Citation
College attendance plans for graduates of Protestant high schools in the South

Material Information

Title:
College attendance plans for graduates of Protestant high schools in the South
Creator:
Bedell, David L., 1952- ( Dissertant )
Hale, James A. ( Thesis advisor )
Alexander, Samuel. Kern ( Reviewer )
Olejnik, Steven ( Reviewer )
Smith, David C. ( Reviewer )
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publisher:
University of Florida
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1985
Language:
English
Physical Description:
xiv, 246 leaves ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Baptists ( jstor )
College attendance ( jstor )
College students ( jstor )
Colleges ( jstor )
Graduates ( jstor )
High schools ( jstor )
Private colleges ( jstor )
Protestantism ( jstor )
Public colleges ( jstor )
Schools ( jstor )
College attendance -- Southern States ( lcsh )
College choice ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Educational Administration and Supervision -- UF
Educational Administration and Supervision thesis Ph. D
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to determine the rate at which graduates of Protestant high schools in the South planned to attend college and to determine the various percentages of graduates who chose certain types of colleges. Data concerning college locations, yearly tuition charges, and major courses of study selected by Protestant high school graduates were also pertinent to this research. The study was delimited to 1982 high school graduates and their pattern of college enrollment in the fall of 1982. The researcher compiled a master list of Protestant high schools from information contained in directories published by each of the departments of education in southern states. Directories published by various denominations and associations of schools were also utilized. A survey instrument, requesting high school administrators to list the colleges chosen by their graduates according to five major courses of study, was sent to each school. A total of 651 administrators from Protestant high schools with over 10,000 graduates in 1982 returned the survey instrument with usable data. A rate of response of 71 percent was achieved. From the data collected, it was found that five major affiliations of schools contained about 80 percent of the total number of participating Protestant high schools. These five major affiliations were Independent Baptist, Nondenominational , Episcopal, Southern Baptist, and Presbyterian/Reformed. The chi-square test of significant differences was used to analyze data from these five affiliations. Information was also collected from over 20 smaller affiliations of high schools and compared with the larger affiliations. The major affiliations of Protestant high schools were found to differ significantly in the planned college attendance rates of their graduates. Uncertainty in the choice of college majors prevented comparisons between affiliations in the rate of choice of major fields of study. Significant differences in planned college attendance rates were also found within the major affiliations for graduates of different sizes of graduating classes.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1985.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 243-245.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by David L. Bedell.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
029480149 ( AlephBibNum )
AEH6406 ( NOTIS )
014878386 ( OCLC )

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Full Text











COLLEGE ATTENDANCE PLANS FOR
GRADUATES OF PROTESTANT HIGH
SCHOOLS IN THE SOUTH










BY

DAVID L. BEDELL












A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

1985













































Copyright 1985

by

David L. Bedell














ACKNOWLEDGEME NTS


My parents have been the greatest source of inspiration in the

pursuit of my education and the writing of this dissertation. Both

are knowledgeable in the fields of education and church ministries.

They have guided me in setting goals for both academic achievement

and spiritual commitment.

I was encouraged to pursue my doctorate by Rev. Dennis Wheeler,

the pastor of Temple Baptist Church and a graduate of the University

of Florida with a degree in educational administration. Rev.

Wheeler has been a continual source of encouragement and has been

willing to allow me to adjust my schedule in order to complete this

dissertation.

I also want to thank my committee members for their help and

advice. Dr. James A. Hale, in particular, has been a great help to

me. His assistance in the writing of this dissertation has been

invaluable.














TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.............................................. iii

LIST OF TABLES..................... .... ...........................vii

ABSTRACT....................................................... .. .xiii

CHAPTERS

I INTRODUCTION................................................ 1

Statement of the Problem...................................... 1
Procedures.................................................. 3
Population of the Study....................................... 4
Development of the Survey Instrument......................... 5
Administration of the Survey.................................. 6
Treatment of the Data ........................................ 7
Delimitations and Limitations.................................
Justification of the Study...................................10
Definition of Terms....................................... 11
Organization of the Report...................................14

II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE................................. 15

Protestant Education in America and the South................15
Types of Protestant High Schools............................ 19
Factors in the College Marketplace...........................24
Features of Protestant Colleges............................. 29
National Pattern of College Attendance in 1982...............35
Summary of the Literature Review.............................36

III METHODS AND PROCEDURES.......................................39

Defining the Population..................................... 39
Development of the Survey Instrument.........................41
Survey Response Rate........................................ 43
Problems with the Survey Instrument..........................45
Analysis of the Response Rate............................... 47
Reasons Given for Nonresponse ................................48
Organization and Treatment of Data...........................49










CHAPTERS Page

IV PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA............................53

Analysis of the Schools ......................................54
Rate of Planned College Attendance...........................61
Rate of Planned Protestant College Attendance................75
Rate of Planned Attendance at College with the Same
Affiliation as the High School...............................85
Rate of Planned Private Nonsectarian College Attendance......92
Rate of Planned Public College Attendance.................... 97
Rate of Planned 2-Year Public College Attendance.........106
Rate of Planned 4-Year Public College Attendance.........112
General Comparisons of Rates of College Choices.............117
Choice of College Major .................................... 119
Rate of Planned In-State College Attendance.................133
Rate of Planned Attendance at Colleges with Various Yearly
Tuition Charges.......................................... 138

V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS...................150

Background of the Study .....................................150
Affiliations of Protestant High Schools Studied..........152
Economic Factors Related to the Pattern of
College Attendance.......................................156
High School Graduating Class Size as a Factor in
the Pattern of College Attendance........................157
Summary of Research Questions........................... 160
Rate of Planned College Attendance.......................160
Rate of Planned Protestant College Attendance............164
Rate of Planned Attendance at Colleges with the Same
Affiliation as the High School...........................169
Rate of Planned Private, Nonsectarian College
Attendance ............................................ 173
Rate of Planned Public College Attendance................176
General Comparisons of Rates of College Choices..........188
Choice of College Major ...................................191
Rate of Planned In-State College Attendance ..............194
Rate of Planned Attendance at Colleges with Various Yearly
Tuition Charges....................................... 198
Conclusions of the Research ................................ 204
Applications of the Results and Recommendations for
Further Research......................................... 214










PAGE

APPENDICES
A SURVEY INSTRUMENT......................................... 221
B COVER LETTERS............................................ 223
C CHARGES AND MATRICULANTS AT SPECIFIC COLLEGES...............230
D PROBABLE FIELDS OF STUDY FOR 188,000 COLLEGE
FRESHMEN IN 1982......................................... 241

REFERENCES..................................................... 243

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .............................................. 246

































vi















LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

1 Kelley's Scale of Ecumenism.................................. 34

2 Dates of Mailings and Responses Received......................44

3 Nonresponse Rate for Five Largest Affiliations of Protestant
High Schools .................................................. 48

4 Reasons Given for Nonresponse .................................49

5 Relative Sizes of School Affiliations.........................59

6 Number of Graduates and Schools in Sample Relative to
Graduating Class Size...................................... 60

7 Rate of Planned College Attendance of 1982
Graduates Studied........................................... 62

8 Chi-square Test of Significant Differences in
Planned College Attendance Rates..............................64

9 Rate of Planned College Attendance Relative to
Graduating Class Size........................................ 65

10 Chi-square Test of Significant Differences in Planned
College Attendance Rates for Graduating Classes of
Different Sizes ............................................ 67

11 Chi-square Test of Significant Differences in Planned
College Attendance Rates for Graduates from Small
Graduating Classes......................................... 69

12 Chi-square Test of Significant Differences in Planned
College Attendance Rates for Graduates from Medium
Graduating Classes ......................................... 71

13 Chi-square Test of Significant Differences in Planned
College Attendance Rates for Graduates from Large
Graduating Classes.......................................... 72











Table Page

14 Rate of Planned College Attendance Relative to Graduating
Class Size for Three Affiliations .............................74

15 Rate of Planned Attendance at Protestant Colleges of 1982
Graduates Studied.......................................... 76

16 Chi-square Test of Significant Differences in Planned
Protestant College Attendance Rates...........................80

17 Rate of Planned Protestant College Attendance Relative to
Graduating Class Size..........................................82

18 Chi-square Test of Significant Differences in Planned
Protestant College Attendance Rates for Graduating Classes
of Different Sizes......................................... 84

19 Rate of Planned Attendance at Colleges with the Same
Affiliation as the High School for 1982 Graduates Studied.....86

20 Chi-square Test of Significant Differences in Rates of
Planned Attendance at Colleges with the Same Affiliations as
the High School ............................................... 88

21 Rate of Planned Attendance at Colleges with the Same
Affiliation as the High School Relative to Graduating Class
Size .......................................................... 90

22 Chi-square Test of Significant Differences in Rates of
Planned Attendance at Colleges with the Same Affiliation
as the High School for Graduating Classes of Different
Sizes ......................................... ................91

23 Rate of Planned Attendance at Private Colleges for 1982
Graduates Studied.......................................... 93

24 Chi-square Test of Significant Differences in Planned
Private College Attendance Rates..............................95

25 Rate of Planned Attendance at Private Colleges Relative to
Graduating Class Size ...................................... ... 96

26 Chi-square Test of Significant Differences in Rates of
Planned Private College Attendance for Graduating Classes
of Different Sizes........................................... 98










Table Page

27 Rate of Planned Attendance at Public Colleges for 1982
Graduates Studied........................................... 100

28 Chi-square Test of Significant Differences in Planned
Public College Attendance Rates..............................102

29 Rate of Planned Attendance at Public Colleges Relative to
Graduating Class Size........................................103

30 Chi-square Test of Significant Differences in Rates of
Planned Public College Attendance for Graduating Classes
of Different Sizes........................................ 106

31 Chi-square Test of Significant Differences in Planned
2-Year Public College Attendance Rates.......................108

32 Chi-square Test of Significant Differences in Rates of
Planned 2-Year Public College Attendance for Graduating
Classes of Different Sizes ...................................110

33 Rate of Planned Attendance at 2-Year Public Colleges
Based on Over-All Rate of Planned Attendance at Public
Colleges ..................................................... 112

34 Chi-square Test of Significant Differences in Planned
4-Year Public College Attendance Rates.......................114

35 Chi-square Test of Significant Differences in Rates of
Planned 4-Year Public College Attendance for Graduating
Classes of Different Sizes ...................................116

36 Rate of Choice of College Majors for 1982 Graduates
Studied...................................................... 121

37 College Choice for Bible/Theology Majors.....................125

38 Colleges Chosen by at Least 10 Percent of the Graduates
for a Bible/Theology Major...................................125

39 College Choice for Business Majors...........................127

40 Colleges Chosen by at Least 10 Percent of the Graduates
for a Business Major .........................................127

41 College Choice for Education Majors..........................129










Table Page

42 Colleges Chosen by at Least 10 Percent of the Graduates
for an Education Major ...................................... 129

43 College Choice for Engineering/Technical Majors..............130

44 College Choice for Liberal Arts Majors.......................132

45 Colleges Chosen by at Least 10 Percent of the Graduates
for a Liberal Arts Major .................................... 132

46 Rate of Planned Attendance at In-State Colleges for 1982
Graduates Studied ......................................... 134

47 Chi-square Test of Significant Differences in Rates of
Planned In-State College Attendance..........................136

48 Rate of Planned Attendance at In-State Colleges by Major..... 137

49 College Tuition Charges for Protestant High School
Graduates in 1982......................................... 139

50 College Charges for Bible/Theology Majors....................145

51 College Charges for Business Majors......................... 146

52 College Charges for Education Majors.........................146

53 College Charges for Engineering/Technical Majors.............149

54 College Charges for Liberal Arts Majors......................149

55 Average Graduating Class Size for the Major Affiliations
of High Schools ............................................. 155

56 Rate of Planned College Attendance for Graduates of the
Major Affiliations of High Schools in 1982...................161

57 Rate of Planned College Attendance for Graduates of the
Major Affiliations of High Schools as a Whole Relative to
Graduating Class Size....................................... 163

53 Rate of Planned Protestant College Attendance for Graduates
of the Major Affiliations of High Schools in 1982............164

59 Rate of Planned Protestant College Attendance for Graduates
of the Major Affiliations of High Schools as a Whole
Relative to Graduating Class Size............................167










Table Page

60 Rate of Planned Attendance at Colleges with the Same
Affiliation as the High School for Graduates of the Major
Affiliations of High Schools in 1982........................ 170

61 Rate of Planned Attendance at Colleges with the Same
Affiliation as the High School for Graduates of the Major
Affiliations as a Whole Relative to Graduating Class Size....173

62 Rate of Planned Private Nonsectarian College Attendance
for Graduates of the Major Affiliations of High Schools
in 1982................................................... 175

63 Rate of Planned Public College Attendance for Graduates
of the Major Affiliations of High Schools in 1982............176

64 Rate of Planned Attendance at Public Colleges for Graduates
of the Major Affiliations as a Whole Relative to Graduating
Class Size................................................... 178

65 Rate of Planned 2-Year Public College Attendance for
Graduates of the Major Affiliations of High Schools in 1982..180

66 Rate of Planned Attendance at 2-Year Public Colleges for
Graduates of the Major Affiliations of High Schools as
a Whole Relative to Graduating Class Size....................183

67 Rate of Planned 2-Year Public College Attendance for
Graduates of the Major Affiliations of High Schools Who
Matriculated at Public Colleges..............................185

68 Rate of Planned 4-Year Public College Attendance for
Graduates of the Major Affiliations of High Schools in
1982 ......................................................... 187

69 Rate of Planned Attendance at 4-Year Public Colleges for
Graduates of the Major Affiliations as a Whole Relative to
Graduating Class Size........................................188

70 Rate of Planned In-State College Attendance for Graduates
of the Major Affiliations of High Schools in 1982............195

71 Rate of Planned In-State College Attendance for Graduates
of the Major Affiliations of High Schools Relative to
College Majors............................................ 197










Table


Page


72 Rate of Planned Attendance at Colleges with Low Yearly
Charges in 1982 ..........................................199

73 Rate of Planned Attendance at Colleges with Moderate
Yearly Charges in 1982 ......................................201

74 Rate of Planned Attendance at Colleges with High Yearly
Charges in 1982.......................................... 203













Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


COLLEGE ATTENDANCE PLANS FOR
GRADUATES OF PROTESTANT HIGH
SCHOOLS IN THE SOUTH


By

David L. Bedell


May, 1985


Chairman: James A. Hale
Major Department: Educational Administration and Supervision


The purpose of this study was to determine the rate at which

graduates of Protestant high schools in the South planned to attend

college and to determine the various percentages of graduates who

chose certain types of colleges. Data concerning college locations,

yearly tuition charges, and major courses of study selected by

Protestant high school graduates were also pertinent to this

research. The study was delimited to 1982 high school graduates and

their pattern of college enrollment in the fall of 1982.

The researcher compiled a master list of Protestant high

schools from information contained in directories published by each

of the departments of education in southern states. Directories









published by various denominations and associations of schools were

also utilized. A survey instrument, requesting high school

administrators to list the colleges chosen by their graduates

according to five major courses of study, was sent to each school.

A total of 651 administrators from Protestant high schools with over

10,000 graduates in 1982 returned the survey instrument with usable

data. A rate of response of 71 percent was achieved.

From the data collected, it was found that five major

affiliations of schools contained about 80 percent of the total

number of participating Protestant high schools. These five major

affiliations were Independent Baptist, Nondenominational, Episcopal,

Southern Baptist, and Presbyterian/Reformed. The chi-square test of

significant differences was used to analyze data from these five

affiliations. Information was also collected from over 20 smaller

affiliations of high schools and compared with the larger

affiliations.

The major affiliations of Protestant high schools were found to

differ significantly in the planned college attendance rates of

their graduates. Uncertainty in the choice of college majors

prevented comparisons between affiliations in the rate of choice of

major fields of study. Significant differences in planned college

attendance rates were also found within the major affiliations for

graduates of different sizes of graduating classes.















CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

Private schools and colleges have always played an important

role in American education. Today, these schools offer an

increasing diversity of educational experiences for millions of

young people. Protestant schools and colleges are a growing part of

this movement. As thousands of young people graduate from

Protestant high schools, research is needed regarding the pattern of

their college attendance. Such information would be valuable for

college admissions officers and guidance counselors.

Enrollment in many colleges in the United States is expected to

decline in the 1980's (Spence, 1977). For this reason, many

colleges are strengthening their recruitment efforts in high

schools. Hammiack (1981) found that 81 percent of those students who

graduated from the private schools he studied went on to private

colleges and universities. Research is lacking regarding the

college attendance patterns of graduates of Protestant high schools.

Statement of the Problem

The problem of this study was to determine the pattern of

planned college attendance for the graduates of Protestant high

schools in the South. The following specific questions were posited:














1. What percentage of students graduating from Protestant high

schools in the South in 1982 planned to attend college the

following fall?

2. What percentage of students graduating from Protestant high

schools in the South in 1982 planned to attend a Protestant

college the following fall?

3. What percentage of students graduating from Protestant high

schools in the South in 1982 planned to attend a Protestant

college with the same affiliation as their high school the

following fall?

4. What percentage of students graduating from Protestant high

schools in the South in 1982 planned to attend a private,

nonsectarian college the following fall?

5. What percentage of students graduating from Protestant high

schools in the South in 1982 planned to attend a public

college the following fall?

a. What percentage planned to attend a 2-year public

college?

b. What percentage planned to attend a 4-year public

college?

6. What percentage of students graduating from Protestant high

schools in the South in 1982 chose each of the selected five














major areas of college study the following fall?

a. What percentage chose a Bible/theology major?

b. What percentage chose a business major?

c. What percentage chose an education major?

d. What percentage chose an engineering major?

e. What percentage chose a liberal arts major?

7. What percentage of students graduating from Protestant high

schools in the South in 1982 planned to attend a college

located in their own state the following fall?

8. What percentage of students graduating from Protestant high

schools in the South in 1982 planned to attend colleges the

following fall in each of the three selected charge

classifications?

a. What percentage of students planned to attend a

college with yearly charges under $1,000?

b. What percentage of students planned to attend a

college with yearly charges from $1,000 to $2,999?

c. What percentage of students planned to attend a

college with yearly charges from $3,000 and higher?

Procedures

Before attempting to answer the major questions posed in this

study, it was necessary to gather infoniation through the resources














of various college libraries and through personal interviews with

various Protestant high school administrators. The following

aspects were pertinent to the collection of data or the organization

of results:

1. Compiling as complete a list as possible of Protestant high

schools in the South.

2. Finding the most cooperative and accurate sources for the

providing of data.

3. Distinguishing the major affiliations of Protestant high

schools and thereby permitting meaningful comparisons.

4. Developing an appropriate system for classifying college

majors and costs.

5. Compiling as complete a list as possible of the various

colleges and their affiliations, locations, and charges.
Population of the Study

Directories of private schools were obtained from the Department

of Education in each of the 14 southern states. These states were

Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana,

Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee,

Virginia and West Virginia. Directories were also obtained from the

various Protestant denominations and school associations. From

these directories, a master list of Protestant schools was compiled.














This master list consisted of the names and addresses of all schools

known or suspected to contain a senior graduating class in 1982. It

was determined that the most reliable way to obtain the data needed

for this research was through direct contact with the administrators

of the schools on the master list.

Development of the Survey Instrument

After consulting the catalogs of various colleges and

universities, it was determined that five major categories of

college coursework could be delineated for this research. In order

to simplify responses, the administrators of the Protestant high

schools were asked to list the names of specific colleges chosen by

their 1982 graduates under each of the five selected college majors

on the survey instrument. Space was also provided under the

category "Other Majors" for specific college majors that could not

be classified under the five major choices delineated by the

researcher. The initial survey instrument was sent to 58

administrators of Protestant schools throughout the South for

evaluation (See Appendix B, Letter 1). After receiving replies from

32 of these administrators, the survey instrument was revised

according to the recommendations received and professionally printed

(See Appendix A).














Administration of the Survey

The total initial sample of the study included 1326 Protestant

schools. A copy of the revised survey instrument, along with a

cover letter (See Appendix B, Letter 2), was sent in late August,

1982, to 1320 administrators of Protestant schools. Six

administrators who made recommendations on the survey instrument

construction also submitted usable data at that time and therefore

were not recontacted. Two more attempts to obtain completed survey

instruments followed the initial effort (See Appendix B, Letters 3

and 4). Three weeks after the last attempt to obtain requested

data, the administrators who had not responded were sent a different

request which solicited information concerning their reasons for not

responding (See Appendix B, Letter 5).

After all responses to these four mailings were received, 262

schools were removed from the original master list because their

administrators returned the survey instrument stating that they did

not have a senior class in 1982. After also eliminating the schools

that had closed or moved with no forwarding address, the schools

that could not be classified as "Protestant," and the schools that

were sent two copies of the survey instrument because of previously

undiscovered duplications, there remained 906 schools. Of these 906

Protestant schools, 660 responded to the survey. Nine schools of

this total had to be eliminated because their responses were

unusable.














In the late fall of 1982, 148 administrators who had returned

their completed survey instrument promptly were sent yet another

request for information. Each of these administrators was sent a

listing of the Protestant schools in their individual locality that

were on the researcher's master list. They were asked to check the

accuracy of this list and add the names of schools that did not

appear (See Appendix B, Letter 6). As a result of this mailing, 102

administrators returned information that revealed there were about

11 percent more Protestant high schools in existence that were not

on the researcher's original master list. No effort was made to

include those schools in this study.

Treatment of the Data

After noting the affiliations of the responding schools, it was

found that five major affiliations of schools enrolled about 80

percent of the seniors in the Protestant high schools whose

administrators responded to the request for information. These five

major affiliations were singled out for further study. Tables were

prepared showing the rates of attendance at each type of college

mentioned in research questions 1 through 6. Tables were also

prepared showing the same data for high schools from the five major

affiliations classified according to graduating class size. In

addition, tables were constructed showing the rate of choice of each

of the five college majors, the choice of colleges in three














categories of charges, and the rate of attendance at colleges

located within the home state of the Protestant high school

graduate. The level of significance for this study was set at .01

and was analyzed using the chi-square test of independence.
Delimitations and Limitations

As reported by Harris (1981), it is difficult to obtain a

complete listing of Protestant schools. Many schools have recently

started and others have recently closed. For this reason, the

master list of schools developed for this study could not be

considered complete.

Because administrators and/or their assistants responded to the

request for data in this study, the accuracy and completeness of

these findings are dependent on the information that was available

to them. For smaller schools, the administrators seemed to have

complete data, while for the larger schools the completeness of the

data was dependent on the records of guidance and counseling

departments. No attempt was made to contact students or colleges

directly to confirm the information supplied by high school

administrators.

This study of the graduates of Protestant high schools was

delimited to the students graduating in the spring or summer of 1982

because these would be the ones likely to enroll in college in the

fall of 1982. The study concentrated only on the immediate plans of














these graduates. Therefore, any student in the sample who may have

attended college at a later date was not included in this study.

No assumptions were made about the length of time students had

attended a Protestant school. Some students may have entered a

Protestant school during their senior year, having attended some

other type of school up until that time. Excluded from this study

were students who may have attended a Protestant high school up

until their senior year and then transferred to another type of

school. The study, therefore, is limited strictly to students who

actually graduated from a Protestant high school in 1982.

This study did not consider the possibility of a different

drop-out rate between the various types of schools under

consideration. Obviously, the rate of college attendance for the

entire population of 17 and 18-year olds would be lower if the

population of drop-outs was included. If the various affiliations

of Protestant high schools differed in their drop-out rate, this

study was not organized to detect this phenomenon.

Because the data from this research have been categorized by

Protestant affiliation, a low rate of response or incomplete

responses could jeopardize the reliability of the data. This threat

was particularly likely for the smaller affiliations and the

categories of college type or major course of study in which few

students were found. Even though these data were presented, it is














understood that a more complete response could alter significantly

the percentages given.

Finally, it was not possible to make predictions of college

enrollment trends from this research. Information obtained from the

survey instrument pertains only to college enrollment rates in the

fall of 1982. A repeat of this study would be necessary to reveal

any changes in the rate or pattern of college attendance.
Justification of the Study

It appears that college enrollment in America will decline

through the 1980's (Spence, 1977). If colleges are going to be able

to survive and prosper, they will have to identify and recruit new

students. They will also need to offer the programs and courses

that are needed by the high school graduates of the eighties.

Research indicates that the rate and pattern of college

attendance for graduates of private schools may differ from that of

the graduates of public schools (Hammack, 1981). Since private

schools now contribute about 10 percent of the total number of high

school graduates in the United States and the graduates of these

schools probably attend college in higher proportions than public

school graduates, they are an important part of the phenomenon of

college enrollment trends. College recruitment officers and

administrators need to be aware of this sector of the "market"

(Duggan, 1976).














The southern states contain a variety of Protestant high

schools. They share a somewhat similar cultural heritage and thus

constitute a natural region for study. Any study of the United

States as a whole should give separate attention to the various

regions such as the South.
Definition of Tennrms

Affiliation of schools. In this study, the method of

categorizing schools is based on denominational associations. The

five major affiliations are Episcopal, Independent Baptist,

nondenominational, Southern Baptist, and Presbyterian/Reformed.

Bible major. Students pursuing this college course of study are

preparing for the ministry or some other area of church service.

Business major. Students purusing this college course of study

are preparing for some area of business or management. For the

purpose of this study, it includes such areas as secretarial

science, real estate, and advertising.

College charge. This is the total yearly expense to the student

for college attendance. The price of tuition, books, and fees is

included in this designation. Room and board, however, are not

included.

Education major. Students pursuing this college course of study

are preparing for teaching at the elementary or secondary level in a

public or private school.














Engineering major. Students pursuing this college course of

study are preparing for such fields as mechanical, chemical,

electrical, or civil engineering.

Evangelical Christianity. This is the sector of Christianity

that emphasizes salvation by faith in the atoning death of Jesus

Christ through personal conversion. This designation encompasses a

variety of denominations and groups within denominations.

"Evangelicals" also stress the authority of Scripture and the

importance of preaching as contrasted with ritual.

Fundamental Christianity. This is the sector of evangelical

Christianity that holds to a literal interpretation of the Bible as

a foundation for the Christian life and doctrine. "Fundamentalists"

often oppose cooperation or compromise with less orthodox Christian

groups. It is possible to have a "fundamental" sector within a

particular denomination or association.

Liberal arts major. Students pursuing this college course of

study are receiving a broad exposure to the arts and sciences. It

may lead to specialization in one area, such as biology. Included

in this designation are the pre-professional studies in law and

medicine.

Private college. This is a nonsectarian college or university

not associated in any way with Protestant Christianity and not part

of the system of colleges and universities operated under the

jurisdiction of a local or state government or an agency of the


federal government.














Protestant Christianity. Originally, this term applied to the

Reformners and their followers who left the Roman Catholic Church

during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. It has been

broadened to include all Christian groups outside the Roman Catholic

and Orthodox Eastern Churches. Many Baptists and members of the

Church of Christ affiliation do not consider themselves to be

Protestants. For the purposes of this study, however, the broader

definition is used in order to eliminate the need for constant

clarification or explanation.

Protestant college. This is a post-secondary institution with

programs leading to a college degree and associated with some

Protestant denomination, affiliation, or teaching.

Protestant high school. This is a secondary school containing a

class of graduating seniors (usually designated as twelfth graders)

and associated with some Protestant denomination, affiliation, or

teaching.

Public college. This is a college or university that is part of

the system of colleges and universities operated under the

jurisdiction of a local or state government or an agency of the

federal government.














Organization of the Report

Chapter I of this report contains a statement of the research

problem, a description of the procedures used, a discussion of the

delimitations and limitations, a justification for the study, and

definitions of terms used. Chapter II provides a review of related

literature, covering the historical developments in Protestant

education as well as a description of present features. Chapter III

provides a detailed examination of the methodology used in this

research. Chapter IV presents the data generated by this research

and an analysis of its meaning. Chapter V contains a summary of

this project and its conclusions. Also contained in this chapter


are several recommendations for future study.















CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


In this review of related literature, the historical development

of Protestant education, both on the secondary and post-secondary

level, is examined. This background study provides a basis for a

description of Protestant education today. This chapter continues

with a presentation of current theories and models concerning

college attendance and recruitment. Finally, the key features of

Protestant college distinctiveness are given.

Protestant Education in America and the South

Evangelical Christianity has provided the impetus for the

development of educational institutions throughout the United States

and the world (Pace, 1972, p. 9). Regardless of affiliation, the

original intentions of such institutions have been:

1. The propagation of the Christian faith.

2. The education of youth in the Christian heritage.

3. The provision of training for Christian leadership.

(Godbold, 1944, p. 5)

The first to establish schools in the southern colonies were the

Anglicans. These schools were designed primarily for poor settlers

and indians. The wealthier Southerners employed tutors for their

children.














With the Scotch-Irish immigration during the latter part of the

eighteenth century, the number of Presbyterians grew and

Presbyterian schools were founded (Godbold, 1944, p. 7).

The development of educational institutions in the South

followed a pattern much different from that of New England. In New

England, the church-state government of the Puritans was quick to

establish schools. These schools became in a limited sense the

precursors of public education in America. In the South, however,

the education of young people was considered to be a private concern

of the family. The church did intervene and provide a few schools

for poor people, but that was the extent of early educational

institutions in the South (Rippa, 1976, p. 29).

With the growth of cities, a number of private academies were

founded. At first, they were small and consisted of an

owner-teacher and the few pupils he or she was able to attract.

Later, the academies were operated by boards and the student bodies

increased in size. Several academies were operated by various

Protestant bodies.

For many years following the Revolutionary War, Methodists and

Baptists were opposed to the idea of starting schools. They

believed that the natural world and the moral and intellectual

ability of man were actually antagonists to spiritual development

(Duvall, 1928). At the beginning of the nineteenth century,














however, they came to realize that their effectiveness in winning

and holding converts was dependent on a system of colleges and

academies.

Methodists and Baptists founded a large number of schools during

the first half of the nineteenth century. The Presbyterians also

continued founding schools, although at a slower pace. With the

rise and acceptance of public education, the impetus to start

church-related schools diminished. In time, much of the

Protestantism began to embrace the public schools, although

acceptance was slower in the South. Southerners had to accept the

following ideas which were foreign to their way of thinking:

1. Education is the responsibility of the state.

2. The state has the right and power to tax property in order to

support and sustain a system of free public schools.

3. The public schools must be nonsectarian in nature.

(Rippa, 1976, p. 134)

Protestants in the South generally concurred with Emory

University Professor Alexander Mears when he said "education without

religion may illumine, but it cannot heat, it may shine, but it

cannot burn, nor can it infuse the warmth of moral life and

religious hope into the world" (Godbold, 1944, p. 50). An even

stronger wording of this sentiment came from Martin Luther when he

said:














I am much afraid that schools will prove to be the great gates
of hell, unless they diligently labor in explaining the Holy
Scriptures, engraving them in the hearts of youth. I advise no
one to place his child where the Scriptures do not reign
paramount. Every institution in which men are not unceasingly
occupied with the Word of God must become corrupt. (Kienel,
1974, p. 126)


In spite of this warning, public education became acceptable in

the South. Religious leaders abandoned their plans to expand the

system of religious academies. The education committee at the 1927

convention of Southern Baptists said, "in view of the present

facilities of secular education, we think there are only the fewest

instances where the denomination is longer justifiable in spending

money for the maintenance of high schools" (Brigham, 1951, p. 118).

In 1947, Duke McCall, the president of the Southern Baptist

Convention said, "the hope of America is for Christians not only to

rally to the support of the public school system but to invest

themselves in its improvement" (Brigham, p. 118).

For nearly one hundred years after the founding of the public

school movement, Protestants were more or less satisfied with the

public schools. During this time, the few Protestant high schools

that existed were poorly supported. This lack of support further

discouraged others from starting.

Supreme Court decisions in the miid-twentieth century that

eliminated Bible reading and prayers in the public schools rekindled














an interest in Protestant elementary and secondary schools (Kienel,

1974, p. 7). Protestants came to realize that the strong religious

atmosphere in the public schools had been lost. Led by the

evangelical element, private religious schools began to be founded

all over the South. Recently, these schools have been a part of the

most rapidly growing segment in American elementary and secondary

education (Pace, 1972, p. 9). Schools started by the evangelical

sector of Protestantism are often called "Christian schools." These

schools have now been estimated to contain an enrollment of one and

one half million students in the United States (Flight from Public

Schools, 1981).

Types of Protestant High Schools

Although it has been mentioned that Protestant secondary schools

nearly died out during the hundred years between the great expansion

of the public school system and certain Supreme Court decisions in

the mid-twentieth century, Episcopal schools continued in existence

during that time. According to an Episcopal educator, these schools

have developed into elite, college preparatory schools that draw

from wealthier citizens in the South (C. Fulton, personal

communication, July 7, 1983).

Schools organized by parents of the Christian Reformed faith

also continued to operate and grow during the time in which Bible

reading and prayer were allowed in the public schools. These














parents were never satisfied with the basis of the public schools.

They believed that the education of youth was the sole

responsibility of the family (Beversluis, 1982). Most of their

schools, however, were located in the northern states. Recently,

schools founded by Christian Reformed parents have grown and

flourished in the South. According to one of their administrators,

these schools in the South have become interdenominational in

character (J. Hoffman, personal communication, June 30, 1983). The

theological outlook of these schools, however, is still in the

Calvinist tradition of the Christian Reformed Church. Students in

these schools are taught that every vocation is to be seen as

full-time Christian service. They are taught to prepare themselves

for a life of service to God and man. College attendance is

strongly urged (Beversluis,1982). These schools have formed an

association known as Christian Schools International (CSI). Several

Presbyterian schools are also members of CSI.

The nondenominational school is another kind of affiliation

offering Protestant education. These schools have developed from a

wave of inter-denominational cooperation that also produced such

organizations as Youth for Christ and the National Sunday School

Association (Towns, 1974, p. 59). These schools, usually controlled

by a self-perpetuating board or a board elected by the parents,














often have a broad base of support in the community. Some

nondenominational schools are sponsored by nondenominational

churches.

The denominational church-controlled school is another kind of

institution offering Protestant education. In the past ten years,

this kind of school has experienced rapid growth. In most cases,

schools of this nature meet in church facilities. The pastor and a

group of church officials serve as directors. The doctrinal

position of the school is likely to be somewhat narrower than that

of the nondenominational school. Such schools may exist solely to

educate the children of members of the sponsoring church. Most

church-controlled schools, however, are open to students from a

variety of denominational affiliations (Towns, 1974, p. 54). Most

Independent Baptist schools and some nondenominational schools

follow this pattern of organization.

In spite of these different patterns of school organization,

there are certain features that may be found in most Protestant high

schools. Except for the narrow parochial schools, the student body

of any Protestant high school is likely to have students with a wide

range of denominational backgrounds. The families with children in

these schools must have the financial resources to cover tuition

charges. One can also expect some degree of commitment to

Protestant ideology among the administration and staff.













These basic similarities among all Protestant schools provide a

basis for comparison. Two of the directories used in this study

contained information about the yearly costs of the listed

Protestant high schools. One of these, the Christian Educator's

Directory for 1982, listed yearly charges for schools that

predominantly were of Independent Baptist, nondenominational, and

Southern Baptist affiliations. Yearly tuition charges at these

three affiliations of high schools averaged about $1,000 in 1902.

Lowest yearly tuition charges were about $500 for the year at some

schools. The most expensive schools of these three affiliations

charged tuition rates as high as $1,500.

The other directory, the Handbook of Private Schools (1982

edition), contained tuition charge information for a number of

Episcopal high schools. For most of these schools, yearly tuition

charges were over $2,000. Several boarding schools in this

directory had charges over $6,000 for the enrolled student for the

school year. Personal communication with G. Walstra at the home

office of Christian Schools International (August 7, 1984) revealed

that the average tuition charge for schools associated with this

organization in the South in 1982 was just over $1,500.

It can be seen that average yearly tuition charges vary among

the major affiliations of Protestant high schools. The most

expensive schools are Episcopal high schools. The next most














expensive high schools are those with Presbyterian/Reformed

affiliations. Schools with Independent Baptist, nondenominational,

and Southern Baptist affiliations have the lowest yearly charges.

There is evidence that these three affiliations may differ in

average charges although there is apparently a great deal of overlap

in prices among specific schools. Church-run schools are usually

the least expensive because they share facilities with a local

church and often receive support from that church.

Some Protestant schools have grown as a result of problems in

the public schools and not because of an increasing commitment to

Protestant ideology. The most often perceived problem in the public

schools is lack of proper discipline (Towns, 1974, p. 37). Another

factor that has increased enrollment in some Protestant schools is

court-ordered busing in order to achieve racial integration in the

public schools.

Recently, legislation for tuition tax credits for parents with

children in private schools has been proposed. The threat of

increasing the federal deficit and fears of entanglement of church

and state have kept this provision from being enacted. The concept,

however, has a great deal of popular support. A similar idea is

that of school vouchers, in which parents receive a voucher that can

be cashed to cover all or part of the tuition at the school of their

choice. Chambers (1981) predicted that the use of vouchers in this














country would double the number of schools but reduce their

enrollment size by one-half.

The National Center for Education Statistics has predicted that

enrollment in private schools will continue to grow (Harris, 1981).

A recession in the economy, however, tends to reduce enrollment in

private schools. The impact on public education would be great if

only a slightly larger percentage of children from Baptist homes

were withdrawn from the public schools (Nordin and Turner, 1980).

Factors in the College Marketplace

The number of 18-year-olds in the general population is

decreasing (Spence, 1977). For this reason, college enrollments are

stabilizing and in some areas are declining. The state of the

economy, the rate of enrollment of part-time students, women, and

minorities are also having an effect on college enrollment. About

half of the high school graduates presently continue on to college

(Yoong, 1983).

It has been predicted that many private colleges will experience

financial problems during the eighties (Spence, 1977). Many of the

studies reviewed by Breneman and Finn (1978) suggested that a major

factor in the declining enrollments in private colleges is their

comparatively high costs to the student. As a result, private

colleges are becoming more concerned about ways to attract and

retain students.













The admissions director of the private college must keep abreast

of conditions in the college marketplace. Duggan (1976), utilizing

the market approach to college admissions, stated the following:

The admissions director of the eighties had better understand
the system of higher education, the numbers of students in the
available pool locally and nationally, their range of abilities,
their financial resources, federal and state aid available, the
realignment of independent and public systems, and the
legislation being considered or required. (p. xi)

The college admissions officer must identify prospective

students and encourage their enrollment. This is probably the prime

function of an admissions officer in a private college (Oliver,

1979). Ihlanfeldt (1975) identified three potential market fields

of college students. He labeled the candidates who are likely to
enroll at a given institution the "primary" group. Students who are

likely to be admitted, but also likely to attend another

institution, make up the "secondary" group. The "test" market

consists of students who are different from past applicants but are

encouraged to attend.

Ihlanfeldt has also identified five stages of the development of

the market pool. These stages are (a) prospects, (b) candidates,

(c) applicants, (d) accepted applicants, and (e) matriculants (p.

