Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Back Matter
 Back Cover

Title: Caribbean maritime
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00099408/00003
 Material Information
Title: Caribbean maritime
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Caribbean Shipping Association
Publisher: Land & Marine Publications Ltd.
Place of Publication: Colchester Essex, England
Publication Date: January-April 2008
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00099408
Volume ID: VID00003
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
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    Back Matter
        Back Matter
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text

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16 Panama Canal
Work under way on Panama Canal expansion

4 National Shipping Associations
CSA to help strengthen national shipping
5 Puerto Rico Shipping Association faces
a busy year
6 Shipping Association of Guyana to set up
permanent training facility
7 Education and training of workers is key
challenge for Shipping Association of Jamaica
8 SATT to be more inclusive; to expand
9 Challenging year ahead for Shipping
Association of Barbados
10 Cruise
CSA fosters training and co-operation
in cruise sector
12 Caricom Single Market and Economy
Are we ready?And what does it mean for
Caribbean shipping?
19 Bigger Ships
Bigger ships, bigger ports in the Caribbean
and Latin America?
22 Ship Registration
One in four of world's fleet now registered in
CSA countries
24 Training
CSA in joint venture with Puerto Rican university
25 The Year Ahead
CMI expands to Eastern Caribbean
26 The Year Ahead
Ominous signs, positive indicators, optimism
28 Ports
Timely dredging can head off a financial storm


31 Liner Business
Quality leadership
the key to a successful liner business
33 Cartagena
Cartagena set to break records in 2008
38 Innovation
Carrier wins patent for 53 ft container
loading process

2 Editorial
Plan for success
3 Message from the CSA President
35 Newsmaker
Grantley Stephenson receives national
award in Jamaica
37 Late News
41 Hazardous Materials
Make hazmat compliance your New Year
43 CSA News
46 The Human Factor
47 A Matter of Law
Sunken treasure: the next frontier

Except for that appearing in the Editorial column, the views
and opinions expressed by writers featured in this publication
are presented purely for information and discussion and do
not necessarily reflect the views and opinions of the Caribbean
Shipping Association.
- The Editor.




No. 3 I JAN APR 2008

The official journal of the Caribbean
Shipping Association

* caribbean shipping association

"To promote and foster the highest
quality service to the maritime industry
through training development;
working with all agencies, groups and
other associations for the benefit and
development of its members and the
peoples of the Caribbean region."

President: Fernando Rivera
Vice President: Carlos Urriola
Immediate Past President: Corah-Ann
Robertson Sylvester
Group A Chairman: Robert Foster
Group A Representative: Michael Bernard
Group A Representative: lIan Deosaran
Group A Representative: Francis Camacho
Group B Chairman: Grantley Stephenson
Group B Representative: David Jean-Marie
Group C Chairman: Johan Bjorksten
Group C Representative: Cyril Seyjagat
General Manager: Stephen Bell
Director Information and Public Relations:
Michael S.I.Jarrett
Caribbean Shipping Association
4 Fourth Avenue, Newport West,
PO Box 1050, Kingston C.S.0, Jamaica
Tel: +876 923-3491
Fax: +876 757-1592
Email: csa@cwjamaica.com
Mike Jarrett
Email: csa@mikejarrett.net

Publications Ltd
1 Kings Court, Newcomen Way,
Severalls Business Park, Colchester
Essex, C04 9RA, UK
Tel: +44 (0)1206 752902
Fax: +44 (0)1206 842958
Email: publishing@landmarine.com

Plan for success

The year ahead promises challenges that will demand concentration,
experience, skill and patience. However, the dark clouds will have silver
linings, and of that we can be relatively certain. Amid the difficulties and
trials, the uncertainties and fears, there will be opportunities for success and
there will be serendipity.
You owe it to yourself to meet the challenges with confidence and calm, relying
on your own good sense and on the skills, knowledge and experience of your col-
leagues, compatriots and the CSA. Don't be overwhelmed by fear; nor should you
be fearful of uncertainty. Rather, go boldly forward, secure in the thought that it
was not mere luck that got you to this point, but some ability and intelligence. Self-
confidence and a positive outlook will allow you to exploit the opportunities that
2008 may present, even in a sea of adversity. On the other hand, the twin obstacles
of fear and dismay will sap your energy and weaken your resolve to succeed. They
will blunt your innate ability to overcome, conquer and transcend.
Success in the year ahead will depend largely on how positive and responsive
you are; how quickly you respond to the challenges and opportunities that will
come your way. And if there is one thing you can be sure of: opportunities will
come. They may come intertwined with challenges and disappointments, but
there will be chances to make good and opportunities to score. Yours is the task to
seek and find such opportunities and to turn misfortune and adversity into jewels.
The theme of this issue of 'Caribbean Maritime' is The Year Ahead. You will read
of plans by the Caribbean's leading national shipping associations for 2008. The
similarities between them are obvious. They expect challenges regional reper-
cussions from global economic issues but the national shipping associations of
Barbados, Guyana, Puerto Rico, Jamaica and Trinidad all have positive plans for
development. Training and development of human resources are high on their list
of priorities for 2008.
The CSA looks to the year ahead with eager anticipation and hope. Indeed,
President Fernando's message, reproduced on an adjacent page, is encouraging
and underscores the CSA's role as an agent for change and a catalyst for develop-
ment. There are also positive signs in the cruise industry and, notwithstanding the
recent weakening of the US dollar to which many Caribbean currencies are tied
- there are expectations for growth in the year ahead.
So, start the year ahead by planning for success. Work with your people. Every-
one in your organisation is important. Sit down with your managers and supervi-
sors. Talk with your messenger and the gate staff. Make an ally of them because, if
you don't, someone else will. Start the process of planning for success by discuss-
ing not just the challenges and perceived problems but, more importantly, specific
strategies for achieving set goals. Then put a team together to plan for growth,
cost cutting and improved efficiency.
Plan realistically. Plan scientifically. There are many models that you can adopt
or adapt.
The year ahead could be your most successful year in business. But, you do
need a plan!

Mike Jarrett, Editor



CSA has full agenda

for development in

the year ahead

This being our first issue
of'Caribbean Maritime'
for 2008, I want to take the
opportunity to thankyou
all for the support given,
not only to our two previ-
ous issues of this magazine,
but also to me as President
of the Caribbean Shipping
Association (CSA).
Without your help and
involvement we could not
have accomplished all the
things we did last year.
As we look ahead to 2008
there are many important
things that we must continue
to work at and new projects
that are necessary for the
continuous growth of the
CSA. During this year we will
be offering our members
the first academic courses
and training as a result of the
Memorandum of Co-opera-
tion signed last year with the
Pontifical Catholic University

of Puerto Rico. We will con-
tinue with our efforts to build
and expand our relationship
with other organizations in
the Region.
Regarding security issues,
there are a couple of things
on which we are concentrat-
ing our efforts and will con-
tinue to do so. We must assist
all CSA member territories
to get the necessary training
so that they can comply with
all the new security require-
ments. In this respect we
have met with the US Coast
Guard and a security confer-
ence, sponsored by the Coast
Guard and involving the
CSA, will be held from 8 to 10
April 2008 in the Dominican
Republic. The purpose of
this conference is to provide
a forum for the territories
within the Region to identify
principal problems, highlight
best practices and map out

security initiatives within the
This is a significant event
for the Caribbean, particu-
larly the smaller territories. It
will be co-ordinated by the
US Coast Guard 7th Region
in Miami, the San Juan office
and the CSA. During this
conference, a Memorandum
of Co-operation between
the US Coast Guard and the
Caribbean Shipping Associa-
tion will be signed.
Another item which I
consider the most important
is what the CSA is doing
and what we will do to help
all small ports in the Carib-
bean to comply with all
the security requirements.
During the CCAA Confer-
ence in Miami late last year,
this item was discussed and
CSA will be designing a plan
to accomplish this. The CSA's
General Council, meeting in

Jamaica on 21 January, will
discuss this and work should
start on this immediately
following that meeting.
Another item that we
have to work on in the year
ahead is the re-energising
of national associations and
the importance of re-estab-
lishing the CSA's National
Associations Committee.
The CSA has a full agenda
for the year ahead. It is all
about development and
improving the shipping
industry of the Caribbean.
There is no doubt in my
mind that we can accom-
plish these projects, with the
help of everyone.
May the year ahead be
one of happiness and good
health to all.

Fernando Rivera
President, Caribbean
Shipping Association



The next issue of "'Caribbean Maritime" will
M MTIM E be out in May 2008. So don't miss the boat.

Don't Miss the boad Call today to book your advertisement.
Please contact Lester Powell at
Got a message to put across? Then you won't Land & Marine Publications Ltd:
find a better spot than "'Caribbean Maritime", Tel: +44 (0)1206 752 902
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the shipping industry.


