Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Back Matter
 Back Cover

Title: Caribbean maritime
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00099408/00005
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Title: Caribbean maritime
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Caribbean Shipping Association
Publisher: Land & Marine Publications Ltd.
Place of Publication: Colchester Essex, England
Publication Date: September-December 2008
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Bibliographic ID: UF00099408
Volume ID: VID00005
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Table of Contents
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Full Text

~~-------ern -----------c
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Cris Inus

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32 The Environment
Protecting 'this magnificent cruising region'

8 As fuel issues affect region's cruise sector...
CSA steps up support for development projects
10 The Way Forward for the CSA
15 Trinidad & Tobago
Plans to improve productivity get a boost as...
Port of Port of Spain commissions new
gantry crane
17 The CSA's 38th AGM
Prepare for a grounding in current practices,
effective management
20 Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico concerned over drop in
advance bookings
22 Suriname
Suriname to build first cruise terminal
24 Panama Canal Expansion
A progress report on one of the world's largest
construction projects
26 Cruise Tourism and Profitability
Caribbean destinations need to work together
28 World Cruise
Rotterdam the promise of a European cruise
30 Bunker Prices
Bunker prices lead to rethink on cruise itineraries
36 Seaboard Marine
Celebrating Silver
42 Caricom Transport Policy
Protocol amending the treaty establishing the
Caribbean Community



2 Editorial
The contributions many; the contributors legion
3 Message from the CSA President
4 CSA News
21 Newsbriefs
39 Information Technology
Streamlining your office for efficiency could start
ivith a document management system
40 Hazardous Materials
Emergency response information:
what, why and how
46 A Matter of Law
We ignore Protocol VI at our peril
48 The Human Factor: Cruise Industry
Navigating the recruitment channels

Except for that appearing in the Editorial column, the views and
opinions expressed by writers featured in this publication are
presented purely for information and discussion and do not
necessarily reflect the views and opinions of the Caribbean Shipping
- The Editor.




No. 5 1 Sept- Dec 2008
The official journal of the Caribbean
Shipping Association

* caribbean shipping association

"To promote and foster the highest
quality service to the maritime industry
through training development;
working with all agencies, groups and
other associations for the benefit and
development of its members and the
peoples of the Caribbean region."
President: Fernando Rivera
Vice President: Carlos Urriola
Immediate Past President: Corah-Ann
Robertson Sylvester
Group A Chairman: Robert Foster
Group A Representative: Michael Bernard
Group A Representative: lan Deosaran
Group A Representative: Francis Camacho
Group B Chairman: Grantley Stephenson
Group B Representative: David Jean-Marie
Group C Chairman: Johan Bjorksten
Group C Representative: Cyril Seyjagat
General Manager: Clive Forbes
Director Information and Public Relations:
Michael S.L. Jarrett
Caribbean Shipping Association
4 Fourth Avenue, Newport West,
PO Box 1050, Kingston C.S.0, Jamaica
Tel: +876 923-3491
Fax: +876 757-1592
Email: csa@cwjamaica.com
Mike Jarrett
Email: csa-pr@mikejarrett.net

Land & Marine Publications Ltd
1 Kings Court, Newcomen Way,
Severalls Business Park, Colchester
Essex, C04 9RA, UK
Tel: +44 (0)1206 752902
Fax: +44 (0)1206 842958
Email: publishing@landmarine.com

The contributions many;

the contributors legion

The only new musical instrument
to be created in the 20th cen-
tury was of Trinidadian ingenuity,
creativity and stubborn resilience.
Such resilience is caricatured in the
pan tuner, the lyrical 'man with the
hammer', on whose ears and long-
suffering quest for perfect tonal
harmony the side and supporters
depend. This backdrop to the CSA's
38th Annual General Meeting, Con-
ference and Exhibition should not
be ignored or overlooked. Indeed
the CSA celebrates the ingenuity,
creativity and stubborn resilience;
the quest for perfection embodied in
the people and cultures of Trinidad
and Tobago when it gathers in Port of
Spain on October 13, 14 and 15, 2008.
In the process of Caribbean develop-
ment, Trinidadian contributions have
been many, the contributors legion.
CARIBBEAN MARITIME salutes them all.
From Naipaul, James and Lara, two with
the pen, the latter with the blade, who
provided a contextual framework in
which Caribbean peoples defined them-

from Guyana to Jamaica; to Learie Con-
stantine whose name appears in both
columns of the scorebook in the history
of Test cricket; as well as in the Hansard
of the British House of Lords. Yes. The
first black man to sit in the British House
of Lords, the very heart of the dominant
empire on the face of the Earth, was the
Trinidadian jurist and all rounder.

The meaning and symbolism in the
images, anecdotes and references
about Trinidadian achievement, leader-
ship and resilience as I return to Port
of Spain are many and significant and
just as vivid as they were 10 years ago
when the CSA last held a major confer-
ence here. The shipping community
represented in the Shipping Association
of Trinidad and Tobago was there at the
very beginning. They were among those
that voted the Caribbean Shipping Asso-
ciation into existence. Subsequently,
CSA's second President Michael Black-
man, the first to take on the job of Train-
ing Director; Pat Lawlor and Ina Nichol-

selves and from which the small and
defenceless everywhere drew inspira-
tion; to the scholarly wit of Roberts who,
as Kitchener, brought abroad images
in calypso that revealed and helped to
define a Caribbean cultural identity. The
names are many; footnotes in world his-
tory, jewels in Caribbean culture. From
Eric Williams, the scholar and thinker,
whose thoughts and ideas inspired
leadership and helped to harness the
political energy of post slavery societies

son, long before Capt. Rawle Baddaloo
became CSA President, were on record
as representing the twin-island republic
in proceedings of the CSA.
The records of the 38th AGM will
show different names, old and new,
who now, through the CSA, invest time
and volunteer ideas in the service of
shipping and by extension, regional
the developments at the 38th AGM, the


The CSA celebrates ingenuity, creativity

and stubborn resilience; the quest for

perfection embodied in the people and

cultures of Trinidad and Tobago



ideas and the images. This issue, the
fifth since this new concept magazine
became reality, takes a look at the cruise
industry. The CSA has been working to
assist this industry and has established
an annual one-day seminar dedicated
to the development of the destination
side of this business. The Association has
also established a Cruise Committee to
deliver its development programmes.
initiatives by dedicating one issue per
year to cruise topics.
The Cruise Committee did quite
a bit of work and delivered a lot of
information at the Caribbean Shipping
Executives Conference in St. Maarten in
May earlier this year. We have captured
the mood and energy in some of the
images reproduced on pages 4-7.
There is continuation of our documen-
tation of progress on the expansion of
the Panama Canal (page 24), arguably
one of the largest construction projects
on the planet today. This project is
most significant for the future of world
extensive coverage of progress will
collectively preserve this project's his-
tory and provide valuable reference for
future research projects.
More than all this, CARIBBEAN MARI-
TIME documents the work and priori-
ties of an Association which has, for 38
years, served the interests of an industry
and in so doing, created in itself a tool
for regional development. In doing so,
CARIBBEAN MARITIME itself becomes a
tool for regional development.

Mike Jarrett, Editor


T IS A PLEASURE to welcome you
all to the fifth edition of 'Carib-
bean Maritime', the official journal of
the Caribbean Shipping Association.
The success of previous editions
has made us work even harder to
improve the quality and content of
this one.
The CSA has always recognized the
importance of the cruise industry in
our region. More cruise-related matters
are being presented at our conferences
and meetings. We have established
a format for our yearly conference in
May in which we dedicate one day to
discuss only issues related to this sector
of the maritime industry. In addition,
different topics about the industry are
presented at our general meeting by
various experts. And further to all that,
the CSA presents a range of seminars
and training workshops each year.
After the last conference, in St Maarten,
we had a two-day seminar for per-
sons working in that country's cruise

time for the CSA's 38th annual general
meeting in Trinidad and Tobago on
13, 14 and 15 October. We know this is
going to be a very successful meeting
because of the agenda topics and the
speakers confirmed to participate. The
CSA recognizes and expresses gratitude
to the Shipping Association of Trini-

"The CSA has always recognized

the importance of the cruise

industry in our region."

shipping sector. This event was quite
successful and achieved the objective
we had set. We were able to discuss
and analyse the basics of the cruise
industry with persons who, generally,
have never had real formal training and
exposure to the theoretical aspects of
the cruise industry.
This fifth edition of 'Caribbean
Maritime' focuses on the cruise indus-
try and on cruise-related matters. This
edition is expected to be published in

dad and Tobago for the extraordinary
effort they have displayed in making
arrangements to host this conference. I
can assure everyone that those attending
this conference will benefit not only from
the topics that will be presented, but also
from the networking and contacts that
will be made over the three days.

Fernando L. Rivera
President, Caribbean Shipping





Part of the Martinique delegation, including (fj
Christian Coupenne, Genevieve Pilon and Mau
head of the Engineering Department at Martir
t of Commerce and Industry.

:)f the Trinidad and Tobago delegation including
President of the Shipping Association of Trinidad and


I/ 7liliillh,


CSA steps up support for

development projects

By Jan Sierhuis

THE MOOD IN the Caribbean
cruise sector is mixed. New ships
and infrastructure are under con-
struction, but there is growing con-
cern about the impact of rising fuel
prices on the economies and tourism
of the region.
The leStlICtULInlg of United States all
Ioutes is already impacting heavily oni
the legion and this season Euiopean
opelatois will not escape higher fuel
SUlchalges and will be lestIuctulling
then routes and flight schedules All
this is affecting the CI Lie industry,
already hit directly by rising operating
costs Alleady, this situation has led
to some clevel rethinking of itinel al-
ies and adjustment of sailing pattel ns,
particularly with laige fleet opeiatois
such as Carnival. But the dependence
of many Caribbean cI LIISe itinelal ies on

low-cost aii lift thieatens to affect the
deployment of vessels in aihlift-sensi-
tive markets. As ailift becomes mole
expensive, consumer s stai t looking foi
altei native vacation options close to
The big cluestion is: how will all this
affect the attiac tiveness of the Caiib-
bean markets'
Euiope is a high-yield altei native
foi the summer months, but as aii lift
between the continents becomes
limited and mole costly, opeiatoi s
depending on the US markets may
be forced to look foi summer options
close to home This would translate
into less tonnage placed in ELiope
and movie in US home poI ts dL ing the

which they cannot get close to home.
Moie attention will have to be given
to packaging the local content of the
Cai ibbean cruise product foi specific
target markets Also, the destinations
will need to communicate with each
othei to avoid p)ioduct duplication and
weai out.

