Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Back Matter
 Back Cover

Title: Caribbean maritime
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00099408/00007
 Material Information
Title: Caribbean maritime
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Caribbean Shipping Association
Publisher: Land & Marine Publications Ltd.
Place of Publication: Colchester Essex, England
Publication Date: May-August 2009
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Bibliographic ID: UF00099408
Volume ID: VID00007
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
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    Back Matter
        Back Matter
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text


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*-ojiurdMarine ror more than 25 Th le de in oc a transportation

sailings between (he Uiiiied Swieii. in th C ari bea
Caribbeati Basin. Central and .......... .I ..
South A me rica.

Conivnicri sL ic hedules combi ned
with un matched customer service .......
and x11 expvoidimii tkti of 46iip
deqiI Ifi -irq'L I~ ea Copink% ha
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5 Cartagena
Development at Port of Cartagena:
Upgrading Contecar

10 Manzanillo International Terminal
Improved performance in ro-ro, vessel calls and
containers handled
14 Miami
Port of Miami showing growth
16 Kingston
Jamaica looking to reposition Kingston
Container Terminal
18 New Orleans
Port of New Orleans acting on master plan
20 Suriname
Former bauxite port converted to general dock
22 Bridgetown
New 10 year master plan being developed
25 Nassau
Nassau to undergo major improvement
26 Port of Spain
True global positioning
28 St. Maarten
Despite global economic challenges...
Port of St. Maarten sailing ahead
30 Curacao
Curacao plans for growth with greater towage
32 Panama Canal Expansion: update
Focus on third set of locks as Panama Canal work
goes forward
34 Cruise Industry
Cruise industry faces 'the perfect storm'
36 Port productivity
Caribbean port productivity and the role of
human capital



2 Editorial
Positive responses and creative decision making

3 Message from the CSA President
Another CSA initiative to assist growth
and development
42 Information Technology
Business continuity are you prepared?
43 Newsmakers Roger Hinds
A passionate professional who leads by example
44 Newsbriefs
46 The Human Factor
If you think training is expensive, try ignorance
47 A Matter of Law
Can the law support the Caribbean shipping
industry in its struggle with global realities?

Except for that appearing in the Editorial column, the views
and opinions expressed by writers featured in this publication
are presented purely for information and discussion and do
not necessarily reflect the views and opinions of the Caribbean
Shipping Association.
- The Editor.





The official journal of the Caribbean
Shipping Association

* caribbean shipping association

"To promote and foster the highest
quality service to the maritime industry
through training development;
working with all agencies, groups and
other associations for the benefit and
development of its members and the
peoples of the Caribbean region."
President: Fernando Rivera
Vice President: Carlos Urriola
Immediate Past President: Corah-Ann
Robertson Sylvester
Group A Chairman: Robert Foster
Group A Representative: Michael Bernard
Group A Representative: lan Deosaran
Group A Representative: Francis Camacho
Group B Chairman: Grantley Stephenson
Group B Representative: David Jean-Marie
Group C Chairman: Cyril Seyjagat
Group C Representative: David Ross
General Manager: Clive Forbes
Director Information and Public Relations:
Michael S.L. Jarrett
Caribbean Shipping Association
4 Fourth Avenue, Newport West,
PO Box 1050, Kingston C.S.0, Jamaica
Tel: +876 923-3491
Fax: +876 757-1592
Email: csa@cwjamaica.com
Mike Jarrett
Email: csa-pr@mikejarrett.net

Land & Marine Publications Ltd
1 Kings Court, Newcomen Way,
Severalls Business Park, Colchester
Essex, C04 9RA, UK
Tel: +44 (0)1206 752902
Fax: +44 (0)1206 842958
Email: publishing@landmarine.com

Positive responses and

creative decision-making

AT PRESS TIME, the International Monetary Fund released its latest review
of the global economic crisis. All told, it was not good news. Describing
this as "the most severe recession since World War II" the IMF projected a
decline in the global economy of 1.3 per cent in 2009.
This may not seem like much to worry about until you look at its prognostications
late last year for world economic growth of almost four per cent. So are we now
to trust this most recent prediction of a "slow recovery expected to take hold next
year" in 2010? In this present situation, which is deteriorating even as we go to press,
any projection for "recovery" in the short term, slow or fast, is reason for hope. And
because we can feel the water rising, any lifeline promising an early recovery, will be
grabbed with both hands.
According to the IMF, the economy in Latin America and the Caribbean will con-
tract by 1.5 per cent this year, a slightly higher rate than the global economy. Blame
it on a fall in commodities prices and slumping demand for exports and tourism. In
its World Economic Outlook in late April the IMF says the contraction will be more
severe in Mexico, because of its close ties to the USA; and, in Venezuela.
Shipping is driven by consumer demand, which is related directly to inflation. The
IMF says inflation in Latin America and the Caribbean will probably slow to 6.6 per
cent in 2009 from 7.9 per cent in 2008. Encouraging news for importers, all things
considered. On the other hand, the region's current account deficit is expected to
widen to 2.2 per cent of GDP in 2009 from about 0.75 per cent in 2008. This is not so
good, as it suggests a further decline in national income from exports and tourism,
or an increase in the cost of basic imports, or both.
The IMF predicts that the region's economy will rebound in 2010, expanding 1.6
per cent. Pundits in Washington are forecasting happier times late in 2010 when they
expect the US economy to start pulling out of this recession. Before that happens,
according to the IMF, Mexico will see a 3.7 per cent contraction in GDP, while Ven-
ezuela's economy will shrink by 2.2 per cent. Not so good.
Given this mix of projections, it should be clear that, at this stage, no one really
knows what is likely to happen. We all know what is happening, but when there will
be calmer seas is anyone's educated guess, apparently. The recovery from the Great
Depression took 10 years and more for some countries. Will the global economy
recover from this recession in 2010? For us in the Caribbean and Latin America perhaps
it matters as much as a storm at sea. It makes little or no sense debating when the
storm will end. What makes sense is to deal with it hour by hour until it blows over.
In this issue of Caribbean Maritime we have focused on some of the major ports
of the region. All are members of the Caribbean Shipping Association and all are
planning for growth and progress, even as this global economic storm blows. These
ports are individually experiencing some decline, shortfall or disappointment. Even
as we report the ominous signs, we have sought to document progress and achieve-
ment in an attempt to create the mindset that encourages action that will help the
region to weather the storm. This can only be achieved with positive thinking at all
levels of the industry. We make no apology for presenting the good news, with the
hope that it will inspire positive responses and creative decision-making.

Mike Jarrett, Editor



Another CSA initiative to assist

growth and development

THE meeting of the
G20 in London and
the subsequent meetings
between world leaders to
discuss the current global
economic crisis illus-
trate the close linkages
and interdependence of
national economies.
We live in a globalised
economy and although
countries are separated by
geography and even politi-
cal ideology, not to men-
tion language and culture,
all are affected to a greater
or lesser extent by the
economic fortunes of their
trading partners. This is the
world in which we live.
In this regard, the Caribbean
is a microcosm of the world.
In this relatively small area
called the Caribbean, we
have many countries that are

separated by sea, national
borders, culture and politi-
cal history. Notwithstand-
ing, our economic fortunes
are, to a greater or lesser
extent, linked. Perhaps in no
other industry is this fact as
obvious as in the shipping
industry. Although much
trading does not take place
between the countries of

the Caribbean region, as far
as maritime affairs are con-
cerned, our economies are
closely intertwined. In cargo
shipping as well as cruise,
the Caribbean is a single

Driving force
For almost 40 years, the
Caribbean Shipping Associa-
tion has been a unifying and
driving force in the develop-
ment of the region's ship-
ping industry. Through CSA
conferences and training
programmes, this associa-
tion has stamped its mark
on maritime development in
the Caribbean. The CSA has
assisted the countries of the
Caribbean to develop their
ports and shipping-related
industries and, through its
various initiatives, has helped
them to grow and expand
their national economies.

In a geographical area
where most of the states
and territories are sur-
rounded by sea, shipping
plays an extremely impor-
tant role in the survival and
advancement of people. The
seaports, through which
Caribbean countries obtain
vital goods and materials
and through which local

producers export their
products, are therefore criti-
cal to the survival of these
developing nations. It is in
recognition of the absolute

importance of seaports and
marine terminals to growth
and development that our
Editor has selected 'Ports
and Terminals' as the theme
of this seventh publication
of Caribbean Maritime.
In this issue we focus
on some of the ports and
terminals within the sphere
of influence of the Carib-

bean Shipping Association.
Indeed, the ports reviewed
in this issue are members of
the CSA. We expect that this
issue of the official journal
of the CSA, published as a
service to the region's ship-
ping industry, will update
your knowledge of what
is happening in some of
the leading seaports of the
Most importantly, we
hope that you will see this
publication as another CSA
initiative to assist the growth
and development of ship-
ping in the Caribbean and
Latin American region.

