Citation
The Legacy of plantation America

Material Information

Title:
The Legacy of plantation America : formation and growth of an Haitian community
Creator:
Hay, Frederick J., 1953- ( Dissertant )
Wagley, Charles ( Thesis advisor )
Margolis, Maxine L. ( Reviewer )
Nunez, Theron A. ( Reviewer )
Lawless, Robert D. ( Reviewer )
McCoy, Terry L. ( Reviewer )
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publisher:
University of Florida
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1985
Language:
English
Physical Description:
xiv, 237 leaves : ill., map ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
African American culture ( jstor )
African Americans ( jstor )
Cultural anthropology ( jstor )
Fishing ( jstor )
Houses ( jstor )
Latin American culture ( jstor )
Peasant class ( jstor )
Plantations ( jstor )
Slavery ( jstor )
Voodoo ( jstor )
Anthropology thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Anthropology -- UF
Ethnology -- Haiti ( lcsh )
Social conditions -- Haiti ( lcsh )
Social life and customs -- Haiti ( lcsh )
City of Gainesville ( local )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Haiti

Notes

Abstract:
Though many studies have been made of the plantation's persistence in the New World, scholars have, for the most part, neglected the study of the plantation's legacy in peasant Afro-America. This dissertation investigates the phenomenon of community formation and evolution in post-bellum Afro-America. To this end, an ethnohistory of an Haitian fishing village is presented. It examines the formation and growth of the community and its organization in terms of its family life, economics, political system, religion and worldview. The social and economic impact of the recent introduction of tourism is considered. A life history of a village man is included for the purpose of elucidating the ways in which an individual interacts with his community and culture. Using Charles Wagley's concept of a Plantation America cultural sphere, the contemporary and historical cultural patterns of this community are related to those of other Afro-American communities. This Haitian fishing village is compared to other Haitian and non-Haitian Plantation American communities and to the closed corporate peasant community of Indo-America . Those features which are common to Afro-American cultures but foreign to Indo-America and Euro-America are examined. An explanation of historical causation is offered and a general developmental cycle proposed . The resilience typical of West African cultures was transformed by the plantation's desocializing influence into a generalized cultural amorphousness . Adaptive to the harsh realities of slavery, amorphousness permeated every aspect of the cultural and social life of Afro-Americans. It has survived, in part, because oppression of the Afro-American population has not diminished. Free from the plantation institution for more than 180 years, its influence persists in Haiti in the form of a total-culture style of amorphousness
Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1985.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 215-232.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Frederick J. Hay.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
029491576 ( AlephBibNum )
AEG9660 ( NOTIS )
014514628 ( OCLC )

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:

PDF ( 9 MBs ) ( .pdf )

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_043.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_217.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_112.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_024.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_096.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_229.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_211.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_064.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_242.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_059.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_159.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_061.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_185.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_098.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_192.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_052.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_086.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_170.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_157.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_081.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_048.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_068.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_168.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_234.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_084.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_149.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_141.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_238.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_243.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_072.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_244.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_104.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_245.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_127.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_006.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_252.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_181.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_137.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_083.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_138.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_107.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_017.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_158.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_088.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_021.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_146.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_027.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_047.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_188.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_151.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_121.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_226.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_126.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_076.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_240.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_015.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_200.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_070.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_145.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_162.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_016.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_055.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_057.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_105.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_116.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_118.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_095.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_111.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_225.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_209.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_002.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_199.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_184.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_101.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_250.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_143.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_069.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_171.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_247.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_174.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_022.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_167.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_131.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_011.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_193.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_053.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_232.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_220.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_166.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_050.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_007.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_066.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_178.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_203.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_239.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_173.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_207.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_176.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_195.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_108.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_009.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_018.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_078.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_212.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_106.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_132.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_186.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_030.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_014.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_124.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_051.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_150.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_073.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_031.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_102.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_036.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_172.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_129.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_165.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_001.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_214.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_139.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_019.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_008.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_075.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_085.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_113.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_169.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_194.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_034.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_156.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_004.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_130.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_179.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_028.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_219.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_042.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_155.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_248.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_082.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_040.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_128.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_249.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_205.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_037.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_164.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_060.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_208.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_012.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_133.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_120.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_136.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_038.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_071.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_125.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_222.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_154.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_049.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_092.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_100.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_041.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_142.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_218.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_230.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_197.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_054.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_026.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_224.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_097.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_237.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_187.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_201.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_122.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_005.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_023.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_134.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_035.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_223.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_115.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_246.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_152.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_227.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_215.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_183.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_123.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_206.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_241.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_110.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_175.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_216.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_114.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_067.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_190.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_025.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_160.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_045.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_032.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_198.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_044.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_236.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_080.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_029.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_148.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_010.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_202.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_020.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_204.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_046.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_058.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_003.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_253.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_103.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_228.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_196.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_221.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_013.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_231.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_147.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_090.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_182.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_109.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_056.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_180.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_079.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_117.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_091.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_063.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_093.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_140.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_089.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_161.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_077.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_177.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_094.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_135.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_099.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_087.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_074.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_233.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_251.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_062.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_pdf.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_153.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_235.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_039.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_065.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_210.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_189.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_119.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_144.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_191.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_033.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_163.txt

legacyofplantati00hayf_Page_213.txt


Full Text











THE LEGACY OF PLANTATION AMERICA: FORMATION AND GROWTH OF
AN HAITIAN COMMUNITY










By

Frederick J. Hay






























A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

1985



































Copyright 1985

by

Frederick J. Hay















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


The research upon which this dissertation is based was

partially funded by the Tropical South America Fund of the

Center for Latin American Studies at the University of

Florida. To them I am grateful.

I am especially appreciative of Charles Wagley.

Professor Wagley supervised my graduate training at the

University of Florida and was my teacher and advisor before,

during and after my Haitian fieldwork. I owe Wagley an

intellectual debt the magnitude of which I doubt that even

he realizes.

I would also like to thank my committee members,

Professors Maxine Margolis, Theron Nunez, Terry McCoy and

Robert Lawless. I am particularly grateful for the helpful

suggestions made by Margolis and Nunez.

Many people in Haiti assisted us in various ways.

These include our friends Serge Martineau, who helped us in

more ways than we could ever mention, Roger Pinkcombe, owner

of the Brise de Mer Hotel, Charles Romain of the Institute

for the Study and Research of African Culture of Haiti and

Harry Sanchez, travel agent. I would also like to thank

various anthropologists who were stationed in

Port-au-Prince: Fred Conway, Shelagh O'Rouke and Donna

Plotkin.










My wife and I are especially grateful to the remarkable

Sylvain family, and especially to Professor Jeanne Sylvain.

Without Professor Sylvain's assistance, advice and insights,

my work in Haiti would have been much more difficult and

less rewarding. Jeanne's brother Pierre and sister Yvonne

were also a tremendous help to us. It is our feeling that

the Sylvain family represents the best of Haitian

scholarship and professional life.

Our debt to Jeanne Sylvain's daughter and son-in-law,

Roselle and Leslie Nazon, is profound. We can not

sufficiently thank or acknowledge them for their assistance

and friendship.

I would also like to acknowledge our friend, Renold

Pierre, lawyer and judge, who helped us to understand rural

Haitian culture in so many ways.

Various Catholic and Protestant churchpeople

contributed to our well-being and my research. I would

especially like to thank Sister Antoine who compassionately

cared for us when we were ill in Plaisance, Father Roland

Lamy who helped us immensely and taught us even more, and

the Baptist ministers--Jack Hancocks, Phil Yueling and Mario

Valcin--for their help and interest in my research.

Many of the people that contributed to my research in

Haiti can not be mentioned here. My greatest debt is to the

people of Plage-Boutou; especially our friends Pierre Saint

Louis and Amos Magloire and their families.











My colleagues, Ronald Kephart and James T. McKay also

deserve special mention. Kephart generously assisted me

with the orthography. McKay read each draft of this

dissertation and offered many useful criticisms and

suggestions. He also gave me support of many kinds while I

was in the field and while I was writing this document.

The credit for the map and genealogical diagram goes

completely to Margie Niblack of the Office of Instructional

Resources of the University of Floirida.

To my parents, Sam and Dot Hay, I owe an overwhelming

acknowledgement. If it weren't for their care,

encouragement and financial assistance I would never have

pursued this degree or completed my research in Haiti. This

dissertation is lovingly dedicated to them.

To my wife, Dr. Valentina Maiewskij-Hay, I owe the

greatest debt. She accompanied me to the field and

willingly sustained great sacrifice. Her editorial

abilities are manifest on every page of this dissertaion.

More importantly, her advice on substance and her

encouragement enabled me to complete this task.














TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS............................................iii

LIST OF TABLES. ............................................ix

NOTE ON ORTHOGRAPHY........................................x

ABSTRACT........ ........................................xiii

CHAPTERS

I AN INTRODUCTION TO THE LEGACY OF PLANTATION AMERICA.1

Research Plans and Realities........................3
An Historical Overview of the Haitian Experience....5
The Plantation Cycle ...............................15
Plantation America .................................19
Conclusion .........................................23
Notes................................................ 24

II AN INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF PLAGE-BOUTOU.....26

Environmental and Demographic Description..........26
The Founding Fathers--1900-1930....................32
The Stabilization of an Amorphous Community--1930-
1970.......................... .......... ........ 38
The Advent of Tourism and Its Impact--1970-Present.45
Conclusion. ..........................................49
Notes ............................................. 52

III THE ROLE OF FAMILY, KINSHIP AND HOUSEHOLD IN A
CHANGING COMMUNITY............................... 55

The Life Cycle of the Laku in Plage-Boutou.........56
The Life Cycle of the Famni in Plage-Boutou........61
Marriage, Plasazh and Polygamy .....................67
The Household as Microcosm of the Community: A Case
Study of Fluctuation in Household Composition in
Contemporary Lucner.... .........................74
Conclusion............................................... 82
Notes to Chapter III................................84

IV INNOVATIONS AND ADOPTIONS: CHANGING PATTERNS IN
THE SOCIOLOGY OF WORK ...........................86

The Fishing Village in Plantation America..........86
A Social History of Agriculture in Plage-Boutou....90
Adaptation to Depletion: Changing Strategies in
Subsistence Fishing..............................97











Marketing and Domestic Activities: The History of
Women's Work in Plage-Boutou...................103
Conclusion.............................................. 105
Notes ............................................. 106

V FROM AFRICA TO THE RISE OF THE PROTESTANT ETHIC:
RELIGION AND MAGIC IN PLAGE-BOUTOU.............108

Voodoo, the African Heritage and Revolution in
Haiti.......................................... 109
The Decline of the Zazh ...........................112
The Mandingues: A Creole Islam Cult ............117
The History of Catholicism in Plage-Boutou........120
The Founding of the Baptist Church: The Protestant
Ethic and the Changing Realities of Life in
Plage-Boutou..................................... 125
The Persistence of Magic--A Traditional Alterna-
tive to the Protestant Ethic ...................131
Conclusion. .........................................137
Notes ............................................. 139

VI INCIPIENT TOURISM .................................142

Foreign Nationals Come to Visit and Stay..........143
Latortue Beach Development .............. ......... 146
Corporate Failure and the Control of Local
Entrepreneurship................................... 151
The Impact of Tourism on Plage-Boutou.............155
Conclusion.............................................. 160
Notes.............................................. 161

VII PEASANT MAN AS MANIPULATOR: THE LIFE HISTORY OF
PIERRE SAINT LOUIS .............................164

Pierre Marcelin....................................165
Pere Pierre........................................169
Pierre Saint Louis.................................173
Pierre as Gro Mun ................................. 180
Conclusion.............................................. 183
Notes.............................................. 185

VIII CONCLUSION--PLAGE-BOUTOU CULTURE IN PLANTATION
AMERICAN PERSPECTIVE............................ 187

Plage-Boutou, Mirebalais and Marbial: A
Comparison......................................... 188
Cultural Amorphousness and Cultural Style.........195
Cultural Models and Afro-American Culture.........199
Conclusion.............................................. 205
Notes........................... ..................... 207













EPILOGUE: A NOTE ON THE POLICY IMPLICATIONS OF CULTURAL
AMORPHOUSNESS ..... ........................... 210

GLOSSARY .................................................213

BIBLIOGRAPHY.............................................215

APPENDICES

A MAP OF PLAGE-BOUTOU...............................233

B GENEALOGY OF ABIS FAMNI ..........................235

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH......................................... 237


viii













LIST OF TABLES


TABLE 1: DIAGRAM OF COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION IN
PLAGE-BOUTOU ........... .............................29

TABLE 2: POPULATION AGE PROFILE FOR PLAGE-BOUTOU, 1983...31

TABLE 3: PLAGE-BOUTOU LAKUS IN 1930 ......................37

TABLE 4: COMMUNITY OF ORIGIN OF THE MAJORITY OF INHABI-
TANTS IN EACH COMMUNITY OF PLAGE-BOUTOU...............44

TABLE 5: POPULATION AND HOUSEHOLDS IN LUCNER IN 1983 AND
1984 ..................................... .............78

TABLE 6: NEW LOCATION (1984) OF 1983 LUCNER RESIDENTS....79

TABLE 7: PROVENIENCE OF 1984 LUCNER RESIDENTS............79

TABLE 8: TYPE OF DOMESTIC-FAMILY GROUP IN LUCNER, 1983
AND 1984............................................... 80

TABLE 9: HOUSE AGE IN LUCNER, 1984 .......................80















NOTE ON ORTHOGRAPHY


The orthography used for Creole words in this

dissertation was developed by my colleague Ron Kephart for

the Carricou Literacy Project. Many, and frequently

inconsistent, orthographies are currently in use for Haitian

Creole. These orthographies have been developed, more often

than not, with Standard French or Standard English ("Export

English" or "Export French" in Kephart's terminology) rather

than Creole speakers in mind. Consequently, they have

usually been an obstacle to the advancement of literacy

among native Creole speakers. This includes, I believe, the

Haitian governmental agency approved orthography for Creole,

generally referred to by that agency's acronym, ONEC.

With Kephart's assistance, I have used his orthography

to render the Creole terms used herein into the dialect of

northern Haiti. The Kephart orthography is valuable not

only because it can express dialectical differences in

Haitian Creole but it is equally useful for all Caribbean

Creole languages. Because of its simplicity it is

exceedingly practical. It has also proven to be immediately

understandable for both English and French Creole speakers

on the island of Carricou in the Lesser Antilles (Grenada).












Explanation of Symbols


Vowels

i u
e 6
e o
a

Glides

ey ay y


Nasalized Vowels

e a o


Consonants

b d j
p t ch
v z zh
f s sh
m n
w 1 y


i i a 6 u


e


o


zh


j, ch


g


This key to the Kephart

covers all Creole items


approximates the Spanish
i e a o u

like the vowel in the English word
set

like the vowel in the English word
caught (rounded British
pronunciation)

approximates the consonant in the
English word measure

approximates the consonant in the
English words jump and church

always as in the English word go


orthography is not exhaustive but

cited in the text (Kephart 1984).








Words are pluralized in Haitian Creole syntactically or

by context rather than morphologically. All Creole words

contained herein are written in the singular. Plurality of

Creole words is to be determined by context.













Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

THE LEGACY OF PLANTATION AMERICA: FORMATION AND GROWTH OF
AN HAITIAN COMMUNITY

By

Fred J. Hay

May, 1985

Chairman: Dr. Charles Wagley
Major Department: Anthropology


Though many studies have been made of the plantation's

persistence in the New World, scholars have, for the most

part, neglected the study of the plantation's legacy in

peasant Afro-America. This dissertation investigates the

phenomenon of community formation and evolution in

post-bellum Afro-America.

To this end, an ethnohistory of an Haitian fishing

village is presented. It examines the formation and growth

of the community and its organization in terms of its family

life, economics, political system, religion and worldview.

The social and economic impact of the recent introduction of

tourism is considered. A life history of a village man is

included for the purpose of elucidating the ways in which an

individual interacts with his community and culture.

Using Charles Wagley's concept of a Plantation America

cultural sphere, the contemporary and historical cultural


xiii









patterns of this community are related to those of other

Afro-American communities. This Haitian fishing village is

compared to other Haitian and non-Haitian Plantation

American communities and to the closed corporate peasant

community of Indo-America. Those features which are common

to Afro-American cultures but foreign to Indo-America and

Euro-America are examined. An explanation of historical

causation is offered and a general developmental cycle

proposed.

The resilience typical of West African cultures was

transformed by the plantation's desocializing influence into

a generalized cultural amorphousness. Adaptive to the harsh

realities of slavery, amorphousness permeated every aspect

of the cultural and social life of Afro-Americans. It has

survived, in part, because oppression of the Afro-American

population has not diminished. Free from the plantation

institution for more than 180 years, its influence persists

in Haiti in the form of a total-culture style of

amorphousness.


xiv














CHAPTER I: AN INTRODUCTION TO THE LEGACY OF PLANTATION
AMERICA


The past is never dead. It's not even past--William
Faulkner (1951:92).




From the beginning of his career the novelist William

Faulkner was deeply concerned with plantation society and

its legacy. Social scientists, on the other hand, did not

begin to study this tradition in earnest until mid-century.

Today, there is a large literature on plantations,

plantation society and Afro-American cultures. Yet, there

remains a dearth of research on the plantation's role in the

formation of post-bellum, post-plantation, Afro-American

communities.

This dissertation is an ethnohistory of an Haitian

fishing village. It is ethnohistory not only because it is

about the history of an Afro-American peasant community but

because it was orally elicted through resident fieldwork.

It is anthropological history because it is primarily

concerned with the history of those aspects of a people's

life which anthropologists have traditionally studied

(family, household composition, subsistence patterns,











religion, political system, social stratification, and the

individual's relation to his culture).

In presenting this admittedly particularistt" history

of a single community, I have tried to elucidate some of the

broader meanings and global relevance of these data by

putting it in the context of a culture area ("Plantation

America") and in terms of an evolutionary process

("Plantation Cycle"). This chapter concludes with a review

of these two guiding concepts.

Contemporary Afro-American culture is a distinct and

vital sub-culture of the New World. It was created and

maintained under conditions of relentless oppression and

was/is adaptive for maintaining life and dignity under these

conditions. It is my thesis that the plantation

institution, which established this milieu of oppression,

has had a persistent influence on Afro-American communities

whether they are situated in contemporary plantation areas

(Mintz 1956, Johnson 1934) or whether they are distinct and

isolated from contemporary plantation society (Woofter 1930,

Horowitz 1967).

The community selected for study has, until recently,

been an isolated peasant fishing village on the north coast

of Haiti. Because this village has been outside the sphere

of active plantation influence for at least 180 years, the

study of its creation and growth will contribute to our











understanding of the tenacity of the plantation's influence

in contemporary Afro-America.



Research Plans And Realities



My original intention for research in Haiti was to do a

re-study of George Eaton Simpson's research in the Bassin

section in the commune of Plaisance. Simpson's 1937-1938

study of this northern Haitian community is the basis of a

number of important publications on Afro-American culture.

Simpson was the first and still one of the few

anthropologists or sociologists to do intensive field

research in Haiti outside of a fifty-mile area surrounding

the nation's capital, Port-au-Prince.

My wife, Valentina, and I arrived in Port-au-Prince,

Haiti, in early October, 1983. By the end of the month we

were settled in Plaisance and I had embarked on my study of

the Bassin section. In a few days, we were both bed-ridden

with high fevers, chills and generalized discomfort. As

soon as we were able, we took the bus to Cap-Haitien and

later to Port-au-Prince. Though we were attended by

physicians in Plaisance and Cap Haitien, we did not discover

that we were suffering from dengue fever until we visited a

physician in Port-au-Prince.

We spent several weeks in the capital city recuperating

and meeting with American and Haitian scholars and friends.

On the advice of our friends in Port-au-Prince and Cap











Haitien, we began to look for another rural community in

which to settle and conduct research.

We had spent a total of six weeks in Plaisance and most

of this time we were very ill. My research there was

confined to collecting information on the social and

economic life of the town of Plaisance and in practising my

Creole.

Once we had decided to study a fishing village, we

began to visit a number of fishing communities along the

north coast of Haiti. Each of these villages was accessible

to an urban area and medical facilities. This was necessary

due to our low white blood cell counts--a consequence of our

illness, misdiagnosis and medical mistreatment.

Among the communities we visited was Plage-Boutou.

We returned there for a week's stay during which time we

gained, from the Commandant (the civil and military boss of

the community), approval for our research and residence and

made arrangements to rent a house and retain a local woman

to cook and clean. By the end of December 1983, I had begun

my research in Plage-Boutou. We lived in the community,

except for short trips to town and to Port-au-Prince (and a

week in Kingston, Jamaica), until mid-July, 1984.

I conducted my research primarily through

participant-observation. I fished, gardened, made fish

traps, worshiped, gambled and played with the inhabitants.

During the seven months of our residence in Plage-Boutou, I

conducted, with the aid of two local field assistants, a











house-to-house survey. At each house--except four who chose

not to participate--I interviewed all adults. I asked

questions from a standardized interview schedule covering

many aspects of local life including genealogy, migration,

household composition, gardening, fishing, livestock,

finances and other matters. In addition, I interviewed each

of the adult Protestants about their personal religious

histories and the reasons for their conversion.

During our stay in Plage-Boutou, Valentina and I became

close friends with some of the local residents. These men

and women we interviewed regularly in more depth about

things we did not understand and about things which other

locals were not willing to discuss with us. Valentina also

collected information on cooking, child-rearing and sexual

practices from Plage-Boutou's women.



An Historical Overview Of The Haitian Experience



The island of Hispaniola was discovered in 1492 by

Columbus' expedition to the New World. Columbus' flagship,

the Santa Maria ran aground near the present town of Cap

Haitien on the north coast of Haiti. A temporary settlement

of forty men was left to await Columbus' second trip to the

New World. These forty men were never heard from again

(Courlander 1966:1, Korngold 1965:4-5).

Presumably, the forty settlers met their deaths at the

hands of the Amerindian population. The Amerindians who











inhabited Hispaniola at the time of Columbus' arrival were

mostly Arawaks and Tainos who had previously migrated to the

island from the North and/or South American mainland (Rouse

1960:24). When the Spaniards returned in larger numbers,

they forced the indigenous population into service in

pursuit of gold and for agricultural development; some

Arawaks were also shipped to Spain as slaves. Mortality

among the Amerindians was high; many others fled to the

mountains or neighboring islands in search of refuge, others

resorted to suicide. Within fifteen years, three-fourths of

the native population had disappeared (Courlander 1966:1-2).

By 1570, all the Amerindians had disappeared (Leyburn

1937:378).

The Spanish intruders were forced to look elsewhere for

labor. Thus began the African slave trade. As early as

1502, blacks from Africa were being imported to Hispaniola

(Leyburn 1937:378). Bellegarde reported that the first

slaves were brought to Hispaniola in 1503 (Bellegarde

1936:8). Courlander put the date slightly later in the

period between 1510-1512 (Courlander 1966:2). Most of the

16th-century importation of Africans was to the eastern part

of Hispaniola (present-day Dominican Republic). Curtin

estimated that 74,600 Africans were delivered to the western

third of Hispaniola (present-day Haiti) between 1601-1700.

The real boom in slave importation began after 1697 when

Spain ceded the western third of Hispaniola to France.

Between 1701 and Haitian independence in 1804, an estimated











789,700 Africans were brought to Haiti, raising the total

figure of Africans imported to Haiti to 864,300 (Curtin

1969:268).

Africans brought to Haiti were from a "wide stretch of

the African continent," from all walks of life and from a

diversity of cultural/ethnic groups. The Africans brought

with them many socio-cultural ideas and practices; perhaps

the most important of these Africanisms in Haitian history

have been the Dahomean religious ones. The present-day

religion of the Haitian masses still reflects its specific

West African tribal origins and the general resilience of

African culture:

Although slaves brought to Haiti . came from a wide
stretch of the African continent . .The Fon people of
Dahomey (who in Haiti called themselves Arada, after
the Dahomean city of Allada) and the Anago (Western
Yoruba, from what today is Nigeria and Dahomey) were
the major influence in the development of Vodoun
(Courlander 1966:11).


As late as 1681, the whites outnumbered the blacks

three-to-one but by 1781 there were over eleven slaves for

every white (Herskovits 1966:102). The early white settlers

were primarily French. Often they were people considered by

the Parisian authorities to be unassimilable marginals such

as prostitutes, criminals, debtors and vagrants. Once in

Haiti, these colonists adapted to the new environment in

four basic ways, that have been characterized by the French

historian P.F.X. Charlevoix:













the buccaneers who were occupied with the hunt, the
filibusters who cruised the seas, the habitants, who
cultivated the land, and the bondsmen who, for the most
part, lived with the habitants and the buccaneers
(Herskovits 1966:103).


Before the Haitian Revolution, Saint-Domingue (the

French name for the colony) was the most prosperous

plantation enterprise in the Caribbean. Plantations and

slaves were owned by absentee French landlords, native white

Creoles, and native free coloureds (mulattoes). Although

friction between these groups was ever present in colonial

Haiti, during the eighteenth century this tension increased.

Laws were passed in France restricting the coloureds'

freedom of movement. Economic squabbling, often expressed

in terms of racial antagonism, provoked the Haitian

Revolution (James 1963).

By 1789, just before the violent disturbances leading

to the Haitian Revolution, the estimated population of Haiti

consisted of 30-40,000 whites, 25-50,000 free mulattoes and

blacks and 465,000 to 510,000 slaves (Segal 1975:179).

The Revolution was a series of little wars perpetuated

by fluctuating loyalities. Different groups of free

coloureds, creole whites, slaves, French, English and

Spanish armies continually aligned and realigned themselves.

The slave group--the numerical majority in the colony's

population--is usually interpreted by historians as the

major military force in the war (James 1963).













In a slave system, especially one as brutal as Haiti's,

the potential for violent revolt is built-in. That the

slave system of Haiti was particularly harsh is demonstrated

by the fact that "there was a considerable excess of deaths

over births in the slave population, a fact that speaks

volumes about the brutality of the system" (Rotberg

1971:39). (The historian's tendency to understate the

slave's determination and role in the Haitian Revolution

revolves around the same misconception implicit in the myth

of the contented slave, Harris 1964). Harris' retelling of

one such cruel incident, is illustrative of the misdirection

of this kind of thinking:

It was now obvious that the insurrection was general,
and that the measures of the revolted slaves had been
skillfully preconcerted, on which account the revolt
became more dangerous. The blacks on the plantation of
M. Gallifet had been treated with such remarkable
tenderness that their happiness became proverbial.
These, it was presumed, would retain their fidelity.
So M. Odelac, the agent of the plantation, and member
of the General Assembly, determined to visit them at
the head of a few soldiers, and to lead them against
the insurgents. When he got there he found they had
not only raised the ensign of rebellion, but had
actually erected for their standard THE BODY OF A WHITE
INFANT, which they had impaled on a stake. So much for
happy Negroes and contended slaves! (Harris 1969:96).


White Haitians and their slaves began emigrating at

least as early as 1793, when 10,000 white Haitians fled the

ransacked city of Cap Francais (present-day Cap Haitien) to

the United States (Rotberg 1971:44).2 McKenzie reported

emigration of Haitians during the time of the Revolution to











Cuba and Puerto Rico (MacKenzie 1971:281). According to

Courlander, Haitians fled war-weary Haiti to the French

colonies of Martinque, Guadeloupe and Trinidad (where he

sees evidence of Voodoun's influence on the Shango cult) and

to the Spanish colony Cuba (Courlander observed that the

essentially Dahomean Arara cult of eastern Cuba was present

due to this Haitian migration and influence, Courlander

1966:3,10).

Others migrated to France including most of the

island's priests (Laguerre 1976:37). Franklin wrote of

Haitian migration to the eastern end of Hispaniola (Franklin

1969:174), England and Jamaica, where the provincial

government was directed "to afford to those inhabitants of

St. Domingo who were desirous to place themselves under

British protection every possible support" (Franklin

1969:88).

The Haitian Revolution not only destroyed Haiti's

economy but decimated its populace:

The slave plantations and estates were destroyed
forever, and 150 years later exports had not regained
their 1789 value. Rotberg estimates that perhaps
20,000 of the 30,000 whites resident in Saint-Dominque
before the revolution had been killed or compelled to
emigrate. Ten thousand of the 40,000 mulattoes and
freed blacks had disappeared, and more than a third of
the slave population of 500,000 were no longer alive
(Segal 1975:179).


In 1802, M. Rumboldt estimated the population of Haiti

to be 375,000, composed of 290,000 cultivators, 47,700

domestics, sailors, and others, and 37,000 soldiers.











Another slightly different estimate in 1803 gave the total

population as 348,000, which included 272,000 cultivators,

35,000 soldiers, with the remainder consisting of domestics,

artisans and a few sailors (Franklin 1969:173).

On New Year's Day, 1804, General Jean Jacques

Dessalines declared Haiti's independence from France. Since

Independence Day the successive governments of Haiti have in

general been unstable:

In the 112 years between Independence and the beginning
of the American Occupation, Haiti had 26 rulers.
Fifteen of these were deposed by revolution, four were
murdered, one committed suicide, four died in office,
and two retired to private life (Simpson 1942a:488).


Haiti's first president was the revolutionary general

Dessalines. He later declared himself emperor and ruled the

new country in the totalitarian manner appropriate to that

office. On October 17, 1806, Dessalines was killed in an

ambush near Port-au-Prince. Following Dessalines'

assassination, a power struggle between the former black

slaves and the mulatto elite divided the country into a

southern republic ruled by the mulatto president Alexdre

Petion and a northern empire under the firm hand of the

black king Henri Christophe.3 Haiti was reunited in

1820 by President Jean-Pierre Boyer following Christophe's

suicide (Leyburn 1966).

During Petion's presidency of the southern republic

he--misguidedly in the opinion of the mulatto elite--broke

up the old plantations and distributed small plots of land











to the newly emancipated in an attempt to keep them on the

land (Leyburn 1966). After Christophe's death and the

reuniting of the northern and southern sections of Haiti,

President Boyer tried unsuccessfully to reverse the trend

toward an independent yeoman agriculture:

a growing number of peasants acquired small holdings of
land, and began to squat on vacant property. This
meant that the larger landowners found it difficult to
get agricultural laborers to work for them. In 1821
Boyer attempted to halt the trend, and stopped the
allocation and sale of state land. This was followed
in 1826 by his celebrated Rural Code (Nicholls
1979:68).


The Rural Code prohibited internal migration. A

peasant needed a pass to enter a town and peasants who could

not prove that they were gainfully employed were pressed

into labor on public works (Wingfield 1966, Leyburn 1966).

Nevertheless, by 1826, a black peasantry had established

itself on the land virtually everywhere in Haiti.

According to President Boyer, the official census of

1824 showed that there were 933,335 people in Haiti (which

was temporarily the whole of Hispaniola), 61,468 of whom

were living in the present-day Dominican Republic. Franklin

thought Boyer's figures were incredible and obtained from a

unnamed government employee the following revision of

715,000 Haitians of which 54,000 were living in the

present-day Dominican Republic (Franklin 1969:404).

Obviously, one generation had not been enough time to

sufficiently repopulate Haiti. In 1830, British agent

Charles MacKenzie said: "but still the want of population











and capital are evils that can only be thoroughly remedied

by time" (MacKenzie 1971:282). After surveying the meager

demographic data for nineteenth-century Haiti, Segal

concluded:

Sporadic attempts to estimate the total population
suggest that during the nineteenth century natural
increase was about 1 percent per annum with little or
no immigration or emigration to or from the isolated,
pariah and chronically unstable Black Republic (Segal
1975:179).


Following several years of more than usual governmental

instability and violence, the United States Marines occupied

Haiti on July 28, 1915. President Woodrow Wilson

rationalized this move by invoking the Monroe Doctrine. He

claimed that if the United States had not invaded Haiti, one

of the European powers would have done so to protect their

financial interests in the country (Nicholls 1979).4

The Marines and the United States State Department

virtually ran the government of Haiti for nineteen years:

they disarmed the peasantry, disbanded the army, wrote and

instituted a new constitution5 and centralized Haitian

government and commerce in the capital city of

Port-au-Prince. Thus, while stabilizing national affairs,

the United States Occupation eliminated the traditional

mechanisms for revolt and overthrow of the tyrannical and

corrupt regimes which had, with few exceptions, been Haiti's

lot since Independence (Nicholls 1979, Schmidt 1971).

During the presidencies of Lescot, Estime and Magloire,

a post-Occupation nationalism evolved. This nationalism











took the form of a cultural renaissance among the elite

while to the masses it meant a greater openess to blacks in

the national bureaucracy. Intellectuals re-evaluated the

Haitian past and, for the first time, celebrated Haiti's

African cultural patterns.

The Occupation's legacy in contemporary Haiti is the

reign of the Duvalier dynasty from 1957 to the present day.

It created the conditions by which Francois "Papa Doc"

Duvalier could, quite brilliantly, establish a regime which

is both the most powerful and most enduring in the country's

history. The Duvalier government is based on a broad

understanding of the social and cultural realities of

Haitian life, the use of unprecedented terrorism and the

maintainence of the Haitian tradition of government

corruption (Rotberg 1971, Crassweller 1971, Manigat 1964,

Obichere 1971, Hooper 1984).

The ascension of Duvalier to power only intensified the

on-going processes which had for a century demoralized and

impoverished Haiti's peasant majority. Writing in 1910, Sir

Harry Johnston commented on this process:

But a few more years of wastefulness and fraud in the
collection and administration of public revenues, which
has been characteristic of the Haitian Executive since
1870, will make the country bankrupt, rich as it is, or
provoke the emigration of the peasantry in large
numbers to Cuba and San Domingo (Johnston 1969:202).


The United States financial advisor to Haiti, Arthur

Millspaugh, said in 1929: "Haiti is already











overpopulated even relative to its potential population"

(Schmidt 1971: 172-173).

In 1949, The United Nations' Mission to Haiti stated:

"The Mission recommends that serious consideration be given

to the feasibility of encouraging emigration as a means of

relieving the acute population pressure" (1949:12).

In 1975, Segal summed it up: "Haiti's demographic

problems are frightening" (Segal 1975:12).

The sad facts are that Haiti is the poorest, hungriest,

and most disease-ridden country in the Western Hemisphere.

Poverty and governmental corruption are the legacy of the

colonial plantation society and, in less exaggerated form,

are common to all countries and areas of countries which

were originally colonialized by the plantation settlement

institution.



The Plantation Cycle



Edgar T. Thompson, a pioneer in the sociological study

of the plantation, described the plantation as a form of

"settlement institution." Inherent in the institution is a

transience and "a typical cycle of change:"











As an institution of settlement, the plantation arises
as the terminus of a migration. This means that, as
finally organized, it is a transient institution and is
involved in a typical cycle of change. It seems to me
of the utmost importance that any design to guide
research should take the plantation cycle into
account...For there do seem to be cycles in which a
wave of concentration of land and a growth of social
stratification is followed by a wave of deconcentration
and a decrease of stratification (Thompson 1957:31).


In 1959, Julian Steward proposed three general

historical stages common to the plantation cycle in the New

World. The first of these stages was "indirect rule" where

the European colonizers subordinated the native peoples for

the purpose of extracting wealth. In Hispanola (the Spanish

name for the island that is currently composed of two

nation-states: Haiti and the Dominican Republic), the era

of indirect rule corresponded to the initial Spanish

settlements, the decimation of the Amerindian population and

the ceding of the western third of the island (contemporary

Haiti) to France (Steward 1959:6).

The second stage of this cycle was "direct rule: land

expropriation" in which the European colonizers assumed

private ownership of native lands for the purpose of

establishing productive agricultural settlements. "In the

expropriated lands, two principal types of plantations were

established: slave plantations in areas of low native

population density; haciendas with bound labor in areas of

dense and stable population" (Steward 1959:7).

The French colonials in Haiti established plantations

(worked by imported African slaves) primarily in the fertile











coastal plains. Although coffee, cacao, cotton and indigo

were produced by these plantations, sugar was the dominant

crop. The sugar plantation was a distinct type which

Ribeiro has labeled the "caneocracy" (Ribeiro 1972:309). He

describes the caneocracy as the locus of:



some of the most wretched communities known,
characterized by the contrast between the wealth of the
resident owners, who reproduced European conditions of
comfort and even surpassed them at very high cost on
their plantations, and the indigence of the human mass
engaged in the productive process (Ribeiro 1972:301).


Steward's third stage of plantation evolution was

"industrial influences" where "the nature of exploitative

arrangements on lands or properties taken from the native

people began to change as the industrial revolution

progressed" (Steward 1959:7). This phase of plantation

development has been characterized as a transition from the

engenho to the usina plantation type in Portugese America

(Wagley and Harris 1955, Hutchinson 1961). The transition

involved an increased centralization of production, a

decline of paternalism and face-to-face relations of workers

and owners and often a change from family to corporate

ownership and from slave to wage labor. Mintz has described

this process and the emergence of the "field-and-factory"

mode of production in detail for a Puerto Rican community

(Mintz 1956, 1974).

Steward's third and last stage of the plantation

cycle--"industrial influences"--has been of little











significance in Haitian society and economy.7 Instead,

an alternative third stage, an Afro-American peasantry,

evolved. During the phase that Steward labeled "direct

rule," the slaves revolted. The Haitian Revolution created

a free state composed primarily of black squatters and

smallholders.

The destruction of the plantations did not mean an end

to the institution's influence in Afro-American culture. As

Thompson observed:

finally, the plantation may dissolve into a system of
peasant proprietorships for which it has been prepared
by the growth of labor-family equities within the
structure of the institution (Thompson 1957:33).


Thus, an alternative third stage of the New World

plantation cycle was the creation of an independent

yeomanry. The "reconstituted yeomen" class (Mintz

1966:xxii), though free of the physical plantation itself,

was not emancipated from its persistent influences.

Although Haiti is a country of reconstituted yeomanry,

similar peasant communities exist throughout Plantation

America. Descriptions of post-plantation Afro-American

peasant communities (outside of Haiti) include those for

Jamaica (Davenport 1964, Comitas 1962, Clarke 1957), Brazil

(Eduardo 1948), South Carolina (Woofter 1930), Martinique

(Horowitz 1967) and Florida (Dougherty 1978).











Plantation America



Finally, given the essential similarity in development
of institutions, Plantation-America offers a
magnificent laboratory for the comparative
approach...Within the framework of the culture sphere
of Plantation-America there are innumerable "variables"
which make comparison both possible and promising. It
is precisely in this projection of the cultural
variation--whether inherited from Europe, derived from
variations in the local natural and socio-cultural
environs or from distinctive developmental
trends--against the common features of the cultural
sphere and in the seeking out of significant
relationships that we can use the comparative method to
help us build a science of society and culture (Wagley
1957:12).


In "Plantation-America: A Cultural Sphere" (1957),

Charles Wagley synthesized the literature on plantation

society, slavery and Afro-American cultures.

The author began by dividing the New World into three

cultural spheres: Euro-America, Indo-America and

Plantation-America. Euro-America covers the northern and

southern areas of the hemisphere and is predominantly

Caucasoid ethnically and European culturally. Indo-America,

"the region from Mexico to northern Chile, along the Andean

cordilleras," is populated by Indians and meztizos and is

the area in which the Amerindian past has contributed the

most to contemporary cultures (Wagley 1957:4-5).










The Plantation American cultural sphere

extends spatially from about midway up the coast of
Brazil into the Guianas, along the Caribbean coast,
throughout the Caribbean itself, and into the United
States. It is characteristically coastal; not until
the nineteenth century did the way of life of the
Plantation culture sphere penetrate far into the
mainland interior, and then only in Brazil and the
United States. This area has an environment which is
characteristically tropical (except in the southern
United States) and lowland (Wagley 1957:5).


Plantation America also includes stretches of the

Pacific coast of Central and South America (e.g. Whitten

1965), the urban ghettoes of the northern United States

(e.g. Drake and Cayton 1945) and southern Brazil (e.g.

Bastide 1978) and pockets of African derived peoples in

other areas such as Canada (e.g. Henry 1973) and the Black

Aymara of the Bolivian Yungas (McKay, personal

communication).

Wagley considered the following to be the basic

features of the Plantation America cultural sphere: 1.

plantation system and monocrop agriculture, 2. rigid class

lines, 3. multi-racial composition, 4. weak community

structure 5. Afro-American peasantry and 6.

prevalence of the matrifocal family In addition to

these primary features, Wagley identified a number of

secondary characteristics:

there are a series of cultural characteristics common
to Plantation-America which derive often from
similarities in environment, often from the common
historical background, and often from the presence of
such a large population of African origin (Wagley
1957:9).











Wagley proposed the following as the common secondary

characteristics of Plantation America: 1. similarity of

food crops, 2. slash and burn horticulture, 3. local markets

and women marketeers, 4. commonalities in cuisine, 5. basic
10
features in musical patterning 6. African derived

folklore 7. Afro-American religious cults, 8. "a

series of traditions and values" which include the special

stereotypical roles of "mammy," "the black uncle," "the

young gentleman" and others2 (Wagley 1957:9-11).

The author referred to the above as an "incomplete list"

of the common cultural features of Plantation America

(Wagley 1957:11). Additions to this list might include the

following characteristics: the slave and free(d)people

fishing village (Price 1966), the presence of communities

composed of the descendants of maroons (Price 1973), the

emergence of a mulatto class or caste (Reuter 1918, Leyburn

1966, Curtin 1955), the development of elaborate racial

classifications (Wagley 1952, 1959a and Harris 1964),

similarity in language syntax and usage and the social role

of the verbal performer (Dillard 1972, Parsons 1933-43,

Abrahams 1983, Herskovits 1958, Turner 1949), the survival

of Euro-African magical syncretisms (Puckett 1926, Whitten

1962, Tallant 1946, Hurston 1931, 1935, Herskovits 1958,

Bastide 1978, Simpson 1940a, Hyatt 1970), a series of motor

habits (Herskovits 1966), "persistent poverty" (Beckford

1972, Valentine 1968), the development of various symbolic

forms of pan-Africanism, such as negritude among the elite











(Jahn 1961, Preto-Rodas 1970) or Rastifarianism among the

impoverished (Smith, Augier and Nettleford 1960, Barrett

1977, Owens 1976), certain shared forms of entertainment

such as the cockfight and the carnival, and a common

aesthetic sensibility which Thompson has called the

"aesthetic of cool" (Thompson 1969).

Even with these additions, this is undoubtedly an

incomplete list of the common characteristics of Plantation

America, but it "should be enough to indicate that we are

dealing with a particular species, so to speak, of

contemporary society which has taken form in the New World"

(Wagley 1957:11).

By way of summation--to quote Wagley's influential

article again:

It is, of course, a fact that there are important
differences between the southern United States, the
Caribbean islands of Spanish, French, Dutch,
and English colonial backgrounds, and northern Brazil.
Detailed local studies are obviously necessary and will
provide the only basis for understanding the
distinctive societies and cultures within this larger
culture sphere. Yet, our local studies must be seen in
relationship to this larger sphere which historically,
and in the present, shares certain basic institutions
and cultural patterns (Wagley 1957:11).


The ethnohistory of an Haitian fishing village, which

follows, is a detailed local study presented in terms of its

relationship to this larger cultural sphere of Plantation

America.











Conclusion



Recognizing the uniqueness of the Haitian experience

and, for that matter, the Plage-Boutouian experience, I have

attempted to understand the social history of Plage-Boutou

in the context of the Plantation American cultural sphere

and a pan-plantation developmental cycle.

I present this ethnohistory in terms of what appeared

to be the salient features of contemporary Plage-Boutou

life. Chapter II is a general introduction to the

community's history. Chapters III, IV and V are historical

overviews of kinship and household organization, subsistence

patterns and religion, magic and worldview. In Chapter VI,

I have examined the social and economic impact of recent

touristic development. Chapter VII is a life history of an

exceptional Plage-Boutouian and an analysis of the potential

for personal economic and social mobility within the

confines of the community. Chapter VIII concludes with a

comparison of Plage-Boutou with both the closed corporate

communities of Indo-America and with other rural communities

in Haiti. It is postulated that amorphousness is the

"total-culture style" of Afro-America. An Epilogue contains

a brief statement on the policy implications of cultural

amorphousness.











Notes



1. Plage-Boutou is a pseudonym as are all local place names
and the names of individuals. Considerable effort has been
expended in disguising this community and its inhabitants
and to obfuscate its location.

2. In 1804, Louisiana's Governor Claiborne expressed his
anxiety about the increasing numbers of Caribbean blacks
that were immigrating to his state. In May 1804, Claiborne
informed President Madison that "the Emigration from the
West Indies continues great; few vessels arrive from that
quarter but are crowded with passengers, and among them many
slaves." The state legislature of Louisiana prohibited the
entry of Haitian free blacks in 1806 (Taylor 1963:211-212).

3. Christophe was a harsh master of the northern kingdom.
He forced the former slaves back to the plantations and made
the northern kingdom prosperous but at a tremendous human
cost (Cole 1967). Because of his blackness and his
brilliance, he has often been lauded by Afro-Americans from
other countries:

"They established under the great Christophe, whose monument
is still the most marvelous building in America, a replica
of the African tribal government with emperor, chieftains,
clans and family life, and raised Haiti from the inertia of
reaction to organized and fairly efficient beginnings of
economic life" (DuBois 1939:182).

4. The Afro-American press in the United States was
critical of the United States invasion of Haiti. They
claimed the Occupation was racist and served only to protect
private United States corporate interests in Haiti. For
instance, Grace Hutchins wrote in the Afro-American that
"the story of Wall Street's occupation of Hayti is one of
the bloodiest chapters in the history of American
imperialism" (Hutchins 1970:288).

5. Franklin D. Roosevelt, then Assistant Secretary of the
Navy wrote in the August 19, 1920 New York Times: "The
facts are that I wrote Hayti's constitution myself, and if I
do say it, I think it a pretty good constitution" (Hutchins
1970:288). More than twenty years later Roosevelt said in a
toast to Haitian President Lescot that "one of the
experiments of my life has been permanently successful"
(Roosevelt 1944:125) and that "the future of Haiti is very,
very, bright" (Roosevelt 1944:126).










6. For a description of the differences between the
plantation and hacienda settlement institutions, see Mintz
and Wolf, 1957.

7. Some plantations survived the Haitian Revolution, but
they were so few as to be insignificant. During and
following the United States Occupation of Haiti, United
States corporate interests established several plantations,
the largest of which were HASCO (Haitian American Sugar
Company) near Port-au-Prince and Plantation Dauphin sisal
estate in northeastern Haiti. In spite of American, Haitian
and other countries' nationals' attempts to exploit the
cheap manpower of rural Haiti, plantations are still of
little importance in the country's over-all economic
picture.

8. See, for instance, M.G. Smith's description of community
delimitation in Jamaica in Smith 1965:176-195. See also
Morton Rubin's description of the plantation culture area in
the Southern United States (Rubin 1951:191-205).

9. For a review of the literature on matrifocality, see
Gonzalez, 1970:231-244.

10. For the common musical patterns of Afro-American
cultures, see especially Waterman 1948, 1952 and Roberts
1972.

11. See especially Parsons, 1933-1943, where she developed
a virtual concordance of her extensive Afro-American
folklore collections.

12. Related to these stereotypes was the pan-Plantation
American reputation for hospitality of the ruling class:

"Even the bitter opponents of the planting class found them
kind and generous to strangers and democratic within a
narrow circle. Hospitality was, in fact, a special point of
pride with white Jamaicans...an explanation of one paradox
in Jamaican life--the peculiar combination of tight social
stratification with the ideal of hospitality. The white
Jamaican was himself a stranger...As a stranger he turned to
other strangers to meet his own loneliness" (Curtin
1955:52).

Gilberto Freyre described the tradition of planter
hospitality in Brazil in his classic The Masters and the
Slaves (1964). The theme of "Southern Hospitality" has, of
course, been the basis of many "magnolia romances" written
about the antebellum southern United States (e.g. Margaret
Mitchell's Gone With The Wind and Stark Young's So Red The
Rose).













CHAPTER II: AN INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF PLAGE-BOUTOU



Environmental And Demographic Description



Plage-Boutou is located on the north side of a roughly

broken mountain which extends about 12 kilometers east to

west and 7-8 kilometers north to south. The mountain's

crest has an altitude of 600-800 meters above sea level with

its highest peak reaching an altitude of about 827 meters

above sea level (Woodring, et al. 1924: 363). On its north

the mountain descends into the Atlantic Ocean, to its east

and west are ocean bays, and to the south is a westward

extension of a coastal plain.

This mountain area was described by the geographer Wood

as the most sparsely populated area (under 50 people per

square mile in 1954) in the Departement du Nord. Wood found

the cause of the sparse population in the rugged terrain:

. in this jagged terrain, house sites are by no
means easy to find. Consequently, dwellers within the
region are few in number, except in a few areas with
deeper soils. The ridge crests and areas adjacent to
the most precipitious sections of the shore are
virtually uninhabited and support a cover of dense
broadleaf forest...More favorable living conditions are
offered along the coast where a few beaches exist, wide
enough to support small villages (Wood 1963: 97)


Plage-Boutou is one of the two small coastal villages

in this section.1 It is located on the southwest side

of a small bay which opens to the northwest. A road,











passable by jeep from the town which serves as the

administrative center of the commune, runs to the northeast

side of the bay. From where the road terminates, access to

Plage-Boutou may be gained either by local fishing boat or

over a rugged trail which circles the bay.

The village is situated on a narrow strip of flat land

through which a small stream meanders after draining the

steeply sloping mountains which surround Plage-Boutou on

three sides. The village is protected from the occasional

high waves and rough water of the Atlantic Ocean by a series

of reefs--the closest one runs parallel to the shore nearly

the length of the village.

Though denied or ignored by geologists Woodring et al.

(1924), Butterlin (1954) and Wood (1963), there are two

small villages in the mountains above and behind

Plage-Boutou. These are accessible only on foot. Woodring

also denies the existence of several small streams which

drain the mountain and empty into the Atlantic, including

the stream at Plage-Boutou.

The crest and northern slopes of the mountain are

covered with limestone of upper Eocene age. Below the

limestone are volcanic rocks and "an impure cherty limestone

of supposed Cretaceous age" (Woodring, et al. 1924: 110).

Woodring, et al. describe the limestone cover:










It is hard and is gray on weathered and white on fresh
surfaces. Some of it appears to be crystalline, and it
contains coarse crystals of calcite. The rock is
generally massive on weathered exposures. Its surface
is pitted with solution cavities, and at almost every
locality observed it consists of huge blocks left by
solution, making the land surface very jagged and
uneven (Woodring, et al. 1924: 110).


Plage-Boutou is situated in a roughly V-shaped level

spot which follows the stream from the beach southward into

the hollow from which the stream descends. It also extends

northwesterly up the bay to another smaller level space and

beach.2

The settlement of Plage-Boutou would ordinarily be

considered a village. However, the Plage-Boutouians

themselves use the term vilazh (village) to divide the

settlement into three distinct yet contiguous housing areas.

The three housing areas (which I will refer to hence as

villages) are sub-divided into smaller units (which I will

refer to as neighborhoods). For the whole settlement I will

use the term community.

