Title: Neotropical raptor network newsletter= Boletín de la red de rapaces neotropicales= boletim a rede de aves de rapina neotropicales
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00099464/00007
 Material Information
Title: Neotropical raptor network newsletter= Boletín de la red de rapaces neotropicales= boletim a rede de aves de rapina neotropicales
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Publisher: Peregrine Fund
Place of Publication: Boise, Idaho
Publication Date: October 2007
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Bibliographic ID: UF00099464
Volume ID: VID00007
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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Newsletter #4

Neotopical Raptor Netw-ork (N N)

(RUN) Red de Rapaces Neotropicales

Edited by Magaly Linares and bominique Avery
Translations by Magaly Linares unless otherwise noted c er

The Black-chested Buzzard-eagle in a Large Urban

Center in Southeastern Brazil By Luiz Fernando Salvador Jr
Neotropical Research-Grupo de Estudo para a Conservagao da Fauna Neotropical

In 2005, researchers
involved in raptor conser-
vation at Belo Horizonte,
Minas Gerais, Brazil, dis-
covered the reutilization of
an abandoned nest by a
pair of Black-chested Buz-
zard-eagle (Buteo melano-
leucus). The mostly stick
nest is located in the Serra
do Curral mountain ridge,
an area heavily degraded
by urban growth and min-
ing activities. Although the
first sightings of Black-
chested Buzzard-eagles in
the area occurred in early
'80s, only in the late '90s
members of SOS Falconi-
formes (Centro de Pes-
quisa para a Conservaqao
das Aves de Rapina
Neotropicais) and collabo-
rators made the first official

Inside this issue:
Black-chested Buzzard-
eagle in Brazil
Raptors in the Southern
Peruvian Amazon
Swallow-tailed Kite Res-
cue & Rehabilitation
Tracking of Crowned
Solitary Eagle in Argen- 2
First Time Release of
Orange-breasted Fal- 3
North Star Award 3
Survey of Grey-backed
Hawk in Northwestern 4
Book Announcements 8
Recent Journal Articles 9
Upcoming Conferences
and Meetings

Figure 1. Young Forest Falcon

For many biologists, the
study of forest raptors is
considered a big challenge.
As we all know, raptors not
only have low population
densities (many scientists
are always worried about a
large enough sample size),
but they are even harder to
find in dense and tall rain-

observations and started
collecting data on the re-
productive biology and diet
of these raptors. They fol-
lowed the reproductive ac-
tivities of different pairs

during the 1996, 1997 and
2000 breeding seasons,
when a fire halted further
nesting attempts in the
(Continued on page 5)

It is not uncommon to
see surprised and con-
cerned expressions when I
mention that I study forest
raptors. In particular, I re-
member my very first orni-
thological meeting back in
1996. As a new master's
student, I was excited
about the opportunity of
(Continued on page 7)

Black-chested Buzzard-eagle at 56 days old

Raptors of the Southern Peruvian Amazon
bBy Ursula Valdez, University of Washington

Page 2 Issue 4
Swallow-tailed Kite Rescue and Rehabilitation By Jennifer o. Coulson,
President and Conservation Chair-Orleans Audubon Society, translated by Sergio H. Seipke

During our long-term study on the
population biology of Swallow-tailed
Kites breeding in Louisiana and Mis-
sissippi, my husband Tom and I have
encountered Kites in need of rescue
and rehabilitation. One of the first de-
bilitated Kites we encountered was
found three miles off Louisiana's
coast in the Gulf of Mexico on a men-
haden fishing boat. The young Kite
was attempting to make its first migra-
tion when he crash landed on the
boat. The Kite's head and wings
drooped, and he weighed half the
mass of a healthy Kite. He passed
parasitic worms (a nematode of the
genus Sinhymantus, formerly
Dispharynx) but was too weak to en-
dure worming treatment. After the Kite
gained enough weight, we wormed
him with fenbendazole several times.
Within a few weeks, he was almost
ready for release...all he needed was
a little conditioning.
We exercised him in an open field
three times a day by flying him on a
long line attached to the jesses
(leather leashes fitted on his legs).
After the first few days of flight train-

ing, the Kite was flying effortlessly on
a 50-foot line, so we added a small
weight to the line. This weight training
helped the Kite gain strength rapidly.
When we released him, he flew off
with great powerful strokes, out of
sight and without a backward glance.
This Kite certainly would have
died from his parasitic infection had

we not intervened. The tissue-
destroying nematode parasite he was
infected with can be lethal to birds. It
imbeds in the lining of the upper
stomach (proventriculus), often de-
stroying it, and interferes with diges-
tion. I wondered how deadly and
prevalent this parasite might be to
Kites, so we started collecting and
screening fecal samples from nes-
tlings and adults during banding and
radio-tagging. Some radio-tagged
Kites carried this parasite and lived
normal lives, but a fledgling and a
nestling from two nests died from
complications attributed to this para-
My favorite rescue story began
when a six-day-old nestling miracu-
lously survived falling from his nest,
100 feet above the ground. The
grounded nestling was discovered in
a pile of pine straw by the home-
owner's collie. When I arrived, the
nestling was concussed and vomiting.
I quickly administered an anti-
inflammatory agent (corticosteroid
(Continued on page 8)

