Front Cover
 Title Page
 Back Matter
 Back Cover

Group Title: Biennial report to State Board of Conservation, Florida
Title: Biennial report to State Board of Conservation
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00099418/00002
 Material Information
Title: Biennial report to State Board of Conservation
Alternate Title: Biennial report of the State Geological Survey
Physical Description: 2 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Geological Survey
Florida -- State Board of Conservation
Publisher: The Survey
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Frequency: biennial
Subject: Geology -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Mines and mineral resources -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1st (1933/34)-2nd (1935/36).
Numbering Peculiarities: Biennium ending Dec. 31.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00099418
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01956375
lccn - sn 87028633
oclc - 1956375
 Related Items
Preceded by: Annual report
Succeeded by: Biennial report - Geological Division and Archaeological Division

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
        Front Cover 3
        Front Cover 4
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
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        Page 12
        Page 13
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        Page 18
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        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Back Matter
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Back Cover
        Page 34
        Page 35
Full Text








Second Biennial Report

To State Board of Conservation

DECEMBER 31, 1936




HERMAN GUNTER, Assistant Supervisor
Geological Department

State Supervisor of Conservation

I '

- .



Establishment and History
The Florida Geological Survey was established by the
Legislature of 1907. The Act creating it was approved by
Governor N. B. Broward, June 3, 1907, and Dr. E. H. Sellards
was appointed as State Geologist June 19, 1907, serving as
such until April 18, 1919. Upon the resignation of Dr. Sellards
as State Geologist, Herman Gunter, who had been with the
Survey since August 15, 1907, was appointed as his successor.
The Survey continued to function under the original Act for
twenty-six years, or until 1933.
During the Legislature of 1933 a Conservation Department
was created through the consolidation of the State Shell Fish
Commission, the Department of Game and Fresh Water Fish
and the Florida State Geological Survey. This Act provided
for a State Board of Conservation, which is composed of the
Governor of Florida, the Secretary of State, the Attorney
General, the Comptroller, the State Treasurer, the State Super-
intendent of Public Instruction and the Commissioner of
In 1935 by an Act of the Legislature the Department of
Game and Fresh Water Fish was made a separate function
of the State Government, thus leaving only the two formerly
distinct departments in the Conservation Department.
From July 1, 1993, to June 30, 1935, funds for the main-
tenance of the Geological Department were allotted from the
Conservation Department. During the 1935 Legislature, how-
ever, a change was made through the Act making appropria-
tions for the various state agencies by placing the maintenance
of the Geological Survey again upon the General Revenue
Fund as it had been prior to the consolidation of Departments.

Generally speaking a Department of Geology is instituted
for the purpose of making known and assisting in the develop-
ment of the mineral and other natural resources. In Florida
the mineral resources alone are of greater importance than
appear to be generally recognized. To have an understanding
of the mineral resources, however, a first requisite is an under-
tanding of the geology, so i-s first report dealt with the
geology of the State briefly and an important resource, the
water supply of central Florida. This was followed by a detailed
report on the geology which was accompanied by a general
geologic map. With the broader basic knowledge as its guide
the Survey has followed the policy of reporting upon specific
natural resources, as for instance, the underground waters
of the State, the phosphates, clays, limestones and marls,
sands and gravels, diatomaceous earth and the so-called rare
earths. There have also appeared reports dealing with the
geography of northern, central and southern Florida. Bulle-
tins containing fundamental data on the fossils contained in
many of our different formations and those obtained from an
examination of well cuttings have likewise been published.
All of these publications have contributed to an understand-
ing of the geology of Florida wh'ch in turn has given an
insight to the potential economic possibilities.
Necessari y with a limited appropriation it has not been
possible to delve as deeply into these various subjects as in
many instances was desired nor to publish as large editions
as the subjects treated merited. Consequently many of the
reports need revision and many have been out of print and
therefore are not available for distribution. Mineral need
-'and the uses to which raw materials are put are constantly
changing. Some supposed y useless material of yesterday I
becomes of vital importance today and it is therefore no re-
flection to say that the old reports inadequate .to prperly-
td fully meet the demands of modern industry. These older
reports contain fundamental data but the need today is for
more specific and more detailed information, quantity.,accessi-
bility, chemical and physical properties and adaptibility to
commercial use.