The name Plage-Boutou, as used by its residents, refers

to the whole community, a village within the community and a

neighborhood within the village. The names of the other two

villages, Kaypaul and Lucner, also refer to neighborhoods

within the respective villages.

Lucner, the smallest of the three villages, is the

eastern end of the settlement. To the west is the largest

village Plage-Boutou. Northwest of Plage-Boutou and divided

from it by a small sloping ridge of the mountain is Kaypaul.











Kaypaul is the most affluent village in the settlement.

It fronts directly on the bay and the houses extend up the

side of the mountain behind the beach. The houses of

Plage-Boutou also begin on the beach and extend southward

and westward up the slopes. Lucner, on the other hand, is

separated from the beach by a hedge of raket (cactus) and is

restricted to the level area in front of the mountain. All

the villages have a number of large fruit trees but only

Lucner--the poorest of the villages--is completely shaded by

them.

Table 1: Diagram Of Community Organization In Plage-Boutou


COMMUNITY VILLAGE NEIGHBORHOODS

Lucner Lucner
Carnage

Plage-Boutou Plage-Boutou
Nan Jerome
Nan Dlo Plage-Boutou
Plage-Boutou Nan Dlo Plage-Boutou
(155 Houses) Anro
La Sousse
Nan Bouche

Kaypaul Kaypaul
Hugo
Bout Roche
Nan Morn Kaypaul


The houses in all three villages are built close

together, sometimes touching each other or with only a small

pathway between them. They are built of a wattle and daub

construction with dirt floors and tin or thatched roofs.

Some of the houses of more affluent villagers have a

concrete floor. A few of the recently constructed houses











are of locally made concrete block. Many of the houses are

periodically whitewashed or brightly painted.3

The houses are usually divided into two or three small

rooms. They are furnished with a few items of homemade or

inexpensive factory made items such as stools, chairs,

tables, beds and cabinets, straw mats for sleeping and

various cooking utensils.

Only one house (the Commandant's house in Kaypaul) has

running water and a toilet. Plage-Boutou and Kaypaul, but

not Lucner, have several community faucets for fresh water

and a few latrines. The latrines are now generally out of

use due to the stench. The people of Lucner get water from

the stream or from faucets in Ladadie. Bathing and clothes

washing are done either from a bucket at one's house or in

the stream which separates Plage-Boutou from Lucner.

Several buildings are not used as houses. These

include the Baptist Church and school building, the Catholic

Church, two Catholic school buildings, six small "hotels"

and an open-roofed rectangular concrete block enclosure once

intended to be a night club but now used only as additional

garden space and cockfight pit.

Though both the Baptist and Catholic Churches of

Plage-Boutou have primary schools, the quality of education

they offer is very poor. Most parents cannot afford to

send their children to school because payment for tuition,

uniform, school supplies and books is prohibitive. A Creole

literacy program has never been initiated in Plage-Boutou,










and as most of the population has little or no comprehension

of French, the populace is predominantly illiterate.

Plage-Boutou's population and composition change so

frequently that any survey only approximates the day to day

reality. The Haitian Government Census done in the Spring

of 1983 gives us the population of the Plage-Boutou

community as 898 people--446 males and 452 females. The

community is young as expected in a population whose life

expectancy is only 47 1/2 years (Hippolyte-Manigat 1980:

33).

Table 2: Population Age Profile For Plage-Boutou, 1983

AGE FREQUENCY

-1 28
1-4 120
5-14 220
15-24 157
25-34 137
35-44 82
45-54 64
55-64 43
65-74 25
75+ 13
Non-determined 10


The population of Plage-Boutou has grown from zero in

approximately 1900 to almost 900 in 1983. The growth in

population is directly attributable to in-migration. This

population movement has come primarily in two waves, from

1900-1930 and in the late 1970's. The forty year period

from 1930 to 1970 was a time of stabilization when

population growth was predominantly through the natural

increase of the settler families.










The Founding Fathers--1900-1930



There are no available written records for the

reconstruction of Plage-Boutou's history. The following is

an orally-derived genealogical history based on informant

interviewing.

In 1900 or before, when Lucner Lamour first came from

St.-Louis-du-Nord (13 miles distant by sea) to Plage-Boutou,

he found a small bay the shores of which were uninhabited.

All around the bay were colonial ruins which probably met

their demise in the earthquake of 1842.4

We know from old maps, that among the ruins of the

colonial era is the gullied road that runs through the

mountains to the Plage-Boutou Bay. This road presumably

took supplies and men to a small fortification on the

mountain facing the Atlantic from the southeastern end of

the bay. The ruins of this fortification are known today as

Fort Bontemps.

Growing around and over these ruins was r6z6,

a reed used in the making of pane or fish traps. This

reed thicket is a secondary growth which takes over

previously cleared areas along the north coast of Haiti. An

experienced fisherman and pane maker, Lucner

immediately recognized the potential of this protected and

uninhabited bay for reestablishing his family.

On his first visit, Lucner (the old folks also call him

Belonir) built a small house under the large tamarind tree











which still stands on the beach at Kaypaul. A storm

demolished Lucner's make-shift house, so he relocated closer

to fresh water in the area known today, for its first

inhabitant, as Lucner. Lucner brought his wife Meranzia and

his children to live with him in his new home.

No one today knows how it was that Lucner Lamour came

to discover Plage-Boutou. Possibly he happened on

Plage-Boutou on one of the extended fishing trips, lasting

from a few days to several months, which contemporary

fishermen still take in search of less intensely fished

waters. It may be, that Lucner actively sought a new place

to relocate his family. That the Lamour family, unlike all

the other old families of Plage-Boutou, has not maintained

any kinship links with their area of origin suggests Lucner

might have been banned or pressured to leave his home. That

he decided to resettle not in an established community but

in an isolated and uninhabited area lends strength to this

conjecture.

The second settler in Plage-Boutou, also came from a

marine fishing community. Simedar Paul and his wife

Sarafine Persy moved to Kaypaul at the turn of the century

from near Carabet (8 miles distant by sea). They lived in a

cave (kay rosh, literally rock house) on the mountain

above Kaypaul (kay Paul, or Paul's house). There are

many of these caves in the limestone on the northern slopes

of this region, and some are inhabited today by families of

fisherfolk.











Etienne Abis, whose place of origin has been lost to

history, came to live with the Pauls in the early days of

their residence in Kaypaul. He took Simedar's daughter,

Roselaire, as wife and she bore Antoine and Lescat Abis in

their cave home.

While Simedar and his family were establishing

themselves in Kaypaul, Doremisse Bernard moved with his

wife, Rose Phillipe, and family from Port-de-Paix (7 miles

distant by sea) to join Lucner Lamour in Lucner. What the

relationship between Lucner and Doremisse was is impossible

to know. Some of the old folks say that Lucner invited his

friend Doremisse to join him and share the new locale with

him. Others say that the hostility that now exists between

the families was there from the start but since neither of

them had title to the land, neither would have had the legal

power to evict the other.

Doremisse's two young daughters, Erzilirre and Mezulir,

became very ill in their new environment. Doremisse sent

for the renowned healer, Simon Magloire, of Carabet. Simon

did not reply until after Doremisse had sent for him a third

time. After the third request, Simon traveled by sea to

Plage-Boutou. Upon arriving, Simon insisted that he was not

a bokor (sorcerer) but a dokte fey (herb doctor). Doremisse

accepted this but told Simon that his reputation as a healer

was great and if he would effect a cure, Doremisse would

give him the area known today as the village of

Plage-Boutou.











Simon agreed to try to cure the two girls. He

collected a variety of leaves and roots which he steeped.

When the preparation was complete, he walked upon the beach,

held the pot of medicine to the sky and said an incantation

for the purpose of invoking Saint Guinin's blessing. The

treatment was efficacious and Doremisse gave the land to

Simon as payment for his services. After the girls were

well, Simon left for Carabet, not to return to Plage-Boutou

for several years.

Doremisse and Rose produced five other children, all

raised in Lucner. His third daughter, Elizabet, set up

residence with Antoine Abis in his newly built house at Hugo

(the people believe this is a French colonial name). His

son Dorestill, became the second husband of Lescat Abis.

The most powerful of Doremisse's children was Julle who

became chef-de-section, the local civic and military

leader of the section which included Plage-Boutou.

It was this office which allowed him to exploit the

anti-Syrian prejudice of the Haitian elite for his own

profit.6

He was able to do this because Monsieur Laguerre, a

Syrian, entrusted his landholdings at Plage-Boutou to Julle

Bernard.7 Julle promptly began to sell off the land

to migrants from Carabet. On several occasions Julle

demanded payment for land for which people had already paid.

After Clodomy Daphnis of Carabet had bought several plots of

Plage-Boutou land from Laguerre, Julle refused to let him











occupy it, saying that Arabs couldn't own or sell land in

Haiti. Clodomy was forced to pay for the land a second

time, delaying his move to Plage-Boutou for several years.

Another time, Julle extracted payment for land when Simon

Magloire moved from Carabet with his grown sons to claim the

land that Doremisse had given him in exchange for his

services as a dokte fey. The Magloires met the extra

price and built the first house in the village and

neighborhood of Plage-Boutou.

By approximately 1920, when the Laurent and Josmar

families were established in Plage-Boutou, it was no longer

possible to claim land through squatting. The two available

mechanisms for acquiring land were either marriage or

purchase. Agocy Josmar from Gros Morne (18 miles distant by

land and sea) took Lescat Abis for his wife and built a

house on land she had inherited in Kaypaul. Lescat

eventually left Agocy for Dorestille Bernard but Agocy

remained in Kaypaul. Sintille Laurent (Carabet) and his

wife Dorsine Cherie came with some of their children to

Plage-Boutou after purchasing land from Julle Bernard.

Plage-Boutou's original squatter, Lucner Lamour, had

staked out yet another claim to land in Les Trois Rivereres

where most of his descendants then lived. Owning separate

abitasy5 in two communes allowed many of the Lamour

males to maintain two houses, two wives, two sets of gardens

and a large number of non-kin dependants.8 Land










ownership and polygamy are traditional means of gaining and

maintaining prestige and wealth in rural Haiti.

When the first settler arrived, Plage-Boutou was

uninhabited with most of it claimed by the government. The

earliest settlers did not set out to create a new community

but were simply establishing their families on new land and

less heavily fished waters. The squatters were all from

marine fishing villages or towns. They established widely

separated independent laku--the usual form of rural

settlement in Haiti. A laku is a bilateral extended family

housing compound ruled by the family elder, usually a male.

Only in areas where the laku were concentrated rather than

dispersed did village life develop.

By 1930 the community was composed of seven family

groups, living in 10 houses in six laku.

Table 3: Plage-Boutou Lakous In 1930

VILLAGE LAKU HEAD OF HOUSE

Kaypaul Paul Antoine Abis
Etienne Paul
Tinesse Paul
Agocy Josmar
Plage-Boutou Magloire Simon Magloire
Oguste Magloire
Laurent Simon Laurent
Bernard Dorestille Bernard
Lucner Madame Doremisse
Bernard
Lamour Lucner Lamour




Plage-Boutou was founded by different individuals

acting on their own initiative. It took at least 30 years










for the population to establish six laku. Intermarriage

had created definite links between the Paul, Abis and

Bernard families which formed the basis for the founding of

the village. The formation of real community life was

boosted by the appointment of Julle Bernard to

chef-de-section which linked Plage-Boutou with the national

government. By 1930, an incipient community had emerged.

Undoubtedly, some of the patterns of social behavior that

emerged in the first 30 years were present in the founding

fathers' communities of origin. Some of these behavioral

patterns were elaborated and in time became traditional.



The Stabilization Of An Amorphous Community--1930-1970





In the forty years from 1930-1970 the community of

Plage-Boutou stabilized, i.e. stabilized as much as the

average amorphous rural community of Haiti ever does. A

class structure emerged, churches were founded, and

political institutions formalized. The people had come to

think of themselves as Plage-Boutouians, as part of a

community in which they belonged. After 1940, the community

land had been divided and migration of new immigrants had

slowed considerably. I will consider'the development of

each neighborhood in turn.












Lucner

By the mid-1940's, Lucner was completely controlled by

Lucner Lamour's son Peydesse and his grand-daughter

Engeluque. The rest of Lucner's children lived in Les Trois

Rivereres and Peydesse maintained his second wife there.

All the Bernards had moved to Plage-Boutou or returned to

Port-de-Paix. Though other unrelated peoples--mostly from

Les Trois Rivereres--had built houses in Lucner, Peydesse

assumed full ownership and control of Lucner. Throughout

this period, the descendents of Peydesse Lamour found mates

outside the community.



Plage-Boutou

During this time, several new families settled in

Plage-Boutou. The Viel family established itself on

Plage-Boutou land purchased by Sufrinne Viel from Julle

Bernard in the 1930's. Another Josmar, Macselar Josmar, not

from Gros Morne had bought land and settled in Plage-Boutou.

The Josmar, Viel, Magloire and Laurent families--all

originating in Carabet and inter-marrying extensively in

Plage-Boutou--formed the core population of the village.

The core group of landowners was expanded about 1940.

Clodomy Daphnis, his sister Clenure, his wife MariLouise

Caze and her orphaned younger siblings, arrived from Carabet

to settle on the land that Clodomy had finally been able to

finish buying from Julle Bernard.












La Sousse

La Sousse, above Plage-Boutou, is a gullied area on the

side of the mountain where rain water drains down the hollow

into the village. It was settled in the late 1920's or

early 1930's by Prezine Charles and his two wives and five

children, all from Gros Morne. The Charleses of La Sousse

have never fished but have subsisted completely on

gardening, livestock raising and marketing. Nevertheless,

there exists to this day a symbiotic relationship between

the people of the dispersed houses of La Sousse and the

fishing folk on the beach. All of Prezine's children have

remained in La Sousse except Desiys. In 1984 only

descendants of Prezine and their mates lived in this

neighborhood.



Nan Jerome
9
Nan Jerome (at Jerome), a neighborhood which

connects Plage-Boutou and La Sousse, is now the largest

neighborhood in the community. It was named for its first

inhabitant, Sintulere Jerome, who moved there with his wife

Loruliarre Mondezure from Carabet about 1937. The Jeromes

were prolific and inter-married especially with the Laurents

and Viels from the next neighborhood, Plage-Boutou. The

present population of Nan Jerome is primarily made up of

people with these three surnames. By 1984, there were no










longer any Laurents in the neighborhood of Plage-Boutou--the

family was completely confined to Nan Jerome.



Nan Dlo Plage-Boutou

In 1952, the grand-daughter of Simon Magloire,

Ennarantte Magloire, took her land inheritance and built a

house with her husband at Nan Dlo Plage-Boutou (at the water

of Plage-Boutou). This neighborhood was named thus because

it is where the stream descends from the mountain into the

plain. Ennarantte's house remained the sole building in

this isolated neighborhood until her niece, Camene Jeune

(great grand-daughter of Simon Magloire), built a house

there with her husband Ludiarre Lescot (Carabet) in 1966.

In 1970, there were only these two houses at Nan Dlo

Plage-Boutou.



Hugo

In the 1930's, Paul Lundy (Gros Morne) and his two

wives (Carabet and Belair) bought house sites at Hugo and

garden land in the mountains from Antoine Abis. The Lundy

family, like the Gros Morne Charleses, originally did not

fish but only gardened. Unlike the Charleses of La Sousse,

the Lundy of Hugo had began to fish by the end of this

period. In 1970, only Paul Lundy's descendants lived at

Hugo.













Kaypaul

East of Hugo below the cave home of Simedar Paul is

Kaypaul. By 1930, the Abises had gained control of this

area. Today Pauls still live in Kaypaul but they own

nothing more than their house sites. Bitterness exists

among the Pauls about their loss of legacy. Yet the

circumstances of this change in land ownership are not

known. Today, Kaypaul is divided between Ernest Abis (son

of Antoine) and Elizarre Josmar (son of Agocy Josmar and

Lescat Abis). Other families, especially the descendants of

Paul Lundy (Hugo) had houses in Kaypaul by 1970. Desiys

Charles (La Sousse) had settled on land he purchased at the

eastern end of the neighborhood where he and his descendants

became fishermen.10



After 1940, the land at Plage-Boutou was divided among

the founding settler families: Lamour, Bernard, Laurent,

Magloire, Viel, Jerome, Daphnis, Charles, Abis, Josmar and

Lundy. Few new settlers came to Plage-Boutou. The ones who

did come were not as fortunate as their predecessors because

there was no land larger than a house site available for

purchase or for squatting. The Toto, Roland, and Gamier

families in Plage-Boutou, the Mignon family in Nan Jerome,

and the Rouzier family in Lucner settled in the community

and worked as share-croppers for the earlier settlers. Thus

a class-structure developed between the landed










(gr6 mun--big man) and landless (ti mun--little

man) Plage-Boutouians.1 Pi gr6 mun (bigger

man)--the largest landholders and those in political

control--were the Bernards and Abises.

After Julle Bernard's death, his brother Dorestille

became "Commandant" of the community. When Dorestille died

in 1952, his nephew, Ernest Abis, became Commandant. After

the 1957 election of Francois "Papa Doc" Duvalier as

President of Haiti, mayors were elected in each community.

The Duvalier government also appointed a chef milis (local

Volunteers for National Security--better known as ton ton

machoutes) to each community.12 Ernest Abis was

appointed chef milis and subsequently elected mayor, thus

concentrating all local power in his hands.

In 1934, the Catholic Church built a chapel at the

upper end of Nan Jerome to serve the community. In 1943, a

Baptist church was organized, and their first chapel was

built in 1960. Both the Baptist and Catholic churches were

administered by religious officials from the closest urban

area and both had a local predicatuer or lay cleric.

The neighborhoods were primarily composed of people

from the same village or section of origin. Friends, family

and in-laws migrated to Plage-Boutou and settled in their

kinspeople's laku or created new laku nearby. The pattern

of settlement, once established, was maintained by frequent

visits and inter-marriage between the people from the

communities of origin and the neighborhoods of Plage-Boutou.











This tendency is reinforced by the rural Haitians' distrust

of people they don't know or to whom they are not kin.

Therefore, they usually do not visit, trade or marry in

communities in which they have no family links.13



Table 4: Community Of Origin Of The Majority Of Inhabitants
In Each Neighborhood Of Plage-Boutou

NEIGHBORHOOD COMMUNITY OF ORIGIN

Lucner Les Trois Rivereres
Plage-Boutou Carabet
Nan Jerome Carabet
Nan Dlo Plage-Boutou Plage-Boutou
La Sousse Gros Morne
Hugo Gros Morne
Kaypaul Gros Morne/Carabet


The core population group of the settlement was

composed of the Plage-Boutou/Nan Jerome/Nan Dlo Plage-Boutou

inhabitants who primarily originated in Carabet. Most of

the people who came from Gros Morne lived in two isolated

laku--La Sousse and Hugo. Lucner had become a frontier

outpost of Les Trois Rivereres. Political control was in

the hands of the richest family--the Bernard/Abises--the

only family with an urban origin.

In 1970, Plage-Boutou was a typical Haitian fishing

village. Making a living was accomplished through

agriculture, fishing and marketing. The community--like

most rural communities in Haiti and the Caribbean--was

amorphous. Although its population changed almost daily,

it was changed in predictable ways, and with a limited

number of individual alternatives available. The










formalization of religious and political institutions has

followed the same pattern as elsewhere in rural Haiti. As

in most of Haiti, the majority of the peasants were owners

of small landholdings, with only a few landless

sharecroppers and even fewer large landowners. The only

distinguishing characteristic of Plage-Boutou was its

isolation from any other area of dense population. It is

this characteristic which, in large part, made possible the

development of tourism.

As used in this dissertation, the meaning of

amorphousness includes such standard dictionary definitions

as without definite form, flexible and variable. Because

these aspects-of amorphousness are static, the term is also

intended to imply an added dynamic quality of fluctuation

and change. The use of cultural amorphousness is a creative

act on the part of individual Afro-Americans. As a central

organizing principle of Afro-American culture and society,

cultural amorphousness functions as an adaptation to the

oppression and poverty which are the legacy of Plantation

America.



The Advent Of Tourism and Its Impact--1970-Present



Tourism at Plage-Boutou began about 1970 with the

arrival of a foreign entrepreneur, Jean Leclerc (a tourist

goods dealer in Port-de-Paix). It has increased steadily in

the past decade and a half. The greatest period of











community involvement in tourist related enterprises was

from 1978 to 1980. Tourism either directly or indirectly

caused vast changes in nearly every aspect of community

life. In-migration increased sharply and Plage-Boutou's

population more than doubled in a few years. There were

changes in land tenure, religious life, fishing techniques

and subsistence strategies. The introduction of new wealth

and closer links with the outside world, as well as these

other changes, necessitated a re-ordering of the social

class system of the community. The average

Plage-Boutouians' world-view changed considerably. The

people's hopes for the future are now founded on the

possible improvement in the quality of their lives that

tourism may bring.

Leclerc has been involved in the growth of tourism in

Plage-Boutou since its inception. This Frenchman

established a tourist shop in Port-de-Paix in the late

1960's. Recognizing the commercial potential of the Plage-

Boutou area he built himself a small beach house in Kaypaul

and proceeded to get acquainted with the community. He was

the first white, non-Haitian and non-peasant person to own a

house in Plage-Boutou.

Plage-Boutou's development as a tourist attraction

progressed slowly until the Latortue Beach project began at

nearby Grand Latortue in 1978. This multi-million dollar

project was a joint-venture of the Haitian and French

governments and of Haitian and French private business











sectors. The investors intended to build the Caribbean's

largest resort complex in this sparsely populated rural

section, isolated and protected from the overcrowding,

misery and poverty of the rest of Haiti.

Before the project construction was halted in June of

1980, it gave many Plage-Boutouians their first experience

at wage labor. The attraction of cash payment took many of

the younger men out of the mountain fields and small fishing

boats. Today many of these men are still dependent on

wage-labor, tourist hustling or family charity. They do not

know the traditional subsistence skills and are unwilling to

return to the lifestyle of their parents and of the majority

of the Haitian peasantry. Of those young men who continued

to fish or returned to fishing, few use the labor-intensive

traditional technologies of pane, line and hook or

net. Instead they fish the shallow reefs with spear-guns

for roma (lobster) to sell to tourists or to the middleman

who supplies the hotels in Port-de-Paix.

The development of Latortue Beach attracted many new

people to Plage-Boutou, altering the demographic situation

tremendously. The new job opportunities brought in not only

many foreigners but also people from neighboring sections,

especially from Carabet. The foreigners left when the

project failed but the Haitian immigrants stayed,

effectively doubling the permanent population of

Plage-Boutou in less than two years. Four new neighborhoods

have been founded since 1978, Nan Bouche (at the creek), Nan










Dlo Plage-Boutou Anro (above at the water of Plage-Boutou),

Nan Morne Kaypaul (on the mountain in Kaypaul) and Bout

Roche (rocky end).

Plage-Boutou experienced increasing strain on its

limited land resources due to the natural population

increase of the original inhabitants and the increased

in-migration that began in the late 1970's. In addition,

many of the descendants of the early settlers had sold their

land to speculators for ready cash. Without land to work or

parcel out to tenants, and with their meager cash return on

their land soon gone, these families were reduced to tenants

themselves. This depleted the gr6 mun class while

increasing the class of ti mun.

The church was able to benefit from this new government

and business interest in Plage-Boutou. Both the Catholic

and Baptist Churches established primary schools to educate

their young. This involved the construction of three new

buildings for the Catholic school and a new church/school

building for the Baptists. The money for the construction

of the new buildings and the pay for teachers came from both

inside and outside the community.

The introduction of tourism in Plage-Boutou created a

new subsistence base. The increased economic opportunity

encouraged new in-migration and the population soared. The

changes in land tenure (due to increased land value), the

new inequalities in the relative affluence of the members of

the community, the influx of many new people to the










community and the increased communication and dependency on

the outside world (due to the new national and international

importance of Plage-Boutou) necessitated a re-ordering of

inter-personal relations. Consequently, the pattern of

social stratification was altered.

There have been many modifications in the manifest

cultural and economic circumstances of Plage-Boutou since

the advent of tourism. The less tangible attitudinal

transformation has been significant as is illustrated in the

following observation of child-play. In 1970, after the

young boys would swim and play in the water, they would roll

their naked, wet bodies on the beach until they were covered

with white sand from head to foot. They would then refer to

themselves and each other as pere--the Catholic priest and

the only white man with whom they were familiar. Today,

boys still cover their wet bodies with sand but call

themselves and each other mun American, mun Francais,

mun Canadian, mun Dominican, mun Anglais, mun

Allemande, or simply blik.



Conclusion



The history of Plage-Boutou, from its founding in

approximately 1900 to 1984, is an example of one way in

which a post-Emancipation, Plantation America community was

founded and evolved. The settlement was originally a

scattering of unrelated laku, the people of which











originated in different localities. As in-migration

increased--the majority of it originating from one commune

--the laku became more numerous and were spaced closer

together. The settlers located their new laku in the

neighborhoods where laku of other members of their original

community had re-located.

As diverse kinship links were established through

marriage between the different laku, a community-

mindedness developed. This community-mindedness was

formalized through the development of a social-class

heirarchy and the institutionalization of power and

religion.

In seventy years' time, Plage-Boutou had become a

typical north coast village. What was untypical about this

community is that it was new and was created through

internal migration. The literature on Haiti asserts that

internal migration is rarely from one rural area to another

(Marshall 1979, Weil, et al 1973, Wood 1963, Simpson 1940a,

Wingfield 1966, Ahlers 1979). This claimed "spatial

immobility of the population" (Simpson 1940:499) is

supported by data from the official census of 1950. Wood

states that 92% of the total population of the Departement

du Nord live within the communes in which they were born

(Wood 1963:21). At no time since the first settler arrived

in Plage-Boutou were more than 50% of its residents born

within the commune which includes Plage-Boutou.











Perhaps this claim about Haitian internal migration is

an over-generalization based on a less than comprehensive

coverage of rural Haiti. Most social scientists and

government officials have done their research in

long-established settlements, the majority very close to

Port-au-Prince. Consequently, the more isolated and

sparsely populated areas, where newer settlements are more

likely to be found, have not been studied intensely by

social scientists.

Plage-Boutou since 1970, is also untypical of a Haitian

rural community because of the introduction of tourism. The

impact of tourism on the community has been tremendous.

Since there is no comparative data from elsewhere in rural

Haiti, I devote a full chapter of this dissertation to

tourism, and the changes it has promoted in the community of

Plage-Boutou.

In just 80 years Plage-Boutou has evolved from a

scattering of isolated family compounds to a typical Haitian

fishing village to a very untypical tourist-oriented

settlement. Yet in spite of the changes, Plage-Boutou is

still recognizable in most of its features, as an Haitian

peasant community.










Notes


1. The section is the smallest of the geographic units
recognized for administrative purposes by the Haitian civic
and military authorities. A commune is composed of two or
more sections, an arrondisement of two communes, a
department of a number of arrondisements. There are
currently nine departments in Haiti.

2. see appendix 1, map 1.

3. Patterson's description of the huts in the slave
quarters of Jamaican plantations is striking in its aptness
as a description of the situation in Plage-Boutou:

"Seen from afar, they sometimes appeared very picturesque,
'resembling' at that distance, 'so many villages of
bee-hives, thatched almost to the ground, and over-shadowed
by groves of tall cocoa-nut trees, whose tops, like branches
of ostrich feathers, appeared like umbrellas above them'.
But while pleasant from afar, they turned out to be quite
miserable hovels on closer inspection . The huts were
built on the African pattern. In the words of one
pro-slavery writer, 'The groundwork of all Negro habitations
in Jamaica was as in Sierra Leone, the Negro huts of
Africa...' These huts, which had not floors, were made of
wattle and daub; were between fifteen and twenty feet in
length; and from about fourteen feet wide; the roof was
covered either with dried guinea grass or palmetto thatch or
the long-mountain thatch or, occasionally with cane tops.
Most of these huts were divided into two rooms, although
many remained undivided and a few divided into as many as
three rooms; the number of rooms being usually an index of
the prosperity and status of the slaves" (Patterson
1967:54).

4. The north coast of Haiti is a reminder of that great
disaster. Hesketh Prichard wrote in 1900 that "Cap Haytien
is a mushroom town of wood, built among imposing stone ruins
. . She bears upon her the indelible impress of the
tremendous earthquake of 1842" (Prichard 1900:172).
Prichard's observations are as true today for the north
coast of Haiti as they were in 1900.

5. For more information on the chef-de-section in Haiti,
see Comhaire 1955:620-623.

6. From the time of Haitian Independence in 1804 until 1889
no foreigners except those of African or Indian descent
could become naturalized citizens of Haiti. By 1903, so
many Syrian traders had migrated and become citizens of
Haiti that a special law was amended to the constitution











prohibiting Syrians to enter Haitian territory and placing
special eligibility restrictions for gaining citizenship on
those Syrians already in Haiti (Leger 1907:290, Simpson
1941). Until Franklin Delano Roosevelt wrote the new
Haitian Constitution of 1919, during the United States
Occupation, only Haitian citizens were allowed to own land
in Haiti (Nicholls 1979). (For a fascinating history of
Syrians in Haiti and their role in United States economic
policy, see Plummer 1981.)

7. One of the many Syrian traders who had entered Haiti in
the late 19th and early 20th centuries had obtained legal
title to the land of Plage-Boutou. This man changed his
name to the French Laguerre, married an Haitian woman and
made a family. His brick making business near Port-de-Paix
was left to his sons, who have since expanded their
businesses to include hardware and other construction
supplies and a grocery store. They have no legal recourse
for reclaiming the land at Plage-Boutou due to the
squatter's rights laws which specify that if a person
occupies previously unoccupied land for twenty years without
it being contested, it legally becomes theirs.

8. Abitasy5 does not have an exact meaning in rural
Haiti. I use the term here to denote a settlement area and
surrounding garden land.

9. The Haitian Creole word n3 (nan) is a preposition
meaning at, in, to, of, depending upon the usage context.

10. Records show that Antoine Abis rented Kaypaul from the
government in 1934, thus assuming full control of the land.
He did not pay the annual rent for any year after 1934. The
people of Plage-Boutou including the Abises, assume that
Antoine's son Ernest has legal title to Kaypaul. This sort
of confusion in land rights is quite common in Haiti; e.g.
in 1938 the government rented land to 22,445 people, of
these tenants, 11,859 were located in undetermined areas (de
Young 1958:42).

11. The terms gr6 mun and ti mun refer to relative
economic position, physical size and age (i.e. child or
adult). In a country as poor as Haiti only rich people can
afford to be physically large. The metaphor likening the
dependency of children on their parents to the relationship
between the social classes is quite telling of the way
Haitian peasants view social stratification.

12. Volunteers for National Service are called the ton ton
machoutes--a kind of bogeyman in Haitian folK belief--by
the public. The VSN is a "militia made up of civil servants
(at the senior staff level), lower middle-class citizens,
social undesirables and apprentice criminals (to handle the







54


more distasteful tasks). To these persons, he
proposed, not so much financial reward (except for certain
individuals) as the heady power of terrifying and subduing,
the indescribable double glory of wearing a 'uniform'
(though ill-assorted, to placate the army), and carrying a
revolver-symbol and instrument of power; and above all, the
assurance of total impunity" (Hippolyte-Manigat 1980:211).

13. This feeling of mutual distrust and vulnerability seems
to be a common feature of peasant culture. See especially
"Peasant Personalities", pp. 296-375, in Potter, Diaz and
Foster 1967.















CHAPTER III: THE ROLE OF FAMILY, KINSHIP AND HOUSEHOLD IN A
CHANGING COMMUNITY


The word "family" as employed in Haiti can be
understood only in terms of a broader meaning than is
given it in Europe and America, where it describes only
the most immediate relationship group (Herskovits
1971:123).


Family life in the Caribbean has been the subject of

more anthropological articles and monographs than any other

feature of Caribbean society.1 The instability of the

Caribbean family, so unlike the family in most communities

studied by anthropologists, has been described as a central

feature of local community organization. Though the history

and culture of Haiti are in many respects unique in

Plantation America, this characteristic of the Afro-American

family is as true for rural Haiti as it is for the rest of

the Caribbean.

This chapter examines the diverse forms of the

contemporary Plage-Boutouian family and the ways in which

they have evolved. The laku, kindred, forms of mating and

household composition are described and their developmental

cycles elucidated. The formation and evolution of the

family in Plage-Boutou is interpreted in terms of the growth

and decline of plantation society.










The Life Cycle Of The Laku In Plage-Boutou



The traditional settlement institution in rural Haiti

was the laku. Ideally a laku is a patrilineal housing

compound containing a father and his spouse, his male

children, their spouses and children. New laku were created

when land became scarce. As a result, a son would move to a

less populated area to begin a new family compound

(Herskovits 1971:124).

Though we lack detailed information about the origins

of the laku system, there appears to be some truth in both

the interpretations that have been proposed: the form of

the post-Emancipation housing compound was determined by

either the tenacity of African culture or the conditions of

slavery. Montilus has described parallels between the

Haitian laku and the Dahomean family settlement (Laguerre

1978:441). If the Haitian extended family was an extension

of ancestral African practice, it has also been shaped by

the exigencies of plantation life. M.G. Smith observed of

the British Caribbean that new "mating forms" and "diverse

definitions of parenthood" resulted from the "fragmentation

of elementary families was endemic in this slave

society" (Smith 1962:263). The new mating forms and diverse

definitions of parenthood--a common legacy throughout

Plantation America--have modified the possible reinstitution

of African familial settlement patterns in Haiti.










There is no evidence that the laku, understood as a

patrilineal housing compound which Montilus compares with

the Dahomean pattern, was ever common in post-Emancipation

Haiti. Today, as in 1934 when Herskovits studied the

community of Mirebalais, the black extended family in rural

Haiti is amorphous and bilateral (Herskovits 1971). Today,

as in 1948 when Metraux, et al. studied life in the Marbial

Valley, the old folks talk of the decline of the ideal

pattern of the laku which they say existed in their fathers'

or grandfathers' times (Metraux, et al. 1951, Metraux 1951).

It is very possible--based on comparative and historical

data from other regions of Plantation America--that the

ideal laku existed only as a cognitive model but not as a

reality.

The pioneer laku in Plage-Boutou were not of the ideal

type. They were formed--in accordance with the process that

Herskovits describes--when a male member of a distant laku

removed himself, his spouse and children to the abundant

lands (and less fished waters) of the new settlement.

Because of the ample resources in Plage-Boutou in its early

days, most of the male and female children of the founding

fathers stayed in their laku of birth when they took mates

from outside the settlement.

The population of the laku was able to grow due to

Haitian inheritance customs. In Haiti, a person's children

of both sexes inherit equally (with some exceptions) from

both parents. All natural, recognized children inherit an










equal share of land and possessions; legitimate children

inherit an increased share.2 This inheritance system is

complicated by polygyny, the co-existence of marriage and

plasazh (consenual union), the father's recognition or

non-recogniton of his natural children and the practice of

adoption. Disagreements over inheritance, with lawsuits and

accusations and counter-accusations of magic, often break up

families. The fluidity of this system of inheritance made

it adaptable to either the extension or the disintegration

of the laku.

Eventually three or four generations, bilaterally

descended from one common male ancestor or spouses of these

descendants, lived together in a distinct and separate

housing compound. The oldest male living in the compound

was shef of the laku and its residents. In time, most of

these laku fragmented and dispersed due to the introduction

of new families into the compound through intermarriage

between laku, marriage with people from outside the

community and the setting-up of single households on

uninhabited Plage-Boutou land.

Today,the use of the term laku in Plage-Boutou refers

to a variety of settlement types: 1) a section of land

owned by one family with kin and non-kin residents and a

shef (the Lamour laku, coterminous with Lucner and

composed of 98 people in 17 houses); 2) an isolated

neighborhood where the residents of all the houses are kin

but with no shef (the Charles laku of La Sousse with 37










people in 7 houses and the Lundy laku of Hugo with 20 people

in 5 houses); 3) a cluster of houses of collaterally related

kinsmen with no shef (the Magloire, Daphins, Caze, Josmar

house cluster in Plage-Boutou composed of 206 people in 35

houses); 4) a small neighborhood which contains both kin and

non-kin residents with no shef (Nan Dlo Plage-Boutou with 33

people in 7 houses); 5) a cluster of houses within a

neighborhood whose inhabitants are all descended from one

man and under the control of the ancestor's eldest male

descendant (the newly forming Abis laku in Kaypaul with 25

people in 5 houses); or 6) a single dwelling and its

surrounding yard (various locations with from 1 to 15

people).

The various definitions of laku reflect the reality

that the laku, except the emergent Abis compound, are in

decline: the family members are dispersed, they contain a

large number of residents who are not considered kin and

they usually lack a shef. Although the Lamour laku has

been able to maintain a shef by virtue of their control of

all the land in the neighborhood, the ownership of the land

and Narva Lamour's authority as shef are being contested in

the Haitian courts.

As Ernest Abis consolidates his power and wealth, the

Abis laku in Kaypaul is growing. The first house was built

by Antoine Abis nearly 50 years ago and is now owned by his

son Ernest. In 1974, Archil Abis, a natural son of Ernest

Abis, built a house behind that of his father's. Since











then, two children (both natural, but by different mothers)

and one widow of Ernest's brother have built houses

surrounding Ernest's. In June 1984, Ernest started

construction on a house for another of his natural sons,

Toussaint, who works on a cruise liner. In the last ten

years, a one-house family residence has grown into a

six-house Abis laku.

The ideal family settlement pattern which the slaves

brought with them from Africa could not be re-created under

the conditions of slavery. This pattern remained a

cognitive focus, but not a common practice, into

twentieth-century Haiti. The laku combined the ideal

African pattern with the new mating forms, new ideas of

parenthood and bilaterality which were adaptations to

plantation and subsequent peasant life.

Inherent in the bilaterality of the laku was its own

demise. Researchers who have worked in long-established

Haitian settlements have frequently commented on the decline

of the laku (Metraux, et al. 1951, Metraux 1951, Bastien

1961, Comhaire-Sylvain 1961, Simpson 1942, Laguerre 1978,

1982). The natural life cycle of the laku follows this

pattern: 1) the establishment of a single family dwelling

on new land; 2) the bilateral generational extension of

membership and consequent houses; 3) the fragmentation and

decline of the laku as land becomes scarce and the member

households disperse.










This process is the common developmental sequence, but

variations are possible as when the Abis family, after

accumulating increased wealth, power and land, regrouped and

created a new laku. Since very little land is available

for squatters in Haiti, only in the rare case where upward

economic mobility occurs in the peasant population can new

laku be founded today.



The Life Cycle Of The Famni In Plage-Boutou



Early work on the Caribbean family suffered from the

confusion of kinship with residence (Gonzales 1969). In

Haiti, we need not only to distinguish family and household

but by extension the kindred and the housing compound. The

kindred has not been previously reported in the literature

on the Haitian family, though Laguerre's discussion of the

black extended family presents a picture similar to the

Plage-Boutou kindred (Laguerre 1978). For the Caribbean

region as a whole, the descent group has been described only

for Carriacou (the patrilineal "bloods," Smith 1961) and

Surinam (the much more formalized and ritualized lineages of

the Bush Maroons, Price 1974).

The laku established by the original settlers were the

birth places of most of Plage-Boutou's kindreds, but neither

did all the original laku evolve into kindreds nor did each

kindred originate in a Plage-Boutou laku. Some of the

original laku formed the basis for loosely associated,










cognatic kindreds, referred to by the Plage-Boutouians as

famni. Other laku dispersed to such an extent that they

did not function as kindred associations. The Viel, Paul

and Laurent families are examples of the latter process

where--due to out-migration (Laurent, Paul and Viel) or

internal strife and accusations of witchcraft (Viel)--the

original laku organization disintegrated. In these cases

the dispersed members of the Viel and Laurent families

either associated themselves through conjugal union with

other laku or set-up households not associated with any of

the kindreds.

These kindreds, referred to as "dispersed" laku as

distinct from "geographic" laku (Laguerrre 1978) function as

economic, religious and friendship solidarities. Ideally, a

kindred member's first responsibility is to his immediate

family and to a progressively lesser extent to other

relatives as the kinship ties become more distant (i.e.

delimited by genealogical distance). In practice, they are

very elastic, allowing their members to incorporate famni

lw6 (distant kin) and to exclude close kin by

manipulation of kinship terms. Kinship in rural Haiti is,

indeed, defined situationally.3

Like the laku the kindred is bilateral with a

patrilineal bias. Although a person can expect reciprocity

and aid from her/his mother's or spouse's kindred (sometimes

even exclusively), the usual tendency is to associate and

cooperate primarily with the father's kindred.










Today, the families of Magloire, Caze, Jerome,

Abis-Bernard, Lamour, Lundy and Charles still function as

flexible kindred associations. These kindreds are at

different stages of development and have evolved in diverse

ways. Each of the surviving kindreds will be briefly

described and the kindred developmental cycle explicated.

The largest family in Plage-Boutou is composed of the

descendants of Simon MAGLOIRE. Though they are dispersed in

the three villages of the community, in Port-de-Paix,

Port-au-Prince, the Bahamas, Martinique and the United

States, they recognize their common descent from Simon

Magloire and the authority of Andre Magloire. While Andre

is not the oldest, he is the wealthiest of the male

descendants of Simon Magloire. In recent years, his power

over family members has declined as the kindred has

dispersed geographically and its members have reduced the

size of their land holdings.

The richest but smallest kindred is the ABIS-BERNARD

family which includes all the direct descendants of

Doremisse Bernard. During most of its history, the shef of

this family has also been the Commandant of Plage-Boutou.

This office passed from brother to brother (Julle Bernard to

Dorestill Bernard) and from brother to his sister's son

(Dorestill Bernard to Ernest Abis).

This kindred started in the Bernard laku and expanded

beyond the housing compound by inter-marriage with the

Abises. Through this process, the Abises were able to










accumulate land and prestige (as they had done in the

previous generation through inter-marriage with the Paul

family) and inherit political office. Today, though still

operating as one kindred incorporating two primary surname

groups, the family is dividing. Many of the Bernards have

migrated, made conjugal unions with persons from lower

status families, divested themselves of most of their land

and consequently have become second-class members of the

kindred. The Abises, on the other hand, have gained wealth,

land, prestige and power and have created a new Abis laku

around the Commandant's house in Kaypaul. This laku, and

the newly delimited kindred it establishes, contains only

the descendants (their spouses and adopted non-kin) from the

union of Antoine Abis and Elizabet Bernard.

The descendants of Lucner LAMOUR form a kindred under

the shef Narva Lamour. This kindred is residentally divided

between Lucner and Les Trois Rivereres, and its members move

between the two localities with great frequency, keeping

gardens and spouses in both locations.

The JEROME famni is almost completely confined to Nan

Jerome and is in a state of decline with no apparent shef.

The kindred has kept its viability primarily because few of

the descendants of Sintulere Jerome have re-located in other

neighborhoods.

The orphaned CAZE siblings present a picture of an

emergent kindred. Anna (daughter of Dalusse) is the legal

wife of tne Commandant who therefore treats her siblings









with favor. Three of her brothers work for a Frenchman who

owns a luxury hotel and a great deal of land in the

Plage-Boutou area. The emergent shef of this kindred is

Jean Luis Caze, manager of the extensive landholdings of an

American absentee landlord.

The CHARLES and LUNDY kindreds lack headmen. These

families are dispersed through the community but the

neighborhoods of their origin still function as family

laku. The descendents of Prezine Charles living in La

Sousse, the most isolated neighborhood, have for the most

part remained aloof from the rest of the community; they

work at agriculture in the mountains rather than fish. The

descendents of Paul Lundy reside throughout the community,

except in Lucner. As the best represented famni in the

Baptist Church, the Lundy kindred has also made itself

distant from many forms of community interaction.

Just as there is an hierarchy within the

household--based on ownership, age and sex--and between

households within the laku--based on the inhabitants' age,

sex, wealth and genealogical closeness to the original

settler--there is an hierarchy between famni. The kindred

ranking is based on wealth, extent of landholdings and

political power. The Abis kindred is the most prestigious

and powerful one in this hierarchy, followed by the large

but declining Magloire famni. The newly emergent Caze

kindred is rapidly moving upward in the estimation of their

fellow Plage-Boutouians. Because of the Lamours'









involvement with voodoo, they are generally considered a

lower status famni in spite of their large landholdings.

The aloof and sometimes hostile Charleses are regarded with

suspicion. The Lundy and Jerome kindreds are in such a

state of decline that they are seldom thought of in

corporate terms, except when an argument or fight erupts

between one of their members and someone not of their

famni.

Kinship groups in Plage-Boutou operate as a "personal

kindred" with a "focal kinsperson," the famni shef. At

the same time, the famni is percieved of, in terms of the

ideal pattern, as a descent group that includes all known

relatives, both living and dead. (What Goodenough describes

as a kindred whose referent is a descent group rather than

an individual). Thus, the two inter-related systems (the

ideal and the actual) of the Plage-Boutou famni may be

subsumed under the term "ancestor-oriented" kindred

(Goodenough 1970).

Inter-related and sometimes comprised of the same

people, the laku and the famni nevertheless are organized in

terms of different principles and have different

developmental cycles. The famni was usually born in a laku

setting. As the kindred out-grew the residential compound,

it began to disperse. With the growth of the famni, the

feelings of kinship and solidarity weakened between the more

distant kin. This structural feature of the kindred

combined with its bilaterality acted as an inherent









mechanism for kindred fission and/or dispersal. In Haiti,

with its increasing minifundia and declining prosperity, few

famni have the resources, after fission, to establish a new

kindred association.



Marriage, Plasazh And Polygamy



The famni is exogamous and bilateral. These two

structural features allow for the kindred's growth or

dispersal according to its circumstances. The mechanisms,

by which the famni's inherent potential for extension or

fisson is actualized, are the various forms of sexual

arrangements practiced in the community. The variety of

sexual relationships which make the kindred and even the

laku appear amorphous also affect the community as a whole,

allowing great mobility of adults between a number of

northern Haitian communities.

An adolescent's first sexual experience is usually

arranged clandestinely with a member of the opposite sex of

similar age. The first experiences with sex are had in the

parental house of either partner while no one else is at

home. Sexual experimentation by 14 to 20 year-olds is

vainly discouraged by parents, who admonish their children

to postpone sexual relations, and thus parenthood, for as

long as possible.

A young person's early experiences with sex may be with

various mates or may lead to a stable monogamous










relationship. The community generally does not recognize

the relationship until the woman becomes pregnant. If the

pregnant woman's parents refuse to allow the young couple to

co-reside or to establish a recognized visiting arrangement,

the woman becomes pu tut mun (for all men)--a low status

mating category which allows any man to openly pursue sexual

liaison with her.

There are two kinds of stable conjugal unions

acknowledged in rural Haiti, marriage and plasazh.

Marriage, as practiced in Plage-Boutou, is both a religious

and a civil act. Plasazh is a form of common-law

co-residence or a socially recognized visiting relationship.

Marriage and plasazh are not mutually exclusive union types

and, in practice, allow for diverse forms of polygamy and

extra-union sexual relations.

Marriage, the more prestigious form of union, is also

very expensive and therefore impossible for the majority of

Plage-Boutouians. When a couple chooses to get married, the

man or his family must furnish a house, bed, table, new

clothes and a feast. Local estimates of the cost of

acquiring the material prerequisites for marriage vary

between $800 and $1500. Thus, only gr6 mun marry. Not

only does the couple gain an increase in status by marriage

but also an extended, mutually obligatory social network

through the addition of the wedding's godparents.

According to the residents of Plage-Boutou, marriage

was much more common in the past than it is today. The










informants, in genealogical interviews, unanimously agreed

that all the original settlers were married and that most of

their sons were similarly established. Whether the

Plage-Boutouians are idealizing their ancestry or not, the

fact remains that the pioneer settlers were gr6 mun with

large landholdings while the majority of their descendants

are landless sharecroppers with no possibility of acquiring

land or other wealth.

The more common and lower-status form of conjugal union

in Plage-Boutou is plasazh. In former times, a letter

requesting a woman's hand was sent to her parents by her

suitor but today this extravagance has disappeared. In

contemporary Plage-Boutou, if the parents of a potential

plasazh mate are alive, they must be given small presents

and their approval must be sought.

Most young couples who become plase establish a

visiting relationship or co-reside in one of the spouse's

parental homes. These arrangements are understood to be

temporary and as soon as the couple is financially able they

are expected to establish a separate residence, no matter

how humble. This is especially difficult as there are only

five rental properties, all continuously occupied, in the

community.

The middle-aged man or woman of Plage-Boutou who has

had only one mate and children by just one sexual partner

are the exception. Fleeting sexual contact between a person

in a stable union and one who is not of that union are











common. The more casual contacts are facilitated by the

temporary separation of the conjugal pair by migration and

fishing or marketing trips.

Some plasazh unions are stable and monogamous for years

but the tendency is for these relationships to falter and

dissolve. This is especially true of the first plasazh

unions in which the young participate. The more stable

unions have generally been those in which both partners are

older and have participated in earlier plasazh

arrangements

Serial polygamy is a common mating form for both sexes

but simultaneous polygamy is usually a male-only option.

Simultaneous polygamy, in Haiti, refers to a male having two

or more socially recognized conjugal unions at the same

time.

The polygynous housing compound (West African type) is

reported rarely in Haiti. Comhaire-Sylvain stated that the

co-residence of co-wives had been more common in the past in

the Kenscoff area but in 1956-57 she found only two such

polygynous housing compounds (Comhaire-Sylvain

1961:208-209). The disappearance of this residential pattern

has also been true for the domestic group cycle in

Plage-Boutou. The original Charles and Lundy laku (at La

Sousse and Hugo, respectively) were of this settlement type.

Today, the polygynous housing compound is unknown in

Plage-Boutou.










A special case of polygamy is that of Narva Lamour. In

Lucner, Narva lives with Muzar Santos while in Les Trois

Rivereres, his other wife Auliare Dessalines, a mamb6

(female voodoo leader), lives with another man. When Narva

visits Les Trois Rivereres, Auliare co-resides with Narva in

his Les Trois Rivereres house. When Auliare visits Lucner,

she lives with Narva and Muzar in their house in a

harmonius co-wife relationship. Today, in Plage-Boutou, a

congenial relationship and co-residence of a man's wives is

considered unnatural: Narva' polygamous arrangements are

sometimes the butt of joking and condescension among his

fellow Plage-Boutouians. This case of dual plural union

(polyandry/polygyny) is unique in Plage-Boutou and in the

literature on Haiti. That the relationships are stable,

socially recognized and continuing is an example of the

extreme flexibility of Haitian family organization.

The most common polygynous settlement pattern today is

for the male to establish separate households for his

different mates in various locations. The spouses of the

seven Plage-Boutou men (excluding the unique case of Narva

Lamour), who in 1984 were living in stable and socially

recognized polygynous unions, resided in separate houses.

In five of these cases, the two wives live in different

villages of Plage-Boutou; and in two cases, one mate lives

in Plage-Boutou and one in Port-de-Paix. In all seven

cases, there is animosity and bickering between the

co-wives.