Tracking of a Crowned Solitary Eagle fledgling in the semi-arid

region of Argentina by Miguel Angel Santilldn and Jose Herndn Sarasola (CECARA)
Center for the study and conservation of raptors in Argentina

Crowned Solitary Eagle (Harpyhaliaetus
coronatus) banded fledgling at a nest in
Prosopis caldenia tree (Prosopis caldenia).

ronmental needs. Without this data, it
The Crowned Solitary Eagle is difficult to talk about habitat frag-
(Harpyhaliaetus coronatus) mentation, demography and abun-
is considered endangered, dance of the species.
although its conservation
s conservation ith the intention of learning
status is still unknown. Re-
about dispersal and migration pat-
searchers point to habitat
searchers point to habitatterns, researchers from CECARA,
loss and direct persecution University of La Pampa, Argentina,
by humans as the mos se-_Placed a satellite transmitter on a
ous threat to the population Crowned Solitary Eagle fledgling be-
but none of them has been
t n e of t h b fore it left the nest in a semi-arid re-
thoroughly investigated. gion in central Argentina. This was a
One of the main factors that
One of the main factorsthat collaborative research effort from
limit the analysis of these members of CECARA, Lorenzo
causes is the limited knowl-
aue te Sympson (Andino-_Patagonic Natural-
edge about
the ecology and More information about CECARA and these
biology of the spe-
cies, as well as its projects can be found at www.cecara.com.ar
habitat and envi- (Continued on page 6)

The Peregrine Fund Biologists Release Captive-bred Orange-breasted

Falcons for the First Time The Peregrine Fund/Fondo Peregrino Panam6

Rare Orange-breasted Falcons
bred in captivity have been released
for the first time to the wild in their
traditional territory in Belize to bolster
a small and isolated population
thought to number fewer than 35 pairs
in all of Central America.
Early in July, six chicks were
placed in a hack box and will be fed
until they are able to successfully pur-
sue and capture prey on their own.
"This has been
one of the most
difficult species The
Peregrine Fund has
ever tried to breed
in captivity," said
Pete Jenny, presi-
dent and CEO of
The Peregrine
Fund. "We're very
pleased that, after
20 years of work,
we're finally in the
position of having
enough birds to
undertake this first
release." Chick in Belize -
The falcons
were bred and raised in captivity by
Robert Berry, a research associate
and founding board member of The
Peregrine Fund, at his breeding facil-
ity in Wyoming. A 21-year effort to
propagate Orange-breasted Falcons
reached important milestones with the
first successful hatch of four falcon
chicks in 2006 and seven chicks in
2007. The Peregrine Fund remains
the only facility to successfully breed


this species in captivity.
The Orange-breasted Falcon has
grown increasingly rare as its habitat
in Central and South America is im-
pacted by human development. The
birds have vanished from extensive
portions of their previous range in
Central America, for reasons that sci-
entists don't fully understand.
"The study of captive-bred falcons
in the wild provides us with a unique
opportunity to understand
what limits the species'
distribution and abun-
dance without negatively
impacting the wild popula-
tion," Jenny said.
These beautiful, medium-
sized falcons once resided
in tropical forests from
southeastern Mexico
through Central America to
Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay
and northern Argentina.
Orange-breasted Falcons
may be one of the most
sparsely distributed fal-
(arta Curti cons in the world. They
feed on smaller birds and
bats, pursing them at high speeds
and catching them in the air. The fal-
cons generally nest on precipitous
cliffs like the Peregrine Falcon and
occasionally in emergent trees. The
Orange-breasted Falcon has a white

Pair at the breeding facility in
Wyoming Robert Berry

throat, orange upper breast and legs,
and yellow toes and skin exposed
around the eye, which stand out in
sharp contrast to its black head and
back. Their huge feet and long toes
make them the most powerfully
armed of all falcons relative to body
Field work is coordinated and
carried out by Angel Muela and Marta
Curti, biologists at The Peregrine
Fund's field office in Panama.

Further information may be found at the following web sites:
or www.birds.cornell.edu/obf

North Star to Award

PTT at the III NRC
North Star Science and Technol-
ogy, LLC will sponsor the 2009 Third
Neotropical Raptor Conference in Bo-
gota, Colombia. The company will
provide an opportunity for a single
research project on Neotropical rap-
tors to acquire 3 battery powered
PTTs for free. For program details

Visit www.northstarst.com for addi-
tional information on the company and
the PTT units. North Star has teamed
in this effort with the Neotropical Rap-
tor Network to provide expert advice
and to convene a review committee to
assess applications for this award and
to select the awardee.
Application materials should in-
clude contact information and a not-
more-than-three-page narrative that
includes a full budget for the project
including the awarded PTTs. Propos-
als are due by 15 July 2008. The

award will be announced no later than
15 October 2008, and the PTTs will
be presented to the awardee at a spe-
cial ceremony during the Third
Neotropical Raptor Conference in
Bogota, Colombia, in January/
February, 2009.
Please send proposals no later than
15 July 2008 to:
Dr. Keith L. Bildstein
Hawk Mountain Sanctuary
410 Summer Valley Road
Orwigsburg, PA 17961
Bildstein @ hawkmtn.org

