Title: Sirenews
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00099157/00039
 Material Information
Title: Sirenews newsletter of the IUCNSSC Sirenia Specialist Group
Alternate Title: Siren news
Physical Description: v. : ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources -- Sirenia Specialist Group
International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources -- Sirenia Specialist Group
Publisher: IUCN/SSC Sirenia Specialist Group
Place of Publication: Washington D.C
Washington D.C
Publication Date: April 2003
Frequency: two no. a year[apr. 1984-]
Subject: Sirenia -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Marine mammals -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Additional Physical Form: Also issued via the World Wide Web.
Dates or Sequential Designation: No. 1 (Apr. 1984)-
Issuing Body: Supported 1984-Apr. 1992 by the Species Survival Commission of IUCN, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission; Oct. 1992 by the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission & U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Apr. 1993-Oct. 1994 by the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission; <Oct. 1995>- by the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission and Sea World, Inc.
General Note: Title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: No. 48 (Oct. 2007).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00099157
Volume ID: VID00039
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 35841617
lccn - 2009208704
issn - 1017-3439


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A workshop to discuss sirenian conservation issues has been proposed to be held in
conjunction with the 15th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Greensboro,
North Carolina, USA, 14-19 December 2003. The proposal for this workshop is pending and a
final determination will be made after 21 June. We especially encourage participation from
sirenian biologists and managers outside the U.S. Invited presentations will cover several aspects
of dugong and manatee status and research worldwide. We are soliciting nominations from those
interested in giving short presentations at the workshop. If you are interested in presenting or
attending, please contact Nicole Adimey as soon as possible.
Registration for the workshop will be awarded on a first-come-first-served basis and will
be free to those who sign up beforehand. Another announcement with more specific information
on exact time and location of the workshop will be made in the next issue of Sirenews. Mark your
calendars now!
For additional information please contact Nicole. Nicole Adimey (USFWS) and Bob
Bonde (USGS). (Nicole Adimey, Fish and Wildlife Manatee Biologist, U.S.

Fish and Wildlife Service, 6620 Southpoint Drive, South #310, Jacksonville, Florida 32216-0958
USA; tel.: 1-904-232-2580, ext. 123; fax: 1-904-232-2404; e-mail: )


With our next issue, Sirenews will complete an astonishing (to me!) 20 years of
continuous publication. This is an appropriate time for stocktaking, and the workshop announced
above will provide a convenient venue. I ask you, the readers of this newsletter, to consider
whether it has been meeting your needs as a source of sirenian-related information in support of
your efforts in research and conservation. How can it be improved? How should it be changed? In
view of the recent establishment of the SIRENIAN listserv and the Sirenian International website
by Caryn Self Sullivan and her collaborators, as well as other on-line resources, is a hard-copy
newsletter now redundant? Or is it still relied upon by some, especially workers in developing
countries without easy Internet access?


Since I lack the leisure to pursue investigative reporting, Sirenews has always relied on
your contributions of news and opinion; and for your two decades of support in this fashion, I am
extremely grateful. During that time it has been a pleasure to witness the geographic spread of
sirenian research and the involvement of new people. Twenty years ago the major sirenian
research centers were in Australia, Florida, and Brazil. These centers have remained active, have
grown to involve more institutions and agencies, and have been supplemented by (and indeed
fostered) newer research and conservation projects in Latin America, Southeast and East Asia,
and Africa -- as reflected in the welcome news reports from those areas.
However, in recent years I have also noticed that I am drawing more and more on news services
and other published sources, for lack of exclusive first-person reports volunteered by you, the
active workers directly involved in the study of sirenians. It is your contributions that have
always been the main strength of Sirenews, and made it unique. If you have not sent us any news
lately, is it because there is too little happening in your neighborhood, or too much happening but
with too little time to report it? If Sirenews is to be worth your while to read, it must contain
timely information from your colleagues -- and vice versa.
I earnestly solicit your thoughts on these issues, at any time up to and including the
December workshop, where I hope a formal discussion of this topic can be included on the
agenda. The publication of Sirenews is an extremely time-consuming task. I want to make sure
that my energies are being applied in the most productive direction, and (if this newsletter is to
continue) that it genuinely serves the needs of the sirenian research and conservation community.