Many Cai ibbean govel nments aie
investing in improving and expanding
theii infiastluctule. The piivate sector
will now need to invest movie and mole
money in making the Cai ibbean an
even movie diverse and special expe I-
ence than it already is. Employees and
officials will have to be trained to bling

As airlift becomes more expensive,
consumers start looking for alternative
vacation options closer to home.

Jan Sterhuts, chairman of CSA
Cruise Committee

sumLmel season, which would Impact
positively on the nearby eastern and
westei n Cal ibbean mai kets.
Altel natively, if fuel and aiiift issues
negatively affect the ELuopean cluse
mal ket coming to the Cal ibbean in the
winter season, this would huil t Cai ib-
bean winter traffic. How all this will
vol k exac tly remains to be seen, but
the opeiatois have already said they
ale SCI Utinising each and evelv itinel-
ary against available alteli natives.
Much will depend, too, on how the
Calibbean ieacts to the new realities
ClLiisels will have to be pelsuladed to
spend mole time and money onil get-
ting to the Cal ibbean. The only way to
do this is to offei an exciting product

this expel ience to the touList with the
usual Caribbean flaii, but in a way that
will entice visitors back
Opportunities also exist close to
home. As the economies of Colombia,
Panama, Biazil and others ale growing
and the US cruise pIoduct becomes
less accessible because of tighten-
ing immigl action policies, thele ale
oppoi tunities to develop a new cl uise
product fol the Latin and Caiibbean
market from nonl-US poI ts in oUlI
legion. Spanish opelatois, combining
Eullopean with Latin Amelican mal kets,
are stai ting with newV product offerings
this winter season. The haldwvale and
financing comes fiom the cruise giants
Royal Cal ibbean and Cal nival, but the

8 4 \R114111 \N NI W 1 I INII -,i Ci i '-H i r i -i i '.1i i r -,

bi ending and mai keting is done by
Eiiopeans and their pal tneis in the
Panama, Colombia and the Domini-
can Republic ale well placed home
poi ts foi this new product and the
English and Dutch ten itoi ies in the
deep southei n Cal ibbean will also
profit This development looks piom-
ising, although it remains to be seen
how the markets will leact to this new
i)poduct and whether the growth in
Latin America pioves sustainable.
Clear message
For the CSA, the message is cleal. We
need to intensify oul efforts to support
the Caribbean ciLuise sector. To this end,
the CSA has moved to consolidate its
woik so far in sup)l)po ting the develop-
ment of the Cai ibbean ci ise sector by
strengthening the institutional position
of its C iiise Committee This would see
the Committee becoming a Standing
Committee of the Association, with
expanded institutional sulppoi t foi its
development woi k.
The CSA also plans to intensify its
training piogiamme foi member tei -
ritories The Cruise Committee and the
Training Co-oidinatoi are woi king on
a two to three year piogramme that
includes data gather ing, regulatory
Issues and topics for its conferences and
training of its member s and tei itoi ies.
We welcome oui Industi y and toni ism
pal tnei s to join us in OLli efforts.
The CSAs next regionwvide cruise
seminar will be at the Cai ibbean Ship-
ping Executive Confeience in May
2009 in Cartagena, Colombia. We look
foi waid to welcoming you theie



a1 B*


. .. .......

F) 11 11 111 11 11 11 11 11


The General Council of
the Caribbean Ship-
ping Association has been
discussing strategies for
continued development
of the organization that
has been the driving force
behind the development
of the region's maritime
industries for almost four
Members of the CSA's gov-
erning council gathered at
the Hilton Miami Downtown
hotel on Thursday, March
13 and Friday the 14th, and
again in Kingston for one day,
on August 26, to study and
discuss the document 'The
Way Forward'. This docu-
ment contains proposals for
development of the CSA and
was adopted in 2003 at the
previous CSA General Coun-
cil planning retreat.
Discussions have been
covering virtually every
aspect of CSA operations
with a view to formulat-
ing long term plans for
growth and for assisting
regional development. The
Association's strengths
and weaknesses have been
reviewed and opportunities
for further development of
the CSA and the Caribbean's
maritime industries have
been explored.
The process is still in
motion. Certain short term
measures are already being
implemented and mid to

long term projects are being
planned. For example, the
CSA Secretariat moved into
newly renovated office
space at the headquarters
of the Shipping Association
of Jamaica towards the end
of August this year. New ini-
tiatives for development of
training programmes have
begun and agreements for
cooperation have been com-
pleted and signed with the
Pontifical Catholic University
of Puerto Rico.
On May 16 last, a wide-
ranging Memorandum of
Cooperation, covering the
English, Dutch, Spanish and
French Caribbean was signed
at the 6th annual Caribbean
Shipping Executives Confer-
ence in Mayaguez, Puerto
Rico. The Memorandum
-- between the Caribbean
Maritime Institute; De Ruyter
Training & Consultancy,
Vlissingen The Netherlands
(DRTC); and Dutch Caribbean
Training Centre in Curacao
(DCTC) -- will meet the
training needs of regional
shipping and allied industries
by facilitating professional
development and technical
assistance. The agreement
will also facilitate exchange
and transfer of relevant
technology and expertise for
the development of maritime
training and consultancy
throughout the Caribbean,
Central and South America.

The CSA will be consolidat-
ing its relationships with
regional organizations so as
to implement a number of
policy initiatives in train-
ing and human resource
development; port and
cargo security; and, data and
statistics. In this regard, the
CSA will be exploring oppor-
tunities with CARICOM,
where it has had Observer
status for many years; and,

the Association of Caribbean
States (ACS), where is has
Social Partner status.
While consolidating exist-
ing relationships the CSA will
also be expanding its circle
of support with the signing
of a Memorandum of Under-
standing with the Organi-
zation of American States
Inter-American Committee
on Ports (OAS/CIP). Through
this agreement, the CSA will
be working with the OAS/
CIP to establish a regulatory



h. -


The national economies of many Caribbean countries
depend on tourism and most of these countries have
cruise tourism as a significant contributor to the
revenues from this economic sub-sector

framework for the devel-
opment of a 'Programme
of Technical Cooperation'
for the implementation of
projects and activities for
the development of regional
shipping. Working together,
the two bodies (CSA and
OAS/CIP) will strengthen the
exchange of experiences,
knowledge and practices
allowing both to work
together in the support of
port development initiatives
in the Caribbean.
The signing of this Memo-
randum of Understanding is
planned to take place at the
CSA's 38th Annual General
Meeting in Port of Spain.
Meanwhile, the Association
continues its work in assist-
ing regional ports to analyse
and assess port security
issues. Recognizing the need
to ensure that port security
is seamless and dependable
across the Region, the CSA
announced in May 2008 it
plans to establish a Security
Assessment Council. With
this Council, the CSA (work-
ing with the Port Managers
Association of the Caribbean
(PMAC) and the US Coast
Guard in an advisory capac-
ity) will be able to assist
Caribbean ports to plan for
and identify effective port
security strategies.


The national economies of
many Caribbean countries
depend on tourism and
most of these countries have
cruise tourism as a significant
contributor to the revenues
from this economic sector.
The CSA, conscious of the
importance of this aspect
of shipping to the Region,
established a Cruise Com-
mittee to explore ways of
assisting Caribbean ports
and operatives to enhance
and improve the quality of
the destination; passenger
reception services; and land-
based activities.
The decision to establish
this Committee was finalized
at the third Caribbean Ship-
ping Executives Conference
held May 25 and 26, 2004 in
Castries, Saint Lucia. Cruise
business has always been on
the CSA's agenda but delib-
erations at the Association's
meetings had been domi-
nated by trade and cargo
topics. It was felt that a com-
mittee would facilitate a con-
tinuing programme of work
and assistance that would be
of benefit to the Caribbean
players in the cruise industry.
The CSA's Cruise Committee
started with the objective:

"To enhance and facilitate
the development of the
maritime aspects of Carib-
bean cruise tourism." In this
context, the Committee set
itself specific short-term and
long-term goals. Its focus was
to serve the interests of CSA
members involved in cruise
tourism by creating partner-
ships between public and
private sector entities serving
the industry. In this regard,
the Committee planned to
forge partnerships with all
relevant industry organiza-
tions, including the Florida
Caribbean Cruise Association,
which is already an Associate
member of the CSA.
The Cruise Committee,
over the past three years
has been working stead-
ily towards its objective.
It started the process by
establishing an annual one-
day seminar in which topics
relevant to the growth and
development of Caribbean
cruise are presented and dis-
cussed. This is held in May, on
the third day of the CSA's Car-
ibbean Shipping Executives
Conference. The Cruise Com-
mittee has since expanded
on its work and this year,
presented a one day train-
ing workshop for all cruise
industry operatives who
had never had the benefit of

participating in a theoretical
assessment and analysis of
the cruise industry.
So, on May 22 and 23,
2008 more than a dozen
cruise industry personnel
in St. Maarten attended the
workshop "Introduction to
the Cruise Industry" at the
Sonesta Maho Beach hotel,
hosted by the CSA's Cruise
Having assessed the work
and importance of its Cruise
Committee, the CSA has
moved to change its status, to
make it a Standing (i.e. perma-
nent) Committee of the CSA.
Meanwhile, a new effort
to strengthen the national
shipping associations of the
Caribbean has been initiated
with the establishment of
the National Associations
Workshop. This Workshop
brings together nine or
more organizations which
(like the Shipping Associa-
tion of Jamaica, Shipping
Association of Barbados
and the Shipping Associa-
tion of Trinidad and Tobago)
represent stakeholders'
interests in local shipping.
The national associations,
considered the foundation
of the CSA, provide a range
of services and support to
local members. The National
Associations Workshop will


help to empower these local
shipping organizations. It
will plan programmes and
training events which will,
over time, improve the work
and services delivered by
these associations to their
local shipping communities.
The CSA's General Council
has also been discuss-
ing members' needs and
strategies for increasing
value of membership. One
significant step was taken
with the recent introduction
of travel insurance coverage
for members attending CSA