The members of the Survey, in addition to the State
Geologist, have been Mr. Frank Westendick, Assistant Geolo-
gist, and Mrs. Mary H. Carswell, Secretary. Mr. J. Clarence
Simpson was Museum and Laboratory Assistant until Decem-
ber, 1935, when he was placed in charge of the archaeological
work in Hillsborough County by the Supervisor of Conserva-
tion. Special typing and clerical services have been rendered
by Miss Jeanetta Clemons.
The work of the State Geological Survey includes problems
that touch many of the activities of other State and National
bureaus. A cooperative policy has always been maintained
where assistance can be rendered and duplication avoided.
Such a policy has furthered the work of the Survey and has
proven mutually advantageous. Cooperation has been main-
tained with the U. S. Geological Survey in water supply in-
vestigations, in geologic and paleontologic studies and in a
report on the physiography of Florida. AXso with the U. S.
Bureau of Mines and the U. S.i Bureau of Census in the
mineral production of the State. Of State organizations we
have cooperated most directly with the State Board of Health,
the University of Florida, the State Road Department and the
Superintendent of Public Instruction. Cooperation has also.
been given various cities, communities and organizations.
especially in the matter of the development of adequate,
potable supplies of ground water.

The Geological Survey has made available in permanent
form the results of its investigations in annual reports and
bulletins. The last annual report was the Twenty-third-
Twenty-fourth which was issued in 1933 just prior to the Sur-
vey being placed in the Conservation Department. The First
Biennial Report of the State Board of Conservation contains
a section covering the activities of the Geological Survey for
the period from July 1, 1933, to December 31, 1936. In ad-

edition to the annual reports there have been issued 14 bulle-
tins, 13 Press Bulletins and two mimeographed reports of in-
vestigations. These are placed in the leading libraries of
Florida and throughout the United States where they can be
referred to. Exchange relations are also maintained with a'l
the various Geological Surveys in this Country and many
foreign countries.
The publications issued by the Geological Survey are free
to residents of Florida, but requests from persons living in
States other than Florida must be accompanied by postage.
Conservation of Minerals in Florida. In compliance with
Sections 5-6 of Senate Bill 562 enacted by the Legislature of
1935 and relating to Courses of Instruction covering ihe Con-
servation of the Natural Resources of Florida, there was pre-
pared by the Florida Geological Survey for the Department of
Public Instruction a pamphlet dealing with the mineral re-
sources of Florida. This can be secured from the office of the
State Superintendent of Public Instruction.
In December, 1927, the Survey offices and museum were
moved from the State Capitol to the ground floor of the
Martin Building. The west side is devoted to offices, publica-
tions room and the microscopic laboratory. The east side is
one large room measuring about 18 by 60 feet and is given
over to exhibits. On account of the crowded condition of the
office and museum the corridor between has been converted
into the library, which is used for reference. The library
contains thousands of publications from the various Geological
Surveys, domestic and foreign, the U. S. Geological Survey,
the U. S. Bureau of Mines, the Smithsonian Institution and
other Federal organizations. It is quite complete and is a
valuable source of reference material.
The clay testing laboratory is located in the basement. It
is equipped for the making of physical tests of c.ays but
owing to the serious reduction in appropriation it has not
been possible to operate it for about three years. Investiga-

tions and research work on the white burning clays of the
State were conducted with very satisfactory and significant
results. These results should be made available to those in-
terested in these resources. With the development that
Florida is making in the industrial fields further research
should be carried on particularly of the common clays and the
pottery and stoneware clays. Construction of the more
permanent type is utilizing more and more the enduring
building material and this is creating an ever stronger de-
mand for 'clay products. Florida has raw materials that make
not only an attractive building brick but one of good quality
as well. Development should be encouraged, and the Survey
can render this needed service if money is made available.

The statement is often made that Florida abounds in natural
resources and that Nature has been most generous toward the
State in bestowing such gifts. It is true that Florida does have
many natural resources but is the State doing its share toward
their proper development, utilization and conservation? Where
there is abundance and plenty little if any thought is given to
conserving or utilization. Waste frequently creeps in and ex-
travagance is the general practice. Many instances of waste of
natural resources are of record throughout our Nation and
Florida, too, is guilty. Even with our mineral resources we have
been most thoughtless in their development, particularly with
the abundant water supplies that everywhere are present. So
it becomes necessary to call attention and seek a halt before
it is too late and in such warnings the cooperation of the
citizens of the State or commonwealth is earnestly asked.
Underground water investigation: The underground and
surface waters of the State have always been a most valuable
asset. Perhaps the very abundance and generous presence of
water has caused our citizens to give little thought. to the
actual importance of it. Over a large portion of the State
flowing wells can be obtained and in such sections the waste
of ground water is particularly noticeable. Many seem to
have the idea that just because the water will flow freely

E, #.