Issue 4

Page 3

Page 4

A Survey of the Grey-backed Hawk in Northwestern Peru
By Renzo Piano and F. Herndn Vargas The Peregrine Fund/Fondo Peregrino Panamd

With a small population and a
range restricted to Western Ecuador
and extreme Northwestern Peru, the
Grey-backed Hawk (Leucopternis
occidentalis) is listed as endangered
by the International Union for the
Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and
the PpriJvian IenisIlatinn In the Ilat F50

largely unknown. The species was
first recorded in 1979 inside the for-
mer Zona Reservada de Tumbes on
what is now part of the Cerros de

Amotape National Park
Between 6 and 13 June
2007, we visited several loca-
tions at the
main goals of
this survey
1) locate
populations of
the Grey-backed


in Northwestern Peru
2) develop ideas about
its abundance and dis-
3) assess its conserva-
tion status in order to
design a PhD research
project for Renzo Piana
4) and evaluate possi-
ble associations be-
tween habitat types and
the occurrence of the
Grey-backed Hawk.
The survey was mainly
focused in the Western
side of the CANP. We
visited this area be-

Leucopternis occidentalis observed at Quebrada Faical
on June 9, 2007 Herndn Vargas

years in Ecuador, the hawk popula-
tion has had a high rate of decline
because of habitat fragmentation due
to agriculture. In 1995, Hernan Var-
gas estimated that the number of
breeding pairs in Ecuador was less
than 500. At present, BirdLife Interna-
tional estimates that the Ecuadorian
population may range between 250
and 999 individuals. As forest frag-
mentation continues, the population
may still be declining.
In Peru, no population estimate
exists for the Grey-backed Hawk and
its abundance and distribution are

cause ornitholo-
gists, birdwatch-
ers and park
rangers had re-
ported observing
the Grey-backed
Hawk in the


park, particularly at Quebrada
Faical. On 8 June 2007 we
reached the El Caucho Re-
search Station (recently con-
structed by the Institute Na-
cional de Recursos Naturales
(INRENA) in order to facilitate
research and conservation ac-
tion inside this protected area). On 9
June, we walked along the Faical
creek and at about 09:00 we ob-
served two Grey-backed Hawks,
probably an adult female and an adult
or juvenile male. The birds were silent
and perched on one side of the creek

in exposed branches approximately
15 to 20 meters high. The area where
we observed these two hawks is less
than 10 km away from the Ecuadorian

border. This creek is in steep, hilly
terrain with temporal and permanent
water courses in the lower parts and
steep slopes covered with dense,
tropical dry forest. Trees over 15m in
height are abundant and are usually
covered by epiphyte plants, locally
known as "salvajina" (Tillandsia spp.).
After our successful encounter
with the two hawks at Quebrada Fai-
cal, we continued our survey south-
wards. We surveyed five other loca-
tions by car and finally visited Que-
brada Hormigas in the southern limit
of the CANP. We visited this
"quebrada" because of a report of one
Grey-backed Hawk by an expedition
of British ornithologists in 2000. We
restation by goats reached the
small town of
rented horses
and donkeys
and were guided
by a local for the
final part of our
expedition. Un-
fortunately, we
were unable to
find a Grey-
backed Hawk at
Quebrada Hor-
migas and at
other locations south of Quebrada
The finding of only two individuals
during our six-day survey suggests
that the species has only a marginal
distribution in extreme Northwestern
(Continued on page 5)

Issue 4

In 1995, Herndn Vargas estimated
that the number of breeding pairs in
Ecuador was less than 500. At
present, BirdLife International
estimates that the Ecuadorian
population may range between 250
and 999 individuals.

Issue 4

(Continued from page 4)

Peru or that we failed to detect Grey-
backed Hawks because of extremely
low population density. Since the spe-
cies is known to be more common in
Southwestern Ecuador, we should
carry out surveys close to the Ecua-
dorian border in the northwestern re-
gion of the CANP. We also need to
survey the more humid sector of the
central and southern part of the
CANP. Our survey was
carried out during the dry
season (June) and future
surveys should also be
conducted during the rainy
season (late December to
April). It is important to
estimate the population of
the Grey-backed Hawk at
Quebrada Faical and other
areas near El Caucho Bio-
logical Station where the
species is frequently re-
ported. For these reasons
(and in order to under-
stand the factors affecting

Buzzard-eagle Continued
In 2005, researchers from
Neotropical Research (Grupo de
Estudo para a Conservacgo da Fauna
Neotropical) recorded new nesting
activites in the cliffs of the Serra do
Curral. Copulation, nest repair and
prey delivery behaviors were first
observed in June 2005. Feeding and
later territorial interactions between
the pair and a juvenile Black-chested
Buzzard-eagle probably hatched at
the Serra do Curral in the previous
year were also recorded. The biology
and behavior of the species in Belo
Horizonte were detemined through
383 hours of observations. They de-
scribed the copulation patterns and
role of each sex in nest assistance,
prey deliveries, territory defense and
parental duties. They also quantified
the diet and characterized the devel-
opment of the single chick hatched in
2005 until it was 80 days old.
During this study, these research-
ers documented some important as-

