Title: Neotropical raptor network newsletter= Boletín de la red de rapaces neotropicales= boletim a rede de aves de rapina neotropicales
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00099464/00015
 Material Information
Title: Neotropical raptor network newsletter= Boletín de la red de rapaces neotropicales= boletim a rede de aves de rapina neotropicales
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Publisher: Peregrine Fund
Place of Publication: Boise, Idaho
Publication Date: December 2009
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Bibliographic ID: UF00099464
Volume ID: VID00015
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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Aging Characteristics of Spizaetus melanoleucus:
First Photographic Documentation Photos and Text by
Ryan Phillips, Belize Raptor Research Institute, harpiabz@yahoo.com; and
Yeray Seminario, The Peregrine Fund, yerasdy@gmail.com

SJuvenile (first year) C as a

The Black-and-white Hawk-Eagle (Spieaetus mela-
noleucus) has a wide, but patchy distribution across Cen-
tral and South America and is considered rare in most
locations (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). Of the
three neotropical hawk-eagles the Black-and-white has
the smallest range and is considered the rarest (Birdlife
International 2009). Between 1988-2000 Birdlife Inter-
national and the IUCN considered the Black-and-white
Hawk-Eagle Near Threatened, but de-listed it to Least
Concern in 2000 due to insufficient data (Birdlife Inter-
national 2009). Only five nests have been reported
throughout its range (Strauch 1975, Anderson 2004,
Canuto 2008, Phillips, 2009) with only one being descri-


Aging Characteristics of Spi-
Zaetus melanoleucus in Belize ..... 1

Education Supports Release of
Harpia harpyja in Belize ......... 6

New Research on Buteo ventralis
in Chile ........................... 8

Occurrence of Strix huhula in
B razil ............... .. ...........10

What's New in Raptor Litera-
ture .............. ............ ... 12

Upcoming Conferences........13

bed in detail (Canuto 2008) making any potential nesting
site critical to the knowledge of the species.
Being able to identify the ages of raptor species
is important when quantifying productivity within popu-
lations and can assist in locating active nest sites assu-
ming dispersal has not yet occurred (Steenhof and
Newton 2007). To date, a few field guides and papers
describe the differences between ages of Black-and-
white Hawk-Eagles, but they only note a few plumage
characteristics and do not include a full description
which includes non-plumage characteristics (Howell and
Webb 1995, Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001, Canuto
2008, Stiles and Skutch 1989). Through our literature

P age 2

research we were only able to find photographs of
adult and nestling Black-and-white Hawk-Eagles, but
none of post-fledged juvenile individuals.

.. -.....

figure i. uveran appearance or autr lierr) ana luvenie rngnr).

Here we present a full description of juvenile
and adult differences supported by photographs of
one juvenile, one nestling and five adults, along with
field observations. When referring to juveniles we are
referring to Basic I (first year) plumage according to
Howell et. al. (2003) and will not be describing latter
immature characteristics. The only reference to mol-
ting of Black-and-white Hawk-Eagles states that,
"they attain adult plumage by completion of the first
pre-basic molt at one year old," (Howell and Webb
1995) but further studies on molt scheme should be
conducted as larger species from the Accipitridae fa-
mily take 3-4 years to replace all juvenile feathers (Pyle
Distinguishing between juvenile and adult
Black-and-white Hawk-Eagles can be challenging as
plumage and non-plumage characteristics are very si-
milar, but there are subtle diagnostic characteristics to
distinguish between the ages. In the Mountain Pine
Ridge area of Belize between July and September 2009
we observed on multiple occasions in the same loca-
tion both a juvenile (Basic I) and an adult Black-and-
white Hawk-Eagle, which inspired this paper. This
occurred at an elevation of 740 meters in the transi-