there is no need to stop it. It is there for use or waste just
as one desires in the matter. But, there is a limit to such a
practice. And as the State develops there will necessarily be
an ever increasing demand. Already there is being felt the
result of heavy draft on our artesian supplies, both in the
reduction of flow as well as in the quality of water. Thus
Nature reacts, so it is of imperative necessity that we take
precaution and use judgment in the development and the
utilization of Nature's gifts. Therefore waste should not be
tolerated or permitted. Measures to conserve and protect our
water supplies should be enacted. Wells penetrating waters
too saline for use should be plugged so as to prevent con-
tamination of surrounding wells yielding fresh water.
With the establishment of the Survey attention was given
to the underground waters of the State and a number of
reports have been issued. More recently cooperation with
the U. S. Geological Survey has been maintained and rather
detailed studies have been in progress covering certain areas
that have been faced with problems connected with the
adequacy of water supplies. This important phase of work
should be continued but owing to lack of funds this coopera-
tion has been suspended, except to a very limited degree.
Groundwater legislation: A bill has been prepared which
has for its purpose the protection of the water supplies of
Florida and their conservative development. This will be pre-
sented to the 1937 Legislature for consideration. If this
should receive favorable action it will mean a prolongation
of use of the ground waters and an orderly utilization of
them. It is a measure designed to conserve and protect as
we'l as to permit use.
Clay: The Survey now has a clay laboratory capable of
carrying on tests of our common building and pottery clays.
Assistance. should be made available so this laboratory could
be re-opened and such detailed survey of our clay resources
made. There is also now on hand the results of a study of
our white-burning clays, the kaolins, and these should be
arranged and placed in order for publication. It is thought

that the report will contain such data as to stimulate added
utilization of these high grade Florida clays.
Sand Investigation: With the increasing demand for glass-
wares detailed studies should be made of the sands of the
State for the particular purpose of determining their suit-
ability for the manufacture of glass. There are many deposits
of almost pure silica sand in different parts of the State but
actual information about their extent and chemical composi-
tion is lacking. In order therefore to invite development
such data should be gotten and reported upon. It is felt that
some of our deposits are of sufficiently high quality to permit
the manufacture of even the higher grades of glassware.
In order to accomplish some of the suggestions made it is
urged that the appropriation for the maintenance of the Sur-
vey be increased so additional, assistance can be employed.
In another section will be found the requested budget for the
biennium 1937-1939.

During the biennium covered by this report certain develop-
ments have come about that are worthy of special mention.
Continued research carried on by the American Diatomite
Company of Clermont, Lake County, has resulted in a solution
of certain difficult problems connected with the drying, re-
fining and utilization of the Florida diatomaceous earth. A
small plant is now operating satisfactorily and a high grade
product is being placed on the market. Furthermore, articles
manufactured from diatomaceous earth are also being made,
chief among which at present is the Everdry salt shaker manu-
factured by the Ever-Dry Products Company, Clermont. This
is a most satisfactory container for salt since the patented top
made from diatomaceous earth prevents or retards the en-
trance of moisture. This small diatomaceous earth industry
is attracting a great deal of attention not only in Florida but
in other states and it is predicted that the output of both crude
material and manufactured products will grow.

In Escambia County a pottery plant has been put in opera-
tion which utilizes the local pottery clays. The Escambia
Pottery Company has a well equipped plant and. has manu-
factured pottery wares of various kinds that are attracting
very favorable attention. In addition to fancy wares such as
vases of all kinds, bowls, custard cups and other utilitarian
wares are made.
In the matter of deep drilling in Florida in prospecting
for oil or gas the period has also been significant. Two wells
of rather unusual depth have been drilled, one of which is still
active. The South Lake Well, being drilled in southern Lake
County, was started February 26, 1935, and according to latest
information has attained a depth of 6118 feet. Only one
other well in Florida has reached a greater depth, one near
Ocala which was abandoned at 6180 feet in 1928. This well
in Lake County is being drilled by the Oil Development Com-
pany of Florida and samples and cores of the formations
penetrated have been kept in a most complete manner. A
study of these will contribute a fund of information about the
thickness, character' and age of formations underlying that
portion of peninsular Florida. In fact these cores and drill
cuttings form the most complete record of any well so far
drilled in the State. A partial set has been deposited with
the Florida Survey and it is hoped these will be added to on
completion of the well.
Another well as a test for oil was drilled northeast of
Marianna, Jackson County, by Mrs. Mamie S. Hammonds.
This was begun in February, 1936, and completed to the depth
of 5,022 feet July 14, 1936. Samples and cores were saved
from this and one set has been deposited in the offices of the
Survey. All such data give desired information of inestimable
value and the cooperation received from those responsible for
such undertakings is appreciated.
It has long been a matter of record that Florida had im-
mense deposits of high calcium limestones but only 'recently