and limiting the abundance and distri-
bution of the Grey-backed Hawk in
Peru), Renzo Piana will conduct more
detailed research in the next three
years as part of his doctorate studies
at Manchester Metropolitan Univer-
sity, UK. This research will be sup-
ported by The Peregrine Fund's
Neotropical Science and Student
Education program. If future surveys
ascertain that the species is rare in
Peru then conservation efforts would

from Page 1...
pects concerning the biology of the
species in a highly degraded and modi-
fied environment. They observed the
involvement of both parents in all re-
productive activities, the sharing of in-
cubation duties and the opportunistic
character of their diet which was
mainly composed of Rock Pigeons (an
introduced species) captured over
slums, in populated neighborhoods
and even downtown. The birds rigor-
ously defended their nesting territory
against human presence and the 2004
juvenile. Another important achieve-
ment was the tagging of the chick by
researchers from SOS Falconiformes
while it was still in the nest with a CE-
MAVE (Centro Nacional de Pesquisa
para a Conservaqao das Aves Silvest-
res IBAMA) ring. This will be impor-
tant for future studies related to home
range, dispersal patterns and territory
use of the birds.
Unfortunately, there was no repro-
ductive activity in the Serra do Curral

Page 5
need to be focused on habitat preser-
vation in Ecuador.
In our surveys, we also found
other raptor species which are good
representatives of the dry forest of
Northern Peru: an adult Pearl Kite
(Gampsonix swainsonii), a juvenile
Savanna Hawk (Buteogallus merid-
ionalis), an adult Crane Hawk
(Geranospiza caeruescens) and sev-
eral Short-tailed Hawks (Buteo
brachyurus). In addition, we also saw
S several raptor species of
wider distribution in Peru inl-
cuding three individuals of
Variable Hawk (Buteo
polyosoma) and were sur-
prised with the relatively high
abundance of the Great Black
Hawk (Buteogallus urubit-
inga). Although the CANP is
protected area, we also ob-
served herds of domestic cat-
tle and goats roaming all over
the park and grazing on na-
tive trees, which is likely
causing the conversion of
forest into grasslands.

nest during 2006, probably related to
the presence of researchers around it
in the previous year. This absence
suggests that the species, although
familiarized with constant human
presence in the area where they live;
are extremely sensible to human in-
tervention in their nesting territory.
The Neotropical Research Group has
submitted a paper to Revista Bra-
sileira de Ornitologia on the 2005
nesting study. These researchers still
work to locate other nests along the
entire extension of the Serra do Cur-
ral the same time they monitor the
nesting territory used during 2005
breeding season intending to identify
possible patterns of its use by imma-
ture and adults birds along the years.
The objective of such efforts is to un-
derstand the species natural history
and to provide the minimum needed
conditions to maintain the reproduc-
tive activity of these fascinating rap-
tors in the third largest city of Brazil.

Page 6
Eagle Continued from Page
ist Society, Bariloche, Argentina) and
Marc Bechard (CECARA, Boise State
University, USA). The transmitter was
donated by North Star Science and
Technology Inc. during the II
Neotropical Conference in Iguazu,
Argentina, June 2006. This project is
funded by The Peregrine Fund, Mi-
gres Foundation and Tierra Natura
The field work was completed in
January 2007 (summer in the South-
ern hemisphere) at "Los Ranqueles"
farm property of the Urquiza Family in
Paso de los Algarrobos, 186 miles
west of Santa Rosa, La Pampa.
This work is part of a major
Crowned Solitary Eagle Ecology and
Conservation project in central Argen-
tina. Since 2002, nests have been
monitored to observe the parent's
behavior and Drev brouaht to the nest

Issue 4
during the reproductive
period and to monitor if
the domestic cattle are
being targeted as part of
their predatory behavior.
An environmental s i
education campaign is
being implemented
among the local residents
with talks at rural schools
and surveys among resi-
dents and workers at the
area. This is so that we
can find out what their Crowned Solitary Eagle fledgling with transmitter.
feelings towards the spe-
feings e towards the spe- The movements of this female Crowned
cies are and collect infor-
mation about nest loca- Solitary Eagle can be followed at:
tions. Brochures have www.seaturtle.org/tracking/?project id=200
been distributed and a
documentary titled "Crying Eagle" has
been made for use at schools. This is Since 2007, these activities have
the story of a child (Fernando) and his been coordinated by Eng. Maximili-
relationship with a ano Galmes and directed by Marc
Crowned Solitary Bechard, PhD, and Jose HernAn
Eagle. This docu- Sarasola. CECARA works with other
mentary was raptor species in Argentina. Since its
made possible inception in 2001, studies about the
through an award Swainson's Hawk (Buteo swainsoni),
from the National trophic ecology of the American Kes-
Film and Audio- trel (Falco sparverius) and effects of
visual Arts Insti- raptors in agro-ecosystems of La
tute of Argentina Pampa have been conducted. Stud-
(INCAA) and the ies are in progress about the ecology
Sub-secretary of and reproduction of the Spot-winged
Culture of the Falconet (Spiziapteryx circumcinctus),
government of La the White-tailed Kite (Elanus leucu-
. ,, T,, u Pampa. rus) and the ecology and biology of
tf1d J H-1:.. .. .. ... x ~ . .

uII ,ll ,vI unu muA.lrlUn II. Uri, i lrs II l ) UlU an ose n.
Sarasola (right) at the School Home N048 de Single Arbol.