tion zone of montane pine forest and broadleaf forest
above a deep canyon stream. We are assuming that the
juvenile was the offspring of the adult as frequent voca-
lization interactions and a prey exchange was observed
between them. This would suggest that this may be a
potential nest-site area, as other hawk-eagle species re-
main dependent on the adults for a minimum of one
year post-hatching, and the juvenile does not move far
from the nest within this period (Madrid et al. 1991).
Overall appearance of both adult and juvenile is
very similar (Fig. 1), especially when observed in flight
or at a far distance. Differences are subtle and need to
be observed in detail with caution being taken. Charac-
teristics that should be observed are the black crown,
overall dorsal color, amount of white in the leading
edge, width and number of tail bands, length of tail, un-
derwing pattern, iris color, and overall structure of the
flight feathers.
The easiest and the most reliable aging criteria is
the completeness of the black crown and the presence
or absence of white tips on the black crown feathers. In
adults the black crown will completely cover the top of
the head appearing as a skullcap, whereas juveniles will
have an incomplete black cap with only a portion of the
black crest feathers, which are tipped white (Fig. 2). The
black crown feathers may not appear white-tipped in
older juveniles as they may become worn.

Figure 2. Crown differences of the adult (left) and juvenile (right).
Note size, number of feathers and white tips.
If the crown cannot be observed, the next relia-
ble characteristic is the overall color of the rump, back,
scapular and upperwing coverts. In adults this area is jet
black with no white flecking in the lesser upperwing

P ag, e 3

Figure 3. Difference between adult (left) and juvenile (right) up-
perwing coverts. Note overall color and white spotting or flecking
(colors not altered).

Figure 4. Differences in feather structure of adult (left) and juveni-
le (right). Note how narrow and tapered P6-10 are in the juvenile
compared to the more broad and truncated adult primaries.
coverts, while the juveniles display a light brown appea-
rance with the lesser upperwing coverts tipped white
making the shoulder appear dotted (Fig. 3). However, if
the lighting is poor the juvenile can appear very dark, so
caution should be taken. In juveniles the leading edge of
the wing is more extensively white with the feathers pro-
truding onto the dorsal side (Fig. 3).
An important characteristic that is often over-
looked when aging any birds, not only raptors, is feather
structure (Pyle 2009). Structurally, juvenile and adult
feathers, in particular flight feathers, are very different.
Juvenile feathers are narrower and tend to be more
tapered toward the tip, whereas basic feathers are much
broader and often truncated (Pyle 2009). This can be
observed in the outer five primaries (P6-10) when indivi-
duals are in flight (Fig. 4). As a result, juveniles have a

long primary projection. If the dorsal side is observed
while perched the primary projection is nearly doubled
in juveniles and the primaries nearly extend the length of
the tail (Fig. 5). With the juveniles having fresh plumage
and no molt limits their feathers appear clean, crisp, and
uniform where adults can display varied color and struc-
ture of feathers as a result of being worn, faded or fresh-
ly molted.
The underwing pattern can assist in determining
age, but is not diagnostic as there can be a high variation
in the number of bands on the flight feathers between
individuals and populations. All adults we observed had
considerably less banding on both the primaries and se-
condaries than juveniles. Adults have 2-4 bands on the
flight feathers where juveniles have 4-6 (Fig. 4). The
Adrllt'Qs qihterminnl hAnl nF the flio-ht FoethorQ is mnlch

Figure 5. Dorsal view of tail band pattern differences between
adult (left) and juvenile (right). Note width of bands, especially the
subterminal band.

Figure 6. Ventral view of tail band pattern differences between
adult (left) and juvenile (right). Note the width of the subterminal
band, number of bands and how far the under-tail coverts reach.

thicker and darker than the juvenile (Fig. 4). A characte-
ristic that may only be shown on juveniles is black spots
on the greater underwing coverts, but further study needs
to be conducted to elimi-
nate intraspecific variation.
However, this trait was not
exhibited on any adults
that we observed.
Age can be deter-
mined by observing the
ventral side of the tail in
detail in flight or perched.
Juveniles seem to have a
longer tail than adults and
have 5-6 tail bands, where-
as adults usually have 4.
Also, it is important to
note which band the un-
dertail coverts reach. In
juveniles the coverts reach
the third band, whereas in
adults it reaches the se-
cond band and extends
well past the third band if
the subterminal band is
considered band one (Fig.
Less subtle charac-
teristics that are not relia-
ble for aging consist of the
thickness of the tail bands,
iris color, and cere color.
In adults the subterminal Figure 7. Head differences of adult
tail band is slightly thicker (below). Note iris and cere color.
than in juveniles, but both ages can appear to be nearly
the same width (Fig. 5). When viewing in flight and ob-
serving the ventral side of the tail the band width is diffi-
cult to observe, but can be seen at close distances (Fig. 6).
The iris color in most raptors changes over the first year
or two of life aiding in age identification, but caution
should be taken as iris color can vary geographically or