T 4




has development of deposits of magnesian limestone begun,
It was in the latter part of 1934 that the Dixie Lime Products
Company of Ocala began operations near Lebanon, Levy
County, of dolomitic limestone. This is the first commercial
production of dolomite in Florida and therefore marks the be-
ginning of another industry. Heretofore the demand for
dolomitic limestone was filled from plants outside of Florida
but the establishment of such plants within the State means
that such products can now be supplied from native deposits.
The following is an analysis of this limestone, analysis by the
Thornton Laboratories, Tampa, Florida:
M oisture ................................................................. ... ... 0.30
Calcium carbonate ............................................. 58.52
Magnesium carbonate .................................... 38.40
Iron and Aluminum oxides .............................. 1.78
Sand and Insoluble matter ........................ 0.54
Sulphates ................................... .............................. 0.52
Phosphoric acid ................................................ ... 0.16
Another plant for the commercial production of dolomite
began during May, 1936. This is the Florida Dolomite Com-
pany with offices at Pembroke, Polk County, Florida, and
quarry located near Oneco, Manatee County. The product is
sold under the trade name "Florida Dolomite."

The appropriation requested for the work of the Geological
Survey is shown below. This is a substantial increase over
the amount allotted for the current biennium. When consider-
ation is given to the importance of our mineral resources and
the increasing demands for information about them the re-
quested appropriation is very modest. Before the Geological
Survey was consolidated with other agencies into the Con-
servation Department two Assistant Geologists and one
Museum Assistant was on the staff. The work has suffered
on account of this reduction in the personnel. A more ade-
quate staff of competent, trustworthy and trained technicians
is needed in order to more nearly render the service desired

and which will redound to the fullest advantage and best
interests of the State. The budget requested, if granted, will
provide for an additional assistant, a research assistant whose
duties will be along specialized lines and only for temporary
employment, a Museum Assistant and a typist or stenographer.
In the item of expenses the largest one is for cooperative
geologic and water resources investigations. It has been the
policy to cooperate with the Federal Geologic Survey in such
investigations. This has the advantage of not only a saving
to the State but also in providing a trained personnel. It has
proven a most satisfactory method in the past and it is hoped
that an item for a more intensive study may be favorably
acted upon.
The following list includes all the items for which funds
have been requested for the work of the Department for
State G eologist ...................................................... $ 3,600
A assistant Geologist ............................................. 2,700
Assistant Geologist ..................................... 2,400
R research A assistant ............................................. 2,000
M useum A assistant ............................................... 1,500
Secretary .................................................................... 1,800
Stenographer ............................. ............... 1,200

Traveling expenses ........................................ $ 2,000
Printing and Stationery .............................. 2,000
Postage, express, telephone
and telegram s ................................................ 400
Field, Office and
Museum equipment ....................................... 1,000
Clay laboratory .......................................... 300
-Cars, trade in .................................... .......... 600
Cooperative geologic and
water investigations ............................... 7,500
Incidental expenses .................................... 600


From January 1, 1935, to June 30, 1935
(From the Conservation Fund)
Salaries ..................................................... ... .......................... $ 2,532.50
E x p en ses ......................................................... .................................... 878.06
From July 1, 1935, to December 31, 1935
(From the General Revenue Fund)
S salaries ..................................... .......... ........................................ $ 3,895.00
Expenses .................................. 1,876.10
From January 1, 1936, to December 31, 1936
(From the General Revenue Fund)
Salaries ............................. ............................................................... $ 7,629.17
E xp enses ............................................ .............................................. 3,072.26
During the past ten to fifteen years geophysical methods
of prospecting have received a great deal of attention. These
methods of prospecting have been developed to such a degree
that many geological structures and conditions favorable to
the accumulation of commercial mineral deposits have been
determined. Very remarkable success has been had in many
cases. In general these methods are based on the physical
properties of the materials forming the outermost deposits.
GraVity, magnetism, electrical resistivity and the property of
being able to transmit vibrations, as in the seismograph, are
factors that largely control or enter into a majority of geo-
physical prospecting metHods.
These methods of prospecting are widely used in the Gulf
coast oil fields and success in detecting deeply buried struc-
tures, for instance salt domes, is causing an extension of such
methods into many other regions. There is an ever increasing
interest in the possibility of Florida producing oil or gas.
With this has come a limited use of these newer methods of
prospecting in the State. The magnetometer has been mostly
employed so far although the seismograph has also been used.
It is .reported that more detailed investigations are to be made
in southern Florida.
The State of Florida through the Trustees of the Internal
Improvement Fund provided for the making of a magneto-

