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John F. Kennedy Space Center Americas gateway to the universe Spaceport News Aug. 22, 2008 Vol. 48, No. 17 See Titusville Page 8 Area leaders discuss transition challenge in Titusville H ow do you eat an elephant? One bite at a time, ac cording to U.S. Rep. Tom Feeney. That was his message to and local lawmakers during a meeting about space issues at Ti tusville City Hall on Aug. 13. Hes not talking about lands largest liv ing animal; hes talking about the transition challenge facing Ken nedy Space Center, its work force and the community. Kennedy Space Center director Bill Parsons said: We still have 10 missions left of the Space Shuttle Program. Its going to require us to be very diligent and extremely focused to make sure that we do that safely. missions out correctly and safely, there may not be a next program. Feeney added: Our job is not to tell you that there wont be a challenge and a problem. Our job is to work together and to mitigate and diminish that problem. We can do it bit by bit, if we work together. The U.S. House of Represen tatives recently passed the largest NASA authorization in history by a 400-15 vote that included accelerat ing NASAs Constellation Program. One important provision covered in the bill is for NASAs assist local communities affected by the retirement of the Space Shuttle Program. There are lots of things that we can do to take the same tech nologically skilled work force and jobs, Feeney said. Another provision includes studying the possibility of a com mercial space launch range at federal installations. Feeney said the bill includes funding for a Com mercial Orbital Space Transporta tion Services Program, or COTS, which could potentially shrink Americas reliability on the Rus sian Soyuz during the gap between the Space Shuttle Program and the Constellation Program. The provi sion also asks for the White House to tell NASA how to effectively use technology and science for commer cial launch opportunities. It doesnt say study how were going to make Kennedy Space Cen ter a 21st century space city, which is what Im calling for, Feeney said. But if you read between the By Steven Siceloff Spaceport News Fay has its way, keeps shuttle Atlantis in bay S pace shuttle Atlantis stayed indoors while ment moved to safer ground Monday as NASAs Kenne dy Space Center braced for Tropical Storm Fays heavy rain and high winds. Atlantis was scheduled to rollover to the Vehicle Assembly Building on Aug. 18, but remained inside its Orbiter Process ing Facility. The spacecraft is targeted to launch Oct. 8 on a mission to upgrade NASAs Hubble Space Telescope. Postponement of the rollover is not expected to delay liftoff. Workers drove the as tronaut transport vehicle and a large crane into the safety of the Vehicle Assembly Building. Other vehicles that normally weather Floridas thunderstorms on their own were also tucked inside buildings. If it needs to be moved, well move it and if it needs to be tied down, well tie it down, said John Cosat, chief of Emergency Management, SGS. Cosat is part of the Emergency Operations Center staff that coordinates storm prepara tions, recovery and related activities. Indoors, workers draped plastic bags over comput and anything else that cant withstand water damage. Cosat said Kennedy is tak ing some extra precautions with this tropical storm. With this one, its a little more unpredictable, so were just erring on the side of caution, Cosat said. Forecasters and center Director Bill Parsons and Shuttle Launch Director Mike Leinbach, met routine ly as Fay progressed past Cuba. The centers actions are coordinated with of and the U.S. Air Forces 45th Space Wing, which is based at Patrick Air Force Base and also oversees Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. We watch for evacu ations from the barrier is lands, which is not happen ing this time, Cosat said. That is something that has a big impact on the Kennedy work force. The actions were part of the centers regular hur ricane readiness plan. The early preparations began Aug. 15 when Parsons declared Hurricane Condi tion IV, the lowest readiness level. See Atlantis Page 2 NASAs QuikSCAT satellite has been watching Fays winds by using microwaves to peer into the clouds. This image was captured at 7:33 a.m. EDT on Aug. 19. NASA