CSA to help





Bedrock that gives CSA stability

Fernando Rivera, Presi-
dent of the Caribbean
Shipping Association, says
he wants to help national
shipping associations to
strengthen their organisa-
tions so they can better
serve their local shipping
Mr Rivera was speaking at
the CSA's 37th Annual Con-
ference in Santo Domingo in
October during a meeting of
Group A.* He was respond-
ing to a paper delivered by
CSA Past President Ludlow
'Luddy' Stewart, himself a
retired ship agent.
In his presentation, 'Build-
ing the CSA, Strengthening
the Foundations', Mr Stewart
said national shipping asso-
ciations were the foundation
of the CSA. He described
them as the bedrock that
gave the CSA stability and
the energy that made the
CSA grow.
"They are the bridge over
which the CSA is able to pro-
mote and assist, at the local
level, development of the

Caribbean shipping indus-
try," said Mr Stewart.
Undoubtedly, it is in the
best interests of the CSA
and, indeed, all the peoples
of the Caribbean that strong
and viable national ship-
ping associations should be
developed and sustained.
The Caribbean needs
solid, professional
national shipping
associations, able
to initiate and
support projects
and programmes
for new develop-
ment, expansion and
growth while protecting its
membership and industry
This was how the CSA got
started in the first place. The
initiatives of the Shipping
Association of Jamaica in
the 1960s had caught the
attention of the shipping
communities in a number
of Caribbean territories.
The free sharing of informa-
tion between these ship-
ping communities made it

evident that a permanent
organisation of shipping
interests across the Region
would be a good thing.
The formation of national
shipping associations like
the Shipping Association of
Jamaica and the Shipping
Association of Trinidad and
Tobago, both in the 1930s,
had therefore been encour-
aged by the architects of the
CSA. The national shipping
associations were the foun-
dation on which the CSA
was built.
However, as Mr Stewart
noted, at the time when
the industry should be
working towards strength-
ening national shipping
associations there had
been a decline in these
efforts within the CSA.
In this regard, he
recalled that the
CSA's attempts
to develop the
national asso-
ciations had failed
when the National
Associations Commit-
tee, formed in 2002, finally
"There is need at this time
for the CSA to establish and
maintain a programme to
build, enhance, strengthen
and develop national ship-
ping associations so that,
through these organizations,
the CSA can further its work
of Regional development".
The CSA Past President
proposed that Group A, the
'home'of the national ship-

ping associations, should
discuss the building and
strengthening of national
shipping associations in order
to develop them into efficient,
professional organizations
capable of dealing with the
demands and technologies of
the 21st century.
In his response, the CSA Presi-
dent said the General Council
would be looking to re-estab-
lish the National Associations
Committee. This committee
will provide a forum in which
executive directors, manag-
ers and secretaries of national
shipping associations will
meet (as a Standing Commit-
tee of the CSA) to exchange
information and help each
other to upgrade and expand
the services they offer to their
The National Associa-
tions Committee will look at
common problems; current
systems and procedures;
and discuss collective strate-
gies where this can help the
local shipping industry to
Meanwhile, most national
shipping associations across
the Caribbean are complet-
ing plans and drafting strat-
egies for the year ahead.

*Group A (Ship Agents
and Private Stevedores)
is the CSA's oldest and
largest group


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Caricom Single Market and Economy

Are we ready? And

what does it mean for

Caribbean shipping?

By Sacha Vaccianna,
Shipping Association
of Jamaica

The Caricom Single
Market and Economy
(CSME) has been a topic
for discussion for some
time but questions still
persist. Why the CSME?
Why me? Why now? Why
For the maritime trans-
port community, the ques-
tions seem more pertinent.
After all, trade has been
taking place globally for cen-
turies without the shipping
fraternity having to give
much thought to the current
catchphrases of 'integration',
harmonisationn' and 'free
movement'. The Ansa McAls,
the Grace Kennedys and

the Goddard Industries are
exemplary Caribbean busi-
nesses, trading and expand-
ing, circulating personnel,
becoming household names
region-wide, apparently
with or without the facilita-
tion of ambitious machina-
tions like CSME.
After all, shipping just
happens naturally, doesn't
it? It is simply a question of
supply and demand eco-
nomics, right? Why don't we
just get on with the business
of shipping as usual? It is
easy to feel that shipping is
to industry and commerce
what water is to life, so why
bother? It's full speed ahead,
Wrong. The CSME is
important for us all, at
individual, corporate and
industry levels. For the
Caribbean Shipping Associa-
tion (CSA), an appreciation
of this is critical if it hopes to
maintain its relevance as an
Why the CSME?
With an uninspiring history
of attempts at integration,
the question of 'Why the
CSME?' seems justified.
Among its primary objec-
tives are:
full employment of

all the factors of produc-
tion within a region with a
cumulative population of
some 6 million (with Haiti, 14
improved standards of
accelerated, co-ordi-
nated and sustained eco-
nomic development for the
whole region
increased intra-Carib-
bean trade
better opportunities
for businesses to penetrate
third country markets
increased economic
leverage and effectiveness
vis-a-vis third party states.
The Single Market, which
began in 2005/2006, seeks
to create a seamless eco-
nomic space. This will be
facilitated by the removal
of restrictions (legislation
or restrictive administrative
practices), the free move-
ment of goods and services,
capital, labour and the right
to establishment.
Proponents of the CSME
believe the creation of a
Single Market and economic
space will enhance the
region's ability to face the
obstacles of globalisation
and increasing liberalisa-
tion of trade. The CSME is
expected to provide the

The CSME will
involve the
harmonica tion of
'inv-estment and
incentives, create
services and in
many ways will
be the Region's
- dress rehearsal
for globalisation







region with a unique oppor-
tunity to prepare for more
efficient and competitive
production and trade within
a wider global environ-
ment, while capitalising on
synergies for production
and trade within our own
commercial market. In many
ways, it is the region's dress
rehearsal for globalisation!
As lofty as these ideals
may be, Caricom has
advanced in its implemen-
tation of the first compo-
nent. Admittedly there are
important outstanding
issues, including the imple-
mentation of the Regional
Development Fund, which
,was instituted as a key ele-
S'. ment in complementing the
./ establishment and imple-
S mentation of the Single
Market by providing finan-
S-: t cial and technical assistance
to disadvantaged countries,
sectors and regions of the
community. Issues relating
to electronic commerce,
free circulation of third
party goods, the treatment
of goods in free zones and
S,. similar jurisdictions as well
as contingent rights are out-
standing, but form part of a
built-in agenda for further
The Single Economy, for
its part, is scheduled for
2015, a change from the
initial target date of 2008.
Admittedly, a more com-
plex system to put in place,
the Single Economy will
involve the harmonisation
and co-ordination of various
policies including invest-
ment and incentives and
convergence in monetary,
fiscal and economic policy.
Among these will be the
introduction of a single cur-
rency with a single currency

authority. Ultimately, the
Single Economy is expected
to be the final stage of mon-
etary union for Caricom.

Why is it crucial
for us?
There is no denying that the
geography and size of the
Caribbean territories put us
at a disadvantage in terms
of global trade. There are
well known handicaps such
as trade imbalances, high
distribution and tranship-
ment charges, diseconomies
of scale when negotiating
freight rates with shipping
conferences, lack of reliable
and regular shipping serv-
ices and general inefficien-
cies in port operations.
Our scattered geography
places more emphasis on
air and maritime transport
in deepening our integra-
tion process and shipping
remains our major mode
of supply for international
trade. In fact, ocean trans-
port is crucial for the com-
petitiveness of Caribbean
countries to enhance the
economy and improve the
standard of living and qual-
ity of life of our people.
Participation in the
global economy is condi-
tional upon a functioning
maritime transport system.
Inadequate transport will
undoubtedly reduce our
piece of the global pie by
thwarting our efforts to
expand and diversify our
trade as well as the competi-
tiveness of our firms.
While the global trend in
costs is downward, the high
cost of providing maritime
services in the Caribbean
inhibits growth and devel-
opment of the sector. The
cost of transport services

is increasingly important
for the competitiveness,
development and economic
integration of the Caribbean.
Inefficient transport ham-
pers trade and the devel-
opment of non-maritime
industries and services.
The Caribbean trade is
small in value and volume,
rendering it unattractive in
terms of a reasonable return
on investment. Most fleets
are small and relatively aged.
Where there is a capacity for
vessel employment, particu-
larly in the larger islands such
as Jamaica and Trinidad &
Tobago, it is in highly special-
ised sectors. Additionally, most
economies continue to export
traditional goods and raw
materials for which the world
value continues to decline, cre-
ating an imbalance between
import and export cargo in
most territories.

