom
practice; school hygiene; school law.
Recitations and lectures. Textbook: Compayre's
Lectures of Pedagogy.
3. History of education: Ancient and mediaeval.
Recitations and lectures. Textbook: Compayre's
History of Pedagogy.
5. School supervision: Embracing general school
management, the art of grading and arranging
courses of study, the conduct of institutes,
etc. Recitations and lectures. Textbook:
Payne's Chapters on School Supervision.


2. Theoretical and critical: The principles
underlying the arts of teaching and governing.
4. History of education: Modern, Recitations and
lectures. Textbook: Compayre's History of
6. The comparative study of educational systems,
domestic and foreign. Lectures.
7. Seminary. Study and discussion of special topics
in the history and philosophy of education.
(University of Michigan Calendar, 1890, p. 56)

Much flexibility and variation existed in the arrangement and

organization of the courses and in the terminology. Generally, the

courses extended over three or four years of regular college

curricula. Duplication of content occurred among the courses. Cornell

provided a little observation; student teaching was almost nonexistent

before 1893 in the university departments of pedagogy.

Since the field of education was not well developed, courses in

education were taught by instructors of othar subject matter

departments. Professional preparation was slight.

In summary. The Industrial Revolution not only affected the

economic growth of the United States but it also directly affected the

schools and the training of the teacher for those schools. The state

normal schools were regarded throughout the period as the proper

institutions for preparing teachers. As the period came to a close, the

normal departments of the colleges were being replaced by departments of

pedagogy as responsible agencies for the training of teachers.

Evolution of Teachers Colleges and Growth of Schools
and Colleges of Education, 1890-1933

The greatest growth in the history of this country in general

education and in the professional education of teachers occurred around

1900 (Frazier, 1935). The number of elementary school children

increased from 12,519,618 in 1890 to 21,278,593 in 1930; the number of

secondary pupils increased from 202,963 in 1890 to 4,399,422 in 1930

(Foster and others, cited in Frazier, 1935). Yet the proportion of the

number of children of school age to the total population of the country

was decreasing. This meant that the preparation of teachers was fast

approaching maintenance or the renewal basis. Decreased birth rates and

decreased class sizes pointed to the probability of preparing fewer

teachers at the end of this period.

The extraordinary increase in the number of high schools in the

country during the period helped to explain the growth of teachers

colleges (Evenden, 1943). Teachers colleges and colleges and

universities began to prepare teachers for the junior high schools and

the high schools (Frazier, 1935).

Throughout this period state departments of education grew in size

and strength. States, through their departments of education, began to

assume more direct control over the teacher preparation institutions and

over the administration of teacher certification requirements. It is

difficult to tell who had the greatest voice in setting the standards

during the period of rising state control, but it is clear that various

interest groups, sometimes cooperating and sometimes competing, tried to

influence state legislatures and other state decision-making agencies.

Increased Certification Requirements

Because education was regarded as a state function, states

gradually assumed the responsibility of "guard the gate" to the teaching

profession by controlling certification. This trend to centralize the

control of teacher certification in the state departments of education

began in 1898.

The accepted purpose of certification was "to establish and

maintain standards for the preparation and employment of persons who

teach or render certain nonteaching services in the schools" (Kinney,

1964, p. 3). Certification was granted at first primarily on the basis

of safe-guarding the schools against waste of public funds because of


inefficiency or lack of competence. Certification was the prine

instrument by which standards of professional education were improved

and refined (Hutson, 1965); therefore, more objective and professional

standards began to be established at the state level.

As a part of certification, examinations of prospective teachers

were imposed to test elementary or secondary school attainments. The

standards for these examinations were set at the state level; the

examinations were conducted by county and city officials (Haberman &

Stinnett, 1973).

The completion of a specified amount of college or normal school

work was included in the requirements for certification. At the turn of

the century, educators were advocating combining instruction in methods

with instruction in subject matter and emphasizing the need for

integration of the two (Cremin, 1953a, Elsbree, 1963). In 1906, one

pedagogical subject, the theory and art of teaching, was required on at

least one certificate in about three-fourths of the states. The

requirement of practice teaching was included as part of the course

requirements (Frazier, 1935; Hutson, 1965). In 1926 and thereafter, all

states issued one or more certificates upon the basis of graduation from

normal school or college (Frazier, 1935). The requirements for

certification with respect to college work were steadily raised

throughout this period.

The state departments of education "conferred closely with

practitioners and their professional organizations" (Rush, R. N. &

Enemark, P., 1975, p. 281) in establishing certification requirements.

Historically the strongest voice in teacher education had been conceded

to the professors of education, the officers and representatives of tihe

American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education (AACTE),

professors of subject matter disciplines, and college and university

administrators. Stinnett (1969) stated that

almost from the beginning of the exercising of
centralized state responsibilities for teacher
education and certification, state departments of
education, in one degree or another, in one
manner or another, sought to involve the teaching
profession in the public schools and teacher
education institutions in deriving fair and
effective procedures. (pp. 399-400)

The standards, policies, and resolutions formulated and the attitudes

engendered by these groups of educators constituted the powerful

agencies for control of the educational practices.

Hutson (1965) described the procedures for developing the early

state regulations:

The state regulations were generally the
product of extensive deliberation of committees
representing teacher educators, public school
administrators and teachers, state department
personnel, and laymen. They brought together a
knowledge of the school subjects and school
objectives, of school learners and the learning
process, of the variations in teaching positions
and conditions. . (p. 415)

In a study of certification in 1906, Cubberly found that less than

one-fifth of the states made any distinction between elementary school

and high school certificates. A state certificate, as well as a local

certificate, was good in almost any kind of public school in the

geographic area in which the certificate was issued. In most of the

states, the only legal requirement for instruction in high school was a

county certificate of one of the regular grades. Differentiation of

certificates on basis of grade-group levels of instruction, subjects, or

types of teaching positions was established by 1921 (Evenden, 1943;

Frazier, 1935). The first subject certification began in Pennsylvania

in 1922 and in Indiana in 1923 (Hutson, 1965); from that beginning, the

practice of defining the proper preparation which teachers nust have for

the teaching of each subject spread across the country.

In 1930, 27 states still had no academic requirement for the

highest grade of academic high school certificate other than graduation

from a recognized college, but 16 states required college graduation,

and also a major or minors in subjects to be taught with a specific

number of course hours for each (Frazier, 1935).

Because of the diversity of terminology applied to the certificates

and because of the diverse nature of the credentials granted,

considerable difficulty existed in securing recognition in a given state

of a certificate issued by another state. Institutional credits

appeared to be utilized as indications of attainments which were

transferable among the states (Bachman, 1933). The duration of teaching

certificates varied among the states and among the certificates

(Evenden, 1943).

Frazier (1935) summarized the changes made in certification of

teachers during the period:

1. Centralization of certification from county and
other local authorities into the State
departments of education;
2. Raising progressively the minimum certification
requirements, and at the same time, raising the
general level of requirements for all

3. Increase of certification by specific grade
levels, or by teaching fields and types of work;
4. Increase of certification under the authority or
auspices of institutions of collegiate grade that
prepare teachers, and increased use of
institutional credits as a basis of
5. Decrease in certification of graduates of
institutions of subcollegiate grade;
6. Increase in requirements in professional
education courses, including student teaching;
7. Slow decrease in certification by examination;
8. Increased recognition of the need for State
control over, or coordination of, certification,
institutional offerings for prospective teachers,
and placement of teachers in positions for which
they are specifically prepared. (p. 48)

Improvements in Teacher Status

The professional status of teachers was advanced during this

period. Regional and national educational associations not only

influenced the development of high schools and colleges, but also

affected the standards established in the teacher preparation

institutions for increasing educational professionalism (Bush, R. N. &

Enemark, P., 1975; Frazier, 1935; Hutson, 1965; Stinnett, 1969). The

National Education Association (NEA) focused its influence on raising

professionalism among American teachers. In 1895, the NEA's Committee

of Fifteen recommended the following guidelines on training teachers:

1. Four years required in a high school or in an

academy as a minimum prerequisite for elementary

teacher training;

2. Four years required in a college as a

prerequisite for high school teacher training;

3. Professional work required in the science of

teaching, i .e., psychology with principles and

methods, methodology, school economy, and history

of education, and

art of teaching, i.e., observation of good

teaching and practice teaching (Elsbree, 1963;

Hockett & Bond, 1953; "Report of the Committee,"


An expansion of the curriculum offerings was necessitated by the

development of specialized types of teaching positions in the public

schools. Different types of instructional, extension, and research

services multiplied. All demanded professional preparation.