Page 2 SPACEPORT NEWS Aug. 22, 2008 Weightlessness experts enjoy microgravity experience F or the past 17 years, Jona than Partschs work as a life support technician prepared June, he experienced weightlessness Riding inside a 727 airliner run by the Zero Gravity Corporation, or Zero-G, Partsch and a group of 75 engineers, scientists and technicians 30 seconds at a time, 15 times. The airplane, known as G-Force One, simulates weightlessness by parabolas. While the climb makes passengers feel like they weigh almost twice as much as on Earth, the dives can remove the feeling of gravity altogether. NASA uses those same prin ciples to introduce astronauts to the feeling of free-fall, and has since the Mercury program began in 1958. experienced the gravity of Mars and the moon before making several turns in simulated zero-gravity. During our moon-simulated parabola, which is 1/6 earths grav ity, we found that doing one arm was a breeze, Parstch said Later, when the plane pushed its nose earthward like a roller coaster at the top of a hill to start a new dive, the researchers and technicians gently off the walls and ceiling. A few seconds later, gravity returned at the bottom of the dive. Before coming back down, our down, feet down. This is one order you had better obey, because you were coming down whether you had your feet down or not, Partsch said. The aerospace group also took aid, but microgravity challenges even the simplest motions. Some thing as easy as placing a bandage on an arm becomes laborious. as fun a work assignment as anyone will get, there was a serious side to With the shuttles retirement measures will help train NASAs Kennedy Space Center work force for the Constellation Program, which is expected to begin carrying astro nauts into orbit in 2015. Workforce Florida Inc. and the Brevard Workforce Development Board funded the Florida Aerospace Microgravity Training Program, a aerospace industry. Zero-G, SpaceT EC and Brevard Community College also are taking part in the program. Before taking to the skies, Partsch went through two weeks of specialized courses and helped in research that covered topics focused on the engineering and physiological aspects of microgravity. He took part in an experiment to determine how weightlessness disorients people and leaves them feeling tired. Such information is crucial, considering astronauts on a moon mission are expected to live for months at a time in greatly-reduced gravity. The trip to Mars takes months, so astronauts will have to By Steven Siceloff Spaceport News endure long stretches of weightless Closer to Earth, Partsch, who works for Wyle Aerospace Group at Kennedy, spent more than a week ing his sleep patterns for the study and collecting small vials of saliva for analysis along the way. Partschs work didnt end when the G-Force One aircraft touched down on the runway. He had to keep logging his sleep patterns for several days and collecting more saliva samples, in hopes that doctors may lessness fatigue. Partsch graduated from the pro gram as a micronaut, or as some call it a zeronaut, and is now expected to share what he learned and apply it to future projects. for NASA Jonathan Partsch was among a group of 75 engineers, scientists and technicians who oated in microgravity freedom aboard G-Force One. Although the prepara tion status remained at IV through Monday, most of the steps for Hurricane in advance, Cosat said. That included designating a group of workers called the ride-out team. Their main task during a storm is to watch over the center for potential damage. If something happens that needs to be taken care of, theyll do it, Cosat said. After the storm passes, the evaluation of the center. Leinbach said recently that he conducts teleconfer ences every six hours lead ing up to a storm so NASA can make sure the shuttles and their payloads have everything they need and are ready for harsh weather conditions. Because storms can threaten space shuttle scheduling, the meetings typically include program From Atlantis Page 1 centers, as well as headquar ters. Its been several years since Kennedy has buttoned down for a tropical storm. In 2004, Hurricane Frances tore panels off the side of the VAB. Most of the out side of the building, includ ing its siding and doors, has since been revamped and many of its panels replaced. In 2004 and 2005, (the preparations) were more extensive because we faced a direct threat from the At lantic side, Cosat said. As of press time, Ken nedy had been closed Aug. 19-20. The center was ex pected to reopen no earlier than 8 a.m. Aug. 21.