First Harpy Eagle Chick Hatched at The

Lymington Foundation by Linda Wittkoff

The pairing of two Harpy Eagles
succeeded in 2004, drawing the at-
tention of authorities and researchers
to the breeder in the interior of the
state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. However
the eggs laid either disappeared or
were destroyed before hatching. In
2006, the transfer of two eggs to the
Lymington Foundation facilities was
authorized by IBAMA. The eggs were
artificially incubated. Only one proved
fertile and the resulting chick died the
evening of hatching.

In March of
this year, we re-
ceived another
egg which
proved fertile.
Extra care was
taken for the suc-
cessful hatching
and survival of
this chick. This
wouldn't have
been possible
without the con-

mne Cnimango caracara (villvago cnl-
mango) surrounding the cities.

tribution of our technical staff, biolo-
gist Erica Pacifico and veterinarian
Juliana Sinhorini, both trained at the
University of Sao Paulo. Or without
the invaluable, almost daily commu-
nication and orientation of 3 persons
of the Peregrine Fund, Magaly
Linares, Saskia Santamaria, and Cal
Sanford a specialist in raptor breed-
ing based in Boise Idaho. The fe-
male chick was named Bunny, after
the Easter bunny, because she
hatched on Easter morning. At 97
days she weighed 4.882 kg.
She will not be kept here at Lym-
ington as our focus is on the breed-
Sing of blue macaws.

Issue 4

Raptors of Southern Peru Continued from Page 1...

meeting senior raptor researchers
and eager to receive advice on my
future research. I was quite disap-
pointed when I mentioned my plans to
work with forest raptors in the Ama-
zon to an experienced raptor biologist
and he told me, "You are ambitious
and nafve, but good luck and you bet-
ter be prepared for a real pain in the
neck." I still pursued the endeavor
despite the comments and because of
my immense curiosity for raptors (and
my natural stub-
bornness). Yet, I
have to admit that
he was absolutely
right! In my first
ventures into the
rainforest of Peru, I
spent endless
hours walking along
the trails hoping to
find a raptor. I liter-
ally had a sore
neck from looking
up into the canopy,
hoping to spot at
least a silhouette.
Many days would
pass until I saw a
raptor and many
times it was just a
glimpse of a bird
flying extremely
fast, or a shadow
disappearing in the dense vegetation.
Where were all those previously re-
ported species in one of the world's
most biodiverse regions?
It did not take me long to realize
that I needed to learn a lot from previ-
ous work in similar ecosystems. The
"Proyecto Maya" reports and J.M.
Thiollay's pioneering research be-
came my primary source of informa-
tion and a model for my work.
It has been 10 years since my
first explorations searching for raptors
in southeast Peru, and I can finally
say that I have gathered records of
about 95% of all the raptor species
reported for the whole region. These
records are the result of nest observa-
tions, auditory surveys, surveys from
above the canopy, trapping efforts
and occasional sightings. The major-

ity of records come from lowland
tropical rainforest where I have been
conducting research since 1997.
Large species such as the Harpy
Eagle (Harpia harpyja), Crested Eagle
(Morphnus guianensis), Black-and-
white Hawk-eagle (Spizastur melano-
leucus), Ornate Hawk-eagle
(Spizaetus ornatus) and Black Hawk-
eagle (Spizaetus tyrannus) have been
recorded in lowlands of Manu Na-

tional Park, Los Amigos River Con-
servation Area and near the mouth of
the Tambopata River in lowland rain-
forest of the Madre de Dios region in
Peru. Most of these species have
been recorded during surveys con-
ducted from above the canopy, spot-
ted when crossing large gaps in the
forest and during boat trips on rivers.
In Manu and Los Amigos Conserva-
tion Area, elusive species such as
Bicolored Hawk (Accipiter bicolor),
Tiny Hawk (A. superciliosus) and For-
est Falcons (Micrastur) have been
attracted to conspecific calls using
playback surveys. During trapping
attempts in the forest interior using
ground and canopy mistnets as well
as balchatris, I have been able to cap-
ture a total of 10 species of raptors.
Among those are Collared Forest Fal-
con (Micrastur semitorquatus), Lined
Forest Falcr n (MA gilvirllis), Rarraed