A few educators, including James E. Russell, Dean of Teachers

College, Columbia University, argued for professional training. As a

supplement to acquiring general knowledge and specific subject matter

learning, professional preparation was essential (Cremin, 1953a;

Elsbree, 1963; Hockett & Bond, 1953; Travers, P. D., 1969; Woodring,

1962b). With this emphasis on professionalism, the public was urged to

view a teacher's calling as a serious life profession--one worthy of

technical preparation and life long devotion ("Where Our Schools,"


The salaries of teachers continued to increase as standards of

living advanced ("The Inequalities of School," 1892; "The Wail of the

Teacher," 1894; "Women's Work," 1893). In 1870, the average annual

salary of all teachers was $189; in 1890, $252; in 1920, $871; and in

1930, S1,420 (Andrews, B. R., 1925; U. S. Office of Education, 1930,


The average length of time spent in a teaching career along with

the right for tenure had increased steadily. As early as 1892, a

pension plan for the retired Chicago teachers was advocated ("About the

Incompetent," 1893; "School Teacher's Pensions," 1900; "Superannuated

Public School," 1892). A bill for a teacher's pension fund in Chicago

was introduced to the state legislature in 1895; contributions by the

teachers to this fund were not to exceed 1 percent of their salaries. A

female teacher was eligible to retire after 20 years of service; a male

teacher, after 25 years of service. The amount of pension paid was to

equal one-half of the salary received at the date of the retirement but

it was not to exceed $1,000 ("The School Teacher's," 1895).

Changes in the Number, Organization, Control, and Support of
Normal Schools and Teachers Colleges

Progress was made in the provisions for the preparation of teachers

during this period. The normal school continued its traditional

function as espoused by the NEA Committee at the turn of the century:

The teaching of subjects that they in turn may be
taught. . .
The development of character that it in turn may
be transfigured into character. . .
A preparation for life that it in turn may
prepare others to enter fully, readily, and
righteously into their environment.
("Report of the Committee," 1899, p. 838)

Educators of the period encouraged the growth of the state normal

schools for the following reasons:

1. The normal schools were needed as training
institutions for the teaching professions.
2. The normal schools provided ample practice for
the teacher trainee under the competent
supervision of skilled professional teachers.
3. The normal schools were an integrated part of the
free State school system.
4. The normal schools were undoubtedly the only
institutions of higher learning that offered free
and equal educational opportunities for all in
accordance with the expressed American democratic
principles. (Sunderman, 1945, p. 30)

During the second half of the period, the state normal schools

began transforming themselves into teachers colleges or colleges of

education (Ade, 1934; Elsbree, 1963; Frazier, 1935; Woodring, 1975).

Several factors contributed to the change to college status.

In the western states, where liberal arts colleges were less

abundant than in the East, the normal schools had in attendance many

students who did not plan to teach but who were seeking postsecondary

schooling at low cost. Such students wanted their schools to be real

colleges; the state legislatures endorsed the idea that a state-

supported school should offer the kinds of programs that the people


American institutions, like individual Americans, have always

favored taking advantage of the opportunity for upward mobility. When

that opportunity exists, both individuals and institutions become

interested in status. The normal school, at its best, lacked status.

The students and faculty were sensitive to this issue, and, therefore,

were eager to change the normal schools into colleges.

As early as 1887, concern was expressed regarding weaknesses in the

normal school. Possible weaknesses were listed in an issue of the

Chicago Tribune:

1. The normal school was not taking its proper place
in the process of continuing education.
2. Teachers in the normal schools were not being
properly trained in pedagogy.
3. Too often, students were admitted who had not
sufficient education even to enter a grammar
4. The courses were too short.
5. The purpose of the normal school was shifting
from that of the education of a professional
teacher. ("Educational Problems," 1887, pp. 1-2)

Throughout the period states steadily increased their control of

the state normal schools and teachers colleges (Ade, 1934).

Predominantly states concentrated that control in the state board of

education (80E). State boards of education typically supervised the

professional preparation of the teacher and closely related activities

(Street, 1932). A director of training was the dominant person in this

supervision. According to Yeuell (1927), the interests of the director

of training included certification of teachers, teacher preparation in

higher institutions, extension work, teacher preparation in high

schools, teachers' institutes, placement of teachers, reading circle

work, administration and supervision of elementary and of high schools,

and salary schedules.

Important in the process of educating the teacher and of monitoring

the program of teacher preparation was the establishment of professional

associations. The National Teachers' Association had been established

in 1857 and became the NEA in 1870 (Cremin, 1953a; "Organization

Meeting," 1858). In 1902, the National Society of College Teachers of

Education was formed as a meeting ground for professional educators

(Cremin, 1953b; Frazier, 1935). In 1902, the North Central Council of

State Normal School Presidents was established which became in turn, the

National Council of State Normal School Presidents and Principals (Zook

& Haggerty, 1936); the National Council of Teachers Colleges; and, in

1923, merged itself with the American Association of Teachers Colleges

(AATC), an organization formed in 1918 (Bush, R. N. & Enemark, P., 1975;

Cremin, 1953b; Knight, 1945). In 1925, the AATC became a department of

the NEA (Cremin, 1953b; "History of the American," 1922, 1923).

Very little progress was made toward the development of standards

for the teacher education institutions before 1900. At the first annual

meeting of the North Central Association of Colleges and Secondary

Schools in 1896, President Richard Jesse declared that definite criteria

were necessary in formulating an accrediting program for teacher

education (Jesse, 1896). In 1906, pressure for the accrediting of

teacher education programs in colleges had increased, and at the annual

meeting that year, considerable attention was given to the matter

(Carman, 1906). In 1908, the Association voted to undertake the work of

inspecting and accrediting college and university teacher education

programs; in 1909, the first standards for colleges were adopted (Clark,

0. L. & Marker, G., 1975; Zook & Haggerty, 1936). Actual accrediting of

institutions began in 1927 when the AATC was given power in

accreditation (Bush, R. N. & Enemark, P., 1975; Frazier, 1935).

Increase in the operating budgets of the normal schools and teacher

colleges occurred during the period. The total revenues of all teacher

preparation, public and private, increased from $5,236,856 in 1899-1900

to $69,983,932 in 1929-1930 (II. S. Office of Education, 1901, 1931).

The total value of buildings and grounds as reported by the state normal

schools and teachers colleges increased from $23,061,077 in 1899-1900 to

5157,346,001 in 1929-1930 (Frazier, 1935; U. S. Office of Education,

1901, 1931).

Lengthening and Differentiation of Curricula

Because of the development of the high school, there had been a

significant increase in the length and breadth of the normal school

curricula. Studies made by Gwinn (1907) showed the steady disappearance

of one-, two-, three-year normal school courses of study beginning in

1895. Four-year courses of study beginning with elementary school

graduation were quite common (Evenden, 1943). Most of the normal

schools introduced four-year curricula and became teachers colleges,

though still retaining short collegiate curricula of one-year, two-

years, or three-years (Cremin, 1953a; Elsbree, 1953; Frazier, 1935;

Woodring, 1962b).

The great majority of elementary teachers still entered teaching

with less than four years of normal school work; thus, in 1930, of 140

teachers colleges reporting, 61 retained one-year curriculum; 121, two-

year curricula; and 50, three-year curricula (Frazier, 1935). All of

the 65 normal schools offered short curricula of varying lengths, i.e.,

one-, two-, and three-year curricula. About a dozen teachers colleges

did not report short curricula in 1930 (11. S. Office of Education,

1931); short curricula were being rapidly eliminated as demands for

teachers with four years of work increased and as work beyond four years

was being introduced.

Differentation of curricula accompanied the elevation, lengthening,

and enrichment of the courses of study (Frazier, 1935). Specialization

of elementary work in kindergarten, primary, intermediate, upper grade

or junior high school, and rural school was occurring in Missouri in

1914 (Evenden, 1943; Learned & Bagley, 1917).