Hand-Raised Dugong Recap-tured. The male dugong calf hand-raised from a neonate
(Sirenews No. 31, April 1999 and No. 33, April 2000), and released into Moreton Bay in
Queensland on March 12, 2002 (Sirenews No. 37, April 2002), was recaptured in poor condition
on November 9, 2002 and returned to Sea World (Australia) after 8 months in the wild. At 145.5
kg, "the pig" whose identity was unequivocally confirmed only after capture had lost 52.0 kg
(26.3%) of his release body weight, and had been severely beaten up by another, presumably
male, dugong.
He was recaptured in shallow water in Days Gutter, along the south-western aspect of Moreton
Island. This location was approximately 5 km from his release site (as the crow flies), but a
journey of at least 10-15 km (as the pig swims) depending on whether he hugged the contours of
the sandbanks and/or took shortcuts through connecting gutters. It was also within 2 km of where
his PTT/VHF tag and tether harness had washed up, decorated with shark teeth marks, on the


southern-most tip of the island on the third day after release.
The pig's recuperation is proving to be a continuously challenging process. He proceeded to lose
another 8.5 kg off his already frighteningly lean physique in the first four days after return to Sea
World. After erratic gains and losses, his weight was down to 136.0 kg by the end of the fifth
week a staggering 61.5 kg (31.1%) lighter than his weight at release. When one considers the
relatively greater contribution of the heavy sirenian skeleton to total body weight compared to
that in terrestrial mammals, this probably represents an even more alarming percentage of his soft
tissue mass.
Since mid-December, however, the pig has demonstrated a gradual improvement in health and
body condition. The combination of abundant salad vegetables, supplementary milk paste,
various medications, worming, restoration of intestinal bacteria, a heated pool, and lots of TLC
have seen his weight creep upwards, albeit somewhat erratically, to a maximum of 156.0 kg in
late February 2003.
While understandably disap-pointed by his failure to thrive in the wild, we consider ourselves
extremely fortunate to have been able to recapture him in spite of the premature detachment of
his tracking device. Positive aspects of his attempted release include his surviving for 8 months
(through winter), avoiding predation and boat strike, and apparently mastering the vagaries of
tides and currents (Days Gutter is an area of relatively heavy boat traffic and strong currents).
Any decisions about his long-term future will continue to be made in consultation with the other
key stakeholders in this ongoing 4-year rescue and rehabilitation process, viz., the Queensland
Parks and Wildlife Service and the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. Wendy
Blanshard (Records/Special Projects Officer, Sea World, P.O. Box 190, Surfers Paradise,
Queensland 4217, Australia (tel.: +61-7-5588-2222; fax: +61-7-5588-2266; e-mail: seaworld.com.au>)


Red Tide Blooms Killing Manatees. Southwest Florida is experiencing the second-largest red
tide-related manatee die-off ever recorded. Since Feb. 27, 16 dead manatees have been confirmed
victims of red tide, and 44 more deaths were probably caused by red tide, said Tom Pitchford,
director of the state's Marine Mammal Pathobiology Laboratory in St. Petersburg. Five live
manatees suffering from red tide poisoning have been rescued. Four are at Lowry Park Zoo in
Tampa; one is at Sea World in Orlando.
Pitchford and his team perform necropsies on virtually every manatee carcass found in the state.
"We suspect red tide in these animals because of circumstantial and gross findings," Pitchford
said. "The circumstantial is that they all came from red tide bloom areas. The gross findings are
consistent with red tide poisoning: swollen, congested kidneys, froth in the airways of the lungs,
blood that doesn't coagulate when you cut into the animal, hemorrhaging in the eyes, bloody
froth in the nose. As we get tissues tested, we'll move them from suspect to confirmed."
The largest red tide manatee die-off ever recorded was in 1996, when 149 died between March 5


and April 27 in Southwest Florida. After the 1996 die-off, scientists developed tests to determine
whether a dead manatee had been killed by red tide toxin before that event, no such test was
Last year, red tide killed 35 manatees; before 1996, the largest suspected red tide manatee die-off
was in 1982, when 39 died over 11 weeks in Lee County. Because no test was available,
scientists based that conclusion on circumstantial and gross evidence.
"We've essentially had an event every year since 1996," Pitchford said. "We undoubtedly had
them before, but they probably went unrecognized because of the small numbers involved and the
lack of a test."
Scientists chalked the 1996 die-off up to a confluence of events. As area water started warming
up, manatees that had spent the winter in warm-water areas, such as the Florida Power & Light
power plant on the Orange River, began moving toward the coast. At that time, a huge bloom of
the organism that causes red tide, Karenia brevis, developed at the mouth of the Caloosahatchee
River. Many manatees swimming through the bloom were poisoned and died virtually all of
the carcasses were recovered in Lee County.
This year's event is a little different. Red tide has been in Southwest Florida waters for several
months, but not in the same high concentrations as 1996. Also unlike 1996, manatees already had
dispersed through the area carcasses have been recovered from Sarasota to Marco Island 29
from Lee County.
Some manatees have survived the algae's toxin, which becomes airborne and causes respiratory
irritation in humans as well. Once away from the toxin produced by red tide, the manatees usually
recover, scientists said.
"Certainly we don't know all there is to know about manatees and the effects of red tide,"
Pitchford said. "One thing is painfully clear: When red tide is in manatee habitat, manatees are
going to die." Kevin Lollar (from The News-Press [Fort Myers, FL], April 17, 2003;
supplemented from Associated Press State & Local Wire)

Status of Florida Manatee Downlisting Proposal. The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation
Commission has decided to re-visit the manatee's listing status at its May 28-30 meeting in
Kissimmee, Florida. (See html>.)
Staff at FWC's Florida Marine Research Institute prepared a biological status review of the
Florida manatee based on the state of Florida's listing criteria. A preliminary report was peer-
reviewed and the report finalized last December. The report is available on-line at floridamarine.org/ features/view_article.asp?id=19173>. Based on the state's listing
criteria,* staff recommended that the manatee be down-listed at the state level from endangered
to threatened. The Commission heard the report at its January 2003 meeting in Ft. Myers and
decided to postpone making a decision on the manatee's status in Florida. If the commissioners
decide to downlist the Florida manatee, a state management plan will have to be developed prior
to implementation of a change in status. The state of Florida maintains an imperiled species list


separate from the federal endangered species list and a change at the state level does not change
the federal list. Elsa M. Haubold, Ph.D., Research Administrator II, Florida Fish and Wildlife
Conservation Commission, Florida Marine Research Institute, 100 8th Ave. SE, St. Petersburg,
Florida 33701 (tel.: 727-896-8626 xl902; e-mail: ; www.florida marine.org>).
*[ED. NOTE: For a critique of the State of Florida's listing criteria, see Sirenews No. 38.]

O.J. Simpson Pays Fine. O.J. Simpson has paid a US$130 fine for speeding through a manatee
zone in a powerboat. Patricia Jones, Simpson's attorney, paid the fine on Nov. 22. The former
football star didn't come to the courthouse. Simpson, 55, had been ticketed July 4 for creating a
wake in a manatee zone while driving a 30-foot powerboat near downtown Miami (see Sirenews
Judge Ana Maria Pando had earlier issued a bench warrant for Simpson after he and his attorney
both missed a court hearing. The warrant meant Simpson could have been arrested if stopped by
police. The warrant was withdrawn hours later after Simpson's primary attorney, Yale Galanter,
explained he didn't attend because of a scheduling mix-up.
Simpson was acquitted of murder charges in the 1994 slaying of his ex-wife and her friend. A
civil jury later held Simpson liable for the killings and ordered him to pay the victims' survivors
US$33.5 million. He hasn't worked since. Any money he makes could be seized to satisfy that
judgment, which remains largely unpaid. He continues to maintain his innocence in the killings.
- (Source: Associated Press Online, Nov. 23, 2002)
Fate is Against Us. A Florida psychic has bad news for manatee lovers. Self-described
"spiritual consultant" Tracy Crespo, 37, of Fort Myers, Florida, made the following prediction to
reporter Denise Scott:
Q: Will docks or manatees disappear?
A: Boat owners are going to win over manatees. Money generally rules. And with evolution, our
animals are changing. In about five years, manatees will be extinct. Destiny wants them extinct.
I'm not blaming the boat owners. (Source: The News-Press [Fort Myers, FL], Dec. 31, 2002)


Manatee Born in Singapore Zoo. The Singapore News has reported that a 9 kg female manatee
was born, unassisted, in the Singapore Zoo on Tuesday, 11 March 2003. The Zoo is inviting
visitors to suggest names for its newest arrival.
The Singapore Zoo started with three adult manatees (T. m. mianatus) from Germany. Besides this
latest newborn, its current collection also includes a baby male manatee.



New Manatee Research and Conservation Program. We are pleased to inform you that a
long-term research and conservation program on the West African manatee will be undertaken in
October 2003 (planned for a minimum of 3 years). This program, part of a new-born French and
international NGO (devoted to education, research and conservation), will focus on 3 main
objectives :
1. Study of the West African manatee's distribution and repartition in the Niger Inner
Delta (Mali) and adjacent countries (Senegal, Burkina Faso, Benin). Intensive aerial and
boat surveys, radio-tracking, etc.
2. Study of the manatee's biology 3 years of field observations planned.
3. Population genetics studies (species comparisons, genetic variability, population
viability, etc.).
More details will be published and issued in October 2003 (NGO website, official research
program, contact addresses, etc.). In the meantime, we welcome contacts with other biologists,
sirenologists and research/conservation organizations. Contact Frederic G. Speyser at our
temporary e-mail address: .


The following abstracts are of presentations at the 10th Reunion de Trabajo de
Especialistas en Mamiferos Acuaticos de America del Sur RT and 4 Congresso SOLAMAQ,
Valdivia, Chile, 14-19 October 2002.

Anatomical and Histological Characteristics of Female Reproductive Tract of Trichechus inunguis (Natterer,
1883) (Mammalia: Sirenia).
Fernanda Rosa Rodrigues & Vera Maria Ferreira da Silva
Institute Nacional de Pesquisas da Amaz6nia (INPA); Laborat6rio de Mamiferos Aqudticos LMA; Av. Andri
Araftjo, 2936; Petr6polis; Manaus-AM; Brasil.
The Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis), like other representatives of the Order Sirenia, is uniparous with
possesses slow reproduction, considering the interval between birth and long gestation interval. Another aggravating
factor to its population growth is that hunting of the species continues, although prohibited by law. The reproductive
tract's macroscopic and histological study, especially of the ovaries, supplies important information about the life
history and on the female's reproductive state. In this study, anatomical and histological descriptions of the female
reproductive tract and mammary glands were made for the first time for T. inunguis. Three specimens were utilized,
and the collected material was fixed in buffered formalin at 10%. After the biometry and anatomic description, tissue
samples of the female reproductive apparatus were removed and prepared for histological sections. Histochemistry
and immunohistochemistry techniques were used. The results revealed that the external genitalia, mainly the clitoris
and the labia major, present numerous nervous ganglions and tactile sensitive corpuscles in the dermis, important
for sexual stimulation. The vaginal epithelium is columnar, mucus-secreting, varying from simple to pseudostratified.
In mammals in general, the epithelium is stratified squamous non-glandular keratinised. This keratinization is related
to the degree of friction to which the epithelium is subjected. The hymen has two vaginal openings, tied by a short
segment, and it separates the vagina from the vestibule. These openings, possibly, become a single opening during
sexual intercourse. The shortage of elastic fibers corroborates this hypothesis, reducing the possibility of


complacency of the hymen. In one of the specimens in this study, whose endometrial glands didn't present maximum
development, no placental scars were observed in the uterus. In this same individual the presence of hemorragic body
and Graafian follicles in the right ovary, besides corpora albicantia, was recorded, suggesting that T. inunguis goes
through infertile cycles, in order to reach sexual maturity, before the first gestation. Macroscopically, the cicatricial
body counts were difficult because of their small diameter. It is not possible to differentiate the cicatricial bodies
resulting from the follicles' rupture corporaa albicantia) from those of non-ruptured follicles. It was histologically
observed, through the technique of Picrosirius modified for confocal, that the cicatricial bodies can be differentiated
among corpora albicantia and those resulting from non-ruptured follicles by the variation of the organization and
density of the collagen fibers of these structures. The presence of corpora albicantia in the right and left ovaries of
one of the specimens in this study suggests bilateral function of the ovaries in T. inunguis. [Master's Thesis in
Aquatic Biology and Interior Fisheries, University of Amazonas/INPA, Manaus, Brazil, 2002. 114 pp.]

Phylogeography of Trichechus inunguis (Natterer, 1883) (Mammalia: Sirenia) in Brazilian Amazon.
Andrea Martins Cantanhedel; Vera Maria Ferreira da Silva1 & Jose A. Alves-Gomes2
1-Laborat6rio de Mamiferos Aqudticos LMA; Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amaz6nia (INPA); Av. Andre
Arautjo, 2936; Petr6polis; Manaus-AM; Brasil.
2-Laborat6rio Temdtico de Biologia Molecular; Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amaz6nia (INPA); Av. Andrk
Arautjo, 2936; Petr6polis; Manaus-AM; Brasil.
The Amazonian manatee is endemic to the Amazon River basin, occurring from Maraj6 Island (Brazil) up to the
heads of that river in Colombia, Peru and Equador. Historically, this species has suffered from extensive hunting,
resulting in reduced population. The goal of this study was to estimate the genetic variability of this species,
verifying whether or not there was any association between the geographic distribution and the genetic variation
using the mitochondrial control region. Sixty-eight individuals from six areas of the Amazon basin (Rios Negro,
Japuri, Solim6es, Madeira, and Amazon in the State of Amazonas, and from Pard) were sampled. A total of 364 base
pairs were sequenced and 37 haplotypes were found. The haplotype diversity was relatively high (h = 0.909), despite
the low nucleotide diversity Pi (JC) = 0.00836. This can be explained by the large number of singletons (31) in the
sample. The k values (average number of nucleotide differences per sequence pair) and D y values (average number
of substitutions per site) discriminate haplotypes from the Pari area, which are more variable compared to the other
areas. The AMOVA shows that 93.86% of the genetic variability is explained by haplotype variation within the
areas, and that the gene flow estimate is high (migrants per generation, M, varies from 3 to 13.133). The absence of
geographic segregation demonstrated by the phylogenetic analyses has strong implications for the species'
conservation in the wild. The Amazonian manatee population seems to be panmictic; therefore, guidelines for future
reintroduction programs of captive manatees will not be limited by the origin area of the animal to be released.
[Master's Thesis in Aquatic Biology and Interior Fisheries, University of Amazonas/INPA, Manaus, Brazil, 2002. 82

The Apparent Period of Pregnancy in Amazonian Manatee (Trichechus inunguis) Females Kept in Captivity,
Based on Plasmatic Levels of Progesterone.
Claudia Carvalho do Nascimento1, Claudio Alvarenga de Oliveira1, Vera Maria Ferreira da Silva2, Erika Cristiane
Gutierrez Felippel, Jose Anselmo d'Affonseca Neto.
1Laborat6rio de Dosagens Hormonais Faculdade de Medicina Veterindria e Zootecnia Universidade de Sao
Paulo (LDH-FMVZ-USP). Av Prof Dr. Orlando Marques de Paiva, 87. CEP 05508-000. Cidade Universitdria -


Butantd. SP SP Brasil. E-mail: claucn@hotmail. corn
2Laborat6rio de Mamiferos Aqudticos- Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amaz6nia. CP478 Manaus-AM Brasil
CEP 69011-970. E-mail: tucuxi@inpa.gov.br
The Amazonian manatee is the only sirenian which lives in the Amazon river basin. Few studies about reproductive
physiology of this species have been made. The aim of our work is to evaluate the concentrations of plasmatic
progesterone of two females in captivity at the Laborat6rio de Mamiferos Aquaticos Instituto Nacional de
Pesquisas da Amaz6nia (LMA-INPA), with the purpose of estimating the pregnancy length of the species. So far,
three pregnancies have been registered in captivity (two from Boo, 27 years in captivity and one from Tukano, 18
years in captivity). Blood samples from these females were taken at irregular periods, between June 1998 and March
2002. Amounts of 1,5 ml were frozen at -80 in microtubes for analyses. The hormone quantification was made by
solid phase radioimmunoassay at the Laborat6rio de Dosagens Hormonais Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e
Zootecnia Universidade de Sdo Paulo (LDH-FMVZ-USP). Plasmatic progesterone concentrations were
undetectable before pregnancy (0,02ng/ml). In the first month of pregnancy we found an increase of 6,7 ng/ml for
Boo and 9,99 ng/ml for Tukano, followed by an increase in the second month of 10,37 ng/ml and 13,58 ng/ml for
Boo and Tukano, respectively. After this increase, amounts of progesterone lessened until the time of parturition.
Concentrations of plasmatic progesterone remained high for an average of 334 days and were not detectable after
parturition. This period (11 months) was inferred as pregnancy length. This length differs from the Florida manatee
(Trichechus manatus latirostris), which is approximately 12 to 14 months. This is the first estimation of the
pregnancy period of the Amazon manatee based on plasmatic levels of progesterone.

The following abstract is of a doctoral dissertation submitted to the Centro de
Investigaci6n Cientifica y de Educacio6n Superior de Ensenada, CICESE, Ensenada, BC, Mexico,
Dec. 2002.

Habitat factors that determine the distribution of Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) in the
northern portion of Bahia de Chetumal, Mexico. (187 pp.)
Le6n David Olivera-G6mez.
The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus, Mammalia: Sirenia) and the Antillean subspecies (Trichechus m.
manatus) are considered endangered by the Mexican and many international environmental laws, for three main
reasons: its reduced population size (a result of the intensive hunting of this species since the arrival of Europeans to
the New World), the poor knowledge about many regional populations because of their low densities and the
difficulty of studying manatees in cryptic habitats, and the human impact and modification of the rivers, estuaries and
coastal zone, where these mammals live. A large part of the studies about this species referred to their general
conservation and to the distribution of some of their populations. In these studies, researchers indicated the need of
studying the principal characteristics of the habitat of the manatee. Those studies had recognized some elements of
the habitat, but few had explored quantitatively the relationship of these characteristics with the use by the manatees
at a medium spatial scale. In this research, I accomplished a field study to test the correlations between functional
characteristics of the habitat and the use by the manatee of small spatial units, of 0.02 km2, within Bahia de
Chetumal, located on the Caribbean coast of Mexico. This bay is a state natural protected area and a sanctuary for the
manatee since September 1996.
The habitat characteristics evaluated were: distance to sources of freshwater, submerged vegetation coverage, depth,
slope of the bottom, shelter from wind and surf, salinity and water temperature. I counted the manatees and sampled
the habitat characteristics concurrently, between November of 1998 and April of 2000. I registered the location and
the number of manatees through 17 aerial surveys with a light aircraft, in four sampling periods along a series of
fixed transects on the northern coasts of the bays. Throughout these transects I established the study units. I built
surface maps with the data of the habitat characteristics, and from these maps I assigned the corresponding values to


each unit. I calculated the frequency of occurrence of manatees inside each unit, and finally, I calculated the
Spearman's correlation coefficients between each habitat variable and the occurrence of manatees and between each
pair of habitat variables. I accomplished the same analysis for the data of the east and west coasts separately.
Furthermore, to observe the multivariate relationships among habitat characteristics and manatee data, I carried out
three types of analysis: Poisson regression, logistics regression and discriminate functions analysis. With the
exception of the shelter from the wind and surf, all the analyzed variables presented a significant correlation with the
frequency of occurrence of manatees. The global correlation was influenced by the data of the west coast, since the
manatee occurrence on the east coast presented correlation only with the distance to freshwater sources. In the
multivariate approaches, the distance to the sources of freshwater and the depth were the variables that contributed
more to the models of regression and classification. In this study, I confirmed the association of the habitat variables
proposed to explain the differential use of sites by the manatees at a small spatial scale. My data emphasize the
influence of the distance to freshwater sources on habitat models.


Aketa, K., S. Asano, Y. Wakai, and A. Kawamura. 2001. Apparent digestibility of eelgrass
in dugongs (Dugong dugon). Honyurui Kagaku 41(1): 23-34.

Ames, A.L., E.S. Van Vleet, and J.E. Reynolds, III. 2002. Comparison of lipids in selected
tissues of the Florida manatee (Order Sirenia) and bottlenose dolphin (Order Cetacea;
Suborder Odontoceti). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, B: Biochemistry and
Molecular Biology 132B(3): 625-634.

Bianucci, G., P. Mazza, D. Merola, G. Sarti, and A. Cascella. 2001. The Early Pliocene
mammal assemblage of Val di Pugna (Tuscany, Italy) in the light of calcareous plankton
biostratigraphical data and paleoecological observations. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e
Stratigrafia 107(3): 425-438.

Bossart, G.D. 2001. Manatees. In: L.A. Dierauf and F.M.D. Gulland (eds.), CRC handbook
of marine mammal medicine. Second ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton (lvii + 1063): 939-960.

Chua, F.H.C., B. Mackay, M. Whitfield, and E.L. Ooi. 2001. Rehabilitation and display of
a stranded dugong (Dugong dugon) calf in Singapore. Bulletin de l'Institut
Oceanographique (Monaco), Numero Special, 20(1): 403-406.

Colares, I.G., and E.P. Colares. 2002. Food plants eaten by Amazonian manatees
(Trichechus inunguis, Mammalia: Sirenia). Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology
45(1): 67-72.

Colbert, D.E., W. Fellner, G.B. Bauer, C.A. Manire, and H.L. Rhinehart. 2001. Husbandry
and research training of two Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Aquatic
Mammals 27(1): 16-23.


Creswell, J. 2002. The exploitative history and present status of marine mammals in
Barbados, W.I. Macalester Environmental Review, 28 May 2002: edu/environmentalstudies/MacEnvReview/marinemammalsbarbados.htm> [viewed 19
September 2002]

Domning, D.P. 2002. The terrestrial posture of desmostylians. In:. J. Emry, ed., Cenozoic
Mammals of Land and Sea: Tributes to the Career of Clayton E. Ray. Smithsonian
Contributions to Paleobiology 93: 99-111.