62). Along similar lines, Duggan (1976) identified nine steps in














the student decision process. These nine steps start with the

decision whether or not to go to college and end with a decision

concerning alumni loyalty.

Chapman's (1981) model of college choice concerns the

characteristics of a particular student and the influence of

significant persons, the fixed characteristics of a college, and the

college's efforts to communicate with the student. Among the

characteristics of students is socio-economic status. A study by

Doermann (1976) showed that family income is the best index of the

ability to pay for a college education. A study by Davis and Van

Dusen (1975) found that students from the upper income brackets

prefer private colleges. Students from middle incomes prefer state
universities and those from lower income groups prefer community and

state colleges. Some poorer students may have to work a year after

graduating from high school in order to raise funds necessary for

college or the particular college of their choice.

Other characteristics of students are aptitude, level of

educational aspiration, and the influence of significant persons

(Chapman, 1981). Such significant persons could be friends,

parents, and teachers. It is believed that parents are probably the

greatest single source of influence on young people in the decisions

regarding college attendance. By the time a student arrives at high

school the decision to attend or not to attend college has probably

already been made.














Among the fixed characteristics of colleges are location,

charges, campus environment, and the availability of desired

programs. Astin (1965) found that students possessing particular

personality orientations were most likely to pursue certain college

programs. He found that students who ranked high in "social" traits

were more likely to choose programs in education, nursing,

sociology, psychology, and social work. Students with

"conventional" traits had a tendency to pursue programs in

economics, accounting, secretarial science, and business. Other

characteristics of students as labeled in this study were
"realistic," "scientific," "enterprising," and "artistic." Chapman

(1981) found that 50 percent of entering freshmen in the United

States attended a college within 50 miles of their home.

Kotler (1976) mentioned four key questions regarding the student

market. These questions concern the expected state of the American

economy, the expected pattern of competition among colleges, the

current trends in student interests, and the degree of awareness

among potential students about a given college. Mudie (1978)

claimed it is important to know whether students presently enrolled

in a given college have come from independent, parochial, or public

secondary schools.














When college enrollments were growing, there was little concern

about the make-up of the student body and the environmental factors

affecting enrollment trends (Chapman, 1981). Faced, however, with

enrollment declines, colleges are looking closely at their student

bodies and the changes occurring in the marketplace. Among these

changes is the realignment between the public and private sectors in

secondary education. In 1978, it was estimated that 9.5 percent of

high school graduates in America came from nonpublic schools

(Eldridge, 1981).

Hammack (1981) compared the characteristics of various private

schools with characteristics of various private colleges. Included

with the private colleges he studied were Protestant colleges.

Hammack found that 81 percent of those students who graduated from

the private schools he studied went on to attend private colleges

and universities.

The private schools in Hammack's study were nonsectarian.

Research is lacking regarding the college attendance patterns of

graduates of Protestant secondary schools. If such research were to

follow the example of Hammack, it would be necessary to examine the

distinctive features of the various kinds of Protestant high schools

and the distinctive features of various colleges and universities.














Features of Protestant Colleges

Moseley and Bucher (1982) identified 700 colleges and

universities in America with some form of religious affiliation.

They claimed that these institutions constituted one-fourth of the

total number of colleges and universities in America and that they

enrolled one-tenth of the students. A study by Pattillo and

MacKenzie (1978) found the following six types of denominational

connections:

1. Board of control including members of the church and/or

members nominated or elected by the church body.

2. Ownership of the institution by the religious body.

3. Financial support of the institution by the religious body.

4. Acceptance by institution of the denominational standards or

use of the denominational name.

5. Institutional statement of purpose linked to a particular

denomination or reflecting a religious orientation.

6. Church membership a factor in selection of faculty and

administrative personnel (p. 33).

Pattillo and MacKenzie also classified colleges as "defenders of

the faith," "non-affirming," or "free-Christian." This first type

of college has as its mission the training of leaders for a

particular denomination or affiliation. The students and faculty














come from this affiliation. Control of the institution is exercized

completely by the denomination. The college has its own distinct

culture which is in tension with the outside world.

The second type of college consists of those religious

institutions that do not attempt to control thought, but do expect a

definite commitment to the ideals of the institution. There is a

dual emphasis on academic excellence and religious vitality. The

denomination supports such an institution, but it does not insist on

conformity.

The final classification of Pattillo and MacKenzie is composed

of institutions that give little attention to religion and have only

a small portion of their operating expenses provided by a religious

body. A sense of purpose is achieved through athletics,

convocations, and allegiance to secular intellectual values. In

such colleges, there is complete freedom of inquiry.

A similar classification has been developed by Pace (1972). The

following is his system of classification of Protestant colleges:

1. Institutions with Protestant roots, but having no present

ties in any legal sense.

2. Institutions with a nominal relationship but close to

detachment.

3. Institutions retaining connection with "mainline" Protestant

churches.














4. Institutions with ties to evangelical, fundamentalist, and

interdenominational Christian churches.

Pace described the institutions in the first category as being among

the oldest in the country and often known for the quality of their

educational programs. He listed such colleges as Wake Forest,

Southern Methodist, and Texas Christian as examples of these

colleges. The second and third categories are colleges that are no

longer evangelical and have a declining number of students who

identify themselves as Protestants. The last category consists of

colleges with fairly recent origins. Pace claimed that a

distinctive environment results when a college is firmly and

zealously related to a church.

Chamberlain and Loewer (1982) found that colleges may appear to

be very similar and have mission statements that are nearly

identical but still differ substantially in doctrine. They claimed

that being able to distinguish these varying doctrines can be

extremely valuable in strengthening the linkages of an institution

and providing a basis for student recruitment.

Moseley and Bucher (1982) found that distinctions between

Protestant colleges could be found in the following four areas:

1. Courses that the administration decides to make required for

the student body.














2. Departments in the college that show the priorities of the

administration by their size and strength.

3. Programs that show the mission and orientation of the

institution.

4. Graduation requirements placed on seniors that often contain

a "capstone" experience.

Carlson (1977) noted a tension between an academic approach to

college study and an emphasis on religious values. According to

Carlson, the pursuit of academic excellence entails a freedom of

inquiry which is antithetical to spiritual fervor. Carlson listed

naturalistic interpretations of existence, technological

developments and requirements of modern society, and the tendency

toward specialization and fragmentation of fields of knowledge as

aspects of the academic approach that put pressure on church-related

colleges to compromise their ideology.

Pattillo and MacKenzie (1978) claimed that the small

church-related college has some particular problems. Among these

are the difficulties of providing exposure to a breadth of scholarly

and competent instructors. There is also the difficulty of finding

staff members who have the required religious commitment. On the

other hand, the small church-related colleges often has the

advantage of committed nucleus of dedicated people who provide the

stimulation of direct and close contact with students.














Pattillo and MacKenzie also claimed that particular

characteristics of denominations have an effect on the type of

institutions of higher education they sponsor. In some religious

affiliations there is the belief that denominational colleges should

accept all possible matriculants from that particular affiliation

regardless of aptitude. Some denominations are not inclined to

sponsor colleges because they are loosely organized, have less

well-defined theologies, lack a scholarly tradition, face a

liberal-fundamentalist split, or are unwilling to contribute

substantially to the development of colleges. According to Pattillo

and MacKenzie, most church-related colleges are serving the middle

class of American society. They claimed, however, that many of

these colleges are moving in the direction of serving the upper

middle class.

Kelley (1972) found that certain characteristics exist with

strong, vital, growing religious groups. Among these

characteristics are commitment, discipline, missionary zeal,

absolutism, conformity within the ranks, and outgoing communications

(pp. 56-84). Based on these characteristics, Kelley arranged

various religious groups along a gradient from strong to weak (See

Table 1). He further claimed that as a religious organization

starts, it usually possesses characteristics of strength. As time

passes, the organization loses some of its commitment and zeal














through contact with the outside world. As the original leaders

pass from the scene, succeeding leaders possess somewhat less fervor

than their predecessors. According to Kelley, strong religions

demand a great deal from their constituents and provide them with a

sense of meaning and purpose.



Table 1
Kelley's Scale of Ecumenism


Ecumenicity and
Strength


Very Strong
Least Ecumenical


















Very Weak
Most Ecumenical


Name of Affiliation


Evangelicals and Pentecostals
Churches of Christ
Seventh-Day Adventists
Church of God
Church of Christ, Scientist
Southern Baptist Convention
Luthern Church- Missouri Synod
American Luthern Church
Lutheran Church in America
Southern Presbyterian Church
Reformed Church in America
Episcopal Church
American Baptist Convention
United Presbyterian Church
United Methodist Church
United Church of Christ


Note: Adapted from Kelley (1972)












Astin (1961) noted that it is difficult to evaluate the effect

of the college experience on a student. Certain colleges attract a

particular kind of student and therefore are not completely

responsible for the caliber of graduates they produce. When

aptitude and academic interests of entering college freshmen are

considered, Astin claimed that some colleges with good reputations

may actually be underproductive. The reputation of an institution,

therefore, may be dependent on the type of student it attracts.

National Pattern of College Attendance in 1982

About 51 percent of the graduates of all high schools in the

United States in 1982 matriculated at a college the following fall

(Yoong, 1983). Within two years of their graduation from high

school, members of the class of 1980 had enrolled at 4-year colleges

at the rate of 35 percent and at 2-year colleges at the rate of 25

percent ("Class of 1980," 1984). In the fall of 1982, 78 percent of

all college students were enrolled at public colleges (Magarrell,

1982).

Astin (1982) surveyed 188,000 freshmen who entered college in

the fall of 1982. The freshmen indicated that they intended to

pursue at least 79 different fields of study. The researcher














grouped these 79 fields of study according to the five majors

delineated in this research (See Appendix D). Less than 1 percent

of these freshmen intended to pursue a Bible/theology major. About

25 percent intended to pursue a business major. Freshmen intending

to major in engineering/technical chose this field at a rate nearly

equal to the freshmen choosing business. Education was chosen by 6

percent of the freshmen and liberal arts was chosen by nearly 30

percent.

Summary of the Literature Review

An emphasis on the education of youth is an important part of

the Protestant ethic. In colonial times, Protestants in the South

believed that the family and the church were responsible for this

undertaking (Rippa, 1976, p. 29). Acceptance of the concept of

public schools was therefore slow. In time, however, Protestants in

the South generally embraced the public schools and worked for their

improvement (Brigham, 1951, p. 118).

Certain developments in the twentieth century, most notably

Supreme Court decisions prohibiting Bible reading and prayer in the

public schools, alarmed some Protestants. Reacting to this alarm,

some Protestant denominations began founding their own elementary

and secondary schools. Some of these schools were organized and

controlled by a board of directors. Others were started as

ministries of local churches. Enrollments in these schools have













rapidly risen, in part due to the desire of many families to

maintain a commitment to Protestant ideology. Other families have

chosen to send their children to Protestant schools in order to

avoid racial integration or discipline problems in the public

schools (Towns, 1974, p. 37).

Due to the fact that college enrollments are expected to decline

during the eighties, many college recruitment officers are

attempting to create linkages between their institutions and the

various forms of secondary education (Chamberlain & Loewer, 1982).

Hammack (1981) showed a strong linkage between private, nonsectarian

high schools and private colleges. No studies were found by the

researcher that concerned possible linkages between Protestant high

schools and the various kinds of colleges.

Protestant educational institutions, both on the high school

level and the college level, vary widely in size, tuition charges,

and degree of commitment to Protestant ideology. Kelley (1972)

found that Protestant institutions often begin with characteristics

of strength and then weaken in time. Pattillo and MacKenzie (1978)

reported that church-related colleges have a tendency to shift from

a middle class clientele to an upper middle class clientele. Older

Protestant colleges are often known for the quality of their

educational programs but often these institutions are close to

detachment from their Protestant roots (Pace, 1972). Carlson (1977)














noted that it is difficult for an institution to maintain its

religious commitment and also pursue academic excellence.

According to Astin (1965), certain colleges attract students

with particular characteristics. The qualities of the graduates of

a college, therefore, may be more reflective of the characteristics

of the incoming freshmen than on any changes made on the students as

a result of the college's program or environment. Astin also found

that a student's personality was often related to the type of

college major he or she chose.

About 50 percent of all high school graduates in 1982

matriculated at a college the following fall (Yoong, 1983). The

majority of college students in the United States chose public

colleges in 1982 (Magarrell, 1982). Four-year colleges were

preferred over 2-year colleges by these students ("Class of 1980,"

1984). Most college students pursued the majors of business,

engineering/technical and liberal arts (Astin, 1982).















CHAPTER III
METHODS AND PROCEDURES



This chapter describes the steps taken by the researcher to

develop a master list of Protestant high schools and gather other

preliminary data. The development of the survey instrument and its

use are also discussed. This chapter concludes with a description

of the chi-square test of independence and other statistical

procedures that were used to analyze the data.

It was the intent of the researcher to develop a master list of

Protestant high schools in the South that was reasonably complete.

Harris (1931) has shown the difficulty of obtaining accurate lists

of many of the recently founded Protestant elementary and secondary

schools. This project had an advantage in this area, however,

because its focus was on the senior class only. Protestant high

schools that had senior graduating classes in 1982 were typically

older schools that were most likely to be listed in the various

available directories.

Defining the Population

Directories of schools were obtained from Christian Schools

International (CSI), the American Association of Christian Schools

(AACS), and the Association of Christian Schools International

(ACSI). These are the three major associations of Christian










- 40 -


schools having high schools in the South. CSI is an association of

schools formed by Christian Reformed families and Presbyterian

groups. The AACS is an association of schools sponsored

predominantly by independent Baptist churches. The ACSI consists of

a variety of Protestant schools, many of which are nondenominational

in affiliation.

Directories were also obtained for Episcopal, Lutheran, and

Assembly of God schools. Cross-referencing with other directories

showed that the listings of these denominational schools were

complete. Directories were not in print for schools sponsored by

the Church of God, Brethren, Church of the Mazarene, and the various

Presbyterian groups not associated with CSI. Although the

researcher made two separate requests for directories from both the

Seventh-Day Adventists and the Christian Churches, no reply was

received from either.

Directories were received for nonpublic schools in each of the

14 southern states from the respective states' Department of

Education. These directories contained lists of Protestant,

Catholic, and private, nonsectarian elementary and secondary

schools. In some cases, these nonpublic school directories appeared

to be complete. Evidence for this fact came by comparing the

various denominational and associational directories with the state

directories. In a few cases, the directories were incomplete. For














these states, however, it appeared from the other available

directories that there were few Protestant high schools. A total of

about 2,500 Protestant schools were found in the directories. Of

these 2,500 schools, the directories contained information which

indicated that over 1,100 of them did not have a senior class in

1982. Many Protestant schools offered instruction through the sixth

or eighth grade only.

After schools that were known to not have a senior class were

eliminated, the compiled master list of schools contained 1,326

names of institutions. Due to the fact that some of the directories

used in compiling the master list did not specify the grades taught

in a particular school, it was necessary to include many schools on

the master list that may or may not have had a senior class in

1982. Also, because of lack of directory information, it was

necessary to include some schools that may or may not have had a

Protestant affiliation.

Development of the Survey Instrument

It was the intent of the researcher to keep the task of the

responding administrators as simple as possible. For this reason,

administrators were asked to simply list the colleges chosen by

their 1982 graduates under five categories of college majors (See

Appendix A). A search of college catalogs resulted in the selection

of the following majors:














1. Bible/Theology

2. Business

3. Education

4. Engineering/Technical

5. Liberal Arts

In addition to these five majors, space was provided under the

category "Other Majors" for the responding administrators to list

such courses of study as "Art" or "Music." The reasons for choosing

the above mentioned five majors were as follows:

1. Administrators could quickly categorize their students

without a thorough understanding of college majors.

2. The researcher expected the graduates of Protestant high

schools to choose such majors as Bible/Theology and

Education at a higher rate than the graduates of public high

schools and therefore included these majors as distinct

categories.

3. Because the focus of this study was on the initial choice of

college major, there was no need to account for

specialization that may occur after the first year of

college.

After developing an initial survey form,. the researcher

pilot-tested this form with 58 administrators of various Protestant

high schools throughout the South (See Appendix B, Letter 1). A














reply was received from 32 administrators and the following

suggestions were offered:

1. Provide more spaces for responses.

2. Provide a greater description of college majors.

3. Have the survey form professionally printed.

Utilizing these recommendations, the survey instrument was

revised and professionally printed (See Appendix A). Six

administrators who were asked to evaluate the original form provided

the requested data at that time. Subsequently, the first mailing of

the revised survey instrument went to 1,320 of the 1,326

administrators of Protestant schools on the researcher's master list.

Survey Response Rate

The first mailing of the survey instrument contained a

personalized letter to the administrator of each school on the

master list. Also included in this mailing was a copy of the survey

instrument and a stamped envelope addressed to the researcher (See

Appendix B, Letter 2). The cover letter was printed on stationery

from the Protestant school for which the researcher is the

administrator. It was believed that this approach would encourage a

higher rate of response from other Protestant school

administrators. Listed in Table 2 are the dates of the mailings and

the number of replies received. Included in the number of replies

received are the envelopes that were returned because they were













undeliverable. Follow-up letters were sent to nonresponding

administrators at the end of the third and sixth weeks after the

initial mailing.


Table 2
Date of Mailings and Responses Received

Mailing Date No. mailed No. Returned
1 August 27, 1982 1320 482
2 September 18, 1982 838 446
3 October 13, 1982 392 73

Note. The number returned includes mailings that were returned
because they were undeliverable.

After the second follow-up letter was sent, a request was sent

to the nonresponding administrators asking for their reason for not

responding (See Appendix B, Letter 5). Subsequently, a few more

administrators responded and it was discovered that 262 schools on

the master list did not have a senior class in 1982. It was also

discovered that 158 schools had closed, moved with no forwarding

address, had no Protestant affiliation, or were duplicated on the

master list. Therefore, the study sample was reduced from 1,326

schools to 906 schools. Of these 906 schools, 660 responses were

received from Protestant secondary schools with a senior class in

1982. The total number of graduates from these 660 schools exceeded

10,000.













Problems with the Survey Instrument

After receiving the completed survey instruments, the researcher

noted several common misunderstandings not discovered in the pilot

test. Fortunately, these problems were easily corrected. The first

misunderstanding occurred when administrators read the question,

"How many of your 1982 graduates did not attend college in 1982?"

Many administrators failed to see the "not" in this question and

therefore answered it in the affinnative. This problem was easily

corrected by comparing this figure with the other data on the

instrument.

Another problem occurred when some Baptist and Church of Christ

administrators objected to being referred to as part of a

"denomination." Most of these administrators crossed out the word

"denomination" and replaced it with a designation they believed more

appropriate. A few responded by claiming to be "nondenominational."

These differences were corrected by the researcher by cross-

referencing with appropriate directories. The directory of Southern

Baptist churches and a directory of one of the larger groups of

Independent Baptist church were helpful in resolving this problem.

Interpretation of the term "nondenominational" presented another

problem to some respondents. Several schools claimed that they were

nondenominational because of their open admissions policy. Thus a

school operating under the direction of a Baptist church would claim














to be nondenominational because it accepted students from all

denominations. This problem was resolved by consulting the various

directories and thereby ascertaining the correct affiliation of each

school whose affiliation was in doubt. Some administrators failed

to respond to the first survey instrument because they did not know

the intended majors of their graduates. Personal correspondence was

conducted with them by the researcher and they were encouraged to

return the survey instrument with as much information as possible.

Finally, several administrators listed vocational schools that

were chosen by their 1982 graduates on the survey instrument.

Because this project was delimited to tracking graduates to

post-secondary institutions offering college degrees, the vocational

schools listed were eliminated from the usable responses. If a

vocational school offered a 2-year college degree, however, it was

retained as a usable response.

It was often necessary to write responding school administrators

for clarification of the data they provided. For this purpose, 78

letters were sent to high school administrators requesting specific

clarifications of their responses. Letters were also written to

over 100 post-secondary institutions in order to ascertain their

nature and the types of programs they offered. The researcher

attempted to determine if each college was public or private and the

yearly charges of the institution. If the college had a Protestant














affiliation, the researcher attempted to determine the specific

affiliation. Peterson's Annual Guide to Undergraduate Study (1983

edition) contained this information for most of the colleges listed

by Protestant administrators. College charges were compared on the

basis of yearly tuition costs for full-time students.
Analysis of the Response Rate

A total of 651 usable responses were received from the 906

remaining schools on the researcher's master list. Nine schools

were eliminated due to incomplete responses. It is possible that

some of the nonresponding schools did not have a senior class in

1982.

Response rates from each of the 14 southern states were 61

percent or higher. The lowest rate of response was from the state

of Tennessee (61 percent). The highest rate of response was from

the state of North Carolina (83 percent). Through consulting the

listings of the various denominations and associations and reports

from 102 administrators, it was possible to determine the

affiliations of 178 of the 258 nonrespondents.













Table 3 shows the rate of known nonresponse for the five largest

affiliations of Protestant high schools.

Table 3
Nonresponse Rate for Five Largest Affiliations of Protestant High
School s
Number of schools Number of schools Percentage of
responding known to not have schools known
Affiliation responded to not have
responded

Independent Baptist 286 79 22%

Nondenominational 133 16 11%

Southern Baptist 39 14 26%

Episcopal 30 8 21%

Presbyterian/Reformed 16 2 11%


If one assumes that the unknown affiliations of nonrespondents are

distributed in the same proportions as the known nonrespondents, it

could be concluded that most of the larger affiliations responded at

a rate in excess of 60 percent.

Reasons Given for Nonresponse

A survey was made of the nonrespondents (See Appendix B, Letter

5) in which they were asked to give the reason for not providing the

previously requested data. The results of this survey are shown in

Table 4.














Table 4
Reasons Given for Nonresponse


Reasons


Pe
Nor
Gi'


Did not have time to complete the survey instrument

Did not have any seniors in 1982

Did not have a school in 1982

Information is confidential

No reason for not responding and now willing to do so


rcentage of
respondents
ving this Reason

27%

15%

10%

10%

12%


If one assumes that the reasons for nonresponse are distributed

in the same proportion for those not responding to the survey

instrument as for those who did respond, one could assume that about

one-fourth of the nonresponding school administrators did not have a

senior class. This would bring the actual rate of response to the

completed survey instrument close to 80%.

Organization and Treatment of Data

Administrators from high schools with over 20 different

affiliations responded to the request for data. Statistics were

compiled for each of these affiliations in order to make comparisons

in the following areas:

1. Over-all rate of college attendance

2. Rate of attendance at Protestant colleges














3. Rate of attendance at colleges with the same denominational

affiliation as the high school

4. Rate of attendance at private colleges

5. Rate of attendance at public colleges

a. Rate of attendance at 2-year public colleges

b. Rate of attendance at 4-year public colleges

6. Rate of attendance at in-state colleges

Five of the school affiliations were large enough in terms of

numbers of graduates to permit the researcher to conduct further

statistical treatment. This further treatment involved comparing

the five major affiliations in terms of graduating class size, the

college majors chosen by their graduates, and the tuition charges to

the student of selected colleges.

For this research, it was desirable to compare the proportions

of students from the five major affiliations of high schools in

terms of their various rates of college attendance. For this

purpose, the chi-square test of independence was chosen to determine

significant differences. For this test, observed frequencies (f )

are compared with expected frequencies (f e) according to the

following formula (Ary, Jacobs, & Razavieh, 1979, p. 163):


X 0 e e














In a simple comparison between two affiliations of high schools,
2
one degree of freedom is allowed. Referring to a table of X any

value greater than 6.635 that results from the use of the formula

indicates a level of significance at the .01 level. Such values
2
of x are noted in the following chapters and indicate where a

statistically significant difference exists in the two populations

of high school graduates under comparison. In this study, only

simple comparisons were made.

The chi-square test assumes that the populations being studied

are exclusive of each other. For this reason, it is not possible to

use this test to detennine if a particular affiliation of Protestant

high schools differs significantly from the population of Protestant

high school as a whole. The chi-square test also assumes that the

population being studied exists in the same proportions as the total

population. For this reason, the chi-square test is not used with

the data from the smaller affiliations of Protestant high schools.

The researcher in this study assumed that the relatively high

rate of response to the request for data (71 percent) ensured the

likelihood that the collected data adequately represented the

population as a whole. As mentioned earlier, it is possible that

nearly 80 percent of the schools on the researcher's master list

with a senior graduating class responded to the request for

infoniation. The data furnished by the responding schools, however,










52



contained uncertainty. There was uncertainty on the part of

responding administrators regarding the number of students attending

college, the number of students attending particular types of

colleges, and the number of students choosing each of the five

courses of study. A large uncertainty factor jeopardizes the

accuracy of the chi-square test of significance. For this reason,

the researcher identified statistical results that were jeopardized

by a high level of uncertainty.














CHAPTER IV
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA


This chapter contains information about the particular

Protestant high schools whose administrators responded to the

request for information for this study. The data are analyzed in

the order of the major research questions. Tables are used to

permit comparisons among the various affiliations of Protestant high

schools and show the results of statistical treatments.

After the data were collected, some of the original categories

designed for purposes of data analysis were combined. In

preliminary planning, it was decided to categorize senior class

sizes by increments of 10, beginning with the category 1 to 10.

After examining the data, this decision was revised and senior class

sizes were categorized by increments of 20 graduates. In most

cases, this change permitted the researcher to have sufficient

numbers in each of the categories for statistical analysis.

Graduating classes with 1 to 19 members were termed "small" by the

researcher, classes with 20 to 39 graduates were termed "medium,"

and classes with 40 or more graduates were termed "large." Although

"large" graduating classes were usually found in comparatively













large schools, this was not always the case. Schools were therefore

not compared on the basis of their total enrollment, but on the

basis of their graduating class size.

Examination of the data revealed that most of the graduates from

Protestant high schools in the South came from schools with five

different affiliations. In most cases, the numbers of graduates

coming from these affiliations were large enough to permit

statistical treatment. The researcher found that data from 19

smaller affiliations of Protestant high schools were not sufficient

for such treatment. The five large affiliations were termed "major

affiliations" by the researcher in order to distinguish them from

the "small affiliations."
Analysis of the Schools

The only affiliation of high schools with a senior graduating

class that was found in every state sampled was Independent

Baptist. Southern Baptist graduating classes were found in every

state except Maryland, Delaware, Virginia and West Virginia. Twelve

of the 30 Episcopal graduating classes were located in Virginia and

six were in Florida. Nondenominational graduating classes were

found in every state except Kentucky. Presbyterian/Reformed

graduating classes were found only in Alabama, Florida, Maryland,

North Carolina, South Carolina and Tennessee. Although most

administrators of Presbyterian/Reformed high schools labeled their














school as "nondenominational" on the survey instrument, they were

placed in a category by themselves for this research. As mentioned

in the Review of Related Literature, these schools have had a long

history of association with Reformed theology and typically had

higher tuition rates than other nondenominational schools.

Eight of the 19 smaller affiliations were represented by one or

two small schools. The data from these schools were combined and

presented under the title of "Other" affiliations. These

affiliations were Bible Presbyterian, Orthodox Presbyterian,

Christian Church, Nazarene, Brethren, Dunkard Brethren, Bible

Brethren, and Apostolic.

Eleven of the 19 smaller affiliations had three or more high

schools whose administrators responded to the request for

information. Some of these schools were comparatively large and

thus of importance to this study. Because small numbers of high

schools were involved, however, it was not possible to tell if the

data from the 11 smaller affiliations adequately represented each

affiliation as a whole.

As reported in the Review of Related Literature, yearly tuition

charges at Independent Baptist, nondenominational, and Southern

Baptist high schools ranged from $500 to $1,500 in the 1981-1982

school year. The average tuition charge for the 86 Independent

Baptist high schools listed in the Christian Educator's Directory













for 1982 was $863. The average tuition charge for the 13 listed

nondenominational high schools was $924. The average tuition charge

for the 10 Southern Baptist high schools listed in this directory

was $1,046. Unfortunately, tuition information was not available

for Independent Baptist, nondenominational, and Southern Baptist

high schools not listed in the directory. The available

information, however, suggests that the average yearly tuition

charge for Independent Baptist high schools may have been lower than

the average charges for nondenominational and Southern Baptist high

schools in 1982.

In order to determine if average yearly tuition varied with

school size, the researcher categorized the 86 Independent Baptist

high schools in the Christian Educator's Directory according to the

size of their total enrollment. All of these 86 schools provided

classes for kindergarten through twelfth grade. The researcher

labeled any school with an enrollment of less than 400 students

(kindergarten through 12th grade) as a "small school." A school

with an enrollment from 400 to 799 was labeled a "medium school." A

"large school" was any school having an enrollment of 800 or more.

It was the belief of the researcher that this classification of

schools would roughly coincide with the classification of graduating

class size. In other words, Independent Baptist schools with a

total enrollment in kindergarten through 12th grade of less than 400














students would be expected to have a graduating class of less than

20 students.

The average yearly tuition charge at the 59 Independent Baptist

high schools in the Christian Educator's Directory for 1982 that

were labeled "small schools" was found to be $790. The average

tuition charge at the 17 "medium schools" was $963. At the 10

"large schools," the average yearly tuition was $1,123. Because

this information was available in only one directory and provided

data for a small number of schools, it cannot be considered a

reliable indication of the yearly average tuition charges at all

Independent Baptist high schools. It does, however, provide an

indication that the tuition charges at small Independent Baptist

high schools with presumably small graduating classes may have

generally been lower than the charges at larger Independent Baptist

high schools with larger graduating classes.

The Handbook of Private Schools (1982 edition) contains tuition

charge information for 20 Episcopal high schools. The average

yearly charges at these 20 schools was $4,018 in 1982. For some

schools, the cost of boarding was included in their yearly charges.

As reported in Chapter II, the average yearly tuition charge at

Presbyterian/Reformed (CSI) high schools in the South in 1982 was a

little over $1,500.













Table 5 shows the sizes of the various affiliations, both in

tenrs of the numbers of graduates and the numbers of high schools.

This table also shows the average size of graduating class for each

of the affiliations. The smallest average graduating class size was

found for Independent Baptist high schools and the largest average

size was found for Episcopal high schools among the major

affiliations.

Among the smaller affiliations, a small average graduating class

size was found for Assembly of God, Methodist/Wesleyan, Free Will

Baptist, Christian and Missionary Alliance, Church of God,

Mennonite, and Pentecostal high schools. These smaller affiliations

were therefore similar to the larger affiliations of Independent
Baptist and nondenominational in average graduating class size. A

medium average graduating class size was found for Church of Christ

and Lutheran high schools. These high schools were therefore

similar in average graduating class size to the major affiliations

Southern Baptist and Presbyterian/Reformed. A large average

graduating class size was found for Quaker and Seventh-Day Adventist

high schools. Among the major affiliations a large average

graduating class size was found for Episcopal high schools.

Table 6 shows the number of graduates and schools in each of the

three classifications of school size. According to this table, most

Independent Baptist, nondenominational, and Southern Baptist high














Table 5

Relative Sizes of School Affiliations


School
Affiliation


Independent Baptist
Nondenominational
Episcopal
Southern Baptist
Presbyterian/Ref.


Graduates Schools Graduates Average Size
College-bound Graduating
Class


NO. % OT NO. % ot NO. % ot
total total total
2852 28 286 44 1650 24
2047 20 133 20 1356 19
1443 14 30 5 1262 18
1269 12 39 6 914 13
563 6 16 2 480 7


Subtotal 8174 80 504 77 5662


No.


81 16


Assembly of God
Church of Christ
Quaker
Lutheran
Seventh-Day Advent.
Methodist/Wesleyan
Free Will Baptist
Christian & Miss.
Alliance
Church of God
Mennonite
Pentecostal
Other


378 4 34 5 196
325 3 12 2 257
223 2 3 195
206 2 9 1 145
203 2 4 1 113
154 2 17 3 99
144 1 18 3 87


101 1 6 1
98 1 15 2
88 1 8 1
45 10 2
90 1 11 2


Total 10,229 100 651 100 6,976 101 16











Table 6
Number of Graduates and Schools in
Class Size


Sample Relative to Graduating


School Affiliation
and Graduating Class Number of Number of
Size Graduates Schools

Independent Baptist
Small 1620 256
Medium 604 22
Large 628 8
Nondenominational
Small 538 92
Medium 841 29
Large 668 12
Episcopal
Small 86 6
Medium 301 9
Large 105G 15
Southern Baptist
Small 201 24
Medium 135 5
Large 933 10
Presbyterian/Reformed
Small 76 5
Medium 160 6
Large 327 5
Total for Five
Major Affiliations


Small 2,521
Medium 2,041
Large 3,612
Note. Class size: "Small class" less than
cTass" 20 to 39 graduates, "Large class" -


383
71
50
20 graduates, "Medium
40 or more graduates.













schools had less than 20 graduates in 1982. Except for the

graduates from Independent Baptist high schools, however, most of

the graduates of the other major affiliations came from schools with

medium or large graduating classes. Most Episcopal, Southern

Baptist, and Presbyterian/Reformed graduates came from large schools

with 40 or more graduates.

Rate of Planned College Attendance

Table 7 shows the rate of planned college attendance for the

graduates of the various affiliations of Protestant high schools

studied. Nearly 70 percent of these graduates planned to attend

college in the fall of 1982. This rate was considerably higher than

the rate of college attendance for graduates of all high schools in

the United States, which was about 51 percent (Yoong, 1983).

An examination of the planned matriculation data shows a great

deal of difference among the various affiliations. Both the

Episcopal and Presbyterian/Reformed high schools had a high rate of

planned college attendance. These rates were probably higher than

the percentages shown in Table 7 because it is likely that many of

the students listed under the category "Unknown Plans" actually did

go on to college. It is known that only 3 percent of the graduates

of Episcopal high schools definitely did not go on to college in the

fall. Comments written on the survey instruments by Episcopal

school administrators indicated that some graduates delayed their

college enrollment in order to travel.











Table 7

Rate of Planned College Attendance of 1982 Graduates Studied

Going to Not going Unknown
School Affiliation College to College plans
No. % No. % 1lo. %

Independent Baptist 1650 58 1001 35 201 7
Nondenominational 1356 66 494 24 197 10
Episcopal 1261 87 37 3 145 10
Southern Baptist 914 72 231 18 124 10
Presbyterian/Refonned 480 85 40 7 43 8


Subtotal 5662 69 1803 22 710 9
Assembly of God 196 52 144 38 38 10
Church of Christ 257 79 34 10 34 10
Quaker 195 87 18 8 10 4
Lutheran 145 70 37 18 24 12
Seventh-Day Adventist 113 56 45 22 45 22
Methodist/Wesleyan 99 64 40 26 15 10
Free Will Baptist 87 60 47 33 10 7
Christian & Missionary
Alliance 73 72 28 28 0 -
Church of God 35 36 54 55 9 9
Mennonite 38 43 30 34 20 23
Pentecostal 20 44 23 51 2 4
Other 56 62 18 20 16 18

Tntal 6976 68 2321 23 933 9














It is interesting to note that the high school affiliations with

the smallest average sizes of graduating classes also had the lowest

average rates of planned college attendance. This relationship was

generally true for the major affiliations and the smaller

affiliations. A relatively low rate (64 percent or less) of planned

college attendance was found for Assembly of God, Seventh-Day

Adventist, Methodist/Wesleyan, Free Will Baptist, Church of God,

Mennonite, and Pentecostal high school graduates. These

affiliations were similar to the Independent Baptist affiliation in

having a relatively low rate of planned college attendance.

Graduates from Church of Christ, Lutheran, and Christian and

Missionary Alliance high schools had a moderately high rate (higher

that 64 percent but lower than 80 percent) of planned college

attendance. These affiliations were somewhat similar in rate of

planned college attendance to the nondenominational and Southern

Baptist affiliations. A high rate (over 80 percent) of planned

college attendance was found for graduates of Quaker high schools.

A similarly high rate of college attendance was also found for

graduates of Episcopal and Presbyterian/Reformed high schools.

Table 8 shows the values of the chi-square tests for all

comparisons between the major affiliations in planned college

attendance rate. There was a statistically significant difference

for each comparison except for the difference in planned college














Table 8

Chi-Square Test of Significant Differences in Planned College
Attendance Rates
School Affiliation
School
Affiliation Southern Nondenom- Episcopal Presbyterian/
Baptist national Reformed


Independent Baptist 113.38* 59.59* 547.47* 178.90*

Southern Baptist 16.31* 185.49* 41.48*

Nondenominational 311.73* 83.75*

Episcopal 1.74

*p < .01


attendance rates for graduates of Episcopal and Presbyterian/

Reformed high schools. An analysis of statistical significance was

not done for the smaller affiliations.

Table 9 shows the rate of planned college attendance for the

major affiliations of high schools based on graduating class size.

For Independent Baptist, nondenominational, and Southern Baptist

high school graduates, the lowest rate of planned college attendance

was demonstrated by graduates of small graduating classes. For

graduates of Independent Baptist and Southern Baptist high schools,

the highest rate of planned college attendance was found for

graduates of large graduating classes. Table 10 shows the values of

chi-square for comparisons within the major affiliations of the rate














Table 9



Rate of Planned College Attendance Relative to Graduating Class Size



School Affiliation Going to Not going Unknown

and Graduating College to College plans

Class Size

No. % No. % No. %

Independent Baptist
Small 873 54 666 41 81 5
Medium 371 61 136 23 97 16
Large 406 65 199 32 23 4
Nondenominational
Small 293 54 224 42 21 4
Medium 598 71 167 20 76 9
Large 465 70 103 15 100 15
Episcopal
Small 79 92 3 3 4 5
Medium 262 87 5 2 34 11
Large 920 87 29 3 107 10
Southern Baptist
Small 121 60 66 33 14 8
Medium 89 66 33 24 13 10
Large 704 75 132 14 97 10
Presbyterian/Reformed
Small 60 79 7 9 9 12
Medium 145 91 13 8 2 1
Large 275 84 20 6 32 10

Total for Five
Major Affiliations
Small 1,426 57 966 38 129 5
Medium 1,465 72 354 17 222 11
Large 2,770 77 403 13 359 10
Note. Class size: "Small class" less than 20 graduates. "Medium
cTass" 20 to 39 graduates. "Large class" 40 or more graduates.














of planned college attendance for schools with different sizes of

graduating classes. In chi-square calculations, the number of

graduates planning to go to college was compared with the number of

graduates known to not have college plans. The number of graduates

with unknown college plans was not used and it was assumed by the

researcher that if these unknown plans were known, the ratio between

the number of students planning to go to college and the number not

going to college would not be affected. The chi-square statistical

treatment is jeopardized, however, by a relatively large unknown

factor. For this reason, the researcher drew attention to this

possible jeopardy in the discussion of results when a large unknown

factor was involved.