Graduate work appeared, still in early stages of growth, in the

teachers colleges. Ten teachers colleges conferred the master's degree

in 1931 upon 170 men and 237 women. In 1933, 16 teachers colleges

reported offering graduate work (Frazier, 1935; Pierson, 1947).

Enrichment of Content; Development of New Courses

Throughout the entire period, educators endorsed the idea that the

selection and organization of the instructional materials presented to

the prospective teachers in the colleges should give recognition to the

actual needs and capacities of the children in the classroom. The

courses of study for the teachers had certain functions:

1. The students should learn of the nature of the
mind as they observe its movement;
2. The students should learn what is best suited to
different capacities;
3. The students should note what makes one of their
efforts in giving instruction succeed, and
another not; they should develop a spirit of

4. They should embrace a preparation of the pupil
for the social and political relations which
he is destined to sustain in manhood. (Russell,
W. E., 1940, p. 486)

The courses that had been available in teacher training

institutions prior to this period were changed in content and

terminology. The content was enriched by scientific study of

educational problems and by experimentation. The language oF the

curricula--select objectives, organize learning experiences, evaluate

outcomes--suggested efficiency, which mirrored the industrial conception

of man and his schooling (Joyce, 1975). Because of the industrial

growth in the country, education became a matter of scientific

techniques and skills (Cremin, 1953b; Hockett & Bond, 1953; "The

Training of Teachers," 1874). Procedures were developed to integrate

educational philosophy and theory with the actual happenings and

practices in the schools.

The acceptance of the field of teaching as a profession implied

that there was a unique body of knowledge and skill essential to its

effective practice. Accordingly, educators of the period thought that

the content of the professional courses should be expanded (Cremin,

1953a; Knight, 1945; Sunderman, 1945; Woodring, 1962b).

The most common professional subjects found by Judd and Parker

(1916) in 13 selected state normal schools in the order of frequency


practice of teaching or observation, history of
education, psychology, school management, child
study, principles of teaching, educational
psychology, and general method. (p. 17)

The preceding attempt to categorize courses masked the wide variety

of courses offered within each category. In 1933, the offerings were

even more difficult to classify, but some indication of the changes may

be given. Educational psychology was the most frequently taught among

the professional courses; it was redefined as the science of behavior.

This behavoristic revolution in educational training was led by John B.

Watson (Woodring, 1975). A closely related course was child study which

focused on the student as an individual; education had to begin on terms

understandable the student (Hockett & Bond, 1953; Joyce, 1975; Woodring,

1975). Content in the course, history of education, had changed

considerably--understanding the place of the school in the social order,

and the process and nature of learning were emphasized (Harap, 1967;

Woodring, 1963). Observation and student teaching were universally

offered; conducted under expert supervision shared by a representative

of the college and of the public school (Clark, D. L. & Marker, G.,

1975; Woodring, 1962b).

Observation, Student Teaching, and the Training School

Building facilities for training institutions greatly improved

during the period. Classroom features that would lend themselves more

effectively to the purposes for which the training school buildings had

been constructed were provided (Altstetter, 1930; "The Peabody

Education," 1896; "Southern Education," 1879). In addition to improved

public school classrooms, these facilities provided the setting for

practice teaching.

In 1399-1900, the average number of students preparing to become

teachers enrolled in the campus and off-campus schools was 116 per

school (U. S. Office of Education, 1901). In 1909-1910, the average was

251 per normal school or teachers college, and in 1929-1930, 274 (U. S.

Office of Education, 1911, 1931). The growth over 20 years had not been


Ruediger (1907), in a study of the 1895 and 1905 catalogs of 38

normal schools, found that the average number of weeks devoted to

student teaching increased from 27.5 to 30.2; from 1905 to 1915, the

median number of hours devoted to practice work in 23 institutions

increased from 160.5 to 180.3. In 1933, the standards of the AATC

required a minimum of 90 clock-hours in student teaching. The median

number of clock-hours of student teaching in teachers colleges in 1930-

1931 reported to the U. S. Office of Education was 135 in four-year

curricula and 111 in two-year curricula; the median amount reported in

the state normal schools was 180 hours (U. S. Office of Education,


Changing Theories and Methodology

Throughout the period the emphases were on educational theory and

methodology. Educators supported the use of the scientific study of

education in an effort to improve teaching and to protect the schools

from inefficiency (Frazier, 1935; Knight, 1945).

Early in the period a new conception of the place of habit and

drill in instruction was provided through the psychology of William

James (Frazier, 1935; Joyce, 1975; Russell, W. E., 1940). Jimes showed

how psychological principles could be applied to the teaching-learning

process, i.e., acquiring the ability of psychological observation and

interpretation in guiding the child's learning experience (Woodring,

1975). He emphasized the resilience of the mind and warned against

imprisoning intellectual creativity within mechanistic systems (Blue,

Catton, Morgan, Schlesinger, Stampp, & Woodward, 1968). Along with John

Dewey, James encouraged attempts to understand what was going on in the

minds of students (Dewey, 1962; Hockett & Bond, 1953; Joyce, 1975;

Knight, 1945). The teacher was to lead the children to identify and

solve problems for themselves (Woodring, 1975). Dewey encouraged

adapting schools to the children and using schools to improve lives. He

was concerned with the revitalization of democracy and with the

reconstruction of society on terms that would enable improvement (Joyce;

1975; Russell, W. E., 1940; Woodring, 1975). Both Dewey and Edward

Thorndike emphasized learning and the importance of recognizing

individual differences (Clifford, 1978; Knight, 1945; Russell, W. E.,

1940; Woodring, 1975).

The seeds for major changes in educational thoughts were being

planted in this period. The germination and growth of these seeds led

to the reform movements described in the next section, 1933-1938.

Staff and Students

The average size of the staff of the teacher preparation

institutions doubled between 1910 and 1930 (Frazier, 1935; U. S. Office

of Education, 1911, 1931). In 1930, the average number of faculty

members in all types of teachers colleges and normal schools was 44

(U. S. Office of Education, 1931).

The academic and professional preparation of the faculty had

increased. At no place in our educational structure should greater care

he exercised than in the selection of teachers of teachers; it was and

is a necessity for those who teach teachers to be men and women of the

best minds with broad and generous education and scholarly habits

(Knight, 1945). If the training institutions are to play their expected

part in the advancement of learning, in the maintenance of superior

standards of intellectual integrity, and in strengthening the desire for

excellence among prospective teachers and teachers in service then top-

notch, effective educators at the training institutions are essential.

With the steady up-grading in the standards required for membership

in the AATC, improvements in the educational qualifications of the

staffs of the teacher training institutions were encouraged (Knight,

1945). Ruediger (1907) found that while the levels of preparation of

the staff had risen during the decade of 1895-1905, more than half of

the staff in 1905 did not have degrees of any kind; this helped to

explain the objection at the time to the transformation of normal

schools into teachers colleges. Judd and Parker (1916) reported that an

average of 7 percent of faculty members in 32 normal schools had the

doctor's degree, and 31 percent had the master's degree. In contrast,

in 63 colleges and universities, they found that an average of

34 percent had the doctor's degree, and 67 percent had the master's


Salaries of staff members in normal schools increased materially

between 1915 and 1931 (Frazier, 1935). On the average, president's

salaries increased from $3,578 in 1915-1916 to $6,000 in 1930-1931;

professors, from $1,938 to $3,000 for nine months' work; and supervising

teachers, from $1,075 to $1,990 for nine months' work (U. S. Office of

Education, 1921, 1931).

Between 1890 and 1933, there was a sevenfold to eightfold increase

in the enrollment in all teacher preparation institutions. Shifts in

the numbers enrolled in normal schools was great as the normal schools

were transformed into teachers colleges. By 1933, four-fifths of all

teacher education students were enrolled in the teachers colleges. The

majority of teachers college students still began to teach at the

conclusion of one-, two-, or three-year curricula.