meter survey of some of the State owned lands. For the larger
part these are located in southern Florida, although tracts of
lesser extent are in the northern portion of the State also.
The results of this survey are in manuscript form, filed with
the Secretary of the Internal Improvement Fund, Tallahassee.
It is planned to publish the report and make it available to
those interested.
The U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Washington, has
established a number of gravity stations in Florida and the
results are available from the Director of that Federal agency.
Some of the readings are such as to encourage and urge that
more stations be established. Interpretations of the results
have not been finally made nor reported upon but they are
suggestive that additional gravity determinations are desir-
able and would yield more data that might give a more
definite insight into the nature and structure of the basement
floor underlying' the State. Florida would do well to enlist
and encourage additional official work of this kind and should
cooperate in its prosecution.

The total value of the mineral output in Florida during
1934 was $11,569,532, an increase of $2,497,144 over the total
value for 1933. During 1935 the total value was approxi-
mately the same as for 1934, namely, $11,569,110.
The above figures reflect conditions of the mineral industry
of the State, indicating a greater output and greater activity.
Florida is an important contributor to the mineral output
of the Nation, particularly in phosphate, fuller's earth and
high grade kaolin. It ranked first in phosphate and has for
many years, the production amounting to about 80 per cent
of the total of the United States. It ranked second in the
production of fuller's earth, a position it has held since yield-
ing first place to Georgia a few years ago.
The following is a brief statement of each industry and th's
is followed by a statistical table showing output and value
of the various industries. Statistics on production have been
collected in cooperation with the United States Bureau of

Mines, Washington, and some of the tables and other data
have been taken from the Minerals Yearbook of that
Florida is the leading phosphate producing State and has
held this position since 1894. The first -mining began, how-
ever, in 1888; with production of river pebble phosphate from
Peace Creek, near Arcadia. River pebble is no longer pro-
duced and never entered into Florida's production to a very
great extent.
The commercial phosphates of Florida are of three kinds:
Land pebble, hard rock and soft. The soft rock phosphate is
associated with both the land pebble and the hard rock de-
posits and much of it was lost in the earlier methods of min-
ing. Recent years have witnessed a recovery of a great'deal
of this grade of phosphate niot only from the waste ponds
of former mining operations but also through removal first
in current operations. Furthermore, through refinements in
washing, screening and other mechanical methods much fine
phosphate is now saved that formerly went to the waste
ponds and likewise through the installation of flotation and
other processes practically all phosphate is recovered. In 1934
the total production was 2,369,334 long tons valued at
$8,076,317 and in 1935 the production was 2,422,804 tons
valued at $8,361,558. In 1935 Florida mined 80 per cent
of the total production in the United States. Land pebble,
including the soft rock, constituted about 94.8 per cent of the
total 1935 shipments from Florida.
The principal use of phosphate rock, and one that takes
about 90 per cent of the annual domestic consumption, is in
the manufacture of fertilizer. Of the minor uses the manu-
facture of phosphorous and phosphoric acid is the most im-
portant, these materials entering into the preparation of
numerous phosphorous containing compounds.
?he following companies mined land pebble in 1935:
Amalgamated Phosphate Company, 30 Rockefeller Plaza,
New York. Plant at Brewster.
The American Agricultural Chemical Company, 50 Church
Street, New York. Plant at Pierce.



'~v ~

Coronet Phosphate Company, 19 Rector Street, New York.
Plant at Coronet near Plant City.
International Agricultural Corporation, 61 Broadway, New
York. Plant at Prairie near Mulberry.
The Phosphate Mining Company, 110 William Street, New
York. Plant at Nichols.
Southern Phosphate Corporation, Baltimore Trust Building,
Ba'timore, Md. Plant at Ridgewood.
Swift and Company, R. F. D. 1, Bartow, Fla. Plant at
The following companies mined hard rock in 1935:
J. ButLgenbach & Company, Lakeland, Florida.
C. & J. Camp, Ocala, Florida.
Dunnellon Phosphate Mining Company, Savannah, Ga.
Mine near Hernando, Citrus County.