Plage-Boutouians claim that simultaneous polygamy was

more common among their ancestors than it is today. The

scarcity of land and the general impoverishment of

contemporary Plage-Boutouians, as compared to the first

generations of Plage-Boutou residents, is cited as the cause

for this decline. Multiple wives and multitudinous

offspring are still a symbol of prestige in Plage-Boutou but

the financial obligations of polygamy and large families is

beyond the means of the majority of the peasants. Today,

one often hears the young men of Plage-Boutou say "d6

madam--apil problem" (two wives--many problems).

Conjugal unions in Plage-Boutou are made either in the

community itself or in other communities that

Plage-Boutouians visit. These other communities are usually

ones in which a person has kin relations, often the

community of his/her birth or parents' birth. The couple

may reside in either community or alternately in several

communities. Ambilocal and multilocal residence combined

with frequent visits and trading among geographically

distant settlements has created a community extended beyond

the discrete geographical boundaries of Plage-Boutou.

The diversity of Haitian mating forms allows for easy

change of partners) and residencess. Plage-Boutou has

changed from having more to less "legitimate" marriages and

from more to less plural unions. These are both adaptations

to the scarcity of essential resources.










This decline of the polygynous housing compound is at

least partially due to the land tenure system. The original

settlers owned large tracts of undivided land. With each

new generation's inheritance this land was divided into

smaller plots, often at some distance from one another. It

was an economic advantage to have households and working

spouses on these distant plots. As minifundia continued and

many Plage-Boutouians became completely disenfranchised,

simultaneous polygamy, for most, became a liability.

The ideal African pattern of the laku--as a

polygynous housing compound containing all of the shef's

(eldest male) patrilineal descendants--appears to have never

been a common reality in Haiti. Without abundant land even

an approximation of the ideal is impossible. The polygynous

housing compound, simultaneous polygyny and patrilineal

descent were the combined features of an ideal but

unattainable model for the majority. For the fortunate few,

the realization of the ideal model is nothing more than a

transitional stage in the laku and famni cycles which are,

themselves, stages in the larger cycle of plantation

society.











The Household As Microcosm Of The Community: A Case-Study
Of Fluctuation In Household Composition In Contemporary
Lucner


The forms of parenthood and mating practiced in

Plage-Boutou are not only numerous but, as a rule, in

constant flux. This is also true for household composition.

Not only does the personnel of most households change

frequently but the types of familial organization

(matrifocal, nuclear and so forth) are often transitory.

This section is devoted to a study of short-term fluctuation

in household composition in the village of Lucner.

Lucner was originally the Lamour laku. In accordance

with the natural life-cycle of the laku (described above)

the member households began to disperse and new people, both

distant kin and non-kin, constructed residences in Lucner.

Today, Narva Lamour, shef of the village, claims ownership

of all of Lucner. For a fee, Narva allows interested

parties to construct houses in Lucner but he does not give

legal title to the land, on which houses are built, to

anyone. Therefore, by keeping control of the land, he

maintains his position as shef.

The first family to establish itself on the Lamour

lands (with the exception of the Bernards who no longer

reside in Lucner) was the Rouzier family from Carabet. The

Lamours and the Rouziers are still (1984) the largest

families in the village, with Lamours living in six and the

Rouziers living in four of Lucner's seventeen houses.











As important as kinship in the organization of

inter-personal relations in the village is the institution

of co-parenthood. The people of Lucner, as elsewhere in

Plage-Boutou, incorporate new members of the community into

a ritual kinship network through godparenthood. By

accepting the honor of godparenthood, a person is

responsible not only for funding the baptismal celebration,

helping the godchild as it grows but also for helping and

defending his or her four new k6pe and k6me.

Once the co-parent relationship is established with a

person, there is an automatic extension of this relationship

to one's k6pe/k6me's spouses. Therefore, it is

unusual for couples to be selected as coparents, since this

would reduce the number of coparents in one's network.

Kinspeople are also rarely selected for the same reason.

The new alliances formed by the coparenthood relationship

are mutually exclusive--through extension of incest

prohibitions--with alliances founded on sexual

arrangements.

Amos Magloire's brief residence in Lucner is an example

of how kinship and co-parenthood function for the social and

economic integration of village residents. In 1982, when

Amos was nineteen years-old, he moved from his aunt's house

at Nan Bouche to the house of Narva Lamour in Lucner to

establish a plasazh relationship with Marilude Romain (28).

Marilude was born in Carabet and had come to Lucner as the

plas4 of Liznare Roosevelt with whom she had two











children. When Marilude discovered that Liznare had another

plans& mate in Ti Morne, she deserted him and went to

live in the house of her brother-in-law Narva Lamour.

(Marilude is half-sister to Auliare Dessalines, Narva's Les

Trois Rivereres wife.)

When Marilude became pregnant with her third child, she

and Amos moved into the house of Narva's half-brother Archil

(82). Archil gladly accepted the young couple because,

after recent changes in the membership of his household, he

needed their services for the procurement and preparation of

food. Archil's daughter Virginar (35) had recently left his

house to become the second wife of Renold Caze in his newly

constructed house in Nan Jerome. This left only Archil,

Roselle Mars (89--no kin) and Marilude's two small children

by Liznare Roosevelt, who had been residing in Archil's

house since their mother's break with Liznare.

By the time of Amosier's (Marilude and Amos's daughter)

birth, Amos had already become the godfather of two infants

in Lucner. Six months after Amosier was born, she was

baptized thus giving Amos a total of twelve k6pe and

k6me in Lucner. In the Spring of 1984, Amos became the

godfather of yet another child, bringing his total

coparenthood network in Lucner up to sixteen persons.

Amos's coparent relations functioned in various ways.

His k6pe Ernest Rouzier became his fishing partner (Amos

had a boat and Ernest did not) and in return Ernest helped

Amos prepare his new garden. When Amos was under pressure











from his patron--a tourist visiting in Plage-Boutou--for a

woman, his k6me Yolande Josmar supplied the need and

Amos shared his earnings with her.

When Marilude returned to Liznare, Archil kicked Amos

out of his house. Amos then began to sleep at his mother's

house in Plage-Boutou. Meanwhile, he negotiated with Narva

for a house-site in Lucner. Narva deferred payment because

Amos was k6pe for his daughter Helene. Another of Amos'

k6me, Elliete Viel, invited Amos to make his new house

next to hers where he could sleep until his house was

completed.

This example illustrates the role of kinship, plasazh

relationships, adoption, and coparenthood in economic

activities and household makeup. It also demonstrates how

these kinship and quasi-kinship links function to

incorporate new members into the village. This latter

function is especially important since of the 59 people,

over 20 years of age, who resided in Lucner in May, 1984, 38

were born outside of the commune (fifteen from Plage-Boutou

contrasted with eighteen from Les Trois Rivereres, thirteen

from Carabet, five from Gros Morne, two from Ti Morne, with

six non-determined cases).

Two household surveys were conducted in Lucner, the

first in the Spring of 1983 and again in the Spring of 1984.

The basic demographic data is summarized in Table 5.











Table 5: Population And Households In Lucner In 1983 And
1984

1983 1984

POPULATION 85 92

NUMBER OF
HOUSEHOLDS 18 17



During this one-year period, four houses kraz4 (fell

down) and four new houses were built. One house, which had

been used for habitation, was converted into a kitchen.

Thus Lucner had a net-loss of one house and a net-gain of

seven people during the year.

All of the houses, except one, had a change in

composition during the year. The change in personnel

resulted in an increase of people in five houses, a loss of

people in three houses, while five houses kept a constant

number of inhabitants. The destination of people who moved

from their 1983 Lucner residence is summarized in Table 6.

Table 7 is a summation of the provenience of each individual

resident in Lucner in 1984. Most of the people who changed

houses already lived in Lucner in 1983. Nevertheless, there

was significant in-migration and out-migration of people to

other communities, the majority of which were in other

communes.











Table 6: New Location (1984) Of 1983 Lucner Residents

LOCATION FREQUENCY

Lucner 21
Plage-Boutou 3
Port-de-Paix 2
Pacot 1
Les Trois Rivereres 1
Ti Morne 2
Saint Victor 1
Non-determined 5
TOTAL 36



Table 7: Provenience of 1984 Lucner Residents

LOCATION FREQUENCY

Lucner 32
Plage-Boutou 3
Kaypaul 2
Les Trois Rivereres 3
Carabet 2
Ti Morne 1
Gros Morne 2
Non-determined 8
TOTAL 53




The types of familial unit, resident in Lucner's

houses, in both years, are diverse. By isolating family

units in each household and ignoring other kin and non-kin

persons, five household family types have been discovered in

the Lucner surveys. Table 8 summarizes this data for both

years.











Table 8: Type Of Domestic-Family Group In Lucner, 1983
And 1984

TYPE 1983 1984

Nuclear 6 6
Patrifocal 1
Matrifocal 6 10
Sibling Group 2 1
Single Couple 2
Single Female 1
TOTAL 18 17


Table 8 is misleading because almost every house has

resident kin who do not fit into any of these

classifications and because the majority of houses have

resident non-kin (nine out of eighteen houses in 1983 and

eight out of seventeen houses in 1984). This table

does, however, demonstrate that household composition and

familial organization are of a transitory nature in Lucner.

The houses themselves endure scarcely longer than the

living arrangements of their inhabitants (Table 9). The

groups of people and their physical environments fragment

and disperse, only for the people and pieces to recombine in

new ways.

Table 9: House Age In Lucner, 1984

AGE (in years) FREQUENCY

1 4
2 2
4 3
5 2
6 1
7 1
23 1
26 1
42 1
Non-determined 1
TOTAL 17











In recent years, the theory of domestic group or

household composition development-cycle, proposed by Fortes,

has been a tremendous influence on Caribbean family

studies.10 The household cycle, though variable

cross-culturally, has three universal phases--expansion,

dispersal and replacement (Fortes 1958). There are several

problems with the ways these domestic cycle studies have

been conducted. The first problem arose when Fortes tied

the household cycle to the life-cycle of an individual or

individuals; thus, the developmental phases of the cycle

were forced to correspond, in number of years, to human

generations. Secondly, these phases have been elicted from

synchronic rather than diachronic data (Laguerre 1978 is a

notable exception), an error well recognized in the

anthropological literature.

The changes in household composition, during one year

in the history of Lucner, include all three phases of

expansion, dispersal and replacement for many of the

village's domestic groups. Futhermore, ideal-type analysis

of household composition in Lucner is not useful for

delineating processual phases of domestic life. This brief

examination of household change in Lucner demonstates that

the domestic group--like the kindred, the housing compound,

the family and the community--is open to many and various

kinds of changes in its continuing adaptation to the

oppressive social and economic conditions of rural Haitian

life.










Conclusion



The Haitian kindred has not previously been described.

This is directly attributable to the failure to distinguish

between residence and kinship in Haitian family studies.

Once this distinction is made, the outlines of the

developmental cycles of the kindred, the housing compound,

the domestic group and the plasazh arrangements become

clear. The realities of plantation society has in

Plage-Boutou, as elsewhere in Haiti, spawned a continuing

dialectic of the ideal African model and actual practice in

familial and domestic organization.

Roger Bastide stated that in some rural areas of

Plantation America a "precise copy" of the African

residential compound and family organization has survived.

But in urban areas, the Afro-American family has changed

considerably from its African predessor.

There can be no doubt, I would submit, that the urban
Negro family derives its structure, originally, from
African models; but at the same time these models have
been subjected to a steady process of disintegration
S(Bastide 1971:39).


It is unlikely that a precise copy of the African

family and residence patterns has ever existed in rural

Haiti. Yet, in the history of Plage-Boutou there has been a

change in actual practice from a closer adherence to the

African model to a continuing disintegration of that model,











a process similar to that described by Bastide for the

urban Afro-American family.

Due to the exigencies of plantation life, the slaves

and their peasant descendants reinterpreted the ideal

African model to fit the new circumstances of an

impoverished and powerless existence. Charles S. Johnson

described this process in the context of the Afro-American

family in the southern United States, but his description is

appropriate to Haiti as well as to other areas of Plantation

America.

Despite the uneveness of life, the amount of sexual
freedom, the frequency of separation and realignment of
families, the number of children born out of formal
wedlock and the customary provisions for them, codes
and conventions consistent with the essential routine
of their lives do arise which represent a form of
organization adapted to the total environment. Where
social processes such as these proceed largely
unconsciously, the surviving folk ways may reasonably
be presumed to have a foundation in the fundamental
needs of community and human nature (Johnson 1934:90).


Like the Afro-American family of Macon Co., Alabama (to

which Johnson refers in the above), the Afro-American family

in Plage-Boutou has in the past and continues to adapt

"largely unconsciously" to the total environment. The

Plage-Boutouian family form has changed from its earlier

adherence to the ancestral model in its continuing

adaptation to the plantation heritage of minifundia,

impoverishment, endemic disease and political repression.

Charles Wagley has presented a picture of the

"amorphous and weakly organized local community without










clear boundaries in space or membership

characteristic of most island societies of the Caribbean"

(Wagley 1959:199). In his analysis of the Caribbean local

community, Wagley pointed out that the family is the most

important organizational feature of rural Caribbean life;

yet, the Caribbean family is unstable. In this

situation--where an elastic and fluctuating family is the

chief building block of the local community

organization--the community will also be "amorphous and

weakly organized." This is a common characteristic of the

post-Emancipation plantation society and it is certainly the

case in Plage-Boutou.



Notes

1. Several review articles of the literature on the
Caribbean family have been published. See especially Wagley
1958, Solien (Gonzalez) 1960, Davenport 1961, and Smith
1957, 1978.

2. In Haitian nomenclature a natural child refers to a
child born outside of wedlock. If the child is to inherit
from his/her father, he/she must also be recognized by the
father and thus assume his/her father's surname.

3. For a more detailed examination of the amorphous quality
of the Haitian family, see Rhoda Metraux's study of the
Maribial Valley UNESCO data (Metraux 1951).

4. The practice of sending a letter to an intended plasazh
mate's parents was apparently quite common in Haiti. It is
reported by Herskovits (1971), Simpson (1942), Bastien
(1961), Comhaire-Sylvain (1958) and others. It is an
extravagant practice, since the young man had to travel to
the nearest town and employ a letter-writer.

5. This count of rental properties does not include the
properties built for visiting tourists, which are
considerably beyond the means of most Plage-Boutouians.










6. In the Artibonite, public health researchers found a
similar situation, where plasazh unions between people
younger than 25 and older than 44 years of age are less
stable than those unions whose participants are in-between
these ages (Williams, Murthy and Berggren 1975:1028).

7. A similar situation was described by W.E.B. Dubois for
the Afro-American family in the Southern United States in
the early twentieth-century. He concludes:

"Careful research would doubtless reveal many other traces
of the African family in America. They would, however, be
traces only, for the effectiveness of the slave system meant
the practically complete crushing out of the African clan
and family life. No more complete method of reducing a
barbarous people to subjection can be devised" (Dubois
1908:21).

8. Plage-Boutouians gain four new coparents for each child
born in contrast to the custom in most of Latin America of
choosing a couple to be godparents for a gain of only two
coparents per baptism.

9. Reducing the domestic group organizations to this sort
of ideal-type analyses, requires that one ignore the
majority of the data on this phenomenon. This kind of
analysis, so common in Caribbean studies, is neither good
anthropology nor good science but blatant scientism.

10. The scholar most often cited for this Fortesian
analysis of the Caribbean domestic group is R.T. Smith. See
especially Smith 1956. Carol Stack's (1974) small monograph
on Afro-American family organization and domestic group in a
midwestern United States community is a refreshing antidote
to the limitations and misrepresentations inherent in
Fortesian analysis.















CHAPTER IV: INNOVATIONS AND ADOPTIONS: CHANGING PATTERNS
IN THE SOCIOLOGY OF WORK


Work, of course, is a preeminent form of social
activity. Like other forms of social activity it must
be analyzed in terms of its mesh with other social
actions. It is also institutionalized, embedded with
values, and integrated with the rest of the
institutional system of the society (Murphy 1971:34).


Julian Steward based his typological stages of the New

World plantation cycle on a study of the mode and

organization of its production. Murphy referred to

Steward's method of research as the "sociology of work--its

tools, its organization and its cycle" (Murphy 1971:34).

This chapter is an attempt to analyse Plage-Boutou's

subsistence activities from this perspective.



The Fishing Village In Plantation America



The sociological distinction between modern fishermen
and their island neighbors...is nothing new in the
Caribbean. From the first, fishing slaves--first
Indians, then Negroes--received special treatment, and
from the first they exercised potentially important
economic skills that stressed independence.
Emancipation offered the opportunity for a new way of
life to the enterprising freedman who had admired the
success and prestige of his fishing colleagues during
slavery...the heritage of today's Negro fishermen is
firmly anchored in plantation life (Price 1966:1379).




Full Text

PAGE 1

THE LEGACY OF PLANTATION AMERICA: FORMATION AND GROWTH OF AN HAITIAN COMMUNITY By Frederick J. Hay A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 1985

PAGE 2

Copyright 1985 by Frederick J. Hay

PAGE 3

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The research upon which this dissertation is based was partially funded by the Tropical South America Fund of the Center for Latin American Studies at the University of Florida. To them I am grateful. I am especially appreciative of Charles Wagley. Professor Wagley supervised my graduate training at the University of Florida and was my teacher and advisor before, during and after my Haitian fieldwork. I owe Wagley an intellectual debt the magnitude of which I doubt that even he realizes. I would also like to thank my committee members, Professors Maxine Margolis, Theron Nunez, Terry McCoy and Robert Lawless. I am particularly grateful for the helpful suggestions made by Margolis and Nunez. Many people in Haiti assisted us in various ways. These include our friends Serge Martineau, who helped us in more ways than we could ever mention, Roger Pinkcombe, owner of the Brise de Mer Hotel, Charles Romain of the Institute for the Study and Research of African Culture of Haiti and Harry Sanchez, travel agent. I would also like to thank various anthropologists who were stationed in Port-au-Prince: Fred Conway, Shelagh O'Rouke and Donna Plotkin.

PAGE 4

My wife and I are especially grateful to the remarkable Sylvain family, and especially to Professor Jeanne Sylvain. Without Professor Sylvain's assistance, advice and insights, my work in Haiti would have been much more difficult and less rewarding. Jeanne's brother Pierre and sister Yvonne were also a tremendous help to us. It is our feeling that the Sylvain family represents the best of Haitian scholarship and professional life. Our debt to Jeanne Sylvain's daughter and son-in-law, Roselle and Leslie Nazon, is profound. We can not sufficiently thank or acknowledge them for their assistance and friendship. I would also like to acknowledge our friend, Renold Pierre, lawyer and judge, who helped us to understand rural Haitian culture in so many ways. Various Catholic and Protestant churchpeople contributed to our well-being and my research. I would especially like to thank Sister Antoine who compassionately cared for us when we were ill in Plaisance, Father Roland Lamy who helped us immensely and taught us even more, and the Baptist ministers — Jack Hancocks, Phil Yueling and Mario Valcin — for their help and interest in my research. Many of the people that contributed to my research in Haiti can not be mentioned here. My greatest debt is to the people of Plage-Boutou ; especially our friends Pierre Saint Louis and Amos Magloire and their families.

PAGE 5

My colleagues, Ronald Kephart and James T. McKay also deserve special mention. Kephart generously assisted me with the orthography. McKay read each draft of this dissertation and offered many useful criticisms and suggestions. He also gave me support of many kinds while I was in the field and while I was writing this document. The credit for the map and genealogical diagram goes completely to Margie Niblack of the Office of Instructional Resources of the University of Floirida. To my parents, Sam and Dot Hay, I owe an overwhelming acknowledgement. If it weren't for their care, encouragement and financial assistance I would never have pursued this degree or completed my research in Haiti. This dissertation is lovingly dedicated to them. To my wife, Dr. Valentina Maiewski j-Hay , I owe the greatest debt. She accompanied me to the field and willingly sustained great sacrifice. Her editorial abilities are manifest on every page of this dissertaion. More importantly, her advice on substance and her encouragement enabled me to complete this task.

PAGE 6

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS i i i LIST OF TABLES ix NOTE ON ORTHOGRAPHY x ABSTRACT xiii CHAPTERS I AN INTRODUCTION TO THE LEGACY OF PLANTATION AMERICA. 1 Research Plans and Realities 3 An Historical Overview of the Haitian Experience ... .5 The Plantation Cycle 15 Plantation America 19 Conclusion 2 3 Notes 24 II AN INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF PLAGE-BOUTOU 26 Environmental and Demographic Description 26 The Founding Fathers — 1900-1930 32 The Stabilization of an Amorphous Community — 19301970 38 The Advent of Tourism and Its Impact--1970-Present .45 Conclusion 49 Notes 5 2 III THE ROLE OF FAMILY, KINSHIP AND HOUSEHOLD IN A CHANGING COMMUNITY 55 The Life Cycle of the Laku in Plage-Boutou 56 The Life Cycle of the Famni in Plage-Boutou 61 Marriage, Plasazh and Polygamy 67 The Household as Microcosm of the Community: A Case Study of Fluctuation in Household Composition in Contemporary Lucner 74 Conclusion 82 Notes to Chapter III 84 IV INNOVATIONS AND ADOPTIONS: CHANGING PATTERNS IN THE SOCIOLOGY OF WORK 86 The Fishing Village in Plantation America 86 A Social History of Agriculture in Plage-Boutou ... .90 Adaptation to Depletion: Changing Strategies in Subsistence Fishing 97

PAGE 7

Marketing and Domestic Activities: The History of Women's Work in rlage-Boutou 103 Conclusion 105 Notes 106 V FROM AFRICA TO THE RISE OF THE PROTESTANT ETHIC: RELIGION AND MAGIC IN PLAGE-BOUTOU 108 Voodoo, the African Heritage and Revolution in Haiti 109 The Decline of the Zazh 112 The Mandingues: A Creole Islam Cult 117 The History of Catholicism in Plage-Boutou 120 The Founding of the Baptist Church: The Protestant Ethic and the Changing Realities of Life in Plage-Boutou 125 The Persistence of Magic--A Traditional Alternative to the Protestant Ethic 131 Conclusion 137 Notes 139 VI INCIPIENT TOURISM 142 Foreign Nationals Come to Visit and Stay 143 Latortue Beach Development 146 Corporate Failure and the Control of Local Entrepreneurship 151 The Impact of Tourism on Plage-Boutou 155 Conclusion 160 Notes 161 VII PEASANT MAN AS MANIPULATOR: THE LIFE HISTORY OF PIERRE SAINT LOUIS 164 Pierre Marcelin 165 Pere Pierre 169 Pierre Saint Louis 173 Pierre as Gro Mun 180 Conclusion 183 Notes 185 VIII CONCLUSION — PLAGE-BOUTOU CULTURE IN PLANTATION AMERICAN PERSPECTIVE 187 Plage-Boutou, Mirebalais and Marbial: A Comparison 188 Cultural Amorphousness and Cultural Style 195 Cultural Models and Afro-American Culture 199 Conclusion 205 No te s 2 07

PAGE 8

EPILOGUE: A NOTE ON THE POLICY IMPLICATIONS OF CULTURAL AMORPHOUSNESS 210 GLOSSARY 213 BIBLIOGRAPHY 215 APPENDICES A MAP OF PLAGE-BOUTOU 233 B GENEALOGY OF ABIS FAMNI 235 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 237

PAGE 9

LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1: DIAGRAM OF COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION IN PLAGE-BOUTOU 29 TABLE 2: POPULATION AGE PROFILE FOR PLAGE-BOUTOU, 1983... 31 TABLE 3: PLAGE-BOUTOU LAKUS IN 1930 37 TABLE 4: COMMUNITY OF ORIGIN OF THE MAJORITY OF INHABITANTS IN EACH COMMUNITY OF PLAGE-BOUTOU 44 TABLE 5: POPULATION AND HOUSEHOLDS IN LUCNER IN 1983 AND 1984 78 TABLE 6: NEW LOCATION (1984) OF 1983 LUCNER RESIDENTS .... 79 TABLE 7: PROVENIENCE OF 1984 LUCNER RESIDENTS 79 TABLE 8: TYPE OF DOMESTIC-FAMILY GROUP IN LUCNER, 1983 AND 1984 80 TABLE 9: HOUSE AGE IN LUCNER, 1984 80

PAGE 10

NOTE ON ORTHOGRAPHY The orthography used for Creole words in this dissertation was developed by my colleague Ron Kephart for the Carricou Literacy Project. Many, and frequently inconsistent, orthographies are currently in use for Haitian Creole. These orthographies have been developed, more often than not, with Standard French or Standard English ("Export English" or "Export French" in Kephart' s terminology) rather than Creole speakers in mind. Consequently, they have usually been an obstacle to the advancement of literacy among native Creole speakers. This includes, I believe, the Haitian governmental agency approved orthography for Creole, generally refered to by that agency's acronym, ONEC . With Kephart's assistance, I have used his orthography to render the Creole terms used herein into the dialect of northern Haiti. The Kephart orthography is valuable not only because it can express dialectical differences in Haitian Creole but it is equally useful for all Caribbean Creole languages. Because of its simplicity it is exceedingly practical. It has also proven to be immediately understandable for both English and French Creole speakers on the island of Carricou in the Lesser Antilles (Grenada).

PAGE 11

Explanation of Symbols Vowels i u e 6 e o a Glides ey ay y Nasalized Vowels Consonants b

PAGE 12

Words are pluralized in Haitian Creole syntactically or by context rather than morphologically. All Creole words contained herein are written in the singular. Plurality of Creole words is to be determined by context.

PAGE 13

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy THE LEGACY OF PLANTATION AMERICA: FORMATION AND GROWTH OF AN HAITIAN COMMUNITY By Fred J. Hay May, 1985 Chairman: Dr. Charles Wagley Major Department: Anthropology Though many studies have been made of the plantation's persistence in the New World, scholars have, for the most part, neglected the study of the plantation's legacy in peasant Afro-America. This dissertation investigates the phenomenon of community formation and evolution in post-bellum Afro-America. To this end, an ethnohistory of an Haitian fishing village is presented. It examines the formation and growth of the community and its organization in terms of its family life, economics, political system, religion and worldview. The social and economic impact of the recent introduction of tourism is considered. A life history of a village man is included for the purpose of elucidating the ways in which an individual interacts with his community and culture. Using Charles Wagley's concept of a Plantation America cultural sphere, the contemporary and historical cultural

PAGE 14

patterns of this community are related to those of other Afro-American communities. This Haitian fishing village is compared to other Haitian and non-Haitian Plantation American communities and to the closed corporate peasant community of Indo-America . Those features which are common to Afro-American cultures but foreign to Indo-America and Euro-America are examined. An explanation of historical causation is offered and a general developmental cycle proposed . The resilience typical of West African cultures was transformed by the plantation's desocializ ing influence into a generalized cultural amorphousness . Adaptive to the harsh realities of slavery, amorphousness permeated every aspect of the cultural and social life of Afro-Americans. It has survived, in part, because oppression of the Afro-American population has not diminished. Free from the plantation institution for more than 180 years, its influence persists in Haiti in the form of a total-culture style of amorphousness .

PAGE 15

CHAPTER I: AN INTRODUCTION TO THE LEGACY OF PLANTATION AMERICA The past is never dead. It's not even past — William Faulkner (1951:92). From the beginning of his career the novelist William Faulkner was deeply concerned with plantation society and its legacy. Social scientists, on the other hand, did not begin to study this tradition in earnest until mid-century. Today, there is a large literature on plantations, plantation society and Afro-American cultures. Yet, there remains a dearth of research on the plantation's role in the formation of post-bellum, post-plantation, Afro-American communities . This dissertation is an ethnohistory of an Haitian fishing village. It is ethnohistory not only because it is about the history of an Afro-American peasant community but because it was orally elicted through resident fieldwork. It is anthropological history because it is primarily concerned with the history of those aspects of a people's life which anthropologists have traditionally studied (family, household composition, subsistence patterns,

PAGE 16

religion, political system, social stratification, and the individual's relation to his culture). In presenting this admittedly "particularist" history of a single community, I have tried to elucidate some of the broader meanings and global relevance of these data by putting it in the context of a culture area ("Plantation America") and in terms of an evolutionary process ("Plantation Cycle"). This chapter concludes with a review of these two guiding concepts. Contemporary Afro-American culture is a distinct and vital sub-culture of the New World. It was created and maintained under conditions of relentless oppression and was/is adaptive for maintaining life and dignity under these conditions. It is my thesis that the plantation institution, which established this milieu of oppression, has had a persistent influence on Afro-American communities whether they are situated in contemporary plantation areas (Mintz 1956, Johnson 1934) or whether they are distinct and isolated from contemporary plantation society (Woofter 1930, Horowitz 1967). The community selected for study has, until recently, been an isolated peasant fishing village on the north coast of Haiti. Because this village has been outside the sphere of active plantation influence for at least 180 years, the study of its creation and growth will contribute to our

PAGE 17

understanding of the tenacity of the plantation's influence in contemporary Afro-America. Research Plans And Realities My original intention for research in Haiti was to do a re-study of George Eaton Simpson's research in the Bassin section in the commune of Plaisance. Simpson's 1937-1938 study of this northern Haitian community is the basis of a number of important publications on Afro-American culture. Simpson was the first and still one of the few anthropologists or sociologists to do intensive field research in Haiti outside of a fifty-mile area surrounding the nation's capital, Port-au-Prince. My wife, Valentina, and I arrived in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, in early October, 1983. By the end of the month we were settled in Plaisance and I had embarked on my study of the Bassin section. In a few days, we were both bed-ridden with high fevers, chills and generalized discomfort. As soon as we were able, we took the bus to Cap-Haitien and later to Port-au-Prince. Though we were attended by physicians in Plaisance and Cap Haitien, we did not discover that we were suffering from dengue fever until we visited a physician in Port-au-Prince. We spent several weeks in the capital city recuperating and meeting with American and Haitian scholars and friends. On the advice of our friends in Port-au-Prince and Cap

PAGE 18

Haitien, we began to look for another rural community in which to settle and conduct research. We had spent a total of six weeks in Plaisance and most of this time we were very ill. My research there was confined to collecting information on the social and economic life of the town of Plaisance and in practising my Creole . Once we had decided to study a fishing village, we began to visit a number of fishing communities along the north coast of Haiti. Each of these villages was accessible to an urban area and medical facilities. This was necessary due to our low white blood cell counts--a consequence of our illness, misdiagnosis and medical mistreatment. Among the communities we visited was Plage-Boutou . We returned there for a week's stay during which time we gained, from the Commandant (the civil and military boss of the community), approval for our research and residence and made arrangements to rent a house and retain a local woman to cook and clean. By the end of December 1983, I had begun my research in Plage-Boutou. We lived in the community, except for short trips to town and to Port-au-Prince (and a week in Kingston, Jamaica), until mid-July, 1984. I conducted my research primarily through participant-observation. I fished, gardened, made fish traps, worshiped, gambled and played with the inhabitants. During the seven months of our residence in Plage-Boutou, I conducted, with the aid of two local field assistants, a

PAGE 19

house-to-house survey. At each house--except four who chose not to participate--I interviewed all adults. I asked questions from a standardized interview schedule covering many aspects of local life including genealogy, migration, household composition, gardening, fishing, livestock, finances and other matters. In addition, I interviewed each of the adult Protestants about their personal religious histories and the reasons for their conversion. During our stay in Plage-Boutou , Valentina and I became close friends with some of the local residents. These men and women we interviewed regularly in more depth about things we did not understand and about things which other locals were not willing to discuss with us. Valentina also collected information on cooking, child-rearing and sexual practices from Plage-Boutou ' s women. An Historical Overview Of The Haitian Experience The island of Hispaniola was discovered in 1492 by Columbus' expedition to the New World. Columbus' flagship, the Santa Maria ran aground near the present town of Cap Haitien on the north coast of Haiti. A temporary settlement of forty men was left to await Columbus' second trip to the New World. These forty men were never heard from again (Courlander 1966:1, Korngold 1965:4-5). Presumably, the forty settlers met their deaths at the hands of the Amerindian population. The Amerindians who

PAGE 20

inhabited Hispaniola at the time of Columbus' arrival were mostly Arawaks and Tainos who had previously migrated to the island from the North and/or South American mainland (Rouse 1960:24). When the Spaniards returned in larger numbers, they forced the indigenous population into service in pursuit of gold and for agricultural development; some Arawaks were also shipped to Spain as slaves. Mortality among the Amerindians was high; many others fled to the mountains or neighboring islands in search of refuge, others resorted to suicide. Within fifteen years, three-fourths of the native population had disappeared (Courlander 1966:1-2). By 1570, all the Amerindians had disappeared ( Leyburn 1937:378) . The Spanish intruders were forced to look elsewhere for labor. Thus began the African slave trade. As early as 1502, blacks from Africa were being imported to Hispaniola (Leyburn 1937:378). Bellegarde reported that the first slaves were brought to Hispaniola in 1503 (Bellegarde 1936:8). Courlander put the date slightly later in the period between 1510-1512 (Courlander 1966:2). Most of the 16th-century importation of Africans was to the eastern part of Hispaniola (present-day Dominican Republic). Curtin estimated that 74,600 Africans were delivered to the western third of Hispaniola (present-day Haiti) between 1601-1700. The real boom in slave importation began after 1697 when Spain ceded the western third of Hispaniola to France. Between 1701 and Haitian independence in 1804, an estimated

PAGE 21

789,700 Africans were brought to Haiti, raising the total figure of Africans imported to Haiti to 864,300 (Curtin 1969:268) . Africans brought to Haiti were from a "wide stretch of the African continent," from all walks of life and from a diversity of cultural/ethnic groups. The Africans brought with them many socio-cultural ideas and practices; perhaps the most important of these Africanisms in Haitian history have been the Dahomean religious ones. The present-day religion of the Haitian masses still reflects its specific West African tribal origins and the general resilience of African culture: Although slaves brought to Haiti . . . came from a wide stretch of the African continent . . .The Fon people of Dahomey (who in Haiti called themselves Arada, after the Dahomean city of Allada) and the Anago (Western Yoruba, from what today is Nigeria and Dahomey) were the major influence in the development of Vodoun (Courlander 1966:11) . As late as 1681, the whites outnumbered the blacks three-to-one but by 1781 there were over eleven slaves for every white (Herskovits 1966:102). The early white settlers were primarily French. Often they were people considered by the Parisian authorities to be unassimilable marginals such as prostitutes, criminals, debtors and vagrants. Once in Haiti, these colonists adapted to the new environment in four basic ways, that have been characterized by the French historian P.F.X. Charlevoix:

PAGE 22

the buccaneers who were occupied with the hunt, the filibusters who cruised the seas, the habitants, who cultivated the land, and the bondsmen who, for the most part, lived with the habitants and the buccaneers (Herskovits 1966:103). Before the Haitian Revolution, Saint-Domingue (the French name for the colony) was the most prosperous plantation enterprise in the Caribbean. Plantations and slaves were owned by absentee French landlords, native white Creoles, and native free coloureds (mulattoes). Although friction between these groups was ever present in colonial Haiti, during the eighteenth century this tension increased. Laws were passed in France restricting the coloureds 1 freedom of movement. Economic squabbling, often expressed in terms of racial antagonism, provoked the Haitian Revolution (James 1963). By 1789, just before the violent disturbances leading to the Haitian Revolution, the estimated population of Haiti consisted of 30-40,000 whites, 25-50,000 free mulattoes and blacks and 465,000 to 510,000 slaves (Segal 1975:179). The Revolution was a series of little wars perpetuated by fluctuating loyalities. Different groups of free coloureds, Creole whites, slaves, French, English and Spanish armies continually aligned and realigned themselves. The slave group — the numerical majority in the colony's population — is usually interpreted by historians as the major military force in the war (James 1963).

PAGE 23

In a slave system, especially one as brutal as Haiti's, the potential for violent revolt is built-in. That the slave system of Haiti was particularly harsh is demonstrated by the fact that "there was a considerable excess of deaths over births in the slave population, a fact that speaks volumes about the brutality of the system" (Rotberg 1971:39). (The historian's tendency to understate the slave's determination and role in the Haitian Revolution revolves around the same misconception implicit in the myth of the contented slave, Harris 1964). Harris' retelling of one such cruel incident, is illustrative of the misdirection of this kind 'of thinking: It was now obvious that the insurrection was general, and that the measures of the revolted slaves had been skillfully preconcerted, on which account the revolt became more dangerous. The blacks on the plantation of M. Gallifet had been treated with such remarkable tenderness that their happiness became proverbial. These, it was presumed, would retain their fidelity. So M. Odelac, the agent of the plantation, and member of the General Assembly, determined to visit them at the head of a few soldiers, and to lead them against the insurgents. When he got there he found they had not only raised the ensign of rebellion, but had actually erected for their standard THE BODY OF A WHITE INFANT, which they had impaled on a stake. So much for happy Negroes and contended slaves! (Harris 1969:96). White Haitians and their slaves began emigrating at least as early as 1793, when 10,000 white Haitians fled the ransacked city of Cap Francais (present-day Cap Haitien) to the United States (Rotberg 1971:44). McKenzie reported emigration of Haitians during the time of the Revolution to

PAGE 24

10 Cuba and Puerto Rico (MacKenzie 1971:281). According to Courlander, Haitians fled war-weary Haiti to the French colonies of Martinque, Guadeloupe and Trinidad (where he sees evidence of Voodoun's influence on the Shango cult) and to the Spanish colony Cuba (Courlander observed that the essentially Dahomean Arara cult of eastern Cuba was present due to this Haitian migration and influence, Courlander 1966:3,10) . Others migrated to France including most of the island's priests (Laguerre 1976:37). Franklin wrote of Haitian migration to the eastern end of Hispaniola (Franklin 1969:174), England and Jamaica, where the provincial government was directed "to afford to those inhabitants of St. Domingo who were desirous to place themselves under British protection every possible support" (Franklin 1969:88) . The Haitian Revolution not only destroyed Haiti's economy but decimated its populace: The slave plantations and estates were destroyed forever, and 150 years later exports had not regained their 1789 value. Rotberg estimates that perhaps 20,000 of the 30,000 whites resident in Saint-Dominque before the revolution had been killed or compelled to emigrate. Ten thousand of the 40,000 mulattoes and freed blacks had disappeared, and more than a third of the slave population of 500,000 were no longer alive (Segal 1975:179) . In 1802, M. Rumboldt estimated the population of Haiti to be 375,000, composed of 290,000 cultivators, 47,700 domestics, sailors, and others, and 37,000 soldiers.

PAGE 25

11 Another slightly different estimate in 1803 gave the total population as 348,000, which included 272,000 cultivators, 35,000 soldiers, with the remainder consisting of domestics, artisans and a few sailors (Franklin 1969:173). On New Year's Day, 1804, General Jean Jacques Dessalines declared Haiti's independence from France. Since Independence Day the successive governments of Haiti have in general been unstable: In the 112 years between Independence and the beginning of the American Occupation, Haiti had 26 rulers. Fifteen of these were deposed by revolution, four were murdered, one committed suicide, four died in office, and two retired to private life (Simpson 1942a:488). Haiti's first president was the revolutionary general Dessalines. He later declared himself emperor and ruled the new country in the totalitarian manner appropriate to that office. On October 17, 1806, Dessalines was killed in an ambush near Port-au-Prince. Following Dessalines' assassination, a power struggle between the former black slaves and the mulatto elite divided the country into a southern republic ruled by the mulatto president Alexdre Petion and a northern empire under the firm hand of the 3 black king Henri Christophe. Haiti was reunited in 1820 by President Jean-Pierre Boyer following Christophe's suicide ( Leyburn 1966). During Petion's presidency of the southern republic he — misguidedly in the opinion of the mulatto elite — broke up the old plantations and distributed small plots of land

PAGE 26

12 to the newly emancipated in an attempt to keep them on the land (Leyburn 1966). After Christophe's death and the reuniting of the northern and southern sections of Haiti, President Boyer tried unsuccessfully to reverse the trend toward an independent yeoman agriculture: a growing number of peasants acguired small holdings of land, and began to squat on vacant property. This meant that the larger landowners found it difficult to get agricultural laborers to work for them. In 1821 Boyer attempted to halt the trend, and stopped the allocation and sale of state land. This was followed in 1826 by his celebrated Rural Code (Nicholls 1979:68) . The Rural Code prohibited internal migration. A peasant needed a pass to enter a town and peasants who could not prove that they were gainfully employed were pressed into labor on public works (Wingfield 1966, Leyburn 1966). Nevertheless, by 1826, a black peasantry had established itself on the land virtually everywhere in Haiti. According to President Boyer, the official census of 1824 showed that there were 933,335 people in Haiti (which was temporarily the whole of Hispaniola), 61,468 of whom were living in the present-day Dominican Republic. Franklin thought Boyer 's figures were incredible and obtained from a unnamed government employee the following revision of 715,000 Haitians of which 54,000 were living in the present-day Dominican Republic (Franklin 1969:404). Obviously, one generation had not been enough time to sufficiently repopulate Haiti. In 1830, British agent Charles MacKenzie said: "but still the want of population

PAGE 27

13 and capital are evils that can only be thoroughly remedied by time" (MacKenzie 1971:282). After surveying the meager demographic data for nineteenth-century Haiti, Segal concluded : Sporadic attempts to estimate the total population suggest that during the nineteenth century natural increase was about 1 percent per annum with little or no immigration or emigration to or from the isolated, pariah and chronically unstable Black Republic (Segal 1975:179). Following several years of more than usual governmental instability and violence, the United States Marines occupied Haiti on July 28, 1915. President Woodrow Wilson rationalized this move by invoking the Monroe Doctrine. He claimed that if the United States had not invaded Haiti, one of the European powers would have done so to protect their financial interests in the country (Nicholls 1979). The Marines and the United States State Department virtually ran the government of Haiti for nineteen years: they disarmed the peasantry, disbanded the army, wrote and instituted a new constitution and centralized Haitian government and commerce in the capital city of Port-au-Prince. Thus, while stabilizing national affairs, the United States Occupation eliminated the traditional mechanisms for revolt and overthrow of the tyrannical and corrupt regimes which had, with few exceptions, been Haiti's lot since Independence (Nicholls 1979, Schmidt 1971). During the presidencies of Lescot, Estime and Magloire, a post-Occupation nationalism evolved. This nationalism

PAGE 28

14 took the form of a cultural renaissance among the elite while to the masses it meant a greater openess to blacks in the national bureaucracy. Intellectuals re-evaluated the Haitian past and, for the first time, celebrated Haiti's African cultural patterns. The Occupation's legacy in contemporary Haiti is the reign of the Duvalier dynasty from 1957 to the present day. It created the conditions by which Francois "Papa Doc" Duvalier could, quite brilliantly, establish a regime which is both the most powerful and most enduring in the country's history. The Duvalier government is based on a broad understanding of the social and cultural realities of Haitian life, the use of unprecedented terrorism and the maintainence of the Haitian tradition of government corruption (Rotberg 1971, Crassweller 1971, Manigat 1964, Obichere 1971, Hooper 1984). The ascension of Duvalier to power only intensified the on-going processes which had for a century demoralized and impoverished Haiti's peasant majority. Writing in 1910, Sir Harry Johnston commented on this process: But a few more years of wastefulness and fraud in the collection and administration of public revenues, which has been characteristic of the Haitian Executive since 1870, will make the country bankrupt, rich as it is, or provoke the emigration of the peasantry in large numbers to Cuba and San Domingo (Johnston 1969:202). The United States financial advisor to Haiti, Arthur Millspaugh, said in 1929: "Haiti is already

PAGE 29

15 overpopulated even relative to its potential population" (Schmidt 1971: 172-173). In 1949, The United Nations' Mission to Haiti stated: "The Mission recommends that serious consideration be given to the feasibility of encouraging emigration as a means of relieving the acute population pressure" (1949:12). In 1975, Segal summed it up: "Haiti's demographic problems are frightening" (Segal 1975:12). The sad facts are that Haiti is the poorest, hungriest, and most disease-ridden country in the Western Hemisphere. Poverty and governmental corruption are the legacy of the colonial plantation society and, in less exaggerated form, are common to all countries and areas of countries which were originally colonialized by the plantation settlement institution . The Plantation Cycle Edgar T. Thompson, a pioneer in the sociological study of the plantation, described the plantation as a form of "settlement institution." Inherent in the institution is a transience and "a typical cycle of change:"

PAGE 30

16 As an institution of settlement, the plantation arises as the terminus of a migration. This means that, as finally organized, it is a transient institution and is involved in a typical cycle of change. It seems to me of the utmost importance that any design to guide research should take the plantation cycle into account .. .For there do seem to be cycles in which a wave of concentration of land and a growth of social stratification is followed by a wave of deconcentration and a decrease of stratification (Thompson 1957:31). In 1959, Julian Steward proposed three general historical stages common to the plantation cycle in the New World. The first of these stages was "indirect rule" where the European colonizers subordinated the native peoples for the purpose of extracting wealth. In Hispanola (the Spanish name for the island that is currently composed of two nation-states: Haiti and the Dominican Republic), the era of indirect rule corresponded to the initial Spanish settlements, the decimation of the Amerindian population and the ceding of the western third of the island (contemporary Haiti) to France (Steward 1959:6). The second stage of this cycle was "direct rule: land expropriation" in which the European colonizers assumed private ownership of native lands for the purpose of establishing productive agricultural settlements. "In the expropriated lands, two principal types of plantations were established: slave plantations in areas of low native population density; haciendas with bound labor in areas of dense and stable population" (Steward 1959:7). The French colonials in Haiti established plantations (worked by imported African slaves) primarily in the fertile

PAGE 31

17 coastal plains. Although coffee, cacao, cotton and indigo were produced by these plantations, sugar was the dominant crop. The sugar plantation was a distinct type which Ribeiro has labeled the "caneocracy" (Ribeiro 1972:309). He describes the caneocracy as the locus of: some of the most wretched communities known, characterized by the contrast between the wealth of the resident owners, who reproduced European conditions of comfort and even surpassed them at very high cost on their plantations, and the indigence of the human mass engaged in the productive process (Ribeiro 1972:301). Steward's third stage of plantation evolution was "industrial influences" where "the nature of exploitative arrangements on lands or properties taken from the native people began to change as the industrial revolution progressed" (Steward 1959:7). This phase of plantation development has been characterized as a transition from the engenho to the usina plantation type in Portugese America (Wagley and Harris 1955, Hutchinson 1961). The transition involved an increased centralization of production, a decline of paternalism and face-to-face relations of workers and owners and often a change from family to corporate ownership and from slave to wage labor. Mintz has described this process and the emergence of the " f ield-and-f actory" mode of production in detail for a Puerto Rican community (Mintz 1956, 1974) . Steward's third and last stage of the plantation cycle--" industrial influences" — has been of little

PAGE 32

. . 7 significance in Haitian sociecy and economy. Instead, an alternative third stage, an Afro-American peasantry, evolved. During the phase that Steward labeled "direct rule," the slaves revolted. The Haitian Revolution created a free state composed primarily of black squatters and smallholders. The destruction of the plantations did not mean an end to the institution's influence in Afro-American culture. As Thompson observed: finally, the plantation may dissolve into a system of peasant proprietorships for which it has been prepared by the growth of labor-family equities within the structure of the institution (Thompson 1957:33). Thus, an alternative third stage of the New World plantation cycle was the creation of an independent yeomanry. The "reconstituted yeomen" class (Mintz 1966:xxii), though free of the physical plantation itself, was not emancipated from its persistent influences. Although Haiti is a country of reconstituted yeomanry, similiar peasant communities exist throughout Plantation America. Descriptions of post-plantation Afro-American peasant communities (outside of Haiti) include those for Jamaica (Davenport 1964, Comitas 1962, Clarke 1957), Brazil (Eduardo 1948), South Carolina (Woofter 1930), Martinique (Horowitz 1967) and Florida (Dougherty 1978).

PAGE 33

19 Plantation America Finally, given the essential similarity of institutions, Plantation-America off magnificent laboratory for the comparat approach .. .Within the framework of the of Plantation-America there are innumer which make comparison both possible and is precisely in this projection of the variation — whether inherited from Europ variations in the local natural and soc environs or from distinctive developmen trends--against the common features of sphere and in the seeking out of signif relationships that we can use the compa help us build a science of society and 1957:12) . in development ers a ive culture sphere able "variables" promising. It cultural e, derived from io-cultural tal the cultural icant rative method to culture (Wagley In "Plantation-America: A Cultural Sphere" (1957), Charles Wagley synthesized the literature on plantation society, slavery and Afro-American cultures. The author began by dividing the New World into three cultural spheres: Euro-America, Indo-America and Plantation-America. Euro-America covers the northern and southern areas of the hemisphere and is predominantly Caucasoid ethnically and European culturally. Indo-America, "the region from Mexico to northern Chile, along the Andean cordilleras," is populated by Indians and meztizos and is the area in which the Amerindian past has contributed the most to contemporary cultures (Wagley 1957:4-5).

PAGE 34

20 The Plantation American cultural sphere extends spatially from about midway up the coast of Brazil into the Guianas, along the Caribbean coast, throughout the Caribbean itself, and into the United States. It is characteristically coastal; not until the nineteenth century did the way of life of the Plantation culture sphere penetrate far into the mainland interior, and then only in Brazil and the United States. This area has an environment which is characteristically tropical (except in the southern United States) and lowland (Wagley 1957:5). Plantation America also includes stretches of the Pacific coast of Central and South America (e.g. Whitten 1965), the urban ghettoes of the northern United States (e.g. Drake and Cayton 1945) and southern Brazil (e.g. Bastide 1978) and pockets of African derived peoples in other areas such as Canada (e.g. Henry 1973) and the Black Aymara of the Bolivian Yungas (McKay, personal communication) . Wagley considered the following to be the basic features of the Plantation America cultural sphere: 1. plantation system and monocrop agriculture, 2. rigid class lines, 3. multi-racial composition, 4. weak community Q structure , 5. Afro-American peasantry and 6. q prevalence of the matrifocal family . In addition to these primary features, Wagley identified a number of secondary characteristics: there are a series of cultural characteristics common to Plantation-America which derive often from similarities in environment, often from the common historical background, and often from the presence of such a large population of African origin (Wagley 1957:9).