Fernando L. Rivera
President, Caribbean
Shipping Association


For almost 40 years, the Caribbean

Shipping Association has been a unifying

and driving force in the development of

the region's shipping industry

"I1I I





ft /

gena is investing in new facilities'.
in order to maintain its solid record
of performance and growth.
The SPRC tei minal at Cartagena
has previously wvon the container
terminal section in the annual CSA
Cai ibbean Port Awaids foi three
consecutive years i2005, 2006 and
2007' And, with productivity
levels sustained, SPRC could well
S have made it foLr in a low were
L it not foi the competition's I Liles,
which pi event winners in the

tenedores de m
under the same
they receive many.
that cross the region, i I..........
CGM, CCNI, CSAV EvergreeiP
Sud, Hapag-Lloyd, Maersk, Marretdil
Maruba. Together, the two Cartagena,!
terminals have banded themselves as'i
the logistics hub for the Americas.


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Industrieterrein Avelingen West 20 P.O. Box 1
4202 MS Gormnchem 4200 AA Gorinchem
The Ne thrl*nds

phone *31 {0)183 63 92 67
fax +31 1 "'- i 63 7762

www damen st]

With movie than 4,200 vessel calls
in 2008, the Bay of Cai tagena closed
the yeai with a thioughput iecoid of
1,064,105 teu, maintaining its position
as Colombia s No 1 contained port. In
fact, Cai tagena handles movie contain-
ers than all the other Colombian ports

The planned development
at Contecar has a strong
environmental protection
component. The project was
designed to guarantee a positive
environmental impact.

combined And, thanks to the divei sity
of traffic, it is connected to more than
550 poi ts in 135 county ies, offering
multiple flecluencies, high rotation and
low fieight iates.

Port development
The Port of Cai tagena wants to take
the Contecai facility up to a maximum
handling capacity of 2.5 million teu per
yeai and to make it capable of handling
Panamax II vessels of 12,000 teu capac-
ity. The process has already begun. The
fist development phase 12008 to 20091
is costing USS150 million.
This ffist phase includes develop-
ment of civil works such as dredging,
piei upgrading, warehouse consti uc-
tion and yard adjustments. It also
includes the acquisition of thiee
additional Super Post Panamax gantiy
canes and 10 lubbei tyred gantries .
that should be delivered by late 2010 oi
easily 2011
The planned development at
Contecar has a strong environmental
protection component. The project
was designed to guaLantee a positive
environmental impact. Accordingly,
a number of eco friendly imperatives
have been included in the develop-
ment plan. All of the accluired equip-
ment cai i ies the latest technology in
terms of low gas emission levels and
worldwide compliance with environ-
mental regulations.

( IRIBBI NN N1 \R1 I INII 'J 1 1-1 1 '.1, 1 1 7

Historical city with a big future

The port city of Cartagena de Indias has a popu-
lation of over 1 million inhabitants.
Founded at a crossroads of American and Euiopean
paths of history, Cai tagena today is the industrial pet-
rochemical centre of Colombia.
Cartagena is slated foi majoi development. Over the
next thiee years, more than USS7 billion is to be spent
on industrial expansion theie, making the city a key
point of interest in Colombia s national development
In addition, because of its beautifully pieseived
histo ical alchitectule, together with some of the finest
topical beaches in the legion, Cai tagena is enjoying a
significant growth in toulnsm.
In May 2009 the Poit of Cai tagena hosted the eighth
Cai ibbean Shipping Executives Conference, presented
annually by the Caribbean Shipping Association.


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Colourful history behind MIT

The rich history of Man-
zanillo International
Terminal (MIT) is entwined
with the long relation-
ship between the USA and
The terminal is named
after the Bay of Manzanillo,
in Colon, Panama. Originally
known as Coco Solo, it was
built in the 1940s as a US
military seaplane and sub-
marine base to protect the
Panama Canal.
"Getting MIT started
was an adventure for the
company and its employees,
as we took on challenges
we never thought possible,"
said Dave Michou, president
of SSA Marine International.
Panama is a melting
pot of nationalities, partly
because of the foreign work-
ers who built the country's
famous and unique trans-

Coast had peaked and we
had an established business
model in place on the East
Coast," said Mr. Michou. "So,
if we wanted to diversify our
terminal operations and ste-
vedoring business, we had
to look internationally."

Mr. Michou said SSA Marine's
expansion into the interna-
tional arena was due to the
vision and persistence of Jon
Hemingway and senior vice
president Dan Flynn. He said
the company's international
focus truly began when the
late Andy McLauchlan and
Bob Watters, current vice
president for business devel-
opment, began pursuing
offshore projects.
The opportunity and
scope of a greenfield project
the size of MIT dictated that


triate employees, aided by
hundreds of their US-based
colleagues, spent 16 fren-
zied months preparing the
facility for operation.

The stakes were high
"As SSA Marine's first off-
shore greenfield project,
which required a huge
financial commitment,
MIT's success was critical
to the company," recalled
Mr. Michou. "Dan Flynn
often commented that one
of our advantages was not
knowing enough to believe
the doubts our competitors
had about the likelihood of
our success. This was a case
where exuberance, hard
work and our employees'
absolute unwillingness to
accept failure overcame all

MIT was established with
strict security standards
to prevent threats of drug
smuggling. "Our custom-
ers wanted and demanded
top-notch security, so it was
a benefit and a selling point
for MIT to be so stringent in
this regard." m

port infrastructure. This
includes the Transisthmian
Railway, which served as
the first rail-and-water link
between the Atlantic and
the Pacific, and the Canal
itself. With a population of
mixed heritage and a large
international community,
Panama has become more
global in its investments,
especially since control of
the Canal reverted to the
Republic of Panama in 1999.
"By the early 1990s,
growth opportunities for
SSA Marine on the US West

SSA Marine assign a dedi-
cated project manager. In
September 1993 Mr. Michou,
who had worked at Seattle
Stevedore in Anchorage and
had been moving steadily
south ever since, to Seattle,
then Long Beach, was sent
to Panama to get the project
up and running.
He occupied a suite of 18
small hotel rooms on the top
floor of MIT's first admin-
istration building, dubbed
'The Michou Marriott'. At
the peak of activities, Mr.
Michou and 44 other expa-


"Getting MT started was an
adventure for the company and its
employees, as we took on challenges
we never thought possible"


Port of Miami showing growth

Caribbean, Central America contributed more than half the cargo throughput

By Rick Eyerdam

DESPITE the economic
downturn, the Port of
Miami has almost doubled
contract income and has
seen an increase of cruise
passengers, while slip-
ping slightly in container
throughput since 2007,
says port director Bill
But the latest cargo fig-
ures for the period between
the September end of the
port's fiscal year and March
show a surprising trend to

put was actually up two per
cent compared with the
corresponding period last
year when the port experi-
enced a five per cent decline
in cargo.
Mr. Lynskey said: "Our
planning budget anticipated
a three per cent decline in
cargo volumes. But so far
this year our numbers are

Another bright spot, said Mr.
Johnson, was that the port
had been recognized by the

"Our planning budget anticipated
a three per cent decline in cargo
volumes. But so far this year our
numbers are positive."

the positive side, according
to Kevin Lynskey, the port's
business initiatives manager.
Mr. Johnson said first
quarter container through-

State of Florida as one of the
two safest and most secure
ports in Florida along with
the Port of Jacksonville.
And the Port of Miami Ter-

minal Operating Company
(POMTOC) said it had begun
its second year without a
time loss incident, exceed-
ing 400 consecutive days
when cargo moved without
any accident or interruption.
"I have been here 26
years and we have never

previously called at Port
Everglades. The APL figures
are contributing to the
unexpected rise in container
Mr. Johnson said the port's
revenue stream had been
revised. Previously, the port's
three container terminals

.6. 6, F MIAMI

oof change
Cargo ships
Cruise ships
oof change
Teu total
o of change

accomplished that before,"
said POMTOC manager John
Ballestero. He also reported
that the terminal has signed
an agreement to provide
stevedoring services and
transhipment for APL, which



operated without paying to
lease their land. Now they
pay a land lease and operate
under performance-based
contracts that this year will
guarantee $60 million in
base revenue to the port,
compared with $40 million in
guaranteed revenue last year.