between the sexes (Bortolotti et al. 2003). It appears
that the iris color in Black-and-white Hawk-Eagles
changes fairly quickly, but a larger sample size is
needed. In nestlings, the iris
color is a light gray, whereas in
juveniles it is a light yellow and is
considerably less intense, depen-
ding on the age of the juvenile,
than the brilliant yellow of the
adult (Fig. 7). In the field, iris
color appearance can vary with
lighting and the observer's dis-
tance to the bird making this
characteristic unreliable unless a
recently fledged juvenile exhibits
a gray iris color.
The cere color can vary with
health as well as age, so it is not a
reliable characteristic when aging
(Casagrande et al. 2007). Even
though adults of Black-and-white
Hawk-Eagle have a more intense
orange than juveniles this is a
very subtle difference and is not
reliable when aging individuals
(Fig. 2,7).
Differentiating between juvenile
and adult Black-and-white
Hawk-Eagles can be challenging,
but using these guidelines can aid
in proper identification. In the
field, hawk-eagles are usually ob-
t (above) and juvenile served soaring high or perched at
a far distance in poor light condi-
tions, so a portion of the characteristics described
here will be difficult to ascertain. If observed soaring
focus on the underwing pattern, structure of the
flight feathers, color of the dorsal side, number and
width of tail bands, and how much of the tail the
underwing coverts cover. When perched first take
note of the black crown then observe the color of

the dorsal side, if there are any white "flecks" in the
upperwing coverts, number and width of tail bands,
and length of the primary projection. Future studies
should be conducted on molting schemes and immatu-
re plumages, so all ages can be identified.


Anderson, D. L., D. A. Wiedenfeld, M.J. Bechard, and S. J.
Novak. 2004. Avian diversity in the Moskitia region of Hon-
duras. Oritologia Neotropical 15: 447-482

BirdLife International (2009) Species factsheet: Spizaetus
melanoleucus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on

Bortolotti, G. R., J. E. Smits and D. M. Bird. 2003. Iris co-
lour of American Kestrels varies with age, sex, and exposure
to PCBs. Physiol and Biochemical Zoology 76: 99-104.

Canuto, M. 2008. First description of the nest of the Black-
and-white Hawk Eagle (Spizaetus melanoleucus) in the Brazilian
Atlantic rainforest, southeast Brazil. Oritologia Neotropical

Casagrande, S., D. Costantini, A. Fanfani, J. Tagliavini & G.
Dell'Oro. 2007. Patterns of serum carotenoid accumula-
tion and skin color variation in kestrel nestlings in relation
to breeding conditions and different terms of carotenoid
supplementation. J Comp Physiol B 177: 237-245.

Ferguson-Lees, J. and D.A. Christie. 2001. Raptors of the

world. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts,

Howell, S.N.G., C. Corben, P. Pyle and D. I. Rogers. 2003.
The first basic problem: a review of molt and plumage
homologies. Condor 105: 635-653.

Howell, S. N. G. and S. Webb. 1995. A guide to the birds of
Mexico and northern Central America. Oxford University
Press, New York, USA.

Phillips, R. 2009. Studying Hawk-Eagles in Belize. Neotro-
pical Raptor Network Newsletter 7: 1-11.

Pyle, P. 2009. Identification guide to North American birds:
Part II. Slate Creek Press, Point Reyes, California, USA.