In cases in which the chi-square test was not jeopardized by

unknown college plans, significant differences were found in the

planned college attendance rates for the different sizes of

Independent Baptist, nondenominational, and Southern Baptist high

school graduating classes. For these affiliations, the larger

schools typically had a significantly higher average rate of planned

college attendance. The tests jeopardized by unknown college plans

had results that coincided with this generalization. No significant

differences were found in the rate of planned college attendance for

the graduates of different sizes of Presbyterian/Reformed high

schools and Episcopal high schools. Although the data in Table 9












Table 10

Chi-Square Test of Significant Differences in Planned College
Attendance Rates for Graduating Classes of Different Sizes

Size Comparisons
School
Affiliation
Small-Medium Medium-Large Small-Large

Independent Baptist 43.bb* 3.44 19.38*
Southern Baptist 2.23 9.35* 37.86*
Nondenominationalb 66.59* 2.74 81.14*
Episcopalc .68 .74 0
Presbyterian/Refonnedd .27 .14 1.05
Five Major Affiliations 209.82* 18.14* 471.12*
as a Whole

Note. Class size: "Small class" less than 20 graduates. "Medium
class" 20 to 39 graduates. "Large class" 40 or more
graduates.
*p < .01
aStatistics jeopardized by high unknown factor for medium
graduating classes
bStatistics jeopardized by high unknown factor for large graduating
classes
cStatistics jeopardized by high unknown factor for medium
graduating classes.
statistics jeopardized by high unknown factor for small graduating
classes


seem to indicate a rise in the rate of planned college attendance

for Presbyterian/Reformed high school graduates from medium

graduating classes, this relatively high rate was due to the fact

that college attendance plans were known for 99 percent of the

graduates in this category.













The statistics for chi-square in Table 10 were jeopardized by a

level of uncertainty greater than 10 percent for medium Independent

Baptist graduating classes, large nondenominational graduating

classes, medium Episcopal graduating classes, and small

Presbyterian/Refonrmed graduating classes. Other statistics,

however, were not jeopardized because there was very little

uncertainty involved in their calculation. For instance, the

significant difference shown in Table 10 for the comparison between

small and large graduating classes at Independent Baptist high

schools was not jeopardized by uncertainty. Likewise, little

uncertainty was involved in the statistical analysis of the

difference between small and medium graduating classes at

nondenominational high schools. Therefore, the general finding of

statistically significant differences in the rates of planned

college attendance for graduates of different sizes of graduating

classes at Independent Baptist, Southern Baptist, and

nondenominational high schools is not jeopardized by uncertainty.

Table 11 shows the values of chi-square for all comparisons

among the major affiliations in planned college attendance rates for

schools with small graduating classes. The reliability of parts of

this test were jeopardized by 12 percent of uncertainty for

Presbyterian/Reformed graduates (See Table 9). According to Table

11, there were no significant differences in the rates of planned











Table 11

Chi-Square Test of Significant Differences in Planned College
Attendance Rates for Graduates from Small Graduating Classes

School Affiliation
School
Affiliation
Southern Nondenom- Episcopal Presbyterian/
Baptist national Reformeda


Independent Baptist 4.15 0 50.84* 28.23*

Southern Baptist 5.34 29.82* 14.33*

Nondenominational 47.10* 28.05*

Episcopal 1.71


Note. Small graduating class -
dSfatistics jeopardized by high
classes
*p < .01


1 to 19 graduates.
unknown factor for small graduating


college attendance for graduates of Independent Baptist,

nondenominational, and Southern Baptist high schools with small

graduating classes. If the chi-square test for comparisons with

Presbyterian/Reformed graduates and graduates of other affiliations

were considered valid, there were no significant differences in the

rates of planned college attendance for small Presbyterian/Reformed

and Episcopal high school graduating classes. Significant

differences, however, did exist between these two affiliations and

Independent Baptist, nondenominational, and Southern Baptist

affiliations in the rate of planned college attendance for the

graduates of small high school graduating classes.













Table 12 shows the values of chi-square for all comparisons

among the major affiliations in planned college attendance rates for

schools with medium graduating class sizes. The reliability of the

tests were jeopardized by 16 percent uncertainty for Independent

Baptist schools (See Table 9). Table 12 is similar to Table 11 in

that there was no significant difference in the planned college

attendance rates for graduates of medium graduating classes from

Independent Baptist, nondenominational, and Southern Baptist high

schools. There were significant differences in all the other

planned college attendance rates, including the comparison of

Episcopal and Presbyterian/Reformed. This significant difference,

however, was due to the difference in the unknown rate of college

attendance plans. The college attendance plans were known for 99

percent of the graduates of medium Presbyterian/Reformed high

schools. Such plans were only known for 89 percent of the graduates

of Episcopal high schools in the same size category. It is likely

that the planned college attendance rate for the graduates of medium

Episcopal graduating classes was higher than that reported in Table

9 and therefore the difference in rates of planned college

attendance between medium Episcopal and medium Presbyterian/Reformed

graduating classes was not significant.

Table 13 shows the values of chi-square for all comparisons

among the major affiliations in planned college attendance rates for














schools with large graduating class sizes. The reliability of the

tests were jeopardized by 15 percent uncertainty for

nondenominational schools (See Table 9). Significant differences

were found for every comparison except nondenomi national and

Southern Baptist. The data on this table differed from that of the

two previous tables in that the rate of planned college attendance

for graduates of large graduating classes at nondenominational and

Southern Baptist high schools was significantly higher than the rate

for graduates of large graduating classes at Independent Baptist

high schools.

Table 12
Chi-Square Test of Significant Differences in Planned College
Attendance Rates for Graduates from Medium Graduating Classes
School Affiliation
School
Affiliation
Southern Nondenom- Episcopal Presbyterian/
Baptist national Reformed


Independent Baptista 0 4.07 74.10* 23.24*

Southern Baptist 1.35 59.54* 17.89*

Nondenominational 57.88* 15.70*

Episcopala 8.79b

Note. Medium graduating class 20 to 39 graduates.
Sta-tistics jeopardized by high unknown factor for medium
graduating classes
bStatistical significance achieved because of low unknown factor
for medium Presbyterian/Reformed graduating classes
*p < .01














Table 13

Chi-Square Test of Significant Differences in Planned College
Attendance Rates for Graduates from Large Graduating Classes

School Affiliation
School
Affiliation

Southern Nondenom- Episcopal Presbyterian/
Baptist inationala Refonned


Independent Baptist 57.97* 33.01* 261.40* 73.98*

Southern Baptist 1.36 89.13* 15.69*

Nondenominationala 103.63* 19.99*

Episcopal 7.36b


Note. Large graduating class -
T-atistics jeopardized by high
classes
*p < .01


4U or more graduates.
unknown factor for large graduating


As shown in Tables 11 and 12, the rates of planned college

attendance for small and medium graduating classes at Independent

Baptist, nondenominational, and Southern Baptist high schools did

not differ significantly. The only differences that were

statistically significant were the rates of planned college

attendance for graduates of the large graduating classes for these

three affiliations. Due to the large unknown factor for graduates

of nondenominational high schools, it is not possible to be definite

about the statistical significance achieved in comparisons with this













affiliation. It does appear, however, that large classes from

Southern Baptist and nondenominational high schools had an average

rate of planned college attendance that was higher than the rate for

large Independent Baptist graduating classes.

In Table 14, the rate of planned college attendance was divided

into three categories: low (50 percent or less), moderate (51 to 75

percent), and high (76 to 100 percent.) From this table, it can be

seen that schools vary greatly on the individual level in the

planned college attendance rate of their graduates. Although

smaller classes with Independent Baptist, nondenominational, and

Southern Baptist affiliations tended as a whole to have a lower rate

of planned college attendance than the larger classes, there were
some schools with small graduating classes that nevertheless did

have a high rate of planned college attendance. If the decision on

whether or not to attend college is made before entering high school

as research indicates (Chapman, 1981), it would have to be said that

smaller graduating classes did not typically attract as many

college-bound students as did large graduating classes. Such was

not the case, however, for Episcopal and Presbyterian high schools.

These affiliations of high schools apparently attracted a high

percentage of college-bound students without regard to graduating

class size.














Table 14

Rate of Planned College Attendance Relative to Graduating Class Size
for Three Affiliations

Number and Rate of College Attendance
Affiliation of
School and Graduating Low Rate Moderate Rate High Rate
Class Size No. % No. % No. %

Independent Baptist
Large 0 8 80 2 20
Medium 5 25 12 60 3 15
Small 59 41 55 38 30 21
Nondenominational
Large 1 8 8 62 4 31
Medium 1 3 11 38 17 59
Small 18 47 12 32 8 21
Southern Baptist
Large 0 4 40 6 60
Medium 1 20 2 40 2 40
Small 5 33 5 33 5 33

Note. Rate of College Attendance: Low rate bUtM or less go to


coi ege
Moderate rate -
college
High rate 76%
college


51% to 75%

to 100% go


go to

to


The over-all planned college attendance rate for graduates of

Independent Baptist, nondenominational, and Southern Baptist high

schools was related to the percentage of students coming from

schools with smaller graduating classes. The affiliation with the

largest percentage of graduates coming from small graduating classes

(Independent Baptist) was also the affiliation with the lowest

over-all rate of planned college attendance. The only significant













differences detected between these three affiliations of high

schools were for schools with large graduating classes.

Rate of Planned Protestant College Attendance

On the average, 24 percent of the graduates of Protestant high

schools in the South in 1982 planned to matriculate at Protestant

colleges in the fall. Among the college-bound graduates, 37 percent

planned to attend such colleges. As was mentioned in the Review of

Related Literature, Protestant colleges vary widely in doctrine and

philosophy. In this analysis, attendance at colleges that still

maintained ties with Protestant Christianity was under consideration.

Table 15 shows the rate of planned attendance at Protestant

colleges for the graduates of the various affiliations of high

schools. The first column of percentages in this table shows the

rate of planned Protestant college attendance in terms of the total

number of graduates, both college-bound and those not going to

college. The second column of percentages shows this rate in terms

of college-bound graduates only.

According to Table 15, the rate of planned Protestant college

attendance among the major affiliations was highest for Independent

Baptist high school graduates. The lowest rate of planned

Protestant college attendance among the major affiliations was found

for graduates of Southern Baptist high schools. This finding may be

the result of the historical support that Southern Baptists have











Table 15
Rate of Planned Attendance at Protestant Colleges of 1932 Graduates
Studied

Graduates going to College-bound graduates
a Protestant going to a Protestant
college college
School
Affiliation
No. %%


Independent Baptist

No ndenormi national

Episcopal

Southern Baptist

Presbyterian/Reformed
Subtotal


Assembly of God

Church of Christ

Quaker

Lutheran

Seventh-Day Adventist

Methodist/Wesleyan

Free Will Baptist

Christian Missionary
Alliance

Church of God

Mennonite

Pentecostal

Other
Tota


969

476

287

97

164
TM97

53

100

23

28

97

73

52


32

9

25

11

29
1 5T














given to public educational institutions (Brigham, 1951). Although

this support was claimed to be at the elementary and secondary

level, it apparently continued at the college level. Graduates of

Episcopal, nondenominational, and Presbyterian/Reformed high schools

planned to attend Protestant colleges at rates that were higher than

the rates for Southern Baptist graduates but lower than the rate for

Independent Baptist graduates.

Comparisons between affiliations based on the percentages in the

second column of percentages in Table 15 are not affected by the

various rates of over-all planned college attendance. It is most

useful to compare the various affiliations in their planned college

attendance patterns for college-bound graduates. In Table 15, the

differences between affiliations are greater in the second column of

percentages. This difference is due to the fact that the relatively

louer rate of over-all planned college attendance found for

graduates of Independent Baptist high schools has no impact on the

calculation of the rate of college-bound graduates who chose

Protestant colleges.

Among the smaller affiliations, a high rate (40 percent or

higher) of planned Protestant college attendance was found for

Church of Christ, Seventh-Day Adventist, Methodist/Wesleyan, Free

Will Baptist, Mennonite, Christian and Missionary Alliance, and

Pentecostal graduates. Among the major affiliations, only graduates














of Independent Baptist high schools had a rate of planned Protestant

college attendance that was this high. A moderate rate (between 20

percent and 40 percent) of planned Protestant college attendance was

found for Assembly of God, Lutheran, and Church of God high school

graduates. Among the major affiliations, this moderate rate was

also found for nondenominational, Presbyterian/Reformed, and

Episcopal high school graduates. A low rate (less than 20 percent)

of planned Protestant college attendance was found for Quaker high

school graduates among the smaller affiliations and for Southern

Baptist graduates among the major affiliations.

It is interesting to note that the affiliations with a low rate

of over-all planned college attendance for their graduates were

typically high in planned attendance rates for Protestant colleges.

Several exceptions, however, existed for this generalization.

Graduates of Assembly of God high schools, although comparatively

low in over-all planned college attendance, were moderate in planned

Protestant college attendance. Although Church of Christ and

Christian and Missionary Alliance graduates were moderate in planned

college attendance rate, they were high in the rate of choice for

Protestant colleges. In most cases, however, the affiliations that

were high in rate of planned college attendance were low in the rate

of planned attendance at Protestant colleges. Affiliations with

moderate rates for planned college attendance also typically had

moderate rates for planned Protestant college attendance.













Table 16 shows the values of chi-square tests for all

comparisons of the major affiliations in planned Protestant college

attendance rate. According to the data, all comparisons were

significantly different except the comparison of nondenominational

and Presbyterian/Reformed. This finding was expected because

Presbyterian/Reformed high schools had student bodies that were

nondenominational in character. One would expect that schools

having a similar mix of student affiliations would show similarities

in the rate of choice of Protestant colleges. Nondenominational

schools differed from Presbyterian/Reformed schools, however, in

average size of graduating class, average tuition charges, and rate

of over-all planned college attendance.

Attendance at a Protestant college may be an indication of

commitment to Protestant ideology. There are several factors,

however, that may limit this interpretation. The Review of Related

Literature revealed that Protestant schools on all levels have

widely differing philosophies. A more accurate expectation

therefore would be that attendance at a college that is

philosophically highly committed to Protestant ideology is an

indication of commitment on the part of the student to Protestant

ideology.

Appendix C contains a listing of all the Protestant colleges

chosen by the high school graduates in this study. According to











Table 16

Chi-Square Test of Significant Differences in Planned Protestant
College Attendance Rates

School Affiliation
School
Affiliation Southern Nondenom- Episcopal Presbyterian/
Baptist national Reformed


Independent Baptist 560.578 124.34* 376.71* 89.43*

Southern Baptist 174.23* 53.20* 114.27*

Nondenominational 48.62 .11

Episcopal 23.99*

*p < .01


this listing, most of the Protestant colleges chosen by Episcopal

high school graduates were relatively expensive Methodist,

Presbyterian/Reformed, and Southern Baptist institutions. Most of

the colleges were older than the colleges typically chosen by

Independent Baptist and nondenominational high school graduates.

Although the research did not attempt to ascertain the degree of

commitment to Protestant ideology that was demonstrated by these

institutions, there was evidence based on age and reputation that

indicated that the colleges generally chosen by Episcopal high

school graduates were closer to detachment from their Protestant

roots than the colleges chosen by Independent Baptist and

nondenominational high school graduates. Many of the colleges

chosen by Independent Baptist and nondenominational high school













graduates could be classified as "defenders of the faith" as

delineated by Pattillo and MacKenzie (1978). Pace (1972) developed

a similar system of classification that has one category for

"institutions with ties to evangelical, fundamentalist, and

interdenominational Christian churches." This category contained

the colleges with the greatest ideological commitment.

Table 17 shows the rate of planned Protestant college attendance

for the major affiliations based on graduating class size. The

first column of percentages in this table shows the rate of choice

of a Protestant college for all the graduates of a particular size

and affiliation of high school. The second column of percentages is

based on the number of college-bound graduates only. Comparison
between affiliations using this second column of percentages is

therefore more useful because it is not affected by the basic rate

of over-all college attendance. As previously noted, the rate of

over-all planned college attendance varied for the different

affiliations and also varied for graduating classes of different

sizes within affiliations.

According to Table 17, the least variation in rates of planned

Protestant college attendance for the different sizes of graduating

classes was found for graduates of Independent Baptist and

nondenominational high schools. A comparatively greater variation

for the graduates of the five major affiliations in rate of planned












Table 17


Rate of Planned Protestant College Attendance
Class Size


Relative to Graduating


Graduates going College-bound
to Protestant graduates going
School colleges to Protestant
Affiliation colleges
and Size
No. %


Independent Baptist
Small 518 32 59
Medium 213 35 57
Large 238 38 59


Nondenominational
Small
Medium
Large

Episcopal
Small
Medium
Large

Southern Baptist
Small
Medium
Large


114 21
198 24
164 25


Presbyteri an/Reformed
Small 30 39 50
Medium 48 30 33
Large 86 29 35

Five Major Affil.
as a Whole
Small 717 28 50
Medium 534 26 36
Large 751 21 27














Protestant college attendance was found for the Southern Baptist and

Presbyterian/Refonred affiliations. The rate of planned attendance

at Protestant colleges for these graduates consistently dropped as

the size of graduating class under consideration increased.

Southern Baptist graduates showed a comparatively large drop in

planned Protestant college attendance from the rate for graduates of

small graduating classes to the rate for graduates of medium

graduating classes. There was a comparatively small rise in planned

attendance at such colleges for graduates of the larger classes when

compared with graduates of medium classes. The percentage of

graduates choosing Protestant colleges, however, for the large

classes was still considerably less than the percentage for the

small classes.

Table 18 shows the values of chi-square tests for all

comparisons within the major affiliations based on size of

graduating class. There was no significant variation in planned

Protestant college attendance rate for the different sizes of

graduating classes at Independent Baptist, nondenominational, and

Episcopal high schools. The rate of planned Protestant college

attendance for the graduates of small classes of Southern Baptist

high schools was significantly higher than the rate for graduates of

medium and large classes. There was no significant difference in

the rate of planned Protestant college attendance for graduates of












Table 18

Chi-Square Test of Significant Differences in Planned Protestant
College Attendance Rates for Graduating Classes of Different Sizes


School
Affiliation


Size Comparison

SmialI -Medium Medium-Large Small-Large


Independent Baptist .39 .09 .06

Southern Baptist 10.67* 0 32.65*

Nondenominational 2.70 .62 1.18

Episcopal .77 2.84 3.98

Prebyterian/Reformed 4.88 .20 7.24*

Five Major Affiliations
as a Whole 56.37* 39.10* 221.94*

Note. "Small class" less than 20 graduates, "Medium class" 20
to 39 graduates, "Large class" 40 or more graduates
*p < .01


medium and large Southern Baptist classes. The only statistically

significant difference in planned Protestant college attendance

rates for graduates of Presbyterian/Reformed high schools was found

for the comparison between graduates of small classes and graduates

of large classes. Thus, there was a significant drop in the rate of

planned Protestant college attendance with an increase in class size

for the Southern Baptist Baptist and Presbyterian/Reformed

affiliations. For the Southern Baptist, this difference was present

at the comparison between small and medium graduating classes and

not at the comparison between medium and large classes. The














difference for Presbyterian/Reformed high school graduates, however,

was not present for the comparison between small and medium

graduating classes but was present for the comparison between medium

and large classes. For both of these affiliations, there was a

significant difference in planned Protestant college attendance

rates between small and large graduating classes.

Rate of Planned Attendance at Colleges with the Same Affiliation as
the High School


Table 19 shows the rate of choice of colleges with the same

affiliation as the high school. According to this table, about 11

percent of the graduates of Protestant high schools chose a college

with the same affiliation as their high school. Of the

college-bound graduates, about 16 percent chose a college with the

same affiliation as the high school from which they graduated. In

order to avoid the factor of different rates of over-all planned

college attendance for the different affiliations, comparisons were

made on the basis of the percentages of college-bound graduates of

Protestant high schools who planned to matriculate at colleges with

the same affiliation as their high school.

Table 19 shows that graduates of Independent Baptist high

schools chose colleges with the same affiliation as their high

school at a rate higher than the other major affiliations.

Episcopal graduates were lowest among the major affiliations in rate











Table 19

Rate of Planned Attendance at Colleges with the Same Affiliation as
the High School for 1982 Graduates Studied

Graduates going to College-bound
a college with the graduates going to
School Affiliation same affiliation a college with the
as their high school same affiliation as
their high school
No. % %

Independent Baptist 494 17 30

Nondenominational 179 9 13

Episcopal 18 1 1

Southern Baptist 60 5 7

Presbyterian/Reformed 49 9 10
Subtotal 7Q TTU TT

Assembly of God 23 6 12

Church of Christ 88 27 34

Quaker 2 1 1

Lutheran 14 7 10

Seventh-Day Adventist 97 48 89

Methodist/Wesleyan 58 38 59

Free Will Baptist 22 15 25


Christian & Missionary
Al liance

Church of God

Mennonite

Pentecostal

Other
Total


1

3

22

8

2




Full Text

PAGE 1

COLLEGE ATTENDANCE PLANS FOR GRADUATES OF PROTESTANT HIGH SCHOOLS IN THE SOUTH BY DAVID L. BEDELL A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DXTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 1985

PAGE 2

Copyright 1935 by David L. Bedell

PAGE 3

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS My parents have been the greatest source of inspiration in the pursuit of my education and the writing of this dissertation. Both are knowledgeable in the fields of education and church ministries. They have guided me in setting goals for both academic achievement and spiritual commitment. I was encouraged to pursue my doctorate by Rev. Dennis Wheeler, the pastor of Temple Baptist Church and a graduate of the University of Florida with a degree in educational administration. Rev. Wheeler has been a continual source of encouragement and has been willing to allow me to adjust my schedule in order to complete this dissertation. I also want to thank my committee members for their help and advice. Dr. James A. Hale, in particular, has been a great help to me. His assistance in the writing of this dissertation has been invaluable. i n

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 1 H L 1ST OF TABLES vi * ABSTRACT xi 1 1 CHAPTERS I INTRODUCTION 1 Statement of the Problem 1 Procedures 3 Population of the Study 4 Development of the Survey Instrument 5 Administration of the Survey 6 Treatment of the Data 7 Delimitations and Limitations 3 Justification of the Study 10 Definition of Terms 11 Organization of the Report 14 II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 15 Protestant Education in America and the South 15 Types of Protestant High Schools 19 Factors in the College Marketplace 24 Features of Protestant Colleges 29 National Pattern of College Attendance in 1902 35 Summary of the Literature Review 36 III METHODS AND PROCEDURES 39 Defining the Population 39 Development of the Survey Instrument 41 Survey Response Rate 43 Problems with the Survey Instrument 45 Analysi s of the Response Rate 47 Reasons Given for Nonresponse 48 Organization and Treatment of Data 49 TV

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CHAPTERS Pa 9 e IV PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA 53 Analysis of the Schools 54 Rate of Planned College Attendance 51 Rate of Planned Protestant College Attendance 75 Rate of Planned Attendance at College with the Same Affiliation as the High School 85 Rate of Planned Private Nonsectarian College Attendance 92 Rate of Planned Public College Attendance 97 Rate of Planned 2-Year Public College Attendance 106 Rate of Planned 4-Year Public College Attendance 112 General Comparisons of Rates of College Choices 117 Choice of College Major 119 Rate of Planned In-State College Attendance 133 Rate of Planned Attendance at Colleges with Various Yearly Tuition Charges 138 V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS 150 Background of the Study 150 Affiliations of Protestant High Schools Studied 152 Economic Factors Related to the Pattern of College Attendance 156 High School Graduating Class Size as a Factor in the Pattern of College Attendance 157 Summary of Research Questions 160 Rate of Planned College Attendance 160 Rate of Planned Protestant College Attendance 164 Rate of Planned Attendance at Colleges with the Same Affiliation as the High School 169 Rate of Planned Private, Nonsectarian College Attendance 173 Rate of Planned Public College Attendance 176 General Comparisons of Rates of College Choices 188 Cnoice of College Major 191 Rate of Planned In-State College Attendance 194 Rate of Planned Attendance at Colleges with Various Yearly Tuition Charges 198 Conclusions of the Research 204 Applications of the Results and Recommendations for Further Research 214

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PAGE APPENDICES A SURVEY INSTRUMENT ^ 21 B COVER LETTERS 223 C CHARGES AND MATRICULANTS AT SPECIFIC COLLEGES 230 D PROBABLE FIELDS OF STUDY FOR 138,000 COLLEGE FRESHMEN IN 1982 241 REFERENCES 243 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 246 VI

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LIST OF TABLES Table Pa 9e 1 Kel ley's Scale of Ecumenism 34 2 Dates of Mailings and Responses Received 44 3 Nonresponse Rate for Five Largest Affiliations of Protestant Hi gh School s 48 4 Reasons Given for Monresponse 49 5 Relative Sizes of School Affiliations 59 6 Number of Graduates and Schools in Sample Relative to Graduating Class Size. 60 7 Rate of Planned College Attendance of 1982 Graduates Studied 62 8 Chi-square Test of Significant Differences in Planned College Attendance Rates 64 9 Rate of Planned College Attendance Relative to Graduating Class Size 65 10 Chi-square Test of Significant Differences in Planned College Attendance Rates for Graduating Classes of Di f f erent Si zes 67 11 Chi-square Test of Significant Differences in Planned College Attendance Rates for Graduates from Small Graduati ng CI asses 69 12 Chi-square Test of Significant Differences in Planned College Attendance Rates for Graduates from Medium Graduating CI asses 71 13 Chi-square Test of Significant Differences in Planned College Attendance Rates for Graduates from Large Graduati ng CI asses 72 vn

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Table Pa 9 e 14 Rate of Planned College Attendance Relative to Graduating Class Size for Three Affiliations 74 15 Rate of Planned Attendance at Protestant Colleges of 1982 Graduates Studi ed 76 16 Chi -square Test of Significant Differences in Planned Protestant College Attendance Rates 80 17 Rate of Planned Protestant College Attendance Relative to Graduating CI ass Size 82 18 Chi -square Test of Significant Differences in Planned Protestant College Attendance Rates for Graduating Classes of Di f f erent Si zes 84 19 Rate of Planned Attendance at Colleges with the Same Affiliation as the High School for 1982 Graduates Studied 86 20 Chi -square Test of Significant Differences in Rates of Planned Attendance at Colleges with the Same Affiliations as the Hi gh School 88 21 Rate of Planned Attendance at Colleges with the Same Affiliation as the High School Relative to Graduating Class Size 90 22 Chi -square Test of Significant Differences in Rates of Planned Attendance at Colleges with the Same Affiliation as the High School for Graduating Classes of Different Sizes ,91 23 Rate of Planned Attendance at Private Colleges for 1932 Graduates Studied 93 24 Chi -square Test of Significant Differences in Planned Private College Attendance Rates 95 25 Rate of Planned Attendance at Private Colleges Relative to Graduating Class Size 96 26 Chi-square Test of Significant Differences in Rates of Planned Private College Attendance for Graduating Classes of Di ff erent Si zes .90 vm

PAGE 9

Table Pa 9 e 27 Rate of Planned Attendance at Public Colleges for 1982 Graduates Studied "• 00 28 Chi-square Test of Significant Differences in Planned Public College Attendance Rates 102 29 Rate of Planned Attendance at Public Colleges Relative to Graduati ng Class Si ze 1 03 30 Chi-square Test of Significant Differences in Rates of Planned Public College Attendance for Graduating Classes of Di f f erent Si zes 106 31 Chi-square Test of Significant Differences in Planned 2-Year Public College Attendance Rates 108 32 Chi-square Test of Significant Differences in Rates of Planned 2-Year Public College Attendance for Graduating Classes of Different Sizes 110 33 Rate of Planned Attendance at 2-Year Public Colleges Based on Over-All Rate of Planned Attendance at Public Coll ege s ] ] 2 34 Chi-square Test of Significant Differences in Planned 4-Year Public College Attendance Rates 114 35 Chi-square Test of Significant Differences in Rates of Planned 4-Year Public College Attendance for Graduating Classes of Different Sizes 116 36 Rate of Choice of College Majors for 1982 Graduates Studi ed "• 21 37 College Choice for Bible/Theology Majors 125 38 Colleges Chosen by at Least 10 Percent of the Graduates for a Bible/Theology Major 125 39 College Choice for Business Majors 127 40 Colleges Chosen by at Least 10 Percent of the Graduates for a Business Major 127 41 College Choice for Education Majors 129 IX

PAGE 10

Table Pa 9e 42 Colleges Chosen by at Least 10 Percent of the Graduates for an Education Major I 29 43 College Choice for Engineering/Technical Majors 130 44 College Choice for Liberal Arts Majors 132 45 Colleges Chosen by at Least 10 Percent of the Graduates for a Liberal Arts Major 132 46 Rate of Planned Attendance at In-State Colleges for 1982 Graduates Studi ed 134 47 Chi-square Test of Significant Differences in Rates of Planned In-State College Attendance 136 48 Rate of Planned Attendance at In-State Colleges by Major 137 49 College Tuition Charges for Protestant High School Graduates in 1982 139 50 College Charges for Bible/Theology Majors 145 51 College Charges for Business Majors 146 52 College Charges for Education Majors 146 53 College Charges for Engineering/Technical Majors 149 54 College Charges for Liberal Arts Majors 149 55 Average Graduating Class Size for the Major Affiliations of Hi gh School s 1 55 56 Rate of Planned College Attendance for Graduates of the Major Affiliations of High Schools in 1982 161 57 Rate of Planned College Attendance for Graduates of the Major Affiliations of High Schools as a Whole Relative to Graduating Class Size I 63 53 Rate of Planned Protestant College Attendance for Graduates of the Major Affiliations of High Schools in 1982 164 59 Rate of Planned Protestant College Attendance for Graduates of the Major Affiliations of High Schools as a Whole Relative to Graduating Class Size 167

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Table Pa 9e 60 Rate of Planned Attendance at Colleges with the Same Affiliation as the High School for Graduates of the Major Affiliations of High Schools in 1982 170 61 Rate of Planned Attendance at Colleges with the Same Affiliation as the High School for Graduates of the Major Affiliations as a Whole Relative to Graduating Class Size 173 62 Rate of Planned Private Nonsectarian College Attendance for Graduates of the Major Affiliations of High Schools in 1932 175 63 Rate of Planned Public College Attendance for Graduates of the Major Affiliations of High Schools in 1982 176 64 Rate of Planned Attendance at Public Colleges for Graduates of the Major Affiliations as a Whole Relative to Graduating Class Size 178 65 Rate of Planned 2-Year Public College Attendance for Graduates of the Major Affiliations of High Schools in 1982. .180 66 Rate of Planned Attendance at 2-Year Public Colleges for Graduates of the Major Affiliations of High Schools as a Whole Relative to Graduating Class Size 183 67 Rate of Planned 2-Year Public College Attendance for Graduates of the Major Affiliations of High Schools Who Matriculated at Public Colleges 185 68 Rate of Planned 4Year Public College Attendance for Graduates of the Major Affiliations of High Schools in 1982 .187 69 Rate of Planned Attendance at 4-Year Public Colleges for Graduates of the Major Affiliations as a Whole Relative to Graduati ng CI ass Size 188 70 Rate of Planned In-State College Attendance for Graduates of the Major Affiliations of High Schools in 1932 195 71 Rate of Planned In-State College Attendance for Graduates of the Major Affiliations of High Schools Relative to Col lege Majors 197 XI

PAGE 12

Table Pa 9 e 72 Rate of Planned Attendance at Colleges with Low Yearly Charges in 1982 199 73 Rate of Planned Attendance at Colleges with Moderate Yearly Charges in 1932 201 74 Rate of Planned Attendance at Colleges with High Yearly Charges in 1982 203 xu

PAGE 13

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy COLLEGE ATTENDANCE PLANS FOR GRADUATES OF PROTESTANT HIGH SCHOOLS IN THE SOUTH By David L. Bedell May, 1935 Chairman: James A. Hale Major Department: Educational Administration and Supervision The purpose of this study was to determine the rate at which graduates of Protestant high schools in the South planned to attend college and to determine the various percentages of graduates who chose certain types of colleges. Data concerning college locations, yearly tuition charges, and major courses of study selected by Protestant high school graduates were also pertinent to this research. The study was delimited to 1982 high school graduates and their pattern of college enrollment in the fall of 1982. The researcher compiled a master list of Protestant high schools from information contained in directories published by each of the departments of education in southern states. Directories xm

PAGE 14

published by various denominations and associations of schools were also utilized. A survey instrument, requesting high school administrators to list the colleges chosen by their graduates according to five major courses of study, was sent to each school. A total of 651 administrators from Protestant high schools with over 10,000 graduates in 1982 returned the survey instrument with usable data. A rate of response of 71 percent was achieved. From the data collected, it was found that five major affiliations of schools contained about 80 percent of the total number of participating Protestant high schools. These five major affiliations were Independent Baptist, Nondenominational , Episcopal, Southern Baptist, and Presbyterian/Reformed. The chi-square test of significant differences was used to analyze data from these five affiliations. Information was also collected from over 20 smaller affiliations of high schools and compared with the larger affiliations. The major affiliations of Protestant high schools were found to differ significantly in the planned college attendance rates of their graduates. Uncertainty in the choice of college majors prevented comparisons between affiliations in the rate of choice of major fields of study. Significant differences in planned college attendance rates were also found within the major affiliations for graduates of different sizes of graduating classes. xiv

PAGE 15

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Private schools and colleges have always played an important role in American education. Today, these schools offer an increasing diversity of educational experiences for millions of young people. Protestant schools and colleges are a growing part of this movement. As thousands of young people graduate from Protestant high schools, research is needed regarding the pattern of their college attendance. Such information would be valuable for college admissions officers and guidance counselors. Enrollment in many colleges in the United States is expected to decline in the 1980's (Spence, 1977). For this reason, many colleges are strengthening their recruitment efforts in high schools. Hammack (1981) found that 81 percent of those students who graduated from the private schools he studied went on to private colleges and universities. Research is lacking regarding the college attendance patterns of graduates of Protestant high schools. Statement of the Problem Tne problem of this study was to determine the pattern of planned college attendance for the graduates of Protestant high schools in the South. The following specific questions ,\/ere posited:

PAGE 16

1. What percentage of students graduating from Protestant high schools in the South in 1982 planned to attend college the following fall? 2. What percentage of students graduating from Protestant high schools in the South in 1982 planned to attend a Protestant college the following fall? 3. What percentage of students graduating from Protestant high schools in the South in 1982 planned to attend a Protestant college with the same affiliation as their high school the following fall? 4. What percentage of students graduating from Protestant high schools in the South in 1982 planned to attend a private, nonsectarian college the following fall? 5. What percentage of students graduating from Protestant high schools in the South in 1982 planned to attend a public college the following fall? a. What percentage planned to attend a 2-year public college? b. What percentage planned to attend a 4-year public college? 6. What percentage of students graduating from Protestant high schools in the South in 1982 chose each of the selected five

PAGE 17

major areas of college study the following fall? a. What percentage chose a Bible/theology major? b. What percentage chose a business major? c. What percentage chose an education major? d. What percentage chose an engineering major? e. What percentage chose a liberal arts major? 7. What percentage of students graduating from Protestant high schools in the South in 1982 planned to attend a college located in their own state the following fall? 8. What percentage of students graduating from Protestant high schools in the South in 1982 planned to attend colleges the following fall in each of the three selected charge classifications? a. What percentage of students planned to attend a college with yearly charges under $1,000? b. What percentage of students planned to attend a college with yearly charges from $1,000 to $2,999? c. What percentage of students planned to attend a college with yearly charges from $3,000 and higher? Procedures 3efore attempting to answer the major questions posed in this study, it was necessary to gather information through the resources

PAGE 18

of various college libraries and through personal interviews with various Protestant high school administrators. The following aspects were pertinent to the collection of data or the organization of results: 1. Compiling as complete a list as possible of Protestant high schools in the South. 2. Finding the most cooperative and accurate sources for the providing of data. 3. Distinguishing the major affiliations of Protestant high schools and thereby permitting meaningful comparisons. 4. Developing an appropriate system for classifying college majors and costs. 5. Compiling as complete a list as possible of the various colleges and their affiliations, locations, and charges. Population of the Study Directories of private schools were obtained from the Department of Education in each of the 14 southern states. These states were Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi , .North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia and West Virginia. Directories were also obtained from the various Protestant denominations and school associations. From these directories, a master list of Protestant schools was compiled.

PAGE 19

This master list consisted of the names and addresses of all schools known or suspected to contain a senior graduating class in 1982. It was determined that the most reliable way to obtain the data needed for this research was through direct contact with the administrators of the schools on the master list. Development of the Survey Instrument After consulting the catalogs of various colleges and universities, it was determined that five major categories of college coursework could be delineated for this research. In order to simplify responses, the administrators of the Protestant high schools were asked to list the names of specific colleges chosen by their 1982 graduates under each of the five selected college majors on the survey instrument. Space was also provided under the category "Other Majors" for specific college majors that could not be classified under the five major choices delineated by the researcher. The initial survey instrument was sent to 58 administrators of Protestant schools throughout the South for evaluation (See Appendix B, Letter 1). After receiving replies from 32 of these administrators, the survey instrument was revised according to the recommendations received and professionally printed (See Appendix A).

PAGE 20

Administration of the Survey The total initial sample of the study included 1326 Protestant schools. A copy of the revised survey instrument, along with a cover letter (See Appendix B, Letter 2), was sent in late August, 1982, to 1320 administrators of Protestant schools. Six administrators who made recommendations on the survey instrument construction also submitted usable data at that time and therefore were not recontacted. Two more attempts to obtain completed survey instruments followed the initial effort (See Appendix B, Letters 3 and 4). Three weeks after the last attempt to obtain requested data, the administrators who had not responded were sent a different request which solicited information concerning their reasons for not responding (See Appendix B, Letter 5). After all responses to these four mailings were received, 262 schools were removed from the original master list because their administrators returned the survey instrument stating that they did not have a senior class in 1932. After also eliminating the schools that had closed or moved with no forwarding address, the schools that could not be classified as "Protestant," and the schools that were sent two copies of the survey instrument because of previously undiscovered duplications, there remained 906 schools. Of these 906 Protestant schools, 660 responded to the survey. Nine schools of this total had to be eliminated because their responses were unusable.