Changing Status of Special-Type Teacher Preparation Institutions

City normal schools decreased steadily during the period. Chief

causes for this decline included the growth of state and private teacher

preparation institutions, lack of city school funds, decline in number

of local teachers needed, and objections to local staff inbreeding

(Frazier, 1935). The number of private and denominational normal

schools decreased as the state institutions became established.

The preparation of teachers as a subordinate function of the

academies, and later of the high schools, declined with the development

of institutions responsible for teacher education. High school training

classes disappeared as the education of teachers became a function of

the collegiate institutions.

Although unnecessary and discriminatory differences in the

preparation and experience of teachers in black schools were found among

various regions of the country and among states and among school systems

within the same states (Evenden, 1943), private philanthropic

organizations aided advancements in progress in black education. The

number of black students reported to the 1U. S. Commissioner of Education

in normal schools and teachers colleges for blacks in 1895-1896 was

3,793; in 1929-1930, 16,577 (U. S. Office of Education, 1897, 1931).

Growth of Teacher Preparation in Colleges and Universities

In 1779, the first university chair of pedagogy was established at

the University of Halle (Woodring 1975). The University of Halle was

founded in 1694 by Frederick III of Brandenburg (later Frederick I of

Prussia). Halle, the city home of the university, remains an important

European trade center and lies on the Saale River in East Germany

("German," 1984; "Halle," 1984).

In 1806, Johann Herbart was called to the chair of philosophy and

pedagogy at Konigsberg. Konigsberg, one of the most important shipping

centers of Europe, was the capital of East Russia; after World War II,

it became known as Kaliningrad ("Kaliningrad," 1984; "Russia," 1984).

Herbart held that position for nearly a quarter of a century (Boyd,


In the United States, several universities offered professional

courses for teachers during the 1840s and 1850s, but only on an

occasional basis and without the formal establishment of special chairs

of pedagogy (Elsbree, 1963; Woodring, 1975). Horace Mann was offering

instruction in pedagogy at Antioch College in 1852 (Messerli, 1963;

Woodring, 1975).

When the State University of Iowa created a chair 3f didactics in

1873, it was careful to explain in its catalog:

Didactics, in the higher sense, is a liberal
study. It includes the philosophy of mind, the
laws of mental development, and all those
branches of study and methods of instruction that
are employed in general education. (Stabler,
1962, p. 37)

Between 1880 and 1890, nearly all the state universities created

professorships of education or pedagogy (Cremin 1953a; Evenden, 1943;

Woodring, 1962b, 1975). Many of these were within departments that

combined education with psychology and philosophy.

In 1839-1890, 114 colleges and universities from a total of 415

reported to the 1). S. Commissioner of Education that they had students

enrolled in courses primarily for teachers. Nearly 8 percent of the

total enrollment of the 415 institutions were reported to be studying in

the teachers' courses, or in normal and pedagogical departments

(Frazier, 1935).

Between 1900-1930, exact data were never compiled concerning the

total number of colleges and university students preparing to teach.

However, Meyer (1928) found in 155 small liberal arts colleges the

following large increases in percentages of graduates who engaged in

teaching: 1900-1904, 18 percent; 1905-1909, 19 percent; 1910-1914,

21 percent; 1915-1919, 24 percent; 1920-1924, 36 percent; and 1925-1929,

45 percent. A committee headed by Withers (1929) gave the figure of

45 percent as the proportion of college arts and science graduates in

199 liberal arts colleges in 38 states and the District of Columbia that

entered teaching between 1923-1933.

In 1895-1896, the ratio of men students to women students who were

preparing to teach was approximately 1:1.2; in 1909-1910, 1:1.7; and in

1929-1930, nearly 1:3 (Frazier, 1935). Women teacher education students

increased markedly.

Teacher preparation was being assumed increasingly by state

institutions. In 1899-1900, the ratio of prospective teachers in

publicly supported colleges, not teachers colleges, to those in private

institutions was about 1 to 3.7; in 1930, 1 to 1.5 (U. S. Office of

Education, 1901, 1931).

Graduate work in education in universities was introduced at the

University of the City of New York (New York University) in 1890, when

the School of Pedagogy was established to give higher training to

persons who may have devoted themselves to teaching as their calling

(Catalog and Announcements, 1891).

Teachers College, Columbia University, played a special role in

providing graduate studies for teachers. Chartered in 1887 as The New

York College for the Training of Teachers, it changed its name to

Teachers College in 1892, and in 1898, became associated with Columbia

University (Circular of Information, 1888; Cremin, 1953a; Woodring,

1962b, 1975). Teachers College provided the means of instruction in,

and the preparation of teachers for, work in manual training, domestic

economy, and industrial arts; it provided the establishment of the study


of education as a professional subject (Hervey, 1900). An indication of

the influence of Teachers College in teacher preparation is noted in the

fact that by 1930 it was estimated that one-fifth of the staff members

in normal schools and teachers colleges throughout the United States had

had a part of their preparation in Teachers College (Russell, W. F.,


One of the greatest contributions of graduate work in the higher

institutions was a development of new knowledge through research and

systematic study. The increase of the number of doctors' theses in the

field of teacher preparation and the increase in the professional status

of teachers since 1917 were a direct outgrowth of the increased

knowledge base. In 1917, one doctor's thesis was reported in education;

in 1922, eight; and in 1929, 20 (Frazier, 1935).

At first, departments of education were adjunct to the older

subject matter departments. Their staffs came from former teachers in

regular college departments or from the ranks of former public school

officials who had achieved a professional reputation (Frazier, 1935;

Knight, 1945). The size of the departments of education and their

influence in the colleges and universities continued to increase.

Frazier (1935) offered the following reasons for the growth of

departments and schools of education:

1. The demand for better prepared high-school
teachers in greater numbers;
2. The phenomenal development of instructional
material in professional education;
3. Rising state certification requirements;
4. Extension of the activities of the departments
into research, extension, and other fields;

5. Increased material resources of the institutions;
6. Local leadership; and
7. Demands of students and public-school
authorities. (p. 74)

During the latter part of this time period, liberal arts colleges

were recognized as important training institutions for the preparation

of teachers (Evenden, 1943; Woodring, 1962b, 1975). Evenden (1943)

summarized the results of a study conducted in 1923-1933 that

concentrated on the involvement of liberal arts colleges in teacher

preparation. He found that nearly 50 percent of the teachers employed

each year by the schools came from liberal arts colleges and the

undergraduate division of universities. Furthermore, this half included

one-third of the elementary teachers, seven-tenths of the junior high

school teachers, and four-fifths of the senior high school teachers.

College departments of pedagogy before 1890 offered little or no

student teaching although mention of observation was sometimes made in

the catalogs. In 1893-1394, Frank McMurry established a primary model

school with two grades at the University of Illinois (Catalog, 1894);

the work was soon discontinued. In 1908-1909, W. C. Bagley put into

effect a more thorough and adequate practice teaching program

(Morehouse, 1912). In the meantime, student teaching had been

introduced into a number of other colleges and universities. In 1908,

of 50 selected universities, 30 offered practice teaching, and in 14, it

was optional (Farrington, Strayer, & Jacobs, 1909).

The first recognized internship in teacher education at colleges

and universities was established at Brown University in Rhode Island in

1909 (Gardner, 1968). It was modeled after the internship program

developed at Fitchburg Normal school in Massachusetts in 1904, which

extended the two-year normal course to four years. During their third

year, selected students were used as regular elementary teachers in

cooperating schools; these students received a salary and were under the

control and supervision of a normal school staff (Spaulding, 1955).

Within the program at Brown University, some of the graduates in

teacher education were placed in the Providence Public Schools for one

full year as half-time, salaried teachers under close supervision of a

professor of education and a supervising teacher. They were also

required to complete a specified amount of course work at that

university during their internship (Brown, J. F., 1911).

The internship program was designed to achieve five goals

established by the National Society of College Teachers of Education:

1. Serve as a professional laboratory facility for
observation and participation by prospective
2. Conduct research and experimentation in child
growth and development and in the use of
instructional materials and teaching procedures;
3. Test and demonstrate forward-looking school
4. Enrich the program of graduate studies in
education; and
5. Exercise leadership in in-service education
programs for teachers. (Jacobs, 1909, p. 533)

These goals emerged from a developing philosophy of teacher education

that expressed a necessity for providing the teacher candidate with an

opportunity to test educational theory through practice in the classroom

(Dewey, 1962; Gardner, 1968; Stabler, 1960).