Steenhof, K. and Newton, I. 2007. Assessing nesting suc-
cess and productivity. Raptor research and management
techniques. Pages: 181-192 Bird, David M.; Bildstein, Keith
L. (Eds.). Hancock House; Surrey, Canada & Blaine.

Stiles, G. F. and A. F. Skutch. 1989. A guide to the birds of
Costa Rica. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York,

Strauch, J.G., Jr. 1975. Observations at a nest of the Black-
and-white Hawk-eagle. Condor 77:512.

In Flight
Color of back, scapulars, rump; color and white tips on upperwing coverts
Structure of flight feathers
Underwing: banding pattern, spots on underwing greater coverts
Number and width of tail bands
Undertail coverts in relation to tail bands

Crown: look for complete black or white tips on feathers
Color of back, scapulars, rump; color and white tips on upperwing coverts
Number of tail bands
-_Primary Projection
Cere, Eye Color (not reliable, should be used together with other traits)

Public Awareness supports Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja) Releases
in Belize by Sharon Matola, Belize Harpy Eagle Restoration Program and the Belize Zoo and Tropical
Education Center, info@belizezoo.org

The Belize Harpy Eagle Restoration Program
(BHERP) began in 2003 to provide in-country assis-
tance and support for The Peregrine Fund's Harpy
Eagle (Harpia harpyja) Conservation Program. The Har-
py Eagles, captive-bred and soft-released in Panama, are
brought to Belize and hard-released into a more remote
forest once they are independently hunting on their
own. The most recent hard-released eagle a male eagle
hatched in 2005- brings the total of birds released in
Belize to fifteen. This Harpy Eagle along with fourteen
others, will make his new home in the forests of north-
western Belize, in the Rio Bravo Conservation Manage-

ment Area (RBCMA), managed by Programme for
This area of tropical forest where the Harpy
Eagles are released is part of the much larger "Selva
Maya" which is the largest contiguous block of tropical
forest north of the Amazon Basin. Encompassing
approximately 22,000 km2, this forest stretches from
Belize into Mexico and Guatemala, and includes the
Peten region a rich, biologically diverse forest
system and home to some of the most famous and
well-studied Mayan ruins. The Harpy Eagles released
in the RBCMA have been shown to utilize the forest in
all three nations.

Newly released Harpy Eagle in the Rio Bravo Management Area (Programme for Belize) of Belize.


Community Awareness
The main threat to the Harpy Eagle in the short
term is humans with guns. Of the fifteen released
eagles, nine are known to survive and four have been
confirmed as killed by humans. Accordingly, public edu-
cation is viewed as a vital component of BHERP's
Harpy Eagle conservation efforts in Belize. Apart from
visiting local schools, creating educational billboards
and posters, and hosting environmental education acti-
vities at The Belize Zoo, it is of key importance to
include community members in as many aspects of Har-
py Eagle conservation as possible.

names for the eagles.
The strategy to be proactive in this particular
community is due to a past incident where one of the
BHERP Harpy Eagles was shot and mutilated within the
Blue Creek community lands. Involving these citizens in
the conservation strategy is viewed as an imperative com-
ponent to ensure the success of the program.

Children attend a celebration for the Harpy Eagle at the Belize
To that end, BHERP hosted a ceremony of ap-
preciation to commemorate the release of the 15th
Harpy Eagle to the area. The ceremony was held on the
runway in the Blue Creek Community, a town adjacent
to the release site. The Harpy Eagle, named "Hope",
was flown to the town's small runway after his entry
into Belize, and then, just before doing the "raptor road
trip" to the final release site, the important presentation
ceremony took place. A plaque, brought to the Mayor
and members of the community council, was delivered
"from the sky" by two skydivers who jumped from an
airplane at 8,000 ft. The plaque, featuring the Harpy
Eagle, cited the community's commitment to "Care for
Creation." The community's school children have been
engaged in "Harpy Eagle awareness" programs for
some time, and for the two past releases, have provided

A child reads about the importance of the Harpy Eagle.