PAGE 21

In the late fall of 1932, 148 administrators who had returned their completed survey instrument promptly were sent yet another request for information. Each of these administrators was sent a listing of the Protestant schools in their individual locality that were on the researcher's master list. They were asked to check the accuracy of this list and add the names of schools that did not appear (See Appendix B, Letter 6). As a result of this mailing, 102 administrators returned information that revealed there were about 11 percent more Protestant high schools in existence that were not on the researcher's original master list. No effort was made to include those schools in this study. Treatment of the Data After noting the affiliations of the responding schools, it was found that five major affiliations of schools enrolled about 80 percent of the seniors in the Protestant high schools whose administrators responded to the request for information. These five major affiliations were singled out for further study. Tables were prepared showing the rates of attendance at each type of college mentioned in research questions 1 through 6. Tables were also prepared showing the same data for high schools from the five major affiliations classified according to graduating class size. In addition, tables were constructed showing the rate of choice of each of the five college majors, the choice of colleges in three

PAGE 22

categories of charges, and the rate of attendance at colleges located within the home state of the Protestant high school graduate. The level of significance for this study was set at .01 and was analyzed using the chi -square test of independence. Delimitations and Limitations As reported by Harris (1981), it is difficult to obtain a complete listing of Protestant schools. Many schools have recently started and others have recently closed. For this reason, the master list of schools developed for this study could not be considered complete. Because administrators and/or their assistants responded to the request for data in this study, the accuracy and completeness of these findings are dependent on the information that was available to them. For smaller schools, the administrators seemed to have complete data, while for the larger schools the completeness of the data was dependent on the records of guidance and counseling departments. No attempt was made to contact students or colleges directly to confirm the information supplied by high school administrators. This study of the graduates of Protestant high schools was delimited to the students graduating in the spring or summer of 1982 because these would be the ones likely to enroll in college in the fall of 1982. The study concentrated only on the immediate plans of

PAGE 23

these graduates. Therefore, any student in the sample who may have attended college at a later date was not included in this study. No assumptions were made about the length of time students had attended a Protestant school . Some students may have entered a Protestant school during their senior year, having attended some other type of school up until that time. Excluded from this study were students who may have attended a Protestant high school up until their senior year and then transferred to another type of school. The study, therefore, is limited strictly to students who actually graduated from a Protestant high school in 1902. This study did not consider the possibility of a different drop-out rate between the various types of schools under consideration. Obviously, the rate of college attendance for the entire population of 17 and 18-year olds would be lower if the population of drop-outs was included. If the various affiliations of Protestant high schools differed in their drop-out rate, this study was not organized to detect this phenomenon. Because the data from this research have been categorized by Protestant affiliation, a low rate of response or incomplete responses could jeopardize the reliability of the data. This threat was particularly likely for the smaller affiliations and the categories of college type or major course of study in which few students were found. Even though these data were presented, it is

PAGE 24

10 understood that a more complete response could alter significantly the percentages given. Finally, it was not possible to make predictions of college enrollment trends from this research. Information obtained from the survey instrument pertains only to college enrollment rates in the fall of 1982. A repeat of this study would be necessary to reveal any changes in the rate or pattern of college attendance. Justification of the Study It appears that college enrollment in America will decline through the 1980's (Spence, 1977). If colleges are going to be able to survive and prosper, they will have to identify and recruit new students. They will also need to offer the programs and courses that are needed by the high school graduates of the eighties. Research indicates that the rate and pattern of college attendance for graduates of private schools may differ from that of the graduates of public schools (Hammack, 1931). Since private schools now contribute about 10 percent of the total number of high school graduates in the United States and the graduates of these schools probably attend college in higher proportions than public school graduates, they are an important part of the phenomenon of college enrollment trends. College recruitment officers and administrators need to be aware of this sector of the "market" (Duggan, 1976) .

PAGE 25

11 The southern states contain a variety of Protestant high schools. They share a somewhat similar cultural heritage and thus constitute a natural region for study. Any study of the United States as a whole should give separate attention to the various regions such as the South. Definition of Terms Affiliation of schools . In this study, the method of categorizing schools is based on denominational associations. The five major affiliations are Episcopal, Independent Baptist, nondenomi national, Southern Baptist, and Presbyterian/Reformed. Bible major . Students pursuing this college course of study are preparing for the ministry or some other area of church service. Business major . Students purusing this college course of study are preparing for some area of business or management. For the purpose of this study, it includes such areas as secretarial science, real estate, and advertizing. College charge . This is the total yearly expense to the student for college attendance. The price of tuition, books, and fees is included In this designation. Room and board, however, are not included. Education major . Students pursuing this college course of study are preparing for teaching at the elementary or secondary level in a public or private school.

PAGE 26

12 Engineering major . Students pursuing this college course of study are preparing for such fields as mechanical, chemical, electrical, or civil engineering. Evangelical Christianity . This is the sector of Christianity that emphasizes salvation by faith in the atoning death of Jesus Christ through personal conversion. This designation encompasses a variety of denominations and groups within denominations. "Evangelicals" also stress the authority of Scripture and the importance of preaching as contrasted with ritual. Fundamental Christianity . This is the sector of evangelical Christianity that holds to a literal interpretation of the Bible as a foundation for the Christian life and doctrine. "Fundamentalists" often oppose cooperation or compromise with less orthodox Christian groups. It is possible to have a "fundamental" sector within a particular denomination or association. Liberal arts major . Students pursuing this college course of study are receiving a broad exposure to the arts and sciences. It may lead to specialization in one area, such as biology. Included in this designation are the pre-professional studies in law and medicine. Private college . This is a nonsectarian college or university not associated in any way with Protestant Christianity and not part of the system of colleges and universities operated under the jurisdiction of a local or state government or an agency of the federal government.

PAGE 27

13 Protestant Christianity . Originally, this term applied to the Reformers and their followers who left the Roman Catholic Church during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. It has been broadened to include all Christian groups outside the Roman Catholic and Orthodox Eastern Churches. Many Baptists and members of the Church of Christ affiliation do not consider themselves to be Protestants. For the purposes of this study, however, the broader definition is used in order to eliminate the need for constant clarification or explanation. Protestant college . This is a post-secondary institution with programs leading to a college degree and associated with some Protestant denomination, affiliation, or teaching. Protestant high school . This is a secondary school containing a class of graduating seniors (usually designated as twelfth graders) and associated with some Protestant denomination, affiliation, or teaching. Public college . This is a college or university that is part of the system of colleges and universities operated under the jurisdiction of a local or state government or an agency of the federal government.

PAGE 28

14 Organization of the Report Chapter I of this report contains a statement of the research problem, a description of the procedures used, a discussion of the delimitations and limitations, a justification for the study, and definitions of terms used. Chapter II provides a review of related literature, covering the historical developments in Protestant education as well as a description of present features. Chapter III provides a detailed examination of the methodology used in this research. Chapter IV presents the data generated by this research and an analysis of its meaning. Chapter V contains a summary of this project and its conclusions. Also contained in this chapter are several recommendations for future study.

PAGE 29

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE In this review of related literature, the historical development of Protestant education, both on the secondary and post-secondary level, is examined. This background study provides a basis for a description of Protestant education today. This chapter continues with a presentation of current theories and models concerning college attendance and recruitment. Finally, the key features of Protestant college distinctiveness are given. Protestant Education in America and the South Evangelical Christianity has provided the impetus for the development of educational institutions throughout the United States and the world (Pace, 1972, p. 9). Regardless of affiliation, the original intentions of such institutions have been: 1. The propagation of the Christian faith. 2. The education of youth in the Christian heritage. 3. The provision of training for Christian leadership. (Godbold, 1944, p. 5) The first to establish schools in the southern colonies were the Anglicans. These schools were designed primarily for poor settlers and indians. The wealthier Southerners employed tutors for their children. 15

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16 With the Scotch-Irish immigration during the latter part of the eighteenth century, the number of Presbyterians grew and Presbyterian schools were founded (Godbold, 1944, p. 7). The development of educational institutions in the South followed a pattern much different from that of New England. In New England, the church-state government of the Puritans was quick to establish schools. These schools became in a limited sense the precursers of public education in America. In the South, however, the education of young people was considered to be a private concern of the family. The church did intervene and provide a few schools for poor people, but that was the extent of early educational institutions in the South (Rippa, 1976, p. 29). With the growth of cities, a number of private academies were founded. At first, they were small and consisted of an owner-teacher and the few pupils he or she was able to attract. Later, the academies were operated by boards and the student bodies increased in size. Several academies were operated by various Protestant bodies. For many years following the Revolutionary War, Methodists and Baptists were opposed to the idea of starting schools. They believed that the natural world and the moral and intellectual ability of man were actually antagonists to spiritual development (Duvall, 1923). At the beginning of the nineteenth century,

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17 however, they came to realize that their effectiveness in winning and holding converts was dependent on a system of colleges and academies. Methodists and Baptists founded a large number of schools during the first half of the nineteenth century. The Presbyterians also continued founding schools, although at a slower pace. With the rise and acceptance of public education, the impetus to start church-related schools diminished. In time, much of the Protestantism began to embrace the public schools, although acceptance was slower in the South. Southerners had to accept the following ideas which were foreign to their way of thinking: 1. Education is the responsibility of the state. 2. The state has the right and power to tax property in order to support and sustain a system of free public schools. 3. The public schools must be nonsectarian in nature. (Rippa, 1976, p. 134) Protestants in the South generally concurred with Dnory University Professor Alexander Mears when he said "education without religion may illumine, but it cannot heat, it may shine, but it cannot burn, nor can it infuse the warmth of moral life and religious hope into the world" (Godbold, 1944, p. 50). An even stronger wording of this sentiment came from Martin Luther when he said:

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13 I am much afraid that schools will prove to be the great gates of hell, unless they diligently labor in explaining the Holy Scriptures, engraving them in the hearts of youth. I advise no one to place his child where the Scriptures do not reign paramount. Every institution in which men are not unceasingly occupied with the Word of God must become corrupt. (Kienel, 1974, p. 126) In spite of this warning, public education became acceptable in the South. Religious leaders abandoned their plans to expand the system of religious academies. The education committee at the 19 27 convention of Southern Baptists said, "in view of the present facilities of secular education, we think there are only the fewest instances where the denomination is longer justifiable in spending money for the maintenance of high schools" (Brigham, 1951, p. 118). In 1947, Duke McCal 1 , the president of the Southern Baptist Convention said, "the hope of America is for Christians not only to rally to the support of the public school system but to invest themselves in its improvement" (Brigham, p. 118). For nearly one hundred years after the founding of the public school movement, Protestants were more or less satisfied with the public schools. During this time, the few Protestant high schools that existed were poorly supported. This lack of support further discouraged others from starting. Supreme Court decisions in the mid-twentieth century that eliminated Bible reading and prayers in the public schools rekindled

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19 an interest in Protestant elementary and secondary schools (Kienel, 1974, p. 7). Protestants came to realize that the strong religious atmosphere in the public schools had been lost. Led by the evangelical element, private religious schools began to be founded all over the South. Recently, these schools have been a part of the most rapidly growing segment in American elementary and secondary education (Pace, 1972, p. 9). Schools started by the evangelical sector of Protestantism are often called "Christian schools." These schools have now been estimated to contain an enrollment of one and one half million students in the United States ( Flight from Public Schools , 1981). Types of Protestant High Schools Although it has been mentioned that Protestant secondary schools nearly died out during the hundred years between the great expansion of the public school system and certain Supreme Court decisions in the mid-twentieth century, Episcopal schools continued in existence during that time. According to an Episcopal educator, these schools have developed into elite, college preparatory schools that draw from wealthier citizens in the South (C. Fulton, personal communication, July 7, 1983). Schools organized by parents of the Christian Reformed faith also continued to operate and grow during the time in which Bible reading and prayer were allowed in the public schools. These

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20 parents were never satisfied with the basis of the public schools. They believed that the education of youth was the sole responsibility of the family (Beversluis, 1982). Most of their schools, however, were located in the northern states. Recently, schools founded by Christian Reformed parents have grown and flourished in the South. According to one of their administrators, these schools in the South have become interdenominational in character (J. Hoffman, personal communication, June 30, 1933). The theological outlook of these schools, however, is still in the Calvinist tradition of the Christian Reformed Church. Students in these schools are taught that every vocation is to be seen as full-time Christian service. They are taught to prepare themselves for a life of service to God and man. College attendance is strongly urged (Beversluis, 1932) . These schools have formed an association known as Christian Schools International (CSI). Several Presbyterian schools are also members of CSI. The nondenomi national school is another kind of affiliation offering Protestant education. These schools have developed from a wave of inter-denominational cooperation that also produced such organizations as Youth for Christ and the National Sunday School Association (Towns, 1974, p. 59). These schools, usually controlled by a self-perpetuating board or a board elected by the parents,

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21 often have a broad base of support in the community. Some nondenomi national schools are sponsored by nondenomi national churches. The denominational church-controlled school is another kind of institution offering Protestant education. In the past ten years, this kind of school has experienced rapid growth. In most cases, schools of this nature meet in church facilities. The pastor and a group of church officials serve as directors. The doctrinal position of the school is likely to be somewhat narrower than that of the nondenomi national school. Such schools may exist solely to educate the children of members of the sponsoring church. Most church-controlled schools, however, are open to students from a variety of denominational affiliations (Towns, 1974, p. 54). Most Independent Baptist schools and some nondenomi national schools follow this pattern of organization. In spite of these different patterns of school organization, there are certain features that may be found in most Protestant high schools. Except for the narrow parochial schools, the student body of any Protestant high school is likely to have students with a wide range of denominational backgrounds. The families with children in these schools must have the financial resources to cover tuition charges. One can also expect some degree of commitment to Protestant ideology among the administration and staff.

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22 These basic similarities among all Protestant schools provide a basis for comparison. Two of the directories used in this study contained information about the yearly costs of the listed Protestant high schools. One of these, the Christian Educator's Directory for 1932, listed yearly charges for schools that predominantly were of Independent Baptist, nondenomi national , and Southern Baptist affiliations. Yearly tuition charges at these three affiliations of high schools averaged about $1,000 in 1932. Lowest yearly tuition charges were about $500 for the year at some schools. The most expensive schools of these three affiliations charged tuition rates as high as $1,500. The other directory, the Handbook of Private Schools (1932 edition), contained tuition charge information for a number of Episcopal high schools. For most of these schools, yearly tuition charges were over $2,000. Several boarding schools in this directory had charges over $6,000 for the enrolled student for the school year. Personal communication with G. Walstra at the home office of Christian Schools International (August 7, 1934) revealed that the average tuition charge for schools associated with this organization in the South in 1932 was just over $1,500. It can be seen that average yearly tuition charges vary among the major affiliations of Protestant high schools. The most expensive schools are Episcopal high schools. The next most

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23 expensive high schools are those with Presbyterian/Reformed affiliations. Schools with Independent Baptist, nondenomi national , and Southern Baptist affiliations have the lowest yearly charges. There is evidence that these three affiliations may differ in average charges although there is apparently a great deal of overlap in prices among specific schools. Church-run schools are usually the least expensive because they share facilities with a local church and often receive support from that church. Some Protestant schools have grown as a result of problems in the public schools and not because of an increasing commitment to Protestant ideology. The most often perceived problem in the public schools is lack of proper discipline (Towns, 1974, p. 37). Another factor that has increased enrollment in some Protestant schools is court-ordered busing in order to achieve racial integration in the public schools. Recently, legislation for tuition tax credits for parents with children in private schools has been proposed. The threat of increasing the federal deficit and fears of entanglement of church and state have kept this provision from being enacted. The concept, however, has a great deal of popular support. A similar idea is that of school vouchers, in which parents receive a voucher that can be cashed to cover all or part of the tuition at the school of their choice. Chambers (1981) predicted that the use of vouchers in this

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24 country would double the number of schools but reduce their enrollment size by one-half. The National Center for Education Statistics has predicted that enrollment in private schools will continue to grow (Harris, 1981). A recession in the economy, however, tends to reduce enrollment in private schools. The impact on public education would be great if only a slightly larger percentage of children from Baptist homes were withdrawn from the public schools (Nordin and Turner, 1930). Factors in the College Marketplace The number of 18-year-olds in the general population is decreasing (Spence, 1977). For this reason, college enrollments are stabilizing and in some areas are declining. The state of the economy, the rate of enrollment of part-time students, women, and minorities are also having an effect on college enrollment. About half of the high school graduates presently continue on to college (Yoong, 1983). It has been predicted that many private colleges will experience financial problems during the eighties (Spence, 1977). Many of the studies reviewed by Breneman and Finn (1978) suggested that a major factor in the declining enrollments in private colleges is their comparatively high costs to the student. As a result, private colleges are becoming more concerned about ways to attract and retain students.

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25 The admissions director of the private college must keep abreast of conditions in the college marketplace. Duggan (1976), utilizing the market approach to college admissions, stated the following: The admissions director of the eighties had better understand the system of higher education, the numbers of students in the available pool locally and nationally, their range of abilities, their financial resources, federal and state aid available, the realignment of independent and public systems, and the legislation being considered or required, (p. xi) The college admissions officer must identify prospective students and encourage their enrollment. This is probably the prime function of an admissions officer in a private college (Oliver, 1979). Ihlanfeldt (1975) identified three potential market fields of college students. He labeled the candidates who are likely to enroll at a given institution the "primary" group. Students who are likely to be admitted, but also likely to attend another institution, make up the "secondary" group. The "test" market consists of students who are different from past applicants but are encouraged to attend. Ihlanfeldt has also identified five stages of the development of the market pool. These stages are (a) prospects, (b) candidates, (c) applicants, (d) accepted applicants, and (e) matriculants (p. 62). Along similar lines, Duggan (1976) identified nine steps in

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26 the student decision process. These nine steps start with the decision whether or not to go to college and end with a decision concerning alumni loyalty. Chapman's (1901) model of college choice concerns the characteristics of a particular student and the influence of significant persons, the fixed characteristics of a college, and the college's efforts to communicate with the student. Among the characteristics of students is socio-economic status. A study by Doermann (1976) showed that family income is the best index of the ability to pay for a college education. A study by Davis and Van Dusen (1975) found that students from the upper income brackets prefer private colleges. Students from middle incomes prefer state universities and those from lower income groups prefer community and state colleges. Some poorer students may have to work a year after graduating from high school in order to raise funds necessary for college or the particular college of their choice. Other characteristics of students are aptitude, level of educational aspiration, and the influence of significant persons (Chapman, 1981). Such significant persons could be friends, parents, and teachers. It is believed that parents are probably the greatest single source of influence on young people in the decisions regarding college attendance. By the time a student arrives at high school the decision to attend or not to attend college has probably already been made.

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27 Among the fixed characteristics of colleges are location, charges, campus environment, and the availability of desired programs. Astin (1965) found that students possessing particular personality orientations were most likely to pursue certain college programs. He found that students who ranked high in "social" traits were more likely to choose programs in education, nursing, sociology, psychology, and social work. Students with "conventional" traits had a tendency to pursue programs in economics, accounting, secretarial science, and business. Other characteristics of students as labeled in this study were "realistic," "scientific," "enterprising," and "artistic." Chapman (1981) found that 50 percent of entering freshmen in the United States attended a college within 50 miles of their home. Kotler (1976) mentioned four key questions regarding the student market. These questions concern the expected state of the American economy, the expected pattern of competition among colleges, the current trends in student interests, and the degree of awareness among potential students about a given college. Mudie (1978) claimed it is important to know whether students presently enrolled in a given college have come from independent, parochial, or public secondary school s.

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23 When college enrollments were growing, there was little concern about the make-up of the student body and the environmental factors affecting enrollment trends (Chapman, 1981). Faced, however, with enrollment declines, colleges are looking closely at their student bodies and the changes occurring in the marketplace. Among these changes is the realignment between the public and private sectors in secondary education. In 1978, it was estimated that 9.5 percent of high school graduates in America came from nonpublic schools (Eldridge, 1981). Hammack (1981) compared the characteristics of various private schools with characteristics of various private colleges. Included with the private colleges he studied were Protestant colleges. Hammack found that 81 percent of those students who graduated from the private schools he studied went on to attend private colleges and universities. The private schools in Hammack' s study were nonsectarian. Research is lacking regarding the college attendance patterns of graduates of Protestant secondary schools. If such research were to follow the example of Hammack, it would be necessary to examine the distinctive features of the various kinds of Protestant high schools and the distinctive features of various colleges and universities.

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29 Features of Protestant Colleges Moseley and Bucher (1982) identified 700 colleges and universities in America with some form of religious affiliation. They claimed that these institutions constituted one-fourth of the total number of colleges and universities in America and that they enrolled one-tenth of the students. A study by Pattillo and MacKenzie (1970) found the following six types of denominational connections: 1. Board of control including members of the church and/or members nominated or elected by the church body. 2. Ownership of the institution by the religious body. 3. Financial support of the institution by the religious body. 4. Acceptance by institution of the denominational standards or use of the denominational name. 5. Institutional statement of purpose linked to a particular denomination or reflecting a religious orientation. 6. Church membership a factor in selection of faculty and administrative personnel (p. 33). Pattillo and MacKenzie also classified colleges as "defenders of the faith," "non-affirming," or "free-Christian." This first type of college has as its mission the training of leaders for a particular denomination or affiliation. The students and faculty

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30 come from this affiliation. Control of the institution is exercized completely by the denomination. The college has its own distinct culture which is in tension with the outside world. The second type of college consists of those religious institutions that do not attempt to control thought, but do expect a definite commitment to the ideals of the institution. There is a dual emphasis on academic excellence and religious vitality. The denomination supports such an institution, but it does not insist on conformity. The final classification of Pattillo and MacKenzie is composed of institutions that give little attention to religion and have only a small portion of their operating expenses provided by a religious body. A sense of purpose is achieved through athletics, convocations, and allegiance to secular intellectual values. In such colleges, there is complete freedom of inquiry. A similar classification has been developed by Pace (1972). The following is his system of classification of Protestant colleges: 1. Institutions with Protestant roots, but having no present ties in any legal sense. 2. Institutions with a nominal relationship but close to detachment. 3. Institutions retaining connection with "mainline" Protestant churches.

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31 4. Institutions with ties to evangelical, fundamentalist, and interdenominational Christian churches. Pace described the institutions in the first category as being among the oldest in the country and often known for the quality of their educational programs. He listed such colleges as Wake Forest, Southern Methodist, and Texas Christian as examples of these colleges. The second and third categories are colleges that are no longer evangelical and have a declining number of students who identify themselves as Protestants. The last category consists of colleges with fairly recent origins. Pace claimed that a distinctive environment results when a college is firmly and zealously related to a church. Chamberlain and Loewer (1932) found that colleges may appear to be very similar and have mission statements that are nearly identical but still differ substantially in doctrine. They claimed that being able to distinguish these varying doctrines can be extremely valuable in strengthening the linkages of an institution and providing a basis for student recruitment. Moseley and Bucher (1982) found that distinctions between Protestant colleges could be found in the following four areas: 1. Courses that the administration decides to make required for the student body.

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32 2. Departments in the college that show the priorities of the administration by their size and strength. 3. Programs that show the mission and orientation of the institution. 4. Graduation requirements placed on seniors that often contain a "capstone" experience. Carlson (1977) noted a tension between an academic approach to college study and an emphasis on religious values. According to Carlson, the pursuit of academic excellence entails a freedom of inquiry which is antithetical to spiritual fervor. Carlson listed naturalistic interpretations of existence, technological developments and requirements of modern society, and the tendency toward specialization and fragmentation of fields of knowledge as aspects of the academic approach that put pressure on church-related colleges to compromise their ideology. Pattillo and Mackenzie (1978) claimed that the small church-related college has some particular problems. Among these are the difficulties of providing exposure to a breadth of scholarly and competent instructors. There is also the difficulty of finding staff members who have the required religious commitment. On the other hand, the small church-related colleges often has the advantage of committed nucleus of dedicated people who provide the stimulation of direct and close contact with students.

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33 Pattillo and MacKenzie also claimed that particular characteristics of denominations have an effect on the type of institutions of higher education they sponsor. In some religious affiliations there is the belief that denominational colleges should accept all possible matriculants from that particular affiliation regardless of aptitude. Some denominations are not inclined to sponsor colleges because they are loosely organized, have less well-defined theologies, lack a scholarly tradition, face a liberal -fundamentalist split, or are unwilling to contribute substantially to the development of colleges. According to Pattillo and MacKenzie, most church-related colleges are serving the middle class of American society. They claimed, however, that many of these colleges are moving in the direction of serving the upper middle class. Kelley (1972) found that certain characteristics exist with strong, vital, growing religious groups. Among these characteristics are commitment, discipline, missionary zeal, absolutism, conformity within the ranks, and outgoing communications (pp. 56-84). Based on these characteristics, Kelley arranged various religious groups along a gradient from strong to weak (See Table 1). He further claimed that as a religious organization starts, it usually possesses characteristics of strength. As time passes, the organization loses some of its commitment and zeal

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34 through contact with the outside world. As the original leaders pass from the scene, succeeding leaders possess somewhat less fervor than their predecessors. According to Kelley, strong religions demand a great deal from their constituents and provide them with a sense of meaning and purpose. Table 1 Kelley 's Scale of Ecumenism Ecumenicity and Strength Name of Affiliation Very Strong Least Ecumenical Very Weak Most Ecumenical Evangelicals and Pentecostal s Churches of Christ Seventh-Day Adventists Church of God Church of Christ, Scientist Southern Baptist Convention Luthern ChurchMissouri Synod American Luthern Church Lutheran Church in America Southern Presbyterian Church Reformed Church in America Episcopal Church American Baptist Convention United Presbyterian Church United Methodist Church United Church of Christ Note: Adapted from Kelley (1972)

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35 Astin (1961) noted that it is difficult to evaluate the effect of the college experience on a student. Certain colleges attract a particular kind of student and therefore are not completely responsible for the caliber of graduates they produce. When aptitude and academic interests of entering college freshmen are considered, Astin claimed that some colleges with good reputations may actually be underproduce" ve. The reputation of an institution, therefore, may be dependent on the type of student it attracts. National Pattern of College Attendance in 1982 About 51 percent of the graduates of all high schools in the United States in 1982 matriculated at a college the following fall (Yoong, 1983). Within two years of their graduation from high school, members of the class of 1980 had enrolled at 4-year colleges at the rate of 35 percent and at 2-year colleges at the rate of 25 percent ("Class of 1980," 1984). In the fall of 1982, 78 percent of all college students were enrolled at public colleges (Magarrell, 1982). Astin (1982) surveyed 188,000 freshmen who entered college in the fall of 1982. The freshmen indicated that they intended to pursue at least 79 different fields of study. The researcher

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36 grouped these 79 fields of study according to the five majors delineated in this research (See Appendix D). Less than 1 percent of these freshmen intended to pursue a Bible/theology major. About 25 percent intended to pursue a business major. Freshmen intending to major in engineering/technical chose this field at a rate nearly equal to the freshmen choosing business. Education was chosen by 6 percent of the freshmen and liberal arts was chosen by nearly 30 percent. Summary of the Literature Review An emphasis on the education of youth is an important part of the Protestant ethic. In colonial times, Protestants in the South believed that the family and the church were responsible for this undertaking (Rippa, 1976, p. 29). Acceptance of the concept of public schools was therefore slow. In time, however, Protestants in the South generally embraced the public schools and worked for their improvement (Brigham, 1951, p. 118). Certain developments in the twentieth century, most notably Supreme Court decisions prohibiting Bible reading and prayer in the public schools, alarmed some Protestants. Reacting to this alarm, some Protestant denominations began founding their own elementary and secondary schools. Some of these schools were organized and controlled by a board of directors. Others were started as ministries of local churches. Enrollments in these schools have

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37 rapidly risen, in part due to the desire of many families to maintain a commitment to Protestant ideology. Other families have chosen to send their children to Protestant schools in order to avoid racial integration or discipline problems in the public schools (Towns, 1974, p. 37). Due to the fact that college enrollments are expected to decline during the eighties, many college recruitment officers are attempting to create linkages between their institutions and the various forms of secondary education (Chamberlain & Loewer, 1932). Hammack (1931) showed a strong linkage between private, nonsectarian high schools and private colleges. No studies were found by the researcher that concerned possible linkages between Protestant high schools and the various kinds of colleges. Protestant educational institutions, both on the high school level and the college level, vary widely in size, tuition charges, and degree of commitment to Protestant ideology. Kelley (1972) found that Protestant institutions often begin with characteristics of strength and then weaken in time. Pattillo and MacKenzie (1973) reported that church-related colleges have a tendency to shift from a middle class clientele to an upper middle class clientele. Older Protestant colleges are often known for the quality of their educational programs but often these institutions are close to detachment from their Protestant roots (Pace, 1972). Carlson (1977)

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33 noted that it is difficult for an institution to maintain its religious commitment and also pursue academic excellence. According to Astin (1965), certain colleges attract students with particular characteristics. The qualities of the graduates of a college, therefore, may be more reflective of the characteristics of the incoming freshmen than on any changes made on the students as a result of the college's program or environment. Astin also found that a student's personality was often related to the type of college major he or she chose. About 50 percent of all high school graduates in 1982 matriculated at a college the following fall (Yoong, 1983). The majority of college students in the United States chose public colleges in 1982 (Magarrell, 1982). Four-year colleges were preferred over 2-year colleges by these students ("Class of 1980," 1984). Most college students pursued the majors of business, engineering/technical and liberal arts (Astin, 1982).

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CHAPTER III METHODS AND PROCEDURES This chapter describes the steps taken by the researcher to develop a master list of Protestant high schools and gather other preliminary data. The development of the survey instrument and its use are also discussed. This chapter concludes with a description of the chi-square test of independence and other statistical procedures that were used to analyze the data. It was the intent of the researcher to develop a master list of Protestant high schools in the South that was reasonably complete. Harris (1931) has shown the difficulty of obtaining accurate lists of many of the recently founded Protestant elementary and secondary schools. This project had an advantage in this area, however, because its focus was on the senior class only. Protestant high schools that had senior graduating classes in 1982 were typically older schools that were most likely to be listed in the various available directories. Defining the Population Directories of schools were obtained from Christian Schools International (CSI), the American Association of Christian Schools (AACS), and the Association of Christian Schools International (ACSI). These are the three major associations of Christian 39

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40 schools having high schools in the South. CSI is an association of schools formed by Christian Reformed families and Presbyterian groups. The AACS is an association of schools sponsored predominantly by independent Baptist churches. The ACSI consists of a variety of Protestant schools, many of which are nondenominational in affiliation. Directories were also obtained for Episcopal, Lutheran, and Assembly of God schools. Cross-referencing with other directories showed that the listings of these denominational schools were complete. Directories were not in print for schools sponsored by the Church of God, Brethren, Church of the Nazarene, and the various Presbyterian groups not associated with CSI. Although the researcher made two separate requests for directories from both the Seventh-Day Adventists and the Christian Churches, no reply was received from either. Directories were received for nonpublic schools in each of the 14 southern states from the respective states' Department of Education. These directories contained lists of Protestant, Catholic, and private, nonsectarian elementary and secondary schools. In some cases, these nonpublic school directories appeared to be complete. Evidence for this fact came by comparing the various denominational and associational directories with the state directories. In a few cases, the directories tfere incomplete. For

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41 these states, however, it appeared from the other available directories that there were few Protestant high schools. A total of about 2,500 Protestant schools were found in the directories. Of these 2,500 schools, the directories contained information which indicated that over 1,100 of them did not have a senior class in 1932. Many Protestant schools offered instruction through the sixth or eighth grade only. After schools that were known to not have a senior class were eliminated, the compiled master list of schools contained 1,326 names of institutions. Due to the fact that some of the directories used in compiling the master list did not specify the grades taught in a particular school, it was necessary to include many schools on the master list that may or may not have had a senior class in 1982. Also, because of lack of directory information, it was necessary to include some schools that may or may not have had a Protestant affiliation. Development of the Survey Instrument It was the intent of the researcher to keep the task of the responding administrators as simple as possible. For this reason, administrators were asked to simply list the colleges chosen by their 1932 graduates under five categories of college majors (See Appendix A). A search of college catalogs resulted in the selection of the following majors:

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42 1. Bible/Theology 2. Business 3. Education 4. Engineering/Technical 5. Liberal Arts In addition to these five majors, space was provided under the category "Other Majors" for the responding administrators to list such courses of study as "Art" or "Music." The reasons for choosing the above mentioned five majors were as follows: 1. Administrators could quickly categorize their students without a thorough understanding of college majors. 2. The researcher expected the graduates of Protestant high schools to choose such majors as Bible/Theology and Education at a higher rate than the graduates of public high schools and therefore included these majors as distinct categories. 3. Because the focus of this study was on the initial choice of college major, there was no need to account for specialization that may occur after the first year of college. After developing an initial survey form,, the researcher pilot-tested this form with 58 administrators of various Protestant high schools throughout the South (See Appendix B, Letter 1). A

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43 reply was received from 32 administrators and the following suggestions were offered: 1. Provide more spaces for responses. 2. Provide a greater description of college majors. 3. Have the survey form professionally printed. Utilizing these recommendations, the survey instrument was revised and professionally printed (See Appendix A). Six administrators who were asked to evaluate the original form provided the requested data at that time. Subsequently, the first mailing of the revised survey instrument went to 1,320 of the 1,326 administrators of Protestant schools on the researcher's master list. Survey Response Rate The first mailing of the survey instrument contained a personalized letter to the administrator of each school on the master list. Also included in this mailing was a copy of the survey instrument and a stamped envelope addressed to the researcher (See Appendix B, Letter 2). The cover letter was printed on stationery from the Protestant school for which the researcher is the administrator. It was believed that this approach would encourage a higher rate of response from other Protestant school administrators. Listed in Table 2 are the dates of the mailings and the number of replies received. Included in the number of replies received are the envelopes that were returned because they were

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44 undeliverable. Follow-up letters were sent to nonresponding administrators at the end of the third and sixth weeks after the initial mailing. Table 2 Date of Mailings and Responses Received Mailing Date No. mailed No. Returned 1 August 27, 1982 1320 482 2 September 18, 1982 838 446 3 October 13, 1982 392 73 Note. The number returned includes mailings that were returned because they were undeliverable. After the second follow-up letter was sent, a request was sent to the nonresponding administrators asking for their reason for not responding (See Appendix B, Letter 5). Subsequently, a few more administrators responded and it was discovered that 262 schools on the master list did not have a senior class in 1982. It was also discovered that 158 schools had closed, moved with no forwarding address, had no Protestant affiliation, or were duplicated on the master list. Therefore, the study sample was reduced from 1,326 schools to 906 schools. Of these 906 schools, 660 responses were received from Protestant secondary schools with a senior class in 1982. The total number of graduates from these 660 schools exceeded 10,000.

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45 Problems with the Survey Instrument After receiving the completed survey instruments, the researcher noted several common misunderstandings not discovered in the pilot test. Fortunately, these problems were easily corrected. The first misunderstanding occurred when administrators read the question, "How many of your 1982 graduates did not attend college in 1982?" Many administrators failed to see the "not" in this question and therefore answered it in the affirmative. This problem was easily corrected by comparing this figure with the other data on the instrument. Another problem occurred when some Baptist and Church of Christ administrators objected to being referred to as part of a "denomination." Most of these administrators crossed out the word "denomination" and replaced it with a designation they believed more appropriate. A few responded by claiming to be "nondenominational ." These differences were corrected by the researcher by crossreferencing with appropriate directories. The directory of Southern Baptist churches and a directory of one of the larger groups of Independent Baptist church s were helpful in resolving this problem. Interpretation of the term "nondenominational" presented another problem to some respondents. Several schools claimed that they were nondenominational because of their open admissions policy. Thus a school operating under the direction of a Baptist church would claim

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46 to be nondenomi national because it accepted students from all denominations. This problem was resolved by consulting the various directories and thereby ascertaining the correct affiliation of each school whose affiliation was in doubt. Some administrators failed to respond to the first survey instrument because they did not know the intended majors of their graduates. Personal correspondence was conducted with them by the researcher and they were encouraged to return the survey instrument with as much information as possible. Finally, several administrators listed vocational schools that were chosen by their 1982 graduates on the survey instrument. Because this project was delimited to tracking graduates to post-secondary institutions offering college degrees, the vocational schools listed were eliminated from the usable responses. If a vocational school offered a 2-year college degree, however, it was retained as a usable response. It was often necessary to write responding school administrators for clarification of the data they provided. For this purpose, 78 letters were sent to high school administrators requesting specific clarifications of their responses. Letters were also written to over 100 post-secondary institutions in order to ascertain their nature and the types of programs they offered. The researcher attempted to determine if each college was public or private and the yearly charges of the institution. If the college had a Protestant

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47 affiliation, the researcher attempted to determine the specific affiliation. Peterson's Annual Guide to Undergraduate Study (1983 edition) contained this information for most of the colleges listed by Protestant administrators. College charges were compared on the basis of yearly tuition costs for full-time students. Analysis of the Response Rate A total of 651 usable responses were received from the 906 remaining schools on the researcher's master list. Nine schools were eliminated due to incomplete responses. It is possible that some of the nonresponding schools did not have a senior class in 1902. Response rates from each of the 14 southern states were 61 percent or higher. The lowest rate of response was from the state of Tennessee (61 percent). The highest rate of response was from the state of North Carolina (83 percent). Through consulting the listings of the various denominations and associations and reports from 102 administrators, it was possiole to determine the affiliations of 178 of the 258 nonrespondents.

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43 Table 3 shows the rate of known nonresponse for the five largest affiliations of Protestant high schools. Table 3 u ^ u . . Nonresponse Rate for Five Largest Affiliations of Protestant High Schools Number of schools Number of schools Percentage ot responding known to not have schools known Affiliation responded to not have responded Independent Baptist

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49 Table 4 Reasons Given for Nonresponse Percentage of Reasons Nonrespondents Giving this Reason Did not have time to complete the survey instrument 27% Did not have any seniors in 1982 15% Did not have a school in 1932 10% Information is confidential 10% No reason for not responding and now willing to do so 12% If one assumes that the reasons for nonresponse are distributed in the same proportion for those not responding to the survey instrument as for those who did respond, one could assume that about one-fourth of the nonresponding school administrators did not have a senior class. This would bring the actual rate of response to the completed survey instrument close to 30%. Organization and Treatment of Data Administrators from high schools with over 20 different affiliations responded to the request for data. Statistics were compiled for each of these affiliations in order to make comparisons in the following areas: 1. Over-all rate of college attendance 2. Rate of attendance at Protestant colleges

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50 3. Rate of attendance at colleges with the same denominational affiliation as the high school 4. Rate of attendance at private colleges 5. Rate of attendance at public colleges a. Rate of attendance at 2-year public colleges b. Rate of attendance at 4-year public colleges 6. Rate of attendance at in-state colleges Five of the school affiliations were large enough in terms of numbers of graduates to permit the researcher to conduct further statistical treatment. This further treatment involved comparing the five major affiliations in terms of graduating class size, the college majors chosen by their graduates, and the tuition charges to the student of selected colleges. For this research, it was desirable to compare the proportions of students from the five major affiliations of high schools in terms of their various rates of college attendance. For this purpose, the chi-square test of independence was chosen to determine significant differences. For this test, observed frequencies (f Q ) are compared with expected frequencies (f ) according to the following formula (Ary, Jacobs, & Razavieh, 1979, p. 163): 2 V X = E ( f o f e)

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51 In a simple comparison between two affiliations of high schools, 2 one degree of freedom is allowed. Referring to a table of x , any value greater than 6.635 that results from the use of the formula indicates a level of significance at the .01 level. Such values 2 of x are noted in the following chapters and indicate where a statistically significant difference exists in the two populations of high school graduates under comparison. In this study, only simple comparisons were made. The chi-square test assumes that the populations being studied are exclusive of each other. For this reason, it is not possible to use this test to determine if a particular affiliation of Protestant high schools differs significantly from the population of Protestant high school as a whole. The chi-square test also assumes that the population being studied exists in the same proportions as the total population. For this reason, the chi-square test is not used with the data from the smaller affiliations of Protestant high schools. The researcher in this study assumed that the relatively high rate of response to the request for data (71 percent) ensured the likelihood that the collected data adequately represented the population as a whole. As mentioned earlier, it is possible that nearly 00 percent of the schools on the researcher's master list with a senior graduating class responded to the request for information. The data furnished by the responding schools, however,

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52 contained uncertainty. There was uncertainty on the part of responding administrators regarding the number of students attending college, the number of students attending particular types of colleges, and the number of students choosing each of the five courses of study. A large uncertainty factor jeopardizes the accuracy of the chi-square test of significance. For this reason, the researcher identified statistical results that were jeopardized by a high level of uncertainty.