The following companies mined soft rock in 1935:
The Colloidal Phosphate Sales Company, Dunnellon, Florida.
Conne'l and Shultz, Inverness, Florida.
Lakeland Phosphate and Fertilizer Company, 225 East
Main Street, Bartow, Florida.
Loncala Phosphate Company, Ocala, Florida.
Soil Builders, Inc., Orlando, Florida.
Florida phosphate rock sold or used by producers, 1931-35
Hard rock Soft rock

Year Value at mines Value at mines
Long tons Long tons
Total Average Total Average
1931 .......... 57,224 $380,540 $6.65 13,436 $65,118 $4.85
1932 .......... 57.579 373.251 6.48 10,063 24,017 2.39
1933 .......... 52.382 347,324 6.63 Z 16,841 148,802 2.90
1934 .......... 91,134 523,783 5.75 128,896 186,447 2.99
1935 ....... 116.483 500.526 -4.30 136.430 125.129 3.43
Land pebble Total
Year Value at mines Value at mines
Long tons Long tons
Total Average Total Average
1931 .......... 1.990,806 $67506,428 $3.39 2,061,466 $7,202,086 $3.49
1932 .......... 1 1:402.334 4.382.344 1 3.13 1,469,976 4,779,612 3.25
1933 .......... 2,066,900 6,020,984 2.91 2,136,123 6,417,110 3.00
1934 .......... 2,249.304 7,466,087 3.32 2,369,334 8,076,317 3.41
1935 .......... 2.269.891 7.735.9031 3.41 2,422,804 8,361,558 3.45
1 Includes material from waste-pond operations.
Partly estimated.
3 Includes smill quantity of tailings.

The following three papers describing the mining and treat-
ment of the hard-rock and land-pebble deposits of Florida
appeared during the year:
NORDBERG, BROR. Florida's Newest Hard-Rock Phosphate Plant.
Rock Products, vol. 38, no. 13, December, 1935, pp. 28-29. (Describes
the Dunnellon Phosphate Mining Co. plant near Hernando, Fla.)
BECKER, C. N. Drying and Processing of Pebble Phosphate in the
Florida Field. Am. Inst. Min. and Met. Eng., Tech. Pub. 677, 1936,
13 pp.
FULTON, C. A. Mining Practice in the Florida Pebble Field. Am.
Inst. Min. and Met. Eng., Tech. Pub. 662, 1936, 19 pp.


Limestone is one of Florida's most abundant minerals being
the surface formation over a wide areal extent in different
portions of the State. The physical character and chemical
composition of these deposits have made them desirable for
use in various- types of construction. The limestones are
therefore important contributors to the total value of the
State's mineral output. The large tonnage of this material
used as a base for roads indicates the one principal use al-
though much also goes into other types of construction. Its
earliest use in Florida was as a building stone. The early
settlers of America used the coquina shell limestone in build-
ing their forts, missions and other structures along the east
coast. The coquina is still used as a building stone and makes
most attractive structures. A recent outstanding example of
the use of this stone is the community center at St. Augustine
and the center at Daytona Beach.
Another very desirable and much used stone is the coralline
limestone on the Keys of southern Florida and the Miami
oolitic limestone. These are extensively used as a building
stone. A few years ago a cream colored stone of pleasing
variation was quarried near Bradenton and placed on the
market as "Floridene Stone." It found much favor in the
trade generally and was used not only in Florida but other
sections of the United States. This stone should be placed on
the market again.

The slicified limestone or commonly called flint is also used
as a building stone in the rough. It makes an attractive,
rustic looking structural material. This fEint is also crushed
and used as an aggregate in concrete, and for railroad ballast.
One cement plant utilizing limestone and clay from the Her-
nando County region is active in Florida. The Florida Port-
land Cement Company has a modern mill at Tampa where both
water and rail transportation are available. The raw products,
however, as just stated are taken from north of Tampa about
50 miles, near Brooksville in Hernando County.
The amount of limestone, lime, flint and cement produced
in Florida during 1994 was 1,992,703 tons valued at $2,404,231;
and in 1935 the reported production was 1,778,263 tons valued
at $1,989,745.
The following are producers of the above:

Dixie Lime Products Company, Ocala. Quarry at Zuber,
Oakhurst Lime Company, Ocala.

Keystone Art Corporation, Miami. Quarry Key.
Mizner Industries, Inc., Palm Beach.
J. B. Orr Corporation, Miami. Windlys Island.

Keystone Art Corporation, Miami.

Camp Concrete Rock Company, Ocala.
Consolidated Rock Products, Lakeland.
Crushed Rock Company, N. G. Walker, Mgr., Fort Myers.
Cummer Lumber Company, Jacksonville. Quarry at Kend-
Maule Ojus Rock Company, Miami.
McLeod Construction Company, Williston.
Naranja Rock Company, Inc., Naranja.