China top trading
Mr. Johnson said that China
remained the port's top
individual trading partner,
but that the Caribbean and
Central America contributed
52 per cent of the port's
cargo throughput in 2008.
Seaboard Marine, which
recently inked a deal with
Wal-Mart, has also seen a
growth in ro-ro cargo, open-
ing a new weekly service to
Panama bulging with trucks



Caro taisic ad onag 199-208(sure or oftmi


and heavy equipment. As
part of its new lease with the
port, Seaboard will become a
common user terminal in 2013.
The new Terminal Link
Miami terminal a coali-
tion of APM and CMACGM
- is operating on the site of
the former APM terminal
and is nowa common user
terminal, competing with
In exchange for renegoti-
ating the Seaboard agree-

ments, the port promised
to complete $25 million in
terminal enhancements
long promised to Seaboard.
The improvements will level
the yard for accurate rubber
tyred gantry operation,
improve a bulkhead and
remove some underused

New lease
Under the new Terminal
Link Miami lease, which

"- 1taB*

:" "r J"

potentially runs to the end
of 2023, the Port of Miami,
in partnership with TLM, will
generate about $15.3 million
in annual revenues to the
port during its first year, of
which $11.9 million will be
guaranteed. Previous annual
revenues from APM to the
port were about $6.4 million,
of which $3.4 million was

The port also recently
signed a long-term lease
- the first of its kind with
Norwegian Caribbean Line.
In exchange, NCL committed

to a minimum payout to the
port of $106 million over 10
years based on 6.5 million
Mr. Lynskey said he
expected the State of Florida
to shelve the planned US$1
billion port access tunnels
until new financing became
Meanwhile, Mr. Johnson
says he is confident that
the Miami port will secure
funds from the US Congress
stimulus package to com-
plete the channel dredging
to 50 ft., a project already
approved by the Army Corps
of Engineers.m




Year Cargo

Percentage change

Percentage change

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Former bauxite port converted

to general dock operations

By Ivan Cairo

A FORMER bauxite port
facility in Moengo,
east Suriname, has been
given a new lease on life
after years of disuse. It was
officially reopened on 19
April 2008 and is currently
being transformed to
facilitate new operations.
Traymore NV bought the
Moengo port compound,
previously used by the Sur-

alco bauxite company, at an
auction in 2005 with a view
to setting up a privately
owned commercial port.
"We want to breathe new
life into Moengo, which
once was one of the most
developed ports of Suri-
name," said Eugene Profijt,
chief executive of Traymore.
The company expects
to help improve the local
economy in the eastern part
of Suriname as well as creat-
ing jobs for local people.

Moongo Dock Operations
& Prosur Shipping

Moengo Dock Operations
will operate as a landlord
port. With a compound of
21 hectares, Traymore is
promoting private entrepre-
neurship and the estab-
lishment of port-related

Up until the late 1980s
bauxite was being trans-
ported from this facility by
way of Suriname's deepest
river, the Cottica, to the
alumina refinery in Paranam.
However the main activities
were moved to Coermotibo
and Moengo lost its useful-
ness to the bauxite indus-
try. The port was sold, but
remained largely unused
until it was acquired by Tray-
more in 2005.

Traymore believes the port
will regain the position
it once held in the Suri-
namese economy, offering
a wide range of services to
entrepreneurs. All kinds of
cargo will be handled and
facilities will be set up to
accommodate cruise ships.
Meanwhile, the Maritime
Authority of Suriname has
examined the depth of the
Cottica River and has certi-
fied Moengo Dock Opera-
tions to operate as a port.
Over the past two years,

more than US$2 million has
been invested in renova-
tion and construction at
Moengo. There are currently
10 members of staff, but the
plan is to have a full comple-
ment of 25 staff when opera-
tions are up and running. In

discussions with companies
interested in setting up
operations at Moengo port,
it has been agreed that local
workers will be hired as far
as possible.

Major player
"The people of Moengo and
Marowijne want develop-
ment," said Mr. Profijt.
"Those people want jobs."
Moengo Dock Operations
is expected to become a
major player in Suriname's
shipping industry because
of the anticipated invest-
ment in large-scale produc-
tion of palm oil, mining


"We want to breathe new life into
Moengo, which once was one of the
most developed ports of Suriname"


activities, logging and
other future developments.
Thanks to this new develop-
ment, cargo destined for
the Moengo area can be
shipped directly to this port
instead of through Nieuwe
Haven in Paramaribo.
Moreover, cargo destined
for French Guiana can be

border. Currently, some
cargo is being moved into
French Guiana via Paramar-
ibo and transported by road
to Cayenne.

Tank farm
Moengo port currently has
the only privately owned
tankfarm in Suriname and

"The people of Moengo and

Marowijne want development.

Those people want jobs"

shipped to the Moengo port
because it is close to the
border of the French over-
seas territory.
This will result in less
heavy traffic from Para-
maribo to the French Guiana

is strategically located with
respect to neighboring
countries. So the port can
expect to play an impor-
tant role in the distribution,
export and transhipment
of petroleum products and

other dry commodities. The
tankfarm has a combined
capacity of 58,000 barrels.

Moengo Dock Operations
obtained its ISPS certifica-
tion in August 2007. m


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Nassau to undergo

major improvement

THE government of the
Bahamas has moved
forward with plans for a
major improvement of the
Nassau port.
A contract for over US$44
million was signed with
Boskalis International early
in April 2009. The Nether-

lands-based company will
deliver what is termed the
Nassau Harbour Improve-
ment Project. The work

* Dredging of 1.9 million
cubic yards of material from
Nassau harbour

* Construction of three
mooring dolphins at Prince
George Wharf

* A 1,000 ft. extension at the
western end of Arawak Cay

* Extension of the northern
coast of New Providence
from East Street to Arm-
strong Street and up to 30 ft.
into the water.

This is expected to create an
additional mile of waterfront
promenade to the Woodes
Rodgers Wharf. This comple-
mentary work on extending

Woodes Rodgers Wharf is
expected to cost an addi-
tional $24 million.
Plans also include repairs
to Prince George Wharf piers
and connecting bridges,
with new bollards to accom-
modate 'Genesis' class

A new security screening
building and support facili-
ties will also be constructed
on the wharf.
Prime Minister Hubert
Ingraham, who signed the
multi-million-dollar deal
with Boskalis, said the new
development would help to

change the face of Nassau.
He said the project would
bring many benefits to the
Bahamas economy and
would help to alleviate the
unemployment situation.

The international contract-
ing director at Boskalis,
Harry Sands, said his com-
pany would start bringing
its workers into the Bahamas
by mid April and they would
begin to lay pipelines in May
2009. Dredging is expected
to begin in July, with total
works to be completed
about 15 weeks later.
As regards the environ-
mental issues that could
arise from this develop-
ment, the Prime Minis-
ter said there had been
consultations with local and

foreign agencies to ensure
the project did not have a
negative impact on nature.
He told the news media
that analyses had predicted
minimal change to beaches
and tidal flow as a result
of the deepening of the
harbour. And there was no
indication of a threat to the
Western Esplanade Beach
from the dredging.
The Prime Minister said
the environmental impact
assessment had recom-
mended the storage of fish
and conch at alternative
sites during the project. He
said turbidity levels were
also within the standards of
the Florida Environmental
Protection Agency.
The harbour improvement
project is expected to be
completed by November. m


A new security screening building

and support facilities will also be

constructed on the wharf.






,\ i -



Despite global economic challenges ...

Port of St. Maarten

sailing ahead

THE pouring of concrete
on 2 April brought
the final section of St.
Maarten's mega cruise
pier closer to completion.
Expansion of the cruise
and cargo facilities at St.

Maarten was due for com-
pletion in May 2009 but
the work may be finished
a few weeks earlier than
Additional cruise terminal
facilities are expected to be

completed in September 2009.
These will further enhance the
port's existing facilities.
The Commissioner of
Port Affairs, Theo Heyliger,
is pleased with progress to
date. He is looking forward

to the conclusion of the
expanded cruise facilities,
which will allow St. Maarten
to receive some of the indus-
try's largest vessels, such as
'Allure of the Seas' and 'Oasis
of the Seas'.