In an effort to provide the potential teacher with additional

professional clinical experiences, the University of Cincinnati

established an internship program in 1919 (Gardner, 1968). All of the

participants were required to complete a four-year program, including

education courses and a B.S. or B.A. in education degree. Only students

with a high scholastic record were admitted to the program. They were

assigned to classrooms in the public school as half-time, salaried

teachers. They remained as university students and continued their

classwork. Limitations of the Cincinnati program included the


1. The fifth-year student must carry a very heavy
academic program;
2. It was almost impossible for most school systems
to provide the necessary close and careful
supervision; and
3. Any appreciable expansion of the program was
almost impossible without large funds, the
involvement of many cooperating schools, and a
large group of highly competent supervisors.
(Hall-Quest, 1924, pp. 129-141)

The Cincinnati program operated throughout 1940.

By the beginning of 1930, other internship programs were

established in Boston, Cleveland, Minneapolis, Seattle, Buffalo, and

Gary. Although they varied greatly in response to local conditions, all

were characterized by the provision of increased supervision for

beginning teachers during their first year of employment (Jones, H. R.,

Cress, C., & Carley, V. A., 1941; Spaulding, 1955). All of the programs

prescribed to the growing belief that theory is truly meaningful only

through practice in real situations (Dewey, 1962). By the late

twenties, internships were considered a vital part of the preparation

for all of the professions; however, it was often not feasible to

establish internships at the teacher education institutions which

required an additional year of preservice education (Richardson, 1923).

Land-Grant Colleges; Vocational Education

The Morrill Act of 1862 offered states a land-grant to endow

colleges of agriculture and the mechanical arts (Blum et al., 1968;

DeVane, 1965; Hofstadter & Hardy, 1952; Thackrey, 1971). Among the

three major types of services developed in the land-grant institutions--

instruction, extension, and experimental station work--the preparation

of students for vocational teaching had its beginnings. In 1929, the

George-Reed bill greatly increased the annual appropriations for the

purpose of preparing teachers of agriculture and home economics.

Emphasis upon a practical and vital type of work characterized

vocational teacher preparation in the land-grant colleges. Thorough

knowledge of the technical field studied was stressed along with the

usual required courses in professional education. Considerable emphasis

was placed upon supervised student teaching adapted to the needs of the

several vocational fields ("Teacher Training," 1930). The number of

vocational teacher training institutions increased from 94 in 1918, to

178 in 1932 (Federal Board for Vocational Education, 1932; 1U. S.

Department of Agriculture, 1930).

Municipal Colleges and Universities

Eleven municipally supported colleges and universities included

Charleston, founded in 1837; Louisville, 1846; New York, including City

College, 1849, Hunter College, 1870, and Brooklyn, 1930; Cincinnati,

1873; Toledo, 1884; Akron, 1913; Detroit, 1915; Wichita, 1926; and

Omaha, 1931 (Eckelberry, 1932). Nearly all prepared teachers, and they

entered extensively into the in service education of workers in nearby

city schools. Graduate work in education was offered in the majority of

the municipal universities.

Colleges for Women

Following the establishment of separate colleges for women during

the middle decades of the nineteenth century, coordinate colleges for

women, conducted with men's colleges in the same institution, were also

established. Of the independent women's colleges, there were in 1933-

1934, eight state, one city, 29 private, and 90 denominational colleges

(Frazier, 1935). Such institutions persisted despite the growth in

enrollments of women in coeducational institutions. Some of the larger

private colleges for women ranked high, especially in the East, among

the endowed and well-equipped institutions of the country. In the

South, a majority of the graduates of a number of the state women's

colleges entered teaching (Churgin, 1978; Deem, 1978; Goodsell, 1931;

Park, R., 1978).

Junior Colleges

The junior colleges of the time provided preprofessional

preparation for students who later finished their work in teachers

colleges or in colleges and universities. In 1900, there were 27

private junior colleges; in 1915, 15 public and 74 private institutions;

and in 1930, 162 public and 268 private institutions (Eells, 1931). The

total in 1933 was 514 junior colleges, with enrollments of 103,530

(Campbell, 1934).

Like the state normal schools and teachers colleges, the junior

colleges appeared to grow in numbers in times of war and economic

depression (Frazier, 1935). California, Texas, and Iowa led in the

number of junior colleges established.

In summary. Around 1900, the greatest growth in the history of the

United States occurred in general education and in the professional

education of teachers. Throughout the period, states began to assume

more direct control over teacher preparation institutions and over the

administration of teacher certification requirements. Educational

associations focused their influence on raising professional standards

among teachers. The state normal schools began transforming themselves

into teachers colleges and colleges of education. Lengthening and

differentiation of curricula occurred in teacher preparation


Low Years of the Depression and the Early Years
of the War-Born Recovery, 1933-1938

This was a period in which there were many obvious maladjustments--

socially, economically, politically, and in world affairs. Many

thoughtful citizens and educational leaders of the time were worried

because social and technological changes seemed hard to make and results

were slowly realized. Whenever these maladjustments were considered in

their larger implications, the importance of education was recognized.

This recognition, in turn, led to a concern for the quality of teachers

and teacher education (Evenden, 1943).

Scientific Approach of the Educational Process

The education of the teacher was designed to fit the industrial

conception of man. Education became an indispensable means of status

maintenance and acquisition for most people; to acquire status or to

maintain it, one had to procure an education. Teaching, in turn, served

as a means of vertical mobility for persons entering the profession

(Wayland, 1963). Accordingly, teachers were locked into the whole

system. The teachers colleges and education departments occupied

relatively low status positions in the academic world; located just a

step above the bottom. However, these institutions looked good to

persons who were moving upward (Joyce, 1975). By gathering these mobile

people together in the teacher training institutions, the system could

socialize them into the existing practices of the schools.

Most of the theories taught to the young teacher reflected the

industrial values, i.e., "select objectives, organize learning

experiences, and evaluate outcomes" (Joyce, 1975, p. 117). Industrial

models of individualism were recommended, and efficiency-oriented

methods were stressed (Wayland, 1963).

As the industrial technology stimulated growth of the country,

education became a matter of scientific techniques and skills (Cremin,

1953b; Hockett & Bond, 1953; Joyce, 1975). The way research was

presented to educators reflected of that stance.

For example, when one looks at presentations
of research on reading instruction as these are
prepared for the profession, one finds that they
compare methods by criteria of efficiency in
achievement of specific goals. The bulk of the
scientific literature on education is as economic

in mode as is the dominant theory and practice of
the field. (Joyce, 1975, p. 117)

Thus, the young teacher was socialized to the views of curriculum and

research which were compatible with the mainstream and the normative

practices of the schools.

Involved in the consideration of the relationship of

industrialization to teacher training was the degree to which school

systems gave attention to the immediate and different concerns of their

clients. Visibility of reward for educational attainment, usability of

the skills associated with education, and allowance for adaptations

within the society provided reinforcement for acquiring training.

Schooling and other social processes could not be separated (Hullfish,


Changing Methodology in Teacher Education

Early in the twentieth century, the attempts to reform teacher

education challenged the traditional practices clearly reflected in the

early industrial era. Changes in teacher education grew out of reforms

in education. The most extensive of the reform movements was in some

ways the most paradoxical (Cremin, 1951). It was a complex and often

contradictory set of theories, points of view, attitudes, and practices

that came to be known as "progressive education" (3lum et al., 1968,

p. 546).

It is seen most powerfully in the writings of John Dewey and

Dewey's interpreters in the Progressive movement itself (Dewey, 1916).

Its paradox is in its mixture of radical and conservative thought

(Knight, 1945; Russell, W. E., 1940). It stood for social change and

for changes in educational method and substance, all rooted in a

nontraditional conception of man. It did utilize, however, many

traditional educational procedures and structures.