Though all releases are important, this specific
release was given a great deal of attention and press due
to the fact that the eagle's reintroduction was tied into
the imperative issue of Climate Change. Scientific
research has reinforced the need to protect forest habitat
in order to reduce the negative impacts of climate
change. Protecting forest habitat is also key in sustaining
the Harpy Eagle.

New Research on the Rufous-tailed Hawk (Buteo ventralis) in
Southern Chile by: TomAs Rivas 1, Heraldo Norambuena 2,1, Victor Raimilla 2,2
1 Escuela de Ciencias, Universidad Austral de Chile, e-mail: peucomapu@gmail.com., 2 Escuela de Ciencias
Ambientales Universidad Cat6lica de Temuco, E-mail: 1 buteonis@gmail.com & 2 phalcoboenus@gmail.com

The Rufous-tailed Hawk (Buteo ventralis) is endemic to
the temperate forests of austral South America and is
found between 36-550S in Chile and Argentina. It has
been suggested that this hawk is dependent on very
specific habitat (Trejo et al. 2006), and thus its conser-
vation is threatened due to the progressive increase in
the substitution of native forests for exotic species
plantations (pine and eucalyptus) and the conversion of
soils for agricultural use. Both of these threats have
been taken into consideration by the IUCN, which has
categorized this species as NT (Near Threatened). In
Argentina, one of the countries within this species' dis-
tribution, there have been no nesting records for this
species nor have studies been done regarding its natural
history (Trejo 2007). In Chile, the situation has changed
only within the last decade, beginning with a study on
its diet (Figueroa et al. 2000) and currently with a study
on its reproductive biology. Since the spring of 2007,
the first author, with the help of Ricardo Figueroa,
began to research breeding territories of B. ventralis in
the Nahuelbuta Mountain Range (between the regions
of Bio-bio and la Araucania), finding 11 nesting territo-
ries (observations of adults as well as fledglings), and
three active nests. Continuing in the breeding period of
2008-09, the study area expanded to the depression
halfway between the regions of la Araucania and los
Rios. With the participation of Javier Medel, the first
author searched other areas in the Costa Mountain
Range in los Rios. During 2008-09 11 more territories
were found, within which two more active nests were
located, bringing the total to five new nests. Most of
the pairs were found in primary laurifolia forest, either
contiguous or fragmented (>80ha). During the 2007-08
and 2008-09 seasons, in the region of la Araucania, the
first author collected hundreds of prey remains and
pellets, which are currently being analyzed.

Buteo ventralis (immature female), Valdivia Coast, Southern Chile

Nest with three chicks, Valdivia Coast, Southern Chile

A second work group composed of the second and
third authors worked during two breeding periods
(2008-10), and has monitored a nesting pair in the
Cerro Nielol Natural Monument. To date they have
logged more than 350 observation hours with the ob-
jective of characterizing parental care and the interac-
tions of this pair with other sympatric raptors. The
team will also evaluate the degree of superposition in
the diet and habitat use of this species with its conge-
ner, the Variable Hawk (B. polyosoma), in this small frag-
ment of 89.5 hectares.
Of the six nests being studied five are new nests from
those that had already been described in the 1940's
(Continued on page 9)


Buteo ventra/zs (male) Cerro Nielol Natural Monument, Iemuco, Southern Chile

(Housse 1945, Goodall et al. 1951, Behn 1947, Figuerc
al 2000).
Based on an initial understanding of the nesting ha
requirements it can be said that this species uses a fore
vegetation structure that is multilayered with trees of
ying ages and that contains tall trees for perching
nesting. However, it can use fragments of altered fc
with open areas of scrub grasslands and humid zones.
As a result of these on-going studies we have gained
portant information about i) reproductive biology ii) re
ductive behavior iii) habitat use, iv) hunting beha,
v) trophic ecology, vi) structure and morphology of
nest, viii) interactions with other raptors and ix) stat
permanence within nesting territories and of local migr
ry activity.
During the current and upcoming breeding seasons
hope to intensify the search for breeding territories
nests, thereby increasing our knowledge of the asp
mentioned earlier and beginning long-term studies ot

Research Groups:
TomAs Rivas, Ricardo Figueroa and Javier Medel -
gions of: Bio-bio, Araucania and Los Rios, Chile.
Heraldo Norambuena and Victor Raimilla Cerro N
Natural Monument, Araucania Region, Chile.