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CHAPTER IV PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA This chapter contains information about the particular Protestant high schools whose administrators responded to the request for information for this study. The data are analyzed in the order of the major research questions. Tables are used to permit comparisons among the various affiliations of Protestant high schools and show the results of statistical treatments. After the data were collected, some of the original categories designed for purposes of data analysis were combined. In preliminary planning, it was decided to categorize senior class sizes by increments of 10, beginning with the category 1 to 10. After examining the data, this decision was revised and senior class sizes were categorized by increments of 20 graduates. In most cases, this change permitted the researcher to have sufficient numbers in each of the categories for statistical analysis. Graduating classes with 1 to 19 members were termed "small" by the researcher, classes with 20 to 39 graduates were termed "medium," and classes with 40 or more graduates were termed "large." Although "large" graduating classes were usually found in comparatively

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54 large schools, this was not always the case. Schools were therefore not compared on the basis of their total enrollment, but on the basis of their graduating class size. Examination of the data revealed that most of the graduates from Protestant high schools in the South came from schools with five different affiliations. In most cases, the numbers of graduates coming from these affiliations were large enough to permit statistical treatment. The researcher found that data from 19 smaller affiliations of Protestant high schools were not sufficient for such treatment. The five large affiliations were termed "major affiliations" by the researcher in order to distinguish them from the "small affiliations." Analysis of the Schools The only affiliation of high schools with a senior graduating class that was found in every state sampled was Independent Baptist. Southern Baptist graduating classes were found in every state except Maryland, Delaware, Virginia and West Virginia. Twelve of the 30 Episcopal graduating classes were located in Virginia and six were in Florida. Nondenomi national graduating classes were found in every state except Kentucky. Presbyterian/Reformed graduating classes were found only in Alabama, Florida, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina and Tennessee. Although most administrators of Presbyterian/Reformed high schools labeled their

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55 school as "nondenomi national" on the survey instrument, they were placed in a category by themselves for this research. As mentioned in the Review of Related Literature, these schools have had a long history of association with Reformed theology and typically had higher tuition rates than other nondenomi national schools. Eight of the 19 smaller affiliations were represented by one or two small schools. The data from these schools were combined and presented under the title of "Other" affiliations. These affiliations were Bible Presbyterian, Orthodox Presbyterian, Christian Church, Nazarene, Brethren, Dunkard Brethren, Bible Brethren, and Apostolic. Eleven of the 19 smaller affiliations had three or more high schools whose administrators responded to the request for information. Some of these schools were comparatively large and thus of importance to this study. Because small numbers of high schools were involved, however, it was not possible to tell if the data from the 11 smaller affiliations adequately represented each affiliation as a whole. As reported in the Review of Related Literature, yearly tuition charges at Independent Baptist, nondenomi nati onal , and Southern Baptist high schools ranged from $500 to $1,500 in the 1981-1982 school year. The average tuition charge for the 86 Independent Baptist high schools listed in the Christian Educator's Directory

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56 for 1982 was $863. The average tuition charge for the 13 listed nondenomi national high schools was $924. The average tuition charge for the 10 Southern Baptist high schools listed in this directory was $1,046. Unfortunately, tuition information was not available for Independent Baptist, nondenominational , and Southern Baptist high schools not listed in the directory. The available information, however, suggests that the average yearly tuition charge for Independent Baptist high schools may have been lower than the average charges for nondenominational and Southern Baptist high schools in 1982. In order to determine if average yearly tuition varied with school size, the researcher categorized the 86 Independent Baptist high schools in the Christian Educator's Directory according to the size of their total enrollment. All of these 86 schools provided classes for kindergarten through twelfth grade. The researcher labeled any school with an enrollment of less than 400 students (kindergarten through 12th grade) as a "small school." A school with an enrollment from 400 to 799 was labeled a "medium school." A "large school" was any school having an enrollment of 800 or more. It was the belief of the researcher that this classification of schools would roughly coincide with the classification of graduating class size. In other words, Independent Baptist schools with a total enrollment in kindergarten through 12th grade of less than 400

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57 students would be expected to have a graduating class of less than 20 students. The average yearly tuition charge at the 59 Independent Baptist high schools in the Christian Educator's Directory for 1982 that were labeled "small schools" was found to be $790. The average tuition charge at the 17 "medium schools" was $963. At the 10 "large schools," the average yearly tuition was $1,123. Because this information was available in only one directory and provided data for a small number of schools, it cannot be considered a reliable indication of the yearly average tuition charges at all Independent Baptist high schools. It does, however, provide an indication that the tuition charges at small Independent Baptist high schools with presumably small graduating classes may have generally been lower than the charges at larger Independent Baptist high schools with larger graduating classes. The Handbook of Private Schools (1982 edition) contains tuition charge information for 20 Episcopal high schools. The average yearly charges at these 20 schools was $4,018 in 1982. For some schools, the cost of boarding was included in their yearly charges. As reported in Chapter II, the average yearly tuition charge at Presbyterian/Reformed (CSI) high schools in the South in 1982 was a little over $1,500.

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58 Table 5 shows the sizes of the various affiliations, both in terms of the numbers of graduates and the numbers of high schools. This table also shows the average size of graduating class for each of the affiliations. The smallest average graduating class size was found for Independent Baptist high schools and the largest average size was found for Episcopal high schools among the major affiliations. Among the smaller affiliations, a small average graduating class size was found for Assembly of God, Methodist/Wesleyan, Free Will Baptist, Christian and Missionary Alliance, Church of God, Mennonite, and Pentecostal high schools. These smaller affiliations were therefore similar to the larger affiliations of Independent Baptist and nondenomi national in average graduating class size. A medium average graduating class size was found for Church of Christ and Lutheran high schools. These high schools were therefore similar in average graduating class size to the major affiliations Southern Baptist and Presbyterian/Reformed. A large average graduating class size was found for Quaker and Seventh-Day Adventist high schools. Among the major affiliations a large average graduating class size was found for Episcopal high schools. Table 6 shows the number of graduates and schools in each of the three classifications of school size. According to this table, most Independent Baptist, nondenomi nati onal , and Southern Baptist high

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59 Table 5 Relative Sizes of School Affiliations

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60 Table 6 Number of Graduates and Schools in Sample Relative to Graduating

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61 schools had less than 20 graduates in 1932. Except for the graduates from Independent Baptist high schools, however, most of the graduates of the other major affiliations came from schools with medium or large graduating classes. Most Episcopal, Southern Baptist, and Presbyterian/Reformed graduates came from large schools with 40 or more graduates. Rate of Planned College Attendance Table 7 shows the rate of planned college attendance for the graduates of the various affiliations of Protestant high schools studied. Nearly 70 percent of these graduates planned to attend college in the fall of 1902. This rate was considerably higher than the rate of college attendance for graduates of all high schools in the United States, which was about 51 percent (Yoong, 1933). An examination of the planned matriculation data shows a great deal of difference among the various affiliations. Both the Episcopal and Presbyterian/Reformed high schools had a high rate of planned college attendance. These rates were probably higher than the percentages shown in Table 7 because it is likely that many of the students listed under the category "Unknown Plans" actually did go on to college. It is known that only 3 percent of the graduates of Episcopal high schools definitely did not go on to college in the fall. Comments written on the survey instruments by Episcopal school administrators indicated that some graduates delayed their college enrollment in order to travel.

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62 Table 7 Rate of Planned College Attendance of 1982 Graduates Studied Going to Not going Unknown School Affiliation College to College plans no: — i Ho: f w. s Independent Baptist

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63 It is interesting to note that the high school affiliations with the smallest average sizes of graduating classes also had the lowest average rates of planned college attendance. This relationship was generally true for the major affiliations and the smaller affiliations. A relatively low rate (64 percent or less) of planned college attendance was found for Assembly of God, Seventh-Day Adventist, Methodist/Wesleyan, Free Will Baptist, Church of God, Mennonite, and Pentecostal high school graduates. These affiliations were similar to the Independent Baptist affiliation in having a relatively low rate of planned college attendance. Graduates from Church of Christ, Lutheran, and Christian and Missionary Alliance high schools had a moderately high rate (higher that 64 percent but lower than 80 percent) of planned college attendance. These affiliations were somewhat similar in rate of planned college attendance to the nondenomi national and Southern Baptist affiliations. A high rate (over 80 percent) of planned college attendance was found for graduates of Quaker high schools. A similarly high rate of college attendance was also found for graduates of Episcopal and Presbyterian/Reformed high schools. Table 8 shows the values of the chi-square tests for all comparisons between the major affiliations in planned college attendance rate. There was a statistically significant difference for each comparison except for the difference in planned college

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64 Table 8 Chi-Square Test of Significant Differences in Planned College Attendance Rates School Affiliation School Affiliation Southern NondenomEpiscopal Presbyterian/ Baptist i national Reformed Independent Baptist Southern Baptist Nondenomi national Episcopal 113.38* 59.59*

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65 Table 9 Rate of Planned College Attendance Relative to Graduating Class Size School Affiliation Going to Not going Unknown and Graduating College to College plans Class Size No. % No. % No. 1 Independent Baptist Small 873 54 Medium 371 61 Large 406 65 Nondenomi national Small 293 54 Medium 598 71 Large 465 70 Episcopal Small 79 92 Medium 262 87 Large 920 87 Southern Baptist Small 121 60 Medium 89 66 Large 704 75 Presbyterian/Reformed Small 60 79 Medium 145 91 Large 275 84 Total for Five Major Affiliations Small 1,426 57 966 38 129 5 Medium 1,465 72 354 17 222 11 Large 2,770 77 483 13 3 59 10 Note . Class size: "Small class" less than 20 graduates. "Medium ctaTs" 20 to 39 graduates. "Large class" 40 or more graduates. 666

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66 of planned college attendance for schools with different sizes of graduating classes. In chi-square calculations, the number of graduates planning to go to college was compared with the number of graduates known to not have college plans. The number of graduates with unknown college plans was not used and it was assumed by the researcher that if these unknown plans were known, the ratio between the number of students planning to go to college and the number not going to college would not be affected. The chi-square statistical treatment is jeopardized, however, by a relatively large unknown factor. For this reason, the researcher drew attention to this possible jeopardy in the discussion of results when a large unknown factor was involved. In cases in which the chi-square test was not jeopardized by unknown college plans, significant differences were found in the planned college attendance rates for the different sizes of Independent Baptist, nondenomi national , and Southern Baptist high school graduating classes. For these affiliations, the larger schools typically had a significantly higher average rate of planned college attendance. The tests jeopardized by unknown college plans had results that coincided with this generalization. No significant differences were found in the rate of planned college attendance for the graduates of different sizes of Presbyterian/Reformed high schools and Episcopal high schools. Although the data in Table 9

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67 Table 10 Chi-Square Test of Significant Differences in Planned College Attendance Rates for Graduating Classes of Different Sizes School Affiliation Size Comparisons Small -Medium Medium-Large Small -Large Independent Baptist* 43. bb* 37*4" 19.38* Southern Baptist 2.23 9.35* 37.86* Nondenomi national 66.59* 2.74 31.14* Episcopal .63 .74 Pre sbyteri an/Re fonned d .27 .14 1.05 Five Major Affiliations 209.32* 18.14* 471.12* as a Whole Note . Class size: "Small class" less than 20 graduates. "Medium class" 20 to 39 graduates. "Large class 40 or more graduates. *p < .01 Statistics jeopardized by high unknown factor for medium graduating classes ^Statistics jeopardized by high unknown factor for large graduating classes c Statistics jeopardized by high unknown factor for medium graduating classes. ^Stati sties jeopardized by high unknown factor for small graduating classes seem to indicate a rise in the rate of planned college attendance for Presbyterian/Reformed high school graduates from medium graduating classes, this relatively high rate was due to the fact that college attendance plans were known for 99 percent of the graduates in this category.

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03 The statistics for chi-square in Table 10 were jeopardized by a level of uncertainty greater than 10 percent for medium Independent Baptist graduating classes, large nondenomi national graduating classes, medium Episcopal graduating classes, and small Presbyterian/Reformed graduating classes. Other statistics, however, were not jeopardized because there was wery little uncertainty involved in their calculation. For instance, the significant difference shown in Table 10 for the comparison between small and large graduating classes at Independent Baptist high schools was not jeopardized by uncertainty. Likewise, little uncertainty was involved in the statistical analysis of the difference between small and medium graduating classes at nondenomi national high schools. Therefore, the general finding of statistically significant differences in the rates of planned college attendance for graduates of different sizes of graduating classes at Independent Baptist, Southern Baptist, and nondenomi national high schools is not jeopardized by uncertainty. Table 11 shows the values of chi-square for all comparisons among the major affiliations in planned college attendance rates for schools with small graduating classes. The reliability of parts of this test were jeopardized by 12 percent of uncertainty for Presbyterian/Reformed graduates (See Table 9). According to Table 11, there were no significant differences in the rates of planned

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69 Table 11 Chi-Square Test of Significant Differences in Planned College Attendance Rates for Graduates from Small Graduating Classes School Affiliation School Affiliation Southern NondenomEpiscopal Presbyterian/ Baptist i national Reformed a

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70 Table 12 shows the values of chi -square for all comparisons among the major affiliations in planned college attendance rates for schools with medium graduating class sizes. The reliability of the tests were jeopardized by 16 percent uncertainty for Independent Baptist schools (See Table 9). Table 12 is similar to Table 11 in that there was no significant difference in the planned college attendance rates for graduates of medium graduating classes from Independent Baptist, nondenonri national , and Southern Baptist high schools. There were significant differences in all the other planned college attendance rates, including the comparison of Episcopal and Presbyterian/Reformed. This significant difference, however, was due to the difference in the unknown rate of college attendance plans. The college attendance plans were known for 99 percent of the graduates of medium Presbyterian/Reformed high schools. Such plans were only known for 39 percent of the graduates of Episcopal high schools in the same size category. It is likely that the planned college attendance rate for the graduates of medium Episcopal graduating classes was higher than that reported in Table 9 and therefore the difference in rates of planned college attendance between medium Episcopal and medium Presbyterian/Reformed graduating classes was not significant. Table 13 shows the values of chi-square for all comparisons among the major affiliations in planned college attendance rates for

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71 schools with large graduating class sizes. The reliability of the tests were jeopardized by 15 percent uncertainty for nondenomi national schools (See Table 9). Significant differences were found for e^ery comparison except nondenominational and Southern Baptist. The data on this table differed from that of the two previous tables in that the rate of planned college attendance for graduates of large graduating classes at nondenominational and Southern Baptist high schools was significantly higher than the rate for graduates of large graduating classes at Independent Baptist high schools. Table 12 Chi-Square Test of Significant Differences in Planned College Attendance Rates for Graduates from Medium Graduating Classes ~~ School Affiliation School Affiliation Southern NondenomEpiscopal a Presbytenan/ Baptist i national Reformed Independent Baptist 3 4.07 74.10* 23.24* Southern Baptist 1.35 59.54* 17.39* Nondenominational 57.88* 15.70* Episcopal 3 8-79 b Note . Medium graduating class 2U to 39 graduates, statistics jeopardized by high unknown factor for medium graduating classes ^Statistical significance achieved because of low unknown factor for medium Presbyterian/Reformed graduating classes *p < .01

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72 Table 13 Chi -Square Test of Significant Differences in PI armed College Attendance Rates for Graduates from Large Graduating Classes" School Affiliation School Affiliation Southern NondenomEpiscopal Presbyterian/ Baptist i national 3 Reformed Independent Baptist 57.97* Southern Baptist No ndenomi national 3 Episcopal Note . Large graduating class 40 or more graduates. ^Statistics jeopardized by high unknown factor for large graduating classes *p < .01 33.01*

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73 affiliation. It does appear, however, that large classes from Southern Baptist and nondenomi national high schools had an average rate of planned college attendance that was higher than the rate for large Independent Baptist graduating classes. In Table 14, the rate of planned college attendance was divided into three categories: low (50 percent or less), moderate (51 to 75 percent), and high (76 to 100 percent.) From this table, it can be seen that schools vary greatly on the individual level in the planned college attendance rate of their graduates. Although smaller classes with Independent Baptist, nondenomi national , and Southern Baptist affiliations tended as a whole to have a lower rate of planned college attendance than the larger classes, there were some schools with small graduating classes that nevertheless did have a high rate of planned college attendance. If the decision on whether or not to attend college is made before entering high school as research indicates (Chapman, 1931), it would have to be said that smaller graduating classes did not typically attract as many college-bound students as did large graduating classes. Such was not the case, however, for Episcopal and Presbyterian high schools. These affiliations of high schools apparently attracted a high percentage of college-bound students without regard to graduating class size.

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74 Table 14 Rate of Planned College Attendance Relative to Graduating Class Size for Three Affiliations

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75 differences detected between these three affiliations of high schools were for schools with large graduating classes. Rate of Planned Protestant College Attendance On the average, 24 percent of the graduates of Protestant high schools in the South in 1982 planned to matriculate at Protestant colleges in the fall. Among the college-bound graduates, 37 percent planned to attend such colleges. As was mentioned in the Review of Related Literature, Protestant colleges vary widely in doctrine and philosophy. In this analysis, attendance at colleges that still maintained ties with Protestant Christianity was under consideration. Table 15 shows the rate of planned attendance at Protestant colleges for the graduates of the various affiliations of high schools. The first column of percentages in this table shows the rate of planned Protestant college attendance in terms of the total number of graduates, both college-bound and those not going to college. The second column of percentages shows this rate in terms of college-bound graduates only. According to Table 15, the rate of planned Protestant college attendance among the major affiliations was highest for Independent Baptist high school graduates. The lowest rate of planned Protestant college attendance among the major affiliations was found for graduates of Southern Baptist high schools. This finding may be the result of the historical support that Southern Baptists have

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76 Table 15 Rate of Planned Attendance at Protestant Colleges of 1982 Graduates Studied Graduates going to College-bound graduates a Protestant going to a Protestant college college School Affiliation Ho: % % 59 35 22 10 32 IE 27 39 12 19 36 74 60 44 26 66 55 52 3T Independent Baptist

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77 given to public educational institutions (Brigham, 1951). Although this support was claimed to be at the elementary and secondary level, it apparently continued at the college level. Graduates of Episcopal, nondenomi national , and Presbyterian/Reformed high schools planned to attend Protestant colleges at rates that were higher than the rates for Southern Baptist graduates but lower than the rate for Independent Baptist graduates. Comparisons between affiliations based on the percentages in the second column of percentages in Table 15 are not affected by the various rates of over-all planned college attendance. It is most useful to compare the various affiliations in their planned college attendance patterns for college-bound graduates. In Table 15, the differences between affiliations are greater in the second column of percentages. This difference is due to the fact that the relatively lower rate of over-all planned college attendance found for graduates of Independent Baptist high schools has no impact on the calculation of the rate of college-bound graduates who chose Protestant colleges. Among the smaller affiliations, a high rate (40 percent or higher) of planned Protestant college attendance was found for Church of Christ, Seventh-Day Adventist, Methodist/Wesleyan, Free Will Baptist, Mennonite, Christian and Missionary Alliance, and Pentecostal graduates. Among the major affiliations, only graduates

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73 of Independent Baptist high schools had a rate of planned Protestant college attendance that was this high. A moderate rate (between 20 percent and 40 percent) of planned Protestant college attendance was found for Assembly of God, Lutheran, and Church of God high school graduates. Among the major affiliations, this moderate rate was also found for nondenomi national , Presbyterian/Reformed, and Episcopal high school graduates. A low rate (less than 20 percent) of planned Protestant college attendance was found for Quaker high school graduates among the smaller affiliations and for Southern Baptist graduates among the major affiliations. It is interesting to note that the affiliations with a low rate of over-all planned college attendance for their graduates were typically high in planned attendance rates for Protestant colleges. Several exceptions, however, existed for this generalization. Graduates of Assembly of God high schools, although comparatively low in over-all planned college attendance, were moderate in planned Protestant college attendance. Although Church of Christ and Christian and Missionary Alliance graduates were moderate in planned college attendance rate, they were high in the rate of choice for Protestant colleges. In most cases, however, the affiliations that were high in rate of planned college attendance were low in the rate of planned attendance at Protestant colleges. Affiliations with moderate rates for planned college attendance also typically had moderate rates for planned Protestant college attendance.

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7!) Table 16 shows the values of chi-square tests for all comparisons of the major affiliations in planned Protestant college attendance rate. According to the data, all comparisons were significantly different except the comparison of nondenomi national and Presbyterian/Reformed. This finding was expected because Presbyterian/Reformed high schools had student bodies that were nondenomi national in character. One would expect that schools having a similar mix of student affiliations would show similarities in the rate of choice of Protestant colleges. Nondenomi national schools differed from Presbyterian/Reformed schools, however, in average size of graduating class, average tuition charges, and rate of over-all planned college attendance. Attendance at a Protestant college may be an indication of commitment to Protestant ideology. There are several factors, however, that may limit this interpretation. The Review of Related Literature revealed that Protestant schools on all levels have widely differing philosophies. A more accurate expectation therefore would be that attendance at a college that is philosophically highly committed to Protestant ideology is an indication of commitment on the part of the student to Protestant ideology. Appendix C contains a listing of all the Protestant colleges chosen by the high school graduates in this study. According to

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30 Table 16 Chi-Square Test of Significant Differences in Planned Protestant College Attendance Rates ~~ School Affiliation School Affiliation Southern NondenomEpiscopal Presbyterian/ Baptist i national Reformed Independent Baptist 560.573 124.34* 376.71* 89.43* Southern Baptist 174.23* 53.20* 114.27* Nondenomi national 48.62 .11 Episcopal 23.99* ^p 7~jn this listing, most of the Protestant colleges chosen by Episcopal high school graduates were relatively expensive Methodist, Presbyterian/Reformed, and Southern Baptist institutions. Most of the colleges were older than the colleges typically chosen by Independent Baptist and nondenomi national high school graduates. Although the research did not attempt to ascertain the degree of commitment to Protestant ideology that was demonstrated by these institutions, there was evidence based on age and reputation that indicated that the colleges generally chosen by Episcopal high school graduates were closer to detachment from their Protestant roots than the colleges chosen by Independent Baptist and nondenomi national high school graduates. Many of the colleges chosen by Independent Baptist and nondenominational high school

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31 graduates could be classified as "defenders of the faith" as delineated by Pattillo and MacKenzie (1978). Pace (1972) developed a similar system of classification that has one category for "institutions with ties to evangelical, fundamentalist, and interdenominational Christian churches." This category contained the colleges with the greatest ideological commitment. Table 17 shows the rate of planned Protestant college attendance for the major affiliations based on graduating class size. The first column of percentages in this table shows the rate of choice of a Protestant college for all the graduates of a particular size and affiliation of high school. The second column of percentages is based on the number of college-bound graduates only. Comparison between affiliations using this second column of percentages is therefore more useful because it is not affected by the basic rate of over-all college attendance. As previously noted, the rate of over-all planned college attendance varied for the different affiliations and also varied for graduating classes of different sizes within affiliations. According to Table 17, the least variation in rates of planned Protestant college attendance for the different sizes of graduating classes was found for graduates of Independent Baptist and nondenominational high schools. A comparatively greater variation for the graduates of the five major affiliations in rate of planned

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32 Table 17 Rate of Planned Protestant College Attendance Relative to Graduating Class Size College-bound graduates going to Protestant colleges School Affiliation and Size Graduates going to Protestant colleges HoT Independent Baptist Small Medium Large Nondenomi national Episcopal Small Medium Large Small Medi urn Large Southern Baptist Small Medium Large Presby teri an/Reformed Sinai 1 Medium Large 518

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33 Protestant college attendance was found for the Southern Baptist and Presbyterian/Reformed affiliations. The rate of planned attendance at Protestant colleges for these graduates consistently dropped as the size of graduating class under consideration increased. Southern Baptist graduates showed a comparatively large drop in planned Protestant college attendance from the rate for graduates of small graduating classes to the rate for graduates of medium graduating classes. There was a comparatively small rise in planned attendance at such colleges for graduates of the larger classes when compared with graduates of medium classes. The percentage of graduates choosing Protestant colleges, however, for the large classes was still considerably less than the percentage for the small classes. Table 10 shows the values of chi-square tests for all comparisons within the major affiliations based on size of graduating class. There was no significant variation in planned Protestant college attendance rate for the different sizes of graduating classes at Independent Baptist, nondenomi national , and Episcopal high schools. The rate of planned Protestant college attendance for the graduates of small classes of Southern Baptist high schools was significantly higher than the rate for graduates of medium and large classes. There was no significant difference in the rate of planned Protestant college attendance for graduates of

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84 Table 13 Chi-Square Test of Significant Differences in Planned Protestant College Attendance Rates for Graduating Classes of Different Sizes Size Comparison School __^_^_,_, Affiliation Small -Medium MediumLarge Small -Large Independent Baptist Southern Baptist Nondenomi national Episcopal Prebyteri an/Reformed Five Major Affiliations as a Whole 56.37* 39.10* 221.94* .39

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05 difference for Presbyterian/Reformed high school graduates, however, was not present for the comparison between small and medium graduating classes but was present for the comparison between medium and large classes. For both of these affiliations, there was a significant difference in planned Protestant college attendance rates between small and large graduating classes. Rate of Planned Attendance at Colleges with the Same Affiliation as the High School Table 19 shows the rate of choice of colleges with the same affiliation as the high school. According to this table, about 11 percent of the graduates of Protestant high schools chose a college with the same affiliation as their high school. Of the college-bound graduates, about 16 percent chose a college with the same affiliation as the high school from which they graduated. In order to avoid the factor of different rates of over-all planned college attendance for the different affiliations, comparisons were made on the basis of the percentages of college-bound graduates of Protestant high schools who planned to matriculate at colleges with the same affiliation as their high school. Table 19 shows that graduates of Independent Baptist high schools chose colleges with the same affiliation as their high school at a rate higher than the other major affiliations. Episcopal graduates were lowest among the major affiliations in rate

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36 Table 19 Rate of Planned Attendance at Colleges with the Same Affiliation as the High School tor 19KZ Graduates Studied School Affiliation Graduates going to a college with the same affiliation as their high school College-bound graduates going to a college with the same affiliation as their high school NbT Independent Baptist

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37 of choice of colleges with the same affiliation as the high school. The Southern Baptists had dozens of church-related colleges and it was an unstated expectation of the researcher that a higher percentage than the reported 7 percent would have planned to attend these colleges. Among the smaller affiliations, a relatively high rate (exceeding 20 percent) of planned attendance at colleges with the same affiliation as the high school was found for college-bound graduates of Church of Christ, Seventh-Day Adventist, Methodist/ Wesleyan, Free Will Baptist, Mennonite, and Pentecostal high schools and thus these affiliations were similar to Independent Baptist. For college-bound graduates of Seventh-Day Adventist high schools, the rate of planned attendance at colleges with the same affiliation as the high school was a remarkable 39 percent. All of the graduates of Seventh-Day Adventist high schools who attended Protestant colleges chose Seventh-Day Adventist colleges (Compare TaDle 15, p. 76, with Table 19). A moderate rate (between 5 and 20 percent) of planned attendance at colleges with the same affiliation as the high school was found for Church of God, Assembly of God, and Lutheran college-bound graduates. The graduates from these affiliations therefore fell in the same range of planned attendance at colleges with the same affiliation as the high school as Presbyterian/Reformed and nondenominatioal graduates. A very low

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30 Table 20 Chi-Sguare Test of Significant Differences in the Rates of Planned Attendance at Colleges with the Same Affiliation as tne High School School Affiliation ~~ School Affiliation Southern NondenomEpiscopal Presbyterian/ Baptist i national Reformed Independent Baptist 183.54* 120.79* 401.53* 75.57* Southern Baptist 25.21* 39.72* 4.29 Nondenomi national 130.35* 3.13 Episcopal 75.87 TOT rate of choice (1 percent) of colleges with the same affiliation as the high school was found for college-bound graduates of Quaker high schools and Christian and Missionary Alliance high schools and thus these two affiliations were similar in this respect to Southern Baptist and Episcopal affiliations. Although a comparatively high rate of planned Protestant college attendance was found for college-bound graduates of Christian and Missionary Alliance high schools, the graduates of this affiliation overwhelmingly chose colleges with different affiliations than their high school. Table 20 shows the values of chi -square tests for all comparisons of the major affiliations in planned attendance rate at colleges with the same affiliation as the high school. Significant differences were found for all comparisons except the comparison

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39 between Presbyterian/Reformed and nondenomi national and the comparison between Presbyterian/Reformed and Southern Baptist. Table 21 shows the rate of choice of colleges with the same affiliation as the high school for the different sizes of graduating classes for the five major affiliations. There was comparatively little change in the rate of choice for such colleges for the different sizes of graduating classes for Independent Baptist, nondenomi nati onal , and Episcopal high schools. A comparatively large change, however, occurred in this rate for Presbyterian/Reformed high school graduates. For this affiliation, the rate of choice of colleges with same affiliation as the high school was substantially less for graduates from medium graduating classes as compared to small graduating classes. There was a further drop in this rate for large graduating classes. Perhaps the students in the small graduating classes were more likely to be personally affiliated with the Presbyterian or Christian Reformed denominations than the students in larger graduating classes. Graduates of Southern Baptist high schools were less likely to choose colleges with the same affiliation as their high school for medium and large graduating classes as compared to small graduating classes. Table 22 shows the values of chi-square tests for all comparisons within the major affiliations on planned attendance rate at colleges with the same affiliation as the high school based on

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90 Table 21

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91 Table 22 Chi-Square Test of Significant Differences in Rates of Attendance at Colleges with the Same Affi Nation as the High School for Graduating Classes of Different Sizes School Affiliation $.j Ze comparisons Small -Medium MediumLarge Small -Large Independent Baptist 1.18 1.60 .06 Nondenomi national 2.24 1.24 .10 Episcopal 1.34 1.35 1.08 Southern Baptist 2.07 7.67* Pre sbyteri an/Re formed 3.25* 7.34* 27.73* Five Major Affiliations as a Whole 55.42* 15.67* 73.58* WW . "Small class" less than zu graduates, "Medium class" zu to 39 graduates, "Large class" 40 or more graduates. *p < .01 graduating class size. The only affiliations showing a statistically significant change in the rate of choice of such colleges were Southern Baptist and Presbyterian/Reformed. The change in rate for Presbyterian/Reformed graduates was significant for each size comparison. Although a significant difference was not found in the rate of planned attendance at colleges with the same affiliation as the high school for the comparison between medium and large Southern Baptist graduating classes, it was found that the small graduating classes had a significantly higher percentage of

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92 graduates who planned to matriculate at colleges with the same affiliation as the high school than medium and large graduating classes. Rate of Planned Private Nonsectarian College Attendance Table 23 shows the rate of choice of private, nonsectarian colleges for graduates of Protestant high schools in the South. According to this table, 7 percent of the total number of graduates of Protestant high schools planned to matriculate at a private, nonsectarian college. Of the college-bound graduates, 11 percent chose private, nonsectarian colleges. In Hammack's study (1931), it was reported that about 80 percent of the graduates of the private schools studied attended private colleges. Hammack included private, nonsectarian colleges and Protestant colleges in his definition of a "private" college. This research found that 32 percent of the graduates of Protestant high school planned to attend private, nonsectarian and Protestant colleges. Of the college-bound graduates, 47 percent planned to matriculate at such colleges. A possible explanation for the difference in the findings of Hammack's study and this study can be found in the fact that Hammack studied elite, college preparatory schools while this study examined a broad spectrum of Protestant high schools.

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93 Table 23 Rate of Attendance at Private Colleges for 1982 Graduates Studied Graduates going to College-bound a private college graduates going to a private college School Affiliation No. Independent Baptist

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94 According to Table 23, graduates of Episcopal high schools planned to attend private colleges at a rate nigher than any other affiliation. Graduates of most affiliations were comparatively low in the rate of choice of private colleges. Graduates of Presbyterian/Reformed high schools seemed to have a relatively high rate of choice of private colleges. Among the schools that responded to the request for information, however, was one high school with a comparatively high rate of graduates who planned to attend private colleges. The data from this school inflated the rate that was calculated for Presbyterian/Reformed high schools as a whole. If that school was removed from the analysis of other Presbyterian/Reformed high schools, the adjusted over-all rate of planned private college attendance would not be much different that the other affiliations (except Episcopal). Among the smaller affiliations, the graduates of Quaker high schools had a comparatively high rate of planned private college attendance. All other affiliations had a rate that was less than 10 percent. Table 24 shows the values of chi-square tests for all comparisons between the major affiliations in planned private college attendance rate. According to this table, the rate of planned attendance at private colleges for graduates of Episcopal schools was significantly higher than the rate of attendance at such

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95 Table 24 Chi-Square Test of Significant Differences in Planned Private College Attendance Rates 323.89*

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96 Table 25 Rate of Planned Attendance at Private Colleges Relative to Graduating Class Size School Affiliation and Sizes Graduates going to a private college W7 % College-bound graduates going to a private college Independent Baptist Smal 1 26 Medium 14 Large 19 Nondenomi national Episcopal Southern Baptist Small Medium Large Small Medium Large Small Medium Large Presbyterian/Reformed Small Medium Large 9 31 17 16 32 239 6 21 4 28a 13 19 27 23 5 188 4 20 31 26 193 Five Major Affils. as a Whole Small Medium Large 51 155 309 4 11 11 Wte l "Small class" less than 20 graduates, "Medium class" 20 to 39 graduates, "Large class" over 40 graduates. a The figures associated with Medium Presbyterian/Reformed schools are not reliable.

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97 other Episcopal high schools. The description of one of these schools found in The Handbook of Private Schools, 1932 indicated that this school was providing a "traditional, New England-style college preparatory program." Such schools have been shown to have a high rate of graduates who matriculate at private, nonsectarian colleges (Hammack, 1931). A similar situation was found for one Presbyterian/Reformed high school with a medium graduating class. Compared to other Presbyterian/Reformed high schools, this school had a very high rate of planned private college attendance. Table 26 shows the values of chi-square tests for the comparisons of planned private college attendance rates within affiliations for schools with various sizes of graduating classes. The significant differences found in this table were the result of a few atypical schools with a high rate of planned private college attendance. For the other schools, there was not much variance in the rate of planned private college attendance for graduates of classes of different sizes. Rate of Planned Public College Attendance Previous research has shown that family income has a relationship to the rate of choice of public colleges and universities (Chapman, 1981). For this reason, the researcher divided public college attendance into two components, attendance at 2-year public colleges and attendance at 4-year public colleges. No

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93 Table 26 Chi-Square Test of Significant Differences in Rates of PI lanned Private College Attendance

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99 planned public college attendance was found for graduates of Southern Baptist high schools. The lowest rate of planned public college attendance among the major affiliations was found for Independent Baptist high school graduates. Among the smaller affiliations, a relatively high rate (over 60 percent) of planned attendance at public colleges was found for graduates of Assembly of God and Lutheran high schools and thus these affiliations were similar to Southern Baptist. A moderate rate (40 percent to 60 percent) of planned attendance at public colleges was found for Church of Christ, Christian and Missionary Alliance, and Church of God graduates and thus these affiliations were similar to Episcopal, Presbyterian/Reformed, and nondenomi national . A low rate (under 40 percent) of planned attendance at public colleges was found for graduates of Quaker, Seventh-Day Adventist, Methodist/Wesleyan, Free Will Baptist, Mennonite, and Pentecostal high schools. These affiliations were therefore similar to Independent Baptist in rate of planned public college attendance. Generally, the rate of planned attendance at public colleges was related to the rate of planned attendance at Protestant colleges. Affiliations with a low rate of planned attendance at Protestant colleges tended to have a high rate of planned attendance at public colleges.

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100 Table 27 Rate of Planned Attendance at Public Colleges for 1902 Graduates Studied

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101 Episcopal and Quaker high school graduates had a lower rate of planned attendance at public colleges than might have been expected because they had a relatively large percentage of students who planned to attend private colleges. Table 28 shows the values of chi-square tests for all comparisons between the major affiliations in planned public college attendance rate. A significant difference was found for every comparison except the comparison for Presbyterian/Reformed and nondenomi national graduates and for the comparison between Presbyterian/Reformed and Episcopal graduates. As mentioned in the Review of Related Literature, the student bodies in Presbyterian/ Reformed high schools came from a variety of denominational backgrounds and were similar to the student bodies in nondenomi national high schools. It was therefore expected that these two groups of schools would be similar in rates of planned attendance at public colleges and Protestant colleges. The lack of any significant difference in the rates of planned public college attendance for Episcopal graduates and Presbyterian/Reformed graduates was the result of a balance between Episcopal graduates favoring private colleges by about the same margin that Presbyterian/Reformed graduates favored Protestant colleges. As a result, the remaining college-bound students for these two affiliations chose public colleges at about the same rate.

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102 Table 28 Chi-Square Test of Significant Differences in Planned Public College Attendance Rates

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103 Table 29 Rate of Planned Attendance at Public College Relative to Graduating Class Size" Graduates going to Graduates going to Graduates School a 2-year public a 4-year public going to Affiliation college college public and Size college No.

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104 increased when medium classes were compared to small classes and when large classes were compared to medium classes. This smooth increase was not present for Southern Baptist graduates, however. For this affiliation, graduates of larger classes planned to attend public colleges at a lower rate than the graduates of medium classes. The researcher has no explanation for this phenomenon, other than the suggestion that the small number of students found in this particular category (medium Southern Baptist classes) resulted in an unreliable statistic. There was also an unexpected drop in the percentage of Episcopal graduates from medium classes that chose public colleges. An analysis of the responses from the medium Episcopal classes revealed that two schools had a high rate of planned attendance at private colleges. These two schools, therefore, had fewer graduates who chose public colleges. A description of one of these high schools characterized the school as having a "traditional, New England-style college preparatory program" ( The Handbook of Private Schools , 1982). This may indicate that this Episcopal school was offering a program that differed somewhat from the other schools with the Episcopal affiliation. If these two schools had not contributed data to this study, there woul d not have been a significant drop in the planned attendance rate at public colleges for the medium classes of Episcopal high schools.