In 2008 this island
paradise received 1,345,800
cruise passengers, a small
decline of 5.4 per cent
from the figure of 1,421,906
in 2007. This was to be
expected, given the chal-

lenges faced by the cruise
industry throughout 2008.
These included high fuel
prices, which forced cruise
lines to adjust their itinerar-
ies. The fact that some ships
were repositioned to take
advantage of business in
new emerging markets did
not help.
As the global economic
crisis continues, 2009 will
be a challenging year for
the cruise industry as well
as for destinations. How-
ever, port officials in St.
Maarten remain upbeat in
spite of expectations of a
further decline. They expect
to receive over 1.1 million
cruise passengers in 2009. In
fact, in the first two months

of the year, the port received
365,268 cruise passengers,
compared with 337,269 in
the corresponding period
of 2008 an increase of just
under 28,000.
Mr. Heyliger expects the
port to pull through fairly
well during this downturn.
He believes the expansion
of cruise facilities will not
only strengthen the terri-
tory's position as a destina-
tion but will allow it to deal
with future growth in the
A total of US$97.5 million
has been invested in the
cruise and cargo expansion
project, which began in late
2007. It includes a new pier,
445 metres in length and 21
metres in width, designed
to accommodate two cruise
vessels of 220,000 gt. The
development also includes
an additional facility with
ancillary services for cruise
Despite the global
financial crisis, port officials
are confident the industry
will weather the economic
storm and remain on an
even keel for the next 12 to
18 months. At that time they
expect to see the first signs
of a recovery provided, of


Additional cruise terminal facilities

are expected to be completed in

September 2009. These will further

enhance the port's existing facilities.


course, there are no further
negative developments in
the interim.
Mark Mingo, chief
executive of the St. Maarten
Harbour Group of Compa-
nies, said: "The Port of St.
Maarten will be ready to

the global economic crisis. In
the meantime, the Caribbean
region is positioning to deal
with this challenge by being
innovative in what they have
to offer cruise lines.
"The Port of St. Maarten
has the facilities to cope with

A total of US$97.5 million has

been invested in the cruise

and cargo expansion project,

which began in late 2007.

are working on to further
enhance our facilities and
services to the cruise lines
and passengers.

"In these challenging times,
we have to continue to be
innovative, upgrade and
invest in order to reap the
opportunities, benefits and
business when global eco-
nomic conditions improve."
Mr. Mingo expressed
his gratitude for the close

working relationship that
has developed over the
years between the Port of St.
Maarten and the cruise lines.
"These challenging times
now call for us, as a cruise
industry and a destination,
to see where we can work
together in ensuring that we
both are able to sail through
this crisis without too much
negative consequences for
both stakeholders."

Driving the growth of the
port are the island's many
fine tourist attractions.
Among its key advan-
tages are the beauty of
the destination, with its 37
white sandy beaches; the
friendliness of the local
people; the dual national-
ity of the cruise destination
(Dutch and French); and St.
Maarten's status as the duty
free shopping capital of the
north-eastern Caribbean. In
addition, the Dutch territory
can now offer exceptionally
modern and secure facilities
for cruise lines and their pas-
Clearly, the strategic loca-
tion of St. Maarten in the
north-eastern Caribbean is a
significant factor. m

accommodate the Future
Larger Vessels, despite
this challenging economic
environment, when they
are launched and set sail to
carry out their itineraries
in the last quarter of 2009.
We are very much looking
forward to welcoming these
mega cruise vessels to the
Port of St. Maarten.
"The cruise industry has
to adapt to the number one
challenge for 2009, which is

small, large and, in the near
future, mega cruise vessels.
We are currently expanding
our facilities that will also
accommodate the future
ultra mega yacht vessels.
"Another prime area
that the island is catering
to is home porting of small
European cruise lines. Our
first experience with one
line, easyCruise, went very
well. We have a number of
other service areas that we




S1r! Ff I f I

o=rn nIo

Cruise calls

% difference

Total vessel calls

2004 162 __2,625 _
2005 201 24% 2,622 -0.1%
2006 205 2% 2,684 2.4%
2007 257 25.4% 2,781 3.6%



% difference


4b- -- ~^ .i..,-, ... .. ,, . .-. '.- .-: ..





2004 587,778 220,865 808,643
2005 623,959 271,445 895,404
2006 648,701 266,148 914,849
2007 697,398 287,474 984,872






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Port of Curacao is a full service port with:
* Curacao Port Authority; Cruise facilities
* Curacao Port Services; Stevedoring services
* Curacao Drydock Company; Ship repair
* Miami Diver; Underwater ship repair
* Excellent ex-pipe bunkering facilities

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For more info visit: www.curportscom or e-mail: info i rurx)rln% (1)1n






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2009 33

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By Fritz Pinnock and Ibrahim Ajagunna

THE transport indus-
try of the Caribbean
has a legacy of piracy,
slavery and colonialism
that caters to the needs
of small markets. Factors
such as the movement of
world oil prices, contain-
erisation and the impact
of globalisation have all
changed the nature of the
world's shipping industry
- and the Caribbean was
slow in responding to this

Today, the Caribbean is
two to three times more
expensive on average than
the rest of the world. Equally,
with the container revolu-
tion in its ninth-generation
phase, and with 15,000 teu
capacity vessels on order,

Caribbean countries are
constantly dredging and
upgrading their infrastruc-
ture in a bid to remain rel-
evant in a changing global
environment. The pressure
on the Caribbean has been
not just on the physical
infrastructure but on find-
ing and retaining qualified
human resources. Equally,
the Caribbean has failed to
keep pace with the advance-
ment in information tech-
nology (IT) and there is a

wide disparity between the
countries and ports of the
region in terms of productiv-
ity. Caribbean ports have
now recognized the need
to invest in development
of the human factor in the
shipping industry. To date,

Jamaica, Barbados and St.
Kitts and Nevis have entered
into partnership with the
Caribbean Maritime Insti-
tute (CMI) for training and
certification of their work-
forces. The CMI is the only
maritime training organisa-
tion in the Caribbean to
be by accredited by the
National Council on Techni-
cal, Vocational Education
and Training (NCTVET). The
CMI is working to develop
a Caribbean vocational
qualification to address
the training needs of the
Caribbean shipping and
logistics industry. This will
facilitate training from basic
entry skill levels to Master's
Degree level, addressing the
needs of both middle and
top level management in the
The Caribbean waterfront
has been the birthplace of
major trade union move-
ment across the region.
Today, shipping associations
serve as an active trade
union movement, serving

the dual role of providing a
competent port labour force
while protecting the rights
of workers in a harmonious
and productive environ-
ment. The historical divide
between management and
worker has created a zone
of mistrust. This mistrust has
affected productivity and,
ultimately, the motivation
level of workers. Effective
production is a state of
mind. It depends not on
technology, technical ability
or efficient management
action but, to a consider-
able extent, on the will to
produce; that is, on one's
motivation (Cater, 1997:3).
Motivation is a dynamic
exchange between the indi-
vidual, his internal biologi-
cal tensions and his social
environment (1997), and all
these factors influence to a
particular set of perceptions,
preferences, expectations
and values which constitute
the goal towards which the
individual shipping industry
worker is motivated.


The pressure on the Caribbean
has been not just on the physical
infrastructure but on finding and
retaining qualified human resources.


Table 1: Caribbean productivity by berth equipment type (berth moves per hour) mobile cranes


Kingston Wharves, Jamaica
George Town, Cayman Islands
Castries, St. Lucia
Nassau, Bahamas
Portau Prince, Haiti
Vieux Fort, St. Lucia
St. John's, Antigua
Montego Bay, Jamaica
Povidenciales, Turks & Caicos
Phillipsburg, St. Maarten
Grand Turk, Turks & Caicos

Average moves per month
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct
22.66 16.79 14.43 17.86 15.76 17.58 17.64 18.88 16.60 18.07
11.64 14.27 14.45 13.36 14.24 7.31 8.58 7.47 8.83 13.77
10.98 14.38 15.05 13.48 7.67 11.96 8.64 13.44 6.10 13.63
12.83 8.63 7.92 9.29 9.09 7.99 14.97 17.00 7.08 15.20
11.24 9.24 7.22 8.77 16.38 8.14 8.12 8.00 10.05 10.79

11.13 19.36 -
11.34 13.82 11.93 13.88 15.64 5.27
7.42 6.45 12.47 9.62 10.51 9.43
13.34 13.04 11.00 10.84 10.82 4.50
9.67 8.43 8.70 5.84 8.19 4.97
5.13 4.36 4.65 4.49 4.82 2.10

- 8.21 9.95
5.34 5.67 11.68
10.59 4.04 5.48
6.15 5.97 11.94
5.29 3.28 8.05
4.48 4.86 7.31