SPACEPORT NEWS Page 3 Aug. 22, 2008 Hands-on activities inspire minority students By Kate Frakes Spaceport News T he chance to meet an astronaut, freeze leaves with liquid nitrogen and spend the night under a real rocket may sound like an amuse ment park adventure, but for students involved in the science, technology, engi neering and mathematics program, or STEM, with historically black colleges and universities, or HBCUs, its just another day of learn ing. On Aug. 6, 132 students and faculty arrived at the Kennedy Space Center Visi tor Complex for three days of hands-on STEM activi ties. Four designated HB CUs offer minority youth from elementary through high school a chance to study STEM-related subjects at their campuses: Morgan State University, North Caro lina Agriculture and Techni cal University, Prairie View Agricultural and Mechanical University and Tennessee State University. This year, NASA brought each of these HBCUs together by award ing them grants to fund the students trip to Kennedy. Kennedys Teacher and Student Programs Lead Hortense Burt managed the helped relate the students work in the classroom to cur rent NASA missions. The programs goal is to expose minority youth to NASAs missions and increase their interest in the aerospace industry, Burt said. We want to alert stu dents of the need for them to be academically successful so that they have the back ground to work in a STEMbased career. The students participat ed in group activities led by NASA education informa tion specialists at Kennedys Center for Space Education. They learned about new technologies for NASAs Hubble Space Telescope, dis cussed objectives of the next space shuttle mission and Visitor Complexs Shuttle Launch Experience ride. In addition to hands-on activities, NASA engineers, scientists and astronauts spoke to the students about the importance of academic success. NASA Propulsion Sys tems engineer and Tennessee State University graduate Malcolm Boston motivated students to strive for aca demic success. As a NASA scholar and four-year summer intern at NASAs Glenn Research Center throughout college, of education programs of fered by HBCUs. Diversity is a proven, zational success and younger exposure to cutting edge technology and the engineers who work with it, Boston said Students also met NASA astronaut John Blaha who discussed his work on the International Space Station and fed their curios ity with his experiences in space. The event ended with an educational overnight experi ence at the Apollo/Saturn V Center. Students also toured Kennedy and got a behindthe-scenes Dynamics of Technology tour at Disneys Epcot, to further demon strate the broad spectrum of possibilities STEM curricula offers. NASA/Dimitri Gerondidakis NASA/Dimitri Gerondidakis On Aug. 6, 132 students and faculty arrived at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex for three days of hands-on STEM activities. Four historically black colleges and universities offer minority youth from elementary school through high school a chance to study STEM-related subjects. Students learned about new technologies used on NASAs Hubble Space Telescope such as the gyros, which are used to maintain orientation and provide stability in boats, aircraft and spacecraft. They work by a scientic principle called the gyroscopic effect. You can demonstrate this effect by holding a bicycle wheel by its axle and asking someone to spin the wheel. If you try to move the axle of the spinning wheel, you will feel a force opposing your attempt to move it.


Scene Around Kennedy Space Center Page 5 SPACEPORT NEWS Page 4 SPACEPORT NEWS Aug. 22, 2008 Aug. 22, 2008 Reader-submitted photo Katy Lehtio, a communications technician with InDyne Inc., assembles 52D Desktop end instruments as part of an OIS-D survivability task. OIS-D is the principal Kennedy Space Center voicecommunications system used to support processing of space shuttle and International Space Station components. NASA/Amanda Diller Ofcials prepare to dig in during the Aug. 6 ground-breaking ceremony for a Weather Radar Replacement Facility. Reader-submitted photo Richard Cota, deputy chief nancial ofcer with NASA, celebrated his retirement Aug. 1 after more than 43 years of service.


Scene Around Kennedy Space Center Page 5 SPACEPORT NEWS Page 4 SPACEPORT NEWS Aug. 22, 2008 Aug. 22, 2008 Reader-submitted photo You are encouraged to send unique story ideas and exciting photos of workers in action for possible publication. Photos should include a short caption with the names and job titles, from left to right. Send e-mail to KSC-Spaceport-News Spaceport News wants your photos Reader-submitted photo John Pancho is leaving Kennedy Space Center after 36 years. He is relocating to California to join his wife, Donna, shown above, and two daughters, Kelly and Chelsea. NASA/Dimitri Gerondidakis The Kennedy Space Center Prime Contractor Board sponsored the rst NASAs Kennedy Space Center Small Business Industry Day forum on July 31 at Boeing Co. in Titusville. The forum advises Kennedy program managers, technical representatives and engineers of various small business capabilities. These capabilities could be used for upcoming contracts at Kennedy involving Shuttle/Constellation transition or other activities. NASA/Gianni Woods The Kennedy Space Center Badging Ofce, building M6-0224 (on State Road 405, west of Gate 3) is providing badging services for employees, deliveries and ofcial visitors. These services formerly were provided at the PIDS 3 Facility, which now is closed. Rita Willcoxon, director of launch vehicle processing, stands with the crew of STS-126 at a crew equipment interface test party earlier this month. More than 200 KSC employees and their families attended the party. The STS-126 crew is targeted to launch aboard Endeavour on Nov. 10.