PAGE 35

21 Wagley proposed the following as the common secondary characteristics of Plantation America: 1. similarity of food crops, 2. slash and burn horticulture, 3. local markets and women marketeers, 4. commonalities in cuisine, 5. basic features in musicial patterning , 6. African derived folklore , 7. Afro-American religious cults, 8. "a series of traditions and values" which include the special stereotypical roles of "mammy," "the black uncle," "the 12 young gentleman" and others (Wagley 1957:9-11). The author refered to the above as an "incomplete list" of the common cultural features of Plantation America (Wagley 1957:11). Additions to this list might include the following characteristics: the slave and f ree ( d )people fishing village (Price 1966), the presence of communities composed of the descendants of maroons (Price 1973), the emergence of a mulatto class or caste (Reuter 1918, Leyburn 1966, Curtin 1955), the development of elaborate racial classifications (Wagley 1952, 1959a and Harris 1964), similarity in language syntax and usage and the social role of the verbal performer (Dillard 1972, Parsons 1933-43, Abrahams 1983, Herskovits 1958, Turner 1949), the survival of Euro-African magical syncretisms (Puckett 1926, Whitten 1962, Tallant 1946, Hurston 1931, 1935, Herskovits 1958, Bastide 1978, Simpson 1940a, Hyatt 1970), a series of motor habits (Herskovits 1966), "persistent poverty" (Beckford 1972, Valentine 1968), the development of various symbolic forms of pan-Africanism, such as negritude among the elite

PAGE 36

22 (Jahn 1961, Preto-Rodas 1970) or Rastif arianism among the impoverished (Smith, Augier and Nettleford 1960, Barrett 1977, Owens 1976), certain shared forms of entertainment such as the cockfight and the carnival, and a common aesthetic sensibility which Thompson has called the "aesthetic of cool" (Thompson 1969). Even with these additions, this is undoubtedly an incomplete list of the common characteristics of Plantation America, but it "should be enough to indicate that we are dealing with a particular species, so to speak, of contemporary society which has taken form in the New World" (Wagley 1957:11) . By way of summation — to guote Wagley's influential article again: It is, of course, a fact that there are important differences between the southern United States, the Caribbean islands of Spanish, French, Dutch, and English colonial backgrounds, and northern Brazil. Detailed local studies are obviously necessary and will provide the only basis for understanding the distinctive societies and cultures within this larger culture sphere. Yet, our local studies must be seen in relationship to this larger sphere which historically, and in the present, shares certain basic institutions and cultural patterns (Wagley 1957:11). The ethnohistory of an Haitian fishing village, which follows, is a detailed local study presented in terms of its relationship to this larger cultural sphere of Plantation America .

PAGE 37

23 Conclusion Recognizing the uniqueness of the Haitian experience and, for that matter, the Plage-Boutouian experience, I have attempted to understand the social history of Plage-Boutou in the context of the Plantation American cultural sphere and a pan-plantation developmental cycle. I present this ethnohistory in terms of what appeared to be the salient features of contemporary Plage-Boutou life. Chapter II is a general introduction to the community's history. Chapters III, IV and V are historical overviews of kinship and household organization, subsistence patterns and religion, magic and worldview. In Chapter VI, I have examined the social and economic impact of recent touristic development. Chapter VII is a life history of an exceptional Plage-Boutouian and an analysis of the potential for personal economic and social mobility within the confines of the community. Chapter VIII concludes with a comparison of Plage-Boutou with both the closed corporate communities of Indo-America and with other rural communities in Haiti. It is postulated that amorphousness is the "total-culture style" of Afro-America. An Epilogue contains a brief statement on the policy implications of cultural amorphousness .

PAGE 38

24 Notes 1. Plage-Boutou is a pseudonym as are all local place names and the names of individuals. Considerable effort has been expended in disguising this community and its inhabitants and to obfuscate its location. 2. In 1804, Louisiana's Governor Claiborne expressed his anxiety about the increasing numbers of Caribbean blacks that were immigrating to his state. In May 1804, Claiborne informed President Madison that "the Emigration from the West Indies continues great; few vessels arrive from that quarter but are crowded with passengers, and among them many slaves." The state legislature of Louisiana prohibited the entry of Haitian free blacks in 1806 (Taylor 1963:211-212). 3. Christophe was a harsh master of the northern kingdom. He forced the former slaves back to the plantations and made the northern kingdom prosperous but at a tremendous human cost (Cole 1967). Because of his blackness and his brilliance, he has often been lauded by Afro-Americans from other countries: "They established under the great Christophe, whose monument is still the most marvelous building in America, a replica of the African tribal government with emperor, chieftains, clans and family life, and raised Haiti from the inertia of reaction to organized and fairly efficient beginnings of economic life" (DuBois 1939:182). 4. The Afro-American press in the United States was critical of the United States invasion of Haiti. They claimed the Occupation was racist and served only to protect private United States corporate interests in Haiti. For instance, Grace Hutchins wrote in the Afro-American that "the story of Wall Street's occupation of Hayti is one of the bloodiest chapters in the history of American imperialism" (Hutchins 1970:288). 5. Franklin D. Roosevelt, then Assistant Secretary of the Navy wrote in the August 19, 1920 New York Times : "The facts are that I wrote Hayti's constitution myself, and if I do say it, I think it a pretty good constitution" (Hutchins 1970:288). More than twenty years later Roosevelt said in a toast to Haitian President Lescot that "one of the experiments of my life has been permanently successful" (Roosevelt 1944:125) and that "the future of Haiti is very, very, bright" (Roosevelt 1944:126).

PAGE 39

25 6. For a description of the differences between the plantation and hacienda settlement institutions, see Mintz and Wolf, 1957. 7. Some plantations survived the Haitian Revolution, but they were so few as to be insignificant. During and following the United States Occupation of Haiti, United States corporate interests established several plantations, the largest of which were HASCO (Haitian American Sugar Company) near Port-au-Prince and Plantation Dauphin sisal estate in northeastern Haiti. In spite of American, Haitian and other countries' nationals' attempts to exploit the cheap manpower of rural Haiti, plantations are still of little importance in the country's over-all economic picture . 8. See, for instance, M.G. Smith's description of community delimitation in Jamaica in Smith 1965:176-195. See also Morton Rubin's description of the plantation culture area in the Southern United States (Rubin 1951:191-205). 9. For a review of the literature on matrif ocality , see Gonzalez, 1970:231-244. 10. For the common musical patterns of Afro-American cultures, see especially Waterman 1948, 1952 and Roberts 1972. 11. See especially Parsons, 1933-1943, where she developed a virtual concordance of her extensive Afro-American folklore collections. 12. Related to these stereotypes was the pan-Plantation American reputation for hospitality of the ruling class: "Even the bitter opponents of the planting class found them kind and generous to strangers and democratic within a narrow circle. Hospitality was, in fact, a special point of pride with white Jamaicans .. .an explantation of one paradox in Jamaican life--the peculiar combination of tight social stratification with the ideal of hospitality. The white Jamaican was himself a stranger .. .As a stranger he turned to other strangers to meet his own loneliness" (Curtin 1955:52) . Gilberto Freyre described the tradition of planter hospitality in Brazil in his classic The Masters and the Slaves (1964). The theme of "Southern Hospitality" has, of course, been the basis of many "magnolia romances" written about the antebellum southern United States (e.g. Margaret Mitchell's Gone With The Wind and Stark Young's So Red The Rose ) .

PAGE 40

CHAPTER II: AN INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF PLAGE-BOUTOU Environmental And Demographic Description Plage-Boutou is located on the north side of a roughly broken mountain which extends about 12 kilometers east to west and 7-8 kilometers north to south. The mountain's crest has an altitude of 600-800 meters above sea level with its highest peak reaching an altitude of about 827 meters above sea level (Woodring, et al . 1924: 363). On its north the mountain descends into the Atlantic Ocean, to its east and west are ocean bays, and to the south is a westward extension of a coastal plain. This mountain area was described by the geographer Wood as the most sparsely populated area (under 50 people per square mile in 1954) in the Departement du Nord. Wood found the cause of the sparse population in the rugged terrain: . . . in this jagged terrain, house sites are by no means easy to find. Consequently, dwellers within the region are few in number, except in a few areas with deeper soils. The ridge crests and areas adjacent to the most precipitious sections of the shore are virtually uninhabited and support a cover of dense broadleaf forest .. .More favorable living conditions are offered along the coast where a few beaches exist, wide enough to support small villages (Wood 1963: 97) Plage-Boutou is one of the two small coastal villages in this section. It is located on the southwest side of a small bay which opens to the northwest. A road, 26

PAGE 41

27 passable by jeep from the town which serves as the administrative center of the commune, runs to the northeast side of the bay. From where the road terminates, access to Plage-Boutou may be gained either by local fishing boat or over a rugged trail which circles the bay. The village is situated on a narrow strip of flat land through which a small stream meanders after draining the steeply sloping mountains which surround Plage-Boutou on three sides. The village is protected from the occasional high waves and rough water of the Atlantic Ocean by a series of reefs — the closest one runs parallel to the shore nearly the length of the village. Though denied or ignored by geologists Woodring e_t al . (1924), Butterlin (1954) and Wood (1963), there are two small villages in the mountains above and behind Plage-Boutou. These are accessible only on foot. Woodring also denies the existence of several small streams which drain the mountain and empty into the Atlantic, including the stream at Plage-Boutou. The crest and northern slopes of the mountain are covered with limestone of upper Eocene age. Below the limestone are volcanic rocks and "an impure cherty limestone of supposed Cretaceous age" (Woodring, e_t al . 1924: 110). Woodring, et al . describe the limestone cover:

PAGE 42

28 It is hard and is gray on weathered and white on fresh surfaces. Some of it appears to be crystalline, and it contains coarse crystals of calcite. The rock is generally massive on weathered exposures. Its surface is pitted with solution cavities, and at almost every locality observed it consists of huge blocks left by solution, making the land surface very jagged and uneven (Woodring, et al. 1924: 110). Plage-Boutou is situated in a roughly V-shaped level spot which follows the stream from the beach southward into the hollow from which the stream descends. It also extends northwesterly up the bay to another smaller level space and beach . The settlement of Plage-Boutou would ordinarily be considered a village. However, the Plage-Boutouians themselves use the term vilazh (village) to divide the settlement into three distinct yet contiguous housing areas. The three housing areas (which I will refer to hence as villages) are sub-divided into smaller units (which I will refer to as neighborhoods). For the whole settlement I will use the term community. The name Plage-Boutou, as used by its residents, refers to the whole community, a village within the community and a neighborhood within the village. The names of the other two villages, Kaypaul and Lucner, also refer to neighborhoods within the respective villages. Lucner, the smallest of the three villages, is the eastern end of the settlement. To the west is the largest village Plage-Boutou. Northwest of Plage-Boutou and divided from it by a small sloping ridge of the mountain is Kaypaul.

PAGE 43

29 Kaypaul is the most affluent village in the settlement. It fronts directly on the bay and the houses extend up the side of the mountain behind the beach. The houses of Plage-Boutou also begin on the beach and extend southward and westward up the slopes. Lucner, on the other hand, is separated from the beach by a hedge of raket (cactus) and is restricted to the level area in front of the mountain. All the villages have a number of large fruit trees but only Lucner — the poorest of the villages--is completely shaded by them. Table 1: Diagram Of Community Organization In Plage-Boutou COMMUNITY VILLAGE NEIGHBORHOODS Lucner Lucner Carnage Plage-Boutou Plage-Boutou Nan Jerome Nan Dlo Plage-Boutou Plage-Boutou Nan Dlo Plage-Boutou (155 Houses) Anro La Sousse Nan Bouche Kaypaul Kaypaul Hugo Bout Roche Nan Morn Kaypaul The houses in all three villages are built close together, sometimes touching each other or with only a small pathway between them. They are built of a wattle and daub construction with dirt floors and tin or thatched roofs. Some of the houses of more affluent villagers have a concrete floor. A few of the recently constructed houses

PAGE 44

30 are of locally made concrete block. Many of the houses are periodically whitewashed or brightly painted. The houses are usually divided into two or three small rooms. They are furnished with a few items of homemade or inexpensive factory made items such as stools, chairs, tables, beds and cabinets, straw mats for sleeping and various cooking utensils. Only one house (the Commandant's house in Kaypaul) has running water and a toilet. Plage-Boutou and Kaypaul, but not Lucner, have several community faucets for fresh water and a few latrines. The latrines are now generally out of use due to the stench. The people of Lucner get water from the stream or from faucets in Ladadie. Bathing and clothes washing are done either from a bucket at one's house or in the stream which separates Plage-Boutou from Lucner. Several buildings are not used as houses. These include the Baptist Church and school building, the Catholic Church, two Catholic school buildings, six small "hotels" and an open-roofed rectangular concrete block enclosure once intended to be a night club but now used only as additional garden space and cockfight pit. Though both the Baptist and Catholic Churches of Plage-Boutou have primary schools, the quality of education they offer is very poor. Most parents cannot afford to send their children to school because payment for tuition, uniform, school supplies and books is prohibitive. A Creole literacy program has never been initiated in Plage-Boutou,

PAGE 45

31 and as most of the population has little or no comprehension of French, the populace is predominantly illiterate. Plage-3outou ' s population and composition change so frequently that any survey only approximates the day to day reality. The Haitian Government Census done in the Spring of 1983 gives us the population of the Plage-Boutou community as 898 people — 446 males and 452 females. The community is young as expected in a population whose life expectancy is only 47 1/2 years ( Hippolyte-Manigat 1980: 33). Table 2: Population Age Profile For Plage-Boutou, 1983 AGE FREQUENCY -1 1-4 5-14 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-74 75 + Non-determined 28 120 220 157 137 82 64 43 25 13 10 The population of Plage-Boutou has grown from zero in approximately 1900 to almost 900 in 1983. The growth in population is directly attributable to in-rnigration . This population movement has come primarily in two waves, from 1900-1930 and in the late 1970's. The forty year period from 1930 to 1970 was a time of stabilization when population growth was predominantly through the natural increase of the settler families.

PAGE 46

32 The Founding Fathers — 1900-19 30 There are no available written records for the reconstruction of Plage-Boutou ' s history. The following is an orally-derived genealogical history based on informant interviewing . In 1900 or before, when Lucner Lamour first came from St .-Louis-du-Nord (13 miles distant by sea) to Plage-Boutou, he found a small bay the shores of which were uninhabited. All around the bay were colonial ruins which probably met their demise in the earthquake of 1842. We know from old maps, that among the ruins of the colonial era is the gullied road that runs through the mountains to the Plage-Boutou Bay. This road presumably took supplies and men to a small fortification on the mountain facing the Atlantic from the southeastern end of the bay. The ruins of this fortification are known today as Fort Bontemps. Growing around and over these ruins was rozo , a reed used in the making of pane or fish traps. This reed thicket is a secondary growth which takes over previously cleared areas along the north coast of Haiti. An experienced fisherman and pane maker, Lucner immediately recognized the potential of this protected and uninhabited bay for reestablishing his family. On his first visit, Lucner (the old folks also call him Belonir) built a small house under the large tamarind tree

PAGE 47

33 which still stands on the beach at Kaypaul. A storm demolished Lucner's make-shift house, so he relocated closer to fresh water in the area known today, for its first inhabitant, as Lucner. Lucner brought his wife Meranzia and his children to live with him in his new home. No one today knows how it was that Lucner Lamour came to discover Plage-Boutou . Possibly he happened on Plage-Boutou on one of the extended fishing trips, lasting from a few days to several months, which contemporary fishermen still take in search of less intensely fished waters. It may be, that Lucner actively sought a new place to relocate his family. That the Lamour family, unlike all the other old families of Plage-Boutou, has not maintained any kinship links with their area of origin suggests Lucner might have been banned or pressured to leave his home. That he decided to resettle not in an established community but in an isolated and uninhabited area lends strength to this conjecture . The second settler in Plage-Boutou, also came from a marine fishing community. Simedar Paul and his wife Sarafine Persy moved to Kaypaul at the turn of the century from near Carabet (8 miles distant by sea). They lived in a cave ( kay rosh , literally rock house) on the mountain above Kaypaul ( kay Paul , or Paul's house). There are many of these caves in the limestone on the northern slopes of this region, and some are inhabited today by families of f isherf oik .

PAGE 48

34 Etienne Abis, whose place of origin has been lost to history, came to live with the Pauls in the early days of their residence in Kaypaul . He took Simedar's daughter, Roselaire, as wife and she bore Antoine and Lescat Abis in their cave home. While Simedar and his family were establishing themselves in Kaypaul, Doremisse Bernard moved with his wife, Rose Phillipe, and family from Port-de-Paix (7 miles distant by sea) to join Lucner Lamour in Lucner. What the relationship between Lucner and Doremisse was is impossible to know. Some of the old folks say that Lucner invited his friend Doremisse to join him and share the new locale with him. Others say that the hostility that now exists between the families was there from the start but since neither of them had title to the land, neither would have had the legal power to evict the other. Doremisse's two young daughters, Erzilirre and Mezulir, became very ill in their new environment. Doremisse sent for the renowned healer, Simon Magloire, of Carabet. Simon did not reply until after Doremisse had sent for him a third time. After the third request, Simon traveled by sea to Plage-Boutou . Upon arriving, Simon insisted that he was not a bokor (sorcerer) but a dokte fey (herb doctor). Doremisse accepted this but told Simon that his reputation as a healer was great and if he would effect a cure, Doremisse would give him the area known today as the village of Plage-Boutou .

PAGE 49

35 Simon agreed to try to cure the two girls. He collected a variety of leaves and roots which he steeped. When the preparation was complete, he walked upon the beach, held the pot of medicine to the sky and said an incantation for the purpose of invoking Saint Guinin's blessing. The treatment was efficacious and Doremisse gave the land to Simon as payment for his services. After the girls were well, Simon left for Carabet, not to return to Plage-Boutou for several years. Doremisse and Rose produced five other children, all raised in Lucner. His third daughter, Elizabet, set up residence with Antoine Abis in his newly built house at Hugo (the people believe this is a French colonial name). His son Dorestill, became the second husband of Lescat Abis. The most powerful of Doremisse's children was Julie who became chef -desect ion , the local civic and military leader of the section which included Plage-Boutou. It was this office which allowed him to exploit the anti-Syrian prejudice of the Haitian elite for his own profit. He was able to do this because Monsieur Laguerre, a Syrian, entrusted his landholdings at Plage-Boutou to Julie 7 Bernard. Julie promptly began to sell off the land to migrants from Carabet. On several occasions Julie demanded payment for land for which people had already paid. After Clodomy Daphnis of Carabet had bought several plots of Plage-Boutou land from Laguerre, Julie refused to let him

PAGE 50

36 occupy it, saying that Arabs couldn't own or sell land in Haiti. Clodomy was forced to pay for the land a second time, delaying his move to Plage-Boutou for several years. Another time, Julie extracted payment for land when Simon Magloire moved from Carabet with his grown sons to claim the land that Doremisse had given him in exchange for his services as a dokte fey . The Magloires met the extra price and built the first house in the village and neighborhood of Plage-Boutou. By approximately 1920, when the Laurent and Josmar families were established in Plage-Boutou, it was no longer possible to claim land through sguatting. The two available mechanisms for acquiring land were either marriage or purchase. Agocy Josmar from Gros Morne (18 miles distant by land and sea) took Lescat Abis for his wife and built a house on land she had inherited in Kaypaul . Lescat eventually left Agocy for Dorestille Bernard but Agocy remained in Kaypaul. Sintille Laurent (Carabet) and his wife Dorsine Cherie came with some of their children to Plage-Boutou after purchasing land from Julie Bernard. Plage-Boutou ' s original squatter, Lucner Lamour, had staked out yet another claim to land in Les Trois Rivereres where most of his descendants then lived. Owning separate abitasyo in two communes allowed many of the Lamour males to maintain two houses, two wives, two sets of gardens and a large number of non-kin dependants. Land

PAGE 51

37 ownership and polygamy are traditional means of gaining and maintaining prestige and wealth in rural Haiti. When the first settler arrived, Plage-Boutou was uninhabited with most of it claimed by the government. The earliest settlers did not set out to create a new community but were simply establishing their families on new land and less heavily fished waters. The squatters were all from marine fishing villages or towns. They established widely separated independent laku — the usual form of rural settlement in Haiti. A laku is a bilateral extended family housing compound ruled by the family elder, usually a male. Only in areas where the laku were concentrated rather than dispersed did village life develop. By 1930 the community was composed of seven family groups, living in 10 houses in six laku . Table 3: Plage-Boutou Lakous In 1930 VILLAGE Kaypaul Plage-Boutou Lucner LAKU Paul Magloire Laurent Bernard Lamour HEAD OF HOUSE Antoine Abis Etienne Paul Tinesse Paul Agocy Josmar Simon Magloire Oguste Magloire Simon Laurent Dorestille Bernard Madame Doremisse Bernard Lucner Lamour Plage-Boutou was founded by different individuals acting on their own initiative. It took at least 30 years

PAGE 52

38 for the population to establish six laku. Interraarri age had created definite links between the Paul, Abis and Bernard families which formed the basis for the founding of the village. The formation of real community life was boosted by the appointment of Julie Bernard to chef-de-section which linked Plage-Boutou with the national government. By 1930, an incipient community had emerged. Undoubtedly, some of the patterns of social behavior that emerged in the first 30 years were present in the founding fathers' communities of origin. Some of these behavioral patterns were elaborated and in time became traditional. The Stabilization Of An Amorphous Community — 19 30-1970 In the forty years from 1930-1970 the community of Plage-Boutou stabilized, i.e. stabilized as much as the average amorphous rural community of Haiti ever does. A class structure emerged, churches were founded, and political institutions formalized. The people had come to think of themselves as Plage-Boutouians , as part of a community in which they belonged. After 1940, the community land had been divided and migration of new immigrants had slowed considerably. I will consider the development of each neighborhood in turn.

PAGE 53

39 Lucner By the mid-1940's, Lucner was completely controlled by Lucner Larnour's son Peydesse and his grand-daughter Engeluque. The rest of Lucner's children lived in Les Trois Rivereres and Peydesse maintained his second wife there. All the Bernards had moved to Plage-Boutou or returned to Port-de-Paix. Though other unrelated peoples — mostly from Les Trois Rivereres — had built houses in Lucner, Peydesse assumed full ownership and control of Lucner. Throughout this period, the descendents of Peydesse Lamour found mates outside the community. Plage-Boutou During this time, several new families settled in Plage-Boutou. The Viel family established itself on Plage-Boutou land purchased by Sufrinne Viel from Julie Bernard in the 1930's. Another Josmar, Macselar Josmar, not from Gros Morne had bought land and settled in Plage-Boutou. The Josmar, Viel, Magloire and Laurent families — all originating in Carabet and inter-marrying extensively in Plage-Boutou — formed the core population of the village. The core group of landowners was expanded about 1940. Clodomy Daphnis, his sister Clenure, his wife MariLouise Caze and her orphaned younger siblings, arrived from Carabet to settle on the land that Clodomy had finally been able to finish buying from Julie Bernard.

PAGE 54

40 La Sousse La Sousse, above Plage-Boutou , is a gullied area on the side of the mountain where rain water drains down the hollow into the village. It was settled in the late 1920's or early 1930's by Prezine Charles and his two wives and five children, all from Gros Morne . The Charleses of La Sousse have never fished but have subsisted completely on gardening, livestock raising and marketing. Nevertheless, there exists to this day a symbiotic relationship between the people of the dispersed houses of La Sousse and the fishing folk on the beach. All of Prezine's children have remained in La Sousse except Desiys. In 1984 only descendants of Prezine and their mates lived in this neighborhood . Nan Jerome 9 Nan Jerome (at Jerome), a neighborhood which connects Plage-Boutou and La Sousse, is now the largest neighborhood in the community. It was named for its first inhabitant, Sintulere Jerome, who moved there with his wife Loruliarre Mondezure from Carabet about 1937. The Jeromes were prolific and inter-married especially with the Laurents and Viels from the next neighborhood, Plage-Boutou. The present population of Nan Jerome is primarily made up of people with these three surnames. By 1984, there were no

PAGE 55

41 longer any Laurents in the neighborhood of Plage-3outou — the family was completely confined to Nan Jerome. Nan Dlo Plage-Boutou In 1952, the grand-daughter of Simon Magloire, Ennarantte Magloire, took her land inheritance and built a house with her husband at Nan Dlo Plage-Boutou (at the water of Plage-Boutou). This neighborhood was named thus because it is where the stream descends from the mountain into the plain. Ennarantte's house remained the sole building in this isolated neighborhood until her niece, Camene Jeune (great grand-daughter of Simon Magloire), built a house there with her husband Ludiarre Lescot (Carabet) in 1966. In 1970, there were only these two houses at Nan Dlo Plage-Boutou . Hugo In the 1930's, Paul Lundy (Gros Morne) and his two wives (Carabet and Belair) bought house sites at Hugo and garden land in the mountains from Antoine Abis. The Lundy family, like the Gros Morne Charleses, originally did not fish but only gardened. Unlike the Charleses of La Sousse , the Lundy of Hugo had began to fish by the end of this period. In 1970, only Paul Lundy's descendants lived at Hugo .

PAGE 56

42 Kaypaul East of Hugo below the cave home of Simedar Paul is Kaypaul. By 1930, the Abises had gained control of this area. Today Pauls still live in Kaypaul but they own nothing more than their house sites. Bitterness exists among the Pauls about their loss of legacy. Yet the circumstances of this change in land ownership are not known. Today, Kaypaul is divided between Ernest Abis (son of Antoine) and Elizarre Josmar (son of Agocy Josmar and Lescat Abis). Other families, especially the descendants of Paul Lundy (Hugo) had houses in Kaypaul by 1970. Desiys Charles (La Sousse) had settled on land he purchased at the eastern end of the neighborhood where he and his descendants became fishermen. After 1940, the land at Plage-Boutou was divided among the founding settler families: Lamour, Bernard, Laurent, Magloire, Viel, Jerome, Daphnis, Charles, Abis, Josmar and Lundy. Few new settlers came to Plage-Boutou. The ones who did come were not as fortunate as their predecessors because there was no land larger than a house site available for purchase or for sguatting. The Toto, Roland, and Gamier families in Plage-Boutou, the Mignon family in Nan Jerome, and the Rouzier family in Lucner settled in the community and worked as share-croppers for the earlier settlers. Thus a class-structure developed between the landed

PAGE 57

43 ( gro mun — big man) and landless ( ti mun — little man) Plage-Boutouians . P_i gro mun (bigger man) — the largest landholders and those in political control — were the Bernards and Abises. After Julie Bernard's death, his brother Dorestille became "Commandant" of the community. When Dorestille died in 1952, his nephew, Ernest Abis, became Commandant. After the 1957 election of Francois "Papa Doc" Duvalier as President of Haiti, mayors were elected in each community. The Duvalier government also appointed a chef milis (local Volunteers for National Security — better known as ton ton 1 2 machoutes ) to each community. Ernest Abis was appointed chef milis and subsequently elected mayor, thus concentrating all local power in his hands. In 1934, the Catholic Church built a chapel at the upper end of Nan Jerome to serve the community. In 1943, a Baptist church was organized, and their first chapel was built in 1960. Both the Baptist and Catholic churches were administered by religious officials from the closest urban area and both had a local predicatuer or lay cleric. The neighborhoods were primarily composed of people from the same village or section of origin. Friends, family and in-laws migrated to Plage-Boutou and settled in their kinspeople's laku or created new laku nearby. The pattern of settlement, once established, was maintained by frequent visits and inter-marriage between the people from the communities of origin and the neighborhoods of Plage-Boutou.

PAGE 58

44 This tendency is reinforced by the rural Haitians 1 distrust of people they don't know or to whom they are not kin. Therefore, they usually do not visit, trade or marry in 1 3 communities in which they have no family links. Table 4: Community Of Origin Of The Majority Of Inhabitants In Each Neighborhood Of Plage-Boutou NEIGHBORHOOD Lucner Plage-Boutou Nan Jerome Nan Dlo Plage-Boutou La Sousse Hugo Kaypaul COMMUNITY OF ORIGIN Les Trois Rivereres Carabet Carabet Plage-Boutou Gros Morne Gros Morne Gros Morne/Carabet The core population group of the settlement was composed of the Plage-Boutou/Nan Jerome/Nan Dlo Plage-Boutou inhabitants who primarily originated in Carabet. Most of the people who came from Gros Morne lived in two isolated laku --La Sousse and Hugo. Lucner had become a frontier outpost of Les Trois Rivereres. Political control was in the hands of the richest f amily--the Bernard/Abises--the only family with an urban origin. In 1970, Plage-Boutou was a typical Haitian fishing village. Making a living was accomplished through agriculture, fishing and marketing. The community--like most rural communities in Haiti and the Caribbean — was amorphous. Although its population changed almost daily, it was changed in predictable ways, and with a limited number of individual alternatives available. The

PAGE 59

45 formalization of religious and political institutions has followed the same pattern as elsewhere in rural Haiti. As in most of Haiti, the majority of the peasants were owners of small landholdings , with only a few landless sharecroppers and even fewer large landowners. The only distinguishing characteristic of Plage-Boutou was its isolation from any other area of dense population. It is this characteristic which, in large part, made possible the development of tourism. As used in this dissertation, the meaning of amorphousness includes such standard dictionary definitions as without definite form, flexible and variable. Because these aspectsof amorphousness are static, the term is also intended to imply an added dynamic quality of fluctuation and change. The use of cultural amorphousness is a creative act on the part of individual Afro-Americans. As a central organizing principle of Afro-American culture and society, cultural amorphousness functions as an adaptation to the oppression and poverty which are the legacy of Plantation America . The Advent Of Tourism and Its Impact — 1970-Present Tourism at Plage-Boutou began about 1970 with the arrival of a foreign entrepreneur, Jean Leclerc (a tourist goods dealer in Port-de-Paix ) . It has increased steadily in the past decade and a half. The greatest period of

PAGE 60

46 community involvement in tourist related enterprises was from 1978 to 1980. Tourism either directly or indirectly caused vast changes in nearly every aspect of community life. In-migration increased sharply and Plage-Boutou ' s population more than doubled in a few years. There were changes in land tenure, religious life, fishing techniques and subsistence strategies. The introduction of new wealth and closer links with the outside world, as well as these other changes, necessitated a re-ordering of the social class system of the community. The average Plage-Boutouians ' world-view changed considerably. The people's hopes for the future are now founded on the possible improvement in the quality of their lives that tourism may bring. Leclerc has been involved in the growth of tourism in Plage-Boutou since its inception. This Frenchman established a tourist shop in Port-de-Paix in the late 1960's. Recognizing the commercial potential of the PlageBoutou area he built himself a small beach house in Kaypaul and proceeded to get acquainted with the community. He was the first white, non-Haitian and non-peasant person to own a house in Plage-Boutou. Plage-Boutou ' s development as a tourist attraction progressed slowly until the Latortue Beach project began at nearby Grand Latortue in 1978. This multi-million dollar project was a joint-venture of the Haitian and French governments and of Haitian and French private business

PAGE 61

47 sectors. The investors intended to build the Caribbean's largest resort complex in this sparsely populated rural section, isolated and protected from the overcrowding, misery and poverty of the rest of Haiti. Before the project construction was halted in June of 1980, it gave many Plage-Boutouians their first experience at wage labor. The attraction of cash payment took many of the younger men out of the mountain fields and small fishing boats. Today many of these men are still dependent on wage-labor, tourist hustling or family charity. They do not know the traditional subsistence skills and are unwilling to return to the lifestyle of their parents and of the majority of the Haitian peasantry. Of those young men who continued to fish or returned to fishing, few use the labor-intensive traditional technologies of pane , line and hook or net. Instead they fish the shallow reefs with spear-guns for r5ma (lobster) to sell to tourists or to the middleman who supplies the hotels in Port-de-Paix . The development of Latortue Beach attracted many new people to Plage-Boutou , altering the demographic situation tremendously. The new job opportunities brought in not only many foreigners but also people from neighboring sections , especially from Carabet. The foreigners left when the project failed but the Haitian immigrants stayed, effectively doubling the permanent population of Plage-Boutou in less than two years. Four new neighborhoods have been founded since 1978, Nan Bouche (at the creek), Nan

PAGE 62

48 Dlo Plage-Boutou Anro (above at the water of Plage-Boutou) , Nan Morne Kaypaul (on the mountain in Kaypaul) and Bout Roche (rocky end). Plage-Boutou experienced increasing strain on its limited land resources due to the natural population increase of the original inhabitants and the increased in-migration that began in the late 1970's. In addition, many of the descendants of the early settlers had sold their land to speculators for ready cash. Without land to work or parcel out to tenants, and with their meager cash return on their land soon gone, these families were reduced to tenants themselves. This depleted the gro mun class while increasing the class of t_i mun . The church was able to benefit from this new government and business interest in Plage-Boutou. Both the Catholic and Baptist Churches established primary schools to educate their young. This involved the construction of three new buildings for the Catholic school and a new church/school building for the Baptists. The money for the construction of the new buildings and the pay for teachers came from both inside and outside the community. The introduction of tourism in Plage-Boutou created a new subsistence base. The increased economic opportunity encouraged new in-migration and the population soared. The changes in land tenure (due to increased land value), the new inequalities in the relative affluence of the members of the community, the influx of many new people to the

PAGE 63

49 community and the increased communication and dependency on the outside world (due to the new national and international importance of Plage-Boutou ) necessitated a re-ordering of inter-personal relations. Consequently, the pattern of social stratification was altered. There have been many modifications in the manifest cultural and economic circumstances of Plage-Boutou since the advent of tourism. The less tangible attitudinal transformation has been significant as is illustrated in the following observation of child-play. In 1970, after the young boys would swim and play in the water, they would roll their naked, wet bodies on the beach until they were covered with white sand from head to foot. They would then refer to themselves and each other as pere — the Catholic priest and the only white man with whom they were familiar. Today, boys still cover their wet bodies with sand but call themselves and each other mun American , mun Francais , mun Canadian , mun Dominican , mun Anglais , mun Allemande , or simply blak . Conclusion The history of Plage-Boutou, from its founding in approximately 1900 to 1984, is an example of one way in which a post-Emancipation, Plantation America community was founded and evolved. The settlement was originally a scattering of unrelated laku , the people of which

PAGE 64

50 originated in different localities. As in-migration increased — the majority of it originating from one commune — the laku became more numerous and were spaced closer together. The settlers located their new laku in the neighborhoods where laku of other members of their original community had re-located. As diverse kinship links were established through marriage between the different laku , a communitymindedness developed. This community-mindedness was formalized through the development of a social-class heirarchy and the institutionalization of power and religion . In seventy years' time, Plage-Boutou had become a typical north coast village. What was untypical about this community is that it was new and was created through internal migration. The literature on Haiti asserts that internal migration is rarely from one rural area to another (Marshall 1979, Weil, et al 1973, Wood 1963, Simpson 1940a, Wingfield 1966, Ahlers 1979). This claimed "spatial immobility of the population" (Simpson 1940:499) is supported by data from the official census of 1950. Wood states that 92% of the total population of the Departement du Nord live within the communes in which they were born (Wood 1963:21). At no time since the first settler arrived in Plage-Boutou were more than 50% of its residents born within the commune which includes Plage-Boutou.

PAGE 65

51 Perhaps this claim about Haitian internal migration is an over-generalization based on a less than comprehensive coverage of rural Haiti. Most social scientists and government officials have done their research in long-established settlements, the majority very close to Port-au-Prince. Consequently, the more isolated and sparsely populated areas, where newer settlements are more likely to be found, have not been studied intensely by social scientists. Plage-Boutou since 1970, is also untypical of a Haitian rural community because of the introduction of tourism. The impact of tourism on the community has been tremendous. Since there is no comparative data from elsewhere in rural Haiti, I devote a full chapter of this dissertation to tourism, and the changes it has promoted in the community of Plage-Boutou . In just 80 years Plage-Boutou has evolved from a scattering of isolated family compounds to a typical Haitian fishing village to a very untypical tourist-oriented settlement. Yet in spite of the changes, Plage-Boutou is still recognizable in most of its features, as an Haitian peasant community.

PAGE 66

52 Notes 1. The section is the smallest of the geographic units recognized for administrative purposes by the Haitian civic and military authorities. A commune is composed of two or more sections , an arrondisement of two communes , a departement of a number of arrondisements . There are currently nine departements in Haiti. 2. see appendix 1, map 1. 3. Patterson's description of the huts in the slave quarters of Jamaican plantations is striking in its aptness as a description of the situation in Plage-Boutou : "Seen from afar, they 'resembling' at that bee-hives, thatched a by groves of tall coc of ostrich feathers, But while pleasant fr miserable hovels on c built on the African pro-slavery writer, ' in Jamaica was as in Africa...' These hut wattle a.nd daub; were length; and from abou covered either with d the long-mountain tha Most of these huts we many remained undivid three rooms; the numb the prosperity and st 1967:54). sometimes appeared very picturesque, distance, 'so many villages of lmost to the ground, and over-shadowed oa-nut trees, whose tops, like branches appeared like umbrellas above them'. om afar, they turned out to be quite loser inspection . . . The huts were pattern. In the words of one The groundwork of all Negro habitations Sierra Leone, the Negro huts of s, which had not floors, were made of between fifteen and twenty feet in t fourteen feet wide; the roof was ried guinea grass or palmetto thatch or tch or, occasionally with cane tops, re divided into two rooms, although ed and a few divided into as many as er of rooms being usually an index of atus of the slaves" (Patterson 4. The north coast of Haiti is a reminder of that great diaster. Hesketh Prichard wrote in 1900 that "Cap Haytien is a mushroom town of wood, built among imposing stone ruins . . . She bears upon her the indelible impress of the tremendous earthquake of 1842" (Prichard 1900:172). Prichard 's observations are as true today for the north coast of Haiti as they were in 1900. 5. For more information on the chef -desection in Haiti, see Comhaire 1955:620-623. 6. From the time of Haitian Independence in 1804 until 1889 no foreigners except those of African or Indian descent could become naturalized citizens of Haiti. By 1903, so many Syrian traders had migrated and become citizens of Haiti that a special law was amended to the constitution

PAGE 67

53 prohibiting Syrians to enter Haitian territory and placing special eligibility restrictions for gaining citizenship on those Syrians already in Haiti (Leger 1907:290, Simpson 1941). Until Franklin Delano Roosevelt wrote the new Haitian Constitution of 1919, during the United States Occupation, only Haitian citizens were allowed to own land in Haiti (Nicholls 1979). (For a fascinating history of Syrians in Haiti and their role in United States economic policy, see Plummer 1931.) 7. One of the many Syri the late 19th and early title to the land of Pla name to the French Lague made a family. His brie was left to his sons, wh businesses to include ha supplies and a grocery s for reclaiming the land squatter's rights laws w occupies previously unoc it being contested, it 1 an traders who h 20th centuries h ge-Boutou. This rre , married an k making busines o have since exp rdware and other tore . They have at Plage-Boutou hich specify tha cupied land for egally becomes t ad entered Haiti in ad obtained legal man changed his Haitian woman and s near Port-de-Paix anded their construction no legal recourse due to the t if a person twenty years without heirs . 8. Abitasyo does not have an exact meaning in rural Haiti. I use the term here to denote a settlement area and surrounding garden land. 9. The Haitian Creole word n_a (nan) is a preposition meaning at, in, to, of, depending upon the usage context. 10. Records show that Antoine Abis rented Kaypaul from the government in 1934, thus assuming full control of the land. He did not pay the annual rent for any year after 1934. The people of Plage-Boutou including the Abises, assume that Antoine's son Ernest has legal title to Kaypaul. This sort of confusion in land rights is quite common in Haiti; e.g. in 1938 the government rented land to 22,445 people, of these tenants, 11,859 were located in undetermined areas (de Young 1958:42) . 11. The terms gro mun and t_i mun refer to relative economic position, physical size and age (i.e. child or adult). In a country as poor as Haiti only rich people can afford to be physically large. The metaphor likening the dependency of children on their parents to the relationship between the social classes is quite telling of the way Haitian peasants view social stratification. 12. Volunteers for National Service are called the ton ton machoutes — a kind of bogeyman in Haitian folK belief — by the public. The VSN is a "militia made up of civil servants (at the senior staff level), lower middle-class citizens, social undesirables and apprentice criminals (to handle the

PAGE 68

54 more distasteful tasks). To these persons, he proposed, not so much financial reward (except for certain individuals) as the heady power of terrifying and subduing, the indescribable double glory of wearing a 'uniform' (though ill-assorted, to placate the army), and carrying a revolver-symbol and instrument of power; and above all, the assurance of total impunity" ( Hippolyte-Manigat 1980:211). 13. This feeling of mutual distrust and vulnerability seems to be a common feature of peasant culture. See especially "Peasant Personalities", pp. 296-375, in Potter, Diaz and Foster 1967.

PAGE 69

CHAPTER III: THE ROLE OF FAMILY, KINSHIP AND HOUSEHOLD IN A CHANGING COMMUNITY The word "family" as employed in Haiti can be understood only in terms of a broader meaning than is given it in Europe and America, where it describes only the most immediate relationship group (Herskovits 1971:123). Family life in the Caribbean has been the subject of more anthropological articles and monographs than any other feature of Caribbean society. The instability of the Caribbean family, so unlike the family in most communities studied by anthropologists, has been described as a central feature of local community organization. Though the history and culture of Haiti are in many respects unigue in Plantation America, this characteristic of the Afro-American family is as true for rural Haiti as it is for the rest of the Caribbean. This chapter examines the diverse forms of the contemporary Plage-Boutouian family and the ways in which they have evolved. The laku , kindred, forms of mating and household composition are described and their developmental cycles elucidated. The formation and evolution of the family in Plage-Boutou is interpreted in terms of the growth and decline of plantation society. 55

PAGE 70

56 The Life Cycle Of The Laku In Plage-Boutou The traditional settlement institution in rural Haiti was the laku Ideally a laku is a patrilineal housing compound containing a father and his spouse, his male children, their spouses and children. New laku were created when land became scarce. As a result, a son would move to a less populated area to begin a new family compound (Herskovits 1971:124). Though we lack detailed information about the origins of the laku system, there appears to be some truth in both the interpretations that have been proposed: the form of the post-Emancipation housing compound was determined by either the tenacity of African culture or the conditions of slavery. Montilus has described parallels between the Haitian laku and the Dahomean family settlement (Laguerre 1978:441). If the Haitian extended family was an extension of ancestral African practice, it has also been shaped by the exigencies of plantation life. M.G. Smith observed of the British Caribbean that new "mating forms" and "diverse definitions of parenthood" resulted from the "fragmentation of elementary families was endemic in this slave society" (Smith 1962:263). The new mating forms and diverse definitions of parenthood--a common legacy throughout Plantation America — have modified the possible reinstitution of African familial settlement patterns in Haiti.

PAGE 71

57 There is no evidence that the laku , understood as a patrilineal housing compound which Montilus compares with the Dahomean pattern, was ever common in post-Emancipation Haiti. Today, as in 1934 when Herskovits studied the community of Mirebalais, the black extended family in rural Haiti is amorphous and bilateral (Herskovits 1971). Today, as in 1948 when Metraux, et. al . studied life in the Marbial Valley, the old folks talk of the decline of the ideal pattern of the laku which they say existed in their fathers' or grandfathers' times (Metraux, e_t al . 1951, Metraux 1951). It is very possible — based on comparative and historical data from other regions of Plantation America — that the ideal laku existed only as a cognitive model but not as a reality . The pioneer laku in Plage-Boutou were not of the ideal type. They were formed — in accordance with the process that Herskovits describes — when a male member of a distant laku removed himself, his spouse and children to the abundant lands (and less fished waters) of the new settlement. Because of the ample resources in Plage-Boutou in its early days, most of the male and female children of the founding fathers stayed in their laku of birth when they took mates from outside the settlement. The population of the laku was able to grow due to Haitian inheritance customs. In Haiti, a person's children of both sexes inherit equally (with some exceptions) from both parents. All natural, recognized children inherit an

PAGE 72

58 equal share of land and possessions; legitimate children 2 inherit an increased share. This inheritance system is complicated by polygyny, the co-existence of marriage and plasazh (consenual union), the father's recognition or non-recogniton of his natural children and the practice of adoption. Disagreements over inheritance, with lawsuits and accusations and counter-accusations of magic, often break up families. The fluidity of this system of inheritance made it adaptable to either the extension or the disintegration of the laku Eventually three or four generations, bilaterally descended from one common male ancestor or spouses of these descendants, lived together in a distinct and separate housing compound. The oldest male living in the compound was shef of the laku and its residents. In time, most of these laku fragmented and dispersed due to the introduction of new families into the compound through intermarriage between laku , marriage with people from outside the community and the setting-up of single households on uninhabited Plage-Boutou land. Today, the use of the term laku in Plage-Boutou refers to a variety of settlement types: 1) a section of land owned by one family with kin and non-kin residents and a shef (the Lamour laku , coterminous with Lucner and composed of 98 people in 17 houses); 2) an isolated neighborhood where the residents of all the houses are kin but with no shef (the Charles laku of La Sousse with 37

PAGE 73

59 people in 7 houses and the Lundy laku of Hugo with 20 people in 5 houses); 3) a cluster of houses of collaterally related kinsmen with no shef (the Magloire, Daphins, Caze, Josmar house cluster in Plage-Boutou composed of 206 people in 35 houses); 4) a small neighborhood which contains both kin and non-kin residents with no shef (Nan Dlo Plage-Boutou with 33 people in 7 houses); 5) a cluster of houses within a neighborhood whose inhabitants are all descended from one man and under the control of the ancestor's eldest male descendant (the newly forming Abis laku in Kaypaul with 25 people in 5 houses); or 6 ) a single dwelling and its surrounding yard (various locations with from 1 to 15 people ) . The various definitions of laku reflect the reality that the laku , except the emergent Abis compound, are in decline: the family members are dispersed, they contain a large number of residents who are not considered kin and they usually lack a shef . Although the Lamour laku has been able to maintain a shef by virtue of their control of all the land in the neighborhood, the ownership of the land and Narva Lamour 's authority as shef are being contested in the Haitian courts. As Ernest Abis consolidates his power and wealth, the Abis laku in Kaypaul is growing. The first house was built by Antoine Abis nearly 50 years ago and is now owned by his son Ernest. In 1974, Archil Abis, a natural son of Ernest Abis, built a house behind that of his father's. Since

PAGE 74

60 then, two children (both natural, but by different mothers) and one widow of Ernest's brother have built houses surrounding Ernest's. In June 1984, Ernest started construction on a house for another of his natural sons, Toussaint, who works on a cruise liner. In the last ten years, a one-house family residence has grown into a six-house Abis laku . The ideal family settlement pattern which the slaves brought with them from Africa could not be re-created under the conditions of slavery. This pattern remained a cognitive focus, but not a common practice, into twentieth-century Haiti. The laku combined the ideal African pattern with the new mating forms, new ideas of parenthood and bilaterality which were adaptations to plantation and subsequent peasant life. Inherent in the bilaterality of the laku was its own demise. Researchers who have worked in long-established Haitian settlements have frequently commented on the decline of the laku (Metraux, e_t al . 1951, Metraux 1951, Bastien 1961, Comhaire-Sylvain 1961, Simpson 1942, Laguerre 1978, 1982). The natural life cycle of the laku follows this pattern: 1) the establishment of a single family dwelling on new land; 2) the bilateral generational extension of membership and consequent houses; 3) the fragmentation and decline of the laku as land becomes scarce and the member households disperse.

PAGE 75

61 This process is the common developmental sequence, but variations are possible as when the Abis family, after accumulating increased wealth, power and land, regrouped and created a new laku . Since very little land is available for squatters in Haiti, only in the rare case where upward economic mobility occurs in the peasant population can new laku be founded today. The Life Cycle Of The Famni In Plage-Boutou Early work on the Caribbean family suffered from the confusion of kinship with residence (Gonzales 1969). In Haiti, we need not only to distinguish family and household but by extension the kindred and the housing compound. The kindred has not been previously reported in the literature on the Haitian family, though Laguerre's discussion of the black extended family presents a picture similar to the Plage-Boutou kindred (Laguerre 1978). For the Caribbean region as a whole, the descent group has been discribed only for Carriacou (the patrilineal "bloods," Smith 1961) and Surinam (the much more formalized and ritualized lineages of the Bush Maroons, Price 1974). The laku established by the original settlers were the birth places of most of Plage-Boutou ' s kindreds, but neither did all the original laku evolve into kindreds nor did each kindred originate in a Plage-Boutou laku . Some of the original laku formed the basis for loosely associated,

PAGE 76

62 cognatic kindreds, referred to by the Plage-Boutouians as famni . Other laku dispersed to such an extent that they did not function as kindred associations. The Viel, Paul and Laurent families are examples of the latter process where — due to out-migration (Laurent, Paul and Viel) or internal strife and accusations of witchcraft (Viel)--the original laku organization disintegrated. In these cases the dispersed members of the Viel and Laurent families either associated themselves through conjugal union with other laku or set-up households not associated with any of the kindreds. These kindreds, referred to as "dispersed" laku as distinct from "geographic" laku ( Laguerrre 1978) function as economic, religious and friendship solidarities. Ideally, a kindred member's first responsibility is to his immediate family and to a progressively lesser extent to other relatives as the kinship ties become more distant (i.e. delimited by genealogical distance). In practice, they are very elastic, allowing their members to incorporate famni lwe (distant kin) and to exclude close kin by manipulation of kinship terms. Kinship in rural Haiti is, 3 indeed, defined situationally . Like the laku the kindred is bilateral with a patrilineal bias. Although a person can expect reciprocity and aid from her/his mother's or spouse's kindred (sometimes even exclusively), the usual tendency is to associate and cooperate primarily with the father's kindred.