20.22 17.73
15.43 11.24
14.38 11.08
13.17 10.93
12.36 10.07
7.81 9.84
13.01 9.13
10.73 8.67
12.07 8.51
6.17 6.12
5.92 4.78

Adapted from Florida Shipowners' group 2008

Table 2: Caribbean productivity by berth equipment type (berth moves per hour) gantry


Kingston Container Terminal, Jamaica
Point Lisas, Trinidad
Port of Spain, Trinidad
Bridgetown, Barbados

Average moves per month
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct
30.05 21.37 18.24 24.40 20.54 17.21 19.14 16.75 20.92

7.77 13.85 15.44 14.47
14.14 -
14.46 14.97 13.45 12.85

11.95 11.45 10.60 9.86 10.06 13.26
17.76 6.56 8.51
13.33 7.26 6.51 6.92 1.78 11.72

Year avg.
Nov Dec
20.85 18.89 19.80
12.82 17.59 11.86
9.53 27.81 10.98
9.58 13.29 7.72

Adapted from Florida Shipowners' group 2008

Analysis and
ranking of
Caribbean port

A major productivity chal-
lenge facing the Caribbean is
a lack of standards for labour
practices and operational
efficiency. For example, most
ports in the region are labour-
intensive operations based on
archaic and restrictive labour
practices. This has led to intra-
island competition and global
pressure which is now dictat-
ing changes as the Caribbean
is transformed from being
ancient, exclusive and private
to just another node in the
global logistics chain.

Table 1
Table 1 represents the
productivity of Carib-

bean ports for January to
December 2008 in terms
of berth moves. These are
ports that predominantly
use mobile cranes in their
loading and discharg-
ing operations. Kingston
Wharves Ltd is shown to be
the most productive port
with a year to date average
of 17.73 berth moves per
hour. This is 63.4 per cent
ahead of George Town,
Cayman Islands, ranked No
2 in this port sub-group. In
third position is Castries, St.
Lucia, followed by Nassau,
Bahamas. In No 11 position
was Grand Turk, Turks and
Caicos, with an average of
4.78 moves. In the estima-
tion, Kingston Wharves
achieved the highest berth
moves per hour with the
exception of March and May

2008. In March 2008 Cas-
tries, St. Lucia, achieved the
No 1 spot with 15.05 moves.
This was followed by George
Town, Cayman Islands,
with 14.45 moves, ahead of
Kingston Wharves, in No 3
position, with 14.43 moves.
In May 2008 Vieux Fort, St.
Lucia, achieved 19.36 moves,
ahead of Kingston Wharves,
with 25.76 moves.

Table 2
Kingston Container Termi-
nal recorded the highest
average berth moves per
hour in 2008 with 19.8. This
was 59.9 per cent ahead of
second-place Point Lisas,
Trinidad, with an average of
11.86 berth moves per hour.
Kingston Container Terminal
topped the table for every
single month with its high-

est productivity average,
recorded in January 2008,
with 30.05 moves, and its
lowest in September 2008,
with 16.75 moves. Barbados
took the fourth spot with an
average of 7.72 berth moves.

Table 3
Table 3 shows ports that
depend on ship's gear and
ro-ro facilities in their daily
operations. It is traditional
to show these ports as the
least productive and least
developed among the three
categories under review.
However, Georgetown,
Guyana, achieved a respect-
able 12.43 average berth
moves per hour for 2008. This
was ahead of Paramaribo,
Suriname, with a credit-
able 11.98 berth moves per
hour. Georgetown, Guyana,


Year avg.


achieved the highest berth
move per hour with the
exception of August, Octo-
ber and December 2008. In
August 2008 Paramaribo,
Suriname, achieved the high-
est berth moves per hour
with 13.09 moves. This was
followed by Georgetown,

Guyana, with 12.97 moves.
Roseau, Dominica, claimed
the No 3 spot for the month
with 12.07 moves. Again, in
October 2008, Paramaribo,
Suriname, claimed the No 1
spot with a repeat perform-
ance of 13.09 berth moves.
Georgetown, Guyana, held

on to No 2 position with 11.5
berth moves. In December
2008 Paramaribo once again
claimed the No 1 spot with
11.69 berth moves, followed
by Roseau, Dominica, with
10.85 berth moves. George-
town, Guyana, recorded its
lowest performance of the

year with 6.78 berth moves,
which placed it second from

Table 4
Table 4 shows an overall
ranking of all 22 ports
regardless of stevedoring
equipment (gantry cranes,

Table 3: Caribbean productivity by berth equipment type (berth moves per hour) ship's gear and ro-ro


Georgetown Guyana
Paramaribo, Suriname
Roseau, Dominica
Freeport Bahamas
St. George's, Granada
Kingstown, St. Vincent
Road Town, Tortola
Basseterre, St. Kitts

Average moves per month
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug

12.25 14.75 13.73 13.55 13.50 12.97
11.40 14.18 10.79 10.29 9.75 13.09
5.26 7.96 11.33 12.31 5.16 9.48 12.17 12.07
8.09 7.75 8.48 8.39 7.82 7.75 7.21 4.29
6.38 8.45 8.05 7.27 9.10 7.90 5.52
2.55 7.58 6.71 7.28 5.70 8.06 6.15 6.58

5.08 9.34 8.51 7.92 7.01 8.22 6.62 5.10



Year avg.
Nov Dec
14.26 6.78 12.43
13.57 11.69 11.98
7.20 10.85 8.93
8.46 8.72 7.42
7.15 7.68 7.13
8.67 7.00 6.53

- 6.34 6.34
3.37 6.07 7.34 8.76 6.26


102 AAruI a

Th I Iflnd
P..o 409

Aeftsp rr IIIAC1

.. JA


mobile cranes, ship's gear
and ro-ro facilities). The
table does not include the
Bahamas transhipment
terminal and Caucedo,
Dominican Republic. These
ports are not served in a
large way by the Florida
Shipowners' Group but are
dedicated international
transhipment facilities.
Gantry cranes are shown
to be the most productive,
followed by mobile cranes
including mobile harbour
cranes. The least productive
are those using ship's
gear. Kingston Container
Terminal was the only gantry
operation to be placed
in the top four overall.
Interestingly, Kingston
Wharves Ltd, ranked among

the best for mobile cranes,
caught the No 2 spot
overall. This is followed
by Georgetown, Guyana,
and Paramaribo, Suriname,
which took the No 1 and No
2 positions in the ship's gear
and ro-ro category. Point
Lisas, Trinidad, took the No
5 overall spot in the gantry
category. Port of Spain
took the No 8 spot and
Bridgetown, Barbados, the
No 15 position. Phillipsburg,
St. Maarten, and Grand Turk,
Turk and Caicos Islands, were
ranked 21st and 22nd in the
mobile crane category.
This analysis clearly shows
there are other major factors
besides equipment type
such as the human factor,
management of operations

and the logistics of terminal
and integrated information
technology (IT) that affect
productivity levels in the
various ports of the Carib-
bean. The top two ports
in the above table have
invested heavily not just in
stevedoring equipment but
also in training and develop-
ment of the workforce and
in IT infrastructure.
In a study in 1980 of the
Fortune 500 companies, 70
per cent said their greatest
asset was their human capi-
tal. In a recast of the study in
2007, over 60 per cent of the
companies who held that
view were no longer part of
the Fortune 500 list. A total of
76 per cent of the respond-
ents in the recast study

pointed to human capital
as their greatest asset. This
suggests that the Caribbean
is no longer a quiet corner
where each country can
manipulate its local indus-
try while ignoring global
forces. Today, the market is
controlled by the customer,
who is demanding greater
value. This puts pressure on
Caribbean ports to move
beyond the basic role of
receiving, storing and deliv-
ering cargoes to become an
integrated member of the
global supply chain. It is high
time the Caribbean placed
the same level of importance
on training and certifying its
human resources as it does
on acquiring and deploying
cutting-edge equipment.

Table 4: Average moves per berth hour (January to December 2008) for the Caribbean

Average moves per berth hour
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun

Year avg.

Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Kingston Container
Terminal, Jamaica 1
Kingston Wharves, Jamaica 2
Georgetown Guyana 3
Paramaribo, Suriname 4
Point Lisas, Trinidad 5
George Town, Cayman Islands 6
Castries, St. Lucia 7
Port of Spain, Trinidad 8
Port au Prince, Haiti 9
Vieux Fort, St. Lucia 10
St. John's, Antigua 11
Roseau, Dominica 12
Montego Bay, Jamaica 13
Povidenciales, Turks & Caicos 14
Bridgetown, Barbados 15
Freeport Bahamas 16
St. George's, Granada 17
Kingstown, St. Vincent 18
Road Town, Tortola 19
Basseterre, St. Kitts 20
Phillipsburg, St. Maarten 21
Grand Turk, Turks & Caicos 22

- 30.05 21.37 18.24 24.40 20.54
22.66 16.79 14.43 17.86 15.76 17.58
- 12.25 14.75 13.73 13.55
11.40 14.18 10.79 10.29
7.77 13.85 15.44 14.47 11.95 11.45
11.64 14.27 14.45 13.36 14.24 7.31
10.98 14.38 15.05 13.48 7.67 11.96
14.14 17.76 -
11.24 9.24 7.22 8.77 16.38 8.14
11.13 19.36 -
11.34 13.82 11.93 13.88 5.64 5.27
5.26 7.96 11.33 12.31 5.16 9.48
7.42 6.45 12.47 9.62 10.51 9.43
13.34 13.04 11.00 10.84 10.82 4.50
14.46 14.97 13.45 12.85 13.33 7.26
8.09 7.75 8.48 8.39 7.82 7.75
6.38 8.45 8.05 7.27 9.10
2.55 7.58 6.71 7.28 5.70 8.06

5.08 9.34 8.51 7.92 7.01 8.22
9.67 8.43 8.70 5.84 8.19 4.97
5.13 4.36 4.65 4.49 4.82 2.10

17.21 19.14 16.75
17.64 18.88 16.60
13.50 12.97 14.03
9.75 13.09 13.13
10.60 9.86 10.06
8.58 7.47 8.83
8.64 13.44 6.10
- 6.56
8.12 8.00 10.05
- 8.21
6.90 5.34 5.67
12.17 12.07 9.49
8.22 10.59 4.04

6.62 5.10 3.37
3.22 5.29 3.28
- 4.48 4.86

Adapted from Florida Shipowners' Group 2008



20.92 20.85
18.07 19.56
11.95 14.26
13.09 13.57
13.26 12.82
13.77 16.80
13.63 13.17
8.51 9.53
10.79 11.95
9.95 8.72
11.68 15.38
9.94 7.20
5.48 5.70
11.94 12.07
11.72 9.58
8.14 8.46
6.78 7.15
8.61 8.67

6.07 7.34
8.05 8.42
7.31 9.18

18.89 19.80
20.22 17.73
6.78 12.43
11.69 11.98
17.59 11.86
15.43 11.24
14.38 11.08
27.81 10.98
12.36 10.07
7.81 9.84
13.01 9.13
10.85 8.93
10.73 8.67
12.07 8.51
13.29 7.72
8.72 7.42
7.68 7.13
7.00 6.53
6.34 6.34
8.76 6.26
6.17 6.12
5.92 4.78



Am, At%

eg r


Table 5: Average time await berth for Caribbean ports (January to December)


Roseau, Dominica
Freeport Bahamas
Vieux Fort, St. Lucia
Road Town, Tortola
Castries, St. Lucia
Kingston Container
Jamaica Terminal,
Montego Bay, Jamaica
Basseterre, St. Kitts
St. John's, Antigua
Kingston Wharves, Jamaica
Kingstown, St. Vincent
St. George's, Granada
George Town, Cayman Islands
Georgetown Guyana
Bridgetown, Barbados
Port of Spain, Trinidad
Phillipsburg, St. Maarten
Port au Prince, Haiti
Grand Turk, Turks & Caicos
Providential, Turks & Caicos
Point Lisas, Trinidad
Paramaribo, Suriname

Average time await berth

Jan Feb Mar
1 0:33 3:49 0:21
2 1:12 0:33 0:22
3 0:48 -
4 -
5 0:28 1:57 0:36

6 1:52 0:13
7 5:04 2;04 0:47
8 0:10 2:06 6:43
9 1:54 1:48 3:09
10 1:30 1:25 1:25
11 4:34 0:35 0:27
12 0:48 0:33
13 2:54 0:58 3:58
14 2:26
15 23:43 0:58 2:30
16 2:18 -
17 5:39 1:17 4:20
18 1:47 1:16 0:57
19 0:11 0:16 0:15
20 1:43 3:09 6:10
21 8:22 2:36 3:11
22 0:52

Apr May Jun

0:25 0:19 0:18 0:18
0:23 0:27 0:21 0:17
- 0:51 -

1:11 0:31 0:47 1:29

0:27 0:25 0:43 0:28
0:53 0:52 0:47 0:55
2:45 0:20 0:21 0:18
0:56 3:29 0:41 0:44
1:22 3:07 1:12 1:10
0:23 0:56 0:24 0:38
0:59 0:26 0:32 2:53
0:42 1:17 1:02 1:55
3:12 1:48 3:45 1:03
1:28 1:33 1:44 0:41
- 7:17 -
4:25 1:34 2:32 1:18
4:12 5:45 10:33 1:37
0:10 0:09 0:31 -
4:07 3:40 9:23 2:47
2:46 1:29 3:54 4:41
27:00 2:16 16:20 3:26

Jul Aug Sep Oct

0:17 0:18 0:24
0:27 0:59 1;34
- 0:34 0:42

0:31 0:34 1:58

0:25 0:52 3:10
0:57 0:42 0:40
0:35 0:33 2:06
1:02 1:35 2:01
2:22 1:13 1:41
6:54 1:54 1:10
3:56 0:59 1:41
1:13 2:51 3:41
0:47 2:01 2:32
0:49 1:12 0:58
- 12:26 1:15
3:39 5:39 1:47

1:55 5:58
1:15 0:42
1:46 1:36
15:14 6:38
6:48 7:19


Year avg.
Nov Dec
0:16 0:16 0:37
1:08 1:11 0:42
1:03 0:31 0:46
- 1:01 1:01
2:11 2:00 1:14


12:00 3:35
21:17 3:45
3:54 3:47
2:18 5:30
7:51 8:24

Adapted from Florida Shipowners' Group 2008

Table 5

The above table highlights
the average waiting time for
a vessel to access Caribbean
ports. This forms an impor-
tant link in the overall pic-
ture of the total turnround
time of the vessel. "A ship
in dock is a wasted ship", as
the saying goes. Ships are
expensive assets and they
make money while sailing
and not tied up in ports.
Average berthing time is a
significant part of the overall
time taken to turn around a
vessel. Unfortunately, in sev-
eral instances, this time can
exceed the total load on dis-
charge time. Table 5 shows
Roseau, Dominica, with a

waiting time of 37 minutes,
as the most accessible port,
followed by Freeport Baha-
mas, with 42 minutes, and
Vieux Fort, St. Lucia, with 46
minutes. The Caribbean's
two top ports are King-
ston Container Terminal,
ranked sixth, with 1 hour
20 minutes waiting time,
and Kingston Wharves Ltd,
ranked 10th, with 1 hour 40
minutes waiting time. The
two bottom ranked ports
are Point Lisas, Trinidad,
with 5 hours 30 minutes,
and Paramaribo, Suriname,
with 8 hours 20 minutes.
Georgetown, Guyana, the
No 3 ranked Caribbean port,
was placed 14th with an
average waiting time of 2

hours 57 minutes. Interest-
ingly, Georgetown, Guyana,
and Paramaribo, Suriname,
are tidal ports and can be
accessed by large container-
ships only at high tide. This
can add an additional six
to 12 hours of waiting to
allow for low and high tide

For the Caribbean shipping
industry to remain relevant,
ports have to reinvent
themselves. The traditional
role of 'receive, store and
delivery of cargo' is no
longer sufficient to maintain
competitive advantage.
Ports are more than natural
sites for transhipment of

goods from one mode of
transport to another. Histori-
cally they have provided a
link between maritime
and inland transport and
the interface between sea,
road, rail and air. Increas-
ingly, ports are playing a
more important role in the
management and co-ordi-
nation of materials and
information flows as the
transport is an integral part
of the entire supply chain.
The role is changing more
to creating synergies, as
well as converging interests,
between the players of the
port community in order to
guarantee reliability, con-
tinuous service and a good
productivity level. m


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tha 2 pr en cos wthn ntret n usnes onin- riicl ha ogaistins ofwhchar rnnngth
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A- Em rec an crisi man

~ Inidn maaemn




Roger Hinds, new president of the
Shipping Association of Jamaica

THE name Roger Hinds
is now indelibly writ-
ten in the history of Jamai-
ca's shipping industry. As
the Shipping Association
of Jamaica (SAJ) celebrated
its 70th anniversary in
January 2009, Mr. Hinds
was only halfway through
his first month as presi-
dent of the association.
Through his passion and
his commitment to profes-
sionalism, leading always
by example, Mr. Hinds has
challenged and inspired his
colleagues, both in his busi-
ness, Transocean Shipping
Ltd (TSL), and in the SAJ.