Page 6 SPACEPORT NEWS Aug. 22, 2008 Hubble makes 100,000th trip around Earth A s Kennedy Space Center the Hubble Space Telescope, the giant observatory continues to send breathtaking images back to astron omers. On Aug. 10, Hubble made its 100,000th trip around Earth, sending back colorful images of a galaxy thousands of light-years away. Hubble used its Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, or WFPC2, to gaze at the Tarantula nebula, near the star cluster NGC 2074. The im age shows a cloud of sulfur, ionized hydrogen and oxygen gas emis sions and dust, likely triggered by a nearby supernova explosion. Since 1993, WFPC2 has acted as Hubbles main eye, recording razor-sharp images of objects and events that occurred billions of years ago. Nevertheless, the image taken by WFPC2 as Hubble whirled around earth at 17,500 mph on Aug. 10 could be one of its last. As NASA technicians predicted, the charge-coupled devices on WFPC2 are degrading and sending back im ages that are slightly distorted by a phenomenon known as hot pixels. Hubble engineers have been able to correct for the degradation, but their against the aging camera. In October, the STS-125 crew plans to replace WFPC2 with Wide Field Camera 3, or WFC3. The Wide Field Camera 3 is one of those instruments that is go ing to make Hubble 10 times better in discovery space. Its the highest science priority of the mission and we are very excited to put this new camera in, said NASA astronaut John Grunsfeld, who will switch scheduled spacewalks. WFC3 is similar to its prede cessor, but theres a key advance ment that will broaden the cameras electromagnetic vision across the spectrum from ultraviolet to the vis ible light our eyes can see, and into the near infrared. This will allow the camera to observe young, hot stars, as well as older, cooler stars in the same galaxy. All those different popula tions of stars exist within the same galaxy. Its the family album, the family photo album for that galaxy, said Hubble Space Telescopes Chief Scientist David Lekrone. WFC3 also will study dark energy and dark matter, the myste rious force that is not understood in terms of physics, a force that is accelerating the expansion of the universe. Dark energy is believed to be behind the effect known as gravitational lenses, which ap pears to warp the way space looks. WFC3 is designed to map the lenses and help determine the character and distribution of dark matter in galaxy clusters. WFC3 arrived at Kennedy Aug. 11 and is now undergoing routine system functional testing. Some of the tests can get quite involved. For example, technicians will lower temperatures to minus-122 degrees to evaluate delicate detectors inside the WFC3. NASA technicians are scheduled to move the camera onto the Super Lightweight Interchange able Carrier Aug. 19. checkout and integration of the in strument is a proud moment for all of us, said Hubble Space Telescope Operations Integration and Test Manager Dr. Lisa Mazzuca. The astronauts work will allow Hubble to continue its work as a true time machine, peeking in on the universe as it looked billions of years ago. By Kate Frakes Spaceport News W ith an impressive list of innovative research pre sentations spanning from Kennedy Space Centers En gineering Academy venues continue to help engineers push the envelope of possibil ities. In an effort to share his technical knowledge within Kennedys engineering presenter Dr. Ali Shaykhian is reaching new heights in software safety research. Shaykhian, a NASA computer engineer, has been delving in software research since joining NASA in April Computer engineer on mission to keep software safe 2000. He serves as techni cal advisor and consultant to the Checkout and Launch Control System, or CLCS, on families of object-oriented software, like Java, and the safety issues concerning each software product. The main goal of my research is to identify the To view video and PDF versions of past KEA events, including Dr. Ali Shaykhians, or future calendar events, visit: More KEA online methodologies that would increase the safety and reli ability of what we consider to be critical software, said Shaykhian. I wanted to achieve that in addition to improving the softwares ef Shaykhians recent research was funded by Kennedys Core Techni cal Capability to develop innovative software engineer ing solutions for software safety applications. He also researched the Real-time Display Tool software, a PC Goal 2 software product that is currently used at the Launch Control Center for the Space Shuttle Program. In addition to Shaykh ians research, he published and presented more than 15 technical papers on software engineering and reestab guidelines. His articles were published in American Soci ety for Engineering Educa tion and Neural, Parallel conference proceedings. Shaykhians devo tion to software safety led to his appointment as a NASA Administrator Fel low in May of 2003. After a two-year tenure, Shaykhian was recognized by NASA Administrator Michael Grif and instruction at Bethune Cookman College. He also actively participates in nine Kennedy engineering teams and organizations. The aspiration to teach others was instilled in me as a child, Shaykhian said. Since I started teaching 32 years ago, helping people learn has been my lifes greatest reward. Recently, Shaykhian was honored by the Ameri can Society for Engineering Education with a two year appointment as the Chair of Minorities for Engineer ing Division, or MIND. MIND aims to improve the preparation, recruitment and retention of minority students in science, mathematics and Technicians monitor the movement of the Wide Field Camera 3, or WFC3, as it is lowered onto a work stand in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. WFC3 will act at the Hubbles main camera once installed by Atlantis STS-125 crew. NASA/Jack Pfaller