PAGE 77

63 Today, the families of Magloire, Caze, Jerome, Abis-Bernard , Lamour, Lundy and Charles still function as flexible kindred associations. These kindreds are at different stages of development and have evolved in diverse ways. Each of the surviving kindreds will be briefly described and the kindred developmental cycle explicated. The largest family in Plage-Boutou is composed of the descendants of Simon MAGLOIRE. Though they are dispersed in the three villages of the community, in Port-de-Paix , Port-au-Prince, the Bahamas, Martinique and the United States, they recognize their common descent from Simon Magloire and the authority of Andre Magloire. While Andre is not the oldest, he is the wealthiest of the male descendants of Simon Magloire. In recent years, his power over family members has declined as the kindred has dispersed geographically and its members have reduced the size of their land holdings. The richest but smallest kindred is the ABIS-BERNARD family which includes all the direct descendants of Doremisse Bernard. During most of its history, the shef of this family has also been the Commandant of Plage-Boutou. This office passed from brother to brother (Julie Bernard to Dorestill Bernard) and from brother to his sister's son (Dorestill Bernard to Ernest Abis). This kindred started in the Bernard laku and expanded beyond the housing compound by inter-marriage with the Abises. Through this process, the Abises were able to

PAGE 78

64 accumulate land and prestige (as they had done in the previous generation through inter-marriage with the Paul family) and inherit political office. Today, though still operating as one kindred incorporating two primary surname groups, the family is dividing. Many of the Bernards have migrated, made conjugal unions with persons from lower status families, divested themselves of most of their land and consequently have become second-class members of the kindred. The Abises, on the other hand, have gained wealth, land, prestige and power and have created a new Abis laku around the Commandant's house in Kaypaul. This laku , and the newly delimited kindred it establishes, contains only the descendants (their spouses and adopted non-kin) from the union of Antoine Abis and Elizabet Bernard. The descendants of Lucner LAMOUR form a kindred under the shef Narva Lamour. This kindred is residentally divided between Lucner and Les Trois Rivereres, and its members move between the two localities with great frequency, keeping gardens and spouses in both locations. The JEROME famni is almost completely confined to Nan Jerome and is in a state of decline with no apparent shef . The kindred has kept its viability primarily because few of the descendants of Sintulere Jerome have re-located in other neighborhoods . The orphaned CAZE siblings present a picture of an emergent kindred. Anna (daughter of Dalusse) is the legal wife of the Commandant who therefore treats her siblings

PAGE 79

6 5 with favor. Three of her brothers work for a Frenchman who owns a luxury hotel and a great deal of land in the Plage-Boutou area. The emergent shef of this kindred is Jean Luis Caze, manager of the extensive landholdings of an American absentee landlord. The CHARLES and LUNDY kindreds lack headmen. These families are dispersed through the community but the neighborhoods of their origin still function as family laku . The descendents of Prezine Charles living in La Sousse, the most isolated neighborhood, have for the most part remained aloof from the rest of the community; they work at agriculture in the mountains rather than fish. The descendents of Paul Lundy reside throughout the community, except in Lucner. As the best represented f amni in the Baptist Church, the Lundy kindred has also made itself distant from many forms of community interaction. Just as there is an hierarchy within the household--based on ownership, age and sex—and between households within the la_k_u --based on the inhabitants' age, sex, wealth and genealogical closeness to the original se ttler--there is an hierarchy between f amni . The kindred ranking is based on wealth, extent of landholdings and political power. The Abis kindred is the most prestigious and powerful one in this hierarchy, followed by the large but declining Magloire f amni . The newly emergent Caze kindred is rapidly moving upward in the estimation of their fellow Plage-Boutouians . Because of the Lamours 1

PAGE 80

66 involvement with voodoo, they are generally considered a lower status famni in spite of their large landholdings . The aloof and sometimes hostile Charleses are regarded with suspicion. The Lundy and Jerome kindreds are in such a state of decline that they are seldom thought of in corporate terms, except when an arguement or fight erupts between one of their members and someone not of their famni . Kinship groups in Plage-Boutou operate as a "personal kindred" with a "focal kinsperson," the famni shef . At the same time, the famni is percieved of, in terms of the ideal pattern, as a descent group that includes all known relatives, both living and dead. (What Goodenough describes as a kindred whose referent is a descent group rather than an individual). Thus, the two inter-related systems (the ideal and the actual) of the Plage-Boutou famni may be subsumed under the term "ancestor-oriented" kindred (Goodenough 1970) . Inter-related and sometimes comprised of the same people, the laku and the famni nevertheless are organized in terms of different principles and have different developmental cycles. The famni was usually born in a laku setting. As the kindred out-grew the residential compound, it began to disperse. With the growth of the famni , the feelings of kinship and solidarity weakened between the more distant kin. This structural feature of the kindred combined with its bilaterality acted as an inherent

PAGE 81

mechanism for kindred fission and/or dispersal. In Haiti, with its increasing minifundia and declining prosperity, few f amni have the resources, after fission, to establish a new kindred association. Marriage , Plasazh And Polygamy The famni is exogamous and bilateral. These two structural features allow for the kindred's growth or dispersal according to its circumstances. The mechanisms, by which the famni ' s inherent potential for extension or fisson is actualized, are the various forms of sexual arrangements practiced in the community. The variety of sexual relationships which make the kindred and even the laku appear amorphous also affect the community as a whole, allowing great mobility of adults between a number of northern Haitian communities. An adolescent's first sexual experience is usually arranged clandestinely with a member of the opposite sex of similar age. The first experiences with sex are had in the parental house of either partner while no one else is at home. Sexual experimentation by 14 to 20 year-olds is vainly discouraged by parents, who admonish their children to postpone sexual relations, and thus parenthood, for as long as possible. A young person's early experiences with sex may be with various mates or may lead to a stable monogamous

PAGE 82

68 relationship. The community generally does not recognize the relationship until the woman becomes pregnant. If the pregnant woman's parents refuse to allow the young couple to co-reside or to establish a recognized visiting arrangement, the woman becomes p_u tut mun (for all men) — a low status mating category whicj'i allows any man to openly pursue sexual liaison with her. There are two kinds of stable conjugal unions acknowledged in rural Haiti, marriage and plasazh . Marriage, as practiced in Plage-Boutou , is both a religious and a civil act. Plasazh is a form of common-law co-residence or a socially recognized visiting relationship. Marriage and plasazh are not mutually exclusive union types and, in practice, allow for diverse forms of polygamy and extra-union sexual relations. Marriage, the more prestigious form of union, is also very expensive and therefore impossible for the majority of Plage-Boutouians . When a couple chooses to get married, the man or his family must furnish a house, bed, table, new clothes and a feast. Local estimates of the cost of acquiring the material prerequisites for marriage vary between $800 and $1500. Thus, only gro mun marry. Not only does the couple gain an increase in status by marriage but also an extended, mutually obligatory social network through the addition of the wedding's godparents. According to the residents of Plage-Boutou, marriage was much more common in the past than it is today. The

PAGE 83

69 informants, in genealogical interviews, unanimously agreed that all the original settlers were married and that most of their sons were similarly established. Whether the Plage-Boutouians are idealizing their ancestry or not, the fact remains that the pioneer settlers were gro mun with large landholdings while the majority of their descendants are landless sharecroppers with no possibility of acquiring land or other wealth. The more common and lower-status form of conjugal union in Plage-Boutou is plasazh . In former times, a letter requesting a woman's hand was sent to her parents by her 4 suitor but today this extravagance has disappeared. In contemporary Plage-Bout'ou , if the parents of a potential plasazh mate are alive, they must be given small presents and their approval must be sought. Most young couples who become plase establish a visiting relationship or co-reside in one of the spouse's parental homes. These arrangements are understood to be temporary and as soon as the couple is financially able they are expected to establish a separate residence, no matter how humble. This is especially difficult as there are only five rental properties, all continuously occupied, in the . . 5 community . The middle-aged man or woman of Plage-Boutou who has had only one mate and children by just one sexual partner are the exception. Fleeting sexual contact between a person in a stable union and one who is not of that union are

PAGE 84

70 common. The more casual contacts are facilitated by the temporary separation of the conjugal pair by migration and fishing or marketing trips. Some plasazh unions are stable and monogamous for years but the tendency is for these relationships to falter and dissolve. This is especially true of the first plasazh unions in which the young paticipate. The more stable unions have generally been those in which both partners are older and have participated in earlier plasazh . 6 arrangements . Serial polygamy is a common mating form for both sexes but simultaneous polygamy is usually a male-only option. Simultaneous polygamy, in Haiti, refers to a male having two or more socially recognized conjugal unions at the same time . The polygynous housing compound (West African type) is reported rarely in Haiti. Comhaire-Sylvain stated that the co-residence of co-wives had been more common in the past in the Kenscoff area but in 1956-57 she found only two such polygynous housing compounds (Comhaire-Sylvain 1961:208-209). The disappearance of this residental pattern has also been true for the domestic group cycle in Plage-Boutou . The original Charles and Lundy laku (at La Sousse and Hugo, respectively) were of this settlement type. Today, the polygynous housing compound is unknown in Plage-Boutou .

PAGE 85

71 A special case of polygamy is that of Narva Lamour. In Lucner, Narva lives with Muzar Santos while in Les Trois Rivereres, his other wife Auliare Dessalines, a mambo (female voodoo leader), lives with another man. When Narva visits Les Trois Rivereres, Auliare co-resides with Narva in his Les Trois Rivereres house. When Auliare visits Lucner, she lives whith Narva and Muzar in their house in a harmonius co-wife relationship. Today, in Plage-Boutou , a congenial relationship and co-residence of a man's wives is considered unnatural: Narva 1 polygamous arrangements are sometimes the butt of joking and condescension among his fellow Plage-Boutouians. This case of dual plural union (polyandry /polygyny ) is unique in Plage-Boutou and in the literature on Haiti. That the relationships are stable, socially recognized and continuing is an example of the extreme flexibility of Haitian family organization. The most common polygynous settlement pattern today is for the male to establish separate households for his different mates in various locations. The spouses of the seven Plage-Boutou men (excluding the unique case of Narva Lamour), who in 1984 were living in stable and socially recognized polygynous unions, resided in separate houses. In five of these cases, the two wives live in different villages of Plage-Boutou; and in two cases, one mate lives in Plage-Boutou and one in Port-de-Paix . In all seven cases, there is animosity and bickering between the co-wives .

PAGE 86

72 Plage-Boutouians claim that simultaneous polygamy was more common among their ancestors than it is today. The scarcity of land and the general impoverishment of contemporary Plage-Boutouians, as compared to the first generations of Plage-Boutou residents, is cited as the cause for this decline. Multiple wives and multitudinous offspring are still a symbol of prestige in Plage-Boutou but the financial obligations of polygamy and large families is beyond the means of the majority of the peasants. Today, one often hears the young men of Plage-Boutou say "de madam--apil problem" (two wives — many problems). Conjugal unions in Plage-Boutou are made either in the community itself or in other communities that Plage-Boutouians visit. These other commuities are usually ones in which a person has kin relations, often the community of his/her birth or parents' birth. The couple may reside in either community or alternately in several communities. Ambilocal and multilocal residence combined with freguent visits and trading among geographically distant settlements has created a community extended beyond the discrete geographical boundaries of Plage-Boutou. The diversity of Haitian mating forms allows for easy change of partner(s) and residence ( s ) . Plage-Boutou has changed from having more to less "legitimate" marriages and from more to less plural unions. These are both adaptations to the scarcity of essential resources.

PAGE 87

73 This decline of the polygynous housing compound is at least partially due to the land tenure system. The original settlers owned large tracts of undivided land. With each new generation's inheritance this land was divided into smaller plots, often at some distance from one another. It was an economic advantage to have households and working spouses on these distant plots. As minifundia continued and many Plage-Boutouians became completely disenfranchised, simultaneous polygamy, for most, became a liability. The ideal African pattern of the laku --as a polygynous housing compound containing all of the shef ' s (eldest male) patrilineal descendants—appears to have never been a common reality in Haiti. Without abundant land even an approximation of the ideal is impossible. The polygynous housing compound, simultaneous polygyny and patrilineal descent were the combined features of an ideal but unattainable model for the majority. For the fortunate few, the realization of the ideal model is nothing more than a transitional stage in the laku and f amni cycles which are, themselves, stages in the larger cycle of plantation . . 7 society .

PAGE 88

74 The Household As Microcosm Of The Community: A Case-Study Of Fluctuation In Household Composition In Contemporary Lucner The forms of parenthood and mating practiced in Plage-Boutou are not only numerous but, as a rule, in constant flux. This is also true for household composition. Not only does the personnel of most households change frequently but the types of familial organization (matrifocal, nuclear and so forth) are often transitory. This section is devoted to a study of short-term fluctuation in household composition in the village of Lucner. Lucner was originally the Lamour laku . In accordance with the natural life-cycle of the laku (described above) the member households began to disperse and new people, both distant kin and non-kin, constructed residences in Lucner. Today, Narva Lamour, shef of the village, claims ownership of all of Lucner. For a fee, Narva allows interested parties to construct houses in Lucner but he does not give legal title to the land, on which houses are built, to anyone. Therefore, by keeping control of the land, he maintains his position as shef . The first family to establish itself on the Lamour lands (with the exception of the Bernards who no longer reside in Lucner) was the Rouzier family from Carabet. The Lamours and the Rouziers are still (1984) the largest families in the village, with Lamours living in six and the Rouziers living in four of Lucner's seventeen houses.

PAGE 89

75 As important as kinship in the organization of inter-personal relations in the village is the institution of co-parenthood. The people of Lucner, as elsewhere in Plage-Boutou, incorporate new members of the community into a ritual kinship network through godparenthood. By accepting the honor of godparenthood, a person is responsible not only for funding the baptismal celebration, helping the godchild as it grows but also for helping and defending his or her four new kope and kome . Once the co-parent relationship is established with a person, there is an automatic extension of this relationship to one's kope/kome ' s spouses. Therefore, it is unusual for couples to be selected as coparents, since this would reduce the number of coparents in one's network. Kinspeople are also rarely selected for the same reason. The new alliances formed by the coparenthood relationship are mutually exclusive — through extension of incest prohibitions—with alliances founded on sexual g arrangements . Amos Magloire's brief residence in Lucner is an example of how kinship and co-parenthood function for the social and economic integration of village residents. In 1982, when Amos was nineteen years-old, he moved from his aunt's house at Nan Bouche to the house of Narva Lamour in Lucner to establish a plasazh relationship with Marilude Romain (28). Marilude was born in Carabet and had come to Lucner as the plase of Liznare Roosevelt with whom she had two

PAGE 90

76 children. When Marilude discovered that Liznare had another plase mate in Ti Morne, she deserted him and went to live in the house of her brother-in-law Narva Laraour. (Marilude is half-sister to Auliare Dessalines, Narva's Les Trois Rivereres wife.) When Marilude became pregnant with her third child, she and Amos moved into the house of Narva's half-brother Archil (82). Archil gladly accepted the young couple because, after recent changes in the membership of his household, he needed their services for the procurement and preparation of food. Archil's daughter Virginar (35) had recently left his house to become the second wife of Renold Caze in his newly constructed house in Nan Jerome. This left only Archil, Roselle Mars (89 — no kin) and Marilude's two small children by Liznare Roosevelt, who had been residing in Archil's house since their mother's break with Liznare. By the time of Amosier's (Marilude and Amos's daughter) birth, Amos had already become the godfather of two infants in Lucner. Six months after Amosier was born, she was baptized thus giving Amos a total of twelve kope and kome in Lucner. In the Spring of 1984, Amos became the godfather of yet another child, bringing his total coparenthood network in Lucner up to sixteen persons. Amos's coparent relations functioned in various ways. His kope Ernest Rouzier became his fishing partner (Amos had a boat and Ernest did not) and in return Ernest helped Amos prepare his new garden. When Amos was under pressure

PAGE 91

77 from his patron — a tourist visiting in Plage-Boutou — for a woman, his kome Yolande Josmar supplied the need and Amos shared his earnings with her. When Marilude returned to Liznare, Archil kicked Amos out of his house. Amos then began to sleep at his mother's house in Plage-Boutou. Meanwhile, he negotiated with Narva for a house-site in Lucner. Narva deferred payment because Amos was kope for his daughter Helene. Another of Amos' kome, Elliete Viel, invited Amos to make his new house next to hers where he could sleep until his house was completed . This example illustrates the role of kinship, plasazh relationships, adoption, and coparenthood in economic activities and household makeup. It also demonstrates how these kinship and quasi-kinship links function to incorporate new members into the village. This latter function is especially important since of the 59 people, over 20 years of age, who resided in Lucner in May, 1984, 38 were born outside of the commune (fifteen from Plage-Boutou contrasted with eighteen from Les Trois Rivereres, thirteen from Carabet, five from Gros Morne , two from Ti Morne , with six non-determined cases). Two household surveys were conducted in Lucner, the first in the Spring of 1983 and again in the Spring of 1984. The basic demographic data is summarized in Table 5.

PAGE 92

78 Table 5: Population And Households In Lucner In 1983 And 1984 POPULATION NUMBER OF HOUSEHOLDS 1983 1984 92 17 During this one-year period, four houses kraze (fell down) and four new houses were built. One house, which had been used for habitation, was converted into a kitchen. Thus Lucner had a net-loss of one house and a net-gain of seven people during the year. All of the houses, except one, had a change in composition during the year. The change in personnel resulted in an increase of people in five houses, a loss of people in three houses, while five houses kept a constant number of inhabitants. The destination of people who moved from their 1983 Lucner residence is summarized in Table 6. Table 7 is a summation of the provenience of each individual resident in Lucner in 1984. Most of the people who changed houses already lived in Lucner in 1983. Nevertheless, there was significant in-migration and out-migration of people to other communities, the majority of which were in other communes .

PAGE 93

79 Table 6: New Location (1984) Of 1983 Lucner Residents LOCATION Lucner Plage-Boutou Port-de-Paix Pacot Les Trois Rivereres Ti Morne Saint Victor Non-determined TOTAL FREQUENCY 21 3 2 1 1 2 1 5 36 Table 7: Provenience of 1984 Lucner Residents LOCATION Lucner Plage-Boutou Kaypaul Les Trois Rivereres Carabet Ti Morne Gros Morne Non -determined TOTAL FREQUENCY 32 3 2 3 2 1 2 8 53 The types of familial unit, resident in Lucner's houses, in both years, are diverse. By isolating family units in each household and ignoring other kin and non-kin persons, five household family types have been discovered in the Lucner surveys. Table 8 summarizes this data for both years .

PAGE 94

80 Table 8: Type Of Domestic-Family Group In Lucner, 1983 And 1984 TYPE Nuclear Patri focal Matrif ocal Sibling Group Single Couple Single Female TOTAL 1983 1984 10 1 17 Table 8 is misleading because almost every house has resident kin who do not fit into any of these classifications and because the majority of houses have resident non-kin (nine out of eighteen houses in 1983 and 9 eight out of seventeen houses in 1984). This table does, however, demonstrate that household composition and familial organization are of a transitory nature in Lucner. The houses themselves endure scarcely longer than the living arrangements of their inhabitants (Table 9). The groups of people and their physical environments fragment and disperse, only for the people and pieces to recombine in new ways. Table 9: House Age In Lucner, 1984 AGE ( in years ) 1 2 4 5 6 7 23 26 42 Non -determined TOTAL FREQUENCY 4 2 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 17

PAGE 95

81 In recent years, the theory of domestic group or household composition development-cycle, proposed by Fortes, has been a tremendous influence on Caribbean family studies. The household cycle, though variable cross-culturally, has three universal phases — expansion, dispersal and replacement (Fortes 1958). There are several problems with the ways these domestic cycle studies have been conducted. The first problem arose when Fortes tied the household cycle to the life-cycle of an individual or individuals; thus, the developmental phases of the cycle were forced to correspond, in number of years, to human generations. Secondly, these phases have been elicted from synchronic rather than diachronic data (Laguerre 1978 is a notable exception), an error well recognized in the anthropological literature. The changes in household composition, during one year in the history of Lucner, include all three phases of expansion, dispersal and replacement for many of the village's domestic groups. Futhermore, ideal-type analysis of household composition in Lucner is not useful for delineating processual phases of domestic life. This brief examination of household change in Lucner demonstates that the domestic group — like the kindred, the housing compound, the family and the community--is open to many and various kinds of changes in its continuing adaptation to the oppressive social and economic conditions of rural Haitian life.

PAGE 96

82 Conclusion The Haitian kindred has not previously been described. This is directly attributable to the failure to distinguish between residence and kinship in Haitian family studies. Once this distinction is made, the outlines of the developmental cycles of the kindred, the housing compound, the domestic group and the plasazh arrangements become clear. The realities of plantation society has in Plage-Boutou , as elsewhere in Haiti, spawned a continuing dialectic of the ideal African model and actual practice in familial and domestic organization. Roger Bastide stated that in some rural areas of Plantation America a "precise copy" of the African residential compound and family organization has survived. But in urban areas, the Afro-American family has changed considerably from its African predessor. There can be no doubt, I would submit, that the urban Negro family derives its structure, originally, from African models; but at the same time these models have been subjected to a steady process of disintegration . . . (Bastide 1971:39) . It is unlikely that a precise copy of the African family and residence patterns has ever existed in rural Haiti. Yet, in the history of Plage-Boutou there has been a change in actual practice from a closer adherence to the African model to a continuing disintegration of that model,

PAGE 97

83 a process similiar to that described by Bastide for the urban Afro-American family. Due to the exigencies of plantation life, the slaves and their peasant descendants reinterpreted the ideal African model to fit the new circumstances of an impoverished and powerless existence. Charles S. Johnson described this process in the context of the Afro-American family in the southern United States, but his description is appropriate to Haiti as well as to other areas of Plantation America . Despite the uneveness of life, the amount of sexual freedom, the frequency of separation and realignment of families, the number of children born out of formal wedlock and the customary provisions for them, codes and conventions consistent with the essential routine of their lives do arise which represent a form of organization adapted to the total environment. Where social processes such as these proceed largely unconsciously, the surviving folk ways may reasonably be presumed to have a foundation in the fundamental needs of community and human nature (Johnson 1934:90). Like the Afro-American family of Macon Co., Alabama (to which Johnson refers in the above), the Afro-American family in Plage-Boutou has in the past and continues to adapt "largely unconsciously" to the total environment. The Plage-Boutouian family form has changed from its earlier adherence to the ancestral model in its continuing adaptation to the plantation heritage of minifundia, impoverishment, endemic disease and political repression. Charles Wagley has presented a picture of the "amorphous and weakly organized local community without

PAGE 98

84 clear boundaries in space or membership
PAGE 99

85 6. In the Artibonite, public health researchers found a similar situation, where plasazh unions between people younger than 25 and older than 44 years of age are less stable than those unions whose participants are in-between these ages (Williams, Murthy and Berggren 1975:1028). 7. A similar situation was described by W.E.B. Dubois for the Afro-American family in the Southern United States in the early twentieth-century. He concludes: "Careful research would doubtless reveal many other traces of the African family in America. They would, however, be traces only, for the effectiveness of the slave system meant the practically complete crushing out of the African clan and family life. No more complete method of reducing a barbarous people to subjection can be devised" (Dubois 1908:21). 8. Plage-Boutouians gain four new coparents for each child born in contrast to the custom in most of Latin America of choosing a couple to be godparents for a gain of only two coparents per baptism. 9. Reducing the domestic group organizations to this sort of ideal-type analyses, reguires that one ignore the majority of the data on this phenomenon. This kind of analysis, so common in Caribbean studies, is neither good anthropology nor good science but blatant scientism. 10. The scholar most often cited for this Fortesian analysis of the Caribbean domestic group is R.T. Smith. See especially Smith 1956. Carol Stack's (1974) small monograph on Afro-American family organization and domestic group in a midwestern United States community is a refreshing antidote to the limitations and misrepresentations inherent in Fortesian analysis.

PAGE 100

CHAPTER IV: INNOVATIONS AND ADOPTIONS: CHANGING PATTERNS IN THE SOCIOLOGY OF WORK Work, of course, is a preeminent form of social activity. Like other forms of social activity it must be analyzed in terms of its mesh with other social actions. It is also institutionalized, embedded with values, and integrated with the rest of the institutional system of the society (Murphy 1971:34). Julian Steward based his typological stages of the New World plantation cycle on a study of the mode and organization of its production. Murphy referred to Steward's method of research as the "sociology of work — its tools, its organization and its cycle" (Murphy 1971:34). This chapter is an attempt to analyse Plage-Boutou ' s subsistence activities from this perspective. The Fishing Village In Plantation America The soci and thei Caribbea Indians , from the economic Emancipa life to success slavery . firmly a ologi r isl n. F then firs skil tion the e and p . .the nchor cal distinct and neighbor rom the firs Negroes--re t they exerc Is that stre offered the nterprising restige of h heritage of ed in planta ion between mod s ... is nothing t, fishing slav ceived special ised potentiall ssed independen opportunity for freedman who ha is fishing coll today's Negro tion life (Pric ern fishermen new in the es — first treatment, and y important ce . a new way of d admired the eagues during fishermen is e 1966:1379) . 36

PAGE 101

87 The fisherman and the fishing village played an important role in Caribbean slave society. Originally, the Carib Indians served as the suppliers of fish to the plantations in the Caribbean. Due to the Amerindian's near extinction in the Caribbean, the plantation owners imported mainland South American Arawak and "Brasilien" Indians to work as fishing slaves. Eventually African slaves took over this function, using a fishing technology that combined African, Amerindian and European elements (Price 1966). The importance of the slave fisherman was not confined to the Caribbean islands but was a feature of all of Plantation America. For antebellum South Carolina, Wood states: In Charleston, an entire class of "fishing negroes" had emerged in the eighteenth century, replacing local Indians as masters of the plentiful waters (Wood 1975:201). In colonial Haiti there was even a plantation solely devoted to fishing. It had over forty slaves which supplied colonial Cap-Francois (Cap Haitien) with marine produce (Sosis 1971) . Price argues that fishing played a role analogous to skilled trades in the plantation economy. It was a "way out of the fearfully oppressive plantation system" (Price 1966:1378). Fishing slaves represented a special class that supplied their masters' tables with high-guality protein and "provided steady profits for colonial slave owners" (Wood

PAGE 102

88 1975:201). They also provided themselves and their fellow slaves with marine protein. Fairbanks found that the slaves of the "rice coast" of the Southeastern United States subsisted primarily on oysters and mullet (Fairbanks n.d.). Both Price and Wood have written of the fishing slave's greater mobility and increased contact with slaves from other plantations and communities (Price 1966, Wood 1975). The fishing slave's relative independence and higher standard of living made fishing an attractive alternative for freedmen during slavery and for former slaves after emancipation . Today, the Afro-American fishing villages found throughout Plantation America share many features in common. They are usually small isolated villages, using a common technology and typified by what Comitas has called "occupational multiplicity." He defines this as a situation where "the modal adult is systematically engaged in a number of gainful activities, which for him form an integrated economic complex" (Comitas 1973:157). These gainful activities may include farming, wage labor, artisan skills, religious leadership which provides income, or some form of tourist related enterprise. The common technology of Afro-American subsistence fishing includes basketry or chicken-wire fish traps (Jamaica, Martinque, Haiti, Belize, Brazil), dug-out canoes (Haiti, Jamaica, Belize, Brazil), line and hook (everywhere), nets (everywhere) and harpoons (Jamaica,

PAGE 103

39 Haiti, Belize, antebellum South Carolina). In some areas, bow and arrows (the Black Carib of Belize) and poison are used (various areas). More recently spearguns have been introduced into many areas (Comitas 1962, Davenport 1964, Price 1966, Wood 1975, Gonzales 1969, Hutchinson 1957, Kottak 1983). These various technologies are combined to form different individual's and area's fishing strategies. As in many spheres of Afro-American culture, the technology of fishing combines features whose provenience is primarily from three culture-area domains. Line and hook fishing was common in both Europe and pre-Columbian America; basket traps, dug-out canoes, bow and arrow, and poison were an Amerindian legacy; nets were of African and European origin; diving and harpooning existed in all three areas before the formation of plantation society in the New World (Price 1966) . Just as it has a similar terrestrial ecology, the area from Brazil to Florida — roughly corresponding to the area of Plantation America — shares the same marine ecology and resources. There is, in most places, only a narrow continental shelf with adjacent deep "blue water." The high salinity and lack of upwelling in these warm waters are not conducive to most forms of edible marine life with the result that large-scale commercial fishing is not feasible (Fiedler et al. 1947) .

PAGE 104

90 The most commonly caught species are reef dwellers such as snapper, grunt, angelfish, triggerfish, parrotfish, trunkfish, damselfish, squirrel fish, grouper, jack, wrasse, barracuda, spiney lobster, spider and coral crab. The shallow lagoon areas are the source of shrimp, anchovy, mullet and herring. Sea snail, conch and sea urchin are gathered in shallow areas near shore. Other exploited species include octopus, eel, shark, pufferfish, devil ray, tuna, Spanish mackerel and squid. These species, common to the fishing waters of Plantation America, are all exploited in Plage-Boutou . In post-emancipation America, Afro-American fishing villages have supplied seafood to traditional plantation economies (such as the village described by Hutchinson 1957 in Bahia, Brazil) and local peasant and urban populations (Comitas 1962 and Davenport 1964 for Jamaica, Gonzales 1969 for Belize, Kottak 1983 for Bahia Brazil and Schuyler 1980 for New York ) . A Social History Of Agriculture In Plage-Boutou Subsistence farming, therefore, is not a characteristic of Haiti: it is an ideal (Hougan 1976:40). Agriculture in colonial Haiti was dominated by the plantation system. The coastal plains of the north and west of Haiti were devoted to the large-scale production of sugar cane, while the mountains which rose to the south and east

PAGE 105

91 of the plains were frequently planted in coffee. Due to the variation in topography, plantation size and mode of agricultural production, the mountain and plain plantations were characterized by differences in social organization and the relations between masters and slaves. The majority of Plage-Boutou ' s settlers were from coastal areas where sugar production dominated. After the death of King Henri Christophe in 1820, the government of Jean-Pierre Boyer, following the practice of his predecessor Alexandre Petion, allowed the former plantation workers to divide the old estates into small individually controlled holdings. Thus, in independent Haiti, a true peasant agricultural economy developed. In the one-hundred and eighty years since Haitian independence, the population has increased dramatically and the land has become exhausted and eroded, leading to severe problems of over-population, minifundia and low agricultural production (Leyburn 1966) . The first settlers in Plage-Boutou experienced a situation similar to the one that the recently peasantized former slaves had about seven decades earlier. They came to an uninhabited area, which hadn't been permanently occupied since the plantocracy ' s demise. They built houses, established families and staked-out claims to all the surrounding areas. As their progeny became numerous, and the original family lands were continuosly divided into

PAGE 106

92 smaller plots, minifundia became acute and sharecropping became a way of life for most. Today, the majority of Plage-Boutouians are sharecroppers of small mountain plots--usually less than a hectare in size. Demwatye is a system of tenancy where the owner receives one-third of the garden produce and the sharecropper two-thirds. According to most informants, few owners get as much as the one-third owed them. Most Plage-Boutouians have less than three acres of steep, rocky 2 land under cultivation at any time. The crops grown in the Plage-Boutou gardens are of various provenience. They include cultigens of Amerindian (such as corn and manioc), African (such as okra) and plantation origin (such as coffee and sugar cane). The techniques of cultivation present a similiar picture of combining subsistence strategies of mixed derivation. Slash and burn horticulture is of Amerindian origin while mixed-crop cultivation has both New World and African precedents. With the exception of the work gang, the agribusiness production of the plantation has not been amenable to assimilation into the horticultural mode of production . Some crops which were formerly grown are now rare in Plage-Boutou gardens. The Plage-Boutouians say the land is now too f atige (tired), exhausted by continuous cultivation, to produce crops such as corn and pineapples.

PAGE 107

93 Coconuts, on the other hand, were lost to a blight which killed all of Plage-Boutou ' s coconut trees in 1979 or 1980. Some re-planting of coconuts had begun by 1984. Rice, on the other hand, was introduced into the small coastal plain area about 1940. Madame Dodo Bernard brought rice plants from Carabet and planted them in the marshy area by the stream between Plage-Boutou and Merane. Later, some men dug a ditch to re-direct some of the stream's water, increasing the area in which rice could be cultivated. Today the rice area is very valuable and divided into small plots controlled by the gro mun of Plage-Boutou. Each year, young rice plants are brought from Carabet, planted by the men and tended and harvested by the women. After the rice is harvested in June and July, the land is used for grazing for a month to six weeks. It is then planted in sweet potatoes and beans which are harvested at the first of the new year in time to prepare the ground for rice planting in February. Except for rice cultivation, horticulture in Plage-Boutou is primarily a male domain--at least ideally. Men clear the land, plant the garden, tend and harvest the produce. In reality, women often help in all these tasks other than the clearing of land (though there are a few unattached women in the community who manage all phases of garden cultivation by themselves). The closer the gardens are to the settlement, the more likely women will be involved in their cultivation.

PAGE 108

94 The gardens are located both close and far, ranging from the fringes of the settlement to five miles away by boat and/or foot. A few men even have gardens in the more distant communities of Ti Morne, Carabet and Les Trois Rivereres . The land is cleared for a new garden by a kobit , a work party of men with machetes. They clear the brush and other vegetation on the plot and pile it in heaps. After a week or two, the little piles are dry enough to burn. The day after the burning a man and his spouse, kope , or kinsman plant the garden. The different cultigens planted are mixed-up in various ways. This mixing is not done haphazardly but there is, in Plage-Boutou , no consensus on what things should be planted next to each other. Some plants can be harvested after several months, such as yam or taro. The tuber crops continue to produce for two to three years depending on soil fertility. Other crops must mature before harvesting and are replanted yearly, such as tomatoes. When the tubers and sugar cane guit producing, the garden is retired and left fallow for two to three years. This short fallow period is necessary due to the shortage of land, in spite of its (locally well-known) detrimental effects on productivity. Other primary food crops are the fruit trees which need little tending. These include various kinds of mango, avocado, grapefruit, orange, sour orange, sour sop, lime, breadfruit and gennep. Fruit trees are highly valued and

PAGE 109

95 seldom sold even when the land on which they are planted is sold. They are rented ($6 a year for a full grown tree) and often the fruit is stolen. These fruits account for a large part of the food eaten in Plage-Boutou . As in other parts of Haiti, mangoes are especially important in the 4 Plage-Boutou diet. Other crops of minor importance to Plage-Boutou are coffee and cacao. A few of Plage-Boutou ' s gro mun hire local men to tend their coffee plots in the mountains. The Commandant grows cacao on his coastal plain land to sell to exporters in Port-de-Paix . Some individuals own chickens, cows or goats. Meat, milk and eggs are usually saved for sale in the urban market. During extended periods of bad weather when the men cannot fish, sometimes an animal is butchered and sold locally. Chickens roam freely but cows and goats must be staked and moved regularly. Since animals are a form of investment people are reluctant to reveal their actual holdings. It is believed that the Commandant owns the most livestock. Pigs, formally the most common of food animals in Plage-Boutou, were eliminated by the United States's African Swine Flu eradication project in 1982. In conjunction with other socio-economic changes in Plage-Boutou — population growth, loss of land ownership and the decline of the laku and the famni — are the changes in the kobit . The traditional kobit in Plage-Boutou was summoned by a blow on the labi (conch horn) early in the

PAGE 110

96 morning. The men worked and sang all day as they cleared the land. They were given periodic drinks of klaren (a crude, clear cane distillate) and mid-day and evening meals. The owner of the garden was then obliged to give each worker at his kobit a day's labor in return. Today, the kobit is not begun with the call of the labi . Instead five or six men are contracted, in advance, at an agreed upon wage. The morning of the kobit they meet at the designated plot. There workers still sing, drink klaren and are treated to a mid-day meal but at mid-afternoon, when the kobit ends, they receive the agreed-upon wages, usually three gourdes ($.60). Herskovits interpreted the k5bit as an African survival and Leyburn suggested that the communal work institution may be an heritage of the sugar cane plantation (Herskovits 1971, Leyburn 1966). As many things Haitian, it is probably a combination of the two. Haitian agriculture is a clear example of the patterns of work and rural economics in the post-emancipation peasant phase of the plantation cycle. The history of agriculture in Plage-Boutou progressed from post-Emancipation peasant landholders to a system of tenancy with consequent changes in soil fertiltiy and communal work patterns. The history of agriculture in Plage-Boutou is the story of a continuing adaptation to declining resources.

PAGE 111

97 Adaptation To Depletion: Changing Strategies In Subsistence Fishing The hitch is that not even the native fishermen can induce them to strike. For some reason which baffles sportsmen and natives alike, the fish in Haitian waters are finicky. Possibly the island's bays contain so much natural food that their inhabitants are shiftless (Cave 1952:138-139) . Since Plage-Boutou ' s first resident (post-Colonial), the settlement has depended on marine resources for food and for sale. In its early years, as the site for a peasant community, the waters of the bay and the contiguous inland waters were productive fishing areas. After eighty or more years of intensive fishing, this is no longer true. The fishermen of Plage-Boutou, through the years, have adopted various technologies and technigues to cope with the continuing depletion of food resources in their fishing waters . The first fishing craft in Plage-Boutou was a raft, the pripri , made of the trunks of chropet , a light-wood. These rafts, though no longer found in Plage-Boutou, are still common in Haiti and in other areas of Plantation America ( Forman 1970). The pripri consists of eight to twelve saplings tied together with kod , a native tree-clinging vine. These rafts are usually ten to twelve feet in length and about four feet wide. They may be poled in shallower waters, or a small platform may be built for oar-locks and a sail for use in slightly more distant waters. With the exception of the machete, pripri are made

PAGE 112

98 completely from indigenous materials and a locally available technology. Due to its size and weight-capacity, the pripri is a one-person craft. The fishing technologies used with the raft are the pane (basketry fish traps) and line and hook fishing. After forty years of pripri fishing, the catch had become so small that the first plank boat was introduced into the community. This boat was heavier and larger, requiring at least two men to manage it. Its great advantage was that it could be safely used in more distant and deeper waters and was amenable to net fishing. The first boat in Plage-Boutou was bought by Dortelisse Bernard from a bos (craftsman or skilled laborer) in Port-de-Paix . Dortelisse's increased success in fishing encouraged other local fishermen to purchase boats. Ernest Abis seized the opportunity created by the new market for plank boats and traveled to Port-de-Paix to learn the craft of boat building. Abis no longer works as a bos , but there are two boat makers, both self-taught, currently working in the community. They use modern hand tools and nails but they cut and plane the wood by hand in the mountains above Plage-Boutou. These shallow-keeled boats are all built on the same plan varying between eight and twelve feet in length and four to five feet in width. Two men, the Commandant and Clodomy Daphins, have sixteen-foot boats. Sails are made by a number of men and almost all Plage-Boutou males make their

PAGE 113

99 own oars. Boat maintainence requires a considerable expenditure of time and capital. They must be regularly cleaned, caulked, tarred and painted to prevent rot and leakage. A corollary of this necessary maintainence expense is the prestige attached to a freshly tarred, painted and renamed boat. The introduction of plank boats allowed the fisherman to use larger pane and to line fish in deeper waters where the larger and more desirable fish are found. The growing demand for larger and more fish baskets put a severe strain on local rozo resources, which had already been greatly diminished by house building and the introduction of rice cultivation. This necessitated the purchase of rozo from other areas (especially Port du Nord), thus adding another expense to marine exploitation. Pane are of various sizes and are measured by the number of mi, hexagonal holes, across the width of the basket. They are V-shaped or more often shaped like two V's conjoined so that they open to opposite directions. They are woven out of stiff reed splits and have two openings which are larger at the mouth than in the interior of the basket. They are baited with sea urchins, starfish, avocados, mangoes, serik (a small white crab) or orange peels. The ti pane (16 mi, 5 6 " long) are of a finer weave and are used to catch the smaller fish, crab and lobster found inside the reefs. Gro pane

PAGE 114

100 (21 mi, 13'6" long) are set in deeper waters outside the reefs. The catch is often greater for gro pane than ti pane ; but the disadvantage of the larger baskets is that they can not be fished in stormy weather and are more prone to be kraze (crushed) by rough seas, sharks and barracudas. Therefore, most men use a combination of large and small baskets. The first net used in Plage-Boutou was introduced soon after the use of boats was adopted. It was a sen po , or beach seine. The beach seine is made in diagonal strips of finely woven mesh, which are sewn together into a 200-to-400 foot long and about 15-foot deep net. The top of the net is laced with light wood floats (more recently worn-out rubber sandals) and attached to the bottom are stone weights (more recently metal parts from car batteries). It takes about ten men and two boats to set and retrieve the seine. With the seine, fishermen for the first time were able to exploit on a large scale the smaller fish, crab and shrimp found in the shallower waters near the beach. Bait fish for line-and-hook fishing also became readily available for the first time. Today, there are three beach seines in Plage-Boutou but due to the overexploi tation of the seine species, the owners must now fish the north coast from Mole St. Nicholas to the west and Bord-de-Mer Limbe to the east of Plage-Boutou to make a profit.

PAGE 115

101 The koralen was introduced in Plage-Boutou in approximately 1965 by the Commandant. He had learned the technology of koralen construction and use in Carabet (where he maintained a series of plase s) . Like the sen po , the koralen is extremely fine meshed with floaters and weights. They are usually about fifteen feet deep and are of varying lengths. The koralen is a gill-net used in shallow waters near protective reefs. The small reef-dwelling fish caught in the koralen are sold locally for consumption and distributed nationally thru the Haitian g peasant marketing system. An added expense of koralen fishing was the flat-bottomed koralen boat which had to be purchased in Carabet. At one time, there were at least six koralen locally owned and fished, but due to the depletion of pwasS koralen (gill-net fish) by 1984 there was only one koralen in Plage-Boutou. The twa nap file , a three-layered gill-net known in Plantation America during the Colonial era (Price 1966), only came into use in Plage-Boutou in 1980. A visiting fisherman from Limbe inadvertently introduced it to Plage-Boutou by his dramatic fishing success in Plage-Boutou waters. The twa nap is employed in deeper waters than either the koralen or sen po . Its three layers of different size mesh allows a greater variety of fish, turtle, lobster, crab and shark to be caught than any other net used in Plage-Boutou. Although there were

PAGE 116

102 thirteen twa nap file in the community in 1984, most were for sale due to a declining return on their utilization. The f izi pesh , speargun, was first used in Plage-Boutou by Jean-Pierre Bernard in the mid-1960's. Fizi fishing is confined to the shallow, rocky bottomed areas where lobster, crab and reef dwelling fish can be found. Due to the physical exertion of diving, only the younger men employ this equipment. The returns from fizi fishing are dwindling, especially the high-cash lobster resources . Since the advent of net and speargun fishing in Plage-Boutou, pane and line fishing have become low-status fishing techniques. Yet, they remain the source of most of Plage-Boutou ' s fish catch. The men who fish with these technologies complain that they have to fish farther from shore each year due to over-fishing of closer waters. The history of fishing in Plage-Boutou is one of a constant search for new ways to exploit underutilized ecological niches in the increasingly non-productive waters. Toward this end there have been changes in fishing vessels and techniques. New waters have been fished and new forms of cooperative labor have evolved to better exploit the remaining marine resources. The most recent fishing strategy for the young men of the community has become migration to the Turks and Caicos (legal) or to the Bahamas (illegal) to work as divers for commercial lobster and conch fishing enterprises.

PAGE 117

103 Marketing And Domestic Activities: The History Of Women's Work In Plage-Boutou Although women participate in agriculture and one woman even fishes and makes pane , the primary work domains for women in Plage-Boutou are marketing and domestic work. This pattern of female subsistence activity is common for the Afro-American population of Plantation America. Because women market the fish, agricultural produce and crafts and, therefore, control the family's capital resources, their economic role in the community is crucial . Marketing and domestic work have been more resistant to change than other subsistence activities. The most significant development in marketing has been the usurption of the trade in the more lucrative marine products by commercial interests in Port-de-Paix . Before 1980, the women carried the lobster, snappers, groupers and conch on their heads to Port-de-Paix where they sold them to hotels, stores and the homes of the wealthy. Today, male representatives of two stores in Port-de-Paix buy these products by weight on the beach at Plage-Boutou. Occasionally, these middlemen conspire to lower the price of the products they purchase in order to absorb the extra profit. The purchase of the more desirable seafood by middlemen has not caused a significant decrease in the amount of capital entering the community. What it has done is to

PAGE 118

104 redirect the capital from the spouses and mothers of the fishermen to the fishermen themselves. The women continue to market the less desirable fish and agricultural products (by volume rather than weight) in the open market of Port-de-Paix and in surrounding communities. However, their socio-economic position in the community has been seriously undermined . In addition to marketing Plage-Boutou ' s produce in other communities, the women also sell urban products, such as bread, klaren, flashlight batteries, sugar, flour, oil and cigarettes in Plage-Boutou. The women's loss of capital to the fishermen and middlemen is in part made-up by the men's increased purchases from the local market in Plage-Boutou. It is too early to estimate the consequences of the declining economic role of women in the community. The greatest change in domestic work is the result of piped water into Kaypaul and Plage-Boutou. In the past the women of all three villages did their laundry and bathing together in the stream. Today, these social work gatherings are confined to the women of Lucner. The atomization of the social organization has increased personal privacy and awareness of the economic and class differences between the three villages. Another change in women's work has been in cooking. The choice seafood is seldom eaten and the spicy African-style cooking, once famous, has disappeared in Plage-Boutou as it has in most of rural Haiti. Due to the

PAGE 119

105 increased expense of fuel, the food is often undercooked. These changes in Plage-Boutou ' s cuisine are directly attributable to poverty. With the exception of piped water, the changes in women's work have been caused by the continuing impoverishment of the peasants and by the urban elite's increased exploitation of them. Conclusion Each generation of Plage-Boutouians has been faced with the continuing reduction of resources. The sociology of work in Plage-Boutou is the study of the ways in which people adjust to scarcity. As the peasants of northern Haiti are drawn into the international economic system, communal work patterns have declined, individualism has increased and the economic role of women has been undermined . In their attempts to adjust to scarcity, some Plage-Boutouians have adopted new economic strategies. Besides the two boat makers, there are three tailor/seamstresses (one male, two female), five bolet 1 2 owners (all male), two butik owners (one male, one 13 female), three teachers (one male, two female), one weaver (male), one fashioner of fish spears and charcoal burners (male) and one cement block maker/mason (male). All of these artisans and entrepreneurs also fish, garden or

PAGE 120

106 market. In most cases, their capitalist enterprises bring in very little income. The Afro-American fishing village, itself a plantation institution, has not escaped the poverty and repression which, in most cases, has been the Afro-Americans' fate in the post-emancipation phase of Plantation America. Yet, as Price observed, the fishermen in the rural Caribbean have always enjoyed a special economic position among their purely agricultural countrymen. Notes 1. For a description of the differences in plantation organization and slave life on sugar and coffee plantations in Cuba, see Knight 1970:65-70. 2. For data on land tenure and garden size for the south and southwest regions of Haiti, see Comhaire-Sylvain , 1952 and Underwood, 1964. 3. The economist Maurice de Young has typified Haitian food production as an horticultural rather than an agricultural economy ( de Young 19 58). 4. In the Marbial area many people live on mangoes for several months each year (Metraux e_t al . 1951). 5. For descriptions of the k5bit in Mirebalias, Marbial and La Gonave see Herskovits 1971:70-76, Metraux e_t al . 1951:67-86, and Hall 1929:685-700. 6. The prestige of owning a new boat or a newly painted and named boat is sometimes recognized by having the boat baptized in a mock ceremony which is a parody of church baptism . 7. Davenport has described the same situation for Jamaican fishermen. He analyzed his data in terms of game theory (Davenport 1960) . 8. Plage-Boutou fish enter a national distribution system at Bord-de-Mer Limbe, or the open-markets of Port-de-Paix and Limbe. The fish from Bord-de-Mer Limbe are resold to

PAGE 121

107 middlemen at the regional market at Limbe. The middlemen take these fish to Port-au-Prince and elsewhere, where they are divided into smaller lots and redistributed in the hinterlands. For information on the availability of seafood in twelve Haitian markets, including the Limbe market, see FAO n.d. 9. By 1980 Kottak, after nearly twenty years of study of a Bahian fishing village, commented on the decline of marine resources, especially lobster, in the local fishing waters (Kottak 1983) . 11. The industriousness of the Haitian women has often been lauded. The following quote is typical: "The women are the best part of the nation. They are splendid, unremitting toilers . . . the women of Haiti remind one of certain patient types of ant or termite, who, as fast as you destroy their labor of months or days, hasten to repair it with unslackening energy. Such industry .. .should make Haiti one of the richest countries in the world for its size and population; but so long as it is cursed by its present military despotism the utmost that the women of Haiti can do is to keep their country just above the waters of bankruptcy and their households from complete despair" (Johnston 1969:196-197). 10. For descriptions of various aspects of Haitian markets and marketing, see Mintz 1959, 1960, 1961a, 1961b, 1963, 1964, Comhaire-Sylvains 1964, Locher 1975, Murray and Alvarez 1975, Underwood 1960, Legerman 1962, and Wood 1963. 12. Borlette is a legal, officially-taxed numbers game or lottery. According to Wingfield, bolet was introduced into Haiti by returning Haitian immigrants to Cuba in the 1930's (Wingfield 1966). Today, this form of gambling is found virtually everywhere in Haiti. 13. Boutique is a small store, which sells a few items (such as matches, cigarettes, clarin, soda-pop, oil, batteries, flour, evaporated milk, spaghetti) in a room or a part of a room in the owner's house.

PAGE 122

CHAPTER V: FROM AFRICA TO THE RISE OF THE PROSTESTANT ETHIC: RELIGION AND MAGIC IN PLAGE-BOUTOU Such then is the structure dark and confused in the e there as a bundle of tasks be sublimated into a consc relationship of problems a goes through uniform phase by inward laws: conseguen development of its own and fulfillment. Thus, but on receive and acguire perman It is a product of History of a world view. What was nigma of life, appearing to be performed, will here ious and necessary nd solutions; this progress s, themselves circumscribed tly every world view has a thereby reaches true ly in time, does a world view ence, firmness, and power. (Dilthey 1957:27) . Religious worldview in Plantation America is certainly a product of history. The interpenetration of African, European and Amerindian cultures— an aftermath to the establishment of New World Plantation Society — was implemented in the realm of religion by the mixture and syncretism of Christian, Amerindian and African belief and practice. Haitian religion has been successively shaped by African worldviews, French Catholicism and the conditions of plantation and peasant life. In Plage-Boutou , as is the case everywhere in Haiti, the majority of the people are at least nominally Catholic — a heritage of the French colonial masters. The majority of Haitian peasants are also practicioners of Voodoo — an African derived cult. Another cult of African origin is the Mandingues , which is a small and scarely known group found only in the north of Haiti. Since the United States Occupation, there has been a remarkable growth 108

PAGE 123

109 of Protestantism in Haiti. The Protestants agree to shun voodoo, magic and Catholicism, and sometimes do, but they continue to believe in the power of the African gods. Even though the zazh are disappearing from Plage-Boutou and Voodoo is increasingly becoming secularized, the practice of magic remains strong. Voodoo , The African Heritage And Revolution In Haiti The strongest gods are African. I tell you it's certain they could fly and they did what they liked with their witchcraft. I don't know why they permitted slavery. The truth is, I start thinking, and I can't make head or tail of it (Montejo 1968:16). The various religions of the imported Africans in colonial Haiti were assimilated to each other, to Catholicism and to Amerindian influences. This dynamic interpenetration of worldviews was reenacted again for each plantation. The inhabitants of each atelier (slave housing compound) were isolated from other Africans and other plantations. Though certain characteristics of slave religion were common throughout Haiti, each atelier had its own distinct mixture of belief and ritual (Sosis 1971, Laguerre 1974a ) . The essential features of slave religion, including polytheism, spirit possession, importance of drumming and religious dancing, continue to be the African (primarily Dahomean) basis of contemporary voodoo. An aspect of

PAGE 124

110 plantation religious acculturation was the adoption of Catholic litany and prayers, the syncretism of African gods to Christian saints, the use of holy-water and Church paraphenalia and the incorporation of Amerindian thunders tones . Voodoo was not a static mixture of diverse religious elements but a creative, flexible and changing belief system. In Bastide's terminology voodoo is a "living" religion rather than a "preserved" religion like Brazilian candomble or Cuban santeria . The preserved religions are relatively closed stable socio-cultural niches which function as collective defense mechanisms in the face of forced acculturation. A "living" religion, such as voodoo, is open and adapts as life conditions change (Bastide 1971:128-149) . The flexibility of voodoo made possible its use as a revolutionary ideology. In response to the brutal conditions of the plantation, slaves from neighboring plantations were able to band together into religiouspolitical revitalistic bands for the purpose of revolt. Charismatic leaders, through idiosyncratic combinations of the elements of slave relgion, were able to organize and sustain successful slave revolts throughout Plantation Haiti, culminating in the independence of 1804 (Laguerre 1974b, Simpson 1945) .