Commenting on the work
General Council has been
doing with respect to 'The
Way Forward', President
Fernando Rivera said, the
Association has to plan for
growth and development
so that it can perform its
historical mission.
For 38 years the Caribbean
Shipping Association has
played a role unlike any other
regional organization. Indeed,
the CSA is unlike every other
Caribbean institution.
The CSA embraces all
the languages and cultures
of the Caribbean. Its mem-
bership comes from the
ex-colonies of Britain, Spain,

and the
Dutch and,
although all four
language groups
are represented, the
official language is
English. However this
alone does not make
the CSA unique. Perhaps,
more importantly, it brings
together from across these
cultures, both private and
public sector interests.
So powerful has been
the work of the CSA over
almost four decades, it has
attracted membership from
outside the Caribbean.
The CSA had to redefine
its geographical sphere of
influence some years ago
to include countries on the
Northern Coast of South
America as well as Central
America. Ports of southern
North America, particularly
New Orleans, were the first
from outside the Caribbean
Sea to become members of
the CSA, except for Bermuda
which is a founding member
of the CSA.
It is important to keep
this historical background
in view. Without it, the real
contribution that the CSA
has made to regional devel-
opment may be missed.
The CSA work has
resulted in a coordinated
development of the region's

down rules
and setting
without dictat-
ing strategies and
restricting choices, the
CSA has been a positive
influence on maritime devel-
opment across the entire
Caribbean. Today, even in
the smallest countries of the
region ports, there is clear
evidence of planned port

The CSA holds two major
conferences each year one
in May and the other in Octo-
ber. Much time and planning
is put into these conferences.
Topics are carefully selected
to ensure that participants
from across the region are
well aware of all the issues
and trends in world maritime
affairs. These topics are pre-
sented, usually with the aid of
audio-visual tools, by persons
who know what they are talk-
ing about I hesitate to use
the word 'experts'. Through
these presentations, informa-
tion, techniques and strate-
gies necessary for growth and
development are transferred.
From the information pre-
sented in one paper, a busi-

in the Caribbean could go
from an uncertain future to
success. From one presenta-
tion, a strategy for growth,
or a new management
technique, could emerge, to
make a major difference to
a company's development.
And, participants are gener-
ally owners and decision-
makers in the major shipping
and allied companies in the
Through this 'training' of
the senior-most executives
in the shipping industry;
through the delivery of the
latest management sci-
ences and discussion of best
practices the CSA has made
a significant contribution to
regional development.
The discussions of the
document The Way Forward
now being undertaken by the
General Council will ensure
that the Association maintains
the capability to perform its
historical mission of assisting
Caribbean development. m






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Industritefen Avelingen West 20 P-O. Box 1
4202 MS Gooinchem 4200 AA Gofiochem
The Netherlands

phone +31 (0)183 63 92 67
fax +31 (0)183 63 77 62


www.damen nI

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WVarrtml. Caribbean: Tel. +1 787 701 2288, F.u +1 787 701 2211
Wartsill Panama: Tel. -507 317 4100, Fax 507 317 6794
WmrtsilI Dominicana: Tel. 1 809 564 7184, |F +1 809 372 7968


WA r r,41DI L L.E! A

Got a message to put across? Then you won't
find a better spot than "Caribbean Maritime",
the regional publication of choice for people in
the shipping industry.

The next issue of "Caribbean Maritime"
will be out in October 2008. So don't
miss the boat. Call today to book your
Please contact Lester Powell at
Land & Marine Publications Ltd:
Tel: +44 (0)1206 752 902
Email: lesterpowell@landmarine.com

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Jamaicans in Panama
The important role of the CSA in facilitating the develop-
ment of regional shipping was noted when a team from
the Shipping Association of Jamaica (SAJ) visited the Manza-
nillo International Terminal (MIT), from August 13 to 17, 2008,
to expose its managers, members of the workforce as well
the trade unions to working practices at this major tranship-
ment port in Panama. Both are members of the CSA. SAJ is
a founding member and MIT has won the CSA Port of The
Year Award on a number of occasions. The idea was to share
experiences in operations, particularly stevedoring, a service
provided by the SAJ to Port Bustamante. The visitors got
together for a group photograph at the end of the visit.


In the photo are: (back row, I- r): Kenroy Daley, Alvin Sinclair, Vice
President of the Bustamante Industrial Trade Union; Terrence Brooks,
Operations Manager at the SAJs Recruiting Centre; Jerome Gayle,
Shift Monitor; William Raby, Shift Monitor; Frances Tavares, Shift
Monitor; Roger Hinds, Vice President of the SAJ; Diana Reynolds,
Human Resources Development manager; Alvin Henry, Industrial
Relations Consultant and Honorary Member of the CSA; (front row, I
- r) Juan Carlos Croston, Vice President of Marketing for Manzanillo
International Terminal (MIT); Jose Iribarren, Port Administrator at
MIT; Gavonnie Phipps, Michael Bernard, President of the SAJ; Derrick
Forbes, Clifton Gordon, Barrington Dawes, Deputy General Secretary of
the Trade Union Congress; Jermaine Dacres; and, Trevor Riley, General
Manager of the SAJ.

SVGPA buys new crane

St Vincent & the Gren-
adines Port Authority
(SVGPA) has taken delivery
of a new Gottwald crane at a
cost of EC$15 million.
The crane has been
installed at St Vincent's
Campden Park Container
Port (CPCP) as the port
authority speeds up the shift
of container handling away
from the limited, congested
and largely outdated facili-
ties at Kingstown to the pur-
pose-built CPCP terminal.



Suriname to build

first cruise terminal

The process has gained
momentum and
reports are that by the end
of 2009, cruise passengers
to Suriname will land in a
facility that is a little more
comfortable than what is
now in place.
As a cruise destination,
Paramaribo is still largely,
unheard of. In 2004, for
example, the country offi-
cially reported zero cruise
passenger arrivals while
Aruba received over 370,000
and Curacao landed over
200,000. Over the past few
years however a few small
cruise ships have ventured
to this South American
destination but nothing to
compare with what other
Dutch speaking destinations
just to the north have been
Cruise ships have been
using Nieuwe Haven.
However, because of draft
restrictions (6 metres with
tide), Nieuwe Haven can
only receive smaller ships.
Suriname authorities saw

an opportunity and decided
to seize it. If cruise ships
calling far south Curacao,
Aruba, Cartagena then,
perhaps a plan should be
designed to get some of this
business. They discussed dif-
ferent ideas and models for
years and finally decided. The
announcement came in the
parliament from President
Ronald Venetiaan in October
2007 when he presented the
budget for the fiscal year
2008 to parliament.

Special port
The plan: build a special port
area at the Suriname River to
dock large cruise ships with
shore facilities to accommo-
date a flow of cruise pas-
A feasibility study was
commissioned and delivered
back in 2006. The construc-
tion of a modern, multi-func-
tional cruise terminal was to
be part of a larger project:
Restructuring of the Water-
front Paramaribo (HWP).
The total costs for the

project is estimated at
US$35 million. The cost for
the cruise terminal project
is estimated at over US$2
million and it is understood
that part of the capital has

already been sourced.
A main stakeholder in the
project is NV Havenbeheer,
a government-owned entity
(the Suriname port author-
ity) which operates several
ports in the country. NV
Havenbeheer is the owner
of the land where the cruise
terminal will be established.

Inspiration from
The Waterfront Paramaribo
project involves a complete
facelift of the popular Water-
front area in downtown
Paramaribo, between the
Central Market and the SMS-
pier, along the Suriname
River. The area is frequented
by visitors and locals.

Development will enrich
and expand the Pamaribo
experience. It will facilitate
cultural and entertainment
activities and in this regard,
public facilities will be cre-

ated in the area for tourists
and locals.
Port officials indicate
that the project plans were
inspired by the Estacao das
Docas in Belem do Para, in
Brazil. In Belem, the capital
of the Para state in Brazil, the
Docks Station is a traditional
cultural site that holds an
important part of the city's
history. Development there
was planned around revital-
izing the docks for new uses,
without losing its character-
istic atmosphere and historic
heritage. In May 2008 the
Minister of Regional Devel-
opment and several other
officials visited Brazil to get a
closer look and to get ideas.
"Cruise tourism is an

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Suriname expects to open its

new cruise terminal next year

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.. souiceof
foreign currency for the
country. In March 2007, four
cruise ship arrivals were
handled very profession-
ally. Construction of a cruise
terminal therefore is crucial
for the further development
of the tourism industry", said
the Head of State when he
made the announcement to

Eco tourism
Tourism officials in Para-
maribo argue sun, sea and
sand are not the only attrac-
tions of the Caribbean. They
point to growing interest,
especially from European
visitors, to visit eco-tourism
destinations in the region.
They think Suriname, with
its abundance of pristine
rainforest and rich cultural
and ethnic diversity, could
successfully tap in to these
emerging markets.
Eco-tourism, which takes
visitors off the beaten track,
requires comprehensive
planning. As the govern-
ment of Suriname moves to
develop eco-tourism, local
communities have been
brought into the process.
For example, "hearing ses-
sions" were held to gather
information for a manage-
ment plan for the Central
Suriname Nature Reserve.
In a community workshop
organised by Conservation
International Suriname in
February 2001, both Amer-
indian and Maroon societies
were consulted.
Commenting on Suri-

name's potential as a cruise
destination, CSA Cruise
Committee Chairman, Jan
Sierhuis said: "There is
potential. Cruise ships now
experience a long 'empty
stretch' between the Carib-
bean and the Amazon."
This of course offers a
tremendous opportunity
for Suriname. At the same
time, market and industry
perception of other ports of
call could create a windfall
for Paramaribo. The Orinico
is considered dangerous
and Georgetown is causing
some concern because of
crime reports. Devil's island
(French Guyana) is not seen
as a very interesting stop.
"Basically there is no
cruise destination on the
long stretch between Trini-
dad and the Amazon river.
We hear that the bauxite
industry has plans to dredge
the Suriname river to nine
metres and this would allow
smaller HAL ships to come to
Suriname. I think there is a
potential, as Suriname is rel-
atively safe and has a unique

cultural mix. The only living
Indonesian community of
the Western Hemisphere is
residing in Suriname, Jan
Sierhuis commented.

Welcome mat
Suriname is rolling out the
welcome mat for cruise lines
and their passengers. More
frequently stakeholders in
the Suriname tourism indus-
try are visiting international
tourism fairs to promote
their product and to pick up
industry vibes.
Minister of Regional
Development, Michel Felisi,
who has responsibility for
the two markets close to the
terminal site is very excited
about the cruise terminal
"To receive visitors, you
want to offer them the best
facilities possible and expose
your country in the most
positive way. Therefore it is
necessary to implement sev-
eral measures in order for the
markets to blend in smoothly
with the tourist activities to
make their stay very memo-


rable", said the minister.
"We will renovate and
upgrade the markets and
with the establishment of
the terminal we expect that
Suriname will play a major in
the tourism industry in the
region", he added.
If the Minister plans to
roll out the welcome mat
for cruise passengers, so
does American fast food
giant, Burger King. The first
Burger King restaurant to be
launched in Suriname was
expected to open during
the second half of calendar
2008 in Paramaribo. The 650
square-metre, two-story
restaurant with Wi-Fi access,
state-of-the-art indoor play-
ground, lounge area and
coffee counter will provide
familiar ground to American
cruise passengers and a
taste of America for Euro-
peans. Even if you're selling
nature, it helps if there are
familiar brands evident
when cruise passengers
come ashore. m

- Mike Jarrett and Ivan Cairo


j fI t fiIa



Z:Itghw fI

::, -ii..T.

"I* r;


submitted a payment bond, insurance
policies for the equipment and a pre-
liminary timeline for the first 90 days,
as well as the results of the geophysical
study and drilling operations during
the pre-bid phase.

Also, in June, the ACP and DI car-
ried out bathymetric soundings for
the entire navigational channel and a
land survey of about 50 per cent of the
channel's shores. The results of subse-
quent soundings will determine the
contract's payment volumes.

Gatun Lake
and Culebra Cut
The ACP is in charge of the dredging
works for deepening and widening of
Gatun Lake as well as for deepening Cul-
ebra Cut, where about 27 million cubic
metres of material will be removed.

For Gatun Lake, the project also
includes the provision of navigation
lights, bank lights and buoys along Gatun
Lake. The ACP is also responsible for
the direct environmental management,
inspection and monitoring of the project.

In June the volume of blasted mate-
rial was 71,449 cubic metres. A total of
211,729 cubic metres of material has
been fragmented since blasting began in
Gatun Lake last April. Dredging volumes
for last June reached 416,000 cubic
metres, while the total excavated volume
is just over 1.7 million cubic metres.
The Culebra Cut deepening works
will require new types of navigation
aids, such as buoys and bank lights, to
meet environmental regulations. In June
the blasted material in Culebra Cut was
24,202 cubic metres, while total volume
is 83,340 cubic metres. Dredging works

for both Gatun Lake and Culebra Cut
must be completed by 2014.

Third set of locks
The deadline for submitting proposals
for design and construction of the third
set of locks bid has been extended by
the ACP from 8 October to 10 Decem-
ber. This was in response to a request
from several pre-qualified consortia.
This should result in improved techni-
cal and price proposals that will benefit
the canal expansion programme. The
project is still expected to be com-
pleted in 2014. The four pre-qualified
consortia in December 2007 were:
Consorcio C.A.N.A.L.; Consorcio Atlan-
tico-Pacffico de Panama; Bechtel, Taisei
Mitsubishi Corporation; and Grupos
Unidos por el Canal.
Between January and June this year,
the ACP has held individual meetings
with the four consortia, made up of 30
companies from 13 countries. The con-
sortia made technical inspection visits to
the areas in the Pacific and the Atlantic
where the post-panamax locks will be
built. This contract is expected to be
awarded in the first quarter of 2009. m

The project consists of widening the Pacific

Entrance navigational channel to a minimum

of 225 metres and deepening to 15.5 metres

below the low tide average level.


Caribbean destinations

need to work together

THE 1960s and 1970s saw the
demise of plantation crops such
as sugar cane, cotton and coconut.
Some countries, such as St Lucia,
Dominica and St Vincent, turned to
producing 'dessert' crops such as
bananas and coffee. These were sold
at high prices under special agree-
ments with European countries that
once held them as colonies.
These trade protection arrange-
ments are disappearing now that WTO
trade rules have made the European
Union's preferences illegal. The old
plantation crops are being replaced
with a lucrative new 'tourist crop'.
Although it was not well thought out
at the beginning, tourism has been
embraced as a development strategy.

New income
Owing to the decline of the transatlantic
trade in the late 1950s which served
mainly to move migrants form Europe
to the United States coupled with the
birth of the commercial airline industry,
operators of transatlantic liners were
forced to find new sources of income
for these expensive vessels, which were
not fitted for cargo. This gave rise to the
modern cruise industry, which shifted
from New York to Florida. The Caribbean
archipelago became a natural cruising
region thanks to its pristine beaches and
its proximity to Florida.
Over the years, the cruise industry
has been dominated by the shipping
lines. Three companies Carnival,
Royal Caribbean International and Star
Cruises control 80 per cent of the
market. This is expected to increase
to 90 per cent by 2011. Moreover, the
success of the cruise industry is based
solely on the cruise ships themselves.
The Caribbean has moved from
being an exotic, high value destina-
tion to a 'mass market' low value, high

volume destination. And the ship is the
success story because it has been trans-
formed from just a means of ocean
transportation to a luxury, all-inclusive
Many of these huge luxury vessels
carry more passengers and crew than
the population of several Caribbean
territories. In addition, they offer every
conceivable amenity for passengers.
The sheer range of onboard services,
facilities and amenities has made the
ships destinations in their own right.
Indeed, from time to time, lines will
market a "cruise to nowhere". The
cruise ship is the destination.
As cruise ships get bigger, there is
pressure on Caribbean destinations
to invest in shoreside infrastructure
- to accommodate greater passenger
volumes as well as to upgrade the
carrying capacity at ports of call.

The sheer range of
onboard services, facilities
and amenities has made
the ships destinations in
their own right.

In addition, the cruise lines are earn-
ing more from tours offered in destina-
tions and from major in-bond sales than
the operators themselves. It is a known
fact that cruise lines earn up to 60 per
cent of the value of the tour sold on
board and 20 per cent of the gross sale
on duty free items sold in participating
stores. They now offer a wide range of
tours on board as well as owning port
facilities and ground transportation
companies in major destinations.
The larger cruise lines have entered
into contractual arrangements that
enable them to reduce passenger 'head
tax' by as much as 50 per cent based on
passenger volume guarantees as in the

case of Jamaica, St Maarten and other
leading Caribbean cruise destinations.
On the other hand, the numbers have
been rising in the Caribbean in many
of these destinations, while the aver-
age spend per passenger has declined
In 2001 the FCCA published an
economic impact study showing that
the Caribbean accounted for about 50
per cent of total cruise ship deploy-
ment with earnings from the industry
estimated at US$ 2.3 billion. The Medi-
terranean, with three times less market
share, earned six times as much. The
same goes for Alaska. A repeat study
by the FCCA in 2006 showed that the
Caribbean was the destination with the
largest number of visitor arrivals and
with gross earnings declining to just
under US$ 1.8 billion much less than
in 2001, with record cruise calls and
passenger numbers.
The Caribbean now needs to look at
the model of Cruise Europe, where 103
ports are now grouped in four cruis-
ing regions. It is important to note that
cruise lines do not view the Caribbean
as individual destinations. This view-
point is illustrated by a questionnaire
conducted for my survey on cruise
tourism*, in particularly in Question 13:
"How do you see the common future
of the Caribbean as itineraries or as a
united group?"
If each Caribbean country continues
to stand alone, the common future
does not look good for the region. This
was the unanimous response. There
is mistrust among destinations and so



they work better apart. One outstand-
ing response came from a cruise line
principal, who said: "I am yet to see a
single island destination except Ber-
muda. It would suit the Caribbean to
work together for the common good of
the region."
So, is there any hope for the Carib-
bean? Is cruise tourism profitable? Or,
as the questionnaire puts it: "Is the
industry economically sustainable for
the Caribbean in its current form?"

This question was answered most
pointedly. The unanimous verdict was
No, because earnings by the destina-
tion were falling while earnings by the
vessel were increasing. Today, cruise
lines earn an average of 30 per cent of
income from onboard revenues. While
the Caribbean is challenged to expand
its port facilities, its revenues are going
down. At the same time, the Carib-
bean cruise season is getting shorter

because ships are spending longer in
the Mediterranean and Alaska.
The reality is that Caribbean gov-
ernments are asked to invest in major
cruise port development so as to
remain on the itineraries of the larger
vessels. This creates a strain on their
carrying capacities.
Many also expressed the view that
vessel size posed a challenge to the
environment and the carrying capaci-
ties of many of the micro-states in the
Caribbean. In order for the Caribbean
cruise tourism to remain economically
viable for Caribbean stakeholders, one
has to realise that the current strategy
is not as effective as it should be. So, if
the Caribbean territories wish to rise
out of this slump of'unprofitability',
they need to band together to achieve
the greater good.
This view was emphatically
expressed in Question 17 of the ques-
tionnaire: "What can the Caribbean do
to improve its economic viability in the

future against global development and
trends in the cruise industry?"
The central message was a call for the
Caribbean to come together. That it was
high time for Caribbean territories to
reassess their marketing strategy to pro-
mote the Caribbean as a united region
with four sub-regions, each with its own
sub-theme representing the four major
itineraries: Eastern, Southern, Western
Caribbean and the Bahamas.
Throughout the course of our dis-
cussion, one theme resonates: that of
calling together all Caribbean territories.
The inherent truth in the saying 'no man
is an island' is obvious. The go-it-alone
mentality cannot be profitable over
time. So, if the Caribbean territories wish
to enhance productivity and profitabil-
ity, they need to work together. m

*The findings presented in this
article were taken from the author's
PhD thesis on cruise tourism

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The promise of a

European cruise


The Dutch port has found success

by reviving its traditional role as a

passenger port

industry is growing
fast. Today it accounts for
more than 250,000 jobs in
Europe and generates over
EUR 10.6 billion in direct
expenditure and 15 million
visits to European ports.

European countries by 2010
- and this could rise to 5.1
million by 2015.
The most popular region
for cruise customers setting
off from Europe last year
was the Mediterranean and
Atlantic islands, with a 60

The most popular region

for cruise customers

setting off from Europe last

year was the Mediterranean

and Atlantic islands.

The 2008 economic
impact study of the European
Cruise Council shows that
every EUR 1 million spent by
the cruise industry creates
EUR 2.2 million in business
output and 21 jobs paying an
average wage of EUR 33,500.
This study has predicted that
4.1 million cruise tourists can
expect to be sourced from

per cent share of the market,
followed by the Caribbean
and other international
regions (24 per cent) and
northern Europe. Custom-
ers taking their first cruise
often have the best known
cities on their wish list. More
experienced cruisers, who
represent 80 per cent of the
total cruise market, ask for

destinations like Hamburg,
Bilbao or Rotterdam.
Rotterdam is part of the
West Coast Region. It is
famous for its world-class
port, currently the largest in
Europe and one of the five
most important in the world.
It lies at the heart of an area
with much to offer. Rot-
terdam is the perfect start,
or ending, for a European
cruise. Its mix of modern
architecture, shopping
centres and industrial tour-
ism, close by the windmills
of Kinderdijk and historical
cities like Delft, Gouda and
Dordrecht, has made Rotter-
dam a real winner as a cruise
With over 400 years of
experience in shipping and
international trade, Rotter-
dam has strong historical ties
with the travel industry. From
1873 until the 1970s it was the
thriving hub of Holland Amer-
ica Line (HAL). Steamships
with such familiar names as

'Rotterdam', 'Nieuw Amster-
dam' and 'Statendam' carried
hundreds of thousands of
passengers from Rotterdam
to New York. The company's
head office was located on
the site of what is now the
Hotel New York while the cur-
rent Cruise Terminal Rotter-
dam was formerly the arrivals
and departures terminal for
liner passengers. By the early
1970s, Rotterdam was no
longer a major port for pas-
sengers. However, since the
promotion of Rotterdam as a
cruise destination, there has
been a stirring of awareness
among international interests.
Last year, after an absence
of 36 years, HAL located its
European head office in Rot-
terdam once more.
In its efforts to attract cruise
business to the local region,
Rotterdam is pursuing a
strategy of communication,
creativity and co-opera-
tion. The port and city, local
cruise market and the
tourism industry- including
hotels, retailers, attractions
and museums are being
urged to combine their
efforts to create the most


attractive conditions for
cruise lines and their pas-

Because the cruise is not
a single destination prod-
uct, Rotterdam continues
to pursue joint marketing
opportunities with cruise
lines and other European
cruise destinations. Rotter-
dam is a member of Cruise
Europe, founded in 1991
after a meeting between 27
European ports. The aim was
to work together to market
northern and western Europe
to the cruise operators.
Today, some 100 ports, from

Lisbon in the south to Ham-
merfest in the north, are
members of Cruise Europe.
"Meet the expectation and
deliver what you promise" is
a key maxim of the Rotter-
dam cruise industry. A good
cruise experience is just as
important to the lines as it is
to their passengers. This is a
shared interest for developing
the European cruise market
and boosting its international
competitiveness. And it has
brought success:

1. Yields in Europe are higher
than in the Caribbean

2. The strong euro makes

cruising priced in US dollars
more attractive for Ameri-
cans compared with a land-
based vacation in Europe

3. Hence, demand is high and
the cruise industry is look-
ing for ways to 'stretch' the
European season, particularly
in the Mediterranean

4. As a result, the Caribbean
season has become shorter,
with ships now arriving in
late November instead of
October and leaving early
again in April/May.

Cruise Med and Cruise
Europe have played a

leading role in convincing
the cruise industry that
ships can come earlier
and stay longer. In my view,
it would take a similar
organisation in the
Caribbean to convince
the industry that the Carib-
bean can be an attractive
summer destination.
This requires intensive
summer marketing pro-
grammes backed by
attractive summer family
cruises, that could be
charged at a premium,
and lower off-season call-
ing costs, in an effort to
increase the demand and
yield situation. m



BUNKER PRICES may now be off
their peak as crude oil prices
retreat from early summer highs of
over US$140 a barrel; but volatility
continues in the oil market and no-
one can be sure where bunker prices
will be a year from now.
Fears that bunker pi ices will remain
high have led to some hard thinking by
ci uise operators as they seek to amelio-
rate fuel costs.
As bunker prices climbed during
late 2007 and the first half of 2008 to
well over $600 a tonne, cruise compa-
nies went for the easy but short-tei m
option: fuel surcharges.
However, growing
passenger resistance
to surchaiges during a

period of belt-tightening by consumers
has forced major cruise operators to
consider alternatives to merely sad-
dling the customer with extra bills.

All the major operators announced fuel
surcharges for passengers in 2007-8.
Some amounted to as much $126 per
passenger per ci uise. Foi example,
group companies of the industry
leader, Cai nival, weie charging 59 pei
passenger pei day for first and second
class passengers on any one booking
- the third increase in less than a yeai.
And this was aftei the opeiatoi had
been obliged to refund S40 million to
those ietioactively changed foi tickets
already pui)chased

Many charges were flat rate and not
related to the length of cruise or the
distance actually tiavelled.
A number of options are undei dis-
cussion. Most do not make happy lead-
ing for destinations especially those
far from the main home ports. Such is
the level of concern that
some Caribbean ports
are already known to
have commissioned A
studies to evaluate
the impact of higher
bunker prices on
theii particular desti-
Apa t fiom tink-
el ing at the edges,
little can be done fol


2009 as itineraries aie already in place
- although Carnival announced in June
that it was changing cruises to reduce
fuel consumption.
Most ci uises foi the winter 2008-9
season were fixed and sold long before
fuel prices went through the roof, so
don't expect to see too many short-
term changes. But ci uise planners are
taking a hard look at itineraries for 2010
and the pressure is clearly on to reduce
bunker costs. There are three main
options open to the bean counters: a
reduction in voyage distances, slow
steaming and for less obvious seasons
- the ending of fly-cruises.
If the option is to reduce voyage
distances, then there is a danger
that some peripheral ports may find
themselves missing from itineraries as
ships stay closer to their home port.
But areas of the Caiibbean aie not the
only destinations vulnerable to cuts in
voyage distances. This is a world-wide
At the port authority for Reykjavik
in Iceland, cruise marketing executive
Aguist Agtstsson is responsible foi
promoting a destination on the outei
edges of Europe. He said: 'The itinerary
people I have talked to lately are very

much aware of high bunker costs and
it seems that they have started to take
distances more into account than they
did before. But this will not show up in
the itineraries until 2010."
However, Agustsson remains optimis-
tic that his unique destination will remain
popular wherever bunker prices may go
in the future: "One should bear in mind,
when looking at this issue, that it's the

saleability of the itinerary that is, filling
the ship that counts in the end."
Nevertheless, Nigel Lingard, market-
ing director at UK-based Fred. Olsen,
believes that some destinations aie
vulnerable. He cites ports in the south-
ern Caribbean, Colombia, Panama and
Costa Rica as being most at liskfrom
reduced voyage distances

Less time in port
Rather than just cut out destinations,
however, lie said Fied Olsen was looking

at other ways of saving fuel, including
slow overnight steaming between desti-
nations, which would mean leaving port
earlier than previously. So although the
impact of high fuel prices may not neces-
sarily lead to a reduction in destinations,
it may mean less time in each poi t.
More critically, Fred. Olsen has
decided to reduce fly cruises from its
UK base and especially flights to the

Cai ibbean. Mr Lingard said the double
whammy of voyage fuel surcharges and
air charter surcharges was, perhaps, too
much for many passengers. As a result,
he said, Fred. Olsen would be operating
more voyages out of the UK in 2010.
Mr Lingard also believes that some
US operators will be doing the same
in reverse: bringing tonnage back
fiom the Mediterranean to reduce fly-
ciuises in the opposite direction. So
thie net impact on the Cai ibbean may,
in fact, be neutral mI

'' V V~


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* Representing
Worldwide container services to and from
Suriname with weekly reefer service sailings
From Japan regular sailings with car carriers (ROiRO)
From North West Europe sailings ex Flushing
(every 2 weeks) and ex Antwerp (every 4 weeks) for break
bulk. LCL, FCL and heavy lifts
* Stevedoring services
* Maritime consultancy
* Superstackers, shorecrane and other port equipment available

Havnlam Zuid P.O. Box 1842 Pmartaibo SLrname (5-AJ
Phone: Operadions (97) 403454 Marketing & Sales (597) 404142
Bulk Operations (S97) 403901 Freight Documents (597) 403922
Fax: (597) 4042531 97) 402392
Website: ww.integranar.com Emall: Integrafnlegramna corn
Inmarsat Phone (871) 7621 09610 Inmarsal Fax (8711) 7623 09631



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Twenty-five years and still going strong

Seaboard Marine is celebrating
this year. It's celebrating Silver.
Twenty-five years of service to
regional shipping is paying off. The
company has seen substantial growth
and has consolidated its services. In
short, Seaboard Marine is set.
Seaboard Marine, a member of the
Caribbean Shipping Association, pro-
vides direct, regular ocean transport
services between the United States
and the Caribbean, Central America
and South America. The company has
services in about 40 ports in more than
20 countries. Its ships criss-cross the
region, daily moving thousands of dry
and refrigerated containers in precise
and carefully plotted schedules.

Seaboard Marine's fixed-day sched-
ules make it convenient for its custom-
ers to coordinate manufacturing or
production sequences without having
to hold high levels of inventories. And
as the company celebrates Silver, it has
introduced a new rotation to and from
Guyana and Suriname. Seaboard Marine
describes this new South American serv-
ice as a "milestone development".
In addition to Miami, Seaboard
Marine has successfully initiated
services to and from other US ports
including Houston, Texas. Since 2002,
Seaboard Marine has offered a reliable
weekly service to Haiti, Jamaica, and
the Dominican Republic from Philadel-
phia while also providing weekly serv-

ice to Colombia, Venezuela, Jamaica,
Haiti and the Dominican Republic from
Fernandina Beach, Florida.
Efficient ships, convenient schedules
and a team of dedicated professionals
across the Caribbean area characterize
Seaboard Marine in 2008, twenty-five
years since the company was estab-
lished. With each office and location
contributing steadily to the company's
growth, Seaboard Marine has in fact
become a trade leader in the Caribbean
"... indeed, the Western Hemisphere"
the company argues.

Knowledgeable, customer-
Seaboard Marine has what it describes
as a "knowledgeable, customer-
focused, dedicated and well-equipped"
team of professionals at various office
locations. Seaboard Marine's people,
led by President Eddie Gonzalez, pride
themselves on being "experts" at
ensuring that shipments arrive in excel-
lent condition and on time.
"Seaboard is considered (to be) a
Miami-based shipping line with a distinct
Caribbean spirit ... servicing the core
Caribbean markets. We appreciate the
Caribbean markets intimately and the
out ports are led by experienced and
qualified Caribbean nationals who speak
the languages, know the cultures and
know the markets," said Mr. Gonzalez.

Fundamental business
Its fundamental business culture may
be driven by the experiences of its
parent company. Seaboard Marine is a
full subsidiary of Seaboard Corporation.
Seaboard Corporation's history dates
back almost 90 years. Over this time the
Seaboard Corporation has expanded


though acquisitions, par tnei ships and
intei nal growth Howeveli, despite its
name, Seaboald Colpolation s loots
ale in gain and agiicultuially derived
products Seaboald Coipoiation s Com-
modity Tiading and Milling Division
compl)ises gain pliocessing and trading
companies throughout South Ameiica,
the Ca iibbean and Al ica Its ships,
company-owned and chal teled, ale
the basis of a reliable delivery sel vice.
facilitating a network of selected supll)-
plieis in the USA, Aigentina and EUlope
to deliver gains and oilseeds to thild
)pa31 tyv loU and feed manufactuieis Pil-
ma31y COmmodities soUiced and traded
include wheat, coln, soybeans, mill
feed, soybean meal and othei protein
meals iln 2006, sales though consoli-
dated entities wevleovel S700 million I
Another subsidiary, Seaboalds
Foods, is one of the largest vei tically
integrated poik pioduceis and pioc-
essois in the United States Seaboald
Foods produces and sells flesh, frozen
and processed poik products to ful thel
pilocessoIs, food sel vice opel atols,
gloceiy StoleS, retail outlets and othei
dist ibutois in the United States, Japan,
Mexico and othei foreign mar kets

Primary operations
Seaboaid Mallnes pi mai y operations
Include a 135,000 sCl foot warehouse
in Miami foi caigo consolidation and
tempol)aly storage, plus a 70 acle
terminal at the Poi t of Miami At the
Poi t of Houston, Seaboaid op)elates

a 62 acie caigo terminal facility with
ovei 690,000 square feet of on-dock
warehouse space foi temporary stoi-
age of bagged gains, resins and othei
caigoes, a fai cry from its humble
beginnings in 1983.
In July of that year, 15 pei sons who
wele previously employed to Chestei
Blackbuin, agents foi Pan Atlantic lines,
stai ted what has become a success
stoi y The hi st sailing was a few weeks
late, on August 23rd from Rivera Beach
in South Flolida Two small io-ro ships:
the Begonio and the Godenio, each
with 52 tell positions, stai ted a sel vice
between Guatemala and Honduras
with ovei land sei vices to El Salvador:
and, Panama Costa Rica with ovei land
sel vices to Nicaiagual



The first sailing to Guatemala and
Hondulas fiom South Floi ida was five
40-foot tiaileis and Seaboaid nevei
looked back. The Cal ibbean soon came
into shalp focus By the mid 1980s theie
were sei vices to Venezuela and Domini-
can Republic but by 1990 a regional
service had stai ted to take shape The
Cai ibbean sei vice as it has evolved
stai ted with a sailing from Floiida on
the 20th of November, 1990. The NMV
Schalau to Antigua, St Lucia, Martinique,
Barbados and Trinidad. Subsequently,
sei vices to Colombia, Jamaica, Bahamas
and Haiti were added.

The future
Seaboard Mai line's commitment to the
Cai ibbean legion is assumed In the next
25 years there will be a continuation of
the strategy of expanding and deepen-
ing the reach and quality of its services,
with the Caribbean acting as a hub foi
The company also plans to continue
its little known initiatives of contribut-
ing to the development of the com-
munities which it serves. Over the past
25 yeais, the line was pleased to be
associated with vai ious sport, health
and youth organizations across the Car-
ibbean. It is committed to continuing
this by sponsor ing and participating in
community enl inching projects across
the entire Caribbean legion.m



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Emergency response

information: what,

why and how

By Harry Lux

morning and someone in
the port notices a con-
tainer leaking a substance
out of its doors. What is
the product? Who do they
call to take care of the
problem? Where do they
get the information on
how to handle the situa-
Not only is this scenario
played out regularly within
ports, it is also occurring at
airports, in warehouses, on
the streets within your com-
munities and at numerous
other work places around
the world.
Unique dangers
Each hazardous material
presents its own unique
dangers. And knowing what
those dangers are before
you respond to spills or leaks
can make the difference
between life and death.
What do the materials react
with? What is the vapour
density? What is the spe-
cific gravity? How can you
neutralise it? Do you need
special fire-fighting equip-
These are just some
of questions you need

to answer if you are the
responder. And time is of the
essence when the spill or
leak is identified.
Recently, three steve-
dores lost their lives in south
Florida while loading a
containership. The hazard-
ous material was a Class 2.2,
non-flammable, non-toxic
gas. Although the gas did
not ignite or explode, or
poison the workers, it did
displace the oxygen in the
hold of the vessel, causing
an asphyxiate environment.
It is highly probable that if
the emergency response
information had been
reviewed once a concern
was noted and prior to
their entry into this area
- this terrible tragedy could
have been prevented.
So if you intend to ship
hazardous materials in
today's world, you must be
able to provide the required
emergency response infor-
mation for the material you
are shipping.
Different modes have
different requirements, but
they all require that the
information must provide
enough information to
explain the risks, health

hazards and precautions
to take when dealing with
leaks or spills of the hazard-
ous material. This isn't just
nice-to-have information; it

immediately available at all
times for use in emergency
response to accidents and
incidents involving danger-
ous goods in transport.

If you intend to ship

hazardous materials in

today's world, you must

be able to provide the

required emergency

response information.

is the information needed to
save lives should something
go astray.
In order to comply, you
must follow the require-
ments of the International
Maritime Dangerous Goods
(IMDG) regulations*:

For consignments of dan-
gerous goods, appropri-
ate information must be

This information must be
available away from pack-
ages containing the danger-
ous goods and immediately
accessible in the event of an
incident. Methods of compli-
ance include:

1. Appropriate entries in the
special list, manifest or dan-
gerous goods declaration; or

2. Provision of a separate
document such as a safety
data sheet; or

3. Provision of separate
documentation, such as



the Emergency Response
Procedures for Ships Carry-
ing Dangerous Goods (EmS
Guide) and the Medical First
Aid Guide for Use in Acci-
dents Involving Dangerous
Goods (MFAG).

The US Code of Federal
Regulations requires:

(1) Basic description and
technical name of the haz-
ardous material

(2) Immediate hazards to

(3) Risks of fire or explosion

(4) Immediate precautions in
the event of an accident or

(5) Immediate methods for
handling fires

(6) Initial methods for
handling spills or leaks in
absence of fire

(7) First aid.