Page 7 SPACEPORT NEWS Aug. 22, 2008 Nighttime was right time for STS-8 Remembering Our Heritage By Kay Grinter Reference Librarian NASA le STS-8 mission astronauts enjoy a lighter moment during the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test. I n 1983, Space shuttle Challengers STS-8 mis sion was a groundbreak er, as the Space Shuttle launch and landing. ber crew was commanded by Richard Truly, with Daniel Brandenstein as pilot. Three mission special ists accompanied them: Dale Gardner, Dr. William Thornton and Dr. Guion space program. Launch was delayed about 10 days to allow ground stations additional time to check out the Track ing and Data Relay Satellite launched in March. Further check out of the satellite from orbit was one of the tasks of the mission. Liftoff on Aug. 30 from Launch Pad 39A was de layed by lightning and rain. After the rain stopped, astro naut Bob Crippen made a visual inspection of a cloud layer about 9,000 feet over the center, which yielded a go for launch. From that point, the countdown pro at 2:32 a.m. EDT, only 17 minutes late. Truly, a NASA admin istrator from May 1989 to March 1992, was the only member of the crew in space. Now retired, he recalled from his home in Colorado, We spent a lot of time preparing for that driven by our primary task: deployment of an Indian satellite. That satellite was the INSAT-1B, a multipurpose satellite for India equipped for telecommunications and meteorological functions. It two by Bluford. Bluford, now retired from NASA and president of The Aerospace Technol ogy Group. From his home in Ohio, he said, It was a great crew and a great mis sion, and I enjoyed talking to President Reagan from orbit. Reagan congratulated Bluford for the success of the mission and for making it plain we are in an era of brotherhood in America. Demonstration of the remote manipulator systems ability to handle heavier and heavier objects was made by Gardner using the 8,500-pound payload deployment and retrieval days three and four. Thornton, a medical doctor, made continual mea surements and investigations of adaptation of the human body to weightlessness in an effort to better understand the biophysiological effects and developed much of the equipment used for his observations. Landing for the six-day mission also was sched uled for nighttime, but the shuttle is not equipped with landing lights. If mounted externally, the lights could not withstand the heat of reentry and if installed on the landing gear, the lights would not be deployed until seconds before touchdown, too late to be of use during In the couple of years develop a ground lighting system and a compatible heads-up display for the orbiter, Truly said. Lights would be needed at Edwards Air Force Base, the primary landing site, as well as at Kennedys Shuttle Landing Facility to support a returnto-launch-site abort. Edwards was chosen as the deserts dry lakebed could provide a wide safety zone. I thought Kennedys runway had excellent night lighting and would have felt safe landing there, Truly remarked in hindsight. lights, with 800 million candle power each, illumi runway, or the touchdown zone. The runway edge remainder of the landing sequence. Touchdown Sept. 5 time. NASAs Ron Phelps was a support test manager for STS-8 and aboard the lead convoy vehicle that approached the orbiter from behind after landing. Out there in the desert, theres absolutely no light. Everything is pitch-black, Phelps said. The plan come down the runway on the opposite side from our convoy vehicles, but the to reposition one of the trucks. As our driver started to pull out on the runway, he heard something that just didnt sound right to him roared past. Other than that, the landing went exactly as planned. There was no moon that night. It was really black except for the lights on the ground, Truly said. All our work paid off with a very smooth reentry, plac ing us in the correct landing zone. It is always interest and Dan Brandenstein and I were very proud of our suc cess. It proved very certain ly that night landings could be made safe to execute. To date, 30 shuttle launches and 22 shuttle landings have been in dark ness. The STS-125 Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission and the STS-126 mission to the International Space Station are scheduled for nighttime launches. NASA le STS-8 was the third ight of space shuttle Challenger, and the eighth shuttle ight. The mission lasted six days, one hour, eight minutes and 43 seconds.