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105 Table 30 shows the computed chi-square test statistics for the comparisons of planned public college attendance rates within affiliations for schools with various sizes of graduating classes. No significant differences in planned public college attendance rates were found for the different sizes of Independent Baptist and nondenomi national high school graduating classes. This finding correlates with the finding that these two affiliations did not significantly vary in rates of planned attendance at Protestant colleges for the different sizes of classes (See Table 18, p. 84). A significant difference in planned public college attendance rates was found for the comparison between medium and large Episcopal graduating classes. As previously mentioned, this finding was the result of the influence of two atypical schools. Significant differences in planned public college attendance rates were found for comparisons between small and medium Southern Baptist graduating classes and between medium and large Southern Baptist classes. It was the researcher's expectation that there would be a significant difference in the planned public college attendance rates for small and large Southern Baptist graduating classes. As shown in Table 29, there was a difference of 10 percent for the two rates. Once again, the small number of graduates who were college-bound from small Southern Baptist graduating classes may have made this test of significance unreliable. No significant

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106 Table 30 Chi-Square Test of Significant Differences in Rates of Planned Pub 1 i c

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107 matriculate at these colleges. Graduates of nondenomi national high schools chose 2-year public colleges at a higher rate than any of the other major affiliations. Episcopal graduates chose 2-year public colleges at the lowest rate of the major affiliations. Among the smaller affiliations, a high rate (20 percent or higher) of planned 2-year college attendance was found for graduates of Assembly of God, Lutheran, Free Will Baptist, and Church of God high schools. These small affiliations were therefore in the same range of 2-year public college attendance rates as Independent Baptist and nondenomi national graduates. A moderate rate (between 10 percent and 20 percent) of planned 2-year public college attendance was found for graduates of Church of Christ, Seventh-Day Adventist, Methodist/Wesleyan, Christian and Missionary Alliance, Mennonite, and Pentecostal high schools. These rates were similar to the rates for Southern Baptist and Presbyterian/Reformed graduates. A low rate (less than 10 percent) of planned attendance at 2-year public colleges, similar to the rate for Episcopal graduates, was found for graduates of Quaker high schools. Table 31 shows the values of chi -square tests for all comparisons between the major affiliations in planned 2-year public college attendance rates. The basis on which these comparisons were made was the planned rate of attendance at 2-year public colleges for all college-bound graduates. Significant differences in rates

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100 were found for every comparison except the comparison between Southern Baptist and Presbyterian/Reformed graduates. A significant difference between Independent Baptist and Southern Baptist graduates was not found, because Independent Baptist graduates tended to choose Protestant colleges while Southern Baptist graduates tended to choose 4-year public colleges. The balance resulted in about the same rate of choice for 2-year public colleges. A similar balance existed for Southern Baptist and Presbyterian/Reformed graduates in which Presbyterian/Reformed graduates favored Protestant colleges at about the same margin that Southern Baptist graduates favored 4-year public colleges. Table 31 Chi-Square Test of Significant Differences in Planned 2-Year Public College Attendance Rates School Affiliation Independent Baptist Southern Baptist Nondenomi national Episcopal ~ School Affiliation Southern NondenomEpiscopal Presbyterian/ Baptist i national Reformed 4.44 9.54*

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109 Table 29 (p. 103) shows the rate of planned 2-year public college attendance for the various sizes of graduating classes for high schools of the major affiliations. Comparatively little variation in planned 2-year public college attendance rates was found for the various sizes of Independent Baptist and Episcopal classes. Nondenomi national and Southern Baptist high school graduates, however, demonstrated a progressively decreasing rate of planned attendance at such colleges as the size of graduating class under consideration increased. In other words, the graduates of the larger nondenomi national and Southern Baptist classes were less likely to plan to attend 2-year public colleges than their counterparts from smaller classes. This same observation is true for graduates of Presbyterian/Reformed high schools except for the increase in planned public 2-year college attendance shown for the graduates of medium classes over the small classes. Almost no graduates from the large Presbyterian/Reformed high schools chose 2-year public colleges. A possible explanation for the rise in planned 2-year public college attendance rates for graduates of medium size classes is that many of these schools were located in Florida, a state in which 2-year public colleges were readily accessible.

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no Table 32 Chi -Square Test of Significant Differences in Rates of Planned 2-Year Public College Attendance for Graduating Classes of Different Sizes 5 1 ze comparisons ~ School Affiliation

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Ill graduating classes was sufficient to result in statistical significance for comparisons of the large classes with small classes and comparisons of large classes with medium classes. Table 33 shows the rate of choice of 2-year public colleges as a percentage of the graduates who chose public colleges. The percentages in this table differ considerably from the percentages that show the planned rate of 2-year public college attendance on the basis of over-all college attendance. This finding results because the various affiliations differed considerably in the rates at which their graduates chose private and Protestant colleges. The analysis reported in Table 33 eliminates the influence of attendance rates at nonpublic colleges. In is interesting to note that the rank order of affiliations based on planned 2-year public college attendance rates in Table 33 is about the same as the rank order of affiliations based on known high school tuition costs. The only difference in these two rank orders is found for the order of Presbyterian/Reformed and Southern Baptist affiliations. Available data suggest that Presbyterian/ Reformed high schools had higher yearly average tuition costs than Southern Baptist high schools. The two affiliations had the same rate of planned 2-year public college attendance.

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112 Table 33 Rate of Planned Attendance at 2-Year Public Colleges Based on Over-all Rate of Attendance at Public Colleges Public Affiliations Rate of Attendance at 2-Year Colleges for Graduates Attending Public Colleges No. Independent Baptist Nondenomi national Episcopal Southern Baptist Presbyteri an/Reformed 331

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113 Among the smaller affiliations, a high rate (over 50 percent) of planned 4-year public college attendance was not found for any of the affiliations. Thus, the rate of planned 4-year public college attendance for Southern Baptist graduates was considerably higher than any other affiliation. A moderate rate of planned 4-year public college attendance (20 percent to 50 percent) was found for graduates of Assembly of God, Church of Christ, Lutheran, and Christian and Missionary Alliance high schools. Graduates from these affiliations were in the same range of 4-year public college attendance as nondenomi national , Episcopal, and Presbyterian/ Reformed graduates. A comparatively low rate (under 20 percent) of planned 4-year public college attendance was found for graduates of Quaker, Seventh-Day Adventist, Methodist/Wesleyan, Free Will Baptist, Church of God, Mennonite, and Pentecostal high schools. These affiliations were therefore similar in planned 4-year public college attendance rate to Independent Baptist. Table 34 shows the values of chi-square tests for all comparisons between the major affiliations in planned 4-year public college attendance rates. Significant differences were found for every comparison except the comparison between Episcopal and Presbyterian/Reformed. Davis and Van Dusen (1975) showed that middle income families are most likely to send their children to state universities. Lower income families prefer 2-year public

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114 colleges and state colleges. As shown in the Review of Related Literature, the tuition rates at Episcopal and Presbyterian/Reformed high schools were the highest among the major affiliations. Families with children in Presbyterian/Reformed and Episcopal high schools would therefore have been most likely to be able to afford to send their children to 4-year public universities. Many of these institutions charged higher tuition rates for out-of-state students. The tendency of Episcopal graduates to favor private colleges was balanced by the tendency for Presbyterian/Reformed graduates to favor Protestant colleges. The result was that the rates of planned attendance at 4-year public colleges were about the same for these two affiliations. Table 34 Chi-Square Test of Significant Differences in Planned 4-Year Public College Attendance Rates

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115 Table 29 (p. 100) shows the rate of planned 4-year public college attendance for graduates of the various sizes of graduating classes for the five major affiliations. There was comparatively little variation in rates of planned 4-year public college attendance for graduates of the different sizes of Independent Baptist graduating classes. Among the other affiliations, however, except Episcopal, there was a tendency for graduates of the large classes to have a higher rate of planned attendance at 4-year public colleges than the graduates of the small graduating classes. For nondenomi national graduates, there was a progressive increase in the rate of planned attendance at such colleges with an increase in class size. For Southern Baptist graduates, there was a comparatively large increase in planned 4-year public college attendance rate for medium classes over small classes. There was a comparatively small decline, however, in the rate as large classes were compared to medium classes. With Presbyterian/Reformed graduates, there was a slight decline in planned 4-year public college attendance for graduates of the medium classes as compared to the graduates of the small classes. Table 35 shows the value of chi-square for the comparisons of planned 4-year public college attendance rates within affiliations for schools with various sizes of graduating classes. No significant differences were found for the various sizes of Independent Baptist high school graduating classes. For the other

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116 affiliations, except Episcopal, the larger graduating classes had a significantly higher rate of planned attendance at 4-year public colleges than the smaller graduating classes. Graduates of Episcopal high schools with medium graduating classes demonstrated a rate of planned attendance at 4-year public colleges that was significantly lower than the rate of planned attendance at such colleges for graduates of large graduating classes. This difference was due to the influence of two Episcopal high schools with a high rate of planned matriculation for their graduates at private colleges. Without data from these two schools, the significant difference noted in Table 35 for Episcopal high schools would not have existed. Table 35 Chi-Square Test of Significant Differences in Rates of Planned 4-Year Public College Attendance tor Graduating Classes of Different Sizes 5-j Ze comparisons ~ School Affiliation

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117 General Comparisons of Rates of College Choices This study found the rate of over-all planned college attendance to be higher for graduates of Protestant high schools in the South than the rate of college attendance for all high school graduates nationally. Graduates of Protestant high schools also had a higher rate of choice of 4-year colleges than all high school graduates nationally. In order to make this comparison, however, it was necessary to combine the rates of graduates planning to go to 4-year public colleges, private, nonsectarian colleges, and Protestant colleges. Nearly all private, nonsectarian colleges and Protestant colleges are 4-year colleges. Research has shown that graduates of the class of 1980 chose 4-year colleges at the rate of 35 percent within two years after their graduation ("Class of 1980," 1982). In this study, the rate of choice of such colleges exceeded 50 percent. Graduates of Protestant high schools also had a higher rate of choice of nonpublic colleges than all high school graduates nationally. In comparisons of the different Protestant affiliations of high schools in this research, it was useful to rank-order the major affiliations according to particular characteristics. For several comparisons, the order of ranking remained almost the same. The rank order of high school affiliations based on known tuition charges is the same as the rank order for average graduating class

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113 size and the rank order for over-all rate of planned college attendance. It is almost identical to the rank order for the rate of choice for 2-year public colleges. The affiliations ranked high in these areas were typically affiliations labeled "strong" by Kelley (1972). In most cases, the same comparisons based on rank order were also found for the smaller affiliations of high schools. Certain characteristics, such as a high rate of planned college attendance and a preference for state universities and private, nonsectarian colleges have been associated with students from middle and upper income families. These characteristics are also linked to students with relatively high academic goals. Other characteristics, such as a high rate of planned Protestant college attendance and a high rate of planned attendance at colleges with the same affiliation as the high school have been associated with commitment to Protestant ideology. As noted earlier, graduates from affiliations with a high rate of planned Protestant college attendance generally also had a high rate of planned attendance at colleges with the same affiliation as the high schools. Often, the colleges chosen by these graduates were colleges with strong ties to Protestant churches. The affiliations of high schools in this study were typically found to have graduates displaying characteristics of high academic goals or commitment to Protestant ideology. Although some schools

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119 were found to possess both characteristics in their graduates, no affiliation of schools as a whole possessed both. Several affiliations had graduates that were high in neither an academic orientation or an ideological commitment. Within affiliations, students graduating in smaller classes often demonstrated a higher level of ideological or spiritual commitment than their counterparts from larger graduating classes. On the other hand, graduates from larger graduating classes often possessed characteristics of higher academic goals than their counterparts from smaller graduating classes. The researcher speculated that certain types of students were attracted to particular affiliations and sizes of schools and that the differences in planned college attendance patterns were due to this phenomenon. Choice of College Major Responding administrators at many Protestant high schools found it difficult to specify the college majors chosen by their graduates. Several Episcopal high school administrators wrote a note on their survey instrument explaining that they did not encourage their graduates to choose a major until the second or third year of college. Some of these administrators indicated that most of their graduates pursued a liberal arts major. Except for the Presbyterian/Reformed affiliation, administrators of schools

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120 with large graduating classes were generally more uncertain about the college majors of their graduates than the administrators of schools with small graduating classes. It is possible that high school administrators may have had better recall for some college majors than others. The data from the smaller affiliations are not presented because the amount of uncertainty associated with the smaller number of graduates renders that data unreliable. Table 36 shows the reported rate of choice for each of the five college majors delineated in this research. The large amount of uncertainty for some categories precludes the opportunity for comparison. According to this table, the graduates of Independent Baptist high schools were the most likely to choose Bible/Theology as a college major. Graduates of Episcopal high schools were least 1 ikely to do so. Graduates of Presbyterian/Reformed high schools were most likely to choose the Business major. Episcopal graduates were the least likely to choose this major. Due to the low uncertainty factor for small and large graduating classes at Presbyterian/Reformed high schools, it is possible to compare the statistics for this affiliation. Graduates from the large graduating classes chose business at a higher rate than the graduates of the small classes.

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122 The education major was most likely to be chosen by graduates of Independent Baptist high schools. In this respect, this major was similar to the Bible/theology major. Graduates of Episcopal high schools were least likely to choose the education major. For the engineering major, no affiliation clearly predominated in the choice of this field of college study. This major had the lowest rate of choice of the five majors delineated in this study. Graduates from small graduating classes at Presbyterian/Reformed high schools chose engineering/technical at a higher rate than the graduates of the large classes. This drop in the choice of the engineering/technical major for large class graduates seems to correspond with the rise in the choice of the business major. The liberal arts major was chosen by a comparatively higher percentage of Episcopal high school graduates than any other affiliation. Lowest in the rate of choice of this major were graduates of Southern Baptist high schools. This low rate of choice for this major, however, for Southern Baptist graduates, may have been the result of the high degree of uncertainty among administrators concerning the college plans for graduates of large graduating classes. The results of Astin's (1902) survey of 188,000 freshmen differ somewhat from the results of this study. Astin reported that less than one percent of college freshmen in 1982 intended to pursue a

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123 Bible/theology major. This study, however, found that 3 percent of the graduates of Protestant high schools had chosen this major. Six percent of the freshmen in Astin's study intended to follow the education major. According to high school administrators, 12 percent of the graduates of Protestant high schools in the South planned to pursue this major. The rate of choice of the liberal arts major was nearly the same in Astin's study and this study. Astin, however, reported a higher rate of choice of the business major and the engineering major than was found in this study. Astin (1965) found in an earlier study that students possessing particular personality orientations were most likely to pursue certain college programs. Two of the traits delineated by Astin were "social" and "conventional." Students ranking high in social traits are most likely to pursue majors in education, nursing, sociology, psychology, and social work. Students with conventional traits are most likely to major in economics, accounting, secretarial science, and business. The differences found in the rate of choice of college majors between Astin's (1982) study sample of freshmen throughout the country and the graduates of Protestant high schools in the South suggest that the graduates of Protestant high schools in the South have a higher percentage of students with social traits while graduates as a whole have a higher percentage of students with conventional traits.

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124 Table 37 shows the rate at which the graduates of the major affiliations who chose Bible/theology as a college major planned to matriculate at each of the types of colleges. For the Bible/ theology major, there was a strong tendency to choose a college with the same affiliation as the high school. This tendency was strongest for the graduates of Independent Baptist high schools and weakest for graduates of Episcopal high schools. Presbyterian/ Reformed graduates who chose this major were relatively low in their rate of planned attendance at Presbyterian/Reformed colleges. This was again an indication of the nondenomi national character of Presbyterian/Reformed high schools. Table 38 lists the colleges chosen by 10 percent or more of the graduates of the major affiliations who majored in Bible/theology. It is interesting to note that 44 percent of the Bible/theology majors who graduated from Independent Baptist high schools planned to matriculate at three colleges. One of these colleges, Bob Jones University, was a nondenomi national college. Table 39 shows the rate at which the graduates of the major affiliations who chose the business major planned to matriculate at each of the various types of colleges. According to this table, most of these graduates chose public colleges for this major. Independent Baptist graduates chose Protestant colleges at a higher rate than any other major affiliation. These graduates, however,

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125 Table 37 College Choice for Bible/Theology Majors Going to Going to Going to Going to Going to School church same Affil. private public 2public 4Af filiation colleges colleges colleges year coll. year coll No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % Independent Baptist

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126 chose colleges with the same affiliation as their high school at a much lower rate than they chose Protestant colleges as a whole. Graduates of Southern Baptist and Presbyterian/Reformed high schools chose public colleges at a higher rate than the graduates of the other major affiliations. Episcopal graduates chose private, nonsectarian colleges for this major at a rate higher than the other major affiliations. The type of public college chosen for the business major varied for the different affiliations. Independent Baptist, nondenominational, and Southern Baptist high school graduates chose 2-year public colleges at relatively high rates. Independent Baptist graduates were more likely to choose a 2-year public college than they were to choose a 4-year public college for this major. For all the other affiliations, the 4-year public college was favored over the 2-year public college. Presbyterian/Reformed graduates chose the 4-year public college at the highest rate of the major affiliations for the business major. Table 40 lists the colleges chosen by 10 percent or more of the graduates of the major affiliations who majored in business. The only college listed on this table was Bob Jones University, which was chosen by 14 percent of the business majors from Independent Baptist high schools. The high rate of planned attendance at this college explains why only 19 percent of the 42 percent of

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127 Table 39 College Choice for Business Majors

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123 Independent Baptist graduates who chose a Protestant college for the business major matriculated at an Independent Baptist college. Bob Jones University is nondenominational in affiliation. Table 41 shows the rate at which the graduates of the major affiliations who chose the education major matriculated at each of the various types of colleges. According to this table, Protestant colleges were chosen for this major at a higher rate than any other type of college. Independent Baptist graduates chose Protestant colleges at a rate much higher than the other affiliations. They also chose colleges with the same affiliation as their high school at a rate much higher than the other affiliations. For affiliations other than Independent Baptist, most education majors chose public colleges. Private colleges were chosen by a relatively high percentage of Episcopal and Presbyterian/Reformed graduates for this major. For all affiliations other than Independent Baptist, graduates who chose public colleges generally chose 4-year colleges. Table 42 lists the colleges chosen by 10 percent or more of the graduates of the major affiliations who majored in education. Four colleges were chosen by 62 percent of the education majors from Independent Baptist high schools. One of these, Bob Jones University, claimed 22 percent of the available students. For the other affiliations, no college claimed 10 percent or more of the education majors.

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129 Table 41 College Choice for Education Majors Going to Going to Going to Going to School church same Affil. private public 2Affiliation colleges colleges colleges year coll No. % No. % No. % No. % Going to public 4year col 1. No. % Independent Baptist

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130 Table 43 College Choice for Engineering/Technical Majors Going to Going to Going to Going to Going to School church same Affil. private public 2public 4Af filiation colleges colleges colleges year coll. year coll No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % Independent Baptist

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131 Planned attendance at 2-year public colleges exceeded the rate of planned attendance at 4-year public colleges for Independent Baptist and Presbyterian/Reformed graduates. Graduates of Independent Baptist, nondenomi national , and Episcopal high schools also reached their highest rate of planned attendance at 4-year public colleges for this major. On the whole, 4-year public colleges were favored over 2-year public colleges for the engineering/technical major. For the engineering/technical major, there was no college that was chosen by 10 percent or more of the total number of students from any affiliation of high schools. This finding was reflective of the tendency to choose in-state public colleges. Even graduates of Independent Baptist high schools did not have a popular Protestant college for this major. Table 44 shows the rate at which the graduates of the major affiliations who chose the liberal arts major planned to matriculate at each of the various types of colleges. According to this table, most of the graduates who pursued a liberal arts major planned to matriculate at a public college. Nearly half of the graduates from Independent Baptist and Presbyterian/Reformed high schools who chose the liberal arts major, however, chose Protestant colleges. Presbyterian/Reformed graduates who majored in liberal arts planned to attend colleges with the same affiliation as their high school at the highest rates of the major affiliations. Nearly one third of

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132 Table 44 College Choice for Liberal Arts Majors " ~ Going to Going to Going to Going to Going to School church same Affil. private public 2public 4colleges colleges colleges year coll. year coll. No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % Independent Baptist

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133 the Episcopal graduates planned to pursue their liberal arts major at a private, nonsectarian college. For every affiliation, 4-year public colleges were preferred over 2-year public colleges for this major. Table 45 lists the colleges chosen by 10 percent or more of the graduates of the major affiliations who majored in liberal arts. Bob Jones University, a nondenomi national college, was chosen by 15 percent of the Independent Baptist graduates who planned to major in liberal arts. No other college attracted 10 percent or more of the graduates from any particular major affiliation. Rate of Planned In-State College Attendance Table 46 shows the percentage of college-bound graduates of Protestant high schools that planned to remain in their home state to attend college. According to this table, 60 percent of these graduates planned to do so. Graduates of Southern Baptist high schools were most likely to plan to stay in their home state and graduates of Episcopal high schools were least likely to do so among the major affiliations. Among the smaller affiliations, graduates of Lutheran and Pentecostal high schools had the highest rate (over 80 percent) of planning to remain in their home state to attend college. In this respect, the graduates from these two affiliations of high schools were similar to Southern Baptist graduates. The data for Quaker

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134 Table 46 Rate of Planned Attendance at In-State Colleges for 1982 Graduates Studied ~~ School Affiliation Going to an In-State College

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135 graduates were incomplete. A moderate rate (50 percent to 80 percent) of planned in-state college attendance was found for graduates of Assembly of God, Church of Christ, Methodist/Wesleyan, Free Will Baptist, Christian and Missionary Alliance, Church of God, and Mennonite high school graduates. A moderate rate was also found for graduates of Independent Baptist, nondenomi national, and Presbyterian/Reformed high schools among the major affiliations. Seventh-Day Adventist high school graduates planned to remain in their home state at the lowest rate (8 percent). Table 47 shows the computed chi-square test statistics for all comparisons between the major affiliations for planned in-state college attendance. According to this table, there was a significant difference in the rates of planned in-state college attendance for every comparison except the comparison between Independent Baptist and Presbyterian/Reformed. A high rate of planned attendance at colleges located out-of-state may have indicated a high degree of commitment to Protestant education. Such a commitment was evident for the graduates of Seventh-Day Adventist high schools. A high rate or planned attendance at such colleges may also have indicated the ability to pay higher tuition charges and higher costs due to living away from home.

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136 Table 47 Chi-Square Test of Significant Differences in Rates of Planned In-State College Attendance

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137 O) < 01 ri— o .a o i— i— CM
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138 only affiliation in which more than half of the graduates pursuing this particular major planned to leave their home state. According to Table 48, 53 percent of the graduates of the five major affiliations planned to remain in their home state to pursue an education major. Independent Baptist graduates were the most likely of the major affiliations to plan to leave their home state for this major. The least likely to do so were Southern Baptist graduates. Most graduates of the five major affiliations who chose the engineering major planned to remain in their home state (70 percent). A little over half of the graduates of Episcopal and Presbyterian/Reformed high schools, however, planned to leave their home state for this major. Nondenomi national graduates were the most likely to plan to remain in their home state for this major. About 60 percent of the liberal arts majors from the major affiliations planned to remain in their home state to pursue this course of study. The least likely to plan to stay within their home state were Episcopal graduates. The most likely to plan to stay were Southern Baptist graduates. Rate of Planned Attendance at Colleges with Various Yearly Tuition Charges Table 49 shows the rates at which graduates of the various Protestant high schools chose colleges categorized according to yearly tuition charges. For this study, yearly tuition charges were

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139 k— o <0 ^t So ITS O w C71C1 so *T3 * . o> — I— r— I CO o in w 01 o i— LO CO -|N| ,-r-c CT> I CM r— CM <* i lt> «*(n 'Kl i— comocMi— woiflonNj t— I otooioi^cocvjinciO'tailM pj| ri— "3" CM CO CM CM in |CM ro co <-o rm kr> ro cr> Ln co «* i— i— i— U3 i— pJ >» O CM CM "* lo j m «* ro cm ro h* ' ro co r-^ i— in cr> in <• cm i— ro ** t— m co |ro | n o oi n vo Ln co i— in i— ryicocor^cOi— cMcococrir— mh-i — 00 l~^ CO CI CM , — i — =* **• co CM CO rr— i— cm o cr> co oi to insi-cMco<-co|co omcoocor-.cor— cr>mocM in cri — cm i— r—cr>in«*cor— i— cncok~co «* <-o CMcooom.— oo**-|ro CMCM CO r— CM CO CM i— CM 4-> C co co a> •ral o. t= >> o _E jQ to +j co o c t3 a) 4O C <0 4-> CO O) >, CO •!> o> ts: T3 r!-> _ •cC co 0.-0 "O o> >3: CO «3 CO i— 0> -rO S <3 i— C 4Ol +-» >> o cicoi — a o+> ii i— ro r: •-r-rvo ja .e JS--P-OI3-P-E c o Eooioico coooa>io %^ jz >+JO)S-3C!=JZ coj=330>o>i-^:x:aia)4-> < O Cr_l OOSLt-OOSO-O

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140 grouped into three divisions; colleges with yearly charges under $1,000, colleges with yearly charges from $1,000 to $2,999, and colleges with yearly charges from $3,000 and higher. These three categories were labeled "low," "medium," and "high," respectively. In 1932, many public colleges had yearly charges in the low range. The yearly charges of many Protestant colleges were in the medium range. Private, nonsectarian colleges typically had charges in the high range. There was a great deal of overlap, however, in price ranges. Nonresident students at public colleges were often charged tuition costs in the medium or high range. Yearly charges at Protestant colleges, although predominantly in the medium range, could occasionally be found in the low and high ranges. A few private, nonsectarian colleges had yearly charges in the medium range, although most charges at these colleges were in the high range. According to Table 49, nearly equal proportions of college-bound graduates chose colleges with low and medium tuition charges (37 percent and 33 percent respectively). A smaller percentage (22 percent) chose colleges with high tuition charges. Graduates from Southern Baptist high schools were most likely to choose colleges with yearly charges in the low range. This was reflective of the tendency of graduates from Southern Baptist high schools to choose public colleges in their home state. The affiliation of high

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141 schools least likely to choose colleges with charges in the low range was Episcopal. Graduates of these high schools typically chose private, nonsectarian colleges or out-of-state public colleges. Among the smaller affiliations of high schools, college-bound graduates of Assembly of God and Lutheran schools chose colleges in tne low range of charges at a relatively high rate (over 60 percent). Graduates of these high schools were therefore similar to Southern Baptist graduates. A moderate rate (between 20 percent and 60 percent) of planned attendance at colleges with low tuition charges was found for graduates of Church of Christ, Methodist/ Wesleyan, Free Will Baptist, Christian and Missionary Alliance, Church of God, and Pentecostal high schools. These graduates were similar in rate of choice of colleges with low charges to graduates of nondenomi national, Independent Baptist, and Presbyterian/ Reformed high schools. A high rate (over 60 percent) of planned attendance at colleges with low tuition charges was found for graduates of Assembly of God and Lutheran high schools. These graduates were therefore similar to graduates of Southern Baptist high schools. According to Table 49, graduates of Independent Baptist high scool s were most likely to choose colleges with yearly tuition costs in the moderate range. This was reflective of the tendency of graduates of this affiliation to choose Protestant colleges, many of

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142 which had charges in this range. The affiliation of high schools least likely to choose colleges in the moderate range was Southern Baptist. This was the result of the fact that graduates of Southern Baptist high schools were least likely to choose Protestant colleges (See Table 15, p. 76). Among the smaller affiliations of high schools, college-bound graduates of Methodist/Wesleyan and Free Will Baptist schools chose colleges with moderate charges at relatively high rates (over 50 percent). These affiliations were therefore similar to Independent Baptist. A moderate rate (between 20 percent and 50 percent) of planned attendance at colleges with moderate yearly charges was found for college-bound graduates of Assembly of God, Church of Christ, Christian and Missionary Alliance, Church of God, Mennonite, and Pentecostal high schools. These affiliations were therefore similar to nondenomi national , Episcopal, Southern Baptist, and Presbyterian/Reformed. A low rate (less than 20 percent) of planned attendance at colleges with moderate tuition charges was found for college-bound graduates of Quaker, Lutheran, and Seventh-Day Adventist high schools. None of the major affiliations had rates of planned attendance at colleges with moderate tuition charges in this range. Seventh-Day Adventist graduates chose either public colleges with charges in the low range or Seventh-Day Adventist colleges with

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143 charges in the high range. Graduates of Lutheran and Quaker high schools, although less committed to the denomination of their high school for post-secondary education, nevertheless showed a similar division in choosing, for the most part, colleges with either low or high yearly charges. According to Table 49, college-bound graduates of Episcopal high schools were most likely to choose colleges with yearly tuition charges in the high range. This was the result of a high rate of choice of out-of-state public colleges and private, nonsectarian colleges by graduates of this affiliation. Graduates of Independent Baptist and Southern Baptist high schools were least likely to choose colleges in this charge range. Among the smaller affiliations, a high rate (50 percent and higher) of choice of colleges with high tuition charges was found for college-bound graduates of Seventh-Day Adventist and Mennonite high schools. It is likely that Quaker graduates also chose these colleges at a high rate. It is not possible to discern this, however, because of the high uncertainty for the charges of colleges chosen by Quaker graduates. Due to the fact, however, that Quaker graduates were known to have chosen low and moderate charge colleges at a low rate, it is quite possible that most Quaker graduates chose colleges with high tuition charges. A moderate choice rate (10 percent to 50 percent) for colleges with moderate tuition charges

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144 was found for college-bound graduates of Assembly of God, Church of Christ, Lutheran, Methodi st/Wesleyan, and Christian and Missionary Alliance high schools. These affiliations were therefore similar to nondenomi national and Presbyterian/Reformed affiliations. A low rate of choice (less than 10 percent) for colleges with low tuition charges was found for college-bound graduates of Free Will Baptist, Church of God, and Pentecostal high schools. These graduates were therefore similar to the college-bound graduates from Independent Baptist and Southern Baptist high schools. Table 50 shows the college charges for Bible/theology majors from the major affiliations. Most Bible/theology majors had yearly tuition charges in the moderate range. Exceptions to this finding were several colleges with a Christian Reformed affiliation which had tuition charges in the upper range. The Protestant colleges with charges in the low range were very small institutes operated by local churches. This type of Protestant college attracted nearly 10 percent of the graduates of Independent Baptist and nondenomi national high schools who majored in Bible/theology. Table 51 shows the college charges for business majors from the major affiliations. According to this table, charges tended to be in the low range. This finding reflected the tendency of many graduates to choose public colleges for this major. Episcopal high school graduates had higher charges for this major because they

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145 Table 50 College Charges for Bible/Theology Majors School Affiliation Yearly Charges

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146 Table 51 College Charges for Business Majors School Affiliation Yearly Charges $U $999 $1000 $2999 $3000 and higher Ho: % No: % w. % — Independent Baptist

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147 Graduates of nondenominational high schools who planned to major in education were about equally divided between the low and moderate ranges of college charges. This was the result of similar percentages of students choosing public colleges and Protestant colleges. Very few Episcopal high school graduates chose education as a college major and those who did usually did not attend an in-state college. This pattern resulted in charges mostly in the moderate and high ranges for graduates of this affiliation. Southern Baptist graduates, with a strong tendency to plan to attend in-state public colleges, had college costs for education mostly in the low range. Presbyterian/Reformed graduates were fairly evenly divided among the different types of colleges for the education major. For this affiliation, there was a tendency to plan to go to out-of-state colleges and private, nonsectarian colleges. Most of these colleges had charges in the high range. Table 53 shows college charges for engineering/technical majors. According to this table, most of the graduates pursuing this major chose colleges with charges in the low range. This was reflective of the tendency to choose in-state public colleges, for this major. Graduates of Episcopal high schools, however, still tended to choose colleges with charges in the high range because of their preference for private, nonsectarian colleges and out-of-state public colleges. The relatively high rate of choice of colleges

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148 rarely chose private, nonsectarian colleges or out-of-state public colleges for an engineering/technical major and therefore the number of students paying charges in the high range was small. Table 54 shows the college charges for liberal arts majors. For many of the major affiliations, college charges were split between the low and moderate ranges of college charges. Those affiliations in which students tended to plan to enroll in in-state public colleges generally had charges in the lower range. Those affiliations from which graduates relied heavily on Protestant colleges usually had the highest rate of planned attendance at colleges with moderate charges. Many Episcopal and Presbyterian/ Reformed graduates planned to leave their home states to attend public colleges for the liberal arts major. This pattern of planned college attendance resulted in tuition charges in the high range. For most affiliations, the percentage of students with college charges in the high range was greater for the liberal arts major than for any other major. This chapter has presented information concerning the planned college attendance patterns of graduates of Protestant high schools in the South. For each of the eight research questions, data were presented and discussed. Chapter Five will give a summary of the findings and offer conclusions. Recommendations for further research will also be given.

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149 Table 53 College Charges for Engineering/Technical Majors School Affiliation Yearly Charges $0 $999 $1000 $2999 $3000 and higher RoT % W. % Hoi % Independent Baptist

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CHAPTER V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS This chapter contains a summary of research procedures and results. The results are examined and interpreted in light of the information presented in Chapter II. Following this discussion is a statement of the conclusions of this research and recommendations for future study. Background of the Study The scope of Protestant secondary education is wery broad and encompasses a wide variety of school organizations and philosophies. Such education, however, is distinct from public secondary education in at least three ways. Firstly, families with children in Protestant secondary schools must pay for this service through tuition. Secondly, these schools have some form and degree of commitment to Protestant ideology. Thirdly, Protestant high schools are generally smaller in size than their public school counterparts. While these three areas distinguish Protestant high schools from public high schools, they also provide a basis for examining the differences in Protestant schools. For example, while it is true that nearly all Protestant high schools charge tuition, the amount 150

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151 of tuition varies greatly. The same observation could be made about the degree of commitment to Protestant ideology. Also, while school size is generally smaller than public school size, the number of yearly graduates from Protestant high schools studied in this research ranged from one to over three hundred students in 1982. Enrollment in many colleges in the United States is expected to decline in the nineteen eighties (Spence, 1977). For this reason, many colleges are strengthening their student recruitment efforts. In order to do this, college recruitment officers should identify their potential market fields of students (Ihlanfeldt, 1975). Linkages between these market fields and their particular colleges should be established (Chamberlain & Loewer, 1932). Duggan (1976) claimed that college recruitment officers should understand the make-up of student bodies in nonpublic high schools in terms of their numbers, range of abilities, and financial resources. In this study, the researcher attempted to collect information from e\iery Protestant high school in the South. For this purpose, a list of high schools was compiled from available directories. A survey instrument, requesting high school administrators to list, among other things, the colleges chosen by their 1982 graduates according to categories of college majors, was sent to all the schools on the list. A total of 660 administrators, out of a possible 906, responded by completing and returning the survey

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152 instrument. After eliminating nine unusable replies, data from 651 Protestant high schools (71 percent of the total) were organized according to religious affiliations. No attempt was made to confirm the data provided by the administrators to see if students actually enrolled in the colleges listed. The chi-square test of statistical significance was used to determine the degree of differences observed between affiliations and within affiliations on a number of measures. The level of statistical significance was set at .01. Affiliations of Protestant High Schools Studied Although administrators from over 20 different affiliations of Protestant high schools participated in this study, administrators from five major affiliations constituted about 80 percent of the total. These five major affiliations generally varied in average tuition charges, average size of graduating classes, and philosophy. The variations among the major affiliations of high schools were similar to the variations among the smaller affiliations. The largest affiliation of Protestant high schools in the South in 1982 was Independent Baptist. The high schools with this affiliation were generally located in Independent Baptist churches. The administrators of these schools were often a part of the staff of the sponsoring Independent Baptist church (Towns, 1974, p. 63). The next largest affiliation of Protestant high schools was the group that called itself "nondenomi national." The schools with this

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153 affiliation had chosen to de-emphasize denominational distinctives and to develop a broad appeal. Some of these schools were operated in their own facilities. Others were conducted as ministries of nondenomi national churches and shared facilities with these churches (Towns, 1974, p. 59). The third largest group of Protestant high schools in the South was the Episcopal schools. These schools had the least ties to Protestant ideology, and, according to an Episcopal educator, they generally served as elite college preparatory schools (C. Fulton, personal communication, July 7, 1933). Many of these schools had been in existence for a comparatively long time. The fourth largest group of Protestant high schools in the South was the Southern Baptist schools. Some of these schools were closely affiliated with a particular Southern Baptist church. Other Southern Baptist high schools were more independently operated. The fifth largest group of Protestant high schools was made up of schools associated with the organization "Christian Schools International." These schools were essentially of Presbyterian and Christian Reformed affiliation, although their students, according to one of their administrators in the South, were typically drawn from many denominational affiliations (J. Hoffman, personal communication, June 30, 1983). A relatively long history and commitment to Calvinist theology were distinctive features of these schools.

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154 Independent Baptist high schools were found throughout each of the 14 southern states in this study. Several of such schools often existed in one locality. Episcopal and Presbyterian/Reformed schools, however, had only been established in certain areas of the South. Southern Baptist and nondenomi national high schools were fairly widespread, but smaller in number than Independent Baptist high schools. The average tuition charge at Episcopal high schools in 1902 exceeded $2,000. Charges for boarding students at some Episcopal high schools were greater than $5,000. Yearly tuition charges at Presbyterian/Reformed high schools in the South in 1982 averaged about $1,500. Known yearly tuition charges in 1932 for Independent Baptist, nondenomi nati onal , and Southern Baptist high schools averaged relatively close to $1,000. A check of available tuition information indicated that the average tuition at Independent Baptist high schools was the lowest of the three and the average tuition at Southern Baptist high schools was the highest. Among these groups, however, tuition at the various individual high schools varied from $500 to $1,500 for the year. The size of the average graduating class at each of the major affiliations varied considerably. Table 55 lists these average graduating class sizes in order of increasing size. For purposes of

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155 Table 55 Average Graduating Class Sizes for the Major Affiliations of High Schools Affiliation of Number of students in High Schools average graduating class Independent Baptist * TC5 — — Mondenomi national 15 Southern Baptist 33 Presbyterian/Reformed 35 Episcopal 43 comparison, the researcher categorized graduating class sizes as "small" (1 to 19 graduates), "medium" (20 to 39 graduates), and "large" (40 or more graduates) . Responses from the smaller affiliations of high schools were limited from 1 to 34 schools. Such a small representation prevented the researcher from conducting several statistical tests. No attempt was made to study the history or philosophy of the schools of these smaller affiliations or determine their average yearly tuition charges. Average graduating class size was computed, however, and it was found that Assembly of God, Methodist/Wesleyan, Free Will Baptist, Christian and Missionary Alliance, Church of God, Mennonite, and Pentecostal high schools had average graduating class sizes that the researcher categorized as "small." "Medium" graduating classes were found for Lutheran and Church of Christ high schools. Quaker and Seventh-Day Adventist high schools were found to have "large" average graduating classes.