Mr. Hinds began his career
as a journalist in Barbados
but moved to Jamaica and
into the maritime sector in
1982. TSL was established
in April of that year and Mr.
Hinds assumed responsibility
for its operational portfolio.
By 1993 he had assumed full
responsibility as managing
director and became its chief
executive. The company later
acquired its own property at
90-92 First Street, Newport
West, refurbishing a former
laundry building.
With an insightful vision,
Mr. Hinds built on the
foundations of the success-
ful agency and stevedoring
activities to found Transport
Logistics Ltd and Marine
Haulage Services Ltd with a
view to providing full logistics

and supply chain manage-
ment services. Never satisfied
with less than the best effort,
he requires of others what he
demands of himself: a will-
ingness to think creatively,
pay consistent attention to
detail and embrace a com-
mitment to leading change.

The steady growth of TSL
and the role Mr. Hinds now
plays in plotting a course for
the industry are evidence
of a remarkable acumen in
matters of business. He has
served three terms as vice
president of the SAJ and
began his tenure as presi-
dent on January 2, 2009.
Speaking of the current
economic crisis, Mr. Hinds
said: "These are testing times,
but it forces us to be clear
on who we are and what
we are about. We have to
maintain our relevance as
the situation changes and we
have a strong foundation on
which to build. I want all our
members and stakeholders
to participate in our crea-
tion of a new vision we can
all work toward. We have to
think beyond transhipment
and also embrace the vision
of Kingston as a distribution
and logistics hub that offers
value-added services to cargo
from China to the Americas."
The new SAJ president
expressed his interest in
continuing the initiatives for
establishing a port commu-

nity system and in devel-
oping an industrial park in
Newport West.

"The strengthening and
broadening of partnerships
is crucial to all our future
plans," said Mr. Hinds. He
is confident that workers,
employers, trade unions and
all stakeholders in the pri-
vate and public sectors will
come to a deeper apprecia-
tion of the mutually benefi-
cial relationship they share
in the shipping industry.
Mr. Hinds continues to
serve on the board of direc-
tors of Kingston Wharves
Group, where he is Company
Secretary. He also serves on
the boards of Port Computer
Services, Assessment Recov-
eries Ltd and Amalgamated
Stevedores Ltd. m


ibbea Maitm wen to res. maeilsd Wha is fact hoevr is realise0d.
Major deeomn of the por of thttte hafa pon in Apil vi- Th St0 uinCbntSceay

Vieu FotS. 00ia 0as du to str in ibl wor 0a no e eu Cosmo Rihrsn tol mei 0hat
00i 09 codn onw eprs 1cncnimta ohn ha Dua Ports .as eyin th exa-
m tt 0c, p d er tsTPift. n a chn

siec gave trt to th reprts Th men ha been siged. an mao .0 tane pot arun the.0 0

Pot wr reortdl dicssn th 0o -t ne to0do a -o t t re capcit for exasin "Dbaiort

conr' mai por faiiy For expnson Ho evr th St Lui fou -er' e we inS Lui col
"Sm pesn are jus no ha00 ad iitrto ha so0 issue ha be doin up to 0 20 0 ,~000an possibly
wihDbaiPrttffmwa.newt th Dua Po rts propoas. Th 30,000 cotinr a yer, he said.0

Nohn 00ica ha bee sai .000 0..ate tha S. Lui wol mak 40,000 an 60,000 cotinr a- er

You can trust Sea 1 right Agencies to handle
all of your shipping needs, whether you are
importing or exporting.

ea Freight Agencies

(B'dos) Ltd.
First Floor, Atlantis Building,
Shallow Draught, Bridgetown.
Tel; (246) 429-9688 or 429-9.689
1*ax: (246) 42 -5107
E-mail: managam'nasealrtom
Website: www.sealrt.Lcom

L | CUPPlNMN |&l I
~I cu n~i lmat n nl l
C*,ni sal,

M'mehber of
* Slpit ppig Assoiiatini'i ofL li0arbados liarhados Chamnil' r of olm'm erce
t Batbadus Maniufactutefs Associaliion


The number of ves-
sels calling at the Port of
Kingston declined in the first
two months of 2009 com-
pared with the cornespond-
ing period last yeal, says the
Port Authority of Jamaica.
Kingston Container Tei mi-
nal and Kingston Wharves
Ltd together reported 161
vessel calls in January and
167 calls in February 2009.
The col responding figures
for last year were 186 and
Cargo ships have made
significantly fewer calls so
far this year. Theie was a 16
per cent decline in January
and a nine per cent decline
in February compared with

Domestic cargo
Kingston Container Termi-
nal, where domestic cargo
accounts for 10 per cent of
business, recorded a decline
of 39 per cent in January
2009. This was followed in
Febi uary by a 35 per cent
decline compared with Feb-
rualy 2008.
Kingston Whai yves Ltd
handles most of Jamaica's
domestic cargo. In Januaiy,
the company iecoided a 27
per cent decline in vessel
calls compared with Janu-
ary 2008. The same margin
of decline was recorded in
February 2009 compared
with February 2008.

larn nel apone deeop et To0 .0. tecsh e ln
excuiv dieco .ofuro Whntenweeuie to-s cu 0. ff arag public
placed rpi of the a h fon 0 00 0 00b0H0tions around ma r

ty' fiania siuaio at the am utn to over 000.0 .0 a Pot f heAmria
to .f hi agnd. mlin acodn to one propoed deeopet and

tha 0a hur th og s- worse Stndr & Por' it prprte no direct0ly
ti ovrsa credi rain ha jus deliere 00 crip- reaedt irotorsa
of his atenio inte eal 0 f .0e word' formos is reported 00 beabu
moth of hi appinten. prvdr of idpnet U$00 milio wot of 00 *0

maitm deeo m n 00t In adito to rearn ras betee $100 million
uliaey othe gover- th port auhrt' finacia 0 n $150 milio fro prp
men intatvs patiulrl image Mr 0ia Vil i ha ert sale0s00
- 3 -^^^^^B^^E^^^^^K^E^I^^^5^^^^^
B^^^^^uSu^^wE^^^E^BQ^^^0. .0 R* .0.^a~~j^^^^^^^^

Cranes for Ponce

being built

PONCE, PUERTO RICO: A S250 million line of
credit approved by the previous Piel to Rican
administi ation fol development of the Pol t of the
Amei icas mega )01 t in Ponce is neai ly exhausted,
with S220 million already spent on the project
The Poi t of the Amei icas AuthoityV, which
oversees the project, said the project needed an
additional S480 million foi completion
The Shanghai Zhenhua Poi t Machineiy Com-
i)any has stal ted building the ci anes, which ale
expected to be leady by Janualy 2010 Thiee-
clual teis of the S22 million cost of these canes has
already been paid
Consti Lction of the contained terminal at the
poi t is 99 6 pei cent complete and the hi st thiee
phases of the mega po, t ale already finished

Harboui is expecting to take posses-
sion of a brand-new St. John's Class pilot
boat in November this year. 'Maritime
Today' reports that the vessel is being
built by the Gladding-Heain Shipbuild-
ing, Duclos Corporation, of Somei set,
Massachusetts. The all-aluminium high-
speed launch measures 52.6 ft. overall,
with a 17 ft. beam and 4.8 ft. draught.
It has twin Cateri pillai C-18 diesels, each
producing 671 bhp at 2,100 rpm and
turning a five-blade propeller. Top speed
is expected to be 25 knots. Freeport
Hai bour Company provides tug and pilot
services in co-operation with the Grand
Bahamas Port Authority.

( RiBRF %N RI kRi ~I IF '.1 -0 ',11'l '1.1 %II I,' ll'i 45


If you think training is

expensive, try ignorance

How to improve productivity of Caribbean ports by 20 per cent
through training and certification of stevedores

'The 20th century was the age of machines; the 21st century will be
the age of people' Kanter, cited in Kermally, 2006.

'Globalisation, empowerment, cross functional teams, downsizing,
learning organisation and knowledge workers are changing the way
of life of managers and the way they manage people' Kermally, 2006.