Bode (1938), a professor at Ohio State University, an early leader

in the movement, and later one of its thoughtful critics, contended that

While the movement has never been sharply
defined, its most prominent connotations had been
one of "child centeredness" in the sense that it
has been guided largely by such concepts as
"interest," "freedom," and "self-activity." In
its psychology, progressive education has leaned
toward the point of view indicated, somehwat
vaguely, by the phrase "learning by doing." In
its social philosophy, it has stressed the
importance of superseding habits of competition
with habits of cooperation. (p. 3)

The Progressive movement represented a blending of the child study

movement (Cremin, 1953b) which began in the latter part of the

nineteenth century (briefly described in the preceding section), with

the translation of the work of the pragmatic philosophers into

educational terms. From the child study movement, it focused upon

students as individuals and recognized that education had to begin in

terms understandable to them (Dewey, 1962; Joyce, 1975; Knight, 1945;

Masters, 1933; Russell, W. E., 1940; Woodring, 1975). Students were

accepted as emotional and intellectual beings in their own right. They

were not simply economic entities or raw materials to be processed into

the system of the Industrial Revolution (Joyce, 1975; Woodring, 1975).

Dewey's pragmatism contained the expression of the two major ideas

from which the Progressive movement drew its strength. One was the


constructionist view of knowledge which saw knowledge as a product of

thinking, an everchanging set of conceptions which had to be held

tentatively because they would modify as new experience was acquired and

was processed differently (Joyce, 1975; Russell, W. E., 1940). Dewey

viewed man as seeking information in terms of his purposes, constantly

changing his conceptions, having to become aware of his own frame of

reference to understand this knowledge and then communicate it to

others. By contrast, the industrial conception emphasized the stability

of the external world and diminished the role of the individual.

The second basic idea of the Progressive movement stemmed from

Dewey's concern with the revitalization of democracy (Borrowman, 1957;

Sunderman, 1945) and with the reconstruction of society on terms that

would enable its continued improvement (Dewey, 1962; Evenden, 1943;

Joyce, 1975; Knight, 1945; Russell, W. E., 1940; Wloodring, 1975). This

view of society and of the role of the citizen in improving it was

consistent with the stance of educators in the Progressive movement

toward knowledge.

Changing Theories as a Base for Teacher Education

Educational philosophy became especially attuned to the Progressive

movement, partly because its origins had been in the work of

philosophers (Joyce, 1975). Books, as Philosophy of Education, by

William Kilpatrick and other interpreters of Dewey became the standard

texts in educational philosophy courses. According to Hullfish (1934),

educators were to work for the conditions which would permit the

educative effects of their philosophical position to seep into the

social order. Educators had an obligation to set forth and work for the

conditions that would make all institutional life, including the

schools, foster educative efforts consistent with the set of values

which would give their points of view character; their educational

philosophy would determine educational aims and ideals.

Twentieth-century educators have made a determined effort to base

their pedagogical practices on the latest psychological theories.

During the thirties, the science of behavior and the science of the mind

were used to describe the range of a child's learning ability.

The behavioristic revolution had a profound impact on teacher

education. In 1938, B. F. Skinner enlarged the field by distinguishing

between respondent behavior which is elicited by particular stimuli and

operant behavior which is emitted by the organisms without any specific

identifiable stimulus to account for it (Bassett, 1978; Glaser, 1978;

Woodring, 1975). This concept of operant conditioning offered a

possible explanation for the varieties of classroom learning that could

not adequately be explained by classical conditioning.

Psychoanalysis first had a substantial influence on American

education in the 1930s. With education in the schools being held

responsible for the child's social development, psychoanalytic

interpretations of personality development and psychoanalytic

explanation of maladjustments had wide appeal (Suppes & Warren, 1978;

Woodring, 1975).


The Gestalt psychological principles were attractive to Progressive

educators because they were against rote learning and in favor of

insight as an educational goal. Their popularity declined as the

educators recognized difficulties in developing effective institutional

techniques based upon the concepts of insight and closure.

Implications for Teacher Education

Dewey's perception of knowledge as ever-changing and his view of

education as an emergent group process represented a challenge of the

traditional conceptions of knowledge and social process. It implied a

type of teacher education which would be controversial. It encouraged

the teacher to become more permissive and less authoritarian. The

teacher was to accept responsibility for the social and personality

development of children. The teacher had to be seen as a proble--solver

who would continually invent methodology, reselecting substance and

methods as the life of each classroom group created and recreated

itself. The teacher adapted the curriculum to the interests of the

children (Dewey, 1962; Joyce, 1975; Knight, 1945; Masters, 1933;

Pittenger, 1933; Russell, W. E., 1940; Woodring, 1975).

The campus and laboratory schools became far more "progressive"

than the public schools in which the students were preparing to teach

(Dewey, 1962; King, 1937; Woodring, 1975). When the graduates moved

into a public school teaching position, they often discovered that

neither the children nor the principal was ready for the kinds of

teaching and curricular changes they had been taught to believe were

desirable. Some tried to change the schools but most adapted themselves

to the schools in which they taught and often complained that the

instruction they had received in the training institutions was "too

theoretical" or "unrealistic" (Fristoe, 1939; Woodring, 1975).

The Progressive movement achieved only limited modifications in the

teacher training curriculum because it worked within the traditional

schools and programs of teacher education. The methods courses were

retained but were reshaped. Often democratic practices were instituted

within the courses with the college professor playing a facilitative

role to a group of problem-solving students. Some of, these programs

were run as problem-solving groups (Thelen, 1954).

Because of the influence of the Progressive movement, teacher

education courses during the 1930s became less systematic, more oriented

toward emergent methodologies of teaching, and less oriented toward the

substance of the disciplines (Finkelstein, 1970/1971). Science methods

began to place importance upon problem-solving with the materials

gathered by the teacher and the children (Blough & Huggett, 1951); these

served as resource units rather than structured curricula. The methods

courses also began to emphasize field trips (Joyce, 1975).

Training from the Internship Experience

Included within the methods courses was the truism that skills are

best learned through practice under supervision (Pittenger, 1938). To

adequately serve the learning experience, it was vital to be in contact

with children and to practice relating the learner to the learning

materials ("Notes on Teacher," 1938). This belief in "learning by

doing" (Dewey, 1962; Gardner, 1968; Joyce, 1975; Woodring, 1975)

continued throughout the 1930s. The Progressives recognized that a

vital part of any educational program was provision of clinical

experience to allow the fusion of theory into practice (Lynch, 1937;

"Notes on Teacher," 1938).

Within the social context of economic scarcity, teacher surplus,

and Progressive philosophy, several types of internships in teacher

education existed during the 1930s. Although there was a variety of

internship programs, most of them were established within the same

philosophical framework and manifested similar characteristics,

activities, and goals (Gardner, 1968).

H. R. Jones (1941) through a study of 21 programs found the

following functions of internships:

1. To secure integration of theory and practice in
the professional education of teachers;
2. To insure that the beginning teacher secures his
first year's experience in a school situation
conducive to professional growth;
3. To provide a scheme of teacher induction in which
there is adequate and competent supervision at
the time of induction;
4. To provide a program of professional preparation
of teachers in which learning is based upon
doing; and
5. To permit gradual induction into the work of
teaching. (p. 20)

Through his study, H. R. Jones (1941) identified six principles

which teacher educators believed ought to be characteristic of

internships and which were operative in over 50 percent of the programs


1. Internships should be considered part of the
basic preparation and training of the beginning
2. During the period of internship, the intern
should engage in the large variety of activities
in which a regular teacher engages;
3. The internship plan should include a cooperating,
teacher-training institution in which interns
carry on correlated graduate work during their
period of internship;
4. The period of internship should be at least a
year in length;
5. Basic courses in professional education,
including student teaching, should be completed
prior to entrance into internship; and
6. The internship should be a good school situation
approximating as closely as possible the type of
school situation in which the intern will
probably receive permanent appointment. (p. 21)

Each internship program was characterized by its own unique

features, but it is possible to group them into four types of programs

on the basis of the kind of sponsoring institution: (a) a public school

system, (b) a city school system in cooperation with a municipal teacher

education institution, (c) a university or college, or (d) an

independent teacher education institution (Jones, H. R. et al., 1941).