Camp Concrete Rock Company, Ocala. Quarry near Brooks-
Connell and Shultz, Inverness.
Crystal River Rock Company, Leesburg. Quarry near
Crystal River.
Cummer Lumber Company, Jacksonville. Quarry at Kend-
Dixie Lime Products Company, Ocala. Quarry at Zuber.
Marianna Lime Products Company, Marianna.
Maule Ojus Rock Company, Ojus.
Miami Aggregates Company, Miami. Quarry on Burlingame
Miami Lime and Chemical Company, Miami.
R. H. Mills, Inc., 452 N. -E. 39th Street, Miami.
Naranja Rock Company, Naranja.
Newberry Corporation, Jacksonville. Quarry at Haile.
Ocala Lime Rock Corporation, Ocala. Quarry at Newberry.
Ocala Road Base Material Company, Ocala.
Seminole Rock and Sand Company, Miami.
Snyder & Son, Inc., S. P., Ft. Lauderdale.
Thompson-Williston Mine, Williston. Quarry at Newsome.
Werner Rock Company, New Port Richey.
Williston Shell Rock Company, Williston. Quarry at New-
Cummer Lumber Company, Jacksonville. Quarry at Zuber.
Dixie Lime Products Company, Ocala. Plant at Zuber.
Florida Lime Company, Ocala.
Miami Lime and Chemical Company, Miami.
Florida Portland Cement Company, Tampa. Quarry near
Brooksville, Hernando County.
A. A. Griffin, Williston.
Standard Rock Company, Morriston. Quarry at Standard.
M. M. Thomas Flint Rock Corp., Ocala.

Fuller's earth is a term used to include clays and clay-like
minerals possessing to a high degree the property of decoloriz-
ing oils and fats. The name comes from its early use by fullers
in removing grease from woolen goods. At the present time
but little is used for this purpose. Until 1895 when fuller's
earth was first commercially produced in Florida, the United
States was entirely dependent on foreign supplies. The
bleaching or decolorizing property which gives to the earth
its va'ue can be determined only by actual filtration test. It
is sometimes difficult to distinguish fuller's earth from other
ordinary clays and in order to prove its value as a bleaching
agent tests must be made. When dry the color varies from
a rather light greenish-white to gray or buff. Florida ranks
second in fuller's earth production in the United States.
The following companies produced fuller's earth in 1935:
The Floridin Company, Quincy, Florida.
The Fuller's Earth Company, Midway, Florida.
The Superior Earth Company, Ocala, Florida.
Production of fuller's earth in the United States, 1934-1935:

1934 1935
State Short ton Value Short ton Value
Texas .................................... 32,763 $ 325,397 40,925 $ 391,641
Florida & Georgia ............ 148,319 1,407,380 145,236 1,491,764
Other States1 ...................... 39,182 352,304 41,584 346,824
I 220,264 I $2,085,081 227,745 $2,230,229
'Includes in 1935: Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, Nevada and New Jer-
sey; in 1934; Alal-ama, Colorado, Illinois, Indiana and Nevada.

The clays of Florida, other than fuller's earth and related
materials, may be grouped into kaolin and the common brick
clays, including pottery clays. The kaolin is a high grade,
white burning clay which is used in the manufacture of white
wares, such as china wares, porcelain, sanitary ware, floor
and wall tile, pottery, electrical insulators, and glazes and
enamels. Florida kaolin is well known for its plasticity and
for this reason is in great demand for certain types of wares.
-A 25


The principal deposits of kaolin in Florida are in Putnam
and Lake Counties, although they have a much greater ex-
tent, even being found in Western Florida.
The following produced kaolin in 1935:
The Edgar Plastic Kaolin Company, Metuchen, N. J. Plant
at Edgar, Putnam County.
United Clay Mines Corporation, Trenton, N. J. Plant at
McMeekin, Putnam County, postoffice address Hawthorn,
There are a number of plants producing common building
brick in Florida and some of these have in recent years im-
proved in their product very materially so that they are
placing on the market an attractive brick that is used for
building very creditable homes and business blocks. There
is an increasing demand for this character of construction
materials and this is indicated in the increased activity at
the several brick plants. There is also a large quantity of
raw clay used in the manufacture of cement at Tampa. The
value of this is included in the total mineral output. Florida
has also one pottery producing art wares and some small
plants having jugs, churns and various heavy wares as their
principal output. These latter are located in Western Florida
where clay suitable for such manufacture is found.
The following produced brick and tile and pottery in
Florida during 1935:

Build-With-Brick Company, Molino.
Conner Brick Yard, Callahan.
Dolores Brick Company, Molino.
Florida Brick and Tile Company, Jacksonville. Plant at
Hall and Son, W. J., Chipley.
Holmes Brothers, Millville.
Neal Lumber & Manufacturing Company, Blountstown.
Ocklocknee Brick Company, Ocklocknee.
Roberts Brick Plant, Bunnell.
Taylor Brick & Tile Company, Pensacola. Plant at Barth.