PAGE 125

Ill Unlike Afro-American religions in other parts of Plantation America, voodoo was not a New World African religion but a Creole religion. New mythologies, new rituals and new gods were created. The old African gods in changed form remain — known as the Rada dieties — but new Creole gods--the Petro group — are constantly being born in response to changing socio-economic conditions. 2 This is as true today as it was on the plantation. Some students of Haitian folk religion have noticed a decline in the presence of the African gods as the Petro gods continue to proliferate (Murray 1980, Deren 1970). Murray attributes this change in the supernatural population to the worsened economic prospects of the Haitian peasant (Murray 1980). Like antebellum voodoo, where each atelier formed a separate cult group, post-Emancipation peasant cults were created in each laku . Voodoo of 19th-century rural Haiti was a family affair with the laku ' s patriarch acting as the cult's leader. When the circumstances of peasant life forced the laku to fragment and disperse, the voodoo cult was enlarged to include the local community through the fictitious kinship associations of the religious 3 fellowship. In many senses, the local community became the new laku with the huga (cult leader) acting as patriarch . Haitian anthropologist Michel Laguerre has stated that voodoo should be understood as a "generic term covering . .

PAGE 126

112 . various creolized cults" (Laguerre 1974a:12). Voodoo varies regionally and locally throughout Haiti with each community having its own cult or cults. The next section will examine the history of voodoo in Plage-Boutou . The Decline Of The Zazh The gods of voodoo in Plage-Boutou. as in other areas of north Haiti, are known by the term zazh — angel (Simpson 1940b, Smucker 1983 ). b The number and kinds of zazh vary. In the Plage-Boutou of 1984, three basic types of zazh are generally recognized--the voodoo zazh , the personal zazh and the purchased zazh . The voodoo god is a spirit that possesses a person at voodoo dances and occasionally elsewhere. This zazh is readily recognized by the behavior of the person possessed. In recent years there have been three zazh of this type possessing Plage-Boutouians--Mait Agwe , Erzulie Freda and Ti Jean. In other areas of Haiti, the first two of these spirits are recognized as Rada (or African) gods and the latter as a Petro (or Creole) god. This distinction is not made in Plage-Boutou, where the two terms refer only to different dance rhythms. Mait Agwe is the god of the oceans and the fish therein. When possessed by Agwe, a person will drink soda but no alcoholic beverage. It is believed that Mait Agwe resides at nearby Bel Plage--a beach now owned by the

PAGE 127

113 nation's president. Only one man in Plage-Boutou is occasionally possessed by Agwe . Erzulie Freda is a love goddess. A person possessed by her will court and flatter any man she chooses; this sometimes causes altercations at the voodoo dances in Plage-Boutou. She wears a red cloth on her head, drinks considerable quantities of klaren and smokes cigarettes backwards so that the burning end is inside her mouth. Erzulie lives in the rocks of Roche Rouge. Only Narva Lamour's Les Trois Rivereres wife (the mambo ) is possessed by Erzulie in Plage-Boutou. Though the Ladadians do not recognize the difference between the Rada (gentle, sweet) and Petro (bitter, demonic) gods, they do recognize that Ti Jean, unlike Erzulie and Agwe, is an evil presence. A person possessed by Ti Jean drinks voraciously, dances fiercely and smokes cigarettes backward. The culmination of a Ti Jean possession is when he pours klaren on his mount's (the person possessed) head and body, lights it and dances in flames. Ti Jean lives in a tree at Nan Bouche. From fifteen to twenty Plage-Boutouians are sometimes possessed by Ti Jean. The voodoo spirits can also serve as personal zazh but most spirits of this category are ill-defined and unnamed. Anyone who acts strangely, wants a food or beverage he or she usually does not consume or talks in his or her sleep has a zazh . The spirits may be sent by

PAGE 128

114 Bddye (God) or the Devil and may be either beneficient or harmful . The bought zazh , used in magic, are considered evil. It is difficult to discover much about these spirits because a knowledge of them would make one suspect of delving in magic. They are referred to as bought zazh because a person buys (or trades for) their services for the purpose of harming someone. Another zazh is Susan who lives at the spring in Nan Dlo Plage-Boutou . She is a beautiful white woman with long blond hair and she wears a shirt with her name written across the front. She comes at twilight and beckons men to 7 come to her but none has dared. Susan is the last of the named zazh who lived at Plage-Boutou and whose existence is known only by the members of the community. There were many more local gods but as Plage-Boutouians cut down the trees to build houses, the gods who lived in these trees ascended into the sky and have never returned. These local zazh had their own voodoo dances at Nan Dlo Plage-Boutou and Nan Bouche before people built houses in those locations. Even young people in their early twenties can remember hearing and avoiding the god's voodoo. In 1984, a new named zazh came into existence in Plage-Boutou. A young man who was having problems with his spouse was possessed for the first time. He became reflective and quiet and would only drink sodas while he

PAGE 129

115 watched the others dance. People recognized his zazh as Mait Agwe . The next day he announced that his zazh was not Agwe but King Christophe. His claim to a new zazh was accepted by the community. Several weeks prior to his possession experience, this young man had traveled to Christophe's Citadel with a tourist. Everyone in Plage-Boutou believes in the existence of zazh . Protestants and devout Catholics consider possession behavior as Satanic. Catholics often have beneficient unnamed zazh but Protestants consider even these unholy. Contact and interaction with the zazh and voodoo is considered backwards and low-status by the community's gro mun . With the disappearance and drop in status suffered by the local gods, the voodoo ceremony itself has become simplified and secularized. Families no longer serve their ancestral gods. Plage-Boutouians no longer travel to Bel Plage to honor Mait Agwe at his residence. They no longer hold special calendrical rituals or offer sacrifices to the zazh . There is no altar, homf 6 (voodoo house) or peristayl (roofed voodoo dance shed) in the community. Even the woman (Madame Narva Lamour) considered to be a mambo in Plage-Boutou is recognized only as an ordinary voodoo practicioner and dokte fey in Les Trois Rivereres where voodoo thrives.

PAGE 130

116 Today, voodoo dances are held each Saturday night and sometimes on Friday night and on other nights if the mambo is visiting. The dances are held in Lucner to the accompaniment of three Rada drums and an oga (two pieces of metal struck together). They begin at dark and sometimes are not over until four or five the next morning . As owner of the drums, lead drummer and shef of Lucner, Narva Lamour is the director of the voodoo. Only Narva and his wives have any control over events at the voodoo but their control is tenuous at best. Narva complains that they don't have real voodoo any more because the people don't honor the zazh or his authority. Dances begin with the drummers' oblation to the gods. They pour klaren on the ground on each side of the three drums. They then begin to play. Early in the dance only children participate; as the evening wears on, adolescents and adults join the dance. Everyone sings and dances randomly and drinks large quantities of klaren and suki-suki (a klaren , sugar and lime juice mixture). When someone becomes possessed, the dancers halt for a moment to allow the person room for the wild preliminary movements that mark the onset of possession. Once the zazh is firmly seated in the individual, everyone returns to their dancing. The voodoo dance is over when people get tired and start going home. There are seldom more than fifty people participating in the voodoo dance and often less.

PAGE 131

117 Today, voodoo in Plage-Boutou is primarily a secular entertainment or diversion and not a religious Q ceremony. The state of possession is viewed more as theater than as ritual. As Plage-Boutou grew, the gods departed. Once gone, they were no longer honored. The African heritage of voodoo--like the Africanisms in kinship, household and the kobit — has progressively declined in importance in the lives and minds of Plage-Boutouians . The disappearance or eradication of all that is African illustrates the continued viability of the plantation's influence . The Mandingues : A Creole Islam Cult The Mandingue cult is a small, isolated group of believers confined to Baie l'Acul (Camp Louise, Pignon, Balan), Plage-Boutou and Cap Haitien. The locals consider this Creole Islamic death cult as distinct and unrelated to voodoo. The Mandingues , themselves, believe that they are the descendents of the Moslem Mandingo people of Mali. The Mandingos of the 17th and 18th Centuries were only partially Islamized, practicing a religion which Bastide has described as "Islamized animism" — a syncretism of Islamic and pre-Islamic tribal religion (Bastide 1978:144). There are few accounts of Islamic slave religion in the New World and none for Haiti. The most complete descriptions of Islam in plantation society are for

PAGE 132

118 Brazil. The religion practiced by the Hausa slaves of Bahia shares many similarities with the contemporary Mandigue cult of northern Haiti. Central to both the slave Islam of Bahia and the Mandingues is the ancestral death cult. Bastide explains this non-Islamic feature of the New World cults in terms of the incompletely Islamized people who were imported as slaves (Bastide 1978:149). The death cult in one form or another is found throughout Plantation America and its importance is a cognitive remnant of the West African world-view (Herskovits 1958:197-206). Bastide attributes the omnipresence of the death cult in Afro-America to the large number of Bantu slaves imported during the last years of the trans-Atlantic slave trade (Bastide 1971). In Brazil and in Haiti, the chief ritual of creolized Islam is a ceremony to honor the dead ancestors: alcohol is taboo during the three-day ceremony which features African style drumming and dancing and sacrifices of a variety of animals (never pigs) to the ancestors. When a believer dies, the Mandingue is buried on his or her side and enters the ranks of the dead ancestors. In both cults, songs are 12 sung to Allah. There are about twenty practicing Mandingues currently residing in Plage-Boutou . As a group they sponsor a ceremony every three years in Plage-Boutou. Ideally, this ritual honoring the dead would be held annually but due to the expense (about $60) the believers have compromised this

PAGE 133

119 requirement. However, when one of the believers dies, the Plage-Boutou Mandingues host a ceremony following the Catholic funeral. The ceremony is conducted by the pere of the Mandingues who currently lives in Camp Louise. It consists of three days of all-night dancing, singing and feasting in which only Mandingues participate but all Plage-Boutouians watch. Unlike voodoo, only the pere is possessed and he can be mounted by multiple dead Mandingues simultaneously. When possessed, the pere speaks in an unkown tongue believed to be an African language. The office of pere is passed from father to son. The Mandingue , like. the voodoo cult was originally a family religion. Through kinship affiliation it had expanded to roughly 7000 members by the late 1960's (Alexis 1970). Only the biological children of Mandingues can become members of the cult. Before the pere recognizes the person as a member, he/she must be an adult and make a secret pact. The Mandingue cult has adopted prayers from Catholicism and drum rhythms from voodoo. It is a true Creole cult formed by the syncretism of Christian, Islamic and West African religious features. In Brazil, the Islamic cult lost its social organizational basis resulting in the dispersal of its elements which now survive only as fragments in magical practice (Bastide 1978). For reasons unknown, the cult has survived in northern Haiti.

PAGE 134

120 In Haiti, as in Brazil, the Mandingues are believed to be powerful magicians. Voodooists will not practice their faith during a Mandingue ceremony and neither z5bi nor lugaru (forms of malign supernaturals ) will enter the area. The Mandingues have pj^ gro fos (greater force) than voodoo and black magic. The History Of Catholicism In Plage-Boutou The antebellum Negro was not converted to God. He converted God to himself (Radin 1969:ix). Haiti is officially a Catholic country where approximately eighty percent of the population professes belief in the tenants of the Church. Yet, the majority of Haitians have adapted their limited knowledge of the Roman Church to a worldview which is basically African in origin. In 1685, the French monarchy issued the Code Noir , prescribing that all slaves be baptized and instructed in the Catholic faith. The King's orders were not enforced: "Plantation owners were indifferent rather than antagonistic toward the priests, unless they showed a strong interest in the slaves' welfare" (Simpson 1978:22). Among the Catholic orders in Colonial Haiti, only the Jesuits showed a strong interest in the slaves' souls and for this were expelled from the colony in 1764.

PAGE 135

121 The royal French government, ruler of old Saint-Domingue , cared little for the spiritual and educational advancement of the island. The colonists held that priests were unrealistic in their approach to the slave question, so that they should, in their opinion, be kept few in numbers and strictly controlled in their actions .. .many practices of doubtful character had crept in and could not be eradicated, the most striking one being a tax on the baptism of negro adults, founded on the ground that they needed special training and that the slave owner in any case would pay for them (Comhaire 1956:1-2). Corruption was rampant in the Church and clergy throughout Plantation America. Many charges have been leveled against the clergy of the slave-owning class including multiple baptisms of the same individual, blessing charms, maintaining mistresses and siring children, owning plantations and being cruel masters. The immorality of the clergy was not confined to Catholicism but — as Orlando Patterson remarks for the Anglicans in Jamaica—was also common to the Protestant clergy: What was worse, the clergymen themselves were often among the most immoral in the island and the established Anglican church in Jamaica represents, perhaps, the most disgraceful episode in the history of that institution (Patterson 1973:40). Corruption of the church and the lust and greed of its clergy were a defining feature of Christianity in Plantation America . From 1804 to 1860, the Church in Rome did not recognize the independent nation of Haiti. This era is known as the "Haitian Schism." On January 1, 1804--Independence Day — there were no more than half a dozen priests in Haiti

PAGE 136

122 and the Pope refused to let additional priests enter the country (Comhaire 1956:2). Voodoo flourished during the schism and "the people grew farther and farther away from a Catholicism which necessarily had not developed deep roots" (Simpson 1978:23) . Since the Concordat, ending the schism, was approved in Rome in April 1860, the situation has not changed noticeably for the rural masses. Catholicism continues to be plagued with too few clergymen, concentrated in the urban areas. During the administration of Francois Duvalier, the top positions in the nation's clergy were given to Haitians. Nevertheless, most of the priests serving rural Haiti today are French or Belgian. In the 1970's, due to the reform policies of the Vatican, Haitian church services were deformalized. Services are now conducted in Creole with little ceremonialism. A large part of each service is devoted to congregational singing accompanied by voodoo 13 drums, oga and/or labi . In the early days of the settlement the people of Plage-Boutou had no access to the Church or its representatives. The first chapel was built in 1934 and irregular masses and baptisms were performed. The church is dedicated to Notre Dame du mon Camelle. In the late 1970's, under the guidance of a French priest, the Catholic Church in Plage-Boutou had weekly mass, a medical dispensary and an elementary school. In 1984, a Belgian priest irregularly served the church with a mass or

PAGE 137

123 baptism every month or two. There is no longer a dispensary but the school is still functioning under the authority of the Commandant. Plage-Boutouians consider French priests to be better and closer to God than Belgian priests. They also accuse their current priest of being a drunkard and of . . . . . 14 maintaining an Haitian mistress. Weekly services and funerals are conducted by a local lay priest or predicateur . Although all Plage-Boutouians profess a belief in B5dye , few of them ever enter the Church. On an average Sunday, there are rarely more than fifty people of all ages, out of a population of more than 900, in attendance. This figure includes the Catholic school children who are required to attend services. Community involvement in the affairs of the Church reaches its peak before and during the patron saint's festival each July. Everyone who can afford it whitewashes their house and cleans up their yard. The community is made bel , beautiful, for the festivities. The celebration begins with a poorly attended mass at the church, followed by a small procession. The priest then departs and the real celebration begins. Narva Lamour directs voodoo dancing for the locals and many visitors. At night carnival bands play. This is a time of much drinking, dancing and sexual permisiveness . The saint's celebration is primarily a secular occasion for the majority of Plage-Boutou ' s residents .

PAGE 138

124 The Catholic Church's most significant role in Plage-Boutou is social rather than spiritual. It represents a link with the outside world. The reciprocity networks established through baptism extend across north-central Haiti and allow for the establishment of bonds with the urban elite. The coparenthood networks are considered so important that the Baptists of Plage-Boutou will sometimes have secular baptismal ceremonies in their homes or have their children baptized clandestinely in a Catholic Church of another community. In the local church's hierarchy the predicateur controls the Church's local affairs, school and finances and is hence in a position of prestige and power. The Abis/Bernard lineage has controlled this office since its inception. The Plage-Boutouians ' conception of B5dye is that God is the ultimate but a rather capricious force in the universe. If God won't help them in their need they turn to other supernatural powers. Such was the case of two fishermen who had a contest to decide if Bodye or Mait Agwe was more likely to come to their aid. One man sang appeals to Bodye , the other to Agwe to give him fish. Neither man caught a fish that day so they agreed to appeal to other supernatural beings on the next fishing trip. Other Plage-Boutouians who have deserted the voodoo gods approach the saints in the same manner as they once did the African and indigenous gods. Clodomy Daphins, for instance, worships St. Philomise (for whom he has named his

PAGE 139

125 boats), the Patron Saint of Bord-de-Mer de Limonade. He contributes money to the saint's church, burns candles and prays to the saint and attends the patron saint festivities in Limonade each year. He regards Philomise as his personal protector and the source of his success. The more devout Catholics and the Protestants say that Clodomy is practicing voodoo under the guise of Christianity. This is an example of the phenomenon which Herskovits labeled reinterpretation (Herskovits 1966:57) . Laguerre has written that the slaves adopted Christianity for its magical power (Laguerre 1973). The conception of the Christian God and Church in Plage-Boutou is still magically oriented regardless of whether its integration into the ancestral worldview has been a process of syncretism or reinterpretation. Very little has changed in the religious life of most Haitians since the end of the plantocracy. Rural Haitians continue to be isolated from the Church's instruction. Often they still perceive the clergy to be corrupt and understand the efficacy of ritual in magical rather than in spiritual terms. The Founding Of The Baptist Church: The Protestant Ethic And The Changing Realities Of Life In Plage-Boutou The Protestant churches in Haiti, on the contrary, have demanded that their converts become new people. They have forbidden their adherents to take any part in non-Christian rituals or other activities — including even the dance. They have presented them with a simple and painful choice (Courlander 1960:6).

PAGE 140

126 There have been Protestants in Haiti since the colonial period but their wide-spread influence on the rural masses only began in the 1960's (Comhaire 1956). President for Life, Francois Duvalier encouraged the efforts of foreign Protestant missionaries as part of his attempt to minimize the power of the Catholic Church in Haiti. The growth of Protestantism in Haiti has been impressive: an estimated 15% of Haiti's population in 1970 and 1977 was Protestant but by 1983 this figure had grown to 25% of the population (Romain 1970, Conway 1980:12, Smucker 1983b:34). The Baptist congregation in Plage-Boutou predates the elder Duvalier's regime. Presiys Charles converted to the Baptist Church in 1943 while visiting Port-de-Paix . He became a member of the Baptist Church of that city, which had been founded in 1823. Presiys was converted by Sanford Kelly — a Jamaican associated with the American Baptist denomination — who had just started an evangelization program in northern Haiti. Following his conversion, Presiys held weekly meetings in his house. Once a month the mother church in Port-de-Paix sent a lay preacher to Plage-Boutou for out-of-doors preaching and prostelyzing . In 1960 the small congregation of Baptists became an official out-station of the Church in Port-de-Paix. In this year they built a small chapel/school house. In 1973, the Baptist congregation bought land and commenced construction on a larger chapel/school house which was finished and

PAGE 141

127 dedicated in 1977. By 1984, there were 71 members of the Plage-Boutou out-station. The church in Port-de-Paix and its eight rural out-stations--including the one in Plage-Boutou--became affiliated with Convention Baptiste d'Haiti in 1964. The Baptist Convention was founded by a joint effort of the American Baptist and Southern Baptist missionary programs and Haitian Baptist clergymen in ar attempt to form a national Baptist organization with Haitian leadership. The formation of Convention Baptiste followed on the heels of Duvalier's efforts to nationalize the Catholic clergy in Haiti . The Plage-Boutou out-station is ruled by the local committee composed of Fernan Roland, Shadrack Toto, Gilbere Viel, Madame Ernest' Abis and the lay preacher sent from the l fit church in Port-de-Paix. Ideally, the out-station is controlled from Port-de-Paix through its representative lay preacher, but in Plage-Boutou most affairs of the church are decided by Madame Ernest Abis and Fernan Roland. There has been a history of problems between Fernan and the Port-de-Paix administration. Baptists are expected to separate themselves from the worldly community of Plage-Boutouians by attending church daily, abstaining from drink, tobacco, dancing, gambling, extra-marital sex and magic. Ideally, they are extremely Puritan, but in practice many of them clandestinely enjoy these prohibited sins.

PAGE 142

128 Services at the Baptist Chapel are restrained — no instruments, no clapping, no elaborate ritual and no show of emotion. In fact, the Sunday School and church services of the Plage-Boutou chapel are similiar to white Baptist services of the United States and very different from Black 17 United States Baptists. Black baptists in Haiti and the United States have different histories and reasons for being . The ideals of extreme asceticism, honesty and hard work are stressed in the prayer meetings and sermons of the Baptist Church. The Protestants say if a person lives the Puritan life their financial situation will improve and they 1 8 may get the chance to migrate to the United States. The values of asceticism and hard work — emphasized by Plage-Boutou Baptists — are central components of Weber's 1 9 classical abstraction of the "Protestant Ethic." Another important feature of Weber's argument is the responsibility of the individual for his own fate. Individualism is also an ideal in Plage-Boutou Protestantism. People must convert individually and be responsible for their own behavior apart from kinship and community ties. Thus, often only one member of a family will join the Baptist Church (Weber 1958). Individualism is foreign to the Haitian peasant whose existence often depends on the communal efforts of kinship and community and who is deeply imbued with that emotive, cognitive complex which Foster called "the image of limited

PAGE 143

129 20 good." Therefore, Protestants are unusually ambitious persons or individuals who have suffered some kind of personal crisis. Many of Plage-Boutou ' s Baptists converted due to ? 1 illness or the desire to escape from magic. Others, like Lebon Lundy, became Baptists in order to be able to make a socially accepted change in behavior. In LeBon's case he converted so that his attempts to quit drinking, fighting and gambling would be respected by the community. Others converted because of the common belief in northern Haiti that Protestants may become wealthier and 22 more powerful. Madame Ernest Abis joined the Baptist Church soon after they built their first chapel and has since become one of the two most powerful members of the congregation, successfully consolidating the Commandant's power on all fronts. This belief that Protestants are potentially more upwardly mobile seems to have some basis in fact. Before the United States Occupation of Haiti, no Protestant had ever served as a chef-de-section (Comhaire 1955). In 1984, Dr. Josue Romain, a Baptist, was elected Deputie of Port-de-Paix to the National Assembly--the highest electoral office in the country. Added to this are the many material benefits ranging from free education and medicine to employment which come from affiliation with wealthy United States Protestant mission programs.

PAGE 144

130 Prostestantism is understood to be an United States religion, Catholicism a French religion and voodoo an 23 African religion. The peasants believe that the greater wealth of the United States is a gift from God and that since the United States is Protestant, God must prefer Protestantism. Many Plage-Boutouians , Catholic and Protestant, said things to the same effect as an observation made by Belarise Magloire: "Jesus loves Americans better than Haitians and that is why all Americans are rich." Of the Protestant sects represented in Haiti, the Baptist worldview is the closet to Weber's description of the Protestant Ethic. Smucker has quite rightly concluded that, of all the Protestant sects of north Haiti, the Baptists are the true antithesis of voodoo (Smucker 1984). The philosophy, behavior and organization of Baptists in Plage-Boutou is the most American and capitalistically 24 oriented of the local community. Unlike the situation (described by Weber) which gave rise to Protestantism in Europe, Haitian Protestants make a conscious and pragmatic decision to accept the behavioral strictures of the Protestant Ethic. They do so in the hope that they will improve their life conditions — it is as if they had an instinctual understanding of Weber's thesis. Whether the Baptists of Plage-Boutou, with their essentially magical perception of the efficacy of Purtanism, will succeed in their quest for economic and social betterment is open to question.

PAGE 145

131 No one knows who will live in this cage in the future, or whether at the end of this tremendous development entirely new prophets will arise, or there will be a great rebirth of old ideas and ideals, or, if neither, mechanized petrification, embellished with a sort of convulsive self-importance (Weber 1958:182). Throughout Haiti, Protestantism, the dominant American form of religion, began its growth after the United States Occupation. Plage-Boutou ' s first Baptist was converted in the new efforts of evangelization which followed the United States Marine presence. The Americanization of the Haitian world-view proceeded more quickly in the 1960's and the 1970's as part of Duvalier's strategy to limit the political influence of the Catholic Church. The spread of Protestantism in Plage-Boutou, as in all of Haiti, is a function of the change from the French colonial legacy to the new United States imperialism. The Persistence Of Magic — A Traditional Alternative To The Protestant Ethic Where vodun has been suppressed by the Catholic Church, such as in the mountain regions near Port-au-Prince, it is my impression that both black magic — or the fear thereof — and drinking, are on the increase. The suppression of vodun would seem to lead to a loss of defense, but not a concomitant decrease of the dangers. Belief in sorcery acts as an explanatory device, and also as a support to the religious system (Bourguignon 1959: 44). Throughout Plantation America, magic has persisted as an "explanatory device" and as a means for personal defense The magico-religious complex, brought by the slaves from

PAGE 146

132 Africa, often survived only in those areas of ritual which were private and therefore could not be adequately policed by the master class. Where the communal or religious aspect of this complex was suppressed, the secret magical practices 25 flourished . In those regions of Plantation America where the early suppression of the slave trade enabled the effective creolization of the slave population before Emancipation, most vestiges of African religion disappeared but belief in magic survives to the present day. Such is the case of the Southern United States (Whitten 1962, Puckett 1926, Herskovits 1958). Where large numbers of slaves were imported until Emancipation — Brazil, Cuba and Haiti — African religions have persisted and their decline is a contemporary phenomenon. As Bastide has described in detail, that when the ties which bind together an Afro-American community weaken, the African style religion loses its sociological base and degenerates into magic. New communal basis for sustaining a worldview are generally found in spiritualism or Protestantism. In Puerto Rico, Brazil and Venezuela, where spiritualism thrives, some of the African gods and ritual are retained in reinterpreted form. Protestantism, on the other hand, must reject the African traditions, relegating the gods and the particulars of their worship to Satanism. Even in the extreme transformation to Protestant

PAGE 147

133 Christianity, the belief in magic and its efficacy persists (Bastide 1978, Simpson 1978). Plage-Boutouians say that the early settlers were all great magicians. Simon Magloire was famous for his fishing magic, Dortelesse Bernard was a master of garden magic and the Abiss and Bernards had great magic for accumlating wealth and gaining power over others. Today, although they say magic is disappearing, it is a constant topic of conversation: there are accusations and counteraccusations of witchcraft daily. In Plage-Boutou there are five basic types of magic: protective, good fortune, malicious, lugaru (those forms of magic which involve person-animal or person-unknown being transformations) and zobi or death magic. These forms of magic are listed in the order of fear they inspire in Plage-Boutouians. Protective magic and charms are of little or no danger to the honest, well-meaning person but lugaru and z5bi are an ever-present peril to even the most God-fearing individuals. Magic for protection or for insuring success in some endeavor is used to defend and to gain enhanced performance of gardening, fishing and manual tasks. Protective magic is also used to defend oneself against non-Christian supernatural powers. Perhaps, the most frequent use of magic aimed at insuring good fortune is for courtship. These forms of magic are performed privately by individuals or — if a more powerful agent is needed — bought from

PAGE 148

134 a bokor in a neighboring community. Anyone who is successful in any endeavor is believed to have gro konasas (great knowledge) of magic and is therefore treated with respect. Magic, used to guard a person from the influence of evil supernaturals, is known only to adult males. Women and children are not privy to this information and must stay at home after dark (when the supernaturals are about) or travel in loudly talking or singing groups. The more commonly known defensive measures used by adult males include wearing one's clothes or shirt inside out (it is said the supernaturals can not smell a person so dressed) and silently reciting the 91st Psalm. Malicious magic is either performed by a lugaru or bought from a bokor . Its purpose is to physically harm another person. This magic is greatly feared, completely abhorred and commonly practiced in Plage-Boutou . The perpetrator of witchcraft usually wishes to get something, either wealth or a love-interest. An example of the use of malicious magic for personal gain is the incident of Philseys and Madame Gedeyon. When Madame Gedeyon Abis built a new house in Plage-Boutou, people began to talk about how much money she must have received from her relatives in the United States and the Bahamas. Philseys Pobanne , her junior by more than thirty years, sought her sexual favors. She rebuffed him. Though married and a Baptist, Philseys bought the services of a

PAGE 149

135 bokor in Gros Morne to kill his intended's daughter MariLouise Abis Saint Louis. The community was in an uproar at this assault on the Commandant's neice. The Commandant threatened Philseys with imprisonment if MariLouise died but this did not deter him. To counter this malign magic, Madame Gedeyon and Pierre Saint Louis ( MariLouise ' s husband and predicateur in the Catholic Church) went to Port-de-Paix; Madame Gedeyon to buy counter-magic from a bokor , Pierre to seek the aid of foreign priests. MariLouise did not sicken but hostilities between the Abiss and Philseys did not abate. The case was finally settled in the civil courts of Port-de-Paix, which ordered Philseys to remove the magic. For his efforts, Philseys got six-months probation in the Baptist Church (i.e. he must maintain silence while in the church) and the fear and respect of his fellow Plage-Boutouians . There are two known lugaru in Plage-Boutou . The most feared of these is Georgiar Charles of Kaypaul . It is said she made a pact with Satan in which he promised her wealth and in return took possession of her soul. At night she becomes a bird and flies from house to house to look for other souls to eat. She can also change into other animal and fantastic forms. She is said to have killed her spouse, Leon Magloire, and attempted to kill the son of her rival in magic, Bizenette Rigaud. She is said to have confessed her involvement with Satan to a priest but the pact can not be broken. She and her family are shunned in the daytime and

PAGE 150

136 even many adult males will not walk past her house at night The Devil is not honest, and as usual in such cases he has not honored his part of their agreement. Georgiar was tricked into damnation with no worldly gains to compensate her for her sacrifice. "Such a belief is itself part of a worldview in which bodily form and psychological essence are only loosely related" (Bourguignon 1959:38). This characteristic of Haitian belief has spawned other supernatural entities, the most important of which in Plage-Boutou is the zobi . Zobi are dead people who have been brought back to life by powerful bokor . They frequent all the uninhabited places surrounding the housing area of Plage-Boutou and at times are seen even in the most densely populated areas of the community . No one in Plage-Boutou makes z5bi but it is believed that when a person dies, bokor from other communities come to Plage-Boutou, dig up the grave and transform the corpse into a zobi . If anyone approaches the graveyard when this magic is being performed, the bokor will immediately kill that person. For this reason, no one, not even the Commandant or the Baptists, will approach the Plage-Boutou cemetary after dark for the first three days following a burial . The belief in the existence of zobi is, as Bourguignon observed, an aspect of the Haitian death cult. Though the dead are no longer honored in ceremonies, they

PAGE 151

137 still wander around the environs of the community. The belief in zobi and the zobi ' s relation to the voodoo death cult have parallels in other areas of Plantation America, such as the Jamaican belief in "duppies" or the Southern United States fear of "haints" (Bourguignon 1959, Simpson 1978, Puckett 1926). The demise of voodoo, and the loss of the spiritual protection it offers, leaves magic as the only recourse which Plage-Boutouians have against the dangerous world of the supernatural. Conversion to the Protestant Ethic offers some protection but among these incompletely Protestantized and Americanized people, its power is sometimes insufficient. In Plage-Boutou , as in other Afro-American populations, magic persists as one of the last vestiges of African belief in an often involuntary, yet, gradual acculturation of worldviews. Conclusion Religion, like community, kinship, household and magic is a rather amorphous, open and flexible system in Plage-Boutou. Voodoo, Mandingues , Catholicism and sorcery are combined by individuals in various ways to create idiosyncratic cosmologies. Yet, each of these personal belief systems is composed of a finite number of elements. As situations change, belief systems change to better rationalize and explain the Plage-Boutouians 1 world.

PAGE 152

138 The progression of the plantation cycle is clearly illustrated in the history of Haitian religion. The African religions of the bossal (wild, uncreolized) slaves were syncretized with Christian elements to create a new magico-religious complex. This system of belief changed with each transformation of the social organization: emancipation, the establishment and break-up of the extended family housing compound, the United States Occupation and subsequent American economic and cultural penetration and the establishment of the ruthless Duvalier regime. The decline of the extended family and the community corresponded to similar changes in voodoo and the increased importance of magic and witchcraft. The demise of voodoo and the increased importance of witchcraft is accompanied by the growth of Protestantism. Those parts of the country where voodoo is least prevalent are the very areas where Protestantism is the strongest. The adoption of Protestantism is itself a response to the changing realities of life in the community and in the country. The culture of the rural people is undergoing a metamorphosis which reflects the demise of French colonialism and the growth of American imperialism. Protestantism is perceived as a means of accomodating this transition and gaining benefits from it by a rejection of the African and Haitian past. The rural poor of Haiti are forced to grasp at any opportunity, real or perceived, of integrating themselves into the Western capitalist economy.

PAGE 153

139 Notes 1. The dean of Haitian ethnology, Jean Price-Mars wrote of tnis religious amalgamation: "Its content is richer in psychological synthesis. It has assimilated other ideas, it has assumed disparate principles, it has undergone transformations, it has submitted to productive compromises in its historical evolution" (Price-Mars 1983:153). 2. An example of the birth of a god and the ease in which voodoo can adapt to individual needs or caprices is the case of Captain Deba, described by Metraux. when possessed by Deba, the mount sits on a stool, pretends to row and sings sea-chanties in English. Deba first emerged after his devotee's affair with an American sailor (Metraux 1959:85). 3. There are considerable differences between the voodoo of the Port-au-Prince area and that of rural Haiti. The so-called "temple voodoo" described by Metraux is more elaborate in ritual and more fully developed mythologically than rural voodoo (Metraux 1959). Charles Wagley (personal communication) found similiar differences between rural and urban Afro-American religion and culture in Bahia. See Bastide (1971, 1978) for more on the urban/rural differences in Afro-American cultures. 4. Because of the huga 's power in the local community, many were recruited to serve in Duvalier's secret police force, the tonton machoutes . 5. This regional variability in belief and ritual is found also in the pronunciation and spelling of the term "voodoo". Other writers have rendered the term in countless ways. For Plage-Boutou , "voodoo" is an accurate transcription of the word's local pronunciation. 6. In the South, the term 16a is in general use rather than zazh (Metraux 1959, Herskovits 1971). 7. Jeanne Sylvain (personal commune iation ) remarked that Susan is typical of an Haitian supernatural type described by Metraux as a siren. According to Metraux, the siren is a marine diety in Haiti (Metraux 1959:104). 8. For more on the theatrical character of voodoo ritual see Metraux 1955 and Wilmeth and Wilmeth, 1977. 9. "Stronger in Latin elements, the north does not support Vodoun as it is found in the south. Not that there is less dancing and ritual, but the importance is to some extent lacking. Catholicism is stronger in central and north Haiti

PAGE 154

140 too" (Courlander 1939:233). Today, Protestantism is stronger in the north than in other regions of the country. 10. "There is no evidence of Jewish or Mohammedan influences in Haiti though both were present under French colonial rule (Comhaire 1956:8). 11. For a few brief descriptions of Islamic slaves in antebellum Georgia and South Carolina, see Raboteau 1978:46-47. 12. According to Alexis, some of the Mandingue songs he collected in Balan are still sung at religious ceremonies of the Mandingoes of Mali (Alexis 1970:189-199). 13. In the Catholic churches of northern Haiti, Father Roland Lamy has introduced reproductions of Jacques Chery's L'Alliance de Dieu Avec son People a painting combining a crucified Black Christ with various Christian and voodoo motifs . 14. Plage-Boutouians say that their priest is chul (a male affecting certain behaviors and dress to sexually attract women, ^such as riding a motorcycle) and that he is a rastama (which in Plage-Boutou means a womanizer). 15. The term predicateur was introduced into Haiti by Protestants but, in spite of the Catholic clergy's attempts to replace it with the term catecist , the Catholics of north-central Haiti retain its use. 16. According to Convention Baptiste all Baptists are predicateurs , but in Plage-Boutou this term is reserved for the members of the local ruling committee. The democratization of the church by the Protestants is resented by the Catholic lay-priets who said the problem with Baptists is that they have too many predicateurs . 17. The Baptist services include American songs, Anglo-American singing and preaching style, the counting of Bibles, rote memory and recitation of the Sunday School lesson and the use of Sunday School banners. 18. The Baptists in north Haiti complained that after Deputie Josue Romain had used the denomination to get an education which allowed him to become a professional member of the upper class that he forsook the Protestant Ethic and Convention Baptiste for the earthly pleasures denied Protestants . 19. Compare with Kottak's analysis of the rise of the Protestant Ethic in a Bahian fishing village (Kottak 1983).

PAGE 155

141 20. Of the "image of limited good" Foster wrote "...an individual or a family can improve a position only at the expense of others. Hence an apparent relative improvement in someone's position with respect to any 'Good' is viewed as a threat to the entire community .. .not as a threat to an individual or a family alone, but as threat to all individuals and families" ( Foster 1967:305). For a description of the "invidious sanction" in Haiti, see Erasmus 1961:80-81. 21. Similiar findings have been reported by Conway 1980, Smucker 1984 and Metraux 1959. 22. Jean Luis Caze said he converted to Protestantism in hopes of improving his standard of living. He quit the church because he claimed they pass the offering plate too often and that instead of increasing his worth that conversion diminished it. 23. The same attitudes toward Catholicism and Protestantism are reported by Conway for the Cul-de-Sac (Conway 1980). 24. Herskovits coined the term "socialized ambivalence" to describe the Haitians' psychological conflict between French, Catholic culture and African culture. Today, the patterns of "socialized ambivalence" are shifting from a French Catholic to an American Protestant opposition to the African cultural legacy (Herskovits 1971:299-300). 25. Bourguignon (1959) asserts that black magic and drinking increase with the demise of voodoo. This seems to be the case in Plage-Boutou where drinking has increased dramatically in the past decade. The women who deal in klaren in the community, sell about 200 gallons locally each week . 26. Herskovits interprets the Afro-American concept of Satan as a re-interpretation of the West African Trickster (Herskovits 1958:251-254).

PAGE 156

CHAPTER VI: INCIPIENT TOURISM In the newly developing countries of today's world, when the larger society (particularly the formal apparatus of the state) takes special interest in previously overlooked rural communities, for whatever reason — tourism, nativism, or nationalism — the anthropologist should be alert to the consequences" (Nunez 1962:352) . More than twenty years after Nunez wrote these words, the anthropological study of tourism is only beginning. We still know little about the social and economic impact of touristic development on indigeneous life. In this chapter, the history of tourism in Plage-Boutou will be described and its impact evaluated. Some form of tourism, often quite casual, exists for many fishing villages in Plantation America. Beautiful beaches, fresh seafood and clean blue water has attracted urban nationals and foreign visitors to fishing villages in Jamaica (Davenport 1964, Comitas 1962), Haiti (Laguerre n.d.) and Puerto Rico (Mintz 1960). In some fishing villages, casual tourism has developed into a touristic industry as in the case of the Bahian village studied by Kottak (1983). Incipient tourism is not confined to coastal Plantation America but has penetrated the interior, as described by Horowitz for a mountain community in Martinque (Horowitz 1967). Tourism has encouraged the larger 142

PAGE 157

143 society's recent interest in many previously over-looked rural areas of Plantation America. Foreign Nationals Come To Visit And Stay Until recently the north coast of Haiti from Cap Haitien west to Port-de-Paix was isolated and without road access except for the southern tip of Baie l'Acul. Today, most of this area remains remote but access to the coast has been developed in several areas including Plage-Boutou . The first step in opening Plage-Boutou for tourist development was the improvement of the old colonial road to the village of Corps de Garde. The geologist Harold Wood described a similar situation near Cap Haitien as it was in 1954: These and other beaches along the submerged coast also possess some recreational possibilities. A road, barely passable for ordinary passenger cars, has been built linking Cap Haitien with two narrow beaches on the north side of the Morne du Cap. On these beaches a few cottages have been built by urban residents. Farther west are several beaches, but those closest to Port-de-Paix are inaccessible for reasons of terrain, and those which can be reached by road are too distant to attract much attention. Recent talk of the construction of resort hotels has served only to bring about an increase in land prices (Wood 1963:97-98). Corps de Garde, formerly a colonial military station, is Port-de-Paix's premier resort. Although Convention Baptiste owns a retreat camp and rich Haitians have cottages and luxury homes in Corps de Garde, most of the land and

PAGE 158

144 people of this village are controlled by the Ouanga Villa Hotel. This tourist attraction is owned by the same Port-de-Paix family which owns Port-de-Paix ' s two most luxurious hotels. The development of Corps de Garde gave the people of Plage-Boutou a closer o.utlet for the sale of their seafood and garden produce. It also gave wage employment to several Plage-Boutou males. More importantly for Plage-Boutou, however, is that it made the community more accessible to outsiders since Plage-Boutou is only a few kilometers over the mountain and across the bay from Corps de Garde. Tourists staying in Corps de Garde were offered boat trips to Plage-Boutou to see an authentic Haitian village and voodoo . The first outsider to arrive was Jean Leclerc, a Frenchman and a dealer in tourist goods. Leclerc built a house in Kaypaul in about 1970. An American, Raymond Knox, also a dealer in tourist goods, built the second tourist house at Carnage (southeast of Lucner) a few years later. The completion of Raymond's house was quickly followed by that of another American-owned house on the beach in 1 Lucner . These houses were used as residences, week-end retreats, a factory for making tourist goods and most importantly as tourist rental property. Thus, the exploitation of Plage-Boutou for touristic purposes was

PAGE 159

145 initiated by individuals of foreign citizenship for their own personal enjoyment and profit. In the mid-1970's, an American freelance journalist built a small house in Kaypaul in which to live for several weeks while researching an article she planned to write on Haiti. When she left, she gave her house to the community. The journalist's article brought increased national interest in Plage-Boutou and the house she donated was frequently 2 rented by elite Haitians and foreign tourists. The first local to capitalize on the nascent touristic development was Ernest Abis. As collector and dispensor of the funds earned by Habitation Journalis, he soon realized the potential of rental property and built a three-room hotel next to the community owned house. Both Habitation Journalis and Ernest's three bungalows were equipped with cold water showers and toilets. Plage-Boutou ' s new fame as an out-of-the-way tourist attraction brought not only those outsiders who rented rooms in the village but also yachts which anchored in Plage-Boutou ' s bay. Plage-Boutou was an attractive yacht stop not only because of its natural beauty and recreational possibilities but because the Commandant had ordered and effectively enforced a decree which forbade Plage-Boutouians 3 from begging and from harassing tourists. The presence of visitors in the community improved the standard of living of many Plage-Boutouians. Tourists hired fishermen to take them to the beaches, musicians to

PAGE 160

146 enter-. -.in them and women to cook and clean for them. Their presence enabled the fishermen to charge more for their seafood and the women to increase their sales of rum, cigarettes, bread and sex. The local individual who profited most by the expansion of tourism was the Commandant. As the wealthiest person, the largest native landowner and the representative of the national government, Abis was able to capitalize on and to control the development of the largest segment of the tourist business. Only the Commandant could offer the tourist protection, shelter, plumbing, beer, rum, food and transportation in one package. An enhancement of prestige and power accompanied Abis's increased income and hiring capabilities . Latortue Beach Development In 1979 work began on the Latortue Beach Resort Development situated between Corps de Garde and Plage-Boutou. The resort was to be located on a small peninsula which juts out from the mountains into the Atlantic. The area, known as Grand Latortue in the colonial era, is relatively flat with seven separate beaches (some on the protected bay-side of the peninsula and some facing directly on the Atlantic Ocean). A corporation, whose stockholders included the French government, the Haitian government and French and Haitian

PAGE 161

147 private business interests, was created for the purpose of developing Grand Latortue's resort potential. The largest share of the corporation was owned by the French government which directed the project. The French national, Jean Leclerc, served as publicist and liason for the corporation. The Haitian government — the second largest stockholder — traded legal title to Grand Latortue for its share of the corporation. For many years prior to the development of Grand Latortue, this land had been utilized for garden plots by the horticulturists of Plage-Boutou . The Latortue Beach development was intended to be "a 1,600-bed village resort complex" (ASTA Travel News 1978:51) with rental houses, bungalows, a hotel, restaurant and recreational facilities. When the project began there were 4 only 2,500 hotel rooms in the country. In June 1981, the corporation stopped work on the project due to lack of funds and ill-designed construction. Graft and embezzelment were rife in the corporation. The most impressive theft was the French building supervisor's embezzlement of an estimated four million dollars. This same supervisor had allowed — whether through incompetence or inattention--the structures to be built without adequate ventilation and without a source of fresh water, so that each buildings' plumbing ran open-ended into the ground beneath its concrete floor.

PAGE 162

148 During the period of active construction, the corporation hired many Plage-Boutou males. These laborers were paid three dollars per ten-hour day. Ernest Abis was hired (at a rumored $200 a week) to supervise all the local workers. For this job he was given a jeep, Plage-Boutou ' s first and currently only vechicle. All local workers were hired and fired by the Commandant who it is alleged chose his kinsmen as crew foremen. Skilled labor was imported primarily from France. These electricians, plumbers, masons and other tradesmen rented rooms and hired cooks and launderers in Plage-Boutou. To accomodate these guests, Ernest Abis built an additional hotel of eight rooms in Hugo, his half-sister, Eliterre Abis, built a three-room hotel in Kaypaul, Charles Obere built a two-room hotel in Kaypaul and Andre Magloire constructed a three-room hotel in Plage-Boutou. The corporation supplied the community with a gasoline-fueled generator and the guests and natives had several hours of electricity each evening (except Lucner) at the corporation's expense. Meanwhile, other improvements were made in the community. The German government, for reasons unknown, dug a well in the mountains above Plage-Boutou and piped water into the community (again excluding Lucner). With the new national and international interest in Plage-Boutou, the Catholic Church approved the construction of a school house and a building to house the teachers at Nan Jerome.

PAGE 163

149 Another attempt to capitalize on the prospective tourist market was initiated locally. Alan Abis, legitimate son of the Commandant, invested some of the money he had made while working in Miami in inexpensive instruments, amplifiers and a public address system. He founded a band, Ideal Tropics, which still plays at local functions. Alan's half-brother Toussaint Abis began construction of an open-air night club in Lucner to house the band. The night club was never completed due to the corporation's failure to finish the resort. Impoverished Haitians migrated to Plage-Boutou in large numbers during the time of the construction activity. Most of the migrants were from areas (Carabet, Belair, Ti Morne, Les Trois Rivereres, Port-de-Paix ) which had traditional kinship connections to Plage-Boutou. Some found jobs working for the corporation but most made a living by the traditional subsistence activities of fishing and gardening. They thus filled the shortage of food producers created by the attraction of wage-labor. The population of Plage-Boutou effectively doubled in two years. The number of houses increased rapidly as the wage-workers built new houses and sold or rented their old homes to the in-coming migrants. Five or six new Plage-Boutou houses were completed each month before the Latortue Beach development was halted. Many of the building materials that were used in the construction of the new houses were pilfered from the corporation's stores.

PAGE 164

150 Both the government's Tourist Bureau and private tourist businesses began to mention Plage-Boutou in their tour guides and tourist literature. Included were maps to Plage-Boutou, pictures and glowing descriptions of the beaches, water sports potential and seafood. This public relations work made Plage-Boutou ' s existence more widely known and increased numbers of Haitian and foreign tourists began to visit Plage-Boutou. As a corollary of Plage-Boutou ' s economic boom, many of the local landowners gave up horticulture and sold their land to speculators. These speculators — including Haitian, American and French citizens and President Jean-Claude Duvalier — purchased most of the land, especially beachfront, in the vicinity of Plage-Boutou. Plage-Boutouians who continued to farm became tenants of these international businessmen rather than their fellow Plage-Boutouians. Owners of the larger tracts of land appointed local men to make and supervise the local tenant arrangements. These lucrative positions were given primarily to the members of the Caze family (Abis 1 in-laws) and enabled the Cazes to fe gro mun (make big men of themselves). During the approximately two years of construction on Latortue Beach, Plage-Boutou experienced tremendous economic growth: many men were employed at wage-labor, women were retained for cooking and cleaning, the sale of market goods increased as did the price of locally produced foodstuffs and a fortunate few made income from rental property and

PAGE 165

151 land management. The increased capital resources in the community were used to build houses, expand entertainment facilities and to purchase considerable amounts of cheap western consumer goods (such as clothes, shoes, radios, cassette players, watches, flashlights and furniture). The new capital also was used for kotraba emigration, the increased consumption of alcohol and cigarettes and the five-fold expansion of the bolet (lottery). There were also significant changes in the organization of local social stratification during the two years of Plage-Boutou ' s economic boom. The Commandant's power and wealth increased with his new job, car, hotels and land purchases. The Cazes' economic and social position improved because of their work as land managers. Many of the older families lost prestige by selling their land which forced them into tenancy when the corporation failed. An addition to this reorganization of individuals' relative fortunes was the influx of a new lower class, composed of people migrating to Plage-Boutou in search of work. Corporate Failure And The Control Of Local Entrepreneur ship The Latortue Beach development had done much to proletarianize the peasant fisherpeople of Plage-Boutou. When the corporation failed and construction stopped, wage-labor for Plage-Boutouians all but disappeared. That day in June 1981 when all work on the Latortue Beach project

PAGE 166

152 was halted was a sad one for the community. Plage-Boutouians still hope that some foreign company will buy Latortue Beach and resume the work on the tourist project . The only workers retained by the corporation were a handful of guards under the Commandant's supervision. These guards supplement their salaries—which they seldom receive — by charging tourists an entrance fee to Latortue Beach and by offering them boat rides to Plage-Boutou and the other beaches in the area. The personnel serving as guards has changed frequently since 1981 because the Commandant discharges workers if he catches them selling equipment or supplies from the project. The Commandant, Jean Leclerc and members of the Port-de-Paix elite (involved in the corporation) retain the privilege of selling the bounty of Latortue Beach — outboard motors, block, lumber, plumbing fixtures, refrigerators, and so forth--for themselves. The Commandant makes several trips a week into Port-de-Paix to sell construction materials. He also sells items locally to Plage-Boutouians, tourists and an American couple who are building a luxury housing compound above the Q beach at Bontemps. He has used the materials himself to build a new and nicer eight-room hotel and restaurant at Bontemps and an house in Port-de-Paix. To insure his control of the tourist trade, Abis does not sell the Latortue goods to any local who plans to build

PAGE 167

153 housing for rent to tourists. Futhermore, the guards at Latortue Beach must direct all tourists to the Commandant's hotels if they wish to keep their jobs. Abis, who has the only car and motorized boats in the community, has sucessfully cornered the tourist market of Plage-Boutou . The use of the Commandant's jeep is especially lucrative since the road is impassable in most passenger vechicles, there are no car rental businesses in the north of Haiti and the local taxi drivers charge a minimum of forty dollars per trip one-way as compared to the seven to twenty dollars Abis asks . Hotel rooms in Plage-Boutou rent from $6 to $12 a night with an additional $3 a day per person for two meals. From December 26, 1983 to June 26, 1984, 601 tourist nights were spent in the community. This represents at the minimum $3500 for rent and $3500 for meals on an annual basis. With additional expenditures for lobster, crab and other high-priced seafoods, fruits, rum, beer, sodas, cigarettes, tourist crafts, voodoo dances, boat rides, jeep transportation and so forth, this means at the minimum a ten-thousand dollar a year industry. Eighty to ninety percent of the tourist money which enters the community goes to Abis. Not only does he control most of the hotel rooms and arrangements for food preparation he also controls most of the rum, beer and cigarette sales to tourists. By any reckoning this is a large profit for an Haitian peasant.