Gaus, C., 0. Papke, W. Blanchard, D. Haynes, D.W. Connell, and J.F. Mueller. 2001.
Bioaccumulation and pathways of PCDDs in the lower trophic marine system.
Organohalogen Compounds 52: 95-98.

Greenwood, A.D., F. Lee, C. Capelli, R. DeSalle, A. Tikhonov, P.A. Marx, and R.D.E.
MacPhee. 2001. Evolution of endogenous retrovirus-like elements of the woolly mammoth
(Mammuthus primigenius) and its relatives. Molecular Biology and Evolution 18(5): 840-

Guimaraes, M.A.B.V. 2001. A aplicacgo de tecnicas de reprodugao assistida em animals
silvestres mantidos em cativeiro. [The application of assisted reproduction techniques in
wild animals kept in captivity.] Revista Brasileira de Reproduqdo Animal 25(2): 116-117.

Heithaus, M.R. 2001. The biology of tiger sharks, Galeocerdo cuvier, in Shark Bay,
Western Australia: sex ratio, size distribution, diet, and seasonal changes in catch rates.
Environmental Biology of Fishes 61(1): 25-36.

Jackson, J.B.C., and E. Sala. 2001. Unnatural oceans. Scientia Marina 65 (Supplement 2):

Keijl, G.O., and T.M. van der Have. 2002. Observations on marine mammals in southern
Iran, January 2000. Zoology in the Middle East 26: 37-40.

Kubota, R., T. Kunito, and S. Tanabe. 2001. Arsenic accumulation in the liver tissue of
marine mammals. Environmental Pollution 115(2): 303-312.

Langer, P. 2001. Evidence from the digestive tract on phylogenetic relationships in
ungulates and whales. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 39(1-
2): 77-90.


Levin, M.J., and C.J. Pfeiffer. 2002. Gross and microscopic observations on the lingual
structure of the Florida manatee Trichechus manatus latirostris. Anatomia Histologia
Embryologia 31(5): 278-285.

Malia, M.J., R.M. Adkins, and M.W. Allard. 2002. Molecular support for Afrotheria and
the polyphyly of Lipotyphla based on analyses of the growth hormone receptor gene.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 24(1): 91-101.

McLachlan, M.S., D. Haynes, and J.F. Muller. 2001. PCDDs in the water/sediment-
seagrass-dugong (Dugong dugon) food chain on the Great Barrier Reef (Australia).
Environmental Pollution 113(2): 129-134.

Miller, D.L., M.M. Dougherty, S.J. Decker, and G.D. Bossart. 2001. Ultrastructure of the
spermatozoa from a Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Anatomia Histologia
Embryologia 30(4): 253-256.

Montgomery, S. 2000. Journey of the pink dolphins: an Amazon quest. New York, Simon
& Schuster: 1-317. [Includes anecdotes of manatees and manatee researchers.]

Morton, B. 2001. China's dugongs. Marine Pollution Bulletin 42(6): 419-420.

O'Brien, S.J., E. Eizirik, and W.J. Murphy. 2001. On choosing mammalian genomes for
sequencing. Science (Washington, D.C.) 292(5525): 2264-2266.

Olivera-Gomez, L.D., and E. Mellink. 2002. Spatial and temporal variation in counts of the
Antillean manatee (Trichechus m. manatus) during distribution surveys at Bahia de
Chetumal, Mexico. Aquatic Mammals 28(3): 285-293.

Ortiz, R.M. 2001. Osmoregulation in marine mammals. Journal of Experimental Biology
204(11): 1831-1844.

O'Shea, T.J., and A. Aguilar. 2001. Cetacea and Sirenia. In: R.F. Shore and B.A. Rattner
(eds.), Ecotoxicology of wild mammals. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, New York,
etc. (xxi + 730): 427-496.

Ota, H. 2001. Resolution at the World Conservation Congress at Amman. Biological
Magazine (Okinawa) 39: 141-144.

Paludo, D., and A. Langguth. 2002. Use of space and temporal distribution of Trichechus
manatuis manatus Linnaeus in the region of Sagi, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil


(Sirenia, Trichechidae). Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 19(1): 205-215.

Pfretzschner, H.U. 2001. Iron oxides in fossil bone. Neues Jahrbuchfuer Geologie und
Palaeontologie, Abhandlungen 220(3): 417-429.