John F. Kennedy Space Center Managing editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Candrea Thomas Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frank Ochoa-Gonzales Copy editor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rebecca Sprague Editorial support provided by InDyne, Inc. Writers Group. NASA at KSC is on the Internet at USGPO: 733-049/600142 Spaceport News Spaceport News is an ofcial publication of the Kennedy Space Center and is published on alternate Fridays by External Relations in the interest of KSC civil service and contractor employees. Contributions are welcome and should be submitted three weeks before publication to the Media Services Branch, IDI-011. E-mail submissions can be sent to Page 8 SPACEPORT NEWS Aug. 22, 2008 Send photos of yourself and/or your co-workers in action for possible publication. Photos should include a short caption, with names and job titles, from left to right. Send them to Spaceport News wants your photos Calvin Wright, logistics operations supervisor, with Northrup Grumman Pat Kelley, technician, with InDyne Inc. Katy Lehtio, communication technician, with InDyne Inc. Kenneth Brown, voice technician, with InDyne Inc. Ron Whittington, video systems electronics technician, with InDyne Inc. WORD STREET ON THE at CM&S Looking up and ahead Scheduled for Jan. 26, 2010 Launch/CCAFS: Atlas V, SDO; TBD Launch/KSC: Atlantis, STS-125; 1:34 a.m. No earlier than Dec. 16 Target Oct. 8 Launch/CCAFS: Delta IV, GOES-O; TBD Target Nov. 10 Launch/KSC: Endeavour, STS-126; 9:31 p.m. No earlier than Feb. 27, 2009 Launch/CCAFS: Atlas V, LRO; TBD No earlier than Nov. 20 Launch/CCAFS: Delta II, STSS; TBD Target Feb. 12, 2009 Launch/KSC: Discovery, STS-119; 7:36 a.m. Scheduled for April 10 Launch/CCAFS: Delta II, Kepler; TBD Target May 15, 2009 Launch/KSC: Endeavour, STS-127; 4:52 p.m. Launch/KSC: Atlantis, STS-128; TBD Target July 30, 2009 Family Day at Kennedy Space Center Oct. 18 No earlier than Sept. 26 Launch/CCAFS: Delta IV, NROL-26; TBD Target Oct. 15, 2009 Launch/KSC: Discovery, STS-129; TBD Target Dec. 10, 2009 Launch/KSC: Endeavour, STS-130; TBD Target Feb. 11, 2010 Launch/KSC: Atlantis, STS-131; TBD Target April 8, 2010 Launch/KSC: Discovery, STS-132; TBD Target May 31, 2010 Launch/KSC: Endeavour, STS-133; TBD lines thats exactly what we instruct the White House to do. Panelists at the space meeting included Parsons; Marsh Heard, chairman of the Florida Aviation Aerospace Alliance; Frank DiBello, Economic Development Commis sion consultant; and Steve Kohler, president of Space Florida. The House wants to set aside funding for commercial, federal and university-based science missions aboard the International Space Station so it can serve as a national and international laboratory. One industry that already has shown a keen interest in experimenting in space is the pharmaceutical indus try. Both Heard and DiBello believe targeting commercial businesses and federal programs could bring jobs to NASAs work force during the transition. Heres a chance to go up and gather some real data so that we can make conscious decisions about whether or not we have an environ mental problem. And if so, how do we attack it? We can use it (ISS) for things like crop management; we can use it for things like water management, Heard said. Each panelist echoed the senti ment that Kennedy Space Center is a unique national asset and although its future is unknown, there still is a mission at hand. The U.S. Senate is expected to vote on a similar bill later this year. From Titusville Page 1 Submit speaker abstracts for PM Challenge 2009 Do you have a topic of interest to NASA program and project management stakeholders? Deadline for abstract submissions is Sept. 12. For more information, go to: