Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Back Matter
 Back Cover

Title: Caribbean maritime
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00099408/00008
 Material Information
Title: Caribbean maritime
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Caribbean Shipping Association
Publisher: Land & Marine Publications Ltd.
Place of Publication: Colchester Essex, England
Publication Date: September-December 2009
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00099408
Volume ID: VID00008
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
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    Front Matter
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    Back Matter
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    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text


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2 Editorial
In support of a regional dialogue for solutions

3 Message from CSA President
The initial doubts have been cleared

30 News briefs

32 The Human Factor
Why women are still an untapped resource for
the shipping industry

46 Information Technology
Finding the right IT solutions

47 A Matter of Law
Enjoy your cruise but don't forget to read the
small print


5 Yacht revenues
Luxury yachts offer 'huge scope' for well paid
support services

10 Guadeloupe yachts
Guadeloupe: an idyllic destination for yachts

12 Big is beautiful
Big is beautiful when it comes to wooing yacht business

14 Florida cruise capital
South Florida remains US cruise capital

17 Flag of convenience
Caribbean cruise shipping and flag of convenience:
success or failure?

22 Proactive cruise industry
A proactive strategy to fill cruise ships

24 Swine flu
Cruise industry in team effort to combat swine flu

27 Cruise Guyana
Cruising to Guyana a unique visitor destination

28 Suriname cruise
Suriname cruise sector enjoys a modest upturn

35 Foster on CSA
My vision for the CSA

38 Monica Silvera
Monica Silvera a scholarship in her honour

39 Propellers
Should you cash in on the propeller revolution?

43 Stanley Chapman
Stalwart of the Barbados shipping sector

45 TEAM Cozumel
State-of-the-art boarding bridges for Cozumel ferry terminal





The official journal of the Caribbean
Shipping Association

* caribbean shipping association

"To promote and foster the
highest quality service to the
maritime industry through training
development; working with
all agencies, groups and other
associations for the benefit and
development of its members and
the peoples of the Caribbean

President: Fernando Rivera
Vice President: Carlos Urriola
Immediate Past President: Corah-Ann
Robertson Sylvester
Group A Chairman: Robert Foster
Group A Representative: Michael Bernard
Group A Representative: lan Deosaran
Group A Representative: Francis Camacho
Group B Chairman: Grantley Stephenson
Group B Representative: David Jean-Marie
Group C Chairman: Cyril Seyjagat
Group C Representative: David Ross
General Manager: Clive Forbes
Director Information and Public Relations:
Michael S.L. Jarrett
Caribbean Shipping Association
4 Fourth Avenue, Newport West,
PO Box 1050, Kingston C.S.0, Jamaica
Tel: +876 923-3491
Fax: +876 757-1592
Email: csa@cwjamaica.com
Mike Jarrett
Email: csa-pr@mikejarrett.net

Land & Marine Publications Ltd
1 Kings Court, Newcomen Way,
Severalls Business Park, Colchester
Essex, C04 9RA, UK
Tel: +44 (0)1206 752902
Fax: +44 (0)1206 842958
Email: publishing@landmarine.com

In support of a regional

dialogue for solutions

The economic recession affecting most countries of the world is not going away
as quickly as some would have hoped. However, the third quarter of 2009 ended
with some positive signs in some of the major industrial economies.
Not so the countries of the Caribbean and Latin America. These countries are being bat-
tered. The decline in tourism, commodity exports and private money remittances has hurt
and governments do not have the medicine to cure their ailing economies. As a result, as the
Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) noted "...most of these economies are now firmly in reces-
sion ..." and are likely to remain so even after notable recovery in the USA and the UK.
In tourism, the region's main source of employment and foreign exchange, the Caribbean
Tourism Organisation (CTO), reported a significant decline this year, compared with the cor-
responding period in 2008, of an average of about 10 per cent. The average distorts reality.
Tourist arrivals were down by more than 25 per cent in the British Virgin Islands; 21 per cent in
Anguilla; 16 per cent in St Maarten; and 15 per cent in The Bahamas. It should be noted that
Jamaica (down 0.2 per cent) and Guyana (down 1.9 per cent) did not fare as badly.
According to the EIU, besides deterioration in macro-economic results, governments are
beginning to show financial strain. Jamaica has had to seek assistance from the IMF "... as it
has little ability to borrow further from private sources".
Any effective solution to this crisis must come from within and it is not likely to be a single
idea from one source. In the Caribbean there are various organizations and groupings, like the
Caribbean Shipping Association, which can and should be studying the economic realities facing
their constituents and the region as a whole. The time calls for a finding of solutions and this
process must begin with study and dialogue within and across groups and boundaries.
The Caribbean has the institutions and forums which can harness the thinking and wisdom
of its people in the quest for solutions. The Association of Caribbean States and Caricom are
two such. It must have been frightening, therefore, to hear the illustrious Sir Shridath Ram-
phal say in Kingston, Jamaica, on Wednesday 29 July 29 that he had observed something
different at the Caricom summit in Georgetown the previous month from past reunions. He is
reported as saying: "There was a mood, I sensed, among many of the heads [of state] that not
just progress with the integration agenda, but Caricom itself, was under threat."
Caricom under threat? Now weakened, the countries of the region need strength from
unity and broad-based, co-ordinated action across interests and disciplines, sectors and sub-
sectors, to increase trade and stimulate production. Caricom has the capacity to assist this
process. An approach and attitude to development that is based on regional co-operation and
dialogue is important for the region both now, during the search for solutions to the eco-
nomic crisis, and afterwards, so as to sustain production, growth and development.
It is against this background and with an understanding of regional development, gleaned
over almost 40 years, that the CSA has continued its work of training and, through inter-
organisational co-operation, development of the region's human resources. This it has been
doing through collaboration and co-operation with organizations and groupings whose
collective wisdom and intellectual resources can help to chart a course out of the current
economic doldrums. We refer to organizations such as Caricom, the Association of Caribbean
States and the Inter American Committee on Ports (CIP) of the Organisation of American
States (OAS),
Caribbean Maritime is one tool that the CSA has employed to stimulate a regional dia-
logue for solutions. It is hoped that the focus in this eighth edition on the regional economic
benefits to be derived from accommodating cruise ships and luxury yachts will help support
such a dialogue.




The initial

doubts have

been cleared

The Caribbean Ship-
ping Association has
always had its own maga-
zine. The first publica-
tion, Caribbean Shipping
journal, was replaced with
the current magazine,
Caribbean Maritime, in
May 2007. This is the
eighth edition of what has
become a very successful
business magazine. Our
readership continues to
expand with every publi-
cation and it is now avail-
able in electronic format
at the CSA website
It is fair to say Caribbean
Maritime not only speaks
for the CSA; it also provides

international trade. In the
Caribbean and Latin Amer-
ica, it is the lifeblood of our
national economies.
Caribbean Maritime
therefore has a historical
and developmental role to
play and the initial feedback
to its presence in the world
of business has been very
It was an honour that the
first edition of this magazine
was produced during my
presidency. The initial doubts
about its success have been
cleared and I have enjoyed
with satisfaction watching it
grow and develop.

It was an honour that the
first edition of this magazine
was produced during my
presidency. The initial doubts
about its success have been
cleared and I have enjoyed
with satisfaction watching it
grow and develop

a forum for discussion and Personally, as someone
for the exposure of ideas in the shipping business for
that are relevant to shipping. more years than I care to
Shipping is perhaps the single remember, this magazine
most important element in is good. Its content is good

and its coverage is wide it
covers the shipping industry
across a fairly large geo-
graphical area.
In demitting the office of
CSA President this year, I
leave behind a publication
that is far better than the one
it replaced; a publication that
makes a statement about
the seriousness of the CSA in
helping the development of
the shipping industry across
the region. In that regard,
I take this opportunity to
thank all the advertisers and
writers for the first seven
editions. A special thanks
to Land & Marine Publica-

tions for its excellent graph-
ics and production; but,
perhaps more important, to
the Editor, Mike Jarrett, for
proposing the idea for its
publication in the first place.
He gave it its name and has
done an outstanding job of
launching it.
The CSA is proud to have
such an excellent publication
as Caribbean Maritime.
Long may it contribute to the
exchange of ideas so neces-
sary in building an effective
and efficient region-wide
shipping industry.

Fernando L. Rivera
President, Caribbean
Shipping Association







~; ~



Luxury yachts offer 'huge scope'

for well paid support services

By Mike Jarrett

THE IDEA of opportunities for
cash-starved Caribbean ter-
ritories to make money from the
luxury yacht sector was not lost on
delegates at the eighth Caribbean
Shipping Executives' Conference* in
Cartagena, Colombia.
Rupert Connor, president of Luxury
Yacht Group, underlined the 'tremen-
dous' scope for generating income in a
presentation entitled 'The Luxury Yacht
Sector: Business Opportunities for the
Region'. He presented a list of services
and income-generating activities from
which countries in the region could ben-
efit if more was done to create facilities
for the growing fleet of luxury yachts sail-
ing the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico.

In taking conference delegates
through the many ways to maximise
financial benefits from the luxury yacht
sector, Mr Connor said more than 300
new luxury yachts were expected to be
launched in 2009.

Revenues are possible from any number
of services and goods required by
yacht operators. What is certain is that
if a country has no dockage facilities to
accommodate luxury yachts, then there
will be no income from servicing them.
According to Mr Connor, annual costs
for keeping a yacht in good shape run
from US$500,000 for smaller yachts of
about 80 ft (24 metres) to US$3.5 mil-
lion for yachts over 200 ft. Of course,

these costs will vary depending on the
particular craft and the taste and pleas-
ures of owners and operators. About 29
per cent of this money is spent on crew
and 26 per cent on fuel. Guest costs
account for a significant 17 per cent of
annual expenditure. Mechanical and
engineering needs account for 10 per
cent of annual costs and other mainte-
nance for seven per cent. Communica-
tions account for three per cent.