Crary Bros., Bluff Springs.
Pensacola Pottery Company, Pensacola.
Johnson Pottery, Jay.
Sand abounds in almost every section of Florida, but a great
deal of this is either too fine, or for other reasons, not suitable
as a construction material. The sands used in mortar and
concrete come mainly from localities through the lake region
of the Peninsula or from Western Florida. An excellent grade
of sand is a by-product from the washing of the kaolin. Gravel
is dredged mainly from the rivers of Northern F!orida having
been brought down from the country farther north. Com-
mercial production of gravel has for a number of years
been conducted on the Apalachicola River where a high grade
is produced and also excellent, coarse building sand. The
Escambia River in extreme Western Florida is also a stream
that has produced a considerable amount of very light colored
grave1. Sand washed from the rock crushing plants is also
used to a great extent by the building trades.
The production reported in 1934 was 402,981 tons with a
valuation of $269,938 and for 1935 an output of 385,711 tons
valued at $233,029.
The following reported production of sand and gravel
in 1935:
Acme Sand Company, Eustis.
American Cyanamid Company, Brewster.
Carlisle, P. M., Panama City.
Destin Company, Alfred, Miami.
Diamond Interlachen Sand and Gravel Company, Inter-
Diamond Sand Company, Lake Wales.
Edgar P-astic Kaolin Company, Edgar.
Fort Pierce Builders Supply, Fort Pierce.
Florida Gravel Company, Chattahoochee.
Hesperides Washed Sand Company, Bartow.
Lake Wales Concrete Sand Company, Lake Wales.

Maige, Asa, Tallahassee.
Maule Ojus Rock Company, Ojus.
Mills, Inc., R. H., 425 N. E. 39th Street, Miami.
Nash Block Company, Miami.
Price, Inc., W. T., 3200 S. W. 27th Avenue, Miami.
Schilling Company, I. E., 125 N. E. 6th Street, Miami.
Seminole Rock and Sand Company, Miami.
Shands and Baker, Jacksonville.
Tampa Sand and Shell Company, Tampa.

Diatomite or diatomaceous earth consists of the microscopic
siliceous skeletons of diatoms, one celled marine, brackish-
water or fresh-water microscopic plants or algae. The deposits
occur as sedimentary beds of various geological ages in many
parts of the world. In Florida the deposits occur very similar
to peat or muck in appearance and vary in thickness as well
as in purity. Those commercially developed are located in
Lake County but deposits are also known in other sections of
the State, especially in Polk County and Santa Rosa County
along the Blackwater River. A plant is now operating at
Clermont, the American Diatomite Company, and is producing
a very high grade product.
Diatomaceous earth is used as a filtering medium and also
for a number of other purposes, chief among which is as an
insulating material. On account of its great capacity for
moisture absorption a new industry has begun in the State,
the manufacture of the Everdry salt shaker by the Ever-Dry
Products Company of Clermont. The salt dispensers are on
the market and are in great demand. Other articles, it is re-
ported, are to be placed on the market within a reasonable
Peat is a substance formed by the slow decomposition of
vegetable matter in the presence of abundant water. Peat
may be regarded as an initial stage in the formation of coal.
Although not used as a fuel in the United States it is so used
in foreign lands. Peat is widely distributed in Florida, almost


in every county deposits of varying extent and purity occur.
The larger deposits and those having been commercially
worked, occur through the lake region, the area bordering the
St. Johns River and the Everglades. Peat is usect mainly in
Florida as a fertilizer filler, for soil improvement on lawns
and shrubbery, in nurseries and in greenhouses. None was
reported used as fuel. *

Florida Humus Company, Zellwood.
Plant and Land Food Company, Inc., Dundee.

A number of springs and wells in Florida yield waters prized
for their medicinal properties. These form the nucleus of
health resorts and have proven popular centers. The waters
from these are also bottled and sold in different parts of the
State. Accurate figures on the total amount of water sold for
such purposes are not available, but an estimate has been
included in the summary table.

1934 r 1935
Quantity Value Quantity Value
Pebble Phosphate (long tons) ....2,249,304 $7,466,087 2,269,891 $7,735,903
Hard Rock Phosphate*
(long tons) ............................. 120,030 610,230 152,913 625,655
Limestone, Lime and Crushed
Flint (tons) .............................. 1,118,277 1,086,444 1.237,462 1,105,007
Sand and Gravel (tons) ........... -------402,981 269,938 385,711 233,029
Kaolin and Fuller's Earth (tons) 72,820 819,046 87,758 984,778
Common Brick and other clay
products. Peat, Mineral
Waters, Cement, ................... 1,409,232 916,183

$11,660.977 $11,660,555
*Soft Rock included in these figures
tValue estimated except for cement.

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