Page 7
Forest Falcon (M. ruficollis), Buckley's
Forest Falcon (M. buckleyi), Slaty-
backed Forest Falcon (M. miran-
dollei), Ornate Hawk-eagle, White-
browed Hawk (Leucopternis kuhi),
Slate-colored Hawk (L. schistacea),
Roadside Hawk (Buteo magnirostris)
and Black Caracara (Daptrius ater).
In the past three years while
working in Los Amigos River, I have
documented reproductive activity of
10 raptor species either by finding a
nest or evidence of young birds in the
area and in one case by finding a de-
veloped brood patch on
one of the captured indi-
viduals (White-browed
Hawk). In 2005 I found
the first ever-known nest
of a Buckley's Forest-
falcon and for two con-
secutive nesting sea-
sons I followed the de-
velopment of the eggs
and nestlings' until fledg-
ing time. I also observed
the Plumbeous Kite
(Ictinia plumbea), Dou-
ble-toothed Kite
(Harpagus bidentatus),
Bicolored Hawk and Tiny
Hawk building nests or
incubating between Oc-
tober and February and
observed the last two
species with older nes-
tlings in April and May.
Young of all the species of Forest-
falcons were captured between late
February and early April. These
young individuals were different from
the adults in plumage, eye and cere
While the dense Amazonian rain-
forest is indeed a challenge for raptor
biologists, using a combination of
methods of detection and capture
allowed me to find the secretive spe-
cies and is allowing me the opportu-
nity to learn more about their ecology
and natural history. In the years to
come I hope to complete more de-
tailed studies on raptor assemblages
in the Amazon and to understand
their specific roles in this diverse and
complex ecosystem.

Page 8

Book Announcements
The first Field Guide by
Sergio H. Seipke to the Rap-
tors of South America is on
its way!
South America, is home to 96
species of raptors and in some places
as many as 45 species co-exist! This
diversity presents a challenge for field
researchers, managers of conserva-
tion units, birdwatchers and others
who are trying to identify these birds
in the field.
I started toying with the idea of
writing a field guide for South Ameri-
can raptors more than 10 years ago.
I had first thought of working on a field
guide to the raptors of Argentina, my
home country. Since Argentina has
65 species, more than 2/3 of the spe-
cies in South America, why not work
a little harder and write a field guide
that could be used across the entire
The Field Guide to the Raptors of
South America will be published by
the Princeton University Press. It will
be about 500 pages and will include
over 100 color plates, updated range
maps of all species and more than
200 color photographs. The main
goal of the work is to present (a) field
marks and other identification infor-
mation which has been verified in the
field; (b) illustrations depicting all
known plumages, including accurate
flight silhouettes; and (c) photographs
of selected plumages of all species of
raptors occurring in the continent.

(Continued from page 2)

and dexamethasone) intramuscularly
and placed him in a brooder. Early the
next morning the nestling was track-
ing his head from side to side so I
gave him a higher-than-normal dose.
Within 2 hours he was sitting up, eat-
ing and acting like a healthy nestling.
A couple of days later, Tom and I ap-
proached the homeowners about re-
turning the nestling to his nest. The
nest was intact and still had an older
chick present. The homeowners were
concerned that the nest tree was un-
safe to climb, so they would not give

the field and designed to enhance our
knowledge of birds of prey in what is
arguably the most raptor-diverse bio-
geographical realm in the world,
terest to raptor biologists, conserva-
tionists, and enthusiasts everywhere.
Edited by Keith L. Bildstein, David
R. Barber, and Andrea Zimmerman
365 pages, 8.75" x 5.87", softcover.
Order from:
Hawk Mountain Sanctuary
1700 Hawk Mountain Road
Kempton, PA 19529 USA
$28.00 (including surface mail)

2nd Neotropical Raptor Con-
ference Proceedings, Iguazu,
Argentina, June 2006
Published in July 2007 by Hawk
Mountain Sanctuary on behalf of the
Neoptropical Raptor Network. The
365-page book contains 29 complete
papers and 80 bilingual abstracts with
numerous black-and-white photos,
figures, and tables.
The book (the first to focus en-
tirely on Neotropical birds of prey and
owls) offers new information on the
group's natural history, breeding biol-
ogy, migrations, rehabilitation, and
conservation. Written by experts in

us permission. We decided that the
next best course of action would be to
foster the nestling into a nest with
only one chick of approximately the
same age. It took us a while to locate
such a nest that was in climbable
tree. In the meantime, to avoid im-
printing the Kite, we fed him with a
Kite puppet and housed him within
sight of a non-releasable adult Swal-
low-tailed Kite we were caring for.
Twice, weather prevented us from
placing the nestling into a nest. Tropi-
cal Storm Allison caused many nests
to fail, reducing our pool of potential
foster nests. Finally, when the nes-

tling was 24 days old, we were able to
place him in a foster nest containing
one 27-day-old nestling. We moni-
tored the nest for 8 hours a day and
observed the parents feeding both
nestlings almost immediately. We
never observed any aggression be-
tween the nestlings. When the nes-
tlings fledged, we were able to see
the parents bringing food to both
fledglings. Kenneth D. Meyer of the
Avian Research and Conservation
Institute has also successfully used
this fostering technique for a Swallow-
tailed Kite nestling brought to a reha-
bilitation center.

Issue 4

Issue 4

Recent Articles on Neotropical

Raptors compiled by Cesar Sdnchez.