PAGE 168

154 The Commandant ' s control of this sector leaves little for the common people of Plage-Boutou . They can hustle tourists for boat rides, for the purchase of seafood and locally made craf ts--polished conch shells, embroidery and roz5 baskets — staging of voodoo dances and goat barbecues . Only Pierre Saint Louis and Morelias Viel have been able to build tourist housing in the face of the Commandant's resistence. Pierre's story is recounted in the next chapter. Morelias, who resides in Miami, sent the money to his relatives in Plage-Boutou to build his hotel. Both Pierre and Morelias have protection from a government official in Port-de-Paix . The only wage-labor now open to Plage-Boutouians is working for the Ouanga Villa Hotel — either at the hotel or on one of their beach development projects--or working on the construction of Tom's (an American from New England) houses above Bontemps. In 1984, the Ouanga Villa Hotel employed less than fifteen Plage-Boutouians. Tom employed between ten and twenty workers during the six months out of each year that he and his girlfriend live in Haiti. He pays his employees two dollars a day. The Commandant's new hotel, finished in the Spring of 1984, became a weekend attraction for the elite of Port-de-Paix. The hotel is equipped with a small bar/restaurant which the Commandant stocks with ice for rum and scotch drinks and to cool beers and sodas.

PAGE 169

155 Profits are made on the sale of food and drinks and rooms where the males of the Port-de-Paix elite can have brief rendevous with peasant women. In the Spring of 1984 Abis' power was further enhanced inadvertantly by the owner of Ouanga Villa Hotel who is the largest landowner of the area. He forbid his tenants, many, of whom were landless to cultivate gardens on his land. This made most of those who would garden subject to the desires of Plage-Boutou ' s second largest landowner, the Commandant . The Impact Of Tourism On Plage-Boutou International attention has been drawn to Plage-Boutou and its tourist potential. In 1984, American, French, Italian, Swiss, German, Swedish, Dominican, British, Canadian and elite urban Haitians visited Plage-Boutou. This is a radical change from the isolated, "undiscovered" peasant fishing settlement of 1970. Linguistic acculturation has proceeded from these international contacts; from a community of Creole speakers (some with a rudimentary understanding of French) in 1970 to a situation where many Plage-Boutouians have guide-appropriate knowledge of English, French and/or Spanish. The genesis of bilingual hosts is a common characteristic of the introduction of tourism to non-developed areas:

PAGE 170

156 Perhaps the most striking example of the asymmetry in host-guest relationships is to be found in linguistic acculturation in which the usually less literate host population produces numbers of bilingual individuals, while the tourist population generally refrains from learning the host's language. The cadre of bilingual individuals in a tourist-oriented community or country are usually rewarded (Nunez 1977:208). Such is the case in Plage-Boutou where at least some knowledge of the visitor's language is necessary in the fierce competition for tourist money. Contact with the more affluent outside world has created a desire in Plage-Boutouians to learn other languages for pragmatic reasons . Exposure to rich and leisure-oriented persons has spawned the same sort of cultural imperialism that is apparent in the introduction of Protestantism. An attitude that everything which is foreign is superior to the local and traditional is observable in the Plage-Boutouians' preference for things European but especially the American (including styles of dress, music, food, beverage, entertainment, and phenotypical features) and the denigration of their own cultural legacy. For Plage-Boutou, cultural imperialism was the consequence of economic imperialism. Indeed, it was foreign entrepreneurs who "discovered" Plage-Boutou and initiated touristic development of the area. When the individual developers were superseded by a trans-nationl corporation, what had been a gradual and limited development became a multi-million dollar enterprise with a profound and enduring

PAGE 171

157 impact on the community's size, subsistence patterns and socio-political organization. Subsistence patterns changed with the introduction of wage-labor which created a situation where more people had more money than at any other time in the community's history. It also instituted a standardized work-day and pay period, pay by the hour rather than by quantity of production, a labor hierarchy and an emphasis on individual effort. All these elements were foreign to the Haitian peasantry but necessary for the creation of a nascent proletariat . Tourism fostered the development of a service industry in Plage-Boutou . For the first time local women worked as domestics and local men served as guides and boat rowers in the paid service of outsiders. The Plage-Boutou service sector is the only tourist related enterprise that is only partially controlled by Abis and hence competition in this sector is intense. Tourist hustling is Plage-Boutou ' s newest and potentially most profitable subsistence strategy . Due to the foreigners' preference for certain kinds of seafood — lobster, crab, shrimp and deep-water snapper--and their distaste for the traditionally most intensively fished species — reef dwelling fish, squid, certain crab species, eel, and octopus--f ishing technologies have changed. Today, more men are involved in speargun fishing for lobster, line fishing in deep, distant waters for snapper and beach

PAGE 172

158 seining for shrimp and anchovies than in the past. That these high-price species have been overfished and nearly depleted is a well-known and distressing fact to 13 Plage-Boutou ' s fishermen. The introduction of wage-labor and material improvements — road improvement, piped water, electricity (temporary as it was )--increased consumption and display of Western consumer products caused an influx of people from the surrounding rural area. Both the number of people and houses more than doubled in a short time. This movement of people into Plage-Boutou allowed the formation of a new underclass of peasant sharecroppers. With the end of construction on Latortue Beach, most of the wage-earners, now landless, were forced to return to peasant subsistence activities as tenant farmers just when an increase in population and a decrease in available land to sharecrop made horticulture a more difficult and less financially rewarding endeavor. The fortunate few who continue to profit from tourism have been able to amass capital reserves and rebuild, or begin new, kindred associations and laku . Though present before tourism, the differences in prestige and wealth in the three villages increased with the arrival of foreigners in the community. In his attempt to crush all sources of opposition to his power, the Commandant deprived Lucner of water and electricity to diffuse the

PAGE 173

159 authority of Narva Lamour, shef of Lucner and of the local voodoo 4 Just as tourism has attracted many new residents to the community, it has enabled others to emigrate. Foreign visitors have arranged for two Plage-Boutouians to work on international cruise liners and for others to migrate to the United States to work as domestics for their benefactors. American yachts, which have anchored at Plage-Boutou , have transported locals illegally to the United States and the Bahamas. Others have accumulated the capital to leave the country kotraba (illegally) for the Bahamas or Miami or to voyage to the Turks and Caicos as temporary guest workers.' Those who have migrated often send remittances to their families in Plage-Boutou and many have helped 14 relatives to follow them to their new homes. It is due to the crudely developed political system of the Haitian local community that Abis has succeded in controlling the benefits of touristic development. He was able to do this because of the weak authority structure of the non-executive branches of the local and national government. The Commandant has accomplished this in the manner of most Haitian leaders, by show of force and quick usurpation of all potentially lucrative resources and by the creation of a situation which makes others dependent on him for their livelihood and well-being. Like Duvalier, Abis is Commandant for life and just as the national government has an ineffective legislative

PAGE 174

160 branch, Plage-Boutou has a powerless community council and just as Duvalier is the richest man in Haiti, Abis is the richest man in Plage-Boutou. This analogy is not lost on the people of Plage-Boutou. One local, when asked about the nature of Abis 1 office, said in his rudimentary English "same thing for Jean-Claude ." Conclusion The processes peoples into v are envisaged factors: the and environmen factors. The productivity , traditional pa authority stru other cultural influences, th environmental commodities th and access to of acculturation that bri arious kinds of productiv as the interaction of two local factors, i.e., the t, and the outside Europe local complex includes na population density, settl tterns of land use and la cture, religion, social o features. In their rela e local factors also incl potentials for production at are in demand in the o this market (Steward 1959 ng native e arrangements sets of native society an or industrial tive ement stability, nd tenure, rganization and tion to outside ude of cash utside market :6) . In Plage-Boutou, as in much of Plantation America, the "cash commodity that is in demand in the outside market" is tourism. The economic elites, produced by Western colonialism and industrialism, have created a leisure industry which seeks out "unspoiled" out-of-the-way spots in the less-developed countries for the construction of playgrounds. For the international tourism industry to expand, it needs to find new remote areas for incorporation into a world market. Plage-Boutou, like Arembepe in Bahia,

PAGE 175

161 are recent examples of the growth of the international tourist market in Plantation America (Kottak 1983). The acculturative forces of tourism make proletarians out of peasants. These changes in the social organization and ecology of production are accompanied by cultural and psychological transformations. In Plage-Boutou , there have been changes in language use, religion, patterns of authority, music, market consumption, social organization, wealth, population density, settlement stability, subsistence activities and land tenure and use. The impact of tourism in Plage-Boutou has been significant and pervasive . Notes 1. The American woman, who built the house in Lucner, sold it to a Port-de-Paix grocery store proprietor. She later bought some tourist property in Jacmel, in the south of Haiti. 2. The villagers say that their benefactor must be dead because she was old and gray-haired. They believe that if she were still alive that she would have returned to visit in Plage-Boutou. 3. Begging and pressure to buy tourist goods from street vendors is a constant almost everywhere in Haiti. Its detrimental effect on tourism is recognized by the government who has produced television and radio spots to discourage these activities. 4. The project was initiated in hopes of capitalizing on Haiti's growing tourist business. In 1977, there was a reported 11.7 percent increase in visitors to Haiti (ASTA Travel News 1978:51). In the 1980's, there has been a severe decline in visitors to Haiti with a consequent depression in the tourist sector. 5. The walls and floors of these buildings would have to be broken-up to correct the plumbing. The only source of fresh

PAGE 176

162 water nearby is across the bay at Plage-Boutou . The well in the mountains that supplies water to the community does not meet the demand for water in Plage-Boutou. 6. The Catholic and Baptist schools are not free. A student must have an uniform, buy paper and books and pay a ten dollar a term tuition. The funds for maintaining the schools are often not forthcoming. When the Catholic Church decided not to pay for the Plage-Boutou school's third teacher, the Commandant made a deal to pay a new (and unfortunetly non-literate) teacher with bulgar from the CARE aid food to the community. 7. The selling of Latortue Beach includes the sale of truck loads of toilets and other plumbing fixtures to the Laguerre construction supply business in Port-de-Paix . The Laguerres are frequent visitors in Plage-Boutou and lend their prestige to Abis by their friendship and by bringing him imported champagne and beer. This is the same family of Haitian-Syrians who hold legal title to Plage-Boutou. 8. Tom and Kathy Kirpatrick lease the land above Bontemps from Abis for $300 a year. Previously they had leased the beach at Hugo from Andre Magloire. They were removed from Hugo by the Haitian courts for lease infraction. 9. In 1984, Abis extended his control to tourist hustling. He now assigns people that may hustle tourists. Unassigned hustlers are threatened with punishment. In the first three months of this policy there were no offenders. 10. s drink the ma brandrum (H alcoho class even w found Haitia cotch whiskey is everywhere in Haiti the preferred of the elite. Menus in the restaurants and hotels of jor cities will list a number of scotches by name along with the different grades of Barbancourt aitian) and maybe gin, vodka, and other generic 1 appelations. Those members of the new black middle usually drink scotch in public as a status symbol, hen they can scarely afford it. The most commonly scotch in Haiti is Dewar's White Label, referred to by ns simply as White Label. 11. The psychology of indigenous cultural denigration has been a controversial issue for many years. The most persuaive and influential advocate of the pathological psychic effects of colonialism and imperialism in Afro-America and Africa has been the Trinidadian psychiatrist, Frantz Fannon, esp. Fannon 1967. 12. Though often tourist hustling is not a very lucrative profession, occasionally it pays well. In one weekend, in 1984, Borlette Magloire and Chantille Caze made $62 and $56 respectively, catering to tourists.

PAGE 177

163 13. Kottak discovered the similiar depletion of the lobster resources in Arembepe after its tourist explosion (Kottak 1983). 14. Spero estimates that only 40% of Haiti United States are reg istered--the rest are kStraba (Spero 1985:63-64). The cost of ko emmig ration is tremendous. In 1984, an Hai already paid various officials for a passpo could buy passage on a small and often poor boat from Port-de-Paix to the Bahamas for $ not include food, water or last minute poli to the illegality of emmigration, the would at the mercy of the boat captains who deman advance and often depart before schedule, 1 passengers without a ride or their money. ans entering the illegal or traba tian who had rt and exit visa ly maintained 300. This did ce bribes. Due -be migrants are d payment in eaving the

PAGE 178

CHAPTER VII: PEASANT MAN AS MANIPULATOR: THE LIFE HISTORY OF PIERRE SAINT LOUIS The culture forms a continous and connected wrap for the organic life. From the standpoint of the life history the person is viewed as an organic center of feeling moving through a culture and drawing magnetically to him the main strands of the culture. In the end the individual appears as a person, as a microcosm of the group features of his culture ... In pure cultural studies, on the other hand, the organic man has disappeared and only that abstracted portion of him remains that is isolated and identified by the culture pattern. If, in the "pure" cultural study, the organic reality of the person is lost, then we should expect that cultural studies would tell us little about individual experience and meanings (Dollard 1935:4). This dissertation has been primarily concerned with the evolution of cultural patterns in postbellum Plantation America. For this purpose, the social and cultural history of a particular Haitian village has been presented and analyzed. In doing this the "individual experience and meanings" have been neglected. The following biographical sketch is an attempt to remedy this omission. Chapter VII is the life history of Pierre Saint Louis. As is the case with most biographies collected by anthropologists, the subject of this chapter is not an average but rather an exceptional person. Unlike most documents of the kind, this life history is of a relatively young man of thirty years. Despite his youth, Pierre's life 164

PAGE 179

165 makes a worthwhile study because of his unusually conscious and broad understanding of his culture. It is intended that this chapter not only add "atmosphere" (Radin 1963:1) by fleshing out a real individual of Plage-Boutou but that the presentation of this life history represent "a microcosm of the group features of 2 his culture." Indeed, it is the story of how one Labadian has perceived his culture and how he has manipulated its basic features for his own benefit. Pierre Marcelin Pierre was born, he believes, in June 1953 and was the first surviving child of Jartude Marcelin and an unknown father. Like most Plage-Boutouians , Pierre's birth was not registered and there is some disagreement among family members as to his true age. Unlike most people in the community, Pierre has kept careful track of his age since his youth; therefore, Pierre's estimate of his own age is probably the most accurate. At the time of Pierre's birth, Jartude was approximately twenty years old and was living with her mother Merite Durosier in Claude Magloire's house in Plage-Boutou. Jartude had been born in Carabet but when Merite became Claude's new plase , mother and daughter moved to his birthplace, Plage-Boutou.

PAGE 180

166 Jartude was relatively light-skinned for an Haitian peasant and her beauty was renowned in north-central Haiti. Many men, from Plage-Boutou peasants to urban elite, sought her favors. Most of these relationships were short-lived and, often, Jartude had sexual relations with several men simultaneously. For this reason, she did not know who was Pierre's father. Since Pierre's father was unknown and unacknowledged, Jartude gave him her own surname. The use of a person's mother's name rather than that person's father's name is a low-status marker in Haitian peasant society. Because of her frequent and unstable relationships with men, Jartude was considered move (bad) and therefore unsuitable for a more prestigious stable plasazh relationship which compounded Pierre's low-status birth. For the first five years of his life, Pierre and his mother resided in the home of Claude Magloire. During this time, Jartude bore her third child, Gregoire Marcelin, the son of her cousin, Nozurre Marcelin. Because of the close kin link, between Gregoire's parents, his birth was also considered low-status. When Chilmeme Josmar (father of Jartude' s second child Carmelle Josmar) of Carabet established a stable relationship with Jartude, the new couple built a house behind that of Claude in to which they moved with her children, Pierre, Gregoire and Carmelle.

PAGE 181

167 Jartude and Chilmeme had five more children over a period of ten years. This made a total of seven half-siblings for Pierre on his mother's side. In addition, children from Chilmeme 's other plase relationships often lived in Jartude's house and were considered equally kin to her offspring. Futhermore, the full group of Jartude and Chilmeme' s children considered Claude Magloire to be their grandfather because Jartude's mother was plase to him. Although during Pierre's early years there was no formal school in Plage-Boutou, Abis used the chapel to teach children the basics of reading. (The instruction was apparently poor because none of the Commandant's pupils ever 2 passed the national primary school exam. ) Due to the Marcelin's poverty, they could not afford the tuition for Abis's school. Claude, however, paid the fees for Pierre to attend the school for one year. Despite the fact that Pierre could not continue in school, his interest in learning to read remained steadfast. He borrowed his friends' school materials and badgered them into showing him what they had learned. Thanks to his native ability and persistence, Pierre learned how to read French, a language to which he had little exposure. The only book available in tne community was the Bible and Pierre spent much of his free time reading it. In the early 1970's, two Americans who were exploring the north coast of Haiti visited Plage-Boutou. The two men

PAGE 182

168 had run out of money and hence had nowhere to sleep and nothing to eat. Pierre brought them to his house where they were given accomodations. Pierre's plase fixed them the best fare available, lobster, rice and beans and coffee. In exchange for his generosity, the Americans built a make-shift loom and taught Pierre to weave. Pierre practiced weaving for five years until he had mastered the craft. By this time the loom had become decrepit and Pierre fashioned himself a new improved model. On his new loom he made weavings to sell to tourists and contracted with a priest to weave fifty etorles (scarves). The priest took a liking to the capable young man and offered him menial work on the church grounds and rectory in Port-de-Paix . By the time he was twenty, Pierre had taught himself to understand and to read a foreign language (French), built a house on his grandfather's land, established a plasazh relationship, become a father (the child died), bought a boat, sharecropped gardens, learned to weave and to play stringed instruments and drums and established a lasting relationship with the Catholic Church hierarchy. From a marginal and extremely impoverished beginning, Pierre had grown into an adult and had accomplished those things ( plasazh , ownership of a house, boat and tenancy of garden plots) that most Plage-Boutouians aspired to but did not achieve until much later in life. His accomplishments also included the acquisition of knowledge in areas that few

PAGE 183

169 Plage-Boutouians were familiar (literacy, a non-traditional and lucrative skill) and these stood him in good stead as his relationship with his family, the church and the community underwent immense change. Pere Pierre As Pierre's relationship with the priests of the parish became more intimate, he was drawn to orthodoxy. He says that he gave his life to God when he was twenty years old. At this time, Pierre reassesed his life and was determined to make changes. His first change was to end his plasazh ' relationship which according to church teaching was sinful. From this time until his marriage several years later, he remained chaste. Of financial significance was Pierre's decision to guit dancing and playing music because he felt that it was inappropriate behavior for one of God's servants. Earlier, as the most versatile musician in the community, he had organized the local band Ideal Tropics for Alan Abis. Before it had played publicly, Pierre dissassociated himself from the band and hence sacrificed any claim to the group's revenues . Impressed by his reforms and his apparent desire to devote his life to God, the Catholic hierarchy of the north of Haiti selected Pierre to be trained as a catecist (officially recognized lay cleric). At the Church's

PAGE 184

170 expense, Pierre spent six weeks at a school directed by priests and nuns and upon graduation became an official of the Church. He was the first Plage-Boutouian authorized to teach, give communion and conduct funerals for the Catholic Church . Pierre is now part of the international Church organization and is its representative in Plage-Boutou . He directs Sunday services, teaches a Bible class on Tuesdays and Thursdays, assists the priest and is the spiritual advisor of the people in the community. Fellow Plage-Boutouians often refer to him as "Pere Pierre." Unlike many catecists of rural Haiti, Pierre maintains close contact with the parish and the nation's church hierarchy. Not only does he weave for the church and for various priests, he also performs a variety of voluntary tasks. One such task has enabled Pierre to establish a close relationship with the Bishop of the north whom he assists in the mercy mission (primarily spiritual aid) in Port-de-Paix' s dreadful prison. This work has broadened Pierre's social network considerably because he is sought out as the only possible liason between prisoners and their families on the outside. It has also made him privy to information concerning the government, the military and illegal incarceration about which most Haitians can only speculate . Although some Plage-Boutouians envy Pierre and most are impressed by his rise in power and prestige, he is well

PAGE 185

171 liked in the community because of his efforts to improve his fellow Plage-Boutouians ' standard of living. He assisted the French priest in raising funds to build the Catholic school. After its completion, Pierre petitioned the government to supply funds to pay the teachers. Following several unsuccessful attempts to get a letter to the Minister of Education signed by Abis--who resented Pierre's obvious upward mobility — Pierre was able to by-pass the Commandant by having a government official of Port-de-Paix send the letter. Pierre's success in obtaining the funds without the Commandant's assistance created an atmosphere of hostility in his relations with Abis. After his experience with the Catholic school project, Pierre began petitioning the government for an adult literacy program in Creole for the community. With the help of a Swiss altruist, who had vacationed in Plage-Boutou , Pierre established a girl's vocational school in the community. Thirty girls are taught, free of charge for a period of three months, to weave, sew and embroider. When the term is over, another thirty girls are selected for training. The capital supplied by the Swiss philanthropist paid for ten foot-peddled sewing machines and the wages of the necessary personnel—two local women ($40 a term) to teach sewing and embroidery, a woman to maintain order and discipline ($20 a term) and Pierre to teach weaving and to direct all activities of the school ($40 a term). Classes meet every Friday from 9 AM to 1 PM in the

PAGE 186

172 Catholic school building which is not used for the primary school at that time. In 1984 funding from the Swiss benefactor ceased. Nevertheless, Pierre continued the school by promising the teachers that he would raise the money for their salaries and pay them back wages. He plans to make the school self-sufficient by selling woven and embroidered goods to tourists in Plage-Boutou and Port-de-Paix . At this time, after consulting with a variety of foreigners, he is creating designs which he thinks will appeal to tourist buyers . Pierre also benefits the community by offering his service in personal finance management. Because of his service to the community and the feeling of trust which he inspires, Pierre has become a local savings institution. Over thirty Plage-Boutouians regularly bring him money (usually one to three gourds at a time) to save for them. Since they are illiterate and distrustful of the elite, most Plage-Boutouians would never consider opening a bank account. Without the service provided by Pierre they would have difficulty saving even these small sums. For the safe-keeping of his clients money, Pierre has set-up a bank account in Port-de-Paix. He keeps the interest earned on this money as a service charge. Through his connections with the Catholic Church Pierre has established a local power base. He has used his

PAGE 187

173 influence and skills to benefit himself and his community. His improved life condition and the increased respect he receives locally have been resented by the Commandant, and a power struggle has ensued. Pierre Saint Louis When Pierre Marcelin was twenty years old, he asked his mother the names of all the men who might be his father. She told him that Louis Saint Louis, Jaril Dennis or Ernest Abis were the three possibilities. Pierre wrote a letter to each of these men inquiring whether he was their son. Saint Louis and Dennis responded by inviting Pierre to come visit them; Abis did not respond. Pierre met with Monsieur Saint Louis first. Louis is a wealthy man, part of Haiti's emerging black middle class. Like Pierre, Louis had managed to learn to read and used his association with the supernatural to enhance his power and wealth. His use of the supernatural, however, was very different from Pierre's, for Louis is a bokor (sorcerer) with a great reputation in north Haiti and national-level politicians and wealthy businessmen are among his clientele. Louis is the owner of a large estate in Ti Morne , the manager of a tourist store in Port-de-Paix and the father of at least seventeen children by five different women. Jaril Dennis is also a wealthy man, not of the new black middle class but of the traditional mulatto

PAGE 188

174 elite. He is a businessman and government official (supervisor of the Port-de-Paix office of Regie du Tabac — a notoriously corrupt government monopoly). First Louis and later Jaril agreed to acknowledge Pierre as his son. From having no father, Pierre gained two fathers, in a six month period; both wealthy and powerful. Jaril gave Pierre beachfront property in Kaypaul (which he had bought when Jartude was pregnant) and Louis gave him 1 1/2 hectares of fertile coastal plain land from his holdings in Ti Morne. More important, the legal documents by which Jaril and Louis acknowledged their paternity of Pierre entitles him to an equal share of their estates when they die. Pierre acquired not only two important men for fathers but also a large group of siblings, some of whom are highly placed in Haitian government and business. The people of Plage-Boutou say that Pierre is a teknisya because he used the uncertainity of his own paternity to such advantage and has been able to maintain this deception (both Jaril and Louis were ignorant of the other's acknowledgment of paternity) for a decade. To sustain a dual legal paternity under these circumstances takes planning, as is apparent in the case of Pierre's marriage to MariLouise Abis. After dissolving his former plasazh relationship, Pierre began to court MariLouise Abis, neice of the Commandant. Despite the fact that MariLouise was the mother of three children by a previous consensual union they had no

PAGE 189

175 sexual relations during the courtship. As predicateur , Pierre was careful to follow the teachings of the church in this matter. When Pierre proposed marriage to MariLouise, the Commandant tried to intervene by telling her and other Plage-Boutouians that Pierre was his son but since he had refused to legally acknowledge paternity, the plans for the marriage proceeded. Pierre and MariLouise had visited both Jaril and Louis to announce their forthcoming marriage and to invite Pierre's fathers to attend the ceremonies. To his surprise both fathers accepted the invitation. Pierre resolved this dilemma by arranging for the priest to marry them on Saturday, rather than the announced day of Sunday. Following the ceremony, the couple traveled by boat to Ti Morne to celebrate with Louis. They told Louis that the priest had come unexpectedly a day early but they had come to have their wedding reception with him. They walked to Port-de-Paix the following moning and told Jaril the same story . Since the marriage, Pierre has confessed to Louis his dual legal paternity. Louis is confident of his own biological role in fathering Pierre and--because of the animosity which has existed between Jaril and Louis ever since they competed for Jartude's af f ections--is proud that his son has been able to manipulate the situation to his advantage. Currently, Louis and his family help Pierre in keeping this situation a secret. No longer a Marcelin,

PAGE 190

176 Pierre is a Saint Louis or a Dennis depending on the circumstances in which he finds himself. After acquiring two fathers, Pierre wanted a son of his own to whom he could pass his names and wealth. Soon MariLouise was pregnant and bore a premature male baby. This child was frail and sickly and died of a fever when he was eighteen months old. It is said that everyone in Plage-Boutou loved the child (he was light-skinned and pretty) and that they cried at his passing. Believing the cause of the infant's fraility and death to be supernatural, rather than natural, made Plage-Boutouians even more sympathetic . Pierre unknowingly provoked the malign power by building his house on the mountain. This house was built on land Pierre had acquired from his "grandfather" Claude Magloire. Above and below Pierre's house were sections of land used as garden plots by Claude's tenants. Next to the house was a narrow strip of land which stretched from the neighborhood of Plage-Boutou to above Pierre's house. Roger Viel had purchased this land from Claude's father, Marcel Magloire, and built himself a house on its lower end in Plage-Boutou . Roger, who died in the early 1960's, was a greatly feared bokor. Though dead, his reputation and magic still

PAGE 191

177 haunt the people of Plage-Boutou . It is believed that Pierre and MariLouise were the victims of his continuing evil influence. Soon after she became pregnant, MariLouise began to see a man, whom she did not recognize, walk by their house at night. Once he even knocked at their door. MariLouise became afraid and was convinced that this man was no mortal but was Satan. Even though he had not seen the apparition, Pierre began to keep nightly vigils — reading the Bible and praying — to protect MariLouise and the baby but to no avail. Pierre consulted with Claude, one of the oldest and most respected individuals in the community. Claude told Pierre that Roger had planted Satanik on the land and that the unknown visitor was sent by the Devil. Claude made medikama (medicine) from the juice of sitro (key-lime) and the crushed leaves of various plants which he buried in the ground near Pierre's house. He also directed Pierre to plant a raket (cactus) hedge — in a square pattern — around his house and yard. The presence did not return until after a man who sharecropped a garden above Pierre's house cut a shortcut through the cactus hedge. Then the spirit came back and Pierre and MariLouise's son died. MariLouise, convinced that "B5dye pa rete na mon" (God doesn't live on the mountain), refused to return to the house after the infant's death and began sleeping at Pierre's mother's house in Plage-Boutou. Pierre was unhappy with this arrangement

PAGE 192

178 because they could not fe_ lot petit (make another baby) at his mother's since there were too many people living there. Claude brought an old man with a long white beard from St-Louis-du-Nord for consultation. This man, reputed to have gro konasas for magic, told Pierre to sell the house because problems with Satan would continue as long as he lived there. Pierre arranged to sell the house and surrounding land to a rich Haitian from Port-au-Prince for $6000, but the man never came to finalize the deal. Next he tried to sell the house to Jean Leclerc. Leclerc told him not to sell the house and that the cause of his problems was that he did not honor Mait Agwe , Leclerc's reputed met tet (a zazh who is seated in a person's head and therefore that person's master). Leclerc brought a bokor from Port-au-Prince to perform a ritual on the mountain invoking Mait Agwe. The ritual was effiacous and the evil presence did not return but neither would Mar i Louise . Perplexed, Pierre turned again to Bon Dieu. He took his Bible and prayed, asking God to tell him what he should do in a dream. After falling asleep that night, Pierre dreamt that an old man, whom he called Papa , had come to see him. The old man asked Pierre directions to the church and whether Pierre worked for the church. Pierre responded and the old man asked him for ten kob ($.02). Pierre told the man that he didn't have any money then but would give it to him on his return from the church. Pierre then awoke.

PAGE 193

179 While he was thinking about the dream's meaning, an old man who lived in Plage-Boutou came by and talked to him. He told Pierre to sell the house. Pierre once again tried to sell his house. The owner of the Ouanga Villa Hotel agreed to buy the house for $4000. Lacking a written contract, Pierre settled for only $2500 of the agreed upon amount of purchase. The hotel later sold the house for $15,000 to an American tourist. Jaril Dennis encouraged Pierre to build a house on the beach property he had given him. He also gave Pierre $200 to start work on breaking the rocks used to prepare the ground for a concrete floor. Pierre used the $2500 to buy construction materials from Latortue Beach (to accomplish this, he went over Abis's head to Jean Leclerc). With the income saved from his weaving contract with the Church he hired laborers. Pierre's new house was a concrete floor, cement block and tin roof structure of five rooms, containing a bathroom with a toilet and shower and windows with glass. It was the nicest house in the community. Pierre's reason for building such an exquisite (by Plage-Boutou standards) home is that he hopes to attract tourists. Part of the house is intended for use as rental property and another room (where guests are given meals) is furnished with items for sale: weavings, embroidered cloth and polished conch shells. To circumvent the Commandant's orders to direct all tourists to his properties, Pierre has had cards printed, in

PAGE 194

180 English and French, which advertise "Seaview House." These cards are distributed in tourist stores (where his father, Louis, is manager) and at Haiti's top travel agency in Port-au-Prince (where Pierre's sister, by his father Jaril, works ) . Pierre's efforts to attract tourists have, as yet, not brought him much business. Seaview House has, however, become a popular week-end spot for his new relatives, including light-skinned and well-educated lawyers, businessmen and government officials. The new house, important guests, widened family connections and church wedding have added to Pierre's prestige and improved his position in the community. There is even talk in Plage-Boutou of Pierre becoming the next Commandant. Pierre As Gro Mun Abis is aware of Pierre's popularity and his meteoric rise in prestige, wealth and influence. This does not please the Commandant who expects his legitimate son, Alan, to succeed him and who has preened his nephews to take charge if Alan or Toussaint (illegitimate son of Abis) decide not to return from the United States. The old families of the community favor Pierre, though quietly, in local power disputes and his arbitration— rather than the Commandant ' s — is often sought when there is animosity between Plage-Boutouians . Pierre is thought of as

PAGE 195

181 an agent for the government official of Port-de-Paix who is in charge of local law enforcement. This official, whom Pierre calls toto (uncle), has reasons of his own for wanting to see Pierre succeed Abis as Commandant and has, therefore, often advised and protected Pierre. Pierre, in turn, serves as this official's eyes and ears in Plage-Boutou and in the Port-de-Paix prison. Because of Pierre's family, church and government connections, Abis is limited in what he can do to control Pierre. All of Abis' actions against Pierre have been local matters. These include the Commandant's attempt to intefere with Pierre's marriage; his refusal to reprimand or punish a man who defecated on Pierre's beach; his refusal to allow Pierre, the official catecist , to bank the Church's funds; his attempt to gain control of the sewing school; his refusal to give the school's students CARE food; and his barring the sale of sewing school goods to tourists at Bontemps. Concerning these struggles Abis' nephew said "Pierre sable gro mun , i_ ge apil konasas pu lekol — Commandant pa reme " (Pierre is like a gro mun and has great knowledge for the school--the Commandant does not like this). Pierre cherishes hopes of wealth and power and privately admits that he wants to be Commandant. He feels that the greatest obstacle he confronts in achieving this end is his lack of land. Without increased landholdings in

PAGE 196

182 the area, Pierre is not in the position to make the locals dependent on him in the way they currently depend on Abis. By chance Pierre has come across the hoped for opportunity. Pierre found an Haitian passport owned by a man similiar to himself in size and description. Pierre replaced the other person's picture with his own and, with Louis' financial assistance obtained an Haitian visa sortie (exit visa) and kat d ' identite (photo-identification card) in the passport owner's name. This gave Pierre yet another name to use if needed. He plans to go to Turks and Caicos as a guest-worker. If he can arrange passage, he will also go kStraba to the Bahamas or the United States to earn money for land purchases in Plage-Boutou . These arrangements were made with the knowledge and complicity of local officals. As catecist , advisor, banker, weaver, school director and teacher and unofficial agent of the government, Pierre is the only non-Abis in Plage-Boutou who can potentially succeed in the struggle for power in Plage-Boutou politics. He has risen from a position of marginality, poverty and low status through his cunning and persistence and his gro konasas of the workings of his culture and society.

PAGE 197

183 Conclusion In such a brief sketch, it has been impossible to raise the life history "to the status of an ethnological treatise" (Goldenweiser 1941:161). Yet, Pierre's story illustrates how one individual has manipulated the basic features of his culture for self-profit. The most important and pervasive of these cultural features is the quality of amorphousness . The elasticity of kinship, household composition, religion, magic, subsistence and personality (Herskovits' "socialized ambivalence") has been examined in previous chapters. This chapter describes how one individual has used this cultural feature to improve his position in the local systems of status, wealth and power acquisition. Pierre's life history also demonstrates that individual upward mobility is possible in rural Haiti, not despite cultural amorphousness but because of it. In this sense, Pierre's biography is a "microcosm of the group features of his culture." Just as Pierre has exploited cultural amorphousness in his struggle for self-improvement, the group (the community of Plage-Boutou ) has been able to adapt to imposed change (whether it be resource depletion, exploitation by the elites, tourism or other forms of economic and cultural imperialism) by virtue of this qual i ty .

PAGE 198

184 A thematic attribute, which is so ubiquitous in the cultural patterning of a society, is, of course, a two-edged sword, open to both functional and dysfunctional manipulation. While Pierre has made use, if not always beneficial at least generally benign, of cultural amorphousness , Francois Duvalier exploited this same quality to extened his control and to intensify oppression in the Haitian country side. The presence of cultural amorphousness in Plage-Boutou — and for that matter in all of Plantation America — does not imply instability. The fact that Haitian peasant culture has been so remarkably resistant to change in the past 180 years belies this misconception. Cultural amorphousness — itself a legacy of plantation life—allows for stability or rapid change as the circumstances demand. It has evolved as an individual and a group adaptive strategy in Afro-American cultures.

PAGE 199

185 Notes 1. Though Paul Radin claimed that Crashing Thunder was "an individual of moderate ability" (Radin 1963:2), most anthropological life histories have used exceptional and gifted persons as their subjects. For instance, Mintz said of Don Taso: "I was struck by his ease, his intelligence, and his articulateness ; it seemed to me almost immediately that he was a remarkable man" (Mintz 1960:4). 2. In Haiti, there is a standardized set of exams given for graduation from any level of school. No individual is allowed to enter secondary school unless he passes the preceeding level. This applies to private and religious schools as well as public ones. For more on the development and recent status of primary education in Haiti, see Vielot 1975:114-143. 3. Haiti has traditionally been a two class society composed of rich urban mulattoes and poor black peasants. With the Duvalier ascendancy to power, the slowly developing black middle class began to expand more rapidly. For more on the history of Haitian social classes, see especially Leyburn 1966, Lobb 1940, Bourguignon 1952 and the Comhaire-Sylvains 1959. 4. The use of the English linguistic borrowing teknisya in Plage-Boutou refers to a person who understands and is therefore able to engineer socio-cultural phenomenon; it does not refer to the more common American usage. A teknisya may or may not be a biznisma , another English borrowing which refers to those who seek power and wealth through pay-offs, flattery or gambling but does not mean a person who conducts legitimate business. Thus, in Plage-Boutou, Abis and the business elites of Port-de-Paix are bisnisma but not Pierre. 5. Pierre also referred to Claude's potion as waga (protective charm) . 6. In her article "Dreams and Dream Interpretation in Haiti", Bourguignon states "The reality of the dream world is placed on the same plane as that of waking experience. In neither case need people be who or what they appear to be" (Bourguignon 1954:268). 7. International gifts of food to Haiti are generally not distributed to the needy. When Plage-Boutou is allotted free food, it is distributed by the Commandant. What food Abis does not use or sell is then distributed only to the families who have children in the local primary schools. Since only the more affluent Plage-Boutouians can afford school expenses, the Commandant's distribution of the food

PAGE 200

136 tends to sustain the existing class/status differences in the community. Most of the aid food is re-packaged and sold in the Port-de-Paix market after its local distribution. 8. In speaking of the Hai is not prone, therefore, t accepting new practices as to the certainity of their 1952:21) . To say that cul change does not imply that receptive to risk. Pierre of the property of cultura in learning to weave and i the available risks and it tian peasant, Erasmus stated: "He risk even greater insecurity by long as he retains any doubt as immediate profit to him" (Erasmus tural amorphousness is adaptive to it is readily and willingly showed exceptional understanding 1 amorphousness in his persistence n establishing a school. He took paid off.

PAGE 201

CHAPTER VIII: CONCLUSION — PLAGE-BOUTOU CULTURE IN PLANTATION AMERICAN PERSPECTIVE Different kinds of agricultural settlement institutions were adapted to the local human and ecological conditions of highland and lowland Latin America. The highland hacienda was a low capital and non-market oriented estate dependent on indigenous labor. Relying on imported African slave labor, the lowland plantation, on the other hand, was highly capitalized and systemized for market production. These two distinct settlement types necessitated the creation of variant forms of community organization and culture (Wolf and Mintz 1957, Harris 1964). In the post-plantation, post-hacienda stage of the respective settlement institution cycles, different types of peasantries evolved in the two areas. A comparison of the organization of the closed corporate community of highland Latin America — found "from Mexico to Boliva" (Harris 1964:25) — and the open amorphous community of Plage-Boutou illustrates this distinction. Eric Wolf described the closed corporate community of Mesoamerica as a settlement which maintains communal ownership of the land, restricts membership, has a single religious system, consciously minimizes communciation with the outside world ("defensive ignorance" is Harris' term, 1964:25), and enforces "mechanisms which ensure the 187

PAGE 202

redistribution or destruction of surplus wealth" (Wolf 1967:235). These features of the closed corporate community are maintained through isolation, immobility, endogamy, a religious and social hierarchy and the fiesta complex (Wolf 1967) . Plage-Boutou, however, is characterized by individual ownership of land, religious diversity, personal mobility, an socio-economic class system, a desire for information and goods from the outside world, in-migration , and a crudely developed system of political power and status. While the corporate community is strongly organized and culturally homogeneous, the community of Plage-Boutou is weakly organized and culturally amorphous. The peasant communities of Indo-America and Plantation America have evolved in response to different colonial heritages: It is clear that the plantation system was a powerful instrument of differential cultural growth. As we have seen, it influenced language, art, architecture and political and religious life in a pervasive and lasting fashion (Harris 1964:53). Plage-Boutou, Mirebalais And Marbial : A Comparison Of course local cultural differences exist within any nation or large geographic area (Manners 1957). Nevertheless, there are also similarities by which we characterize and delimit cultural-geographic areas. By comparing the local community's culture with the abstracted

PAGE 203

189 pattern of the larger cultural area we can examine and measure change, marginality and even the validity of the culture area abstraction. An attempt has been made throughout the preceeding chapters to compare the social and cultural patterns of Plage-Boutou with those of other Haitian local communities and with communities from other nations in Plantation America. It is appropriate, at this juncture, to make a fuller comparison of Plage-Boutou with two other Haitian rural communities which are located in different geographic regions and which were studied many years apart. These two communities are Mirebalais studied by Melville J. Herskovits in 1934 and Marbial Valley studied by a UNESCO team under the direction of Alfred Metraux in the late 1940's. Mirebalais The commune studied by Herskovits, Mirebalais, is situated in central Haiti about thirty-five miles east of the capital city, Port-au-Prince. The town and district to this day are bisected by the highway which runs from Port-au-Prince to the Dominican Republic. In the 1930's public transportation, in the form of camions (trucks outfitted with plank seats), connected Mirebalais with the capital several times a week (Herskovits 1971:1-2).

PAGE 204

190 During the colonial era, the Mirebalais district was devoted to plantation agriculture. The primary cash crops grown in this area were indigo, coffee, cotton and cocoa (Herskovits 1971:3). In 1934, agriculture in the commune was a peasant endeavor but many of the cultural patterns developed in the colonial era remained: But for the fact that the great plantations are no longer there, this aspect of life in Mirebalais has been little changed by revolutions and the abolition of slavery (Herskovits 1971:3). The town of Mirebalais, which is situated in the center of the commune of Mirebalais, has from colonial times been "the center of its life" (Herskovits 1971:6). It was a small town of less than 250 houses with three north-south thoroughfares and ten or twelve cross-lanes. In the center of town was the place or town sguare and to its north the Catholic Church. Other public buildings were the town hall, hall of justice, army barracks and prison. A building to house the tax office was under construction (Herskovits 1971:6-7). A number of officials and artisans resided in the town. The town was also the location of the commune market which attracted many rural women on market days. Here women bought and sold garden produce, crafts and imported goods. Middlemen from the capital also attended in order to purchase and bulk larger supplies of agricultural products for resale in Port-au-Prince. Local women, themselves,

PAGE 205

191 also traveled to distant communities to market their goods (Herskovits 1971:67-87). By far the largest portion of the commune's inhabitants were horticulturists. Although most peasants owned their own land, sharecropping was also common. In general they practiced a rotating slash-and-burn agriculture. Peasant production was based on a common sexual division of labor. Women attended to domestic work, child care and marketing and men devoted their labors primarily to horticulture. Field preparation was often accomplished by calling a kobit , a mutually obligatory work organization. What the peasant family did not eat was sold in the local impromptu markets or in the regularly scheduled town market. (Herskovits 1971:67-87). The class structure in Mirebalais was four-tiered: 1. " pauvres " ("indigent folk") 2. " malheureux " (the incompetent or unlucky) 3. "middle class" (the "overwhelming proportion of the population"). "They are comfortably situated, according to Haitian standards, living frugally on their habitations with their families where their lives follow an equitable course, and through them the body of Haitian culture flows, for they are its principal carriers . " 4. " gros negre " and" grand negre " (men of "wealth or position" and vodun priests and magical practitioners). "Together, the two categories may be thought of as constituting the outstanding successful members of the community" (Herskovits 1971:86-87). Family form in Mirebalais fluctuated. Both legal and consensual unions were practiced; separation was common as were polygyny, adultery and prostitution. Household composition was variable and might contain nuclear,

PAGE 206

192 matri focal or extended family units with or without collateral kin and adopted children. Co-parenthood was an important practice for the extension of kin relationships (Herskovits 1971:106-122). Descent and inheritance were bilateral but residence was primarily patrilocal or neolocal (Herskovits 1971:123-136). Most Mirebalaisians were Catholics and all, but the wealthiest and more cosmopolitan, were practitioners of the syncretistic cult of vodun. Belief in beneficent and malign supernatural forces effected every aspect of life, from subsistence activities and family life to interpersonal relations (Herskovits 1971:139-250). There was also a small Protestant church in the town whose members had rejected vodun practice (Herskovits 1971:290). Marbial The Marbial Valley, north of Jacmel, contained four rural sections, covering an area of about sixty square miles, with an estimated total population of 30,000 (Metraux et al . 1951:10). This area contained no. villages and the population was scattered throughout the region. The center of activity was around the junction of the Gosseline and Fond-Melon Rivers. Along the river were the Catholic and Protestant churches, the Catholic boys' and girls' schools, a nursery garden of the Inter-American Co-operative Service, the Catholic Co-operative store, a military post, the weekly

PAGE 207

193 market and "some half-dozen open-air shops" (Metraux e_t al . 1951:10-11). Outside of this commercial, civil and religious center were forty-eight outstations of the Catholic Church. All public services were located in Jacmel, nine miles to the southwest (Metraux e_t al . 1951:11) . The Marbial region was settled in the colonial era and, as was typical of the region, was a mulatto stronghold. Because of this, Marbial in the 1940's had a more varied racial composition than most rural communities in Haiti (Metraux et al. 1951:11 ) . Horticulture, land tenure ( Comhaire-Sylvain 1952), the sexual division of labor, kobit , class structure, marketing — though described in far greater detail--are essentially the same as described for Mirebalais by Herskovits. The UNESCO team found a more pervasive poverty, minifundia and soil exhaustion problem than Herskovits found in Mirebalias (Metraux e_t al . 1951). Kinship in the Marbial region was " si tuat ionally defined," "fluctuating," "variable," and "amorphous" (Metraux, R. 1951). The same was true of household composition and mating patterns (Bastien 1961). The Catholic Church's anti-superstition campaign had resulted in a decline in voodoo practice and an increased secrecy surrounding what remained. The majority of the population was Catholic, yet non-Christian beliefs and the practice o£ magic flourished clandestinely. The Protestant

PAGE 208

194 population was small but of more importance than the Protestant group in Mirebalais as of 1934 (Metraux 1959:344-351) . Though many and important social differences exist between Mirebalais, Marbial and Plage-Boutou — some of them due to changes that naturally happen over a 50 year period — the purpose of this comparison has been to discover what these communities have in common. The following similarities can be specified: 1. heterogenous and poorly defined community organization, 2. stratification in terms of wealth and power, 3. religious diversity, 4. bilateral descent and inheritance, 5. fluctuating kindred organization, 6. flexibility in mating patterns, 7. polygyny and serial polygamy, 8. basic sexual division of labor, 9. local markets, 10. poverty and minifundia, 11. inter-community mobility, 12. lack of co-operative effort or group loyalty (with the notable exception of the k5bit in Marbial and Mirebalais) and 13. lack of local leadership and authori ty . These social characteristics are common not only to these three Haitian villages but to Afro-American peasant communities in South Carolina (Woofter 1930), Brazil (Eduardo 1948), Jamaica (Clarke 1957), the "wet littoral" of Columbia and Ecuador (Whitten 1974) and even the Black Carib of Belize (Gonzalez 1969). Of greater significance is that the general picture of social and cultural amorphousness , presented by these peasant villages, is also common to most

PAGE 209

195 Afro-American communities — plantation or peasant, rural or urban . Cultural Amorphousness And Cultural Style The lack of a strong and well-defined local community in the Caribbean region is the result of slavery and a plantation economy .. .Even after abolition the plantation system continued to exert an influence unfavorable to the development of a strong and cohesive local community . . . Brazil, and to a certain extent the southern United States, share this historical heritage of the plantation and slavery and the resulting weak, divided, and amorphous community (Wagley 1959:199) . After combing the literature on Plantation America, Wagley wrote an article on the distinguishing features of Caribbean local society. The predominant characteristic of the Afro-American local community — as well as black family organization — was its amorphousness. Wagley contrasted the amorphous Caribbean local community with the well-defined and homogeneous peasant communities of the Indo-America cultural sphere (Wagley 1959). Not only the family (e.g. Metraux 1951) and the local community organization and delimitation (e.g. Smith 1965) but many other cultural patterns in Afro-America can be characterized as amorphous. This elasticity, openness and variability have been documented in the patterns of work (Comitas 1 "occupational multiplicity," 1964), material culture (Glassie 1977), language (Kernan 1971), religion

PAGE 210

196 (Bourguignon's "receptivity" 1952:318), attitudes (Herskovits 1 "socialized ambivalence" 1971:299-300), national-level political organization (Lowenthal 2 1972:318) , cognitive and social delimitation of the sacred and profane (Hay 1981a) and other spheres of cultural activity . Cultural amorphousness is such a generalized organizing principle of Afro-American culture and society that it constitutes what Kroeber called "the total-culture style:" Since human culture cannot be wholly concerned with values, having also to adapt to social (interpersonal) relations and to reality (survival situations), the totality of a culture can scarcely be considered outright as a sort of expanded style. But its contained styles, impinging on the rest of culture, can influence this; and all parts of a culture will tend to accomodate somewhat to one another; so that the whole may come to be pervaded with a common quality and to possess a fairly high degree of congruence. For want of a better term I have called this the whole-culture or total-culture style. It must be regarded as due to secondary spread and assimilation within the culture (Kroeber 1963a:152) . As a corollary of cultural amorphousness, there is a cognitive and attitudinal complement in what the art historian Robert Farris Thompson has labeled "the aesthetic of cool:"

PAGE 211

197 Control, stability, and composure under the Afric rubric of the cool seem to constitute elements of all-embracing asthetic attitude. Struck by the appearance of this vital notion elsewhere in trop Africa and in the Black Americas, I have come to the attitude "the aesthetic of the cool" in the s of a deeply and complexly motivated, consciously artistic, interweaving of elements serious and pleasurable, of responsibility and of play...Mani within this philosophy of the cool is the belief the purer, the cooler a person becomes, the more ancestral he becomes. In other words, mastery of enables a person to transcend time and elude preoccupation. He can concentrate or she can concentrate upon truly important matters of socia balance and aesthetic substance, creative matters of motion and brilliance . . . Accordingly to the sources, coolness is achieved where one person re another to serenity ("cools his heart"), where gr calms group, or where an entire nation has been s order ("this land is cool") (Thompson 1969:41) an an ical term ense fest that self 1 , full se stores oup et in There is a constant dialogue, even a dialectic, in the opposition of the cognitive ideal pattern of social balance and the structural amorphousness of family and community. The folklorist Roger Abrahams in an article on the social correlates of Afro-American verbal performance isolated this opposition in terms of the harmony of the home ("respectability") versus the disorder of the street ("reputation"). This dialogue is "part of a communication system that has maintained a sense of community in some trying times" (Abrahams 1975:79). Cultural amorphousness (total-culture style) and its complement, the "aesthetic of cool" (ideal pattern, worldview) , are rooted in the African past. Thompson demonstrated the pan-African presence of the cool philosophy

PAGE 212

198 and a number of other scholars have referred to the African past of cultural amorphousness . Herskovits spoke of a "tradition of pliability" and of "resilience toward new experience" as a "deep-seated tradition of Africa:" It has already been indicated how, in West Africa, it was common for both conquerors and conquered to take over one another's gods and how, in the course of a man's everyday experience, it was deemed more advantageous for him to give way to a point of view against which he could not prevail than to persist in his attitude, however firmly he might hold an opinion (Herskovits 1958:141-142). More recently Richard Price wrote: Certainly, one of the most striking features of West African cultural systems is their internal dyanamism, their ability to grow and change (Price 1973:30). Resilience was not invented by imported Africans on New World plantations but it did undergo a transformation of the sort which Kroeber has called "reconsti tution . " Reconstitution is a process whereby there is a loosening of pattern and a "widening of the base of the style" (Kroeber 1963b:86). In adapting to plantation life, creative amorphousness was converted from a pan-African cultural pattern to the "total-culture style" of Afro-America. In the larger context, this transformation pervades all aspects of Afro-American culture and is the most impelling and vital cultural legacy of Plantation America. In Plage-Boutou , as in most communities of Plantation America, community espirit de corps is an ideal but not a

PAGE 213

199 reality. There is an accommodation to the amorphousness , elasticity and weakly organized community (Chapter II) in kinship and household composition (Chapter III), subsistence patterns (Chapter IV), religion (Chapter V), adjustment to the introduction of tourism (Chapter VI), an individual's relations with his culture (Chapter VII) and the means of wealth accumulation and power enhancement (Chapters II-VII). Though Haitian society has been free from the plantation for more than 180 years, its legacy persists in the form of a total-culture style of creative amorphousness. Cultural Models And Afro-American Culture An old, established civilization was replaced by an experiment . . . Through the changes of two centuries a definite culture has developed in the region. Its characteristics were fixed by the large plantations where great masses of black people worked with the minimum contact with whites. It was preserved by isolation after the planters moved away (Woofter 1930:5). These words were written by way of introduction to T.J. Woofter's Black Yeomanry (1930), an examination of the Afro-American peasant community on St. Helena Island, South Carolina. Woofter emphasized the "experimental" nature of Afro-American community formation and culture growth in 4 post-plantation St. Helena. An analogous situation existed in Haiti, where, after a bloody war, an Afro-American peasantry emerged from the former slave population. In Haiti, as in St. Helena, the

PAGE 214

200 peasants' creation of community and culture was a markedly experimental process. The anthropological literature has dealt only cursorily with the problems of community formation and reformation. Wagley described a situation where the Tarirape Indian society of the Brazilian Amazon was decimated and dispersed by disease, warfare and the enchroachment of the national Brazilian society. After a period of more than five years, the widely dispersed surviving Tarirape were brought together and given land, in which they re-established a Tarirape village. Wagley concluded : Although for a short period Tapirape society might be said not to have existed, Tarirape culture continued to live in the minds of those few remaining individuals and it allowed them, given the opportunity, to recreate, although in a much attenuated form, their social life. This is a striking example of the difference between a society and its culture (Wagley 1955:102). The Tarirape were able to recreate their society because individual Tarirape retained a cognitive, cultural model of what a Tarirape village should be. This was impossible in Plantation America because of the length of enslavement of Afro-Americans, the conscious policy of mixing Africans from different cultural/linguistic backgrounds on each plantation and the limiting factors of the plantation institution. The only functional social model the newly emancipated Afro-Americans had in common was

PAGE 215

201 plantation society. For obvious reasons, this model was unacceptable to freedpeople. Two major approaches have been taken to explain the Afro-American past: one sees the African cultural heritage and the other the plantation as the central organizing principle of contemporary Afro-American culture and society. The first of these orientations is best known by the work of Melville J. Herskovits and the second is usually associated with E. Franklin Frazier. Though Herskovits was not the first to concentrate on African cultural tenacity in the New World (he was preceded by Ortiz in Cuba, Price-Mars in Haiti, Rodrigues in Brazil and others), he was the first to synthesize the available information and to couch it in terms of a general theory of culture. Herskovits designated the common African survivals in New World Afro-American culture as "cultural focus." Cultural focus designates the tendency of every culture to exhibit greater complexity, greater variation in the institutions of some of its aspects than in others. So striking is this tendency to develop certain phases of life, while others remain in the background, so to speak, that in the shorthand of the disciplines that study human societies these focal aspects are often used to characterize whole cultures (Herskovits 1948:542) . Under conditions of forced acculturation the cultural focus is tenacious in its resistance to change (Herskovits 1966). Since the cultural focus contains those aspects of culture — in Afro-America, religion, magic, music, folklore,

PAGE 216

202 language, kinship organization—that are central to the functioning of society, it should be the main concern of ethnographers. The program of study elaborated by Herskovits and his students (including George Eaton Simpson, William Bascom, Richard Waterman, Alan Merriam, Daniel Crowley, Erika Bourguignon, Octavio da Costa Eduardo and others) has contributed greatly to our knowledge and understanding of African cultural retentions in the New World but has neglected the full spectrum of Afro-American culture and its inner-dynamics. Frazier , on the other hand, considered the African past a thing of "forgotten memories" and emphasized the role of the plantation in stripping the Africans of their culture while only partially socializing them to American culture. These scraps of memories, which form only an insignificant part of the growing body of traditions in Negro families, are what remains of the African heritage. Probably never before in history has a people been so nearly completely stripped of its social heritage as the Negroes who were brought to America. Other conquered races have continued to worship their household gods within the intimate circle of their kinsmen. But American slavery destroyed household gods and dissolved the bonds of sympathy and affection between men of the same blood and household. Old men and women might have brooded over memories of their African homeland, but they could not change the world about them. Through force of circumstances, they had to acquire a new language, adopt new habits of labor, and take over, however imperfectly, the folkways of the American environment. Their children, who knew only the American environment, soon forgot the few memories that had been passed on to them and developed motivations and modes of behavior in harmony with the New World . . . But, of the habits and customs as well as the hopes and fears that characterized the life of their forebearers in Africa, nothing remains (Frazier 1948:15) .