In a description of representative programs sponsored by public

school systems in Grosse Point, Michigan; Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; and

Seattle, Washington; similarities and differences were in evidence. All

required that the interns hold the bachelor's degree and a teaching

certificate, provided for a gradual induction into teaching, paid the

interns a regular salary based on the beginning teacher's salary in

proportion to the amount of teacher load assumed, and sponsored a

program for one full year (Gardner, 1968). Differences existed in

method of supervision and type and quality of related instruction

provided the intern.

Programs sponsored by a city school system in cooperation with a

municipal teacher education institution were in operation in Chicago,

Cincinnati, and Detroit. A major objective of these three internships

was to recruit teachers from a highly selected group of college

undergraduates (Gardner, 1968).

A third type of program, an internship sponsored by a college or

university, was in evidence at eight institutions: Northwestern

University; Stanford University; Brown University; New York University;

Teachers College, Columbia University; the University of Illinois; the

University of Pennsylvania; and Western Maryland College. Northwestern

University led in the development of an internship that was judged as

highly effective; most five-year internships were patterned after the

Northwestern program (Gardner, 1968). The Northwestern internship was

part of a graduate program leading to the master's degree which included

a year of internship and two summer sessions, one preceding and the

other following the internship period. Only superior students who had

successfully completed student teaching and were found acceptable by

local schools were admitted to the program. Provisions were made for a

gradual induction into teaching; joint supervision was shared by the

university and the cooperating school (Jones, H. R. et al., 1941).

Internship sponsored by private teacher education institutions--

such as the Graduate Teachers College in Winnetka, the Cooperative

School for Teachers in New York City, and the Shady Hill School,

Cambridge, Massachusetts--were similar to those sponsored by

universities (Gardner, 1968).

Raising Standards of Preservice Preparation of Teachers

During the early part of this period many school districts and

several states were farsighted enough to take advantage of the surplus

of teachers and the relative desirability of teaching positions to raise

their standards for the preservice preparation of teachers. This was

especially true for elementary teachers. Several states raised the

preservice requirement for all new teachers to four years of post-

secondary school work (Ade, 1934). Five states and a number of cities

required five years of collegiate work as a preservice requirement for

new high school teachers. These changes, however, did not occur

frequently (Evenden, 1943).

Certification requirements tended to make the curricula of teachers

colleges and liberal arts colleges similar. To meet the minimum

certification requirements, the liberal arts colleges in several states

adopted courses or course titles from the teachers colleges.

The trend to centralize the control of teacher certification in the

state departments of education continued. Bachman (1933) contended that

it was necessary for a single agency under state control to assume

directive leadership in teacher preparation and certification to make

certification requirements sound. He argued that certification

requirements needed to become definite and complete, and thus, eliminate

the widely divergent kinds of certificates which still existed.

Raising Professional Standards

A profession rests upon a substantial body of scholarly

knowledge. The scholarly knowledge that makes teaching a profession

comes from many fields. A student training to become an elementary

teacher during the 1930s was required to take background subject matter

courses appropriate to the level to be taught as well as courses dealing

with improvement of instruction in various elementary school subjects.

Likewise, a student training to become a high school teacher was

required to enroll in a general orientation course in secondary

education and in professional courses in his or her major and minor


The common professional core of courses in teacher education

included history of American education, psychology of learning,

observation and applied techniques of teaching, student teaching, and

philosophy of education (Ade, 1934; Masters, 1933; "Notes on Teacher,"

1938; Pittenger, 1938; Rugg, 1936).

A by-product of the raising of standards for preservice preparation

of teachers was an increase in the respect of the teaching profession in

the mind of the public. Because teachers were by far the largest among

the groups laying claim to professional status, it seemed necessary to

have an extended period of preparation comparable to that required for

admission to other professions along with the possession of the unique

skills and knowledge of teaching (Borrowman, 1957; Elsbree, 1963; King,


D. F. Graham (1935) suggested the following guidelines in

developing the highest type of professional consciousness in education:

1. The teacher should adopt a professional attitude
toward the use of time;
2. The teacher should insist upon adult observation
of his work;
3. The teacher should welcome measurement of his
work; and
4. The teacher should imitate a love of craftmanship
apparent among true professionals in any field.
(p. 392)

In the thirties, the public was awakened to the realization that

teachers were "well educated persons, professionally prepared for their

work, and could be expected to make constructive contributions to the

various community programs" (Evenden, 1943, p. 341). This recognition

encouraged more people to believe that the work of the schools and of

the teachers in those schools was of great importance to a democracy.

In summary. In world affairs, throughout this period, social,

economic, and political maladjustments were in evidence. Although

stemming from different philosophical positions, the scientific movement

and the Progressive education movement both had some influence on

teacher education. Teacher education was designed to fit a scientific

approach--industrial values in terms of objectives, outcomes, and

learning experiences. Efficiency-oriented methods were emphasized. The

Progressive education movement stressed the individuality of each

learner, the concept of "learning by doing," and the continuing

improvement of a democratic society. Belief in putting theory into

practice, encouraged the development of internships in teacher


Years of Continuing Recovery from the Depression
and Beginnings of World War II, 1938-1943

When Franklin D. Roosevelt was inaugurated as President of the

United States in March 1933, the American democracy was profoundly

absorbed in gloomy internal problems. The beginning of his

administration began in a season of despair unique in American

history. The ever deepening depression, the lengthening bread lines in

the cities, the angry mobs of farmers in the countryside, the apparent

immobility of the national government, and the spreading misery and

resentment--all combined to stamp society with an unprecedented sense of

bewilderment and defeat (l31um et al., 1968). These happenings compelled

American society to change during the period.

Demographically the population of the United States grew at a rate

less than a million a year; the total population of 131.7 million in

1940 was hardly more than twice that of the preceding decade. In 1938,

there were 1.6 million fewer children under the age of ten than there

had been five years before. With the increase in life expectancy from

56 in 1920 to 64 in 1940, the proportion of people over 55 increased

from 5.4 percent in 1930 to 6.9 percent in 1940, America began to look

like an aging country. Its population growth was slowing to a stop; its

future growth appeared limited (Blum et al., 1968; Kirkendall, 1942;

Schermerhorn, 1943).

The number of students enrolled in the secondary schools

approximately doubled in each decade from 1900-1940. The percentage of

persons of high school age enrolled in the secondary schools increased

from 10.3 percent in 1900 to 67.0 percent in 1938. The number of

students enrolled in college at the sane time increased five times

(Brown, C. H., 1943; U. S. Office of Education, 1941), although those

enrolled in teacher education dropped 22 percent from 1940-1942

(Schermerhorn, 1943).

Cooperation among Schooling Agencies in Furthering Programs Already

In the late thirties, the matter of educating the teachers came to

the forefront as one of the vital issues in the field of education. One

of the serious and influential moves to be made in recognizing teacher

education as a problem during these years was the creation of the

Commission on Teacher Education by the American Council on Education

(Carter, 1941; Cremin, 1953b; Evenden, 1943; Lafferty, 19391, 1940).

This Commission, under the leadership of Karl W. Bigelow and working

with 34 cooperating colleges and school systems, held a general meeting

at 3ennington, Vermont, in August 1939 (Bennington Planning Conference,

1939; Carter, 1941; Lafferty, 1940). The meeting was held for the

express purpose of defining the scope and function of the group. The

functions were listed as follows:

1. To offer consultant services to participating
2. To serve as a clearinghouse for the distribution
of materials, bibliographies, etc., relating to
the study of teacher education;
3. To better husband the relationships of the
school, the teacher, and the public through an
active public relations program;
4. To serve as a means of interpretation and
stimulation to members of cooperating groups;
5. To sponsor studies and investigations in teacher
education by members of the Commission;

6. To provide fellowships for workers whose efforts,
interests, and abilities in the field of teacher
education suggest promises;
7. To hold conferences on pertinent aspects of the
general problem;
8. To establish workshops and centers of
9. To give some direct financial aid to cooperating
institutions; and
10. To cooperate with other agencies and
organizations interested in the problem of
teacher education. (Lafferty, 1940, p. 586)

With these services enumerated, there was reason to believe that through

cooperation improvement in teacher preparation could become a continuous


Problems facing teacher education during this period were addressed

in two separate studies (Harper, 1939; Wood, 1942). They both found

that concerted efforts were being made to improve the selection and

admission of prospective teachers to the profession and to the planning

of their professional and non-professional programs (Ade, 1934; Kopel,

1939; Lafferty, 1940; "Notes on Teacher," 1938). Courses were offered

that would acquaint students with the characteristics of the teaching

profession so that they could decide more intelligently whether they had

made a wise career choice; they could also discover their aptitudes for

teaching and probable success (Anderson, J. T., 1938; Rhodes, 1938).