)a et References

bitat Behn, F. (1947) Contribuci6n al estudio de Buteo ven-
sted trais. Boletin Sociedad Biologia de Concepci6n 22:
Figueroa, R. A. J. E. Jim6nez, C. A. Bravo, and E.
S. Corales (2000) The diet of the Rufous-tailed Hawk
(Buteo ventralis) during the breeding season in sout-
im- hern Chile. Ornitologia Neotropical 11:349-352.
ior, Goodall, J. D., A. W. Johnson, and R. A. Philippi
the (1951) Las aves de Chile. Vol.II. Establecimientos
S Grificos Platt SA, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
e of
Housse, R (1945) Las aves de Chile y su clasificaci6n
modera: su vida y sus costumbres. Santiago, Chile.
we Ediciones Universidad de Chile.
ects Trejo, A. (2007) Identificaci6n de especies y Areas
i its prioritarias para el estudio de la reproducci6n de aves
rapaces de Argentina. Hornero 22(2): 85-96.

Trejo A., R. A. Figueroa, and S. Alvarado (2006)
Forest-specialist raptors of the temperate forests of
Re- southern South. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 14:

Occurrence of the Black-banded Owl (Strix huhula) in the Urban
Area of Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil by M6sar Lemos, ABFPAR Associagio
Brasileira de Falcoeiros e Preservagio de Aves de Rapina, lemosmosar(@hotmail.com and Andrea de Andrade Ran-
gel de Freitas, Faculdade de VeterinAria. Universidade Federal Fluminense, andreaarfreitas(@hotmail.com

There are two described sub-species of Stix
huhula,- an owl endemic to South America: S. huhula
huhula is found on this side of the Andes in the north
portion of South America, from the extreme north
(west colombiano to Guianas) to the Brazilian Amazon
and the adja-
cent north-
east (north
of Maranho
and Piaui
Status in
Brazil); and
S. huhula
found in the
southeast of
Brazil from
Rio de Janei-
ro State to
the State of
Santa Catari-
na, and sout-
heast of the
State of Mi-
nas Gerais,
the latter
being res-
tricted to the
Atlantic fo- Stix huhula
rests in the
southeast of Brazil, east of Paraquay and northeast of
Argentina (Gonzaga and Castiglioni 2004). This owl
measures 31 to 36 cm and has a black facial disk with
white concentric lines. It utilizes the upper stratus of
high tropical forests and humid subtropical forests
(Duncan 2003).

The species was described by Daudin in 1800 and ac-
cording to Alves et al. (2000) it is not very abundant.
The existing data from the State of Rio de Janeiro are
insufficient to determine its conservation status. The
majority of large owls are naturally rare, occurring in
low densities
with relatively
home ranges.
They nest
principally in
natural cavities
(Sick 1997)
which are not
easily available
and are in de-
mand by many
animals. Also,
their nocturnal
habits makes it
difficult to
pinpoint this
species' home
r a n g e
(Antunes et al
2006). Gonza-
ga and Cas-
tiglioni (2004)
noted the pre-
sence of this species in the dense forests of Tijuca, in
the city of Rio de Janeiro based on vocalization records
from one individual. According to these authors, this
was the first documented record of S. huhula in Rio de
Janeiro City ruling out any doubts about the existence

(Continued on page 11)

Page 14

of this species in the region. It is not included in the list
of raptors observed by Lemos (2000) in Niter6i.

On 4 August, 2007 at 22:30 we first saw a large, dark
silhouette of a bird trying to catch bats, which were
feeding on nectar inside a bottle hanging approximately
2.5 meters above the ground. A short time later, during
a second hunting attempt, the bird passed the garage,
grabbing a bat, allowing us to see that it was a Black-
banded Owl. At 23:50 the bird perched about six
meters above in a branch of Delonix regia in the patio of
the house, focusing its attention on where the bats
were concentrated. It remained nearby for 10 minutes,
which allowed us to confirm its identification and take
a photographic record with a digital camera.

Strix huhula has been principally associated with areas
of low altitude, up to 500 msnm, rarely reaching 1,400
meters. It inhabits humid forests with high trees
(including the forests of Araucaria), but on occasions
it is found in human-altered habitats such as banana
and coffee plantations. The altitude and time at which
we observed the species coincides with observations by
Gonzaga and Castiglioni (2004) in the dense forest of
Tijuca. It is well-known that nocturnal species more
actively hunt during crepuscular hours and at night,
until approximately 2100 hours. It has been suggested
that a possible change in this schedule occurs on those
nights when the moon is full, since visibility improves
and there is a greater production of shadows as
occurred on the night of our encounter with this
species. The diet of Brazilian Strigidae is primarily
made up of insects; however they also capture rodents,
marsupials, bats, lizards and frogs. They prefer forests
with open understories in which to hunt, often utilizing
forest edges (Sick 1997). This is the first photographic
record of the species in Rio de Janeiro State and
demonstrates that small fragments of Atlantic Forest
are important for maintaining biodiversity and should
be preserved in urbanization projects.


Alves, M. A. S., J. F. Pachecho, L. A .P. Gonzaga, R. B.
Cavalcanti, M. A. Raposo, C. Yamashita, N. C. Maciel
and M. Castanheira (2000). Aves, p. 113-124. Em: Ber-
gallo, H. G., C. F. D. Rocha, M. A. S. Alves and M.
Van Sluys. A fauna ameagada de extingao do estado do
Rio de Janeiro. Rio de Janeiro: Editora UERJ.

Antunes, A.Z., M. R. Eston, A. S. R. Santos, G. V. Me-
nezes, and A. M. R. Santos (2006) Presenga de Coruja-
Listrada Strix hylophila Termmick, 1825 (Aves, Strigi-
dae) no Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho SAo Miguel
Arcanjo, Estado de Sao Paulo (Nota Cientiifica). Rev.
Inst. Flor 18: 167-171.

Duncan, J.R. (2003). Owls of the World: their lives, behavior
and survival. New York, Firefly Books. P. 254-255.

Gonzaga, L. P. and G. D. A. Castiglioni (2004). Regis-
tros recentes de Strix huhula no Estado de Rio de Janei-
ro (Strigiformes: Strigidae). Ararajuba. 12 (2): 141-142.

Lemos, M. (2001) Ocorrencia e status de algumas aves
de rapina no municipio de Niter6i, Estado de Rio de
Janeiro. Boletim ABFPAR. 4 (2): 6-11.

Sick, H. (1997). Ornitologia brasileira. Rio de Janeiro:
Nova Fronteira. P. 403.

Compiled by Lloyd Kiff, The Peregrine Fund, Ikiff@peregrinefund.org

MG. BIOTA is a technical scientific bulletin published by the Instituto Estadual de Florestas in Belo Horizonte,
Minas Gerais, Brazil. An entire issue (vol. 1, no. 5; 2008) was recently devoted to the results of long-term surveys
by members of the group, S.O.S. Falconiformes, of the raptors of Rio Doce State Park, where important remnants
of Brazil's legendary Atlantic Forest still survive. This attractive, glossy-magazine format publication contains
excellent photos and tightly written species accounts with factual information of interest to all Neotropical raptor
enthusiasts. In addition the high production values of this publication make it a suitable tool for environmental
education programs in Minas Gerais and other parts of Brazil. It provides an excellent model that could be emula-
ted by raptor groups in other parts of the Neotropics. The specific papers include:
Pp.4-43, Carvalho Filho, E.P.M., G. Zorzin, M. Canuto, C.E.A. Carvalho, and G.D.M. Carvalho. Aves do rapina
diurnas do Parque Estadual do Rio Doce, Minas Gerais, Brasil [Diurnal raptors of Rio Doce State Park, Minas
Gerais, Brazil].
Pp. 44-57, Zorzin, G., M. Canuto, E.P.M. Carvalho Filho, and C.E.A. Carvalho. Aves de rapina noturnas do Par-
que Estadual do Rio Doce, Minas Gerais, Brasil [Nocturnal raptors of Rio Doce State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil],
Pp.58-59, Canuto, M. GaviAo-pombo-pequeno (Leucopternis lacernulatus) [White-necked Hawk [(Leucopternis lacerula-