Maritime services
in the Caricom
Caricom has recognized the
importance of shipping and
has made provision for the
transport sector and its role
in the deepening economic
integration process.
Article 140 of the Revised
Treaty provides for, among
other things:
Promotion of sustain-
able development within
the shipping sector
Establishment of a
regime of incentives to
encourage the development
of shipping services to the
Improvements and
rationalisation of regional
port facilities
Promotion of joint
ventures among Community
nationals >





* I


In partnership with
extra-regional shipping
enterprises, to facilitate the
transfer of technology, the
harmonisation of training
programmes to strengthen
the capabilities of regional
training institutions and the
setting up of efficient port
and cargo handling systems
to reduce transport costs.
As if to reinforce its
importance, Chapter VI of the
Revised Treaty provides for a
Community Transport Policy
by providing the right condi-
tions for the orderly devel-
opment of air and maritime
transport sub-sectors as well
as setting out a Community
Transport Policy to provide
adequate, safe and interna-
tionally competitive transport
services for the development
and consolidation of the
Single Market and Economy in
Caricom. Article 8 zooms in on
maritime services specifically
and makes special provisions
for the sector.

Tradition of
restrictions in
maritime services
Notwithstanding this
obvious recognition of the
importance of the maritime
sector and the commitment
of countries to removing
restrictive practices and
administrative regulations,
there are still region-wide
restrictions on maritime and
auxiliary services to varying
degrees across the member
states. Among these are
restrictions on the nationality
of seamen, officers and pilots
- for example, in Barbados,
Belize, Guyana, Jamaica, Suri-
name and Trinidad & Tobago.
Others require work permits
for vessel crews, shipping

agency and Customs broker-
age services for example, in
Belize, Guyana and Suriname.
Dominica, St Lucia, and
St Vincent & the Grenadines
have discriminatory licens-
ing requirements for foreign
vessels, pilots and crews.
Suriname continues to main-
tain a closed ship registry,
while pilotage and berthing
services exclude foreigners
in Belize, Grenada, St Lucia
and Jamaica.
Legislative provisions such
as the Alien Restrictions Act
in Antigua & Barbuda speak
to the nationality require-
ments of ship masters in that
country. Barbados has an
Aliens Act that restricts the
nationality of those able to
procure a pilotage licence.
Jamaica, under its Customs
Act 1955, holds a residency
and work permit require-
ment for Customs brokers.
Clearly, there is still work
to be done in order to
remove the last vestiges of
separation in what is sup-
posed to be a seamless mari-
time space. Notwithstanding
the outstanding legislative
action by some member
states, Caricom has renewed
its efforts to advance the
issue of transport infrastruc-
ture development. And,
indeed, it is a propitious
time for the maritime indus-
try in the context of regional
economic integration.

Renewed focus on
maritime services
within Caricom
In May 2007 the Council
for Trade and Economic
Development (Coted) met to
discuss the issue of regional
transport. Among its deci-
sions were:
(1) To establish a Commu-

nity Transport Policy
(2) To establish a single
market for maritime trans-
port services, including
the granting of cabotage
rights to nationals of other
member states
(3) To develop and carry
out programmes to improve
the efficiency of seaports
(4) To promotion and
develop trans-Caribbean
maritime routes as well as
under-served routes within
the Community by means of

opportunities in
the CSME
The CSME supports an
integrated maritime policy
to explore opportunities in
joint ventures in port devel-
opment that will be facili-
tated by the freer movement
of capital. More experienced
countries can export their
port management services
under the free movement of
labour and skills.
With these rights and
freedoms in place, Cari-
com businesses can set up
sub-hubs, feeder and ferry
services in less geographi-
cally competitive territories
(for example, the Organisa-
tion of Eastern Caribbean
States). Those territories
disadvantaged in maritime
services by their landlocked
locations for example,
Belize, Guyana and Suriname
- also have opportunities to
capitalise on a good trans-
port infrastructure to offer
their landlocked neighbours
overland access to the sea.
With all the synergies
afforded by the single
economic space, the devel-
opment of logistics and
multimodal transport, key

determinants of competitive-
ness in international com-
merce, would also increase
the speed of intra-Caribbean
shipments and make sourc-
ing within the region more
attractive for importers. It
also enhances the ability of
regional producers to meet
rules-of-origin criteria for
third party export markets in
a more effective and expedi-
tious manner.
One of the key benefits of
the CSME is the harnessing
of the factors of produc-
tion, not least of which is
the supply of labour. The
sustainable provision of
labour to work the industry is
crucial for shipping and will
undoubtedly facilitate the
movement of the skills pools
necessary to the trade such
as stevedoring and piloting.
The Caribbean ranks low,
globally and among develop-
ing countries, in the supply
of seafarers. As a region with
a relatively high literacy level
and the added advantage
of being mainly English
speaking the language of
trade and shipping there is
an untapped opportunity to
supply manpower.

But are we ready?
All these are opportunities,
but are we ready as an indus-
try to seize them? Unfor-
tunately, there are several
things the industry needs to
'fast track' now if it is to catch
the ship before it sails.
Lobbying will be crucial
for industry players like the
CSA. They need to lobby for:
(1) Immediate action
on an integrated Caricom
Regional Transport Policy to
generate growth, jobs and
(2) Regional incentives to




promote the development of
regionally owned shipping
(3) Harmonisation of ship-
ping legislation
(4) Policies that give
more favourable treatment
to CSME services and less
favourable treatment to non-
CSME competing services
(5) Free movement of
skilled people (categories
to include marine pilots and
(6) A change in local cabo-
tage laws to allow Caricom-
owned lines to benefit from
equal treatment and access
to cargo
(7) Removal of remaining
restrictive legislative and
administrative practices.
The shipping commu-
nity must be at the table to
advance these positions.
Business people must tell
negotiators and governments
specifically what to negoti-
ate on their behalf in order
to foster the growth of the
industry. We must engage
the Caricom machinery and
others, including our national
government ministries.
It is only with a spirit of
co-operation and exchange
that we can succeed. We
must overcome the 'enemy
within' syndrome. We must
see our Caribbean counter-
parts as partners. The CSA
must gather, exchange and
disseminate information
for policy-makers to garner
relevant industry data and
develop strategies for the
sector, thus raising the
profile of the industry and its
contribution to the region.

Can the CSME
help us?
With all this lobbying and
engaging, one may still ask:
can the CSME do us any good?

While the CSME is not a
panacea for the region's ills,
we have several things to
guide us in the considera-
tion of this question. First,
our own assessment of mar-
kets. Undoubtedly, a larger
market benefits those who
trade in it. Second, there
is the experience of other
organizations, notably the
European Union, which has
provided immense benefits
for most Europeans.
To give a balanced view,

the rapid convergence of
Irish living standards to EU
levels during the 1990s.
Ireland was poor in 1973. It
had high unemployment,
low levels of income and
high levels of emigration. In
statistical terms, it had an
average income per head
at 62 per cent of the EU
average. Ireland's economic
growth was the result of
a combination of many
factors: billions of euros of
EU funding over 33 years,

that transport infrastructure
is an important driver of
future economic prosperity
and social well-being will
make the CSME and any
other valiant efforts at inte-
gration meaningless.
In its Vision 2020 state-
ment, the Community of
European Shipyards Asso-
ciation says: "The history of
civilisation and of commerce
cannot be separated from
that of waterborne trans-

Failure to recognize that transport infrastructure is

an important driver of future economic prosperity

and social well-being will make the CSME and any

other valiant efforts at integration meaningless

one can look at the British,
arguably the biggest naysay-
ers on European integration.
"The EU has brought ben-
efits in many areas, though
certainly there are other
areas where the UK gov-
ernment would like to see
improvements.. .The market
has created more competi-
tive services, greater choice
and lower prices, supporting
wealth and job creation...It
has lowered business costs
and opened new oppor-
tunities...When the whole
of Europe speaks with one
voice, we have more clout
on the world stage.. .We are
stronger in trade negotia-
tions if we negotiate as one
economic bloc." [Source:
According to the Irish
Regional Office: "The Euro-
pean Union's regional policy,
through the Structural
Funds, has played an impor-
tant part in the transforma-
tion of the Irish economy, in
particular by bringing about

a single European market
established between the EU
members, the encourage-
ment of free and fair compe-
tition between EU countries,
unrestricted trade between
EU member countries using
common rules, a large and
growing market of consum-
ers as the EU enlarged and
more countries joined..."
While the CSME is not
the panacea, a wholesale
superimposition of the EU
approach to integration on
our region is certainly not
a cure-all either. However,
there is much be learned
from their experience.

While some countries have
made strides, the Caribbean
region as a whole has failed
to anticipate the speed of
the global production shift
and neglected to build suf-
ficient region-wide transport
infrastructure to cope. Col-
lectively we have been left
behind. Failure to recognize

This statement, though
seemingly pedestrian, is
true. As we seek to create
our own regional history
with the implementation of
the CSME, I contend that this
cannot and, indeed, should
not be without the critical
input and contribution of
the maritime sector.
It is only through the
engagement of industry
players that this statement
will hold true for our Carib-
bean future. We must ensure
that our anchor holds firm
and deep in the billows of
globalisation and increased
trade liberalisation to ensure
a lasting and sustainable
foothold into the global
economy, carried by the
maritime transport sector. m

- From a paper presented
at the 37th annual
conference of the CSA in
Santo Domingo, Domini-
can Republic


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ptopLef Panama ovei whelmingly
.- . ppoviati~ -expans on of tth e Canal -
-[i T -- I)etibe nvit- Telepi oJec tmnvoleaCUtmg-a thild lane
the contract tewdes onTi affict oangThe wa tei way by buIld-
I ng a new set of locks Thls will allow
-, .-:Dedgng o Gat-n .Lak and the wader and larger ships to hiansit and will
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,.. --. .COmpll)lae that project to guarantee no In sual, theexp)ansion pl)ogiCJamme
-. - disi ui)ptions Io Canal traffic Thc-ludes
,. ,..- h-ACP is curenltly dlavwing LIp ) Deepening of the Pacific and Atlan-
ti - "Eit ationl ackages and reviewing tic enltances of the Canal
S-L ds and awarding contiacs related to Deepening and widening of the
the expanlsiolln pI)oject navigational channels of Gatun Lake and
... As pai t of the project, the Atlantic deepening of the Gaillaid ICuilebia Cut
-...- and Pacific enhances wVill be widened Consthuction of new locks and wvater-
an......d deepened, as will the navigauonal saving basins in the Atlantic and Pacific
Watenrvayawaints channel at Gatun Lake. One lock com- Raising GatLliun Lake to its llmaximumll
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: -- Locks The othei will be located east of of vessels with a breadth of 49 metes
the existing Gatun Locks i160 ft', an overall length of 366 mietles



Location of new locks

11,200 ft1 and a draught of 15 metres (50
ft) with a maximum capacity of 170,000
dwt or 12,000 teu

Water saving
Environmentally sound watei-saving
basins will be built alongside the new
locks These will le-use 60 pei cent of
the vatei inl each tiansit, piesei ving the
freshvatei lesoLilces along the water-
way The ACP is a signatoiy of the UJis
Global Compact and all construction
wvoik is being called out in accoid-
ance with the highest environmental
standards and principles Because all
COnsti C tlOil sites 31e outside the exist-
ing channels and operating aleas, the
e:\pansion wvoik will not inte Lupt t affic
and no existing lanes will be closed.
Tiansit delays aie not anticipated.
The ACP has bought in consultants
on financial, legal and environmental
mat tei s and pi ojec t management to

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B S I I I II L -
e -



APM Terminals'
Robert Bosman

zo- 1(y


One in four of world's

fleet now registered

in CSA countries

By Eric Deans

Over a quarter of the world's tonnage
is registered in countries represented
by the Caribbean Shipping Association.
Eric Deans looks at ship registration
in the Region, its history, the CSA's
global impact and prospects for
additional maritime endeavours

In its simplest definition, An unregistered ship has:
ship registration is the No guarantee of secu-
process by which a vessel is rity. Under international
formally identified with a law, a 'stateless ship' has no
particular state. The ship is nationality and therefore
thereby given a nationality, has no guarantee of secu-
Ship registration is guided rity when operating on the
by the following conditions. high seas.

Cannot engage in
lawful trade. Recognition
of a vessel for entry into
and clearance for exit from
a port are based solely on
her nationality. A 'stateless
vessel' therefore cannot
engage in lawful trade
within or between ports as
she would be denied entry
and exit or detained.
No diplomatic protec-
tion. Registration entitles a
vessel to diplomatic protec-
tion or consular assistance
from the flag state. It gives
her the right to engage in
certain activities within the
territorial waters of the state.

In times of war, it serves to
determine the application of
'rules of war'and neutrality.
Registration also serves as the
basis for any claim for naval
protection from the state.
Open registry:
how it all started
All countries operate reg-
isters that are structured
primarily for their national
interests. However, the first
open registry, where a coun-
try registered ships owned
by foreigners, was that
of Panama, currently the
world's largest ship registry.
The practice of reflagging
ships that is, changing
from the domestic flag to an
open registry grew in pop-
ularity between 1920 and
1933, the time of Prohibition
in the United States, when
American 'rum runners' car-
ried illegal alcohol under the
Panamanian flag.
In 1948, in a bid to
diversify its options, the
US helped Liberia create
its open registry, now
the second-largest open
registry in the world. The
Liberian registry attracted
US oil companies and Greek
shipowners who sought
to avoid high labour costs.
The success of Liberia's
registry encouraged the
opening of other registries,
which created competition.
Some notable examples are
Bahamas (the world's third-



*~=z~ .~ ~
~'.--~ -~ -

largest registry), Antigua &
Barbuda and St Vincent &
the Grenadines.

Benefits of
In addition to the nationality
benefits, ship registries usu-
ally offer a mix of incentives
to attract potential vessels
to their register. Registries
competing in a global
market are successful only
where the specific needs of
shipowners are met.
In this market, the registry

that best identifies and
anticipates the needs of the
owner and is able to provide
incentives to fill that need
have the competitive edge.
A shipowner may choose
to register a vessel in a
foreign country because
this offers opportunities for
reduced operating costs or
avoiding excessive tax. The
attraction may otherwise be
a registry country's infra-
structure, such as a world-
wide network of consulates.
Whatever the reason, it

must be recognized that,
under conventions of inter-
national law, the country of
registration determines the
source of law to be applied
in admiralty cases, regard-
less of which court has
personal jurisdiction over
the parties.

CSA's sphere of
According to the UNCTAD
Review of Maritime Trans-
port in 2004, about 45 per
cent of the world's tonnage
of merchant ships was
registered in countries with
open registries that is, 404
million dwt of a total of 895
million dwt. Some reasons
for this are avoidance of
heavy taxes; availability of
crews of their choice from
lower-wage countries; and
an overall reduction in
operational costs.
Countries in the geo-
graphical region rep-
resented by the CSA
accounted for over 240 mil-
lion dwt. In other words, 27
per cent of the world's ton-

Major Open Registers

St Vincent
Norway (NIS)
Antigua & Barbuda
Denmark (DIS)
Hong Kong, China

Number of Vessels

Gross Registered Tons

nage is registered within the
CSA's sphere of influence.
Member countries of the
CSA can further leverage
their substantial involve-
ment in global shipping.
From a registration per-
spective, this involvement
centres on safety and legal
matters related to the ves-
sels. Tremendous scope
exists in the provision of

other services such as ship
finance, marine insurance,
ship management and ship
The example has been set
by countries such as Sin-
gapore, Malta, Cyprus and
Bermuda small countries
with a significant impact
on the world's maritime
industry. The CSA could
study these examples to see
how development may be
encouraged and facilitated
through knowledge and
adaptation. m


Marcelina Vlez de Santiago, President of the

Pontifcal Catholic University of Puerto Rico and CSA
President, Fernando Rivera a ceremonial hand shake,

symbolising the start of collaboration between the
university and the CSA on 8 October 2007
This c* emo-ny, at the bea Shipping Asso n

i May2007to exn te Santiago, Pei en t So the 5

alswidet higern e aion i verena, esab shase,
syhiping. te s. C -ollaboration b

university and the CSA on 8 October 2007

wihTe Assciaion

d. Cotatn faculty,.
parol failtis an al mat-
ra s reae totecuss
e0.6 Noiyn th. stuent
of grdsadaaei
f Grntn the partcipa
tio cetiicte prfssoa
certificat oraae i

g.Th cmenemn
ceem n wil be0.li
Ponc ontesmSaea
Th Unvrst' grauaio

h. Al th euaramns
trative aciite Sprore
by~~~ Th Unvriy
This O illb fetv
for tw yer im edatl

afe ithsbe indb
both patis 0.d cab
extnde auomticllyan
U "efniel for two-yea

Thi MOC ca be can-
cele by an of twSate

Poce Puet Rio.a


CMI expands to Eastern


The Caribbean, which
once enjoyed doing
business at its own com-
fortable pace, is now
compelled to fast-track its
operations in response to
the unavoidable forces of
The top two Caribbean
ports are managed by global
terminal operators King-
ston Container Terminal by
APM Terminals and Freep-
ort Bahamas by Hutchison
Port Holdings and many
Caribbean countries have
experienced a decline in the
number of local shipping
agencies. A high degree of
consolidation and the open-
ing up of direct line-owned
offices are replacing small
local shipping agencies.
These are just confirmation
that the industry is changing.
In 2008, as greater con-
solidation continues in the
shipping industry, small lines
will be taken over by global
lines through mergers and
take-overs. This will have a
ripple effect on the Carib-
bean in that traditional liner
agencies will be without
lines, thereby forcing them to
reinvent themselves or exit
the market. Many traditional
liner agencies have been
converted into non-vessel
operating common carri-
ers (NVOCCs). Companies
have taken on more value
added services. The reality
is that forces are now being
dictated by the customer and
not by the lines.
It is estimated that 60
per cent of the container-

ised cargo moving east and
west are under the control
of NVOCCs. Many shipping
lines are providing the basic
ocean transport services,
while the intermediary
groups are taking on more
of the logistics and supply
chain functions.
In addition to global
changes, the rise in oil prices
is affecting the operational
cost of shipping lines. The
impact of higher insurance
cost and fluctuating steel
prices affect the building of
ships. All of these will have
a negative impact on the
charter rates of ships, which
will continue to rise. Security
issues will continue to be a
major concern.
Overall, 2008 will be
another record year for the
shipping industry. There will,
however, be some changes
in the country-to-country
mix as the shift from the
United States to Asia will be
more evident in the figures
of 2008.

How does this impact the
Caribbean Maritime Institute
CMI seeks to redefine itself
as an organism rather than
an organisation through the
adoption of the Blue Ocean
strategy, as we become more
market responsive. The year
ahead will see expansion
to the Eastern Caribbean
through CMI's own distance
education system (CMI
Onclass). This is in addition to
the five bachelors degrees in

International Shipping; Port
Management; Logistics and
Supply Chain Management;
Cruise Shipping and Tourism
Management; and Industrial
Systems Operation and Main-
tenance offered in Jamaica.
CMI also anticipates the
launch of a Master's degree
in collaboration with an ivy
league European university.
In the year ahead, the CMI
plans a 100 per cent increase
in enrolment as it expands
its core seafaring courses
in an attempt to meet the
projected shortage of over
10,000 officers globally. A new
range of short and custom-
ised courses will be delivered
regionally in collaboration
with strategic partners.
Expansion and introduction
of new courses under the
memoranda of understand-
ing signed with the University
of Technology, De Ruyters
Training Centre, Dutch Carib-
bean Training Centre, among
others, are also planned. m


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financial storm

Owners of ships conveying passengers or hazardous cargo
will be very aware of the old adage, 'If you think safety is
expensive, try having an accident'- David McPherson, UK
Hydrographic Office, Taunton, Somerset

I pII .6I .0


F -.. ."

Fast. Dependable Transit 9 Accurate Documentadior
Dry and Reffigvered Ccnt~ners Machbwey & Rolrmg 5tock



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iuuuri 1*
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Quality leadership

- the key to a successful

liner business By Jennifer Nugent-Hill

Success is when revenue
generation activities
and cost overruns kiss
What makes a cargo com-
pany successful? It is more
than just another refriger-
ated container on the vessel.
It is the opportunity to take
that container and turn it
into revenue generating
activity for all the stakehold-
ers. After all, the primary
goal of any profit-making
business is that of generat-
ing revenue.
However, there are other
elements to the definition of
a successful liner business.
They are passion, innovation
and corporate leadership.
Passion is when a leader
and an organisation reflect
real commitment to people,
a world-class service and
demonstrate an unrelent-
ing flame for ensuring a
profitable and sustainable

shipping company.
Innovation is reflected
in cargo lines when the
leadership wholeheartedly
encourages best practices
and the corporate culture
where constant learning and
the hunger to satisfy new
demands from customers
is the norm rather than the
Corporate leadership in
the liner business is where
strong business ethics and
core values go hand in hand
and TRUST is a bond never
to be broken. The 'win at all
costs' approach is never a
viable option at companies
where the culture of quality
leadership is the standard.
The quick and easy
answer to the question
of what makes successful
companies is often stated
as simply 'good leadership
and revenue'. In the Octo-
ber 2007 issue of 'Fortune'

magazine I read an obser-
vation that "the world's
best companies realise that
no matter what business
they're in, their real busi-
ness is building leaders."
In short, the author asserts
that leadership and revenue
are inextricably linked.
Philosophically, the under-
pinnings of leadership and
revenue might be visualised
as a rope that tethers a com-
pany to its success a rope
that is woven with strands
of effective and successful

Liner business
This discussion of the key
to a successful liner busi-
ness through leadership
development is framed
in the example of Tropi-
cal Shipping as a company
with a culture of leadership
development. Further, it
is a discussion of the true

meaning of leadership in
a successful organisation,
its intermediate detail and
what an organisation must
do to develop leadership in
ways that contribute to its
overall success.
Tropical Shipping began
44 years ago as a rela-
tionship that developed
between a man shipping
building materials to the
Bahamas and later to the
Caribbean and its people.
The company grew to what
we are today: operators of 19
vessels carrying thousands
of containers. The prior-
ity then is the same today:
How did the company
grow when hope is not a
strategy? There is certainly
a fair amount of business
planning and all the typical
forecasting in which any
company must engage, but
there has to be more. More, >



as in the people behind
the growth and success, the
inspiration of people and
relationships, the integrity
of persons, innovation and
- the most important 'more'
- the company's role as an
enduring organisation in the
business community.

Tropical Shipping is com-
mitted to its customers, its
team and the communities
it serve. This commitment
is embodied in its Tropi-
cal Shared Values, which
build the foundation of all
relationships and almost
everything we do.

One of the most obvious
investments in leadership
development is observed
through our partnership
with agents in 21 of our
destination ports. Island
nationals are an integral part
of our team and leadership
structure. This is one of the
biggest deterrents against
leadership attrition.
I often share this quote
that I found somewhere a
long time ago:

"If you have passion for
what you do, the company
you keep, the life you live, it
will be reflected in what-
ever you create. Passion
is like that. It springs out,
jumps, unpredictable and
unplanned into everything
we touch. If it doesn't, others
know. Passion can't be faked
and it can't be manufac-
tured, which is why it is so

It is worth reiterating that
the human element of pas-
sion cannot be replaced by
any synthetic provisions.
So it is a 'must' that lead-
ers cultivate this element
among their people and
team. In the end it is per-

formance and personal
ownership, combined with
the passion to succeed, that
ushers in profit. Profit, in
turn, is the result of all the
elements passion, people
and performance being in
Any shipping line taking
self-inventory for partner-
ship and leadership values
should ask itself and hon-
estly assess:
How would you value
your company's community
What are your compa-
ny's core values?
How is the Caribbean
shipping industry viewed in
the market?
What can we collabo-
rate on to help strengthen,
improve and sustain the
communities in which we

do business?
Tropical Shipping has
subscribed to and com-
mitted its resources to
- various opportunities that
have helped develop strong
leadership both inside and
outside the company.
In the tourism sector,
Tropical Shipping has initi-
ated the Freestay Caribbean
Cruise Conversion pro-
gramme. This is a direct rein-
vestment in host countries to
encourage cruise passengers
to return to destinations for
extended, land-based vaca-
tions. There are 12 member
countries in the programme.
More information about
each of the members' pro-
grammes and offerings can
be found at www.freestay-

As a humanitarian initiative,
Tropical Shipping has organ-
ised disaster management
workshops that helped to
elevate the policy focus.
There is a First Responders
First feature that provides
for the families of emer-
gency services personnel in
the event of a disaster.
Trade facilitation reform
partnerships have been sup-
ported by Tropical Shipping
in meaningful ways that
include the development of
software, change manage-
ment and public education
campaign designs as in the
pilot project in Dominica.
Finally, in a successful
shipping line, company poli-
cies and guidelines are where
we should find the leader-
ship concept applied in the
most rudimentary ways:
Sincerely recognizing
people as the company's
greatest asset and maintain-

ing them better than office
Creating a corporate cul-
ture for learning. Reinvesting
in people through services,
or products, and a desire for
profit sharing
Establishing community
partnerships. Realising that
part of our job is also on
Main Street and in the local
market places.
Leadership is more than
who say we are it is what
we do. The definition of
leadership would benefit
from an expanded defini-
tion to include community
economic sustainability and
support of equal and fair
public policies.
So my closing question to
you is, what does leadership
look like in your organisation?
Is it just a buzzword, a cliche,
or is it a true commitment and
concept that sets your organi-
sation apart from others in
the local community? m


"If you have passion for what you do, the
company you keep, the life you live, it will
be reflected in whatever you create"



-. -


flMf go[#U

DI ..d :.4





increased its productivity,
quadrupled its throughput
and optimised its workload
without hiring additional
employees in the past year.
Since it opened in
December 1993, the port
has recorded success after
success. Its achievements
are now reflected in awards
and accolades. In 2001 SPRC

was named 'The Miracle of
Cartagena' by 'Containeriza-
tion International' magazine
for using its automated
systems to help advance the
port's operations. And, in
2005, 2006 and 2007 SPRC
took the CSA's title of Best
Container Terminal in the
SPRC attributes its success
to the quality of its staff, its
tenacity and its dedication
to duty.
With growth, the terminal
has been making an effort
to deliver improved services
and increased productiv-
ity to vessels. According to
SPRC, the port has been
able to react and implement
more strategic measure-
ments using Navis Sparcs

software, for example. The
use of real-time information
and optimisation tools such
as Expert Decking and Prime
Route has been one of its
keys to success.

Faster and more
SPRC is now able to fully
automate and optimise
vessel handling, yard alloca-
tion and equipment dispatch

with minimal worker direc-
tion or interaction, which
means faster, more efficient
load and discharge. The
terminal has also doubled its
container handling capabil-
ity now that it has informa-
tion age technology to help
manage larger vessels carry-
ing more containers.
The port increased

throughput from 231,549
teu in 1997 to 468,864 teu
in 2004- an increase of 105
per cent. For 2008 the port
is expecting to handle more
than 900,000 teu.
Cartagena's Contecar
Container Terminal is
expected to be one of the
most modern and efficient
ports in world maritime
industry by the year 2014.
This is the culture that is

being developed among
staff. Cartagena has leveraged
technology to position itself
as a premier container termi-
nal and service provider.
Cartagena has achieved a
lot in a relatively short time
and, given its plans, policy
directions and a dedicated
staff, has a lot more to achieve
in the coming years. m


The port increased throughput from
231,549 teu in 1997 to 468,864 teu in
2004 an increase of 105 per cent.
For 2008 the port is expecting to
handle more than 900,000 teu


Grantley Stephenson

receives national

award in Jamaica

G rantley Stephenson,
the chairman and
chief executive of King-
ston Wharves Ltd, has
been awarded a national
honour for his contribution
to the development of
Jamaica's shipping industry.
At a ceremonial event in
October to honour Jamaica's
outstanding citizens, he was
presented with the Order
of Distinction (Commander
Class) by the Most Honourable
Professor Sir Kenneth Hall, the
Governor General of Jamaica.

Mr Stephenson, who sits
on the General Council of the
Caribbean Shipping Asso-
ciation, has made much of
his 30 years in the industry,
having worked in the areas of
shipowning, vessel opera-
tions, ship management and
ship agency representation in
Mexico, the UK and Jamaica.
He was educated at the
College of Arts, Science and
Technology (now the Univer-
sity of Technology of Jamaica)
and the University of the West
Indies as well as the University

of Plymouth in the UK.
He was president of
the Shipping Associa-
tion of Jamaica from
1998 to 2003. During
his first year as presi-
dent he was appointed
Honorary Consul Gen-
eral in Jamaica of the
Kingdom of Norway.
Today, he serves as
Dean of Jamaica's
Consular Corps.
A member of the
team which set up the
Jamaica Maritime Institute in
1977, Mr Stephenson served
as a director for 15 years.
He also served as alternate
director for Jamaica on the
board of the multinational
shipping line Namucar until
the dissolution of that com-

pany in the early 1980s.
Mr Stephenson is a
director of the Jamaica Fruit
Group of Companies, of
the Maritime Authority of
Jamaica and of Jamaica's
Port Security Corps. He is
also chairman of Port Com-
puter Services Ltd and Secu-
rity Administrators Ltd. m

F-or over 65 years the te'am at the*

IVinSN~n Ui &ew Vcj time, We 51riVe
to erkStre the SOCiO-eCAV~non*
devclopment of our member
I,,lardun pyrin iIe Jppir- indizrv

Wv also expanbded our hinciram~ to
kTdLhf the, provtisonl of a i de orange
tjI ur.jruuUjtj;r) It.0i'lu.og, .1ird
Cornpuihr 1.1d. %Iewe ie, ffiI) ai
Canin~e Division hais been set up aks a
service to xm~txms~ aind exporters to
doeut illf ;I rIi L 0~ Mod nira
ehe.- .~ prrm-ni. are
evidence of out corrnmitncnt. ty the

4 Fomh A~ffejiE Newport VW*
RXk.O. 100,~jO C.SJ. Kwinju.m, JanLuit
913-144)1, 9370 1



f -~

Global shipping connection
TEI : (2416) 226 8S575 FAX- (2461 22EB B59 I

You can trust Sea Freight Agcn, ics to h.indlc
all of your shipping needs, whether you are
imr I iili ing or exporting.

SSea Freight Agencies
(B'dos) Ltd.
First Floor, Atlantis Building,
Shallow Dratughl Bridgetown.
STl: (246) 429-9688 or 429-9689
Fax: (246) 429-5107
E-ll.ni l i.i .igLl 'li, tl J .lI rl r *iii
Website: www.seatrL.com


IuamCminumma I haBim f ikm I EpnMobU
-LME CUMIlt ..
Member of:
'* I-l, in-- Association of liirhbidos liarbados Chamniber of Comminierce
Baibados Manulfactucis Association

agencies Ltd.
Established 19M

Founded on Hard Work

Built on Customer Service


A full service ships' Agency. Husbandry,
Operations, Sales & Marketing and experienced
11- AL. KNf~f ~ M -M-EARE


Barbados is again looking
at plans for a dedicated
pier foi cruise ships in the
Poi t of Bridgetown. The idea,
which has been mooted for
some time, was shelved last
year aftei a decline in cruise
passenger ai rivals. But Sena-
toi Rudy Grant, Pai liamentary
Secretai y in the Ministry of
Tourism, says the idea is under
discussion once more. Cruise
passenger arrivals in Barbados
last year were expected to
be 720,000- up 12 pei cent
on 2006. A dedicated ci uise
pier would ease congestion
at the port and provide an
opportunity to develop retail
activities, the government
official said.

Prmoio at SeIeih Line

Searegh Lin ha anone d the promo tw vesl in th Caribea trade Tod.
tiv vice prsien fro I Deeme 2007 pots
In his ne caaiy MrRs-wlae oe- Se-. ih' Roan 6.6 n-S t sai Mr

Lie' cotie sevie betee Floida of it actvit an reeus Anaieo

stf n im. Kir 66n in6 Flrd poeoiigSari
Mr ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 6. * 6os jondSarih gnis svc gnis ei adrco fSari
prsdn makein in Janar 199 when Line Ltd S h Agnce 66 SA Incan
the co pn was fou yer old oprain *6~em a Hodig L

New Miami tunnel set

to ease congestion
The City of Miami is planning a tunnel undei Biscayne Bay
to provide ciuis L passengers and caigo interests vilth
a diiect link between thle poi t and thle intei state highuvay
system, thus easing congestion in the dowvntowvn aiea
Expected to cost ovei S1 billion, the 1 1 mile, twin-tunnel
pIoject will be financed by the state and local governments
The State of Flo ida has committed S462 million to tlhe
pi)oject while Miami- Dade County has eaimai ked just ovei
S400 million

Redevelopment of Falmouth

port gets go ahead

W ork on redeveloping to start in February because
the Port of Falmouth, we have to complete it in
on Jamaica's north coast, time for the arrival of that
east of Montego Bay, is 19-storey ship, which is due
expected to start in Febru- to come in 2009. So we have
a ry 2008. to be ready to be one of the
The Minister of Transport ports of call."
and Works, Mike Henry, said Mr Henry confirmed that
work at Falmouth should be an expansion of the Port of
finished in time for a visit by Kingston, now under way,
the'Freedom of the Seas' would require the closing
in 2009. He said most of the of Tinson Pen aerodrome
contracts and studies had and construction of a new
been completed. "Work will aerodrome at Caymanas,
start in February and it has just west of Kingston.

The Panama Canal
Authority has awarded
Consorcio Cilsa Minera Maria
the contact to excavate
a channel linking the new
locks on the Pacific side
with the existing Gaillard
Cut. The contract winner is a
joint venture between com-
panies based in Panama
and Mexico. The project
involves removing 7.5 mil-
lion cubic metres fiom a
2.4 km stretch just north
of where the new Pacific
locks will be built. (Foi more
details see Page 16).

The International Mari-
time Organization (IMO)
has elected Jamaica to its
Council in Category C foi the
2008-2009 biennium.
Category C represents
states with a 'special inter-
est' in maritime transport
or navigation. Jamaica has
been a member of the IMO
since 1976 and currently
chairs the Standards of Train-
ing and Watchkeeping (STW)
Jamaica's election to the
Council comes after months
of preparation by the Mari-
time Authority of Jamaica,
the Ministi y of Foreign
Affairs and Foieign Trade
and the Ministi y of Trans-
port and Wolks.
The IMO is a United
Nations specialist agency
responsible foi develop-
ing common intei national
standards of ma time safety,
security and marine enviion-
ment protection.
Jamaica was elected to
the Council on 23 November
at the 25th session of the IMO
Assembly, held in London.

C %11113BI AN NI %III I INII 1-J PPH Aico, 37



A ne ehdo Ti aetpoet sl-poeldsi. A reen es of fou caresi h

Ini e to enac co- ar p leased to hav fial tha 6000 deaths anuly teiln. Mr Mcow .6i
peiivns in the Purt seue it, sai John D. w ----- Sr exece to tecm ays. mre hr

Carer esl.g ot mmdaeyb a swtc to for shp pes u utmr

th niu lodn -nd The syte reere to by -r -cow de o- Acorin to Trai0le0
by Trale Brdg th0. fis tug bag an inerae tanr reenl in Sa Jun -Secrte & Exhag Com
exlsvl 5 3totanSs usn onl 53 ft containes, inid cubi spc an fiv m onh of 2 007 enig3
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the~~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 53f otieso t ai0h oe a h ot pnn pcmkn t f$8,7 o prdwt
ocea sevc bewe th efetv fo shppr an eaie tomv alt.n n oso 8. ilo o h


Three-day shipping

executives conference

heads to St Maarten

The annual Caribbean
Shipping Executives
Conference will be held in
May 2008 in St Maarten,
considered one of the fast-
est growing cruise desti-
nations in the Caribbean.
On 19 May, at the Sonesta
Maho Beach Resort, the
President of the Caribbean
Shipping Association (CSA)
Fernando Rivera, will call
to order the seventh sitting

of this CSA conference. The
conference has grown in
size and content since it was
first held in Georgetown,
Guyana, in May 2002, with
110 persons attending the
two-day event.
The Shipping Executives
Conference is now run over
three days. As usual, the first
two days will deal with a
wealth of topics relating to
cargo shipping and manage-

ment. A third day was added
to allow the CSA a platform
to assist the development of
one vital aspect of regional
shipping, the cruise industry.
Organised by the CSA Sec-
retariat in collaboration with
the CSA's Cruise Committee,
this third day of presenta-
tions and deliberation has

added an important dimen-
sion to the conference and
has created a formal situa-
tion where operatives in the
cruise industry can receive
and discuss issues of devel-
opment and sustainability.
Jan Sierhuis, who chairs
the Cruise Committee, said
the CSEC cruise seminar on 21
May would "focus on future
trends and the Caribbean
agenda for co-operation in
ensuring that our product
remains competitive".
It will be followed by
a two-day cruise training
workshop focusing on mat-
ters relevant to Caribbean
cruise destinations. The sem-
inar and training workshop
are open to members and
non-members of the CSA. m


SP 0. Box 1301 Carretera Sanfihez Krn 12 1/1. Santo Domringo. Rep Dom Telf 809-539-6000
,,.., .. ,, S GSTefefax. 809-539-7200 / 809-539-7300 E-mail. info@miarlom.com http.www.mardom.com


Port of Curacao is a full service port with:
* Curacao Port Authority; Cruise facilities
* Curacao Port Services; Stevedoring services
* Curacao Drydock Company; Ship repair
* Miami Diver; Underwater ship repair

* Excellent ex-pipe bunkering facilities

For more info visit www.curports

Safe, reliable & efficient =.

.con or e-mail. nfo;l-curports.com caAcWronrs H-owRT CURACAO PORT SERVICES



Ftadiar*eg 36
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Tal_ +31 (0)20 446a 458
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~ aajZ~V'~Nsiur




Make hazmat compliance

your New Year resolution

By Harry Lux

Don't run the risk of severe penalties

When you think of the
year ahead and how
to grow your operations,
where does shipping, stor-
ing, using or selling any
type of hazardous materi-
als fit into your plans?
Depending on your
current compliance levels,
some companies and ports
may need to reprioritise
their project list to include
hazardous material shipping
requirements or they could
lose their ability to buy and
ship these commodities.
Recently, the United
States alone has released
two additional rules on
hazardous materials:

1. The Chemical Security
Anti-Terrorism Standards
require facilities that have
the listed chemicals at or
above the threshold limits
to complete and submit a
top-screen assessment to
the Department of Home-
land Security. This assess-
ment must identify the
chemicals and the security
measures that are being
taken during the manufac-

tulin g, stoI Ing, packaging
and shipping I)Iocesses.

This will affect many of us
because of the trickle-down
process. For example, if
you are part of the supply
chain, you will eventually
be required to verify your
steps for securing hazmat
shipments in order to go
on dealing with reputable

2. The Federal Motor Car-
rier Safety Administration
(FMCSA) Notice of Enforce-
ment Policy states that a
hazardous materials safety
permit may not be issued

to a motor carrier that has
a crash rate, driver, vehicle
or hazardous material out-
of-service rate in the top
30 per cent of the national
average pursuant to 49 CFR

Within the United States,
a company transport-
ing what are considered
to be high consequence
dangerous goods must be

legisteled, inspected and
approved to ob11tain this
pel mit Losing this abil-
Ity will, in tiln, reduce the
numbI)el of ca31iels which,
of course, can affect your
shipping arrangements.
Knowing your carriers'
capabilities up front helps
to ensure that your ship-
ment will not be delayed by
a permit issue.
If you have not started
your security enhance-
ments yet, start with C-TPAT
(Customs Trade Partnership
Against Terrorism)
Not only will it serve as a
good facility audit for your
operation but, if approved,
it will enhance your clearing
process with US Customs
and most of the major sup-
pliers. It is a great win-win
process to help secure
hazmat shipments.
In addition, there is the
new International Maritime
Dangerous Goods Code,
Amendment 33-06, effec-
tive 1 January 2008. These
rules regulate the interna-
tional transport of hazard-
ous materials by water. With
new regulations comes
change, so you must make
sure your team is aware of
these changes in order to

ensulle youl compliance. A
partial list of changes aie
additions to the Dange -
ous Goods List, revisions to
basic shipping descul options,
new shipping description
sequence, recommenda-
tions for safety and security
training, new packaging
instructions, new Division
5.2 labels and Classification
change for Class 3 (flash
point is reduced to 60C c.c.).
Looking at the few
changes listed above, you
should get the idea that the
world of shipping hazard-
ous materials has changed,
is still changing and will
continue to do so as long
as it can be made safer. Yes,
you may see and think of
hazardous materials only
from the perspective of
their intended use for
example, paints, pool sup-
plies, fertilisers, propane,
bleach, etc. However, the
transport and shipping
industry regulates them as
flammable liquids, oxidis-
ers, poisons, flammable gas,
corrosives, etc because of
the hazards associated with
them and the risk involved
in handling them. For this
reason, specific rules must
be followed in order to >


"Don't be part of the problem.

Be part of the solution instead"


transport these commodi-
ties safely and securely. The
whole supply chain, from
manufacturer to end-user,
must ensure that hazardous
materials are transported
as safely as possible or face
being fined for non-com-

The consequences
The best way to ensure
compliance is to train your
staff. Let them understand
the requirements of these
regulations. This is impor-
tant. After all, education is
the seed for success.
The consequences of
non-compliance whether
or not you are trying to
work within the guidelines

- include severe penalties
such as monetary fines or
blocked cargo. US Hazard-
ous Material Civil and Crimi-
nal Penalty Guidelines have
increased from $32,500
to $50,000 for knowing
violation and to $100,000
if the violation results in
serious illness or severe
injury to any person, death
or substantial destruction of
Imprisonment has been
increased to 10 years in any
case in which the viola-
tion involves the release of
a hazardous material and
results in death or bodily
injury to a person.
You may be shipping
from or into a foreign

"The world of shipping hazardous
materials has changed, is still
changing and will continue to do so
as long as it can be made safer"

country where the US has
no jurisdiction over you and
therefore cannot collect the
fines. But remember, other
countries have requirements
as well and can assess their
fines accordingly. Even if
you beat paying a fine, these
countries can block you
from importing or export-
ing through their country
because of the threat you
pose by not following the
hazardous material regula-

So don't be part of the
problem. Be part of the
solution instead. Set your
hazardous material compli-
ance target date for 2008
and help make the world a
safer place. m

Harry Lux is a US-based
consultant on hazardous
materials, safety and
security with an intimate
knowledge of the ship-
ping industry




jr* I A -AL_


8300 NW 53

Street, Suite 102 Miami, FL 33166 305 477-3755 Fox 305 477-3858 800 926-2811 www rmig us
For further information please contact Karen Miller Noreen Salas Jose Bello


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CSA^^ BBBgf BMM: Prsien Fernando RiverC(let)Ckesitr
remarks at theCstart of the 37thBAnnual Genera^^eet

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Skilled labour -

the key to viability

and sustained profit

By Burnett B. Coke

With all the discus-
sions on globali-
sation and its impact,
maritime interests can
state without fear of
contradiction that they
were the first of the global
industries. Were it not for
maritime interests, the
earth would have contin-
ued to be perceived as flat
and lines of trade would
never have been created.
Notwithstanding this his-
torical fact, maritime players
ironically have the dubious
distinction of also being
among the last to embrace
the need to evolve with
more recent global trends.