Do the maths
Dockage accounts for eight per cent of
costs. Readers can do the maths. There is
a lot of money to be earned. For marinas
that are well equipped, well tended and
therefore well used, yachts can produce a
healthy profit. Where there is no dockage
for yachts, the opportunities for transfer-

ring funds ashore are severely limited.
When yachts are docked in a marina,
their needs are daily and funds are
constantly being transferred to shore.
Guests on board need items ranging from
spas and concierge services to high-end
restaurants and local tours. In this time
of heightened environmental awareness,
people who sail yachts tend to be protec-
tive of the environment. They are likely to
participate in eco tours and other events
that appeal to the environmentally con-
scious. Often, because docking at a par-
ticular destination over time will establish
a relationship, guests will actually donate
to large environment projects or otherwise
become patrons of eco initiatives.
Crews of super yachts are fairly well
paid and they, too, need goods and

services ashore. From money remittance
services to sending salaries home to
shopping for personal goods and gifts,
yacht crews spend money ashore.
Both guests and crew will need local
transport and will patronise local restau-
rants, pubs and special events.

Even the boat
Even the boat needs goods and serv-
ices. More than a quarter of the cost of
operating a yacht goes on fuel. This is
good business for local bunker suppliers.
And, for destinations that invest in yacht
maintenance infrastructure and have
skilled and specialist personnel, there is
much to be earned from the significant
amount this sector spends on mechani-
cal engineering.
The fact that regulations and taxes
are the price we pay for living means
that local authorities have potential
revenues to collect from a variety of
legal stipulations so that yachts are 'in
The fact is that a well designed,
equipped and secure marina which
understands and effectively caters for
super yachts can be as profitable as a
cargo port. With over 300 new luxury
yachts expected to be launched this
year, the business is there to be had.
There is a caveat, however. People
who sail super yachts know good qual-
ity and value when they see it. They
will pay a fair price for quality but will
despise and reject mediocrity and price
gouging. And, since yachts can easily be
moved and moored in a different terri-
tory, the only way to secure an invest-
ment in a marina or attendant services is
to deliver high quality at a fair price. im

*The conference is held annually in May
by the Caribbean Shipping Association.
There were about 200 delegates at this
year's event.


When yachts are docked in a marina,

their needs are daily and funds are

constantly being transferred to shore

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fact, industry watchers claim
that, the larger the yacht,
the more resilient the market
By contrast, the market for
super yachts at least those
owned and operated in North
American waters has taken
something of a hit in terms
of orders and resale prices as
cash-strapped owners have
sought to quickly offload
illiquid assets. There are said
to be more than 4,200 super
yachts (those over 30 metres
in length) worldwide and
nearly 40 per cent of those
are for sale.

But even if prices and orders
have taken a dip in some
sectors, the mega and super

ing, which is focused on a
comparatively small number
of operators, the mega and
super yacht sector is highly
fragmented one in which
the destination of a vessel
may be decided at short
notice or even at the whim of
its already on-board passen-
gers. The key in terms of mar-
keting seems to be to get the
big yachts to use your marina
facilities as a base. One such
regional attraction is Errol
Flynn Marina in Port Antonio,
Jamaica, which has berths for
32 yachts of up to 107 metres
in length. The US$15 million
Errol Flynn Marina has proved
one of the Caribbean's major
success stories, enhancing
Jamaica's reputation as an
upmarket destination.



yachts are still operating
pretty much as before in their
favourite waters: the Medi-
terranean in summer and
the Caribbean in winter. So
what does all this mean for
the Caribbean and for those
destinations working hard to
attract and retain calls from
mega and super yachts?
More fundamentally, how
does a destination market
itself to the big yacht sector?
Unlike cruise ship market-

Pat Belinfanti, public
relations chief for the Port
Authority of Jamaica, said:
"Jamaica believes it is best
positioned in the hospitality
industry when it offers the
widest possible attractive
and wholesome menu to
potential visitors. We believe
that the mega yacht compo-
nent of the leisure industry
is an important niche which
Jamaica is well placed to tap
into; offering another venue
with the required
amenities and
S the breathtaking
beauty of Port
Jamaica also
shows that build-
ing a fancy marina
for fancy yachts is
not, in itself, the

answer. Destinations must
do more to woo these yachts
by offering a package of
attractions beyond the bare
facilities. Mr Belinfanti said:
"The annual Blue Marlin
tournament [in September/
October], for which Port
Antonio has been recog-
nised for decades, has been
attracting bumper participa-
tion from foreign and local
He conceded, however,
that more still had to be done:
"We are the primary tourist
attraction in Port Antonio and
there were once others, such
as the Blue Lagoon, rafting on
the Rio Grande, Reach Falls, et
cetera. But these have been
bereft of visitors in recent
years due to poor infrastruc-

Nevertheless, Mr. Belinfanti
believes that issues of weak
infrastructure in particular,
the poor road network of
the area are now being
addressed and that these
attractions will once again
enjoy a flourishing business.
Antigua and Barbuda, too,
has done very nicely, thank
you, from the super yacht

sector and English Harbour
has proved a mecca for sailing
enthusiasts. Nathan Dundas,
of Bryson's Shipping, said:
"The yachting business is a
very lucrative business for the
island as it makes a significant
revenue contribution to the
economy. At one point the
revenue contribution was
being compared to what is
being derived from cruise
ships, indicating that the
yachting sector plays a major
role in the overall contribution
to the island's economy."
The success of Antigua
has been replicated else-
where. For example, both
Guadeloupe and Martinique
have gained from Antigua's
pioneering efforts in attract-
ing super yachts. But not
every Caribbean destination
has the resources to build
super yacht facilities similar
to the Port Antonio marina
or those on offer in Antigua.
And there are those that
have invested in facilities to
attract super yachts but have
not always been pleased with
the final outcome or have not
managed to back a money
spinner note the failed
Ottley Hall Marina & Shipyard
project in St Vincent. i



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Caribbean cruise shipping

and flag of convenience:

success or failure?

By Fritz H. Pinnock and Ibrahim A. Ajagunna

the world's foremost
region for cruise, largely
because of its proximity
to the North American
mainland, the industry's
largest market (Hall and
Braithwaite, 1990). It is
a highly complex tour-
ism product, comprising
34 country destinations,
spread over more than
1,000 islands (CTO, 2003a).
The region can be subdi-
vided geographically into three
areas as shown in Table 1.
Tourism is now by some
measures the largest indus-
try in the world. "Travel
and tourism today generate
between them a signifi-
cant percentage possibly
as much as 10 per cent of
global GDP- and probably
account for roughly similar
proportions of global capital

investment and unemploy-
ment" (Clayton, 2002).
Cruising is a significant
sub-sector of the tourism
industry, and this is so for
two reasons. It is by far the
most rapidly growing seg-
ment of the entire industry;
and it is one of the few to
see a genuine concentration
of power.
During the past decade,
the cruise industry is the
tourism sub-sector that
has experienced the most
rapid growth. While world
demand for interna-
tional trips during 1990
to 2000 grew at an
annual cumulative rate
of 4.3 per cent, the
cruise market grew
at 7.9 per cent.
Three basic
facts typify a tour-
ist cruise: I

* It is in direct competition
with on-land holiday resorts

economic proposition

* It is immersed in a process
of world-


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promotion based on the
experience gained from the
US market. This is the market
that designed the modern
concept of the tourist cruise,
with regards to both supply
and demand (World Tourism
Organisation, 2003).

The modern era,
globalisation and
consolidation of the
cruise industry
By 1970 most transatlantic
lines were cruising the Carib-
bean. Unprecedented rates
of growth characterized the
first sub-stage, from 1970
to 1973, but the 'oil crisis'
caused these rates to decline
substantially. The period
from 1974 to the present is
classified as the 'aftermath of
the oil crisis'. This is also the
first era for which statistical
evidence is readily available.
Today, cruise tourism is
almost completely controlled
by transnational corporations
(McNulty and Wafer, 1990).
The globalisation of the
cruise industry has brought
about relentless consolida-
tion. Carnival Cruise Line
took over Holland America,
Windstar, Seabourn, Costa,
Cunard and Princess Cruise
Lines. Royal Caribbean took
over Celebrity. Star Cruises
took over Norwegian Cruise
Line (NCL) and Orient. Many
other companies went out of
business or were absorbed
II' T I '.i' l tr t- i.rn-

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territorial link to their original
countries of origin (the Neth-
erlands, the UK, Italy and
Greece) has been significantly
attenuated (Wood, 2004).
Wood identified two interre-
lated aspects of the regula-
tory regimes within which
cruise tourism operators
stand out:

1 The open registry or flag
of convenience (FOC) system

2 The weakness of global
governance and the privatisa-
tion of cruise industry regula-

In this paper the authors
have only emphasised the
implications of FOC on cruise
shipping in the Caribbean

The flag of
convenience (FOC)
Flags of convenience go back
at least several centuries,
and originally involved ships
of lesser powers flying the
flag of greater powers for
political and military protec-
tion, according to Thuong
(1987). In the second half
of the 20th century FOC
took a very different form,
with shipowners from the
traditional maritime powers
preferring to flag their fleets
in relatively poor countries.
They charged only nominal
fees and generally exempted
shipowners from taxation

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ti'',- 1 1 ti' H Iii liii i ; iii
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I ir. 1 1'.-4 ii r Ti .- .t

cent of the world's tonnage
sailed under FOC (Toh and
Phang, 1993). Today over half
of the world's ship tonnage
sails under FOCs (Alderton
and Winchester, 2002) and
the figures are substantially
higher for the cruise industry.
In 2000 cruise ships
accounting for 61.6 per cent
of the total cruise passenger
capacity flew flags of just
three FOC states: the Baha-
mas, Liberia and Panama
(ITF, 2001). These registries
have been actively promoted
by the US government for
a variety of economic (that
is, keeping US-owned ships
competitive by lowering their
costs) and political/military
reasons (Carlisle, 1981). With
respect to the latter, special
agreements with these regis-
tries give the US government
comparable rights to the one
exercised by the UK govern-
ment in requisitioning the
liner 'Queen Elizabeth 2' at
the time of the Falklands War
in 1982.

Lawless competitive
The modern FOC system was
developed after the Second
World War by shipowners,
first in the USA and later in
Western Europe, Japan and
other high-wage countries,
primarily as an employer
strategy to avoid unions and

high wage costs (Johnson
1996; Nortup and Rowan
1983). The FOC system
allows shipowners to register
their vessels under any flag
that would have them. Not
surprisingly, many shipown-
ers opt for as little regulation
as possible and choose to
flag their ships in countries
with little or no regulation.
The proportion of the world
merchant fleet classified as
'flag of convenience' has
grown steadily, so that in
2000 the largest shipping
nations in the world by flag
were Panama, Liberia, Malta
and the Bahamas (Unctad,
2000). Because of this,
maritime shipping operates
in an environment driven by
a deregulated one might
even say lawless competi-
tive dynamic (OECD, 2001).
FOC registers make them-
selves attractive to shipown-
ers by their more lenient
regulatory requirements. For
example, they generally have
no nationality based employ-
ment restrictions, allowing
shipowners to hire from any-
where. As a result, capital



18 (: RIBBE N MK RITIM E i '1:11 '1:1i1i ,,-,:-






and labour can be mobilised
on a global scale. A ship
might be owned in Greece,
flagged in Malta and crewed
from India or the Philippines.
Maritime employers have
learned to mix and match
crews of different nationali-
ties according to skills, cost,
availability and management
prejudices (ILO-JMC, 2001).

After a period of down-
ward spiralling wages and
conditions in the 1980s, the
international seafaring labour
market stabilised in the
1990s. A global institutional
infrastructure developed to
hire crews from low-wage
seafaring labour supply
countries for work anywhere
in the world (ILO-JMC,
2001). The ineffectiveness of
national regulatory frame-
works, combined with the
globalisation of some aspects
of labour market regula-

tion (such as skill certifica-
tion), meant that maritime
shipping was unique in its
potential for developing
global collective bargaining.
International law specifies
that all countries must fly
the flag of an internationally
recognized state that belongs
to the International Maritime
Organisation (IMO). Ships

acquire the nationality of the
flag state that registers them
and it is the responsibility of
the flag state to certify them
and to enforce applicable
international regulations. The
1958 Geneva Convention on
the High Seas asserts that
there should be a 'genuine
link' between the state and
the ship, especially in terms
of control (Li and Wonham,
1999) but, in fact,
this is largely

honoured in the breach in
the case of most FOCs.
The FOC regime has been
criticised for many years
for being little more than
a mechanism to obscure
ownership and to avoid
tax, safety, environmental
and labour regulations (Li
and Wonham, 1999). More
recently, it has come under

scrutiny for its potential use-
fulness to terrorist organisa-
FOCs have been a prime
target in several grassroots
campaigns targeting cruise
ships: the International
Transport Workers' Sweat-
ship Campaign, Blue Water
Network's Cruise Ship
Campaign, Ocean Blue
Foundation's Cruise Ship
Initiative Campaign, Oceana's
Cruise Pollution Campaign

and others. But the system
has been largely impervious
to change because of the
way the IMO is structured.
Voting rights are on the
basis of tonnage and so FOC
states basically control the
organisation to the detriment
not only of the traditional
maritime states but of most
developing countries as well.
This form of global govern-
ance, vesting power in those
whose position depends on
minimal regulation, clearly
functions mainly to constrain
it, just as the WTO exists as
much to prevent others from
regulating trade as to set the
rules for trade itself (Wood,
Wood (2004b) argued
that the economic health of
the cruise ship industry and
its competitive position in
relation to land resorts is
crucially based on the FOC
system. This is most obviously
true in the case of labour
costs. National ship registries
have traditionally required
that a substantial proportion
of a ship's crew should

\RIBBE XN M \RITIM E i--II' '1-i1 1 '- I -'1 1 1- 1









be nationals and should be
governed by national labour
regulations. Under competi-
tive pressure from the FOCs,
some national registries
have loosened the crewing
nationality requirements in
systems that have become
known variously as second
or captive registries. But
not all such systems exempt
workers from national labour
regulations entirely, and so

FOCs have retained their
competitive edge, particularly
for cruise companies. In Ship
Management (Spruyt, 1994)
it was calculated that for a
ship with a 24-member crew,
the difference between an
all-Northern crew and an
all-Chinese crew came to
US$698,400 a year.
Considering the fact that
the larger cruise ships have
over 1,000 crew members
(about 70 per cent of them
on the hospitality side), the
labour cost savings afforded
by FOCs are enormous. But
wage savings are not the
only factor. Just about no
country's labour laws would
allow a company to require
a seven-day week of 12 or
more hours per day for four
to six months at a time with-
out a single day off and
effectively ban unions as
well. Nor would they be likely
to allow the kind of ethnic
recruitment and discrimina-
tion that goes on in some
cruise lines, where different
ethnic groups are slotted into
different positions on the job
hierarchy (Wood 2004b).

It is true that a cruise ship
job may seem preferable to
the alternatives available in
eastern Europe or South East
Asia, but the fact remains
that only a combination
of de-territorialisation and
globalisation makes the exist-
ence of such jobs possible,
for better or for worse. The
cruise industry is unique
in having access to a truly
global labour force (Wood

2000). In a study of the
shipping industry in general
that sees it as having 'gone
furthest down the globalis-
ing path' Bloor et al. (2000)
observed that:
"It might be thought that
poor and hazardous working
conditions are concentrated
in the declining and back-
ward sectors of the industry.
This is not the case. Although
conditions do vary consider-
ably between different sec-
tors, some of the very worst
conditions for crews are
actually to be found in the
booming cruise sector."
FOC states are universally
also tax havens. The combi-
nation of tax regimes in reg-
istry states and in (the often
separate) states of incorpora-
tion along with the unique
double taxation provisions
for passenger transport
companies in the countries
where cruise companies have
their operational headquar-
ters results in the leading
cruise companies paying
almost no corporate taxes
in the countries where they
are actually headquartered.

Carnival President Dickenson
correctly observes, in 'Selling
the Sea', that these tax and
labour advantages of FOCs
are what "makes it possible
... to offer cruises at much
lower cost" than would be
otherwise (Dickenson and
Vladimir, 1997).
These advantages have
led the land-based tour-
ism industry, particularly in
the Caribbean, to complain

bitterly about the lack of a
level playing field between
territorially rooted hotels and
resorts on the one hand, and
de-territorialised cruise ships
on the other. So central are
FOC-based prerogatives that
one highly critical analysis
of the effects of the FOC
regime on cruise industry
environmental behaviour
nonetheless rejects the idea
of eliminating FOCs out of
hand because such an action
'would be financially devas-
tating to the cruise industry
(Schulkin, 2002).
For many shipowners,
an added appeal of FOCs
is minimal regulation and
hence lower costs for vessel
maintenance. About 150
ships sink each year. The rate
of FOC ship loss is well over
twice the rate for nationally
registered ships. Indeed, the
growth of new FOC regis-
tries, for example, in land-
locked states that allow ship
registration requirements,
reflects 'the market-based
nature of these registers'.
New FOC countries see a
niche in serving the needs

of shipowners whose ships
cannot even meet the mini-
mal requirements of tradi-
tional FOC states (Alderton
and Winchester, 2002).
In the cruise sector, both
market and political forces
act to deter such extremes.
While there appear to be
differing levels of passenger
acceptance of FOC registry
(Cartwright and Baird, 1999),
cruise ship and passenger
safety is central to the indus-
try's marketing and profita-
bility. Those aspects of cruise
ship design that have been
criticised from a safety stand-
point, (for example, atriums
that can spread fires and the
logistics of unloading 5,000
or more people from high-
sided vessels on the high
seas) do not depend on FOC
registry. Nonetheless, ques-
tions of the adequacy of FOC
state safety oversight have
been raised in some cases
- for example, the cruise
ship sinkings of 'Fantome' in
1998, 'Sun Vista' in 1999 and
'Sea Breeze' in 2000 (Wood
2004). Under the rules of the
IMO that currently govern
ship registration, the country
of registration is responsible
for the enforcement of rel-
evant laws and conventions.

Major limitations
There are three major limita-
tions to this, however.
The first is that FOC states
are less likely to sign these
conventions and hence not
be subject to them even if
they do come into force.
Alderton and Winchester
(2002) find that, whereas
traditional maritime states
have on average ratified 61
per cent of IMO conventions,
'old FOCs' (which include
the major cruise line FOCs)






have ratified only 49 per cent
and 'new FOCs' only 37 per
cent. More specifically, of 22
cruise ship-relevant inter-
national conventions cited
in an Ocean Conservancy
study, the three major cruise
ship FOC states of Panama,
Liberia and the Bahamas had
failed to ratify 11, nine and
eight of these conventions,
respectively (Ocean Conserv-
ancy, 2002).
Second, FOC states have
sufficient voting power to
prevent conventions coming
into effect, since voting is
linked to registered tonnage.
For example, the highly
relevant Annex IV (covering
sewage treatment and dis-
charge) of the International
Convention for the Preven-
tion of Pollution from Ships
(Marpol) has never come into
effect because of insufficient
FOC state ratification.
Third, the fact that it is the
responsibility of the regis-
try state to investigate and
punish ships flying its flag
that violate either interna-
tional or port state laws,
results only very rarely in any
action. In the USA, a General
Accounting Office (GAO)
2000 study found that, of
111 cases of illegal discharges
by cruise ships in US waters
referred to registry states, no
penalties were imposed apart
from two minor fines. The
IMO has no power to enforce
its conventions itself.

The Caribbean
Cruise tourism has been
embraced as part of the
general tourism strategy
for development. Tour-
ism is intended to replace
the economic fallout from
banana and sugar without

any independent in-depth
analysis from a Caribbean
perspective. This thesis
explores some fundamental
sustainability challenges and
issues for the future, beyond
the unidimensional meas-
ure of the total number of
passengers landed as the pri-
mary measure of the industry
One key indicator of
the extent to which the
Caribbean has been heav-
ily exploited by rather than
benefiting from the cruise
industry is the remarkably
low (or negative) profits.
The FCCA in 2001 pub-
lished an Economic Impact
study showing the Caribbean
accounting for about 50 per
cent of the total cruise ship
deployment with estimated
earnings of US$2.3 billion
from the industry. The Medi-
terranean, with just one-fifth
of the Caribbean's market
share, earned six times more
than the total of Caribbean
revenues. This indicates that
the Mediterranean gener-
ates about 30 times more
revenue per capital than the
Caribbean. This is a measure
of the Caribbean's failure to
understand and profit from
the industry or its failure
to understand the tourism
Alaska is comparable
to the Mediterranean and
provides an example of how
to generate far more revenue
while giving the environment
far better protection through
legislation. A repeat of the
study by the FCCA in 2006
showed the Caribbean as the
destination with the largest
number of visitor arrivals and
with gross earnings declining
to just under US$1.8 billion
(that is less than 2001), yet

with record cruise calls and
passenger numbers, indicat-
ing that profit margins were
actually squeezed even more
This has to be understood
against the background of an
industry dominated by three
powerful cruise lines.
However, Caribbean
governments derive some
benefit from the growing
numbers of passenger landed
and this has allowed them
to report their success as the
numbers climb in a destina-
tion. This may help them to
get re-elected, but the ben-
efits do not filter. In reality,
most of the actual income
finds its way back to the
cruise lines through various
channels, including commis-
sions and partnership invest-
ments -for example,
joint investment/secured
loans in terminal facilities
development between
government and cruise.
Over the past 30
years the Caribbean has
moved from being an
exotic, high-value des-
tination to now a
'mass market' low-
value, high-volume
destination. The
capital outlay needed
by each Caribbean
country just to stay in
the game of facilitating
larger and larger vessels
needs to be reassessed
carefully, as this money coullI
be better spent on develop-
ing the land-based tourism
products that yield greater
benefits to the country.
Likewise, the Caribbean
has been reduced to a
generic destination substi-
tuted by private islands (now
numbered 12 and located
primarily in the Bahamas,

the Dominican Republic and
Haiti). These private islands
are owned and operated by
the four largest cruise lines:
Carnival, Royal Caribbean
Cruise Lines, Norwegian
Cruise Lines and Mediter-
ranean Shipping Cruises. As
such, 100 per cent of the rev-
enues generated from these
private islands go directly to
these cruise companies. The
question that remains to be
answered is, where does
the Caribbean go from
here? m



By Jan Sierhuis, chairman, CSA Cruise Committee

The partnership
between the cruise
industry and the Carib-
bean is surviving the cur-
rent economic tide and
this is cause for optimism.
Even at the bottom of
the downturn in the USA,
ships are still sailing to the
Caribbean and the indus-
try is successfully filling
them. Moreover, the H1N1
influenza outbreak and
other health and security
threats do not seem to be
having a negative impact
on the industry and the
Caribbean cruise market.
The Cruise Line Interna-
tional Association (CLIA)
has issued statements and
implemented programmes
that continue to offer cruises

as a safe, healthy and desir-
able vacation option. CLIA
members are working closely
with US and World Health
Organisation (WHO) officials
to implement the required
procedures to help reduce
health and safety risks and
to communicate this fact
to the public. An intensive
CLIA summer marketing
campaign is helping member
lines to entice consumers
with special offers, additional
discounts and delayed pay-
ment options. The message is
that cruising is good for your
health and for the economy.

While many Caribbean hotels
are laying off personnel
because of the economic

situation, the cruise industry
is on a proactive strategy
aimed at keeping the ships
sailing full. This is achieved

CLIA launched its summer
marketing campaign, 'You
Deserve a Cruise', with its
member lines and cruise


by enticing the public with
reassuring messages that
cruising helps to relieve stress
and at the same time helps
the economy. Cruises are
priced more attractively than
ever and special discounts
and delayed payment pro-
grammes exist for targeted
audiences such as families,
singles, first-timers, senior
citizens and groups.

agents. Because of the focus
on relaxation and pricing, the
Caribbean is in high demand
and many destinations are
expecting record visitor
numbers for the upcoming
winter season. True, aver-
age visitor spending in the
islands may be down as more
discount passengers arrive;
but, overall, the sector and
the Caribbean cruise desti-
nations will survive thanks
to the proactive approach
of the industry. Criticised
by many in the Caribbean,
the industry should really be
applauded for its efforts in
these trying times.

The European cruise market
has grown substantially over
the past five years. This year,
growth seems to be con-
solidating, although some
destinations do mention
the arrival of new European
For the time being, it is
expected that European


ships will ply Caribbean
waters mainly in the winter
season. For the time being,
all hopes for alternative
summer business come
from developments in the
Latin market being served
out of Panama and Colom-
bia. If this market develops
further, it offers interesting
opportunities for home port
development in the southern
Caribbean. Latin passenger
spending patterns are high
and they travel with families
and friends. More Caribbean
promotion in this market
could assist the operators
developing these itineraries
and create lasting partner-
ships that could also spill over
to non-cruise markets. It is a
maturing market that some
island destinations are begin-
ning to pursue.

The order book for 2010
stands at 14 new ships with
four smaller luxury ships and
the remainder large ships
with a capacity of 2,000 to
5,000 passengers. It is now
assumed that by mid 2010
the US economy will be in
recovery and that this new
capacity will be absorbed by
the market. Many if not all of
these new ships will operate
in the Caribbean.
After 2010 the industry
seems to be holding back on
its order book. For 2011 nine
new ships have been con-
firmed and for 2012 only four
bookings are confirmed. Once
the 2010 capacity is absorbed
and economies have recov-
ered, however, it is expected
that new orders will come
on stream. The industry is in
good health and the demo-
graphics in the main source
markets work in its favour.

If the Caribbean continues
to deliver the experience
for the changing tastes and
needs of the consumer, the
ships will continue to come
to our shores. Many destina-
tions are now preparing for
the future and are investing
in the necessary infrastruc-
ture and services to accom-
modate these ships and
passengers. Those that do
not act now will most likely
lag behind tomorrow.

Given the proven health of
the cruise industry, most
cruise-related investments in
the Caribbean seem unaf-
fected by the economic
situation. The size of the
ships and the capital-inten-
sive infrastructure required
to handle them cause many
destinations to turn to the
industry for financing and, in
some cases, participation in
cruise-related investments.
Mexico, Belize, Jamaica, St
Maarten, Antigua, Panama,
Cartagena, Curacao and
many others are now in
various stages of planning
or executing joint cruise
investment programmes.
Some people question the
nature of such investments
from a long-term perspec-
tive. In reality, however, it
seems the only way to keep
up with developments. And,
finally, the cruise lines are
now becoming an investment
partner for the Caribbean,
something long advocated by
industry critics.

The fact that the industry is
willing to invest demonstrates
that there is no intention of
leaving the Caribbean. There
will be investment in other

markets and destinations so
as to spread the risks but,
in difficult times, the indus-
try has always returned to
its Caribbean base. Cruise
investments by nature are
long-term; and periodic
economic downturns need to
be included in the equation.
Public-private sector partner-
ships can help to mitigate the
risks involved and can help to
commit the industry to the

In view of the challenges
facing the industry and the

Caribbean, the Caribbean
Shipping Association's Cruise
Committee now, more than
ever, must actively promote
the interests of cruise tourism
in the Association and in the
region. For 2009 and 2010
the committee will focus on
improving the cruise section
of the CSA website, health
and safety issues, including
the H1N1 pandemic, regula-
tory changes and environ-
mental impact issues. The
committee plans to produce
a paper for discussion on the
position and role of CSA in
formulating Caribbean poli-
cies in these areas, m



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in team

t swine flu

SThe need for a
I regional policy
and protocol to
deal with the H1N1
virus was discussed
at a special meeting
in Barbados involving
regional and hemi-
spheric organizations
including the Caribbean
Shipping Association (CSA),
which led the initiative.
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and Barbuda Cruise Tourism
Association (ABCTA), who
was instrumental in setting
up the Bridgetown meeting.
Mr Dundas was delegated to
speak on behalf of the CSA
as neither President Fernando
Rivera nor CSA General Man-
ager Clive Forbes could attend.

The meeting was co-chaired
by Dr Rudolph Cummings,
of the Caricom secretariat,
and Dr Bernadette Gandi,
of the Pan American Health
Organisation (PAHO). Dr
Gandi stressed the need for
regional standardisation of a
protocol and policy in dealing
with the H1 N1 virus across the
Caribbean and for a balance
between health concerns and
the importance of the cruise
industry to the region.
Dr Cummings shared his
views. He said the purpose
of the meeting was to find
a way forward that would
benefit all concerned both
the citizens of the Caricom
countries and the cruise lines.
There was an urgent need to
reach a clear understanding
of procedures to be followed
in a standardised manner
across the region.

The cruise lines made two
revealing presentations that
dealt with their operations
prior to passenger board-
ing and also on board the
ships. They emphasised the
thoroughness used in limiting
and controlling the spread of
the virus whenever detected
on board the ships. And they
showed the medical and
preventive procedure and
protocols as laid out by local
authorities and by the Centre
for Disease Control (CDC).

There were lively and posi-
tive discussions between the
cruise lines and the CMOs as
all interests worked to find a
strategy for defining a pro-
tocol that would be effective
for all stakeholders. The dis-
cussions ended on a positive
note with plans for follow-up
action that will see regional
stakeholders meeting in the
near future with a much
wider group of interested
groups and organizations as
well as other CMOs. The plan
is to develop a protocol that
will be used as a standard
document across the region.

Mr Dundas acknowledged the
assistance from Dr Rhonda
Sealy Thomas, of Antigua and
Barbuda, Dr Rudolph Cum-
mings, from Caricom, and Dr
Gandi, from PAHO, Barbados,
in arranging the meeting. He
expressed the CSA's satisfac-
tion that the region would be
getting a standard protocol
that all the cruise destinations
could apply in dealing with
the H1N1 virus as it affects
the cruise industry.
The meeting was timely,
he said, as the winter cruise
season would be starting
soon, with some ports receiv-
ing as many as 15 ships a
week. Without a clear policy
across the region, there
would have been unneces-
sary delays and, possibly,
disastrous consequences for
this vital industry, said Mr
Dundas. He said the finished
document would provide
a model for other regions
outside the Caribbean for
dealing with the cruise lines
and it was fitting that the
Caribbean, as the world's
number one cruise destina-
tion, was taking the lead. m

Rudisa Shipping Company N.V. as part of the esteemed Rudisa Group of companies is one of
the quickest and most efficient in handling cargo and vesselss in Suriname.


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san bechs and druh tie reere to Guyan '.0 As a atontywthad eeop etol
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tors as an 0000naiv .0. senger 00'e enoraig govrn en pln to t0r0in
ben loke at an som Som 0 0'.rre t0 Guyan as a niL moepepeinti 0'co
resources~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ a0. bein diere "wnerul war conty AT A N to prpr0o rwhi h
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enio efo rt isbigm d As' rerseotie ofSaga tals sige -do .00ral thee 'Minrv 110ihoe

to acom odt larg 0 000.0ls Guan Naioa Shippin th hegh of Nigaa 000' r 0.r '0'nurr .0 er10
Reety Guan reeie 000oato Lt ha opne atrcin that col ''0 0'seges an h M

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..... c n is oe p m e it u p .

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c vsarwlch, E absend: oW f penr Agencdes (TCLf Ltd
.rueterowina Brbados: Traes Ca ribben Agencies Barbados
s Pont Lisasd v ntage. TrOns Caribbean Agencies Trinidad
Pasii rbo Sutng e: Csinaeti n al Srinmpp e:i Agencies 1N fr

GeorgNt lrown. Guyan: Tofr Logistics inc
^^^^^*^-^^|Br1 I KI^H ^^^^^^Rofflotdam, The Nethierlands: Tranls Cartibbean Agencies The Notherlands
^^^ i QfeM ^4 ^^^B^^^^^^^ Hafrwi~ch.Engfiaindf. /jAcf LnegenciesTCL) Lt
^^^^^^. jjM^I^^^^^^^^^^^H ridgerfwn. Barbados: TransCarit)6een Agencies Barbados
^^^^^^Bhki~jjj|^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Pointl IUsas. Tfiwiizil Trans Cmribboin Agencies Triniidad
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^BPanijiarbo Suiriname.*t Cont'ineta Shipping Agencies NV
WHS~S^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^H Georgerown, Guyani: Tort) Logistics Inc

wast colecor and fue sup exece to doubl by 2020.0.0
pler ha be efte si nf IDE NTI .TY \
catl from th riecls

"Tes shp need a* hug Suinm is trigtoscr
volum of fres wae, sai so eo h eeisfo h



B ~ razill announcedI~ in' Ju~ly
upiIii to 30 million inl creits

ofMa ie BrazIih'4lianInutr

Jorg sid' $i6J .11"0 mio

ities wit Cuba Thre arel

thel entire port projcillllll

plte ill / l, cot$ 0 m lin

aie as a logitic centrl e

fo.l r its emring ofshr ."o'/il

around the world, includWing I

emba-rgoil impsed rin 1962
Cato revoluion. Miguel

day vii to CbsidBa



Th PED tril iPalni.:h DLiiust iayln it hpa
Reached a live-year .:intra.: inienderrini with
Tr..pi.:c l shipping The orrindr ne il gives Tr.:pi.:cl
Shipping the neivwly e r .ine' ia d raIlte ai yhe P.:r I'
Palm each Luntil June 2013 The :c'idr.: i pr vid.es
Icr increases in revenue 10 the portn and addilinonal
incentives ,r Trcopical Shippinq tc increase annual
itnnae Jlhry:unh Ihe perl Tropicoal Shipping is on
in-ip irtani tenant of the pco rt pr.vidini dry refi q-
erated LCL :.:insc'lidalicn c.argo Iransler inland
iroinspr t and prwiei:lcarq: services in The Beoho-
mos and Ihr:uh :'uI rhe C obbte- n The pcslo hf n-
dies nearly 3 million tonnes tof :arco anr d 245 000
container annually


C MA CGM and affiliates Delmas,
MacAndrews, ANIL, US Lines
and Cheng Lie have announced the
introduction of a reefer consumption
surcharge effective in all US inbound
and outbound trades on 16 October.
All other trades as of 1 October.
CMA CGM and subsidiaries had not
been billing the additional reefer con-
sumption costs to their customers,
having had a similar bunker adjust-
ment factor (BAF) structure for both
dry and reefer containers. In order
to have a more transparent and true
segregation of costs between these
two distinct segments it was decided
to make this an integrated part of
freight surcharges. The reefer con-
sumption surcharge incorporates the
actual cost of fuel. It will be revised
on a monthly basis, together with
the general BAF levels. The levels of
the new surcharge will be reflected
on CMA CGM's BAF/CAF finder
on its web site at www.cma-cgm.
com. Claus P. Ellemann-Jensen, vice
president reefer, CMA CGM Group,
said: "One of the main differences
between dry containers and reefer
containers is the energy consumption
needed to maintain the temperature
during transportation as well as to
properly ventilate containers car-
rying perishable commodities. The
electricity used for reefers aboard
container vessels means extra fuel
consumption, thus extra cost for both
shippers and carriers. With this reefer
consumption surcharge, CMA CGM
and affiliates provide customers with
a more transparent and balanced
segregation of costs."

- p.,



1 v


Women still an

untapped resource for

the shipping industry

For centuries, shipping
has excluded 50 per
cent of the population
from its labour force
"Another way of thinking
about this relates to both
numbers and quality. Thus, if
you wish to widen the basis
of any recruitment you need
to deepen the pool of talents
that is available. That, surely,
is common sense" (Michael
Grey, 2008).
Over 90 per cent of world
trade involves ships. Without
shipping, the import and
export of goods on the scale
necessary for modern world
trade would not be possi-
ble. There are about 50,000
merchant ships trading
internationally, transport-

ing every conceivable kind
of cargo. The world fleet is
registered in over 150 nations
and manned by over a million
seafarers of virtually every
nationality. Ships are techni-
cally sophisticated, high-value
assets and the operation of

merchant ships generates an
estimated annual income of
over US$380 billion in freight
rates, representing about five
per cent of the total global
economy. From this equa-
tion, women have long been

In the past, women's status
in society and their participa-
tion in economic activities
were strongly influenced
by religious and traditional
social issues. Likewise, lower
enrolment of girls in techni-
cal schools and universities
probably stems from these
socio-cultural issues. In the
past, the shipping industry
offered a way out of poverty

for many workers as employ-
ment in the industry provided
access to foreign currency
and a regular salary with a
direct impact on the eco-
nomic viability of seafarers
and their extended families.
However, this has long been

changing as the shipping
industry is now a career seek-
ing after the finest talent
across gender boundaries.
There is no intrinsic reason
why women should not par-
ticipate in and benefit from
employment within the ship-
ping industry. The relevance
of sea experience to many
shore-based jobs means that
the resource of women with
appropriate skills is limited
and will continue to act as a
long-term constraint on the
representation of women
in the maritime sector as a
whole. Also, the perception
that seafaring is a man's job
can lead to lack of training
and work experience oppor-
tunities for women. Even
today, this is still a reality as
many shipping lines are still
slow to accept women into
the technical areas of ship-
ping employment.

Gender stereotyping
Just as there are more
women who have been led
into the fashion industry
or primary school teaching
because of 'custom and prac-
tice', it is gender stereotyping
which tends to decree that
shipping is 'a man's world'.
It is this view that must be
confronted. The obstacles to
this are several, and notably

By Fritz Pinnock

so in an international con-
text, where there are cultural,
traditional and even histori-
cal issues to be overcome if
women are to play a full part
in maritime industries.
To break the cycle, ade-
quate training has a critical
role to play in the integration
of women into all spheres
of professional life including
shipping. There must be an
emphasis on women gaining
access to all levels of training.
At the Caribbean Maritime
Institute, for example, in
2009 a female cadet came
top out of a class of 110. Yet
women made up only 10 per
cent of that class.
Despite the troubled eco-
nomic waters of recent times,
employment in the shipping
industry is becoming wide
open. Times have changed.
Today, more women are get-
ting on board. Now, women


There is no intrinsic reason
why women should not

participate in and benefit

from employment within the
shipping industry

are just as likely to be found
swabbing decks or servicing
the mammoth steam turbines

Today, the integration of
women into all levels of
development has gained
ground within the United
Nations (see goal 3 of the
UN Millennium Development
Goals.) In 1988, for example,
the International Maritime
Organisation published its
first Strategy for the Inte-
gration of Women in the
Maritime Sector. This policy
structure identified access to
training and employment for
women as priority objec-
tives. Also, the IMO's global
programme was to integrate

women into mainstream
activities. It addressed issues
such as: promoting the
participation of women in
maritime training, short-term
consultancies, regional semi-
nars, fellowship programmes
for women and in-house
gender training.
Industry studies suggest
that the technological revolu-
tion in the maritime sector
is calling for a highly trained
workforce, but that there
will be an estimated shortfall
of some 50,000 officers in
2018. Female seafarers are
an underutilised and under-
developed resource that
could provide part of the
solution to the problem of
crewing the world merchant
fleet. However, it is clear

that to achieve this there is a
need for changes in attitude
towards employing women
as seafarers; recruitment of
women in the shipping sector
generally; and more training
opportunities for women.

Culture prohibited
The maritime industry has
not been an attractive career
path for women. It was one
of the most male-dominated
careers that one could find.
In the past, jobs in shipping
involved a lot of physical
strength. Culture prohibited
women from participating
at operational level. The
biggest issue of all was that
of social acceptability. Thirty
or 40 years ago it was not


acceptable for women to
serve alongside men in such
an isolated environment.
There were some persuasive
folk myths, too, such as the
idea that a woman on a ship
would bring bad luck. It is
not surprising that there are
no historical role models for
women in maritime roles in a
professional capacity.
Technology has changed
the boundaries of our lives
and what used to be limita-
tions are now mere chal-
lenges. Women have a lot
more freedom, with access
to areas that were previously
prohibited; but the introduc-
tion of women into this very
traditional environment has
been a slow and sometimes
difficult process. m

I. u


Da gapt aang sana.

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By Robert Foster

have spent the last three
years of my life working
as chairman of the largest
group of members in the
Caribbean Shipping Asso-
ciation (CSA). Elected for
three consecutive terms
to represent the Agents
and Private Stevedores
group at the Association's
General Council, I have
had the rare privilege of
participating in, under-
standing and contributing
to the work and develop-
ment of what must be one
of the greatest member-
ship organizations in the
western hemisphere.
The CSA is, in many
respects, unique. It is one of
the few organizations I know
of that brings both public
sector organizations and
private-sector interests into
one harmonious body, work-
ing side by side to promote

development. I have hardly
missed a CSA meeting in
the past 11 years and each
has been a new and energis-
ing experience for me. It is
against this background, on
the occasion of completing
the three years on General
Council that the Association's
constitution allows, that I
write my parting thoughts,
my vision if you like, for the

Over the past 39 years, the
CSA has developed and
evolved to become the much
respected voice of maritime
transport in and for the
region of the Caribbean and
Latin America. The Associa-
tion includes in its member-
ship countries from the four
main language groups of the
Caribbean: English, Span-
ish, French and Dutch. Few
organizations in the Carib-
bean bring together the

ex-colonies of four European
In this regard, the CSA is
able to bring a new dimen-
sion to business growth
and development across the
Caribbean Sea. By bring-
ing all the regional cultures
together, the Association
has provided a forum for
a convergence of diverse
experiences and methods.
The CSA allows the cross-
fertilisation of ideas between
shipping lines, agents, ports
and suppliers who have trav-
elled different historical paths

the Caribbean and Latin
American region a cohesive
force. Otherwise, were it not
for organizations such as the
CSA, the Caribbean would
be nothing more than a sea
of disconnected weak states.

This did not happen by
chance. The CSA did not
become a binding force for
regionalism by simply being
in existence. If this were so,
its membership would not
have expanded so rapidly
in less than four decades.


to arrive at the 21st century.
By bringing these diverse
experiences and business
traditions together, the CSA
has contributed more than
most organizations to making

People in the shipping
business do not become
members of the CSA simply
because a CSA exists. They
do so because they perceive
that there is value to their



\ 4/



membership and that the
business operations will
benefit from their being
a part of this forum. They
become members because
the CSA has credibility. Tlh
do not become members
because we have confer-
ences or because we put
training courses. They car
attend these events with
having to pay membership
dues. Our membership hK
grown exponentially becE


ir the CSA has developed cred-
ibility in the Caribbean, Latin
America and the world.

iey In order to ensure that the
Association remains relevant
and valuable, its leader-
on ship held a two-day retreat
I in March 2008 in Miami,
)ut Florida. Out of this, a docu-
p ment detailing a strategy
Is for the 'Way Forward' was
iuse produced. This is an update
of the guidelines previously
adopted in August 2003 and
i: effectively a blueprint for
!i' the continued develop-
ment of the Associa-
tion. This document,
if updated and kept
as central to the
policy formula-
tion function of
General Council,

t R I BBE XN Ni ~RIT INIE -EFT P I: IF,' [E-1E.',.1EEP 2-0

will ensure that the Associa-
tion remains on a trajectory
for growth and development.
President Fernando Rivera
deserves kudos for taking
the initiative in hosting the

retreat in Miami and in re-
energising the 'Way Forward'
document. Future presidents
may be well advised to
continue this with this review

The 'Way Forward' docu-
ment indicates that the time
is now ripe for the Asso-
ciation, ever appreciative of
the hospitality provided by
our friends at the Shipping
Association of Jamaica (SAJ),
to seek a home of its own.
At present, the Association
occupies quarters gener-
ously provided by the
SAJ in its building.

I r- J I


but sooner or later our off-
spring's development will be
stunted and it will not realise
its true potential if it remains
in the house of its parents.
The changing dynamics of

the membership and the
growing international stature
of the organisation dictate
a new approach. What was
relevant, say, five years ago
is no longer relevant today.
What was adequate a few
short years ago may not be
adequate tomorrow.

The revenues of the CSA
are generated mainly from
membership dues, confer-
ences and training seminars.
This structure of revenue
generation has to be revisited
in order to adequately fund
a Secretariat able to take the
Association through this 21st

, l. I I, Ir i I l l' II 1 1. -1 1 i 1 1 1

TI .- ,ri il ,- 1 ., -


i .. i r .l- I t :i I i 1 .- :I 1 1 ,

ST-'i '- r, ,.I,: r l ,i

for revenue to be generated
from tools we have already
established: the CSA's web-
site (www.caribbeanshipping.
org) and our main publica-
tion, Caribbean Maritime.
The website was the CSA's
first excursion into cyber-
space. When this bold step
was made about five years
ago, the CSA's website was
a leader among websites.
Most other organizations
had a website with three or
four web pages. The CSA's
website started out with an
impressive volume of infor-
mation about the organisa-
tion and about news and
developments in shipping
across the entire region. With
two news services CSA
News, generated from in-
house, and Breaking News,

generated by one of the
oldest news organizations
in the shipping industry, the
British-based Fairplay the
CSA website brought people
from all over the world
into direct contact with the
Caribbean Maritime
is currently the Caribbean's
only regularly published
business magazine, to the
best of my knowledge. This

Caribbean Maritime
can expand to include infor-
mation and material relevant
to the users of shipping and
maritime services, including
exporters and importers and
those providing a myriad
services to the shipping
industry. Already, Caribbean
Maritime is in demand from
learning institutions, business
organizations and government
ministries throughout our
membership and the world
beyond this hemisphere.

In the short term, one way of
attracting wider membership
is to create, expand and pro-
mote members' benefits. For
starters, these may include
the use of simultaneous
translation facilities at our
conferences and the offer

of discounts on air travel
and hotels. We have already
instituted a policy for travel
insurance for all registered
delegates at our conferences
and Early Bird discounts for
early registration.
The longer term offers
other challenges. In most of
our smaller member states,
companies involved in the
maritime business are family
owned. The elders are retir-

ing and the
'well' must
be replenished.
But where is the
talent? The needs of
the industry, whether port
operator, ship's agency, liner
operator, NVOCC or supplier
are very diverse, including
finance, international law
and engineering, to name a
few. The onus, therefore, is
on the Association and its

membership to develop a
policy document which can
inform heads of the tertiary
intuitions and curriculum
planners about the job skills
the industry will require in
the next five to 10 years.
The skills that a developing
maritime industry will require
to meet the challenges of
the future will not be there
automatically when they are
needed. And such skills as

may be required may not be
easily transferable. The CSA
will need to ensure that the
content of syllabuses matches
the needs of our industry so
that our members can continue
to offer the best service in the
countries where they operate.
The CSA will commence
its 40th year during the 40th
annual general meeting
which the SAJ has offered to
host in October 2010. How
appropriate this will be, for
it was Jamaica, along with
some other interested Carib-
bean states, that started the
process which led to the for-
mation of Association. And
it is the SAJ that has kindly
granted the space we have
had for the humble offices
that have housed our Sec-
retariat over our history; the
offices that continue to play
a vital supporting role for the
Association today. m







Monica Silvera -

a scholarship in her honour

The Caribbean Ship-
ping Association's
first female chief execu-
tive officer was Monica
Silvera, who died in 2002.
Now the CSA celebrates
her life and contribution
to the development of the
Association by naming a
scholarship in her honour.

eye of an eagle

Monica Silvera was to
the CSA what sunlight is to
a garden. Those who knew
Monica would not mull over
that statement but would
consider it, if anything, an

Mrs Silvera brought warmth
and energy to the Secretariat
of CSA conferences. She had
a warm, welcoming persona
and an infectious laugh and
she remembered everybody's
name. More than that, she
remembered where every-
one was from. And if they
had brought their family to
a previous CSA conference,
she would remember the
name of their spouse and
the names of their children.
She was gifted in that regard
and CSA members loved
her for it. She made every-
one feel special perhaps
because she felt that every-

one was special.
At CSA conferences, when
weary delegates arrived at
the Secretariat, sometimes
after travelling great dis-
tances, Monica, as she was
affectionately called, would
welcome each with a warm
smile, address each by name
and was able to discuss their

journey simply because she
committed to memory how
each delegate would be
This was just one of
the many aspects of the
personality of this great
woman whom we admired
and respected. For, not only
did she make people feel
special, she helped to make
them feel part of the CSA.
Monica gave CSA members
a sense of belonging. She
made those coming to a CSA
event for the first time feel
that they 'belonged'. And
she made older members feel
loved. It certainly made her a
very special person.