Information about the haz-
ardous material must be:

(1) Printed legibly in English

(2) Available for use away
from the package containing
the hazardous material

(3) Presented on a shipping
paper; or in a document that
includes the basic descrip-
tion and technical name of
the hazardous material, the
ICAO technical Instructions,
the IMDG code or the TDG
regulations, as appropriate,
and the required emer-
gency response information

required by this subpart; or
a written notification to the
pilot in command; or a dan-
gerous cargo manifest.

phone number
Anyone who offers a hazard-
ous material for transporta-
tion must provide an emer-
gency response telephone
number, including the
area code or international
access code. The telephone
number must be:

(1) Monitored at all times
when the hazardous mate-
rial is in transit, including

(2) The telephone number
of someone who knows
the hazardous material
being shipped and has
comprehensive emergency
response, or has immediate
access to a person with such
knowledge and information.
A telephone number that
requires a call back does not
meet the requirements; or

(3) Entered on a shipping
paper, as follows:

(i) Immediately following the
required description of the
hazardous material

(ii) Entered once on the
shipping paper in a clearly
visible location. This provi-
sion may be used only if
the telephone number
applies to each hazardous
material entered on the
shipping paper and if it is
indicated that the number
is for emergency response

You must have the
telephone number of the
person offering the hazard-
ous material for transporta-
tion or the number of an
agency or organisation that
can provide detailed infor-
mation about the material.
To ensure the utmost
safety of those working in
the supply chain, please
provide as much emergency
response information as you
can. In an emergency situa-
tion you will never have too
much information to review
for guidance.
As stated above, the
24-hour telephone number
must be for the shipper or
his designated provider. This

means, if you don't want to
provide this service yourself,
you will need to contract an
outside agency to perform
this function for you. Emer-
gency response informa-
tion is just that: information
required in an emergency.
If you are the one respond-
ing and/or overcome by
a hazardous material, you
will surely appreciate the
If it is not available, you
may be the one suffering the

*The wording of these
rules has been simpli-
fied here for the sake of



Protocol Amending

The Treaty Establishing

The Caribbean Community

(Protocol VI: Transport Policy)

The States Parties to the
Treaty Establishing
the Caribbean Community
(hereinafter referred to as
"the Member States"):
Recognising the vital
importance of land, air and
maritime transportation
for maintaining economic,
social and cultural linkages
as well as facilitating emer-
gency assistance among the
Member States of the Carib-
bean Community (hereinaf-
ter called "the Community");
Recognising further the
importance of the estab-
lishment and structured
development of transport
links with third States for
the accelerated and sus-
tained development of the
CARICOM Single Market and
Aware of the importance
of promoting adequate air
and maritime transport serv-
ices for the continued viability
of the tourism industry and
of reducing the vulnerabil-
ity of the CARICOM Region
resulting from its reliance on

extra-regional carriers;
Convinced that a viable
transport policy for the
Community will make a sig-
nificant contribution in sat-
isfying the demands for the
intra-regional movement of
people and products in the
CARICOM Single Market and
Conscious that the
efficient regulation of air
and maritime transport is
essential for the promotion
of safety and the protection
of the environment, particu-
larly the Caribbean Sea;
Conscious further of the
strategic importance of air
and maritime capabilities in
promoting and safeguard-
ing the essential security
interests of Member States
of the Community,
Have Agreed as follows:

Article 1:
Use of Terms
In this Protocol, unless the
context otherwise requires:
"Community" includes

the CARICOM Single Market
and Economy to be estab-
lished by the Protocols
amending or replacing the
provisions of the Caribbean
Common Market Annexe to
the Treaty;
"Conference" means the
Conference of Heads of Gov-
ernment of the Community;
"the Council for Trade
and Economic Development
(COTED)" means the organ of
the Community so named in
Article 6(2)(a) of the Treaty;
"Member State" means a
Member State of the Com-
"recommended practice"
means any specification
for physical characteristics,
configuration, material,
performance, personnel
or procedure, the uniform
application of which is
regionally or generally rec-
ognised in the international
community as desirable
for the efficient delivery of
transport services;
"standard" means any
specification for physical

characteristics, configura-
tion, material, performance,
personnel or procedure, the
uniform application of which
is regionally or generally rec-
ognised in the international
community as necessary
for the efficient delivery of
transport services;
"Treaty" means the Treaty
establishing the Carib-
bean Community signed at
Chaguaramas on the 4th day
of July 1973 and includes
any amendments thereto
which take effect either
provisionally or definitively
(hereinafter referred to as
"the Treaty").

Article 2:
Objectives of
the Community
Transport Policy

1. The goal of the Commu-
nity Transport Policy shall be
the provision of adequate,
safe and internationally
competitive transport serv-
ices for the development


and consolidation of the
CARICOM Single Market and

2. In fulfilment of the goal
set out in paragraph 1 of
this Article, the Community
shall pursue the following

a. the organisation of effi-
cient, reliable, affordable
transport services through-
out the Community;

b. the development and
expansion of air and mari-
time transport capabilities in
the Community;

c. the promotion of co-
operative arrangements for
the provision of transport

d. the development of effi-
cient internationally com-
petitive ancillary transport
e. the development of
human resources for
employment in all areas and


at all levels of
the transport sector;

f. the implementation of
standards for the develop-
ment of safe road, river-
ine, sea and air transport

Article 3:
of Community
Transport Policy

1. In order to achieve the
objectives of the Com-
munity Transport Policy,
the Council for Trade and
Economic Development
(COTED) shall, in collabora-
tion with other Organs of

the Community as
appropriate, pro-
mote, inter alia:

* co-ordination of the
national transport policies of
Member States;

* the implementation of
uniform regulations and
procedures, consistent
with standards and recom-
mended practices, for the
development of an efficient
multi-modal transport
system, particularly in
respect of operations, safety,
licensing and certification
* the development of


required institutional, legal,
technical, financial and
administrative support for
the balanced, sustainable
development of the trans-
port sector;

* the establishment of meas-

i. to ensure that the develop-
ment of the transport sector
does not impact adversely


parl kri


on the environment of
Member States and, in par-
ticular, the Caribbean Sea;

ii. for the acquisition and
transfer of technology in the
transport sector; and

iii. for the establishment
of joint ventures and
programmes for human
resources development; and

* investment in the transport
sector, including ancillary serv-
ices supportive of the sector;

* the removal of obstacles
to the provision of transport
services by nationals of
Member States in accord-
ance with the relevant provi-
sions of Protocol II.

2. The COTED shall develop
programmes to facilitate the
achievement of the objec-
tives set out in Article 2.

3. Member States shall
co-ordinate their actions
in order to secure the best
terms and conditions for the
provision of transport serv-
ices by service providers.

Article 4:
Search and Rescue
1. The COTED shall promote
co-operation in air and
maritime search and rescue
operations in the Commu-
nity, bearing in mind such
machinery as may exist for
the overall co-ordination of
search and rescue services.

2. Member States shall
notify the COTED of air and
maritime equipment and
facilities available for use in
search and rescue opera-

3. Member States shall col-
laborate with third States
and competent international
organizations in search and
rescue operations.

Article 5:
Transport Services

1. Member States shall adopt
uniform standards and
recommended practices for
the provision of transport

2. Member States shall notify
the COTED of legislative,
regulatory or administra-
tive measures affecting
the provision of transport
services within their domes-
tic jurisdictions where such
measures deviate from uni-
form standards and recom-
mended practices.

3. Member States adversely
affected by such regulatory
or administrative measures
may notify the COTED of
such adverse effects, and
shall have recourse to the
disputes settlement proce-
dures under the Treaty.

Article 6:
Development of
Air Transport

1. Member States shall co-
operate in:

* the development of air
transport services in the
Community and towards
this end may conclude
among themselves air trans-
port agreements designed
to facilitate the provision of
such services;

* establishing measures to
ensure that the provision of
international air transport
services in the Community
is undertaken by financially
viable and technical quali-
fied carriers and operators,
and that the Community
interest in safety, security
and economy of air travel is
not prejudiced.

2. The COTED shall pro-
mote co-operation among
Member States in the reg-
istration of aircraft and the
enforcement of applicable
standards in the air trans-
port industry.

3. Member States shall
co-operate in ensuring
uniformity in licensing and
certification procedures and
equivalencies within the
Community for aviation per-
sonnel in conformity with
international standards.

4. The COTED shall promote
co-operation among opera-
tors of transport services of
Member States particularly
in purchasing of equipment
and supplies, the manage-
ment of inventories, interline
and inter-modal operations,
code sharing, reservations,
insurance, leasing and simi-
lar operations.

Article 7:
Aircraft Accident
and Incident

1. Member States undertake
to conduct effective and
comprehensive investiga-
tions into aircraft accidents
and incidents with a view
to enhancing the technical
conditions for the safe deliv-

ery of air transport services.

2. Member States shall, to
the extent possible, make
available appropriate equip-
ment, facilities and person-
nel to assist in the investiga-
tion of aircraft accidents or
incidents which occur within
the Community and take
effective measures to pro-
tect the property of victims,
relevant evidence and the
crash site from interference
and unauthorised entry.

3. Member States shall col-
laborate with third States
and competent international
organizations in the conduct
of aircraft accident investiga-

Article 8:
of Maritime
1. Member States shall
co-operate in the develop-
ment of maritime transport
services in the Community.
In particular, Member States
shall co-operate in:

a. enhancing flag and port
State control activities in the

* developing and provid-
ing expertise in the ship-
ping industry, including
the necessary services and
infrastructure necessary for
the growth of the shipping

* protecting the marine envi-
ronment from the effects of
vessel source pollution and
in combating the effects of
such pollution; and



* taking any other action
necessary for the sustainable
development of the ship-
ping sector.

2. The Community shall
co-operate with compe-
tent national, regional and
international organizations
in establishing conditions
for the provision of efficient
and affordable maritime
transport services among
Member States.

3. The COTED shall pro-
mote co-operation among
Member States in the
implementation of relevant
international maritime
instruments relating to
maritime safety, marine
environmental protection,
maritime accident investiga-
tion and the facilitation of
maritime traffic.

4. The COTED shall promote
and co-ordinate the devel-
opment of maritime trans-
port services in the Commu-
nity through, inter alia:

* the development of pro-
posals for the establishment
and upgrade of small vessel
enterprises in the Community;

* the establishment of a
regime of incentives to
encourage the development
of shipping enterprises in
the Community;

* the establishment,
improvement and ration-
alisation of port facilities in
the Community, to respond
to the demands of contain-
erisation, refrigeration and
storage of agricultural com-
modities, nautical and cruise
tourism and other special
and dedicated services;

* co-operation and regular
interchange among admin-
istrations to promote a
harmonised system for the
development of maritime
transport in the Community;

* promotion of joint ventures
among Community nation-
als and with extra-regional
shipping enterprises to
facilitate the transfer of
applicable technology and
increase the participation of
Member States in interna-
tional shipping;
* the organisation and
harmonisation of training
programmes within the
Community, the strength-
ening of the capabilities of
training institutions and the
ease of access of Community
nationals to all aspects of
training and development in
the shipping industry; and

* the development of ancil-
lary services in the shipping
industry, including non-
vessel operating common
carriers, marine insurance,
freight forwarding, trans-
shipment and other services.