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156 The various Protestant affiliations are known to vary in the strength of their commitment to Protestant ideals. Listed below are several Protestant affiliations in an order established by Kelley (1972) from strongest to weakest. Evangelicals and Pentecostal s Churches of Christ Seventh-Day Adventists Church of God Church of Christ, Scientist Southern Baptist Convention Lutheran Church (Missouri Synod) American Lutheran Church Lutheran Church in America Southern Presbyterian Church Reformed Church in America Episcopal Church American Baptist Convention United Presbyterian Church United Methodist Church United Church of Christ Kelley did not identify the Christian Reformed affiliation in this listing, but he did claim that it was stronger than the Reformed Church in America (p. 29). Independent Baptists and some members of the nondenominational affiliation are classified as "Evangelicals." Other members of the nondenominational affiliation could be classified at lower ranks in Kelley's listing, depending on their beliefs. It is interesting to note that the stronger religions in Kelley's listing have been most active in establishing schools at all levels in recent years. Economic Factors Related to the Rate and Pattern of College Attendance Family income has been shown to be a major determinant in the decision of whether or not to go to college (Doerrman, 1976).

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157 Students from comparatively wealthy homes are more likely to choose state universities than any other type of college. Students coming from the wealthiest homes tend to matriculate at private, nonsectarian colleges. Students from families with lower incomes attend 2-year public colleges at the highest rates (Davis and Van Dusen, 1975). Attendance at 2-year public colleges, however, may also depend on their accessibility and the quality of programs offered at these institutions. College-bound graduates in some parts of the South may choose a 4-year public college because a 2-year public college is not available in their area. Commitment to Protestant ideology may cause a graduate to disregard the public colleges altogether and choose a Protestant college. Thus, a group of students strongly committed to Protestant ideology may deviate from the pattern of college attendance that may have been expected on the basis of family income. High School Graduating Class Size as a Factor in the Pattern of College Attendance For the purposes of this research, it was important to know if the size of graduating class had a relationship to the rate and pattern of planned college attendance. In most cases, the size of the high school graduating class is directly related to the enrollment of the entire

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150 school. In schools not supported by public tax money or privately endowed, enrollment and tuition charges may influence the size of curricular offerings. Assuming that families have a choice in where to send their children to high school, the size of curricular offerings may be an important determiner of the make-up of a student body. Families with college-bound students would naturally seek for high schools with college preparatory programs. As previously noted, several Independent Baptist high schools are often located in the same community. Such schools may therefore compete with each other and thus keep the size of enrollment lower than it may have been if there was only one school of such an affiliation in the community. In most cases, such competition does not exist for Presbyterian/Reformed high schools and Episcopal high schools because there is likely to be only one of such schools in a community. In communities in which the market for Protestant secondary education is small, it would be expected that the Protestant schools in such an area would be small. Small size could also be the result of poor quality or restricted enrollment. As noted in Chapter Two, some Protestant schools restrict their enrollment to members of the sponsoring church. Pattillo and MacKenzie (1973) reported that small church-related colleges have difficulty in providing a breadth of academic

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159 experiences for students because of the lack of faculty members who are committed to the ideology of the denomination and also academically competent. This problem is magnified by the expectation in some denominations that the church-related college should admit and provide educational opportunities for all the high school graduates of that particular denomination, regardless of aptitude or interest. Pattillo and MacKenzie (1978) also mentioned several advantages for small church-related colleges. They claimed that such colleges often have a nucleus of committed people who stay with the institution. The opportunity for close contact between teacher and students is another advantage for the small college. Such contact can be an important factor in the encouragement of intellectual activity. Although Pattillo and MacKenzie addressed the problem of enrollment size on the college level, their observations may be true for all Protestant educational institutions, including high schools. Such factors as academic quality, commitment to Protestant ideology, and the opportunity to directly influence student thinking and decision-making may be related to graduating class size.

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160 Summary of Research Questions Rate of Planned College Attendance The first question of this study was, what percentage of the students graduating from Protestant high schools in the South in 1982 planned to attend college the following fall? According to the results of this research, the graduates of such schools planned to enroll in college the following fall at an average rate of about 70 percent. This compares with the national rate of college attendance of 51 percent for the graduates of all high schools (Yoong, 1933). Table 56 shows in descending order the percentages of the graduates of each of the five major affiliations who planned to enroll in college in the fall . The differences in planned college attendance rates for the graduates of the major affiliations were found to be statistically different for every comparison except that of Episcopal and Presbyterian/Reformed. Analysis of the data, however, revealed that the rate of college attendance for Episcopal high school graduates may have been higher than 90 percent because responding administrators noted that only three percent of their graduates were definitely known to not have plans to enroll in college in the fall of 1982. Among the smaller affiliations, graduates of Quaker high schools planned to matriculate at college at a high rate (over 80 percent)

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161 Table 56

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162 Independent Baptist graduates. Mo statistical treatment was done to find significant differences between the smaller affiliations of high schools. Generally, a lower rate of planned college attendance was also found for the affiliations that had a lower average yearly tuition charge. Information concerning tuition charges was not available for the smaller affiliations. Affiliations labeled "strong" by Kelley (1972) typically had lower rates of planned college attendance. In order to determine if the graduates of Protestant high schools varied in their rate of planned college attendance according to the size of their graduating class, the researcher divided the data into three categories based on graduatng class size. Table 57 shows the rates of planned college attendance for graduates of small, medium, and large Protestant high school classes. The differences in planned college attendance rates in Table 57 were found to be statistically significant for all comparisons of graduating class size. The researcher assumed that a determination of the college attendance rates for the graduates with unknown plans would not alter the results of the test for statistical significance. For each of the five major affiliations of high schools, statistically significant differences in planned college attendance rates were found for the graduates of different sizes of

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163 Table 57 Rate of Planned College Attendance for Graduates of the Major Affiliations of High Schools as a Whole Relative to Graduating Class "STze Percentage Percentage Unknov/n Size of Graduating Enrolled in Not Enrolled Percentage Class College in College Small Graduating Class 57 38 5 (1-19 graduates) Medium Graduating Class 71 17 11 (20 to 39 graduates) Large Graduating Class 77 13 10 (40 or mure graduates) Independent Baptist, nondenomi national , and Southern Baptist graduating classes. Graduates from Episcopal and Presbyterian/ Reformed high schools did not vary significantly in planned college attendance rates for the different sizes of graduating classes. According to the results of this research and available tuition information, Protestant high schools with tuition charges over $1,500 for the year did not vary significantly in college attendance rates relative to graduating class size. High schools with yearly tuition charges lower than $1,500 showed a significantly lower rate of college attendance for graduates of schools with smaller graduating classes. Presumably, high schools with smaller

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164 graduating classes were not able to attract a relatively high percentage of college-bound students unless they had relatively high yearly tuition charges. Rate of Planned Protestant College Attendance The second question of this study was, what percentage of students graduating from Protestant high schools in the South in 1982 planned to attend a Protestant college the following fall? According to the results of this study, about 24 percent of the graduates of such schools planned to matriculate in the fall to a Protestant college. Of the college-bound graduates, about 36 percent planned to attend such a college. Table 58 shows the rate of choice for Protestant colleges in descending order for college-bound graduates of the major affiliations of high schools. Table 58 Rate of Planned Protestant College Attendance for Graduates of the Major Affiliations of High Schools in 1982 ~ Percent of College-bound Affiliation Graduates Enrolled in Protestant College in Fall, 1982 Independent Baptist 59 Nondenomi national 35 Presbyterian/ Re formed 32 Episcopal 22 Southern Baptist 10

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165 The differences in rates of planned attendance at Protestant colleges were statistically significant for every comparison except for the one between nondenominational and Presbyterian/Reformed. Appendix C contains a listing of the Protestant colleges chosen by the graduates in this study. Independent Baptist colleges were most popular for graduates of Independent Baptist high schools, nondenominational colleges were often chosen by graduates of Independent Baptist, nondenominational, and Presbyterian/Reformed high schools. Southern Baptist colleges had a broad appeal and were frequently chosen by graduates of all the major affiliations. Presbyterian/Reformed colleges were popular with Episcopal and Presbyterian/Reformed graduates. Methodist colleges were a frequent choice of Episcopal high school graduates. The most popular colleges for graduates of Independent Baptist high schools were Liberty 3aptist College (Independent Baptist), Tennessee Temple University (Independent Baptist), and Bob Jones University (nondenominational). These same colleges, although chosen at lower rates than Independent Baptist graduates, were also the most popular for nondenominational high school graduates. Episcopal graduates did not plan to attend any particular college at comparatively high rates. The most frequently chosen colleges for graduates of this affiliation, however, were Wake Forest University (Southern Baptist), Hampden -Sydney College (Presbyterian), and Emory University (Methodist). Graduates of Presbyterian/Reformed high

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166 schools most frequently chose Covenant college and Samford University. Baylor University and Furman University were the most popular choices for Southern Baptist graduates. Pace (1972) and Pattillo and MacKenzie (1978) pointed out that Protestant colleges vary in their commitment of Protestant ideology. Some colleges are close to detachment from their Protestant heritage. Among the smaller affiliations, a comparatively high rate (over 40 percent) of planned attendance at Protestant colleges was found for graduates of Church of Christ, Seventh-Day Adventist, Methodist/Wesleyan, Free Will Baptist, Christian and Missionary Alliance, Mennonite, and Pentecostal high schools. These affiliations were therefore similar to the Independent Baptist affiliation in planned rate of Protestant college attendance. A moderate rate (between 20 percent and 40 percent) of planned Protestant college attendance was found for graduates of Assembly of God, Lutheran, and Church of God high schools. The rate of planned Protestant college attendance for these affiliations was similar to the rate for nondenomi national , Presbyterian/Reformed, and Episcopal affiliations. The lowest rate (under 20 percent) in planned Protestant college attendance was found for graduates of Quaker nigh schools and thus these graduates were similar to the graduates from Southern Baptist high schools. No statistical treatment was done to

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167 find significant differences between the smaller affiliations of high schools. Generally, a lower rate of planned Protestant college attendance was found for affiliations that Kelley (1972) labeled as "weak." An exception to this, however, was found for Southern Baptist graduates. Kelley labeled Southern Baptist as a "strong" denomination. As previously noted, however, Southern Baptists have declared their support for the public school system (Brigham, 1951) and this support apparently extends to the college level. In order to determine if the rate of planned Protestant college attendance varied with graduating class size, the researcher divided the data in Table 59 into categories for graduates of small, medium, and large Protestant high schools for the five major affiliations. Table 59 Rate of Planned Protestant College Attendance for Graduates of the Major Affiliations of High Schools as a Whole Relative to Graduating Class Size """""" Percentage of College-bound Size of Graduating Class Graduates Enrolled in Protestant College in Fall, 1932 Small Graduating Class 50% (1-19 graduates) Medium Graduating Class 36% (20 to 39 graduates) Large Graduating Class 27% (40 or more graduates)

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168 The differences in planned Protestant college attendance rates were found to be statistically significant for all comparisons of graduating class size. For each of the five major affiliations of high schools, statistically significant differences in planned Protestant college attendance rates were found for Southern Baptist and Presbyterian/Reformed graduates. Graduates from small classes at these two affiliations of high schools planned to matriculate at Protestant colleges at significantly higher rates than the graduates of the larger classes. Graduates from Independent Baptist, nondenomi national , and Episcopal high schools did not vary significantly in planned Protestant college attendance rate for the different sizes of graduating classes. According to the results of this research, graduates of the larger classes in certain affiliations were less likely to plan to matriculate at Protestant colleges than the graduates from smaller classes. The graduates of the larger classes were more likely to plan to enroll in colleges without any ties to Protestantism. Whether or not this indicated less commitment to Protestant ideology for these graduates would depend on an analysis of the degree of commitment demonstrated by the particular colleges chosen. Such an analysis was beyond the scope of this study.

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169 Rate of Planned Attendance at Colleges with the Same Affiliation as the High School The third question of the study was, what percentage of students graduating from Protestant high schools in the South in 1982 planned to attend a college with the same affiliation as their high school the following fall? According to the results of this study, 11 percent of the graduates of Protestant high schools in the South planned to attend such a college in the fall. Of the college-bound graduates, 16 percent planned to attend a college with the same affiliation as their high school. Table 60 shows the rate of choice for colleges with the same affiliation as the high school for college-bound graduates of the major affiliations of high schools. The differences in rate of choice of colleges with the same affiliation as the high school were statistically significant for every comparison except between Southern Baptist and Presbyterian/ Reformed and between nondenomi national and Presbyterian/Reformed. Among the smaller affiliations of high schools, a high rate (over 20 percent) of planned attendance at colleges with the same affiliation as the high school was found for graduates of Church of Christ, Seventh-Day Adventist, Methodist/Wesleyan, Free Will Baptist,

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170 Table 60 Rate of Planned Attendance at Colleges with the Same Affiliation as the High School for Graduates of the Major Affiliations of Hfgh" Schools in 1982 Affiliation Percentage of College-bound Graduates Enrolled in Colleges with the Same Affiliation as their High School Independent Baptist Nondenomi national Presbyterian/Reformed Southern Baptist Episcopal 30 13 10 7 1 Mennonite, and Pentecostal high schools. These affiliations were therefore similar to the Independent Baptist affiliation in planned rate of attendance at such colleges. A moderate rate (between 5 percent and 20 percent) of planned attendance at colleges with the same affiliation as the high school was found for graduates of Assembly of God, Lutheran, and Church of God high schools. These affiliations were therefore similar to the Southern Baptist, Presbyterian/Reformed, and nondenominational affiliations in planned rate of attendance at these colleges. A low rate (one percent) of planned attendance at colleges with the same affiliation as the

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171 high school was found for graduates of Quaker and Christian and Missionary Alliance high schools. These affiliations were therefore similar to the Episcopal affiliation in this regard. No statistical treatment was done to find significant differences between the smaller affiliations of high schools. Kelley (1972) postulated that members of a strong religion would not closely associate with members of other religions in religious endeavors. From this postulate, one would expect that the graduates of high schools affiliated with the stronger religions would go to colleges with the same affiliation as their high school. The data support this expectation. Although 23 percent of the college-bound Episcopal high school graduates planned to matriculate at Protestant colleges, only one percent chose Episcopal colleges. This showed a lack of commitment to Episcopal educational institutions on the college level. Part of this may be due to the fact that there were very few Episcopal colleges in 1932 (See Appendix C). In order to determine if the graduates of Protestant high schools varied in their planned rate of attendance at colleges with the same affiliation as the high school according to the size of their graduating class, the researcher divided the data into three categories based on graduating class size. Table 61 shows the planned rates of attendance at colleges with the same affiliation as the high school for graduates of small, medium, and large graduating classes from the major affiliations as a whole.

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172 The differences in planned attendance rates at colleges with the same affiliation as the high school were found to be statistically significant for all comparisons of graduating class size. Statistically significant differences for each of the five major affiliations of high schools were found for the various sizes of graduating classes for Southern Baptist and Presbyterian/Reformed high schools. For these two affiliations, graduates from smaller classes planned to matriculate at colleges with the same affiliation as the high school at significantly higher rates than graduates from larger classes. For Presbyterian/Reformed high schools, significant differences were found for each comparison between the three sizes of graduating classes. For Southern Baptist graduates, the only comparison that produced statistically significant different rates was the comparison between small graduating classes and large graduating classes. Graduates from Independent Baptist, nondenomi national , and Episcopal high schools did not vary significantly relative to graduating class size in planned rate of attendance at colleges with the same affiliation as the high school. As was noted in the discussion of the previous research question, graduates of Southern Baptist and Presbyterian/Reformed high schools varied significantly in planned Protestant college attendance rates for different sizes of graduating classes. These same two affiliations also showed significant differences relative

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173 Table 61 Rate of Planned Attendance at Colleges with the Same Affiliation as the High School for Graduates of the Major Affiliations as a Whole Relative to Graduating Class Size Size of Graduating Class Percentage of College-bound Graduates Enrolled in a College with the Same Affiliation as Their High School in Fall, 1932 Small Graduating Class (1 to 19 graduates) Medium Graduating Class (20 to 39 graduates) Large Graduating Class (40 or more graduates) 24 13 9 to graduating class size for the planned rate of attendance at colleges with the same affiliation as the high school. This would indicate a lower level of commitment to denominational education on the college level for the graduates of the large schools of these affiliations. Rate of Planned Private, Nonsectarian College Attendance The fourth question of this study was, what percentage of students graduating from Protestant high schools in the South in 1982 planned to attend a private, nonsectarian college the following fall? According to the results of this study, 7 percent of the graduates of Protestant high schools in the South planned to matriculate in the fall of 1932 to private, nonsectarian colleges. Of the college-bound graduates, 11

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174 percent planned to attend such colleges. In order to compare these rates with the rate of private college attendance found by Hanmack (1981) in his study of private, nonsectarian high school graduates, it is necessary to combine the percentage of Protestant graduates who planned to matriculate at Protestant colleges and the percentage who planned to matriculate at private, nonsectarian colleges. Accordingly, this study found that 32 percent of the total graduates and 47 percent of the college-bound graduates of Protestant high schools in the South planned to matriculate at a nonpublic college the fall after their graduation. In Hammack's study, 81 percent of the college-bound private school graduates matriculated at a nonpublic college. Table 62 shows the rate of choice for private, nonsectarian colleges for college-bound graduates of the major affiliations of high schools. The rate of planned attendance at such colleges for graduates of most Presbyterian/Reformed high schools was lower than tlie percentage listed in Table 62. Data from one school with a high rate of planned private, nonsectarian college attendance inflated this figure. If this school was not considered, there would be no significant difference in the rate of planned private, nonsectarian college attendance between Presbyterian/Reformed graduates and graduates of other affiliations. Only Episcopal graduates demonstrated a significantly higher rate of planned private, nonsectarian college attendance than the other graduates.

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175 Among the small affiliations, only graduates of Quaker high schools had a relatively high rate (24 percent) of planned private, nonsectarian college attendance. According to Davis and Van Dusen (1975), the rate of attendance at private, nonsectarian colleges is highest for the students from \iery wealthy families. These data therefore provide an indication that Episcopal and Quaker high schools enrolled a relatively high percentage of students from very wealthy homes. The size of graduating class did not seem to have any relationship to the rate of private college attendance for any affiliation. No significant differences between graduating classes of different sizes for any of the major affiliation were found. Table J2 Rate of Planned Private, Nonsectarian College Attendance for Graduates of the Major Affiliations of High Schools in 198T" Percentage of College-bound Affiliation Graduates Enrolled in Private, Nonsectarian Colleges in Fall, 1982 Episcopal 27 Presbyterian/Reformed ll a Nondenomi national 4 Independent Baptist 4 Southern Baptist 3 d This percentage was inflated by data from one large school

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176 Rate of Planned Public College Attendance The fifth question of this study was, what percentage of the students graduating from Protestant high schools in the South in 1902 planned to attend a public college the following fall? According to the results of this study, 35 percent of the total number of graduates and 52 percent of the college-bound graduates planned to matriculate at a public college in the fall of 1982. Table 63 shows the rate of choice for public colleges in descending order for college-bound graduates of the major affiliations of high schools. The differences in rate of choice of public colleges were statistically significant for e^ery comparison except between nondenomi national and Presbyterian/Reformed and between Episcopal and Presbyterian/Reformed. Table 63 Rate of Planned Public Attendance for Graduates of the Major Affiliations of High Schools in 1982 Percentage of College-bound Affiliation Graduates Enrolled in Public, Colleges in Fall, 1982 Southern Baptist 79 Nondenomi national 60 Presbyterian/Reformed 56 Episcopal 49 Independent Baptist 36

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177 Among the smaller affiliations, a high rate (over 60 percent) of planned attendance at public colleges was found for graduates of Assembly of God and Lutheran high schools and thus these affiliations were similar to the Southern Baptist affiliation. A moderate rate (between 40 percent and 60 percent) of planned attendance at public colleges was found for graduates of Church of Christ, Christian and Missionary Alliance, and Church of God high schools. These affiliations had planned rates of attendance at public colleges that were in the same range at the rates for Episcopal, Presbyterian/Reformed, and nondenomi national affiliations. Graduates of Methodist/Wesleyan, Quaker, Free Will Baptist, Mennonite, and Pentecostal high schools were similar to graduates from Independent Baptist high schools in that they had a relatively low rate (under 40 percent) of planned attendance at public colleges. It is interesting to note that this is the first time the rate of planned attendance at a type of college is similar for Quaker graduates and Independent Baptist graduates. The reasons for this similarity, however, are not alike. Independent Baptist graduates showed a preference for Protestant colleges and Quaker graduates showed a preference for private, nonsectarian colleges. The remaining students, therefore, from each of these two affiliations planned to attend public colleges at about the same rates. Typically, affiliations whose graduates were low in planned

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173 Protestant college attendance were high in planned public college attendance rates. In order to determine if the graduates of Protestant high schools varied in their rate of public college attendance according to the size of their graduating class, the researcher divided the data into three categories based on class size. Table 64 shows the rates of planned attendance at public colleges for graduates of small, medium, and large high schools from the five major affiliations as a whole. Table 64 Rate of Planned Attendance at Public Colleges for Graduates of the Major Affiliations as a Whole Relative to Graduating Class Size* Percentage of College-Bound Graduates Enrolled in a Public Size of Graduating Class College in Fall, 1982 Small Graduating Class 44 (1 to 19 graduates) Medium Graduating Class 52 (20 to 39 graduates) Large Graduating Class 59 (40 or more graduates) The differences in planned public college attendance rates in Table 64 were found to be statistically significant for all comparisons of graduating class size. Statistically significant differences based on graduating class size comparisons were also found for Southern Baptist and Presbyterian/Reformed high school graduates. For these two affiliations,

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179 high school graduates from larger classes generally had a significantly higher rate of planned attendance at public colleges. The rate of planned attendance at such colleges for graduates of the three other affiliations did not vary significantly with size of graduating class. An inverse relationship for planned Protestant college attendance rates and planned public college attendance rates existed for Southern Baptist and Presbyterian/Reformed high school graduates. Graduates from the large classes planned to attend public colleges at significantly higher rates than the graduates from the small classes and graduates from the small classes planned to attend Protestant colleges at significantly higher rates than the graduates of the large classes. The fact that this relationship did not exist for Independent Baptist, nondenomi national , and Episcopal high school graduates suggests that the student bodies in these schools did not vary in college aspirations according to size of graduating class. Rate of Planned 2-Year Public College Attendance Chapman (1981) has shown that students from lower income families tend to matriculate at 2-year public colleges at higher rates than other income groups. For this reason, the researcher divided the data for public college attendance into two components;

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180 planned rate of attendance at 2-year public colleges and planned rate of attendance at 4-year public colleges. One part of research question five was, what percentage of the students graduating from Protestant high schools in the South in 1982 planned to attend 2-year public college the following fall? According to the results of this study, 11 percent of the total number of graduates and 17 percent of the college-bound Protestant high school graduates in 1982 planned to attend a 2-year public college the following fall. Table 65 shows the rate of choice for 2 year public colleges in descending order for college-bound graduates of the major affiliations of high schools. The differences in rate of choice of 2-year public colleges were statistically significant for every comparison except between Independent Baptist and Southern Baptist and between Southern Baptist and Presbyterian/Reformed. Table 65 Rate of Planned 2-Year Public Attendance for Graduates of the Major Affiliations of High Schools in 198? ~~ ~~ Percentage of College-bound Affiliation Graduates Enrolled in 2Year Public Colleges in Fall, 1982 Nondenomi national 25 Independent Baptist 20 Southern Baptist 17 Pre sby teri an/Re formed 1 2 Episcopal 1

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131 Among the smaller affiliations, a relatively high rate (20 percent or higher) of planned attendance at 2-year public colleges was found for graduates of Assembly of God, Lutheran, Free Will Baptist, and Church of God high schools. These affiliations were therefore similar to the nondenomi national and Independent Baptist affiliations in rate of 2-year public college attendance. A moderate rate (between 10 percent and 20 percent) of planned attendance at such colleges was found for graduates of Church of Christ, Seventh-Day Adventist, Methodist/Wesleyan, Christian and Missionary Alliance, Mennonite, and Pentecostal high schools. The rates of planned attendance for graduates of Presbyterian/Reformed and Southern Baptist high schools were in the same range as these smaller affiliations of high schools. Quaker high school graduates were similar to Episcopal graduates in having a low rate (1 percent) of planned attendance at 2-year public colleges. A great deal of similarity can be noted between the data collected concerning yearly high school tuition charges and the planned rate of attendance at 2-year public colleges. Graduates of the high schools with the lowest yearly tuition charges (according to available information) generally had the highest rates of planned attendance at 2-year public colleges. It may be that attendance at high schools with lower yearly charges and planned attendance at 2-year public colleges were both indications for many students of

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182 relatively lower family income. On this basis, one would have expected that the graduates of Independent Baptist high schools would have had the highest rate of planned 2-year public college if it had not been for the fact that the graduates of these high schools had a great tendency to choose Protestant colleges. This tendency lowered their over-all rate of planned public college attendance and therefore also lowered their rate of planned 2-year public college attendance. As previously suggested, Episcopal and Quaker school families showed evidences of relatively higher family incomes. This fact probably contributed to their low rate of choice of 2-year public colleges. In order to determine if the graduates of Protestant high schools varied in their rate of planned 2-year public college attendance according to the size of their graduating class, the researcher divided the data into three categories based on class size. Table 66 shows the rates of planned attendance at 2-year public colleges for graduates of small, medium, and large high schools from the five major affiliations as a whole. There was no statistically significant difference in rate of planned attendance at 2-year public colleges for small and medium high school classes for the combined data for the five major affiliations. A significant difference did exist, however, in the

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183 Table 66 Rate of Planned Attendance at 2-Year Public Colleges for Graduates of the Major Affiliations of High Schools as a Whole Relative to Graduating Class Size Percentage of College-Bound Graduates Enrolled in a 2Year Size of Graduating Class Public College in Fall, 1982 Small Graduating Class 23 (1 to 19 graduates) Medium Graduating Class 21 (20 to 39 graduates) Large Graduating Class 10 (40 or more graduates) rate of planned attendance at 2-year public colleges for medium size graduating classes and the rate for large graduating classes. None of the five major affiliations had a statistically significant difference in planned 2-year public college attendance rates for small and medium graduating class sizes. Significant differences, however, did exist in the rates for small classes and large classes for nondenomi national , Southern Baptist, and Presbyterian/Reformed graduates. Graduates of the large classes planned to attend 2-year public colleges at significantly lower rates than the graduates of the small classes. No significant differences in rates of planned attendance at 2-year public colleges were found for the different sizes of graduating classes for Independent

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134 Baptist and Episcopal high schools. Very few (3 percent or less) Episcopal graduates from any size graduating class chose 2-year public colleges. Because 2-year public colleges are most likely to be attended by students from lower income families, it may be that students whose families were able to afford more expensive Protestant high schools avoided these colleges. This would explain the significantly lower planned attendance at 2-year public colleges for graduates of the large Protestant high schools and the low rate of planned attendance at these colleges for graduates of all sizes of Episcopal graduating classes. Planned attendance rates at 2-year public colleges were influenced by the rates of planned attendance at nonpublic colleges. Graduates of some affiliations of high schools had a tendency to plan to attend Protestant colleges or private, nonsectarian colleges and therefore had a lower over-all rate of public college attendance. For this reason, the researcher compiled data to show the rate of planned 2-year public college attendance on the basis of graduates who chose public colleges as a whole. The results of this compilation are shown in Table 67. Considering only graduates planning to matriculate at public colleges, Table 65 shows a higher rate of planned 2-year public college attendance for graduates of Independent Baptist high schools than for any other major affiliation of high schools. An indication

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185 Table 67 Rate of Planned 2-Year Public Attendance for Graduates of the Major Affiliations of High Schools Who Matriculated at Public Colleges Percentage of Graduates Who Affiliation Matriculated at a 2-Year Public College Independent Baptist 56 Nondenomi national 41 Southern Baptist 21 Presbyterian/Reformed 21 Episcopal 2 of comparatively low yearly tuition charges for Independent Baptist high schools was reported in Chapter Two. It has been noted that lower income families may be more likely to send their children to Protestant high schools with comparatively lower tuition charges and this fact would coincide with their tendency to also send their children to 2-year public colleges which typically had relatively low tuition charges. Rate of Planned 4-Year Public College Attendance Another part of research question five was, what percentage of the students graduating from Protestant high schools in the South in 1932 planned to attend a 4-year public college the following fall? According

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185 to the results of this study, 24 percent of the graduates of Protestant high schools and 35 percent of the college-bound graduates of Protestant high schools in the South in 1932 planned to matriculate at a 4-year public college in the fall. Table 68 shows the rate of choice for 4-year public colleges for college-bound graduates of the major affiliations of high schools. The differences in planned 4-year public college attendance rates for the major affiliations were statistically different for e^ery comparison except the one between Episcopal and Presbyterian/ Reformed high schools. Among the smaller affiliations, a rate of planned 4-year public college attendance comparable to the high rate (62 percent) for Southern Baptist high school graduates was not found. A moderate rate (20 percent to 50 percent) of planned 4-year public college attendance was found for graduates of Asembly of God, Church of Christ, Lutheran and Christian and Missionary Alliance high schools. These affiliations were therefore similar to nondenomi national , Episcopal, and Presbyterian/Reformed affiliations in rate of planned attendance at 4-year public colleges. A low rate (less than 20 percent) of planned 4-year public college attendance-similar to the rate for graduates of Independent Baptist high school s--was found for Quaker, Seventh-Day Adventist, Methodist/ Wesleyan, Free Mill Baptist, Church of God, Mennonite, and Pentecostal high school graduates.

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187 Table 68 Rate of Planned 4-Year Public Attendance for Graduates of the Major Affiliations of High Schools in 1982 Percentage of College-Bound Affiliation Graduates Enrolled in 4-Year Public College in Fall, 1932 Southern Baptist 62 Episcopal 48 Presbyterian/Reformed 44 Nondenomi national 35 Independent Baptist 16 In order to determine if the graduates of Protestant high schools varied in their rate of planned 4-year public college attendance according to the size of their graduating classes, the researcher divided the data into three categories based on class size. Table 69 shows the rate of planned attendance at 4-year public colleges for graduates of small, medium, and large high school classes from the five major affiliations as a whole. The differences in planned 4-year public college attendance rates in Table 69 were found to be statistically significant for all comparisons of graduating class size. Statistically significant differences based on graduating class size comparisons were also found for all the major

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Table 69 Rate of Planned Attendance at 4Year Public Colleges for Graduates of the Major Affiliations as a Whole Relative to Graduating Class Size Percentage of College-Bound Graduates Enrolled in a 4Year Size of Graduating Class Public College in Fall, 1982 Small Graduating Class 22 (1 to 19 graduates) Medium Graduating Class 31 (20 to 39 graduates) Large Graduating Class 49 (40 or more graduates) affiliations except Independent Baptist and Episcopal. These two affiliations also showed no significant differences in the rate of planned attendance at 4-year public colleges according to graduating class size. Graduates of large nondenominational , Presbyterian/Reformed, and Southern Baptist graduating classes planned to attend 4-year public colleges at rates that were signifcantly higher than their counterparts from small graduating classes. General Comparisons of Rates of College Choices For the major affiliations of high schools, this study found that graduates of Independent Baptist and Episcopal high schools were often at the extreme ends of the scale in comparisons regarding college attendance.

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189 Graduates from nondenomi national , Southern Baptist, and Presbyterian/ Reformed high schools often had rates of planned attendance at the various types of colleges that were between the extremes. Graduates of Independent Baptist high schools ranked highest in most characteristics related to commitment to Protestant ideology. Thus, the graduates of Independent Baptist high schools had the highest rate of planned attendance at Protestant colleges, the highest rate of planned attendance at colleges with the same affiliation as the high school, and the highest rate of choice of Bible/theology as a college major. On the other hand, graduates of Episcopal high schools typically ranked highest in characteristics related to high academic goals. These graduates, therefore, had among the highest rates of planned college attendance, the highest rate of planned attendance at private, nonsectarian colleges, and the highest rate of preference of 4-year public colleges over 2-year public colleges. Among the smaller affiliations, graduates of Church of Christ, Seventh-Day Adventist, Methodist/Wesleyan, Free Will Baptist, Christian and Missionary Alliance, Mennonite and Pentecostal were often similar to the graduates of Independent Baptist high schools in pattern of college attendance. The researcher, however, did note a few exceptions to these similarities. Graduates of Quaker high schools, among the smaller affiliations, were most like Episcopal graduates in pattern of college attendance.

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190 This study found significant differences in the rates of planned attendance at various types of colleges relative to high school graduating class size. Graduates of Independent Baptist high schools did not vary significantly relative to graduating class size for those characteristics related to conmitment to Protestant ideology. Thus, rate of planned attendance at Protestant colleges and colleges with the same affiliation as the high school did not vary with graduating class size. These rates did vary significantly, however, for graduates of Southern Baptist and Presbyterian/ Reformed high schools. Graduates of small classes typically demonstrated evidence of greater commitment to Protestant ideology than the graduates of the larger graduating classes. Graduates of Episcopal and Presbyterian/Reformed high schools did not vary significantly relative to graduating class size in rate of planned college attendance; one of the indicators of high academic goals. Graduates of the other three major affiliations, however, demonstrated a significantly higher rate of planned college attendance for graduates from the larger graduating classes. Although graduates from one Presbyterian/Reformed high school were found to have a high rate of planned private, nonsectarian college attendance, the rest of the Presbyterian/Reformed high school graduates did not have a rate of planned attendance at such

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191 colleges that was significantly higher than the rate for Independent Baptist, nondenomi national, and Southern Baptist graduates. Preference for 4-year public colleges over 2-year public colleges was found to increase with graduating class size for graduates of nondenomi national , Southern Baptist, and Presbyterian/Reformed high schools. Thus, the graduates of large graduating classes in some affiliations of high schools demonstrated evidence of higher academic goals than the graduates of smaller graduating classes. Although there were several exceptions to this generalization, small graduating classes in Protestant high schools tended to have graduates that showed greater evidence of commitment to Protestant ideology and lower academic goals than graduates of the large graduating classes. Graduates of the large graduating classes typically had graduates who were less committed to Protestant ideology and had higher academic goals. Choice of College Major The sixth question of this study was, what percentage of students graduating from Protestant high schools in the South in 1902 chose each of the selected five major areas of college study? For this research, the five major areas of study were Bible/theology, business, education, engineering/technical, and liberal arts. Although an opportunity was given to responding administrators to list other majors not included in these five major areas of study, very few other majors were listed and therefore they were not included in the statistical analysis.

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192 The Protestant high school administrators who participated in this study reported that 3 percent of their graduates chose Bible/theology as a college major. Graduates of Independent Baptist high schools had the highest rate of choice for this major (17 percent). Virtually none of the Episcopal high school graduates chose this major. It is possible that some of these graduates planned to pursue an undergraduate degree in a liberal arts field before entering a seminary. Graduates choosing Bible/theology as a college major all planned to go to Protestant colleges. Independent Baptist graduates were more likely to choose a college with the same affiliation as their high school for this major (65 percent). Three colleges were chosen by 44 percent of the graduates of Independent Baptist high schools who chose the Bible/theology major. Responding administrators reported that 16 percent of their graduates chose business as a college major. Presbyterian/Reformed graduates chose the business major at the highest rate of the major affiliations (29 percent). The majority of Protestant high school graduates who chose a business major planned to matriculate at a public college. Four-year public colleges were preferred over 2-year public colleges for every affiliation except Independent Baptist. One college received 14 percent of the business majors who graduated from Independent Baptist high schools.

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193 Responding administrators reported that 12 percent of their graduates chose education as a college major. Graduates of Independent Baptist high schools were most likely to choose this major (21 percent). Episcopal graduates were least likely to do so (2 percent). Most of the graduates from Independent Baptist high schools (91 percent) who chose education as a major planned to matriculate at Protestant colleges. For the major affiliations as a whole, over half who decided to major in education chose Protestant colleges. Four colleges were chosen by over 60 percent of the graduates from Independent Baptist high schools who majored in education. Graduates of Protestant high schools who chose education as a major and who did not plan to go to a Protestant college were most likely to plan to matriculate at a 4-year public college. Responding administrators reported that 9 percent of their graduates chose engineering as a college major. There was only a 8 percent variance in the choice of this major for graduates of the five major affiliations. Most of the graduates who chose the engineering major planned to enroll in public colleges. Except for Independent Baptist and Presbyterian/Reformed graduates, 4-year public colleges were preferred over 2-year public colleges for this major. A high rate of Episcopal graduates (33 percent) planned to enroll in private colleges for this major. No college was chosen by 10 percent or more of the graduates of Protestant high schools for an engineering/technical major.

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194 Administrators who responded to the request for information reported that 29 percent of their college-bound graduates chose a liberal arts major. Episcopal graduates were the most likely to choose this major (45 percent). Southern Baptist graduates were the least likely to do so (14 percent). Public colleges were most likely chosen by Protestant high school graduates who chose the liberal arts major. Four-year public colleges were favored over the 2-year public colleges for graduates of each of the major affiliations. About half of the graduates from Independent Baptist and Presbyterian/Reformed high schools who chose the liberal arts major planned to matriculate at a Protestant college. One college claimed 15 percent of the liberal arts majors from Independent Baptist high schools. No other college was chosen by 10 percent or more of the graduates from any affiliation majoring in liberal arts. The findings in this study differed from the results of Astin's (1902) survey of 108,000 college freshmen. Although the rate of choice of a liberal arts major was about the same in both studies, the graduates of Protestant high schools were found to have a higher rate of choice of Bible/theology and education as college majors than the graduates in Astin's study. Rate of Planned In-State College Attendance The seventh question of tin's study was, what percentage of graduates of Protestant high schools in the South in 1932 planned to

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195 attend a college located in their own state the following fall? Table 70 shows the rates of planned in-state college attendance in descending order for each of the five major affiliations of high schools. Table 70 Rate of Planned In-State College Attendance for Graduates of the Major Affiliations of High Schools in 1982 Percentage of Graduates Affiliation Remaining in Their Home State 1982 To Go To College in Fall, Southern Baptist 82 No ndenomi national 71 Presbyterian/Reformed 61 Independent Baptist 55 Episcopal 41 Graduates of Southern Baptist high schools planned to attend in-state colleges at the highest rate for the graduates of the major affiliations of high schools. The lowest rate was found for graduates of Episcopal high schools. Significant differences in the rates of Table 70 were found for all comparisons except between Independent Baptist and Presbyterian/ Reformed.

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19o Among the smaller affiliations, a high rate (over 80 percent) of planned in-state college attendance was found for graduates of Lutheran and Pentecostal high schools. These affiliations were therefore similar to the Southern Baptist affiliation in rate of planned attendance at in-state colleges. A moderate rate (50 percent to 30 percent) of planned in-state college attendance was found for graduates of Assembly of God, Church of Christ, Methodist/ Wesleyan, Free Will Baptist, Christian and Missionary Alliance, Church of God, and Mennonite high school graduates. These affiliations were similar in planned in-state college attendance to graduates of Independent Baptist, nondenomi national , and Presbyterian/Reformed high schools. Seventh-Day Adventist high school graduates planned to remain in their home state at the lowest rate (8 percent) . The rate of planned in-state college attendance varied with each major and affiliation. The least variability occurred with Episcopal graduates. For e^ery college major except Bible/theology, graduates of Episcopal high schools had the lowest rate of planned in-state college attendance of all the graduates of the major affiliations of high schools. Very few graduates of Episcopal high schools chose the Bible/ theology major and therefore it is not possible to compare the rate of planned in-state college attendance for Episcopal graduates with the graduates of other affiliations of high schools for this major. (See Table 37, p. 124).