THE shipping industry
has become a prime
example of a globalised
industry now attached
loosely to national sover-
eignties. Shipping differs
from other examples of
global business, such as
fast food chains and the
auto companies, in that
the physical capital is itself
movable in a way a burger
kiosk or car manufactur-
ing plant is not.
However, from the
Caribbean perspective,
the largest investment is in
port infrastructures, which
are totally immobile. From

a First World perspective,
when referring to the ship-
ping industry, lines are por-
trayed as the industry. This
article focuses on Caribbean
ports and their productivity.
Rather than the hardware of
infrastructure and cranes,

I will look at the soft side;
the harnessing of human
The traditional approach
to Caribbean port produc-
tivity is to focus on upgrad-
ing equipment instead of
a holistic integration of
equipment, technology and
labour. Due to advance-
ment in technology and,
in particular, information
technology, Caribbean ports
are now under pressure to
put more emphasis on 'soft
skills' and less on 'brute
force' for training of steve-
dores. Studies in Europe, for
example, have shown that

training and development
of the human element can
improve port productivity
by as much as 20 per cent.

In the Caribbean, handling
charges, including insur-

ance and transport, are 30
per cent higher than the
world average. In addition,
container handling tariffs
in the Caribbean are either
opaque or hidden and
inevitably trigger heavy
cross-subsidisation. This
not only leads to a discon-
nection between the actual
costs incurred in handling
the containers and tariffs
levels charged but, more
significantly, it promotes
inefficiency and excessive
tariffs levels. This therefore
suggests that improving
training and development
of port workers in the Carib-
bean must be a top prior-
ity, both in the short and
medium to long term.

The top five global port
operators now controlling
over 70 per cent of world
port throughput have made
the matter of certification
and standardisation of
port workers a priority. The
Caribbean, in an attempt to
compete and to remain rel-
evant, has no choice but to
make this initiative its focus,
too. The Caribbean Mari-

By Fritz Pinnock*
time Institute, for example,
was recently approved and
accredited by the National
Council on Technical, Voca-
tional Education and Training
(NCTVET) as the only such
entity serving the maritime
transport sector in the Carib-
bean. CMI is currently devel-
oping Caribbean Vocational
Qualification (CVQ) standards
for stevedores and other port
Barbados and Jamaica are
the first two countries in the
Caribbean to pioneer the
training and development of
stevedores and port workers
to facilitate improvement
and efficiency of their ports
workers. It is imperative that
stevedores be considered a
vital part of the asset base
of the shipping industry
and not treated as a major
expense item.
In the Caribbean, train-
ing has been generally
treated on an adhoc basis
as opposed to being
approached from a strategic
perspective affecting overall


Studies in Europe, have shown
that training and development
of the human element can
improve port productivity by
as much as 20 per cent.


productivity. It is placed on
the wrong side of the bal-
ance sheet. In other words, it
is treated as increasing cost
as opposed to enhancing
the human capital.
Today, the human capital
is the Caribbean's single
largest asset. If harnessed
properly, it can be posi-
tioned as a major com-
petitive advantage. Planned
upgrade in physical assets
should be done in keeping
pace with technology and
the capacity of the work-

Cost and benefits
of training
Training is too often viewed
as purely a monetary cost,
a drain on the bottom
line. The benefits are often
ignored because they can
be difficult to identify and
quantify in financial terms. A
broader, more reflective con-
sideration of training leads
to the identification of a
range of non-monetary ben-
efits, many of which influ-
ence productivity as well
as key aspects of people's
lives. The argument that
training is just an expense is
countered by the argument
that not to engage training
is even more expensive. As
the old saying goes, "if you
think training is expensive,
try ignorance".
Training is inextricably
linked with life beyond the
workplace. In evaluating and
balancing the costs and ben-
efits of training, the social
and individual factors must
also be considered. [

*Fritz Pinnock is Execu-
tive Director of the
Caribbean Maritime

Can the law support the

Caribbean shipping industry in

its struggle with global realities?

effective response to
any form of challenge is
dependent on the legal
framework and support
which those in authority
I want to examine that
thesis perhaps truism in
the context of the impact
of global realities on the
Caribbean shipping industry
and to pose a few questions,
some of which others must
For purposes of the
examination, I will use three
global realities: the current
global recession; the threats
of piracy and terrorism; and
the impact of global warm-
ing on the Caribbean Sea.
Caribbean territories are
not immune to the effect of

bean Shipping Executives
Conference in May 2007 in
Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, and
previously in my first column
in this series in Caribbean
Maritime, I placed the threat
of piracy within the Carib-
bean context and within the
overarching concern with
Then, too, the interna-
tional concern and reality
of climate change will have
a detrimental effect on
the Caribbean Sea, which
sustains essential fishing
industries and even more
essential tourism industries.
The common thread is that
the Caribbean shipping
industry must be mindful of,
and responsive to, the global
Against that background,

By Milton J. Samuda,

by increasing government
and private sector expendi-
ture on infrastructure. Could
port construction, expan-
sion and/or modernisation
be included in Caribbean
governments' initiatives for
stimulating their economies
through spend and employ-
ment creation, even as they
position their economies for
the post-recession era?
While we must leave the
economists to answer that
question, if we assume that
the answer is 'yes', it follows
that Caribbean governments
should seek to improve their
ports and construct new
ones. That investment thrust
could be underpinned with
legislative support. Existing
laws, if not adequate, could
be amended so that prop-
erty, security, loan and tax
policy measures, employ-
ment incentives and, where

the global economic crisis.
Indeed, this column has
previously alluded to that
crisis while exploring the
theme 'Shipping and Ports Is
Not Recession Proof!' So too,
Caribbean territories are not
immune from the threats
of piracy and terrorism.
In my presentation to the
Caribbean Shipping Associa-
tion's Sixth Annual Carib-

what can be done to provide
the Caribbean shipping
industry with the legal
framework and support to
successfully grapple with
these global realities?

The global
At national level, many
countries have sought to
stimulate their economies


Caribbean territories are not
immune from the threats of
piracy and terrorism.

possible, government guar-
antees are targeted to sup-
port the thrust. Of course,
such measures would have
to be mindful of World Trade
Organisation strictures.

Piracy and
In my presentation in Maya-
guez, I pointed out that
the 1982 United Nations
Convention on the Law of
the Sea contains a com-
prehensive definition of
piracy, but that there is no
internationally accepted
legal definition of terrorism.
I further pointed out the
disconnect between the two
for purposes of international
law. Caribbean territories
should heed that discon-
nect and provide their law
enforcement agencies with
a clear and harmonised
definition of piracy and of
terrorism and equally clear
and harmonised penalties.
Further, the requisite pre-
emptive tools for investiga-
tion should be provided.
Why is this so important?

The interwoven nature
of businesses in our region
- such as, for instance, the
cruise industry with the
airline industry, with the
hotel industry, with the
creative industries, with the
agricultural industry and the
total impact on employment
- means that a threat to the
viability of one area invari-
ably constitutes a threat to
the viability of the others.
Contemplate the impact
on our inter-dependent
industries were there to
be an enlivened threat to
merchant or cruise shipping
in our waters.

Climate change and
the Caribbean Sea
Increased sea temperature
affects fishing and marine
life. It leads to rising sea
levels which increase the
likelihood of flooding
and erosion. Beaches are
threatened. The frequency
and intensity of hurricanes
are increased, affecting
everything from agriculture
to tourism. Increasing sea

temperature destabilises
weather patterns, increas-
ing rainfall with resultant
infrastructure damage. What
can the law do?
The 1992 United Nations
Framework Convention on
Climate Change provides the
first binding international

legislation dealing with
climate change. Caribbean
territories have ratified the
convention. They must there-
fore do what they can within
their borders and region to
set and enforce standards to
restrict greenhouse gas emis-
sions towards the desired
One last word: The treaty
establishing the Caribbean

Community (Caricom),
signed at Chaguaramas on
July 4, 1973 and the proto-
cols thereto, provide a flex-
ible legal and policy frame-
work within which Caricom
can make a co-ordinated
response, not just to the
realities of the global reces-

sion and the twin threats
of piracy and terrorism, but
also to the creeping threat of
climate change. m

*Milton J. Samuda is
managing partner of
the Jamaican-based law
firm Samuda & Johnson

Caribbean territories
should provide their law
enforcement agencies with
a clear and harmonised
definition of piracy and of
terrorism and equally clear
and harmonised penalties.

Warlsila in Caribbean: Tel. +1 787 701 2288, Fax +1 787 701 2211
Wartsila in Dominicana: Tel. +1 809 564 7181 Fax +1 809 372 7968



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