Copies can be sent as PDFs via email:


Albano, C., W. Girao & T. Pinto. 2007. Primeiro registro documen-
tado do gaviao-pega-macaco, Spizaetus tyrannus, para o
estado do Ceara, Brasil Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 15 (1)
Albuquerque, J. L. B., I. R. Ghizoni-Jr, E. S. Silva, G. Trannini, I.
Franz, A. Barcellos, C. B. Hassdenteufel, F. L. Arend & C. Mar-
tins-Ferreira. 2006. Aguia-cinzenta (Harpyhaliaetus coronatus) e
o Gaviao-real-falso (Morphnus guianensis) em Santa Catarina e
Rio Grande do Sul: prioridades e desafios para sua conserva-
gao. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 14 (4): 411-415.
Azevedo, M. A. G., V. Q. Piacentini, I. R. Ghizoni-Jr, J. L. B. Albu-
querque, E. S. Silva, C. M. Joenck, A. Mendonga-Lima & F.
Zilio. 2006. Biologia do gaviao-bombachinha, Harpagus diodon,
no estado de Santa Catarina, sul do Brasil. Revista Brasileira de
Ornitologia 14(4) 351-357
Barcellos, A. & I. A. Accordi. 2006. New records of the Crowned Ea-
gle, Harpyhaliaetus coronatus, in the State of Rio Grande do
Sul, southern Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 14 (4)
Bechard, M. J., J. H. Sarasola, & B. Woodbridge. 2006. A re-
evaluation of evidence raises question about the fasting migra-
tion hypothesis for Swanson's Hawk (Buteo swainsoni). El
Hornero: 21(2): 65-72.
Bollmer, J. L., R. T. Kimball, N. K. Whiteman, J. H. Sarasola, & P. G.
Parker. 2006. Phylogeography of the Galapagos hawk (Buteo
galapagoensis): A recent arrival to the Galapagos Islands. Mo-
lecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 39: 237-247.
Cabral, J. C., M. A. M. Granzinolli & J. C. Motta-Junior. 2006. Dieta
do quiriquiri, Falco sparverius (Aves: Falconiformes), na Esta-
gao Ecol6gica de Itirapina, SP. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia
14 (4) 393-399.
Careau, V., J.-F. Therrien, P. Porras, D. Thomas, K. L. Bildstein.
2006. Soaring and gliding flight of migrating Broad-winged
Hawks: behavior in the neartic and neotropics compared. The
Wilson Journal of Ornithology 118(4): 471-477.
Carlos, C. J. & W. Girao. 2006. A hist6ria do gaviao-de-penacho,
Spizaetus ornatus, na floresta Atl&ntica do nordeste do Brasil.
Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 14 (4): 405-409.
Carrara, L. A., P. T. Z. Antas & R. S. Yabe. 2007. Nidificagao do
gaviao-rel6gio Micrastursemitorquatus (Aves: Falconidae) no
Pantanal Mato-grossense: dados biometricos, dieta dos ninhe-
gos e disputa com araras. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 15
(1) 85-93.
Carvalho-Filho, E. P. M., M. Canuto & G. Zorzin. 2006. Biologia re-
produtiva e dieta do gaviao preto (Buteogallus u. urubitinga:
Accipitridae) no sudeste do Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Orni-
tologia 14 (4): 445-448.
Chatterjee, S., R. J. Templin, & K. E. Campbell-Jr. 2007. The aero-
dynamics of Argentavis, the world's largest flying bird from the
Miocene of Argentina. PNAS 104: 12398-12403.
Clark, W. S. 2007. Taxonomic status and distribution of Mangrove
Black Hawk Buteogallus (anthracinus) subtilis. Bull. B.O.C. 127
(2): 110-117.

Page 9
Granzinolli, M. A. M. & J. C. Motta-Junior. 2006. Predation on the
Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis) and consumption of the Campo
Flicker (Colaptes campestris) by the Aplomado Falcon (Falco
femoralis) in Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 14:(4) 453-
Granzinolli, M. A. M., R. J. G. Pereira & J. C. Motta-Junior. 2006. The
Crowned Solitary-eagle Harpyhaliaetus coronatus (Accipitridae)
in the cerrado of Estagao Ecol6gica de Itirapina, southeast Bra-
zil. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 14:(4) 429-432.
Joenck, C. M. 2006. Observagoes de Spizaetus tyrannus
(Acciptridae) no Centro de Pesquisa e Conservagao da
Natureza Pr6-Mata (CPCN Pr6-Mata) no Nordeste do Rio
Grande do Sul, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 14 (4):
Joenck, C. M. & M. A. G. Azevedo. 2006. Novos registros de Lepto-
don cayanensis (Acciptridae) no Rio Grande do Sul e Santa
Catarina, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 14 (4): 423-
Mandel, J. T. & K. L. Bildstein. 2007. Turkey Vultures Use Anthropo-
genic Thermals to Extend Their Daily Activity Period. The Wil-
son Journal of Ornithology 119(1):102-105.
Motta-Junior, J. C. 2006. Relagoes tr6ficas entre cinco Strigiformes
simpatricas na regiao central do Estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil.
Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 14 (4): 359-377.
Oliveira, A. L., & R. S. Silva. 2006. Registro de Harpia (Harpia har-
pja) no cerrado de Tapira, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Revista Bra-
sileira de Ornitologia 14 (4): 433-434.
Olmos, F., J. F. Pacheco & L. F. Silveira. 2006. Notas sobre aves de
rapina (Cathartidae, Acciptridae e Falconidae) brasileiras. Re-
vista Brasileira de Ornitologia 14 (4): 401-404.
Olson, S. L. 2007. The "walking eagle" Wetmoregyps
daggetti Miller: a scaled-up version of the Savanna
Hawk (Buteogallus meridionalis). Ornithological
Monographs 63(1): 110-114.
Pereira, G. A., G. Coelho, S. M. Dantas, S. A. Roda, G. B. Farias, M.
C. Periquito, M. T. Brito & G. L. Pacheco. 2006. Ocorrencias e
habitos alimentares do falcao-peregrino Falco peregrinus no
Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia
14 (4): 435-439.
Pereira, G. A., S. M. Dantas & M. C. Periquito. 2006. Possivel regis-
tro de Leptodon forbesi no Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. Re-
vista Brasileira de Ornitologia 14 (4): 441-444.
Roda, S. A. 2006. Dieta de Tyto alba na Estagao Ecol6gica do
Tapacura, Pernambuco, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia
14 (4): 449-452.
Roda, S. A. & G. A. Pereira. 2006. Distribuigao recente e conserva-
gao das aves de rapina florestais do Centro Pernambuco. Re-
vista Brasileira de Ornitologia 14 (4): 331-344
Trejo, A., R. A. Figueroa-R. & S. Alvarado-O. 2006. Forest-specialist
raptors of the temperate forests of southern South America: a
review. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 14 (4): 317-330.
Trejo, A., P. Capllonch, & L. Sympson 2007. Migratory status of the
White-throated Hawk (Buteo albigula): what do we know up to
now?. Ornitologia Neotropical 18(1): 11-19.
Vilella, F. J., & D. W. Hengstenberg. 2006. Broad-winged Hawk
(Buteo platypterus brunnescens) movements and habitat use in
a moist limestone forest of Puerto Rico. Ornitologia Neotropical
17 (4): 563-579.
Zilio, F. 2006. Dieta de Falco sparverius (Aves:Falconidae) e Athene
cunicularia (Aves: Strigidae) em uma Regiao de Dunas no Sul
do Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 14 (4): 379-392.