There was a gradual increase occurring in the amount or the number

of years of preparation for the teaching profession (Ade, 1934; Kopel,

1939). The requirements for certification were continuing to advance

(Cremin, 1953h; Lafferty, 1940; Northway, 1941). It was generally

recognized, however, that unless the quality as well as the quantity of

professional preparation was increased, little improvement would be

noted (Douglass & Mills, 1943; Fristoe, 1939).

There was a demand for a broader education of the teacher as a

person with emphasis on an understanding of the social-economic-

political world, appreciation of aesthetic and recreational activities,

development of personality, and the maintenance of physical and mental

health (Douglass & Mills, 1943; Kopel, 1939; Lafferty, 1940; Orr, M. L.

& Anderson, A. C., 1938; Schussman, 1939). Requiring a broader

education encouraged the teacher to assume a greater importance in the

social and civic environment surrounding the school (Borrowman, 1957;

Kirkendall, 1942; Masters, 1933; Northway, 1941; Schussman, 1939).

An attempt was being made to increase the functionalism of courses

and methods (Dewey, 1938; Masters, 1933; Orr, M. L. & Anderson, A. C.,

1938). This was done by combining subject matter and methods (Dewey,

1938; Rhodes, 1938); fusing special methods, curriculum organization,

and practice teaching (Lafferty, 1940; "Notes on Teacher," 1938); or by

offering a general course of study during the first two years of college

and devoting the remaining two or three years to specialized subject

matter and professional courses (Beu, 1942; Borrowman, 1957; Kopel,

1939; Lafferty, 1940).

The preparation of secondary school teachers was being generalized

and extended to include two or more fields (Bagley, 1942; Lafferty,

1939a). This type of preparation facilitated better placement of the

teacher and contributed to broadening his or her view of the total

educational program (Reu, 1942; Douglass & Mills, 1943; Lawson, 1942).

The period of supervised teaching was being lengthened (Douglass &

Mills, 1943; Fristoe, 1939; Kopel, 1939; Lafferty, 1940; "Notes on

Teacher," 1938). Several studies (Borrowoan, 1957; Cahoon, 1930; Camp,

1944; Dewey, 1962; Mills, 1943) indicated that student teachers believed

that supervised teaching was the most valuable of all their professional

courses. Despite the efforts of leading educators and the apparent

effectiveness of the internship developed in the early 1930s, from 1938-

1948 there was little interest in establishing internships in teacher

education (Sishop, 1948a).

There was an attempt to professionalize the degrees offered in

education and to adapt them to increasing requirements of certification

(Kyte, 1939; Lafferty, 1940). This trend also encouraged teacher

training to be more functional (Douglass & Mills, 1943; Fristoe,

1939). The required hours of credit in professional courses were

greater, and students were asked to make their majors and minors more

general (Lafferty, 1940; Schussman, 1939).

A constant effort was being made to professionalize teaching to a

greater degree (Douglass & Mills, 1943; Lafferty, 1940). The increasing

standards, the improvement of admission procedures, and the development

and improvement of teachers' associations contributed to this trend

(Ade, 1934; Lafferty, 1939a, 1940; Northway, 1941).

Trends do not necessarily point the proper direction for change,

nor do they always imply that change is necessary. They may serve,

however, as a basis for organized thought on the problems which may

initiate movement. Possible approaches ire suggested as solutions to

these problems; both the problems and the approaches are summarized from

Wood (1942, pp. 99-102) and Lafferty (1940, pp. 587-593).


(1) The quality of the students
attracted to the teaching profes-
sion is not comparable to that in
other professions and the lack of
adequate barriers to the profes-
sional curriculum of teacher
education leads to serious handi-
caps in their preparation for

(2) The non-professional or
subject-matter preparation of
teachers is frequently too
specialized, too superficial, too
impractical to the needs of the
teacher in modern elementary and
secondary schools.

(3) The professional courses
frequently have little carry-over
into the teaching situation;
teachers report that they have been
too theoretical to be of value.

(4) Little emphasis given to

(5) No nationally agreed
upon program. Certification
available end of first, second,
third and fourth year of

Increase rigidity in selection
of candidates. Admission based
upon a composite of scores taken
from scholarship in previous
schooling, standardized mental and
achievement tests, personality
ratings, etc. Conditional
admission. Student subject to
dismissal whenever he indicates
lack of interest in teaching, lack
of ability to teach, or lack of
other demonstrable strengths
conducive to teaching success.
Elimination usually occurs at
completion of sophomore work and
again at the end of the junior

Expand the training in the
student's two or three chosen
teaching areas to conform in
organization with the subjects
or grades he will be teaching,
but at the same time enforce
rigid standards of scholarship.

'Orient all professional
courses in actual teaching
situations. Reorganize these
courses to eliminate duplication,
and extend the amount of time
devoted to professional
preparation. Provide liason
professors in the schools and
colleges of education who will
coordinate professional and
subject-matter courses.

Emphasize practice-
teaching in laboratory
and public schools.

Four year program leading to a
B.S. in Education. Five year
program leading to the M.A. or
M.Ed. degree.


(6) Certificating author ty
in hands of local administr :ive

(7) Discourage the emplo lent
of other than local teacher .

(8) Teaching certifica es
issued on basis of oral or -itten

(9) Issuance of "blanket
or other unspecialized cert 'icates.

(10) Issuance of permane ;
teaching certificates.

(11) There is a lack of
coordination of purpose, ob ctives,
and principles in teacher e ication
among the professional and in-
professional departments of iany
colleges, and between the c: Ileges
and the public school peop1 ,

Centralize of certificating
authority in hands of State Board
of Education.

Encourage the interstate migra-
tion of competent teachers.

Issue teaching certificates
on basis of institutional cre-

Issue certificates spe-
cifically for academic subjects,
non-academic or special subjects,
or administrative and supervisory

Issue temporary certificates.
Renewable only by continued
attendance in school or by
evidenced successful teaching or

Establish a committee on teacher
education to set up principles and
policies, determine goals and
objectives, and work with the
public schools in developing and
advancing the teaching profession.

For improvement to re Alt from the application of these proposed

solutions to problems in t, richer education, cooperation from all those

concerned with teacher tra ning must occur. This cooperative effort

would need to involve all o these groups: the state, including members

of the state departments )f education; the faculty members of the

various departments represe zing teaching areas of schools of education

and of teachers colleges the specific school systems, including

coordinating teachers and administrators; the persons in the local

communities, including pare ts and leaders; and each individual teacher

(Evenden, 1943; Friston, 1 39; Lafferty, 1940; Northway, 1941; Wood,


Besides the coordination of all program areas affecting teacher

preparation and the cooperation of all agencies involved in teacher

education, every aspect included should be subject to constant

evaluation, criticism, and revision (Fristoe, 1939; Lafferty, 1940;

Northway, 1941; Wood, 1942). The study of any area of the program

should not cease with the adoption of some change. Constructive

criticism should always be welcomed as a step toward the continued

development and improvement of teacher preparation.

Reciprocal Effects of Education and War

As it became evident that America's nonagrassive attitude would not

stem the drift toward involvement, President Roosevelt wanted to awaken

the nation to the dangers of a world war. In a fireside chat on the

evening of September 3, 1939, Roosevelt told Americans that when peace

had been broken anywhere, the peace of all countries everywhere was in

danger; he reaffirmed his determination "to use every effort" to keep

war out of America (Blum et al., 1968, p. 719).

The attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, caused a tremendous

surge of national unity behind the government. At the outbreak of war,

the American economy was in semimobilization. Through 1941, business

resisted pressure to convert industrial facilities to war production; by

the time of the Pearl Harbor disaster, 15 percent of industrial output

was going for military purposes.

Like any period of war, this was a period of upheaval. People were

uprooted from familiar settings and thrust into new places and new