Monica's appointment as the
CSA's first female executive
vice president was, as they
say, a 'no-brainer'. She knew
the CSA and was a binding
force. She had served the

Association for many years
as secretary to the previous
executive vice president and
then as corporate secretary
to the Association. She knew
every decision that the Gen-
eral Council had taken as she
meticulously went through
the minutes of the various

If Mrs Silvera had the
memory of an elephant, she
had the eye of an eagle. She
was a proof reader's proof
reader. Her background in
one of Jamaica's leading law
firms made her a stickler for
detail and she let very little
slip her attention. She was
therefore able to effectively
handle the logistical details
of planning international
CSA past president G.
Ainsley Morris said: "She will
be surely missed, not only
because of her fantastic per-
sonality but more so because
of her ability to get things


attitude to her work: "She
undertook her responsibilities
with diligence and determi-
nation." As such, she became
a CSA icon, he said.
Monica worked hard, com-
pleted her assignments accu-
rately and on time and then
she partied heartily. She was a
classy lady. Impeccably attired,
elegantly formal or fashionably
casual, she embodied the spirit
of the CSA in her work and in
her humanity.

Bruno Rossovich, a CSA
member from Martinique,
said: "We always remember
Monica as a beautiful, pow-
erful and elegant great lady.
She will stay in our minds as
the great spirit of the CSA
and we always remember
her sunny smile."
Monica died in 2002
during the presidency of

Monica's appointment as the

CSA's first female executive

vice president was, as they

say, a 'no-brain(

done properly and expedi-
tiously the first time around."
And past president Ludlow
Stewart summed up Monica's

Capt Rawle Baddaloo, six
months after being appointed
the CSA's first female chief
executive officer. m


If Mrs Silvera had the memory

of an elephant, she had the



New propellers can reduce fuel consumption by up to 15 per cent

Propellers have been part of
marine propulsion for over
250 years long enough, it would
seem, for designers to have figured
out every possible way to improve
them. Yet marine engineers say
propellers are actually much better
today than they were even a few
years ago.
Over the past 10 years, advances in
computer modelling have enabled engi-
neers to design propellers that are much
more efficient than even the best pro-
pellers manufactured in the 1970s and
1980s. In fact, at WMrtsilM, the world's
leading manufacturer of commercial
ship propellers, marine engineers have
found that substituting a new propeller
for an old one may reduce a ship's fuel
consumption by as much as 15 per cent.
The new designs are stronger, too,
engineers say. Until the development
of modern hydrodynamic software, the
stresses on complicated high-skew pro-
pellers could not be reliably computed.

Now, better software has made it pos-
sible to design blades for longer life and
simpler servicing.
"Now we design propellers in such a
way that the stresses are centralised in
the middle of a blade where the chances
of cracks are less likely," says Kees de
Grijs, area sales support manager for
North America.

Propeller innovation is nothing new for
Wartsila. The Lips company, now part of
Wartsila, designed the first controllable
pitch propellers back in 1903. However,
engineers say there has been a dramatic
spurt of improvement in recent years.
"The technology has advanced so
much that now we're able to offer
better performance and better fuel
economy," says Jose Vargas, marine and
industrial account manager for Wartsila
Beyond a better general understand-
ing of propeller hydrodynamics, the

capacity of computers to crunch huge
volumes of data has helped Wartsila
tailor more efficient designs to the
needs of each customer. The reason is
that propellers are not sold in standard
sizes, like tyres. Instead, they must be
cast to meet the requirements of each
engine and each ship. Typically, Wartsila,
which has manufactured propellers as
large as 11 metres in diameter, takes
extremely detailed measurements of the
vessel and the original propeller before
recommending an adjustment, casting a
new propeller or adding a nozzle.
First, Wartsila engineers use analyti-
cal software to make a quick estimate
of the overall efficiency of a propulsion
system and identify opportunities for
improvement. Over time, for example,
engines start to run 'heavy', meaning
that the engine needs to work harder.
This can lead to overheating and over-
loading of the engine, which can drasti-
cally reduce the engine's life. Sometimes
this means that a measure as simple


Wartsila in Caribbean: Tel. +1 787 701 2288, Fax +1 787 701 2211
WArtsil in Dominicana: Tel. +1 809 564 713-1 Fax +1 809 372 7963




as modifying the propeller's pitch can
go a long way towards improving the
interaction between the propeller and
the engine.
Next, after discussing the options
with the client, the engineers examine
the existing propeller more closely and
feed the data into another programme.
Engineers say they examine the exist-
ing stresses, but they also use the same
software to forecast where stresses and
erosion are likely to develop in the future.
At that point, the engineers brief the
client on how much money they could
save on each of a number of options.
How accurate is the estimate? "Pretty
much on the money," says Vargas.
"Once we have all the information, a
good predication can be made."
Finally, whether what's needed is a
modified or an entirely new propeller,
engineers use their in-house design soft-
ware to make a detailed, optimal propel-
ler design, according to de Grijs.
"We really work out the profiles of
the blades, mechanical properties, and
mechanical stresses," he explains.

When it comes to propellers, the opti-
mum, like beauty, is in the eye of the
beholder. Typically, the customer will
need to make some trade-offs, says de
Grijs, such as a choice between energy
efficiency and limited vibration. The best
choice for a cargo ship, for example,
might be a design that maximises fuel
efficiency, while a fishing trawler could

be better off with a low-noise propeller
that won't scare away the catch.

Better modelling has led to other impor-
tant advances, such as high-efficiency
rudders, which Wartsila started to
manufacture in the 1990s. The model-
ling technology has also led to creative
ways of thinking about the propulsion
challenge. For example, Wartsila and
Becker Marine Systems, the leading
rudder manufacturer, have joined forces
to develop a new rudder/propeller
system that combines an energy-saving,
hydrodynamic rudder with an advanced
propeller in a single unit that looks a
little like a gigantic version of an out-
board motor.
The Energopac system, as the pack-
age is called, improves manoeuvrability,
lowers rudder drag and permits tighter

steering angles. Its key innovation is
twisting the leading edge of the rudder
slightly to align more closely with the
propeller's slipstream, gives the rudder
better water flow.
More than 30 ships have now been
equipped with this advanced system,
according to Wartsila, and virtually all
of them have saved fuel. A number of
chemical tankers have reported cost
savings of five per cent at 17 knots,
while another group of general cargo
ships has gained four per cent even at
23 knots.

With so many different options, experts
warn that it is not always easy to decide
which technology makes the most sense
in terms of return on investment.
The easiest and least expensive
option is blade-polishing and edge
damage repair. Wartsila crews can
do this in virtually any dry dock, even
underwater, and shave up to five per
cent off the total fuel bill. Ten per cent
improvement can be achieved by install-

ing a propeller with a larger diameter
and a lower rate of revolution, installing
a more efficient rudder. Finally, up to
15 per cent fuel improvement can be
gained by converting an open propel-
ler to a ducted 'nozzle' design of the
Wartsila HR type, according to Mike
Howarth-Coyne, regional sales manager
of the Americas.
Making matters more complicated
still is the fact that not all designs are
cost-effective at every speed. For a
coaster or multipurpose vessel, for
instance, a ducted propeller is 15 per
cent more efficient than a bare propeller
at 10 knots but only four per cent more
efficient at 14 knots and at speeds of
more than 16.4 knots actually becomes
less efficient.
Less invasive repair programmes
can also yield big savings. For instance,
polishing and reprofiling blades can by

itself yield significant savings and in
a 25-year-old ship may well be a more
cost-effective choice than replacing the
propeller altogether.
Ultimately, of course, the amount the
owner should invest depends on the
overall amount of the ship's fuel con-
sumption. A trawler that typically cruises
at 10 knots uses only 20 per cent of the
fuel consumed by a high-speed ferry
cruising at 24 knots. All things being
equal, this means that the payback
period of a propulsion investment would
be five times longer for the trawler. m




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Fast, Dependable Transit Accurate Documentation
Dry and Refrigerated Containers Machinery & Rolling Stock



MIAMI (305) 592-6060
US General Agents: Seafreight Agencies USA, Inc.
Web site: seafreightagencies.com



-1 X


Reare I
102A nled


Stanley K. Chapman stalwart of

the Barbados shipping sector

The shipping community of Bar-
bados is mourning the loss of
one of its most prominent members,
Stanley Chapman, after a lifetime of
work that helped laid the founda-
tions of a modern shipping industry
in his homeland.
Stanley Chapman, who died on 12
April at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital
after a short illness, had been honoured
by the Shipping Association of Barbados
in 2005 as a stalwart of the country's
maritime industry.

He was born in August 1923 in Christ
Church, Barbados, the third of four sons
of Norman and Louise Chapman. Edu-
cated at the Boys' Foundation School,
he secured junior and senior Oxford
and Cambridge certificates (high school
qualifications) and won a prize for math-
ematics. Rather than pursue higher studies,

the rather bright youngster went straight
to work, as did many young men of that
pre-war era.

Stan, or 'Speed' as he was affection-
ately known, began his working life as
a shipping clerk at Dacostas Ltd. In a
career spanning four decades, charac-
terised by hard work and dedication to
duty, he earned successive promotion
through the ranks to retire as chairman
of Dacosta & Musson, then the largest
subsidiary of the Barbados Shipping &
Trading Group. He also served the group

as a director and vice chairman. His
appointment as a director at Dacostas
at the age of 33 made him the youngest
director in the group at the time.

Industry was his passion
Stan married Eleanor Skinner in April
1951. The marriage produced two
daughters and a son. Stan was a
devoted family man, but shipping was
his passion. His wife and children can
all testify to the countless nights he
- sometimes accompanied by them
- spent going out on lighters to service
ships. This, of course, was before the
deepwater harbour was built. Stan was
always solving 'after-hours problems'
such as entertaining ship's captains.
When the Bridgetown deepwater
harbour was being built, he made sure
that every evening he went to see what
progress had been made.
Stan was one of a team of three

tasked with organising the feasibil-
ity study for the harbour project and
selecting the right model for Barbados.
In this regard, just three days after
his son was born, he was required to
travel all over the UK and Europe for
six weeks in 1958 investigating and
observing the best solutions and prac-
tices. He then helped to oversee the
construction of the new port.
The opening of the new Barbados
port was one of Stanley Chapman's
proudest moments. He subsequently
served as chairman of Port Contractors
Ltd for a number of years.