5. Member States shall pro-
mote the development of
maritime transport services
in the Community through,
inter alia:

* the establishment and
improvement of port facilities;

* the establishment of effec-
tive maritime administra-
tions for the regulation of
shipping in the respective
jurisdictions of maritime
safety and marine environ-
mental protection;

* the implementation of rel-
evant international maritime

instruments related to the
safety of shipping and the
prevention of vessel source
pollution; and

* encouraging improved
efficiency in ports and in
related services to reduce
maritime transportation

Article 9:
Special Status of
the Caribbean Sea

Member States shall co-
operate in achieving inter-
national recognition for the
Caribbean Sea as a Special
Area requiring protection
from the potentially harm-
ful effects of the transit of
nuclear and other hazardous
wastes, dumping, pollu-
tion by oil or by any other
substance carried by sea or
wastes generated through
the conduct of ship opera-

Article 10:
This Protocol shall be open
for signature by the Member
States on the day of 1999.

Article 11:
This Protocol shall be
subject to ratification by
signatory States in accord-
ance with their respective
constitutional procedures.
Instruments of ratifi-
cation shall be
deposited with A

the Secretariat which shall
transmit certified copies to
the Government of each
Member State.

Article 12:
Any Member State other
than a signatory State may
accede to this Protocol. An
Instrument of Accession
shall take effect on the date
on which the Instrument is
deposited with the Secre-
tariat of the Community.

Article 13:
Entry Into Force
This Protocol shall enter
into force one month after
the date on which the last
Instrument of Ratification is
deposited with the Secre-

Article 14:

1. A Member State may,
upon the signing of this
Protocol or at any later date
before it enters into force,
declare its intention to apply
it provisionally.

2. Upon such declaration by
all Member States, the provi-
sions of this Protocol shall be
applied provisionally pending
its entry into force in accord-
ance with Article 13. m


We ignore Protocol VI

at our peril

By Milton J. Samuda, LL.B.

Caribbean Shipping
Association (CSA), and
especially those whose
home states are members
of Caricom, should read
the Protocol Amending the
Treaty Establishing the Car-
ibbean Community (Proto-
col VI: Transport Policy).
The Protocol is repro-
duced in this issue (page 42)
for your convenience.
Having read that docu-
ment, they should agitate for
and participate in a concerted
effort to influence the unfold-
ing of the policy details which
must be agreed by member
states to give life to the provi-
sions of the Protocol.
The Protocol is not a long
document. It is not difficult
reading. Its content is critical
to the future of our maritime
industry. From the opening
recitals, the Protocol estab-
lishes its own importance
and places in broad yet
specific context the critical
importance of transporta-
tion, including maritime
transport, to the success of
the CSME. The fact that we

are now engaged in solidify-
ing the CSM, with the CSME
to follow, does not diminish
that critical importance.
To be sure, the Proto-
col is wider than maritime
transport; and it does locate
that transport mode within
a broader framework; but
it also specifically identifies
maritime transport in provi-
sions which beg the studied
input of the CSA. The CSA
should have select mem-
bers review the Protocol
and draft policy positions
for the consideration of its
governing council and the
general membership. Those
policy positions should be
advanced at the Council
for Trade and Economic
Development (Coted) and
should form the basis for a
representation by the CSA to
the Conference of Heads of
Government of the Commu-
nity. The role envisioned is
not in any way adversarial or
contentious. While the CSA
must lobby for the interest
of its members, it must also
embrace a role as adviser,
giving assistance to Coted

and the heads as they seek
to detail the policies that will
give effect to the provisions
of the Protocol.

Read carefully
Read very carefully the
recitals that 'introduce' the
articles of the Protocol.

From the very first recital,
which recognizes "the vital
importance of land, air and
maritime transportation
for maintaining economic,
social and cultural link-
ages as well as facilitating
emergency assistance
among the member states",
through to the sixth and
final recital, in which "the
strategic importance of air
and maritime capabilities in

promoting and safeguard-
ing the essential security
interests of member states"
is stated, the bases are set
for the goals, objectives and
policy guidelines that follow.
Article 8, Development of
Maritime Transport Services,
assigns certain responsibili-

ties to each of the member
states, Caricom and Coted. It
indicates clearly to each how
they should carry out those
A reading of the recitals
and the articles immediately
reveals that the Protocol is
not merely an inward-look-
ing document focused on
intra-regional trade and
mutual development. It
considers and plans for the


The CSA should have select

members review the Protocol

and draft policy positions

for the consideration of its

governing council and the

general membership.

facilitation of international
trade aimed at accelerating
sustainable development
of the CSME. It emphasises
that development must not
come at the environmen-
tal cost of the heritage of

the Caribbean Sea. It also
specifically contemplates
the status of the sea and
mandates that:
"Member states shall co-
operate in achieving inter-
national recognition for the
Caribbean Sea as a special
area requiring protection

from the potentially harm-
ful effects of the transit of
nuclear and other hazardous
wastes, dumping, pollu-
tion by oil or by any other
substance carried by sea or
wastes generated through

the conduct of ship opera-
tions." (Article 9: Special
Status of the Caribbean Sea.)
Yet there is more. While
the CSA must carefully
consider the provisions of
the Protocol itself, equal care
is needed in considering
the contexts in which the

Protocol must be read. In
fact, a further set of actions
will emerge from that con-
sideration, separate from
those that arise naturally
from a consideration of the
provisions themselves. For
example, two other contexts
in which the Protocol and its
provisions must be consid-
ered are the responses by
the CSA and Caricom to: (1)
globalisation and the strug-
gle to maintain cohesion and
competitiveness in a chang-
ing world in which interna-
tional rules of trade abhor
special privileges; and (2) the
universal threat of terrorism
and its significant implica-
tions for small nation states.

Those contexts require that
the CSA response be more
than policy oriented. The
response must be strategic
and must seamlessly support
the broader Caricom policies


on trade, development and
international relations.
The private sector has
long been critical of what
it says is the propensity for
regional governments to
formulate policy without
meaningful participation
by the private sector. While
there is merit in that criti-
cism, the private sector has
often been much too slow to
insist on consultation or to
take advantage of existing
mechanisms that facilitate
that consultation. The CSA
must not be absent. It must
put in the work, develop its
position, insist on consulta-
tion and assist in the writing
of the details for agreed
The Protocol, therefore,
is mandatory reading for
CSA members. While it may
not be the proverbial "call
to arms", it is, for the CSA, a
"call to action". We ignore
that call at our peril. m

L Job rntl-

cn'omp3ny nm nle

I Adc.hre..

Emn il-

Fax to: +44 1206 842958 or e-mail your request to: publishing, landmarine.com


While the CSA must carefully

consider the provisions of

the Protocol itself, equal care

is needed in considering

the contexts in which the

Protocol must be read.

Zp co,.e


Navigating the

recruitment channels

!!I I/ /

By Burnett B. Coke

SECRET that the majority
of recruitment choices are
regretted by employers
within the first six months.
It also known that, if con-
ditions allowed, many of
you as employers would
simply hit the 'undo'
button and start the proc-
ess all over again.
Unfortunately, however,
the time, cost and implica-
tions of continuously replac-
ing bad cruise shipping
hires tend to be prohibitive.
The real cost of replac-
ing an employee can vary

between 60 and 100 per
cent of annual wages of the
incumbent. To avoid wast-
ing resources and having
business plans torpedoed,
industry leaders must be
prepared to undertake cer-
tain first steps.
First, hire competent and
strong human resources

leadership. Through a sound
HR team, the jobs will be
properly scoped and the
ideal competencies and
skills will be defined.
Second, decide before-
hand on your compensation
structure. Do you want your
compensation package
to lead, lag or match the
market? Based on the stage
of your business lifecycle -
start-up, mature or declining
cruise player you should
design your compensation
structure accordingly.

Buy or build
Third, decide whether to
build or buy skills. Depend-
ing on multiple factors,
HR can decide whether to
develop internal staff or go
to the market and recruit
externally. Be cautioned
that hospitality and cruise
staff members tend to be

younger and more nomadic,
so returns on investment in
long-term training may be
risky. In addition, most of the
roles are at a fairly low level
in direct operations and
through contact with cruise
clients so there may be a
large degree of recruitment
from external sources.

Consequently, the cruise
industry requires staff to
have specific knowledge,
skills and, more particu-
larly, personal competen-
cies. To avoid staff mutiny,
the cruise industry should
"recruit for attitude and
train for skill". Most roles are
multi-skilled and general-
ist in nature, requiring staff
who are not bound by mere
job descriptions. By its
nature, the industry places
more emphasis on attitude
than aptitude. Ideally, cruise
staff should possess these

* Problem solving acumen.
Candidates should be able
to consider unconventional
approaches and solutions to
problems, otherwise they'll
be lost at sea.

* Good communication skills.
Team members should be
able to express ideas and
information concisely and
accurately to staff and cli-
ents alike. Being multilingual
is a definite asset to the role
and business.

* Flexibility. Faced with
multiple and changing work
environments, cruise ship
employees must be able
to perform reliably under
varied and adverse condi-

* 'Can do' attitude. Directly
connected to changing
environments is the real-
ity of learning by trial and

error. Your team should
be undaunted by failures
and should be capable of
learning from mistakes. The
competitive and dynamic
industry will not accom-
modate staff members who
are unable to move beyond
their current scenario and
towards a new reality.
* Value diversity. Staff
must recognize the value
of working with diverse,
cross-functional teams and
must be able to commit to
common goals of teams.
While a cruise ship may
exist as a virtual island,
her staff members do not.
Efficiency and competition
demand that individualism
be eliminated and col-
laborative team efforts be

* Leadership potential. While
this trait may be latent or
undeveloped, the candi-
date's ability to motivate
others towards excellence
should be strongly encour-
aged and facilitated. The
ability to persuade others
through reason or incentives
will be a deciding factor in
which lines remain viable
and which flounder or drift

While this list is not exhaus-
tive, it is a good point from
which your HR team should
start when looking to recruit
or mould staff. Once these
buoys are in place, then
navigating the job specifics
should be smooth sailing. m


The cruise industry

requires staff to have

specific knowledge, skills

and, more particularly,

personal competencies.




~I mom

i .....3

.... . . . . . . . . . . . .

. ........ .

. I,-


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