Skilled labour
One such vital area is that
of recruiting, engaging,
developing and retaining
skilled labour at all levels.
Succinctly stated, skilled
labour is the key to viability
and sustained profit. Many
companies will see pockets
of excellence and profit, but
to truly maintain efficiencies
through challenging times,
maritime principals must
begin to tangibly engage
their workforce. And no time
is as good as the present.
Assuming you have
already made your business
resolutions for 2008, I would
strongly recommend that
you attach the following:

1. Improve recruitment
to ensure a better match
between each individual's
talents and the require-
ments of the job, whether
it is stevedoring, operating
a gantry crane or admin-
istrative work. Recruit for
attitude and then train for
skill. Avoid like-mindedness
and instead actively seek
out individuals who are
mavericks and are willing to
challenge the status quo by
being innovative. Business
icon Jake Welch stated that
in manufacturing, busi-
nesses try to stamp out
variance, but with people
variance is everything.

2. Recruit and identify poten-
tial leaders in your organi-
sation and develop their
capabilities. Strong delegates
potentially make strong
supervisors. Strong supervi-

sors grow into strong manag-
ers. Strong managers make
effective CEOs. This therefore
allows for structured succes-
sion planning. Remember, if
you cannot be replaced, you
cannot be promoted.

3. Train and develop
multiskilled workforces to
better manage the increas-
ing pressures of volatile
markets, reducing margins,
mega ports and demanding
consignees. This will serve
to better harness stevedore
and general employee
potential and consequently
profit. Should your company
still stumble, your former
employees would have been
prepared for alternative
opportunities a gift worth
more than fleeting redun-
dancy or retrenchment

4. Engage and empower
your staff, allowing them to
see their and the company's
future as interwoven. This
will require your businesses
to communicate openly
and frequently the vision
and strategic directions
throughout the workforce,
with structured avenues for
employee feedback. Studies

from the Gallup organisation
confirm that employees with
an above-average attitude
to their work will generate
38 per cent higher customer
satisfaction scores, 22 per
cent higher productivity and


"Maritime players ironically have
the dubious distinction of also being
among the last to embrace the need to
evolve with more recent global trends"

* t,

mm ri^e ^^

27 per cent higher profits
for their companies. This will
ensure that many maritime
players stay afloat.

5. Implement non-monetary
recognition schemes to com-
plement the current compen-
sation strategies. Through its
research between 1977 and
2002 across many industries,
including the maritime sector,
the Family and Work Institute
reinforced the message that
wages and benefits only have
a three per cent impact on
job satisfaction, whereas 'job
quality' and 'workplace sup-
port' have a combined 70 per
cent impact.

6. Retain competent staff.
Retention is a business
need that is often ignored
by maritime companies,
but the impact is twofold:
cost and loss of productiv-
ity. Authorities estimate
that the productivity cost
of replacing employees can
be as high as 250 per cent
of the salary of the job. In
spite of the staggering cost
of turnover, the majority
of maritime businesses do
not have a formal retention
programme. It is bad busi-
ness when good employees
depart, but you are courting
disaster and sounding the
death knell when you do not
try to improve it.

There are many
approaches and formu-
lae for profitability, but
one common theme runs
throughout: that of compe-
tent, motivated and engaged
workers at all levels; barring
which, success will be fleet-
ing and mere shadows.

Make the commitment now. n

Sunken treasure:

the next frontier

Treading wisely where no-one may

have trodden for hundreds of years

By Stacey-Ann Soltau-Robinson, LL.B., B.Sc.*

Throughout the centu-
ries, ships have been
the primary medium for
transporting vast wealth
to and from the Caribbean.
In the 17th century, for
instance, more than 200
vessels visited Port Royal,
Jamaica each year (1). Sev-
eral ships failed to arrive at
their intended destinations,
having fallen victim to the
sea's innumerable dangers
and finding their final rest-
ing place quite ironically

and 18th centuries, some
300 ships may have sunk
in the Pedro Banks area,
a busy shipping passage
near Jamaica (2). One such
vessel was the 'Genevesoa',
believed, to be carrying gold
and silver from Peru, which
sank in about 1740 (3).

As the Caribbean Region
struggles to strengthen
its position in the global
economy, a collective search

'real' dollars and cents from
the traditionally glamor-
ised activity of hunting for
sunken treasure. In 2004, for
instance, the Atlanta-based
Admiralty Corporation,
operating under a licence
from the Jamaican authori-
ties, began its quest for
sunken treasure in the Pedro
Banks area.
These activities trigger
both an excitement that is
analogous to a child first
laying eyes on the presents

"This challenge has led to the recognized possibility of
earning 'real' dollars and cents from the traditionally
glamorised activity of hunting for sunken treasure"

in the protected, quiet
and seemingly unyielding
depths of the ocean.
Archaeologists estimate
that, between the 16th

is under way to find and
exploit new investment
opportunities. This chal-
lenge has led to the recog-
nised possibility of earning

under a Christmas tree on
that traditionally happy
morning, and a legitimate
fear that they present signifi-
cant risks to the Region. >



In the latter instance, how-
ever, these risks have been
largely recognized as those
enunciated by environmen-
talists and historians and,
in the opinion of the writer,
have been sufficiently high-

There is, however, another
fear that, because of the
legal arrangements that
governments may enter into
with private entities wishing
to participate in the exploi-
tation of these resources,
the economic benefits to the
Region may thereby be lost.
For instance, it is reported
that Admiralty Corporation
was granted a licence to

agreements prescribing that
a 'split' of the bounty would
depend on the value of the
actual find net the entity's
costs associated with that
find. The result would be
that the percentage gained
by the entity relative to
Jamaica would depend on
such a value, with the entity
receiving a smaller percent-
age the significantly larger
the find, with the 'balance'
being struck in the negotia-
tion process.
There are other legal
arrangements that Regional
governments could make
with private entities. They
could simply obtain permis-
sion to use the required
technology from the intel-

"Because of the legal arrangements
that governments may enter into with
private entities wishing to participate
in the exploitation of these resources,
the economic benefits to the Region
may thereby be lost"

conduct the requisite activi-
ties, with an agreement that
Jamaica would receive half
the 'precious bounty' and
all non-precious artefacts
to be displayed at a mari-
time museum (4). From a
contractual perspective,
one would expect to see a
built-in mechanism in these

lectual property owner and
retain the services of experts
in this area who would
conduct the expedition as
a contractor who would be
paid for doing so. Admit-
tedly, the risks associated
with being obliged to cover
the heavy costs associated
with this latter option even

if no discovery or a less
valuable discovery is made
- cannot be ignored. This
issue, however, would have
to be determined as a finan-
cial consideration based on
the analysis of this invest-
ment opportunity in much
the same way as Regional
governments are required to
do as a part of governance.

If the 'numbers' suggest that
having a licensing arrange-
ment is the best way to
proceed financially, then
so be it. But governments
should consider, if they have
not done so, other legal
arrangements with the aid
of detailed financial pro-
jections of the anticipated
revenue and costs.
It is beyond the scope of
this article to give an exhaus-
tive indication of all the
possible legal arrangements
that governments could use
in the exploitation of sunken
treasure in Regional waters.
However, this is an excit-
ing time for the Region as it
charts its future economic
course in an international
environment in which
actualising innovative ideas,
with a view to maximising
the income they generate,
will determine its socio-eco-
nomic reality. m

(1) Bell, Klao, 'Sunken
ships promise riches'
Jamaica Gleaner, April
1, 2001

(2) Mills, Claude, 'Treas-
ure hunters find lost can-
nons', Jamaica Gleaner,
June 2, 2004

(3) Bell, Klao, 'Sunken
ships promise riches'
Jamaica Gleaner, April
1, 2001, Gray, Dorrick,
Deputy Technical Direc-
tor of Archaeology,
Jamaica National Herit-
age Trust

(4) Mills, Claude, 'Treas-
ure hunters find lost can-
nons', Jamaica Gleaner,
June 2, 2004.

*Stacey-Ann Soltau-Robin-
son is an attorney-at-law
in the Jamaican law firm
of Samuda &Johnson


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