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197 On the whole, Protestant high school graduates were more likely to plan to go out of state to pursue the Bible/theology major. This tendency was especially true for graduates of Independent 3aptist and Presbyterian/Reformed high schools. The majors of business and engineering/technical were most likely to be pursued at in-state colleges. The education major and the liberal arts major were pursued at in-state colleges at rates between these two extremes. Table 71 shows the rate of planned in-state college attendance for each of the five college majors. Table 71 Rate of Planned In-State College Attendance for Graduates of the Major Affiliations of High Schools Relative to College Majors Percentage of the Graduates of the Major Affiliations of Pursuing Each Major a1 College in Fall, 1982 College Majors Major Affiliations of High Schools Pursuing Each Major at an In-State Business 77 Engineering/Technical 7 2 Liberal Arts 57 Education 55 Bible/Theology 36

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198 Rate of Planned Attendance at Colleges with Various Yearly Tuition Cnarges The eighth question of this study was, what percentage of the students graduating from Protestant high schools in the South in 1902 planned to attend colleges the following fall in each of selected charge classifications? For this study, the three categories of yearly tuition charges were "Under $1,000," "$1,000 to $2,999," and "$3,000 and higher." These categories were also referred to as "low," "moderate," and "high," respectively. About 37 percent of the graduates of Protestant high schools in the South in 1932 planned to matriculate at colleges charging the low yearly tuition rate. About an equal proportion, 38 percent, chose colleges with moderate yearly charges. The remaining 22 percent of the college-bound graduates chose colleges with high yearly tuition charges. Table 72 shows the rate of choice of colleges with low tuition charges for each of the five major affiliations of high schools. According to this table, graduates of Southern Baptist high schools chose these colleges at the highest rate of the major affiliations and graduates of Episcopal high schools had the lowest rate of choice. It is interesting to note that the order of affiliations in Table 72 is the same as the order of affiliations in the rate of choice of in-state colleges (See Table 70, p. 195). Out-of-state public colleges typically had higher tuition charges for nonresident

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199 Table 72 Rate of Planned Attendance at Colleges with Low Yearly Charges in 1W2 Percentage of College-Bound Affiliation Graduates Choosing Colleges with Low Tuition Charges in Fall, 1982 Southern Baptist 63 Nondenomi national 45 Presbyterian/Reformed 35 Independent Baptist 33 Episcopal 16 Note . Low Tuition Charges: Under $1,000 students. For some affiliations, graduates planned to leave their home state in order to attend a particular Protestant or private, nonsectarian college. Many of these colleges had relatively high tuition charges. The tendency for graduates of Southern Baptist high schools to choose public colleges in their home state explains why the graduates of Southern Baptist high schools had the lowest tuition charges on the average. Among the smaller affiliations, a high rate (over 60 percent) of planned attendance at colleges with low yearly tuition charges was found for college-bound graduates of Assembly of God and Lutheran high schools and thus these two affiliations were similar to Southern Baptist

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200 graduates. A moderate rate (between 20 percent and 60 percent) of planned attendance at such colleges was found for college-bound graduates of Church of Christ, Methodist/Wesleyan, Free Will Baptist, Christian and Missionary Alliance, Church of God, and Pentecostal high schools. These affiliations were therefore similar in planned attendance rates at colleges with low yearly charges as the Independent Baptist, Presbyterian/Reformed, and nondenomi national graduates. A low rate (under 20 percent) of planned attendance at such colleges was found for the college-bound graduates of Quaker, Seventh-Day Adventist, and Mennonite high school s. Table 73 shows the rate of choice of colleges with moderate tuition charges for each of the five major affiliations of high schools. This order generally corresponded to the rate of choice of Protestant colleges (See Table 58, p. 164). Many Protestant colleges had yearly tuition charges in the moderate range. For this reason, the graduates of the affiliations most likely to plan to attend Protestant colleges were also most likely to have yearly college charges in the moderate range. Among the smaller affiliations, a high rate (50 percent or more) of planned attendance at colleges with moderate yearly charges was found for college-bound graduates of Free Will Baptist and Methodist/Wesleyan high schools. These two affiliations were

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201 Table 73 Rate of Planned Attendance at Colleges with Moderate Yearly Charges in 1982 Percentage of College-Bound Affiliation Graduates Choosing Colleges with Moderate Tuition Charges in Fall, 1932 Independent Baptist 57 Nondenomi national 40 Presbyterian/Reformed 34 Episcopal 32 Southern Baptist 22 Note ! Moderate Tuition Charges: $1,000 to $2,999 therefore similar in the rate at which graduates planned to attend colleges with moderate yearly charges to the graduates from Independent Baptist high schools. A moderate rate (between 20 percent and 50 percent) of planned attendance at such colleges was found for college-bound graduates of Assembly of God, Church of Christ, Christian and Missionary Alliance, Church of God, Mennonite, and Pentecostal high schools. A similar moderate rate among the major affiliations existed for graduates of nondenominational , Presbyterian/Reformed, Episcopal, and Southern Baptist high schools. A low rate (less than 20 percent) of planned attendance at colleges with moderate yearly charges was found for

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202 college-bound graduates of Quaker and Seventh-Day Adventist high schools. None of the major affiliations of high schools had a rate that was as low as these two affiliations. Table 74 shows the rate of choice of colleges with high tuition charges for each of the five major affiliations of high schools. These colleges included private, nonsectarian colleges, sane Protestant colleges, and a number of out-of-state public colleges. Graduates of Episcopal high schools had the highest rate of planned attendance at these colleges and graduates of Independent Baptist high schools had the lowest rate. Among the small affiliations, a high rate (50 percent or higher) of planned attendance at colleges with high yearly charges was found for college-bound graduates of Seventh-Day Adventist and Mennonite high schools. Although the data were incomplete, college-bound graduates of Quaker high schools also probably planned to attend colleges with high yearly charges at a high rate. A moderate rate (10 percent to 50 percent) of planned attendance at colleges with high yearly charges was found for college-bound graduates from Assembly of God, Church of Christ, Lutheran, Methodist/Wesleyan, and Christian and Missionary Alliance high schools. These affiliations were similar, therefore, in the rate of choice of these colleges by graduates to the Presbyterian/Reformed and nondenomi national affiliations. A low rate (less than 10

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203 Table 74 Rate of Planned Attendance at Colleges with High Yearly Charges in 1982 Percentage of College-Bound Affiliation Graduates Choosing Colleges with High Tuition Charges in Fall, 1932 Episcopal 52 Presbyterian/Reformed 30 Nondenoni national 15 Southern Baptist 9 Independent Baptist 8 Note . High Tuition Charges: $3,000 and higher percent) was found for graduates of Free Will Baptist, Church of God, and Pentecostal high schools. These graduates were therefore similar to graduates of Southern Baptist and Independent Baptist high schools in rate of choice of colleges with high yearly charges. The Protestant colleges chosen by Bible/theology majors generally had yearly tuition rates in the moderate range. Some Christian Reformed colleges charged $3,000 or more. A little less than 10 percent of the graduates of Independent Baptist and nondenomi national high schools planned to major in Bible/theology at an institute operated by a local church for students living nearby.

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204 The tuition charges at such institutions tended to be under $1,000 for the year. Charges for business and engineering/technical majors tended to be in the low range. The only exception to this tendency was high tuition charges at colleges for Episcopal high school graduates. Education majors tended to choose colleges in the moderate charge range. This finding was especially true for the affiliations that sent a relatively large number of graduates to Protestant colleges for this major. Graduates pursuing the liberal arts major also tended to choose colleges with yearly charges in the moderate range. Conclusion of the Research The data collected for this research indicate that the graduates of Protestant high schools in the South differed in the following ways from graduates of all high scools nationally in 1982: 1. Graduates of Protestant high schools planned to attend college at a higher rate than the total population. Yoong (1983) reported that 51 percent of all high school graduates in the United States matriculated at a college in the fall following their graduation in 1932. This study found that at least 68 percent of the graduates of Protestant high schools in the South planned to matriculate at a college in the fall following their graduation in 1932. (Table 7, p. 61).

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205 2. Graduates of Protestant high schools planned to attend nonpublic colleges at a higher rate than the total population. Magarrell (1932) reported that 22 percent of all college students were enrolled at nonpublic colleges in the fall of 1902. This study found that 47 percent of all college-bound graduates of Protestant high schools in the South planned to matriculate in the fall at nonpublic colleges. 3. Graduates of Protestant high schools planned to attend 4-year colleges at a higher rate than the total population. A study of the college enrollment patterns of the high school graduating class of 1930 found that 35 percent had matriculated at a 4-year college within the two years following their high school graduation ("Class of 1930," 1934). This study found that 24 percent of the graduates of the Protestant high schools in the South planned to enroll in a 4-year public college the fall following their graduation in 1932 (Table 27, p. 100). In addition, 7 percent of these graduates planned to matriculate at a private, nonsectarian college (Table 23, p. 93) and 25 percent planned to matriculate at a Protestant college (Table 15, p. 76). Due to the fact that nearly all of these private, nonsectarian colleges and

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206 Protestant colleges were 4-year institutions, the total rate of planned attendance at 4-year colleges for graduates of Protestant high schools in the South immediately following their graduation in 1902 was over 50 percent. 4. Graduates of Protestant high schools had a higher rate of choice of the Bible/theology major and the education major than the total population. Astin (1932) found that of the 103,000 freshmen he surveyed in the fall of 1902, less than 1 percent intended to pursue a Bible/theology major and 6 percent intended to pursue an education major. This study found that at least percent of the graduates of Protestant high schools in the South chose the Bible/ theology major in the fall of 1902 and 12 percent chose the education major (Table 35, p. 116). The data collected for this study indicate that there was a graat diversity in the pattern of college attendance for the graduates of Protestant high schools in the South in 1902. In order to study this pattern, it was helpful to examine the data on the basis of religious or denominational affiliation of the high schools. About 00 percent of the high schools in this study were associated with five major affiliations (Table 5, p. 50). These five affiliations were Independent Baptist, nondenomi national , Episcopal, Southern Baptist, and Presbyterian/Reformed. Although

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207 over 20 smaller affiliations contributed information for this study, it was found that the pattern of college attendance demonstrated by their graduates was similar in most cases to the pattern shown by the graduates of the high schools associated with the larger affiliations. According to Kelley (1972), strong religions are typically young and vibrant. They expect their adherents to be fully committed to their ideology and have little tolerance for diversity of thought. As time goes on, however, strong religions tend to lose their rigidity and become more ecumenical in their thinking. According to Kelley, weak religions are most tolerant of independent thinking and the pursuit of secular goals. Using this model as a guide, Kelley ranked the various denominations in order from strongest to weakest (Table 1, p. 35). Pattillo and MacKenzie (1978) characterized denominations on the basis of their attitudes toward academic pursuits and spiritual commitment. Carlson (1977) noted the difficulty of reconciling an academic orientation with spiritual commitnent. This study indicates that the college attendance patterns of graduates of the various high schools sponsored by different Protestant denominations reflect their differing philosophies. High schools sponsored by denominations having characteristics of strength (as defined by Kelley) had the following features:

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203 1. Graduating classes that were generally smaller in size than other graduating classes at other Protestant high schools (Table 5, p. 53). 2. Graduates with a rate of over-all planned college attendance that was lower than graduates from other Protestant high schools (Table 7, p. 61). 3. Graduates with a rate of planned attendance at Protestant colleges that was higher than the graduates from other Protestant high schools (Table 15, p. 76). 4. Graduates with a rate of planned attendance at colleges with the same affiliation as the high school that was higher than the graduates from other Protestant high schools (Table 19, p. 86). 5. Graduates with a rate of planned attendance at public colleges that was lower than the graduates from other Protestant high schools (Table 27, p. 100). 6. Graduates with a rate of choice of Bible/theology as a college major and education as a college major that was higher than the rates for the graduates from other Protestant high schools (Table 35, p. 116). Of the major affiliations, graduates of Independent Baptist high schools demonstrated the greatest commitment to Protestant ideology. Among the smaller affiliations, the graduates of Church

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209 of Christ, Seventh-Day Adventist, Methodist/Wesleyan, Free Will Baptist, Christian and Missionary Alliance, Mennonite, and Pentecostal generally also demonstrated a similar level of commitment. Graduates from Protestant high schools with affiliations rated "weak" by Kelley (1982) typically were characterized by patterns of college attendance that were significantly different from the patterns of graduates from "stronger" denominations. The "weak" denominations typically had high schools with relatively large graduating classes. Their graduates typically had a high rate of over-all planned college attendance and low rates of planned attendance at Protestant colleges and colleges with the same affiliation as the high school. They also typically chose public colleges and private, nonsectarian colleges at rates higher than the graduates of high schools associated with "strong" denominations. Graduates of "weak" denominations were also usually lower than the graduates of the "strong" denominations in the rate of choice of the Bible/theology major and the education major. Of the major affiliations, graduates of Episcopal high schools demonstrated the least commitment to Protestant ideology. Among the smaller affiliations, graduates of Quaker high schools also demonstrated a similar low level of commitment. Graduates of Assembly of God, Lutheran, and Church of God high schools

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210 demonstrated a moderate level of commitment of Protestant ideology among the smaller affiliations. Their counterparts among the major affiliations were graduates of nondenomi national , Southern Baptist, and Presbyterian/Reformed high schools. Although this study did not determine the yearly tuition charges of all participating Protestant high schools, there was evidence that yearly tuition charge was related to college attendance patterns. Research has shown that family income is related to the over-all rate of college attendance (Doermann, 1976). Families with low incomes are least able to afford a college education for their children. If children from these homes do go to college, they are most likely to go to 2-year public colleges and 4-year public collges (Davis and Van Dusen, 1975). Students from middle income families attend state universities and students from yery wealthy homes attend private colleges. This study found a correlation between high school tuition charges and the rates of planned attendance at the various types of colleges. Graduates from the high schools with the lowest yearly tuition charges typically had the lowest rate of planned attendance at college. They also had the highest rates of planned attendance at 2-year public colleges. Graduates from the high school with the highest tuition charges demonstrated the highest rates of planned college attendance and the highest rates of planned matriculation at private, nonsectarian colleges.

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211 This study found that the size of graduating class was related to the pattern of college attendance for Protestant high school graduates. Graduates from the smaller graduating classes at Independent Baptist, nondenomi national , and Presbyterian/Reformed nigh schools typically had a lower rate of over-all planned college attendance. Research indicates that the decision of whether or not to attend college is usually made by the student before he or she begins high school (Chapman, 1981). Therefore, high schools sponsored by these three affiliations apparently did not attract as high a percentage of college-bound students as the schools with larger graduating classes. On the college level, Astin (1965) suggested that academically well-qualified students tend to choose certain colleges with yery good reputations. The same phenomena may have been operating on the high school level in this study. The researcher speculated that schools with small graduating classes and relatively lower yearly tuition charges were not able to offer an attractive college preparatory program. As a result, their student bodies contained a lower percentage of college-bound students and higher percentage of students from lower income families. The size of graduating class was also found to be related to the rate of planned Protestant college attendance and planned attendance at colleges with the same affiliation as the high school for some denominations. Graduates from small classes at Southern Baptist and

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212 Presbyterian/Reformed high schools planned to attend such colleges at rates that were significantly higher than their counterparts from larger graduating classes. The researcher suggested that the larger graduating classes from these two affiliations contained a lower percentage of students who were committed to Protestant ideology or tiie particular denomination that sponsored their high school. Pattillo and Mackenzie (1978) claimed that the small church-related college often has the advantage of a committed nucleus of dedicated people who provide the stimulation of direct and close contact with students. The same phenomena may have been working in this study on the high school level . This study did not find an affiliation of high schools that had graduates who demonstrated a high rate of planned college attendance and also a high rate of planned attendance at colleges with the same affiliation as the high school. The group of high schools that came closest to attaining these two characteristics consisted of Presbyterian/Reformed high schools with small graduating classes. These high schools apparently attracted students who were both college-bound and committed to Protestant ideology and more particularly, Presbyterian/Reformed ideology. This research, however, provided evidence that these schools may be composed substantially of students from middle and upper income families.

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213 There were several deviations from expected results in this study. Independent Baptist high schools were among the lowest in average yearly tuition charges. Their graduates, however, were comparatively low in the rate of choice of colleges with low yearly tuition charges. Graduates of Independent Baptist high schools had significantly high rates of planned Protestant college attendance. Most of these Protestant high schools had tuition charges of between $1,000 and $2,999 for the year. Presumably, graduates of Independent Baptist high schools were willing to pay these relatively high charges in order to continue their education at a Protestant institution. It was interesting to note that three or four Protestant colleges attracted a substantial percentage of graduates from Independent Baptist high schools (See Appendix C). Kelley (1972) labeled the Southern Baptist affiliation as a "strong" denomination. The researcher expected graduates of Southern Baptist high schools to have a low rate of planned college attendance and a high rate of planned attendance at Protestant colleges, and, more particularly, Southern Baptist colleges. Also expected was a relatively high rate of choice of Bible/theology as a college major. The study found that Southern Baptist graduates ranked relatively low in all these characteristics typically associated with a "strong" denomination. The researcher suggested that Southern Baptists were basically in support of the public

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214 system of education, not only on the elementary and secondary level as indicated by research (Brigham, 1951), but also on the postsecondary level . Applications of the Results and Recommendations for Further Research This research has shown that graduates from Protestant high schools planned to attend colleges according to particular patterns related to the pursuit of academic goals and commitment to Protestant ideology. Left unresolved is the question concerning the role of the high school in the college decision-making process. Ihlanfeldt (1975), Duggan (1976), and Chapman (1901) have created models that account for the influence of family members, friends, and school personnel. It would be useful to know the relative strengths of these influences on the college decision-making process of Protestant high school graduates. It could be that families strongly committed to Protestant ideology seek out certain high schools for their children and that this selection process is the greatest determinant of the college attendance patterns of graduates of certain Protestant high schools. On the other hand, it is possible that certain high schools exercise the type of influence on students that encourages them to enroll in certain types of colleges. One way to investigate the influence of the Protestant high school on the college decision-making process would be to study the pattern of college attendance shown by graduates of public schools

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215 who came from families with commitments to Protestant ideology. It would also be helpful to know if Protestant high schools influenced students from less religiously committed families in their college decisions. Once it was determined where the significant influences were located in the college decision-making process, college recruitment officers could concentrate their efforts in these areas. This research provided evidence that high school graduating class size was related to factors associated with academic goals and commitment to Protestant ideology. The college attendance patterns for graduates of small graduating classes were often found to be high in aspects associated with religious commitment and low in aspects associated with academic goals. The opposite was typically true for the large graduating classes. It would be helpful to determine the specific aspects of the nature of the relationship of school size to the pattern of college attendance. The literature has suggested that there is greater personal contact between faculty and students at small colleges (Pattillo and MacKenzie, 1978). The same may be true for small Protestant high schools. It is possible that students seeking a college preparatory program avoid small Protestant high schools of certain affiliations and enroll in larger schools. This research, however, indicated that small graduating classes at Episcopal and Presbyterian/Reformed high schools had a high rate of planned college attendance. Further

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216 research should be done in order to determine how these small high school graduating classes are able to attract a high percentage of college-bound students. It is possible that the smaller Protestant high schools were generally younger schools. According to Kelley (1972), Protestant institutions often begin their life with evidence of zeal and commitment. As the institution ages, however, some of the zeal and commitment is lost. This research, however, provided evidence that the graduates of the larger Independent Baptist high school graduating classes demonstrated a pattern of planned college attendance that was similar to the pattern of graduates from smaller classes. Of particular interest is the fact that the rate of planned attendance at colleges with the same affiliation as the high school did not differ significantly for the graduates of the different sizes of graduating classes at Independent Baptist high schools. It would be helpful to know how some high schools maintain commitment to Protestant education in college selection while others apparently do not do so. It would also be interesting to know if and how the faculty reflected the ideological commitment of the high school. There are several factors in society that could change the average sizes of Protestant high school graduating classes. It would be interesting to know if the changes produced by these

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217 factors would have an influence on the pattern of planned college attendance. One such factor is the implementation of tuition tax credits or a voucher system. There is some indication that such a policy would result in the proliferation of smaller schools (Chapman, 1931). According to this research, the graduates of small schools from certain affiliations differed significantly from their counterparts from larger graduating classes in planned college attendance patterns. If Protestant high schools grow in average size of enrollment, the pattern of planned college attendance could change. Tnis result could be particularly true of the pattern of planned college attendance for high schools that now have small graduating classes. Such growth may attract a larger percentage of college-bound students. It would be helpful to our understanding of these matriculation patterns to conduct a longitudinal study of Protestant high schools in order to determine if their rate of planned college attendance changes as school size increases or decreases. Such a study would be particularly useful if the schools investigated experienced low turn-over in administration and faculty. It was noted in Chapter 3, only about half of the Protestant schools in the South included a twelfth grade. Many schools only provided instruction for the elementary and/or middle grades. If these schools were to continue adding grades up through the twelfth

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213 grade, the number of students graduating from Protestant high schools would increase. On the other hand, increased competition among schools might result in a lowering of the size of the average graduating class. There is some evidence that Protestant colleges are increasingly serving the upper middle income class of society (Pattillo and Mackenzie, 1978). If Protestant high schools follow this trend, the graduates of such high schools could be expected to have a higher rate of college attendance and a higher rate of preference for more expensive colleges. On the other hand, they may find it more difficult to maintain a high level of commitment to Protestant i deol ogy . This research found that the graduates of the five major affiliations of high schools who went to Protestant colleges did not necessarily plan to attend a college with the same affiliation as their high school. It would be useful to know if other characteristics of Protestant high schools and colleges provide the basis for linkages. It may be that the degree of fundamentalism or liberalism may be more relevant to college attendance patterns than denominational labels. A \iery useful study would identify particular schools whose graduates demonstrate a high rate of planned college attendance and a strong commitment to colleges with the same affiliation as the

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219 high school. There seems to be a tension between the pursuit of academic goals and the development and maintenance of spiritual commitment. Although the attainment of both characteristics may not be found in all the schools in a particular affiliation, certain schools possessing both an academic orientation and spiritual commitment could be singled out for study. It would be interesting to know the processes whereby such schools maintain these two characteristics. The various denominational colleges could benefit from establishing linkages with these high schools.

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Appendix A SURVEY INSTRUfCNT

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221 SURVEY DIRECTIONS Below are listed five major fields 01 college study typically chosen by college freshmen Beside du appropriate mators. please list the names of the colleges chosen by voui l'lfv! graduates Even it uoui school had a -small number . i graduates, your response is important! Please check here and return this survey il your school did not have any yiaduates this past year M.MHLKtil 1,11 K i oil I 01. MAJOR NAMES (» COUtXiE UNIVEKMTY I ((CATION: City Stale t2i.KAiK Alts AI'IIMllV. BIBLE 1 _._ _ . "l<'gy. : youlhwork. 2. . . missions. o etc.! 3. _. _. C BUSINESS (administration. account my.

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Appendix B COVER LETTERS

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Letter 1 Letter to Participants in Pilot Testing of Survey Instrument July 23,1932 Dear I have been the principal of West Florida Christian School in Sarasota, Florida for the past five years. I am also working on a doctorate in school administration. For my dissertation, I am investigating the college attendance patterns of graduates of Protestant secondary schools in the South. Basically, I would like to know where these graduates are going to college. I would also like to identify some important factors involved in their choice of a college. Could you please take a minute and evaluate the enclosed survey instrument? You need not respond to the survey instrument itself at this time. I would like to know if you think the survey form is clear and well -organized. Would you have any trouble filling it out? Are enough spaces provided for an easy response? What changes would you recommend? You are among a small group of administrators that I am asking to evaluate this survey instrument. After receiving your suggestions, I intend to make the suggested modifications and send the survey instrument to several hundred administrators of church-related schools in the early fall. Please write your recommendation on the survey instrument and return it to me in the stamped envelope. When the project is completed, I will be glad to share the results with you. I appreciate your help very much 1 . Yours for Christian education, David L. Bedell Principal 223

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224 Letter 2 Letter to Study Participants August 27,1982 Dear As principal of West Florida Christian School in Sarasota, Florida for the past five years, I have often wondered about the impact of religiously-affiliated secondary schools on college enrollment. As you probably know, college attendance is expected to decline during the 1980' s. Attendance at many of our religiously-affiliated secondary schools, however, is growing. Two years ago, I began work on my doctorate in school administration. For my dissertation, I decided to investigate the pattern of college enrollment for the graduates of our schools and determine some of the factors involved in their choice of a college. The enclosed survey instrument was designed to collect appropriate data on this subject. Could you please take a few minutes and record the names of the colleges chosen by your 1982 graduates? Perhaps you have someone on your staff who could do this. The identification number on the survey is used to exclude your name from follow-up mailings. All responses will be confidential and will not be singled out in the final report. Your cooperation in responding to the survey instrument and its prompt return will be deeply appreciated. Without a high rate of return, my research effort will be in vain because the results will have inadequate val idity. Again, let me thank you for your prompt attention to this matter. Sincerely, David L. Bedell Principal

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225 Letter 3 Follow-up Letter #1 Sent to Non-respondents September 17, 1932 Dear Colleague, Three weeks ago, I sent you a copy of the enclosed survey instrument which I am using for research for my doctorate in educational administration. With school starting, I am sure that you are wery busy. I also am the administrator of church-related school and know how the opening of school can be. Many administrators have already filled out the form and returned it. Since I have not heard from you, I wanted to send a second letter and perhaps help you with any difficulty you have encountered. Your prompt response is deeply appreciated. Perhaps one of the following is a reason for your not returnung the survey instrument: 1. You do not know or cannot remember where some of your 1932 graduates have gone to college or the major they are pursuing. Suggestion: Please fill out as much of the survey instrument as you can. There is a space provided for "unknown" college plans. 2. You were not at the school last year and, therefore, do not know where the graduates went to college. Suggestion: Perhaps there is someone on your staff who would remember. If you could follow up on this, I would greatly appreciate it. If you still do not intend to respond to the survey instrument, please write "Not Responding" on the form and return it to me. It costs me about $1.00 to send a follow-up letter ($.40 postage, $.10 printing costs, $.50 secretarial typing. ) Please check the space provided on the survey if you are interested in receiving a copy of the results. Sincerely. David L. Bedell Principal

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226 Letter 4 Follow-up Letter #2 Sent to Non-respondents October 13, 1902 Dear Colleague, I thought I would write you again and let you know how my response rate is going. At this time, nearly sixty percent of the school administrators to whom I wrote have responded to my survey instrument. I am pleased with this. However, I need a response rate of 70% to 75% in order to have a valid research project. Perhaps now that the school year is underway, you will have a bit more time to fill in the enclosed survey instrument. As a school administrator myself, I understand the demands on your time! I suspect that many of the administrators that have not yet responded did not have a graduating class in 1982. It is very important that such administrators simply check the appropriate square and return the survey instrument to me. This would increase my rate of response. If you have any problems with the survey, please write me a note and I will correspond with you. I must reach a higher response rate, even if it requires telephone contact. Would you please help me? I believe that this project will greatly benefit Christian education. Sincerely, David L. Bedell Principal

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227 Letter 5 Follow-up Letter #3 Sent to Non-respondents November 3, 1982 Dear Fellow Administrator, I am concluding my research on the pattern of college enrollment for graduates of church-related secondary schools. My records indicate that you did not respond. I would appreciate it if you would signify your reason below and return this letter to me in the enclosed envelope. I want to thank you for your immediate attention to this request. Sincerely, David L. Bedell Principal I did not respond because: I did not have enough time to complete the survey instrument. The requested information is confidential. Our school did not graduate any seniors in 1982. (Other, please specify if possible) In analyzing rny data, it would be helpful to know the denominational affiliation of your school and the size of your 1982 senior class. denominational affiliation size of 1982 senior class P.S. If you have been unable to respond but are able to do so now, please check here and I will send you a survey instrument. Thank you I

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223 Letter 6 Letter to Selected Administrators Across the South December 3, 1982 Dear Back in September, you responded to my survey instrument requesting the names of the colleges attended this Fall by your 1982 graduates. Since that time, over 700 other administrators have responded, bringing my response rate to nearly 75%. I am thrilled with this response and I believe it will give a great deal of credibility to my study. You could be a big help to me in one other way. I compiled a list of schools from every available directory. I am sure, however, that some schools were left out because they were not listed in any of my directories. I do not intend to contact these schools, but it would be helpful to have some idea about the number of such schools and their senior class size in 1982. I have enclosed a list of the schools I know about with a mailing address in (town/city) . Could you please look at this list and verify it to the best of your knowledge? If a certain school listed is closed or did not graduate any one in 1932, please indicate this right on the sheet. If there are other schools you know of, please add them to the list and return it to me. Thanks again for your help! Yours for Christian education, David L. Bedell Principal

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Appendix C CHARGES AMD MATRICULANTS AT SPECIFIC COLLEGES

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Independent Baptist Colleges Cnarges Under $1,000 Students Attending by high school affiliation Arlington Bible College Atlantic Baptist Bible Col. Blessed Hope Baptist Bible In. Blue Ridge Christian College Central Baptist College Clarksville Baptist College Derbyshire Baptist College Lexington Baptist College Marietta Bible College Southside Baptist Theol Inst. Tabernacle Baptist Bible Col. Totals Indep.

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231 Independent Baptist Colleges (continued) Charges $1,000 to $2,999 Arlington Baptist College Baptist Bible College East Baptist Bible College (MO) Baptist University of America Colonial Baptist College Hyles-Anderson College International Bapt. Bible Col Landmark Baptist College Landmark College Liberty Baptist College Maranatha Baptist Bible Col. Piedmont Bible College Tennessee Temple University Spurgeon Baptist Bible College Texas Baptist College Trinity Baptist College Students Attending by high school affiliation Indep.

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9V> Nondenomi national Colleges Charges Under $1,000 Christ for the Nations Moody Bible Institute Shekinah Bible Institute Totals Students Attending by high school affiliation Indep. Nonden. Bapt. Epis. South. Bapt. Pres. Ref. Charges $1,000 to $2,999 Appalachian Bible College Atlanta Christian College Bob Jones University Bryan College Citadel Bible College Clearwater Christian College Columbia Bible College Emmaus Bible School Florida Bible College John Brown University John Wesley College Miami Christian College Mid-South Bible College Pensacola Christian College Rhema Bible Training Center Santa Rosa Christian College Southeastern Bible College Toccoa Falls College Tri nity College Washington Bible College Word of Life Bible Intitute [ndep.

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233 Nondenomi national Colleges (continued) Charges Over $3,000 Students Attending by high school affiliation Indep. Nonden. Epis. South. Pres. Bapt. Bapt. Ref. Asbu ry College 1 Biol a University Gordon College 1 King's College 2 Lancaster Bible College 2 LeTourneau College 9 Messiah College 3 Milligan College Oral Roberts University 1 Philadelphia College of the Bible 2 Rockmont College Taylor University Wheaton College 2

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234 Episcopal Colleges Charges $1,000 to $2,999 Students Attending by high school affiliation Indep. Nonden. Epis. South. Pres. Bapt. Bapt. Ref. St. Paul's College 10 Charges $3,000 and higher Students Attending by high school affiliation Indep. Nonden. Epis. South. Pres. Bapt. Bapt. Ref. Hobart College St. Mary's College University of the South 14 Totals 14

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235 Southern Baptist Colleges Charges $0 to $999 (none) Charges $1,000 to $2,999 Students Attending by high school affiliation

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Southern Baptist Colleges Charges $3,000 and higher 136 Students Attending by high school affiliation Indep. Nonden. Epis. South. Pres. Bapt. Bapt. Ref. Baptist College at Charleston

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237 Presbyterian/Reformed College Charges $1,000 to $2,999 Lees-McRae Junior College Mo ntreatAnderson College Total s Students Attending by high school affiliation Indep. Nonden. Epis. South. Pres. Bapt. Bapt. Ref. Cnarges $3,000 and higher Indep. Nonden. Epis. South. Pres. Bapt. Bapt. Ref. Bellhaven College

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238 Methodist Colleges Charges $1,000 to $2,999 Students Attending by high school affiliation

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239 Methodist Colleges (continued) Charges $3,000 and higher Students Attending by high school affiliation

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Appendix D PROBABLE FIELDS OF STUDY FOR 188,000 COLLEGE FRESHMEN IN 1982

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The percentages listed below are based on the responses of 188,000 students who entered college in the fall of 1982 (Astin, 1982) The researcher grouped the probable fields of study according to the five majors delineated in this study. Probable Fields of Study Percent

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242 Probable Fields of Study (continued)

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REFERENCES Ary, D., Jacobs, L.C., & Razavieh, A. (1979). Introduction to research in education . New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. Astin, A.W. (1961). A re-examination of college productivity. Journal of Educational Psychology , 5_2(3), 173-173. Astin, A.W. (1965). Who goes where to college? Chicago: Science Research Associates. Astin, A.W. (1971). The invisible colleges . New York: McGraw-Hill. Astin, A.W. (1982). The American freshman: National nonns for fall, 1982 . Los Angeles: American Council on Education and University of California at Los Angeles Beversluis, N.H. (1982). In their father's house . Grand Rapids, MI: Christian Schools International . Breneman, D.W. & Finn, C.E. (1978) Public policy and private higher education , Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution. Brigham, J. (1951). Educational agencies of the Southern Baptist Convention . New York: Teacher s College, Columbia University. Carlson, E.M. (1977). Future of church-related higher education. Minneapolis, MN: Augsberg. Chamberlian, P.C. & Loewer, E.M. (1982). The use of doctrine as a means for determining institutional distinctiveness. North Central Association Quarterly , 56 , 438-444 Chambers, J. (1981). An analysis of school size under a voucher system. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis , 3_(2), 29-40. Chapman, D.W. (1981). A model of student college choice. Journal of Higher Education , 5_2(5), 490,505. Christian Educators Association 1982 Directory . (1982), Pensacola, FL~i Christian Educators Association. Class of 1980, two years later . (November 21, 1984) Education Week , 4(12), pp. 12-13. 243

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244 Davis, J.S. & Van Dusen, W.D. (1975). A survey of student values and choices: A pilot study of the relationships of student values , perceptions, and choices of institutions . New York: College Entrance Examination Board. Doermann, H. (1976). The future market for college. In J.M. Duggan ( Ed . ) , A role for marketing in college admissions . New York : College Entrance Examination Board. " ' " Duggan, J.M. (1976). A role for marketing in college admissions . New York: College Entrance Examination Board. Duvall, S.M. (1928). The Methodist Episcopal Church and education up to 1869. New York: Teacher's College, Columbia Univ. Eldridge, M.D. (1981). Private school data: Issues of policy and procedures . Los Angeles: Nation Center for Educational Statistics. Flight from the public schools . (1931). Denver, CO: Education Commission of the States. Godbold, A. (1944). The church college of the old south . Durham, NC: Duke University Press. Hammack, F.M. (1981) Private school graduation and college attendance : patterns of transition . Paper presented at the meeting of the Association for the Study of Higher Education. Handbook of Private Schools . (1982). Boston, MA: Porter Sargent Publishers. Harris, D. (Ed. ). (1981) Report on education research . Washington, DC: Capitol Publications. Ihlanfeldt, W. (1975). A management approach to the buyer's mart. College Board Review , 96, 22-25,28-32 Kelley, D.M. (1972). Why conservative churches are growing . New York: Harper and Row. Kienel, P. (1974). The Christian school: why it is right for your child . Wheaton, IL: Victor books. Kotler, P. (1976). Applying marketing theory to college admissions. In J.M. Duggan (Ed.), A role for marketing in college admissions , (pp. 54-72). New York: College Entrance Examination Board.

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245 Magarrell, J. (1982). 40,962 fewer students enrolled at private institutions this fall. Chronicle of Higher Education , 25(13) , pp. 1,7. Moseley, J.D. & Bucher, G.R. (1982) Church-related colleges in a changing context. Educational Record , 63 , 46-51. Mudie, C. (1978). Identifying and expanding the desirable student pool. In D.W. Barton (Ed.), Marketing higher education (pp. 7-22). Washington. DC: Jossey-Bass. Norin, V.D. & Turner, W.L. (1980). More than segregation academies: the growing protestant fundamentalist schools. Phi Delta Kappan . 61_, 391-394. Oliver, E.E. (1979). Implementing admissions policy. In C.J. Quann (Ed.), Admissions, academic records and registrar services: A handbook" of policies and procedures (pp. 60-114). Washington, DC: Jossey-Bass. Pace, C.R. (1972). Education and Evangelism . New York: McGraw-Hill. Pattillo, M.M. & MacKenzie, D.M. (1978). Church sponsored higher education . Washington, DC: American Council on Education! Peterson's annual guide to undergraduate study (1983). Princeton, NJ~i Peterson's Guides. Rippa, S.A. (1976). Education in a free society: An American history . New York: Longman. Spence, D.S. (1977). A profile of higher education in the South in 1985 . Atlanta, GA: The Southern Regional Education Board. Towns, E.L. (1974). Have the public schools had it? Nashville: Thomas Nelson. Yoong, A.M (1982) Youth labor force marked turning point in 1982. Monthly Labor Review, 106(8), 29-34.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH David L. Bedell, the author of this study, was born in Miami, Florida, on March 31, 1952. His father was employed as an aircraft mechanic at Pan American World Airways and his mother was a public school teacher. Both of his parents have master's degrees. The author attended public schools in Dade County up through the twelfth grade. He graduated in 1970 from North Miami Senior High School. After high school, he was accepted in the Faculty Scholars program at Florida Atlantic University in Boca Raton. There, he majored in biology education and received a Bachelor of Science in Education degree in 1973. After completing this degree, he enrolled at Baptist Bible College in Springfield, Missouri. In 1976, he received the Bachelor of Arts degree in theology. During the time of his enrollment at Baptist Bible College, he also attended Southwest Missouri State University in Springfield, and earned the Master of Science degree in educational administration. Since 1976, the author has been the assistant pastor of Temple Baptist Church and the principal of West Florida Christian School in Sarasota, Florida. In 1980, he began doctoral studies at the University of Florida. While attending classes at the University and conducting research for his dissertation, he continued in his positions in Sarasota. 246

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I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. ^-voua/ju* CL f4cj2j2_ QAA/ug^ __ s A. Hale, Chairman rofessor of Educational Administration and Supervision I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Samuel K. Alexander Professor of Educational Administration and Supervision I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Associate Professor of Foundations of Education This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the College of Education and to the Graduate School and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. May, 1935 Dean, College of Education Dean, Graduate School

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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 3 1262 08285 204 6


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