PAGE 217

203 Frazier's theories have been as inf luential--and in terms of United States policy formation, more influential — than those of Herskovits. Recently, Frazier's ideas have been combined with Oscar Lewis' hypothesis of a "culture of poverty" (Lewis 1966) by the anthropologist Charles A. Valentine (1968) in an attempt to explain urban Afro-American culture. For many years, a debate between Herskovits and Frazier and their respective followers dominated the scholarly study of Afro-American cultures. In the last two decades, however, a new and more integrated view of Afro-American culture has been proposed which synthesizes the Africanist and "culture of poverty" approaches of earlier scholars. This new perspective emphasized the importance of the experimental and creative in the formation of a new Afro-American culture and society (e.g. Mintz and Price 1973, Abrahams and Swzed 1983, Whitten and Swzed 1970, Cole 1982) . This orientation to Afro-America was accomplished by the heuristic separation of culture and society. Wagley found this separation necessary for an understanding of the Tarirape situation (Wagley 1955). Later Eric Wolf spoke of the distinction's relevance for plantation studies:

PAGE 218

204 I believe we have erred in thinking of one culture per society, one sub-culture per social segment, and that this error has weakened our ability to see things dynamically. To put this in a way familiar to anthropologists, I think we have failed to draw a proper distinction between culture and society, and to make proper use of this conceptual polarity in our analyses. By culture I mean the historically developed forms through which the members of a given society relate to each other. By society, I mean the element of action, of human manoeuver within the field provided by cultural forms, human manoeuver which aims at preserving a given balance of life chances and life risks or at changing it . . . Following the logic of this point of view, I believe that it is possible for a human group to carry more than one culture, to diversify its approach to life, to widen its field of manoeuver through a process of generalization, just as it is possible for a human group to specialize, to restrict itself to one set of cultural forms and to eschew all possible alternatives (Wolf 1959:142). The culture of emancipated Afro-Americans drew from their African pasts, the folkways of their European enslavers and their Amerindian predecessors. Yet — unlike the Tarirape--they had no coherent model of what their society should be. The plantation experience was one which did, indeed, "strip" the Africans of their "social heritage . " Frazier's mistake, and by inversion Herskovits', was 9 equating the social and the cultural. Herskovits correctly recognized the tenacity of African cultural patterns. Frazier was just as correct in emphasizing the continuing effects of the plantation's desocialization of Africans. Contemporary AfroAmerican society is a generalized adaptation, drawing on various cultural pasts, which has been shaped in large part by the impact of

PAGE 219

205 plantation society. This could happen because plantation acculturation "resulted more in a desocietalization than a deculturation" (Abrahams and Swzed 1983:3). Many of the social characteristics of Afro-America are also present in Lewis 1 formulation of the "culture of poverty," including to a certain extent amorphousness . These common features are the result of the similar histories and on-going effects of oppression. But there are very important cultural differences. Imported Africans used their "tradition of pliability" as a "generalized" adaptation which "accomodated" all aspects of culture and society to an extent that it is justifiably viewed as the "total-culture style" of the Afro-American sub-cultures of the Plantation America cultural sphere. In doing this, the former slaves created a new and dynamic culture and society. The dynamism of this soc io-cultural configuration is evidenced by its tenacity in Afro-American communities established outside the the earlier bounds of Plantation America, whether in a Midwestern town in the United States (Stack 1974), an urban ghetto in England (Calley 1965) or elsewhere . Conclusion The peasantry of Plantation America--though sharing certain similarities — is distinct from other New World peasantries. They are not the tradition bound, immobile,

PAGE 220

206 egalitarian and culturally homogeneous people that Redfield described for Indo-America (Redfield 1960). These differences evolved from the various adaptive and acculturative processes necessitated by the disimilar colonial backgrounds of Indo-America, Euro-America and Plantation America cultural spheres. That the Afro-American peasants do not have the attachment to ancestral lands--which is a ubiquitous feature of Indo-American peasant culture--is a direct result of the plantation resoc ialization . Plantation America was founded on the principle of labor mobility when European planters imported Africans to work their fields. Transience continued when the lands were exhausted and plantations were moved to more fertile unexplored lands and in the very common practice of marronage. This feature of the plantation settlement institution persists to the present day, whether it be the migration of southern blacks to northern cities in the United States, northern blacks to southern cities in Brazil, Caribbean blacks to other islands or to the United States, Canada, Europe and Africa. In Haiti, for instance, there has been a history of migration to Jamaica, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, the United States, the Bahamas and the Turks and Caicos Islands (Hay 1981b, Marshall 1979, McCoy 1984). There have also been instances of Haiti acting as host country to Afro-Americans from other countries: from Cuba, Jamaica and the United States (Hay 1981b).

PAGE 221

207 Human movement — a legacy of the plantation system — reinforces the generalized adaptation of cultural amorphousness . It is inappropriate to ignore this transience and variability by devising structure and imposing it on ethnographic data--a common problem in the literature on Afro-America. On the other hand, ethnohistorical description of cultural amorphousness must, by nature, be somewhat amorphous itself. This is a limitation to which the students of Plantation America must reconcile themselves, if the scholarly study of Afro-American culture is to progress. Notes 1. Note also the differences in the co-parenthood institution (compare with Mintz and Wolf 1967) and household organization (compare with Wolf and Hansen 1972:97). 2. "countless observers have remarked on the poise, eguanimity, and resilience West Indians habitually display in coping with everyday affairs, let alone with adversity" (Lowenthal 1972:318) . 3. See also Wilson (1973) on "respectability" and "reputation" in the Caribbean. While the "aesthetic of the cool" promotes the ideal pattern of social harmony and balance, there is also an expressive cultural system which reflects and even celebrates marginality, social discord and amorphousness. Examples of this other expressive pattern are the "dozens" and their Caribbean analogues (Abrahams 1983) and the blues (Hay 1981a). These expressive/performance patterns are then part of the "assemblage of cultural styles" whose total configuration may be abstracted in the form of a "total-culture style." 4. "Social precedents have counted for little in shaping the St. Helena community. Experiment has prevailed. Here precedents have been made rather than followed" (Woofter 1930:243) .

PAGE 222

208 5. Shapiro describes the formation of a new society and culture on Pitcairn Island. Unf ortunetly , his analysis is primarily a trait-list of the Polynesian and British provenience of the cultural elements incorporated into the Pitcairn community but ignoring the dynamic and systemic components of culture formation (Shapiro 1962). 6. The different orientations with which Herskovits and Frazier approached the study of Afro-American cultures is due in large part, no doubt, to their respective educational backgrounds. Herskovits was a student of the anthropologist Franz Boas' cultural historical strategy of research, while Frazier studied under the non-historical "assimilationist" school of Chicago sociology (especially Robert Ezra Park). 7. Other than Frazier's own work, a number of studies which follow Frazier's theories (especially in terms of "cultural deprivation" and psychological maladjustment) have been very influential in United States' policy formation. These include Gunnar Myrdal's massive An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy (1944) and Nathan Glazer and D.P. Moynihan's Beyond the Melting Pot : The Negroes, Puerto Ricans, Jews, Italians, and Irish of New York City (1963). Also consult Aptheker's neglected critique of the Myrdal study, The Negro People in America (1946). For important critiques of Lewis' "culture of poverty" formulation and its psychological reductionism and socio-economic illogic, see Valentine 1968 and Stack 1974. 8. Amerindian influences on contemporary Afro-American cultures have been grossly neglected except in the more obvious examples, such as the black Carib of Belize (Taylor 1951 and Gonzalez 1969). 9. Wolf sees cultural and social reductionisms as an historical product of different scholarly traditions: "Most 'cultural' anthropologists have seen cultural forms as so limiting that they have tended to neglect entirely the element of human manoeuver which flows through these forms or around them, presses against their limits or plays several sets of forms against the middle." and "Most social anthropologists, on the other hand, have seen action or manoeuver as primary, and thus neglect to explore the limiting influence of cultural forms" (Wolf 1959:142).

PAGE 223

209 Herskovits is an excellent example of Wolf's cultural anthropologist and Frazier, though a sociologist rather than anthropologist, fits Wolf's description of the social anthropologist . 10. "The culture of poverty can come into being in a variety of historical contexts. However, it tends to grow and flourish in societies with the following set conditions:" 1. a cash economy, 2. high rate of unemployment and underemployment, 3. low wages, 4. "the failure to provide social, political, and economic organization, either on a voluntary basis or by government impostion, for the low-income population," 5. bilateral, rather than unilateral kinship system, and 6. "the existence of a set of values in the dominant class which stresses the accumulation of wealth and property, the possibility of upward mobility, and thrift, and explains low economic status as the result of personal inadequacy or inferiority" (Lewis 1970:68-69) . 11. Herskovits referred to the creation of structure — through the misuse of statistical and quantitative data--where it does not exist as "scientism." "Structural, in that it is primarily concerned with institutional arrangements, and tends to disregard or blur factors that lead to alternate modes of behavior, and give to any social system a degree of variation that its table of organization fails to indicate" (Herskovits, 1966:129) .

PAGE 224

EPILOGUE: A NOTE ON THE POLICY IMPLICATIONS OF CULTURAL AMORPHOUSNESS Many areas in Plantation America have been plagued by unsuccessful development projects in their peasant sectors. Haiti has been the subject, even the victim, of development failures both large and small. These include the massive expenditures involved in the projects instigated by the United States during and since the Occupation, the United Nations post-war Mission to Haiti and the work of its various organizational branches, the Organization of American States and various private and religious organization projects. The failure of these projects is attributable to the refusal to recognize that the past is not over and that the legacy of plantation society has persisted. On the national level, the plantation's heritage is the "openness" (malleable to the interests of, and therefore dependent upon, the world's industrialized nations) of the economy. "Consequently, a dynamic equilibrium of underdevelopment is endemic" (Beckford 1972:213). On the local level, the plantation's desocializ ing influence has persisted in the form of cultural amorphousness . There is no local community group, even familial, which is strongly organized. Because traditional development projects depend on local 210

PAGE 225

211 cooperation, they have a history of dismal failure in the Plantation America cultural sphere. Belatedly, development planners have recognized the error of assuming that Afro-American communities were organized on the same basis as Indo-American or Euro-American communities. Instead of devising development schemes which took cultural amorphousness into account, the developers chose to impose local organization on a society to which it was anathema. Previous attempts to ameliorate the living conditions of rural Af ro-Mericans — such as the agricultural co-operatives, credit unions and others which depend on voluntary cooperation — have in large part, been failures. The same was true of the Haitian government's plan to coerce the establishment of organization on the local community by decreeing that each rural section was to elect a community council. These community councils tend to be like the one in Plage-Boutou , apathetic and powerless. A recent development strategy to reforest Haiti is the first large-scale project which seems to take cultural amorphousness into consideration. This program, associated with the anthropologist Gerald Murray, does not depend on group cooperation but instead appeals to individual interests (Murray 1985). In its third year of operation, the relative success or failure of this design will soon be apparent .

PAGE 226

212 The ethnocentrism and ahistoricism of some social scientists who have studied Afro -American cultures have blinded them to the very real differences between the cultural spheres of the New World. In their writings, they have imposed order where it does not exist. Even more invidious is the development planners' attempt to coerce organization on communities where it is maladaptive. This is an egregious error because it will not work and because often it does great harm to those it is intended to help.

PAGE 227

GLOSSARY OF THE MORE COMMONLY-USED CREOLE TERMS apil — much or many. bel — beautiful . bocor — sorcerer or practioner of malign magic. Bodye — the Christian God (lit. Good God), bos — master craf tsperson . dokte — doctor . famni — ancestor-oriented k indred . fatige — tired or exhausted, fe — to make or do. fey — leaves or herbs, fos — force or power. ge — have . gro — big or large. i — he, she or it. kay — house . klaren — a crude, clear sugar cane distillate, kobit — various forms of agricultural work groups, kome — comother ( Fr . comere). konasas--understanding and knowledge. kope--cof ather (Fr. copere). kotraba--illegal and clandestine smuggling. kraze--crush . laku--family housing compound. lwe--far or distant. mambo — female voodoo leader. medikama — medicine . met — master . mon — mountain . move--bad , esp. bad people. mun — man or generic for a person. pa — not . pane — woven fish trap. pi — more . plasazh--consenual union. plase--consenual union mate. problem — problem. pwaso — fish . reme--love or like. rete — stay, live (as in inhabit), stop. roma--spiney lobster. 2 n 3

PAGE 228

214 rosh--rock . rozo--secondary-growth cane which is used in the making of fish traps and baskets. shef — chief (chef). tet — head . ti--little or small. toto--uncle . tut — all . waga — magical charm. zazh— voodoo god or spirit (lit. angel).

PAGE 229

BIBLIOGRAPHY Abrahams, Roger D., "Negotiating Respect: Patterns of Pres1975 entation among Black Women," Journal of American Folkore , 88 ( 347 ): 58-80 . , The Man-of-Words in the West Indies: Performance 1983 and the Emergence of Creole Culture , Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. Abrahams, Roger D. and John F. Swzed, eds., "Introduction," 1983 in After Africa , New Haven: Yale University Press . Ahlers, Theodore, A Microeconomic Analysis of Rural-Urban 1979 Migration in Haiti , Ph.d. dissertation, Medford, MA: Tufts University. Alexis, Gerson, Lecture en Anthropolog ie Haitienne , 1970 Port-au-Prince: Presses Nationales D'Haiti. ASTA Travel News, Travel '78' 79; The Big Picture , New 1978 York: Travel Communications, Inc. Barrett, Leonard, The Rastaf arians : Sounds of Cultural 1977 Dissonance , Boston: Beacon Press. Bastide, Roger, African Civilizations in the New World , 1971 New York: Harper & Row. , The African Religions of Brazil : Toward a Sociology 1978 of_ the Interpenetration of Civilizations , Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. Bastien, Remy, "Haitian Rural Family Organization," Social 1961 and Economic Studies , 10:478-510. Beckford, George L., Persistent Poverty : Underdevelopment 1972 vn Plantation Economies of the Third World , New York: Oxford University Press. Bellegarde, Dantes, Haiti and Her Problems : Four Essays , 1936 San Juan: The University of Puerto Rico Bulletin, vii(l). Bourguignon, Erika E., "Class Structure and Acculturation 1952 in Haiti," Ohio Journal of Science , 52:317-320. , "Dreams and Dream Interpretation in Haiti," American 1954 Anthropologist , 56:262-263 215

PAGE 230

216 , "The Persistence of Folk Belief: Some Notes on 1959 Cannibalism and Zombis in Haiti," Journal of American Folklore , 72:36-46. Calley, Malcolm J.C., God 's People : West Indian Pentecos1965 tal Sects in England , London: Oxford University Press . Cave, Hugh B., Haiti : Highroad to Adventure , New York: 1952 Holt. Clarke, Edith, My_ Mother Who Fathered Me : A Study of the 1957 Family in Three Selected Communities in Jamaica , London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd. Cole, Hubert, Christophe : King of Haiti , New York: The 1967 Viking Press. Cole, Johnetta B., "African Retentions in the New World... 1982 One More Time," (in memorary of Dr. Vera Green), paper delivered at Center for Latin American Studies, Gainesville: University of Florida, Feb, 3, 1982. Comhaire, Jean L. , "The Haitian 'Chef de Section'," 1955 American Anthropologist , 57:620-623. , "The Haitian Schism: 1804-1860," Anthropological 1956 Quarterly , 29:1-10 Comhaire-Sylvain , Suzanne, "Land Tenure in the Marbial 1952 Region of Haiti," in Sol Tax, ed . , Acculturation in the Americas , New York: Cooper Square. , "Courtship, Marriage and Plasaj at Kenscoff, Haiti," 1958 Social and Economic Studies , 7:210-233. , "The Household at Kenscoff, Haiti," Social and 1961 Economic Studies , 10:192-222. Comhaire-Sylvain, Suzanne and Jean, "Urban Stratification in 1959 Haiti," Social and Economic Studies , 8:179-189. , "A Statistical Note on the Kenscoff Market System, 1964 Haiti," Social and Economic Studies , 13:397-404. Comitas, Lambros , Fishermen and Cooperation in Rural 1962 Jamaica , Ph.d. dissertation , New York: Columbia University .

PAGE 231

217 , "Occupational Multiplicity in Rural Jamaica," in 1973 Lambros Comitas and David Lowenthal, eds., Work and Family Life : West Indian Perspectives , New York: Anchor Books, pp. 157-173. Conway, Frederick J., "Pentecostalism in Haiti: Healing and 1980 Hierarchy," in Stephen D. Glazier, ed . , Perspectives on Pentecostalism: Case Studies from the Caribbean and Latin America , Washington D.C.: University Presses of America. Courlander, Harold, Haiti Singing , Chapel Hill: University 1939 of North Carolina Press. , The Drum and the Hoe: Life and Lore of the Haitian 1960 People , Berkeley: University of California Press . , in Harold Courlander and Remy Bastien Religion and 1966 Politics in Haiti , Washington D.C.: Institute for Cross-Cultural Research. Crassweller, Robert D., "Darkness in Haiti," Foreign 1971 Affairs , 49:315-329. Curtin, Phillip D., The Atlantic Slave Trade , Madison: 1969 University of Wisconsin Press. , Two Jamaicas: The Role of Ideas in a 1975 Tropical Colony, 1830-1865 , New York: Atheneum, (Orig. 1955). Davenport, William C, "Jamaican Fishing: A Game Theory 1960 Analysis," in S. W. Mintz, ed., Papers in Caribbean Anthropology , New Haven: Yale University Press, pp. 3-11. , "The Family System of Jamaica," Social and Economic 1961 Studies , 10:420-454. , A Comparative Study of Two Jamaican Fishing Com1964 munities , Ph.d. dissertation, New Haven: Yale University. Deren, Maya, Divine Horsemen : The Voodoo Gods of Haiti , 1970 New York: Chelsea (orig. 1952). de Young, Maurice, Man and Land in the Haitian Economy , 1958 Gainesville: University of Florida Press. Dillard, J.L., Black English: Its History and Usage in the 1972 United States , New York: Vintage Books.

PAGE 232

218 Dilthey, Wilhelm, Dilthey 's Philosophy of Existence; 1957 Introduction to Weltanschauungslehre , translated with introduction by William Kluback and Martin Weinbaum, London: Vision Press Ltd. Dollard, John, Criteria for the Life History , New Haven: 1935 Yale University Press. Dougherty, Molly C, Becoming a Woman in Rural Black 1978 Culture , New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Drake, St. Clair and Horace R. Cayton, Black Metropolis: A 1945 Study of Negro Life in a Northern City , 2 volumes, New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc. Dubois, W.E.B., The Negro American Family , Atlanta: 1908 Atlanta University Press. _, Black Folk Then And Now , New York: Henry Holt. 1939 Eduardo, Octavio Da Costa, The Negro in Northern Brazil : 1948 Study in Acculturation , New York: J.J. Augustin Publisher . Erasmus, Charles J., "Agricultural Changes in Haiti: 1952 Patterns of Resistance and Acceptance," Human Organization , ll(4):20-26. , Man Takes Control : Cultural Development and Ameri1961 can Aid, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, Fairbanks, Charles H., "The Archaeology of Afro-America," n.d. unpublished paper, Gainesville: University of Florida. Fannon, Frantz , Black Skin, White Masks , New York: Grove 1967 Press, Inc. Faulkner, William, Requiem for a Nun, New York: Random 1951 House. Food and Agriculture Organization, FAQ Survey on the Status n.d. of Fisheries in Haiti, New York: United Nations. Fiedler, Reginald H., Milton J. Lobell and Clarence R. 1947 Lucas, The Fisheries &^ Fishing Resources of the Caribbean Area , Washington D.C.: Fish & Wildlife Service, United States Department of Interior.

PAGE 233

219 Forman, Shepard , The Raft Fishermen: Tradition and Change 1970 jji the Brazilian Peasant Economy , Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Fortes, Meyer, "Introduction," in Jack Goody, ed . , The 1958 Developmental Cycle in Domestic Groups , London: Cambridge University Press. Foster, George M., "Peasant Society and the Image of Limited 1967 Good," in Jack M. Potter, May N. Diaz and George M. Foster, eds., Peasant Society: A Reader , Boston: Little, Brown and Company, pp. 300-323. Franklin, James, The Present State of Hayti , London: 1969 Frank Cass & Co., Ltd., (orig. 1828). Frazier, E. Franklin, The Negro Family in the United 1948 States , revised ed . , Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Glassie, Henry, "The Good, the Bad and the Beautiful," 1977 paper delivered at the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, Spring, 1977. Goldenweiser , Alexander, "Recent Trends in American Anthro1941 pology," American Anthropologist , 43 ( 2 ): 151-163 . Gonzalez, Nancy L. Solien, Black Carib Household Structure: 1969 A Study of Migration and Modernization , Seattle: University of Washington Press. Goodenough, Ward H., Description &_ Comparison in Cultural 1970 Anthropology , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press . Hall, Robert Burnett, "The Societe Congo of the lie a 1929 Gonave , " American Anthropologist , 31:685-700. Harris, J. Dennis, A Summer on the Borders of the Caribbean 1969 Sea , New York: Negro Universities Press, (orig. 18 60). Harris, Marvin, Patterns of Race in the Americas , New 1964 York: W.W. Norton & Co. Hay, Fred J. , The Delta Blues and Black Society: An Exam1981a ination of Change (1900-1960) in Style and Community , M.A. thesis, Charlottesville: University of Virginia.

PAGE 234

220 , "Haitian Population Movements Previous to the 1981b Duvalier Diaspora," paper for Symposium on Caribbean Culture and Migration, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. Henry, Francis, Forgotten Canadians : The Blacks in Nova 1973 Scotia , Don Mills, Ontario: Longman Canada. Herskovits, Melville J., Man and His Works ; The Science of 1948 Cultural Anthropology , New York: Alfred A. Knopf: , The Myth of the Negro Past , Boston: Beacon Press 1958 (orig. 1941). , The New World Negro , edited by Francis Herskovits, 1966 Bloomington: Indiana University Press. , Life in a Haitian Valley , New York: Anchor (orig. 1971 1937). Hippolyte-Manigat , Mirlande, Haiti and the Caribbean Com1980 munity : Profile of an Applicant and the Problematigue of Widening the Integration Movement , Kingston, Jamaica: Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of the West Indies . Hooper, Michael S., "The Politic ization of Human Rights in 1984 Haiti," in Charles R. Foster and Albert Valdman, eds., Haiti--Today and Tomorrow : An Interdisciplinary Study , Lanham, MD: University Presses of America. Horowitz, Michael M., Morne-Paysan : Peasant Village in 1967 Martinique , New York: Holt, Rhinehart and Winston . Hougan , Jim, "Poor Birds of Paradise," Harper ' s , Feb. 1976 1976, pp. 39-44. Hurston, Zora Neale, "Hoodoo in America," Journal of 1931 American Folklore , 44:317-417. , Mules and Men , Philadelphia: Lippincott. •1935 Hutchins, Grace, "Hayti," in Nancy Cunard , ed . , Negro : An 1970 Anthology , New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Co., (orig. 1933).

PAGE 235

221 Hutchinson, Harry W., Village and Plantation in North1957 eastern Brazil , Seattle: University of Washington Press. , "The Transformation of Brazilian Plantation Society," 1961 Journal of Inter-American Studies , 111(2): 201212. Hyatt, Harry Middleton, Hoodoo— Con juration — Witchcraft — 1970Rootwork , 4 volumes, Hanibal, MO: Western Publishing . Jahn, Janheinz, Muntu : The New African Culture , New York: 1961 Grove Press. James, C.L.R., The Black Jacobins : Toussaint L 'Overture 1963 and the San Domingo Revolution , 2nd ed . , New York: Vintage. Johnson, Charles S., Shadow of the Plantation , Chicago: 1934 University of Chicago Press. Johnston, Sir Harry, The Negro in the New World , New York: 1969 Johnson Reprint Corp. (orig. 1910). Kephart, Ronald, "An Orthography and Sample Materials for 1984 Teaching Reading in a Creole-Speaking Community," paper read at Languages without a Written Tradition and Their Role in Education Conference, Thames Polytechnic, London, August 31-September 3, 1984. Kernan, Claudia Mitchell, Language Behavior in a Black 1971 Urban Community , Berkeley: Monographs of the Language-Behavior Research Laboratory, no. 2. Knight, Franklin W. , Slave Society in Cuba During the Nine1970 teenth Century , Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press. Korngold, Ralph, Citizen Toussaint , New York: Hill & Wang. 1965 (orig. 1944). Kottak, Conrad Phillip, Assault on Paradise : Social Change 1983 _in a Brazilian Village , New York: Random House. Kroeber, A.L., Style and Civilizations , Berkeley: Univer1963a sity of California Press. , An Anthropologist Looks at History , Berkeley: 1963b University of California Press.

PAGE 236

222 Laguerre , Michel S., "The Failure of Christianity Among the 1973 Slaves of Haiti," Freeing the Spirit , 2(4): 10-23. ~ , "An Ecological Approach to Voodoo," Freeing the 1974a Spirit , 3(1):4-12 , "Voodoo as Religious and Revolutionary Ideology," 1974b Freeing the Spirit , 3(l):23-28. , "Belair, Port-au-Prince: From Slave and Maroon 1976 Settlement to Contemporary Black Ghetto," in Norman Whitten, ed . , LAAG Contribution to AfroAmerican Ethnohistory in Latin America a nd the Caribbean , Contributions of the Latin American Anthropology Group, vol. 1. , "Ticouloute and His Kinfolk: The Study of a Haitian 1978 Extended Family," in Demitri B. Shimkin, Edith M. Shimkin and Dennis A. Frate, eds . , The Extended Family in Black Societies , The Hague: Mouton, pp. 407-445. , Urban Life in the Caribbean: A Study of a Haitian 1982 Urban Community , Cambridge, MA: Schenkman. , "L 1 Adaptation Socio-Economique Des Pecheurs Haitiens, n.d. Le Village De Ca-Ira," Montreal: Centre des Recherches Caraibes de l'Universite de Montreal. Leger, J.N., Haiti : Her History and Her Detractors , 1970 Westport, CN: Negro Universities Press, (orig. 1907). Legerman , Caroline J., "Kin Groups in a Haitian Market," 1962 Man, 233:145-149. Lewis, Oscar, "The Culture of Poverty," Scientific Ameri1966 can, 215 ( 4 ) : 19-25 . , Anthropological Essays , New York: Random House. 1970 Leyburn, James G., "The Making of a Black Nation," in 1937 George Peter Murdock, ed . , Studies in the Science of Society , New Haven: Yale University Press. , The Haitian People , rev. ed . , New Haven: Yale 1966 University Press Lobb, John, "Caste and Class in Haiti," American Journal of 1940 Sociology , 46:23-34.

PAGE 237

223 Locher, Uli, "The Market System of Port-au-Prince," in S.W. 1975 Mintz, ed . , Working Papers in Haitian Society and Culture , New Haven: Antilles Research Program, Yale University, pp. 172-182. Lowenthal, David, West Indian Societies , New York: Oxford 1972 University Press. MacKenzie, Charles, Notes on Haiti , 2 volumes, London: 1971 Frank Cass & Co., Ltd., (orig. 1830). Manigat, Leslie F., Haiti of the Sixties: Object of Inter1964 national Concern , Washington D.C.: Washington Center of Foreign Policy Research. Manners, Robert A., "Methods of Community-Analysis in the 1957 Caribbean," in Vera Rubin, ed . , Caribbean Studies: A Symposium , Seattle: University of Washington Press, pp. 80-92. Marshall, Dawn I., "The Haitian Problem: " Illegal Migra1979 tion to the Bahamas , Kingston, Jamaica: Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of the West Indies. McCoy, Terry L., ed . , Haitian Migration and the Haitian 1984 Economy , Gainesville: Center for Latin American Studies, University of Florida, Occasional Papers no . 3 . McKay, James T., personal communication, University of 1984 Florida. Metraux, Alfred, "Dramatic Elements in Ritual Possession," 1955 Diogenes , 11:18-36. , Voodoo in Haiti, New York: Oxford University Press. 1959 Metraux, Alfred (with E. Berrouet, Jean and Suzanne 1951 Comhaire-Sylvain) , Making a Living in the Marbial Valley (Haiti ) , Paris: UNESCO. Metraux, Rhoda , Kith and Kin: A Study of Creole Social 1951 Structure in Marbial , Haiti , Ph.d. dissertation, New York: Columbia University. Mintz, Sidney W., "Canamelar: The Sub-Culture of a Rural 1956 Sugar Plantation Proletariat," in Julian Steward, ed . , The People of Puerto Rico , Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

PAGE 238

224 "Internal Market Systems as Mechanisms of Social 1959 Articulations," in Verne F. Ray, ed . , Intermediate Societies , Social Mobility, and Communication Seattle: University of Washington Press. , "A Tentative Typology of Eight Haitian Marketplaces," 1960a Revista de Ciencias Sociales , 4:15-57. , Worker in the Cane: A Puerto Rican Life History , 1960b New Haven: Yale University Press. , " Pratik : Haitian Personal Economic Relation1961a ships," in Viola E. Garfield, ed . , Symposium: Patterns of Land Utilization and Other Papers , Seattle: University of Washington Press. , "Standards of Value and Units of Measure in the 1961b Fond-des-Negres Market Place, Haiti," Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute , 91:23-38. _, "Markets in Haiti," New Society , 26:18-19. 1963 , "The Employment of Capital by Market Women in Haiti," 1964 in Raymond Firth and B.S. Yamey , eds., Capital, Saving and Credit in Peasant Societies : Studies from Asia , Oceania , the Caribbean and Middle America , Chicago: Aldine. , "Introduction," to second edition of James G. Leyburn 1966 The Haitian People , New Haven: Yale University Press, pp. v-xlvi. , Caribbean Transformations , Baltimore: The Johns 1974 Hopkins University Press. Mintz, Sidney W. and Richard Price, An Anthropological 1973 Approach to the Afro-American Past : A Caribbean Perspective , Philadelphia: ISHI Occasional Papers in Social Change, no. 2. Mintz, Sidney W. and Eric R. Wolf, "An Analysis of Ritual 1957 Co-Parenthood ( Compadrazgo) , " in Jack M. Potter, May N. Diaz and George M. Foster, eds., Peasant Society : A Reader , Boston: Little, Brown and Company, pp. 174-199. Montejo, Esteban, The Autobiography of a Runaway Slave , 1968 Miguel Barnet, ed . , New York: Vintage Books. Murphy, Robert F., The Dialectics of Social Life : Alarms 1971 and Excursions in Anthropological Theory , New York: Columbia University Press.

PAGE 239

225 Murray, Gerald F., "Population Pressure, Land Tenure, and 1930 Voodoo: The Economics of Haitian Peasant Ritual," in Eric Ross, ed . , Beyond the Myths of Culture , New York: Academic Press, pp. 295-321. , "Tropical Trees, Haitian Peasants and Institutional 1985 Bandits," paper presented at the Florida State Museum, University of Florida, Gainesville, February 21, 1985. Murray, Gerald F. and Maria D. Alvarez, "Haitian Bean Cir1975 cuits: Cropping and Trading Maneuvers among a Cash-Oriented Peasantry," in S.W. Mintz, ed . , Working Papers in Haitian Society and Culture , New Haven: Antilles Research Program, Yale University . Nicholls, David, From Dessalines to Duvalier : Race, Colour 1979 and National Independence in Haiti , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Nunez, Theron A., Jr., "Tourism, Tradition, and Accultura1962 tion: Weekendismo in a Mexican Village," Ethnology , 2:347-352. , "Touristic Studies in Anthropological Perspective," T977 in Valene L. Smith, ed . , Hosts and Guests : The Anthropology of Tourism , Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, pp. 207-216. Obichere, Boniface I., "Dr. Francois Duvalier: High Priest 1971 and President of Haiti: 1957-1971," Black Academy Review , 2(3):42-64. Ott, Thomas 0., The Haitian Revolution, 1789-1804 , 1973 Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Owens, Joseph, Dread: The Rastafarians of Jamaica , 1976 Kingston, Jamaica: Sangster's Book Stores, Ltd. Parsons, Elsie Clews, Folklore of the Antilles, French and 1933-43 English , Memoirs of the American Folklore Society , no . 16 . Patterson, Carolyn Bennett, "Haiti: Beyond Mountains, More 1976 Mountains," National Geographic , 149 ( 1 ): 70-97 . Patterson, Orlando, The Sociology of Slavery : An Analysis 1967 of the Origins , Development and Structure of Negro Slave Society in Jamaica , London: MacGibbon & Kee Ltd.

PAGE 240

226 Plummer, Brenda Gayle, "Race, Nationality and Trade in the 1981 Caribbean: The Syrians in Haiti, 1903-1934," International History Review , 3:517-539. Potter, Jack M., May N. Diaz and George M. Foster, eds . , 1967 Peasant Society: A Reader , Boston: Little, Brown and Company. Preto-Rodas, Richard A. , Negritude as a Theme in the Poetry 1970 o_f the Portugese-Speaking World , Gainesville: University of Florida Press. Price, Richard, "Caribbean Fishing and Fishermen: A His1966 torical Sketch," American Anthropologist , 68(6): 1363-1383. " ' , "Introduction," in Richard Price, ed . , Maroon 1973 Societies : Rebel Slave Communities in the Americas , Garden City, NY: Anchor Press/Doubleday . , Saramaka Social Structure : An Analysis of a Maroon 1974 Society in Surinam , Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico: Institute of Caribbean Studies. Price-Mars, Jean, So Spoke the Uncle , translated with 1983 with introduction by Magdaline W. Shannon, Washington D.C.: Three Continents Press (orig. 1928). Prichard, Hesketh, Where Black Rules White : A Journey 1900 Across and About Hayti , Westminister, England. Puckett, Newbell N., Folk Beliefs of the Southern Negro , 1926 Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. Raboteau, Albert J., Slave Religion : The "Invisible Insti1978 tution" in the Antebellum South , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Radin, Paul, The Autobiography of a Winnebago Indian , New 1963 York: Dover Publications, Inc. , "Foreword: Status, Fantasy, and the Christian 1969 Dogma," in Clifton H. Johnson, ed . , God Struck Me Dead : Religious Conversion Experiences and Autobiographies of Ex-Slaves , Philadelphia: Pilgrim Press . Redfield, Robert, The Little Community and Peasant Society 1960 and Culture , Chicago: University of Chicago Press .

PAGE 241

227 Reuter, Edward Byron, The Mulatto in the United States , 1918 Richard G. Badger. Ribeiro, Darcy, The Americas and Civilization , New York: 1972 E.P. Dutton & Co., Inc. Roberts, John Storm, Black Music of Two Worlds , New York: 1972 William Morrow & Company, Inc. Romain, Charles, Le_ Protestantisme en Haiti , thesis, 1970 Port-au-Prince: Universite d'Etat. Roosevelt, Franklin Delano, "President Roosevelt Proposes a 1944 Toast to President Lescot," in Mercer Cook and Dantes Bellegarde, eds . , The Haitian-American Anthology: Haitian Readings from American Authors , Port-au-Prince: Imprimerie De L'Etat. Rouse, Irving, "The Entry of Man into the West Indies," in 1960 Sidney W. Mintz, ed . , Papers in Caribbean Anthropology , New Haven: Yale University Press, pp. 1-26. Rotberg, Robert I. (with Christopher K. Clague), Haiti : 1971 The Politics of Squalor , Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co. Rubin, Morton, Plantation County , Chapel Hill: University 1951 of North Carolina Press. Schmidt, Hans, The United States Occupation of Haiti , 19151971 1934 , New Brunswick, N J : Rutgers University Press . Schuyler, Robert L., "Sandy Ground: Archaeology of A 19th 1980 Century Oystering Village," in Robert L. Schuyler, ed . , Archaeological Perspectives on Ethnicity in America: Afro-American and Asian American Culture History , Farmingdale, New York: Baywood Publishing Company, Inc., pp. 48-59. Segal, Aaron Lee, Population Policies in the Caribbean , 1975 Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Co. Shapiro, Harry L., The Heritage of the Bounty , Garden 1962 City, NY: Doubleday & Company, Inc. (orig. 1936). Simpson, George Eaton, "Haitian Peasant Economy," The 1940a Journal of Negro History , XXV:498-519. , "The Vodun Service in Northern Haiti," American 1940b Anthropologist , 42:236-254.

PAGE 242

228 , "Haiti's Social Structure," American Sociological 1941 Review , 6:640-649. _, "Haitian Politics," Social Forces , 20 ( 4 ): 487-491 . 1942a , "Sexual and Familial Institutions in Northern Haiti," 1942b American Anthropologist , 44:655-674. , "The Belief System of Haitian Vodun," American 1945 Anthropologist , 47:35-59. , Black Religions in the New World , New York: 1978 Columbia University Press. Smith, M.G., "Kinship and Household in Carriacou," Social 1961 and Economic Studies , 10:455-477. West Indian Family Structure , Seattle: University 1962 of Washington Press , The Plural Society in the British West Indies , 1965 Berkeley: University of California Press. Smith, M.G., Roy Augier and Rex Nettleford, The Rastaf ari 1960 Movement in Kingston , Jamaica , Kingston, Jamaica: Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of the West Indies. Smith, Raymond T. , The Negro Family in British Guiana , 1956 London: Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd. , "The Family in the Caribbean," in Vera Rubin, ed . , 1957 Caribbean Studies : A Symposium , Seattle: University of Washington Press, pp. 67-79. , "The Family and the Modern World System: Some Obser1978 vations from the Caribbean," Journal of Family History , 3 ( 4 ) : 337-360 . Smucker, Glen R., Peasants and Development Politics : A 1983 Study in Haitian Class and Culture , Ph.d. dissertation, New York: New School for Social Research . , "The Social Character of Religion in Rural Haiti," 1984 in Charles R. Foster and Albert Valdman, eds., Haiti — Today and Tomorrow: An Interdisciplinary Study , Lanham, MD: University Presses of America .

PAGE 243

229 Solien (Gonzalez), Nancie L. , "Family and Household in the 1960 Caribbean," Social and Economic Studies , 9(1): 101-106. Sosis, Howard Justin, The Colonial Environment and Religion 1971 _in Haiti : An Introduction to the Black Slave Cults in Eighteenth Century Saint-Domingue , Ph.d. dissertation, New York: Columbia University. Spero, Abby , I_n America and in Need : Immigrant , Refugee, 1985 and Entrant Women, Washington D.C.: American Association of Community and Junior Colleges. Stack, Carol B., All Our Kin: Strategies for Survival in 1974 a Black Community , New York: Harper & Row, Publishers . Steward, Julian H., "Perspectives on Plantations," in 1959 Plantations of the New World , Washington D.C.: Pan American Union. Tallant, Robert, Voodoo in New Orleans , New York: Mac1946 millan. Taylor, Douglas MacRae, The Black Carib of British Hon1951 duras , New York: Viking Fund Publications in Anthropology, no. 17. Taylor, Joe Gary, Negro Slavery in Louisiana , Baton Rouge: 1963 Louisiana University Press. Thompson, Edgar T., "Discussion," in Vera Rubin, ed . , 1957 Caribbean Studies : A Symposium , Seattle: University of Washington Press, pp. 29-33. Thompson, Robert F., "An Aesthetic of the Cool," African 1969 Arts , VII(l) :41-44, 64-67, 89-92. Turner, Lorenzo, Africanisms in the Gullah Dialect , 1949 Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Underwood, Frances W., "The Marketing System of Peasant 1960 Haiti," in S.W. Mintz, ed . , Papers in Caribbean Anthropology , New Haven: Yale University Press. , "Land and Its Manipulation among the Haitian Pea1964 santry," in Ward H. Goodenough, ed . , Explorations in Cultural Anthropology , New York: McGraw-Hill. United Nations, Mission to Haiti , Lake Success: Report of 1949 the United Nations Missions of Technical Assistance to the Republic of Haiti.

PAGE 244

230 Valentine, Charles A., Culture and Poverty: Critique and 1968 Counter-Proposals , Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Vielot, Kleber, "Primary Education in Haiti," in Vera Rubin 1975 and Richard P. Schaedel, eds . , The Haitian Potential : Research and Resources of Haiti , New York: Teachers College Press, pp. 114-143. Wagley, Charles, ed . , Race and Class in Rural Brazil , 1952 Paris: UNESCO. , "Tapirape Social and Culture Change, 1940-1953," 1955 Sao Paulo: Anais Do XXXI Congr Internacional De Americanistas . , "Plantation America: A Culture Sphere," in Vera 1957 Rubin, ed . , Caribbean Studies : A Symposium , Seattle: University of Washington Press, pp. 3-13. , "The Concept of Social Race in the Americas," San 1959a Jose, Costa Rica: Actas del XXXIII Congress Internacional de Americanistas , pp. 403-417. , "Recent Studies of Cariobean Local Societies," in A. 1959b Curtis Wilgus, ed . , The Caribbean: Natural Resources , Gainesville: University of Florida Press, pp. 193-204. Wagley, Charles and Marvin Harris, "A Typology of Latin 1955 American Subcultures," American Anthropologist , 57:428-51. Waterman, Richard A., "Hot Rhythm in Negro Music," Journal 1948 o_f the American Musicological Society , 1:3-16. , "African Influence on the Music of the Americas," ii 1952 Sol Tax, ed . , Acculturation in the Americas , XXIXth International congress of Americanists, pp. 207-218. Weber, Max, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capi1958 talism , New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Weil, Thomas E., Jon Knippers Black, Howard I. Blutstein, 1973 Kathryn T. Johnston, David S.'McMorris, Frederick P. Munson, Area Handbook for Haiti , Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Whitten, Norman E., Jr., "Contemporary Patterns of Malign 1962 Occultism Among Negroes in North Carolina," Journal of American Folklore, 75 ( 298 ): 311-325 .

PAGE 245

231 , Class , Kinship , and Power in an Ecuadorian Town i 1965 The Negroes of San Lorenzo , Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. , Black Frontiersmen; A South American Case, New 1974 York: John Wiley and Sons. Whitten, Norman E., Jr. and John F. Swzed, eds., Af ro1970 American Anthropology: Contemporary Perspectives , New York: The Free Press. *" * Wilson, Peter J., Crab Antics : The Social Anthropology of 1973 English-speaking Negro Societies of the Caribbean , New Haven: Yale University Press. Williams, Stephen J., Nirmala Murthy, and Gretchen Berggren, 1975 "Conjugal Unions Among Rural Haitian Women," Journal of Marriage and Family , 37:1022-1031. Wilmeth, Mary Walton and J. Richard Wilmeth, "Theatrical 1977 Elements in Voodoo: The Case for Diffusion," Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion , 16:27-37. Wingfield, Roland, Haiti , a Case Study of an Underdeveloped 1966 Area , Ph.d. dissertaion, Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge. Wolf, Eric R., "Specific Aspects of Plantation Systems in 1959 the New World: Community Sub-Cultures and Social Class," in Plantation Systems of the New World , Washington, D.C.: Pan American Union, pp. 136-146. , "Closed Corporate Peasant Communities in Mesoamerica 1967 and Central Java," in Jack M. Potter, May N. Diaz, and George M. Foster, eds., Peasant Society : A Reader , Boston: Little, Brown and Company, pp. 230-246. Wolf, Eric R. and Edward C. Hansen, The Human Condition In 1972 Latin America , New York: Oxford University Press . Wolf, Eric R. and Sidney W. Mintz, "Haciendas and Planta1957 tions in Middle America and the Antilles," Social and Economic Studies , 6:380-412. Wood, Harold A., Northern Haiti : Land , Land Use , and 1963 Settlement : A Geographical Investigation of the Department du Nord , Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

PAGE 246

232 Wood, Peter H., Black Majority: Negroes in Colonial South 1975 Carolina from 1670 through the Stono Rebellion , New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. Woodring, Wendell P., John S. Brown and Wilbur S. Burbank, 1924 Geology of the Republic of Haiti , Port-auPrince: Department of Public Works, Republic of Haiti. Woofter, T.J., Jr., Black Yeomanry : Life on St . Helena Is1930 land, New York: Henry Holt and Company.

PAGE 247

APPENDIX I: MAP OF PLAGE-BOUTOU 233

PAGE 249

APPENDIX II: GENEALOGY OF ABIS FAMNI 235

PAGE 250

> — * & oFiOH § II s £> If ifO o -I g 5— it!! f s| O II O OIf I* o 3 3 a ? 3 5 II -r i * ii > £ Ullf lib 5 1 >-i | o Ho-n — 9 f?0 if > o sS Oo ii >

PAGE 251

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Frederick J. Hay was born in Toccoa, Georgia in 1953. He attended the Toccoa public schools and graduated from high school in 1971. In 1975, Fred earned a B.A. in Anthropology and American Cultural Studies from Southwestern at Memphis (Rhodes College). He completed his M.A. in Anthropology at the University of Virginia in 1981. His thesis was entitled The Delta Blues and Black Society : An Examination of Change ( 1900-1960 ) in Style and Community . Fred began his studies at the University of Florida in 1981. He and his wife, the historian Dr. Valentina Maiewski j-Hay , spent nearly a year in rural Haiti doing the research upon which this dissertation is based. 237

PAGE 252

I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. C b aaJj^ I' \_ fr<& J £h / Charles Wagley, Chairperson Graduate Research Professor Emeritus of Anthropology I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully acceptable, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. K c ^-i \rJZi fwx' c Maxine L. Margolis Professor of Anthropolog I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully acceptable, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree,pf Doc^ryyOf Philosophy, Associate Pro^essW of Anthropology I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully acceptable, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree ^ofDoctor of , Philosophy W/ i£44 / ' Robert D~. Lawless Associate Professor of Anthropology I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully acceptable, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. rry L.-^c A J. Terry L.-
PAGE 253

This thesis was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Department of Anthropology in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences and to the Graduate School and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. May 1985 Dean for Graduate Studies and Research

PAGE 254

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 3 1262 08285 239 2