He was also a stalwart in the devel-
opment of the shipping association.
Indeed, an inscription presented to him
by the Barbados association, on its 25th
anniversary, reads: "To SKC, whose
vision it was to form the association as a
representative body, to better serve the
maritime industry in Barbados." This was
just one of many awards he received
from the industry.

An affable and well-loved individual
- some described him as a 'people
person' Stan was a founding member
of the Challenor School for Mentally
Retarded Children. He was also a found-
ing member of the Rotary Club in Barba-
dos. He was Japan's Honorary Consul in
Barbados for 15 years and was deco-
rated by the Emperor of Japan for his
services. He received the Queen's Silver
Jubilee medal for social work and his
native Barbados subsequently honoured
him with a Gold Crown of Merit for
his contribution to business and for his
social work in the island. m


The opening of the new

Barbados port was one of Stanley

Chapman's proudest moments


S_- Ir 0Torar a C T-Y ,, i .. ..
S.=. Mtr I J. Rwlieriri> 1 U1 P cl Box15,14 Pramianrhb Suriiniri;, Sulh AiLrrica I Tlrpllini ( 7I 47l00 |I fA Iw 7I41 itS
' ,rII mud i w reervnls.nhthrratica r.ui | W bsle: wwwloniiria cumn

,111 of you r I i p pi ng nTeeds, whether you are

C. Sea Freight Agencies
di 1 (B'dos) Ltd.
H. '^ J ^ First 11,-aI Allantisimildihng,
rUShallow Draught, IndgJ-..ln
Te. (246) 429-9688 or 429-9689)
^IJ -- 124^J1) 1.7Iqi "
E-|l iIHn.iI in ,IIm i aIi I .. 'l.lI l'iii
Website: www.sealrl.orn

SrEST LI, ,- [
Cu IIeIIFaim .. ..
Mnem her o4
S "i pq ir Association of li1rbados 1IhIrbad(s Cht.mber of CLAnmmerce
Ba diL dI i.m I i As. i iaIIljo



boarding bridges for

Cozumel ferry terminal

T WO state-of-the-art
passenger boarding
bridges (PBBs) are to be
installed at the modern-
ised ferry terminal of San
Miguel on the Mexican
island of Cozumel.
The Port Authority of
Quintana Roo recently signed
a contract with the designer
and manufacturer TEAM
to supply two PBBs of the
Pegasus range. Delivery is
scheduled for early 2010. The
contract includes an option
for a further set of PBBs to
be installed in late 2010.
Cozumel, 20 km off the
Yucatan peninsula, is Mexi-
co's largest Caribbean island.
The passenger ferry service
between Cozumel and Playa

del Carmen on the peninsula
is the primary gateway to
both destinations. In 2007
nearly 1.4 million passengers
took the 45-minute ride to or
from Cozumel.
In May 2008 the Port
Authority of Quintana Roo

began an upgrading of the
ferry facility, which is next
to the Punta Langosta cruise
ship pier in downtown San
Miguel de Cozumel. The aim
is to provide more comfort,
safety and security for pas-
sengers. The project includes
the construction of a new
terminal building with a
wide range of services and
a broadening of the pas-
senger access pier from 6 to
11 metres. The PBBs of the
Pegasus range will consist of
a short tunnel section and
a sophisticated cabin and
docking ramp. The PBBs have
an electro-mechanical eleva-
tion system and are designed
to move on rails along the
whole pier. Safety and secu-

rity will be enhanced element
as passengers will embark
and disembark via the PBBs
to the first level of the new
terminal building.
When these two PBBs are
installed and in operation,
the Terminal Marftima at

San Miguel de Cozumel will
be the first ferry terminal in
Mexico and the Caribbean
with modern passenger
access systems.
TEAM is hardly a new-
comer to the Caribbean.
The company has previously
installed PBBs in the Carib-
bean: in 2003 at the Carnival
Cruise Terminal in San Juan,
Puerto Rico; and in 2007
at the Sans Souci Cruise
Terminal in Santo Domingo,
Dominican Republic.
Safety and security
TEAM's passenger boarding
bridges are equipped with
what the company describes
as "a uniquely integrated
hydraulic telescopic dock-

ing ramp". When attached
to the side of a ferry, it
automatically follows the
vessel's movements and will
immediately undock in an
emergency. The company
says its PBBs comply with the
latest international safety and
security standards, m

TEAM is an engineering and
services company with offices
in Barcelona, Madrid and
Miami. Founded in 1991,
it is a leader in the design,
manufacture, installation
and maintenance of sophis-
ticated passenger boarding
bridges for cruise and ferry


TEAM's passenger boarding
bridges are equipped with what
the company describes as 'a
uniquely integrated hydraulic
telescopic docking ramp'

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Enjoy your cruise

- but don't

forget to read the small print

There are important legal considerations, both personal and global, arising from
cruise ships and their operations, says Milton J. Samuda

For those of us who
cannot afford our own
luxury yacht, the afford-
able cruise with fabulous
state rooms and 'endless'
or 'nuff' luxury, is the
next best thing.
The cruise industry is a
vital partner of Caribbean
tourism. Millions of visitors
experience a slice of the
exotic Caribbean by 'drop-
ping in' from their floating
resorts. How many of those
cruise ship vacationers, filled
with the excitement and
anticipation of the imminent,
unforgettable getaway, will
carefully read each line of the
documentation with which
they are presented when
planning and paying for their
dream cruise?
How many pay attention
to the details of their tickets

and any conditions, disclaimers
or restrictions that may apply?
How many consider the
implications of stepping on
to what is a floating piece of
another country, as may be
determined by maritime law?

How many give a thought
to the global environmental
implications of this huge
behemoth which, for them,
represents an island for
making special memories?
How many can be
expected to consider the
impact on mother sea and
sister air when cruise ships
with a capacity of up to
5,000 passengers power
their way through the scenic
routes of the Caribbean?

Very personal
Cruise ships are fully
equipped resorts at sea with
an atmosphere of secure and
entertaining 'escape'. How-
ever, like all other vacation
spots, cruise ships have their
risks. These range from food
poisoning and personal injury

to a total failure of considera-
tion, when a passenger feels
robbed of the vacation expe-
rience that was promised and
contracted for.
While the minds of
would-be passengers will

be focused on the vacation,
they must remember that, as
with any land-based vaca-
tion, there are risks to be
avoided and, if not, for which
they may be compensated
depending on the legal cul-
pability of the cruise ship.
To begin with, as at any
other resort, passengers
must be reasonably care-
ful. They must follow the
rules (as with a pool, gym or
Jacuzzi); employ thoughtful
security (secreting valuables
or using safes); and observe
the dietary do's and don't as
they would normally. Once
the passenger does not place
himself or his property at
risk or does not act reck-
lessly or negligently as to his
personal safety, the general
duty of the cruise ship for his
safe and enjoyable vacation

experience is unaffected by
his actions.
The potential liability of
the cruise ship is a matter of
law and falls to be deter-
mined as between the par-
ties in negotiated settlement

or adversarial litigation. What
law governs the contract
between the cruise ship
and the passenger, which
jurisdiction hosts the litiga-
tion that may take place, and
who is the competent party,
are often determined by the
conditions of the passenger's
ticket and other documenta-
tion in the light of judicial
interpretation. How much
compensation is payable, the
time period within which a
claim must be notified to the
cruise ship or litigated upon,
is similarly a matter of legal
consideration and interpreta-
tion. The duty of care and
standard of care applicable to
the cruise ship and its crew
are determined by law. The
safety and other standards
to which the cruise ship must
adhere on pain of liability -
are imposed by maritime law
underpinned by applicable
treaty arrangements. Impor-
tantly, where the law of the
flag ends and the law of the
territorial water begins, and
what obtains in international
waters, are all questions that
fall to be determined within
the consideration of law.
Passengers, take note.

Global considerations
Many of us forget that cruise
ships, like land-based resorts,
consume energy and produce


Cruise ships are fully equipped resorts

at sea with an atmosphere of secure and

entertaining 'escape'. However, like all other

vacation spots, cruise ships have their risks


waste. The impact on the
environment is damaging and
real. Cruise ships, like aero-
planes, emit carbon dioxide
as they consume energy
to fuel the varied activities

which must be on menu for
the total comfort and enjoy-
ment of passengers. Won-
derful meals, heated pools,
luxurious spas, fresh laundry
and clean rooms all involve
the consumption of energy.
In addition, the accumulation
of waste and the genera-
tion of waste water present
challenges to minimising the

impact of pollution at the sea.
The International Maritime
Organisation and other inter-
national imposed standards
provide some framework
within which the cruise

industry must operate, but
there is more to be done to
safeguard the environment
while allowing this critical
industry not just to survive,
but to flourish. The munici-
pal and international legal
frameworks governing these
matters continue to evolve
and the cruise industry can
expect greater intrusion by

lawmakers and foreign minis-
ters around the world.
To be sure, the cruise
industry itself has progressed
in its handling of these
issues. It has developed new

practices and procedures
and engaged new machinery
and equipment to minimise
the global environmental
impact of its operations.
From cutting-edge engines
to ultra-modern waste water
treatment systems, the mega
cruise ships of the modern
era employ still-evolving best
practices and still-emerging

scientific advances in the
reduction of emissions and
the treatment of waste.

As with so many of the
routine and not-so-routine
things in our lives, it is the
law which underpins and
determines the nature of the
relationships and the respec-
tive rights, duties and liabili-
ties of parties. Think on this
when next you step aboard a
cruise ship, pretending that it
is your own private yacht! m

Milton Samuda is managing
partner of the Jamaican-
based law firm Samuda &


The impact on the environment is damaging

and real. Cruise ships, like aeroplanes, emit

carbon dioxide as they consume energy


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Industriewrrein Avelingen West 20
4202 MS Gorinchem

P.O. BOX 1
4200 AA Gofinchem
The Netherlands

phone +31 (0)183 6392 67
fax +31 (0)183 63 77 62

anericwasdamen ,n

.... m.. .... ...

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