Fabio Raposo do Amaral, Frederick H. Sheldon, Anita Gamauf, Elisabeth Haring, Martin Riesing, Luis
F. Silveira, and Anita Wajntal. 2009. Patterns and processes of diversification in a widespread and ecolo-
gically diverse avian group, the buteonine hawks (Aves, Accipitridae) Molecular Phylogenetics and Evo-
lution 53(3):703-715. Among several important studies of the molecular phylogenetics of raptors published in
2009, this paper was probably the one of greatest interest to Neotropical researchers. Based on sequences from
mitochondrial markers and one nuclear intron from 54 species, the authors concluded that the genus Buteo origina-
ted in South America in the Miocene and subsequently expanded to the Nearctic and then to the Old World. Mi-
gratory behavior in this group evolved several times, contributing to the derivation of insular species and dispersal
to the Holarctic. Of particular interest is further confirmation of the senior author's earlier conclusions (Amaral
et al. 2006) that the widespread Neotropical genus Leucopternis is not monophyletic and that the species traditionally
placed in it actually belong to three separate clades. This finding, which was also confirmed by Heather Lerner at
the University of Michigan, still awaits appropriate action by the leading classification committees. It is of interest
that the authors of this impressive paper are on the staffs of three laboratories on three different continents, a tes-
timony to the growing trend for international collaboration in ornithology, particularly in the fast-moving field of
molecular genetics.

Raptor researchers based in Mexico and Central America should be aware of the gold mine of significant raptor
distributional information included in the quarterly North American Birds columns on Mexico (edited by Hector
G6mez de Silva) and Central America (edited by Lee Jones, based in Belize, and Olivar Komar, based in El Salva-
dor), for nearly a decade. For those interested in recent and ongoing raptor range expansions in the Central Ame-
rican region, this is the best place to find a blow-by-blow account. All of the raptor records in the Central America
columns were recently added to the distribution sections of the GRIN species accounts (in the country-by-country
summaries), and the ones for Mexican states and territories will be incorporated into GRIN in the near future.
North American Birds is now published by the American Birding Association and an electronic file of the issues back
to 1973 was recently added to the "SORA" website at http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/NAB/index.php#.

COS/AOU/SCO JOINT MEETING 7-11 February 2010, San Diego, California, USA For more information visit:
http: //www.birdmeetings.org/cosaousco2010/default.htm

BIRD MIGRATION AND GLOBAL CHANGE 17-20 March 2010, Strait of Gibraltar, Algeciras, SW Spain
For more information visit: http://www.fundacionmigres.org/congresos/globalchange/Presentation.html

25th INTERNATIONAL ORNITHOLOGICAL CONGRESS 22-28 August 2010, Campos do Jordao, Sao Paolo,
Brazil. For more information visit: http://www.ib.usp.br/25ioc /

For more information visit: http://www.peregrinefund.org/Gyr conference/

IX NEOTROPICAL ORNITHOLOGICAL CONFERENCE 2012, Peru. For more information visit:
http: //www.neotropicalornithology.org/



Working to Conserve Birds ofPrey in Nature

Articles were edited and/or translated by Saskia Santamaria, Angel Muela, Yeray Seminario,
Edwin Campbell and Marta Curti.
NRN Coordinator: Marta Curti mcurti@fondoperegrino.org

The NRN is a membership-based organization. Its goal is to aid
the research and conservation of Neotropical raptors by promot-
ing communication and collaboration among biologists, orni-
thologists, raptor enthusiasts, and other conservationists working
in the Neotropics.
To join the NRN please send an email to
mcurti@fondoperegrino.org, introducing yourself and stating
your interest in Neotropical raptor research and conservation.

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