J To join the NRN
please send an email to
N ea mlinares@fondoperegrino.org,
Neotropical introducing yourself and stating your
Raptor interest in Neotropical raptor research
Network and conservation.
NRN Coordinator Magaly Linares
h mlinares@fondoperegrino.org
Fondo Peregrino -_Panama Te N is membershp- based org
Telefax: (507) 317 -_0064 research and C Onse p-ba oroniTao by
Apdo. 0844-00230 Communication n co ration af N onolo Its, to d
Republica de Panama commnicai"on and collaboroati on i a 'l raptors i the
www.peregrinefund.org enthusiasts and other among biologists ornitholo
www.fondoperegrino.org conservationists Wor ing in theooptor
--- 9In the Neotrop.cs J

Conferences and Meetings
AREAS Bariloche, Argentina, September 30 to October 6,
2007. For more information contact
rlc-congresoparques2007@fao.org or visit:
CONFERENCE (Batumi, Georgia) 9-13
October 2007. Hosted by GCCW and DENRA.
NETICS Leibniz Institute for Zoo & Wildlife Research & the
European Association of Zoos & Aquaria (Berlin, Ger-
many) 7-10 October 2007. To foster an exchange of ideas
among international specialists from many disciplines
working with free-ranging & captive animals. www.izw-
berlin.de/de/veranstaltungen/index.html?6th -IZW-
WORLD OWL CONFERENCE 2007: Owls, Ambassa-
dors for the Protection of Nature in their Changing
Landscapes BirdLife The Netherlands, Global Owl Pro-
ject, & World Owl Trust (Groningen, Netherlands) 31 Octo-
ber 4 November 2007. www.worldowlconference.com
Collantes, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba. November 12-17, 2007.
For more information contact Dra. DaysiRodriguez Batista,
E-mail: daysitarb@ecologia.cu
RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Hotel Villa del Rio, Valdivia,
Chile, November 13-16, 2007. For more information visit:
Morelos, Mexico, 26-30 November 2007. For more infor-
mation visit: www.socmesoamericana.orq or http://

ENCE (McAllen, Texas, USA) 13-16 February 2008.
"Tundra to Tropics: Connecting Birds, Habitats & People".
Focus on international connections of all sorts that further
bird & habitat conservation throughout the Western Hemi-
sphere. www.partnersinflight.org/events/2008 mcallen.htm
San Martin de los Andes, province of Neuquen,Argentina,
5-8 March 2008. Information is available at the official site
for the meeting at: www.rao.org.ar Contact information
info @ rao.orq.ar
Implications for Wildlife & Humans
The Peregrine Fund (Idaho, USA) 13-15 May 2008. To
consolidate understanding of implications of wildlife & hu-
man ingestion of lead ammunition residues, so that such
information can guide its regulation.
www.perecrinefund.orc/lead conference
lombia 2009: Please stay tuned for more upcoming infor-
mation through the Neotropical Raptor Network!

It's a Boy!!!

Cameron Ellis, the previous
NRN coordinator, and his
fiancee, Erin, have just cele-
brated the arrival of a beauti-
ful, healthy, baby boy named
Wyatt. Wyatt arrived on July
6th at 23 inches, 9 pounds, 2
Congratulations to
Cameron, Erin and

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