Pimentel, T.L. 2001. Order Sirenia (manatees, dugongs, sea cows). Medicine. In: M.E.
Fowler and Z.S. Cubas (eds.), Biology, medicine, and surgery of South American wild
animals. Iowa State University Press, Ames (x + 536): 356-362.

Reep, R.L., M.L. Stoll, C.D. Marshall, B.L. Homer, and D.A. Samuelson. 2001.
Microanatomy of facial vibrissae in the Florida manatee: the basis for specialized sensory
function and oripulation. Brain Behavior and Evolution 58(1): 1-14.

Romero, A., K.T. Hayford, A. Romero, and J. Romero. 2002. The marine mammals of
Grenada, W.I., and their conservation status. Mammalia 66(4): 479-494.

Rommel, S.A., and L.J. Lowenstine. 2001. Gross and microscopic anatomy. In: L.A.
Dierauf and F.M.D. Gulland (eds.), CRC handbook of marine mammal medicine. Second
edition. CRC Press, Boca Raton (lvii + 1063): 129-164.

Rountree, R.A., P.J. Perkins, R.D. Kenney, and K.R. Hinga. 2002. Sounds of Western
North Atlantic fishes: data rescue. Bioacoustics 12(2-3): 242-244.

Schleichert, E. 2002. Swimming with manatees. Ranger Rick 36(11): 4-9. Nov. 2002.
[Children's magazine article.]

Schulman, M. 2001. Great Barrier Reef dugong population in question. IZN International
Zoo News 48(4)(309): 258-259.

Solis-Guzman, G., J. Ramirez-Santos, V. Souza, and M.C. Gomez-Eichelmann. 2001.
Analysis of the regulatory region of the heat shock gene rpoH of Escherichia coli strains
isolated from non-human hosts. FEMS Microbiology Letters 205(2): 191-196.

Tisdell, C.A. 2002. Optimal Australian dugong populations and conservation plans: an
economic perspective. In: C.A. Tisdell, The economics of conserving wildlife and natural
areas. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham & Northampton (x + 308): 182-192. [Reprinted from
Economic Analysis & Policy 29(1): 59-69.]

Turner, R.E. 2001. Of manatees, mangroves, and the Mississippi River: is there an
estuarine signature for the Gulf of Mexico? Estuaries 24(2): 139-150.


Valentine, J.F., and K.L. Heck, Jr. 2001. The role of leaf nitrogen content in determining
turtlegrass (Thalassia testudinum) grazing by a generalized herbivore in the northeastern
Gulf of Mexico. Jour. Experimental Marine Biology & Ecology 258(1): 65-86.

Wakai, Y., K. Hasegawa, S. Sakamoto, S. Asano, G. Watanabe, and K. Taya. 2002. Annual
changes of urinary progesterone and estradiol 17(3 of the dugong (Dugong dugon) in
captivity. Zoological Science (Tokyo) 19(6): 679-682.

Weber Rosas, F.C. 2001. Order Sirenia (manatees, dugongs, sea cows). Biology. In: M.E.
Fowler and Z.S. Cubas (eds.). Biology, medicine, and surgery of South American wild
animals. Iowa State University Press, Ames (x + 536): 352-356.

Yamamuro, M., Y. Umezawa, and I. Koike. 2001. Seasonality in nutrient concentrations
and stable isotope ratios of Halophila ovalis growing on the intertidal flat of SW Thailand.
Limnology 2(3): 199-205.

(NOTE: Not all of these sites have been visited recently by your Editor, and some may no longer
be active, or their addresses may have changed.)

Belize Coastal Zone Management Authority & Institute's Manatee Research Program: www.coastalzonebelize.org/pr_manatee.html>

The Call of the Siren (Caryn Self Sullivan):

Caribbean Environment Programme, Regional Management Plan for the West Indian Manatee:

Caribbean Stranding Network:

Columbus (Ohio) Zoo manatee exhibit: manateecoast/index.html>


Dugong necropsy manual (available for downloading): info_services/publications/research_publications/rp64/index.html>

Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Bureau of Protected Species Management:

Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Marine Research Institute (Florida
manatee mortality data):

Friends of the Manatee Association, Manaus & Balbina, Brazil: boi.org.br/english/Ing_index2.htm> [Includes a bibliography of INPA aquatic mammal project
publications and abstracts]

Fundacio6n Salvemos al Manati de Costa Rica:

Great Barrier Reef dugongs: publications/dugong/index.html>

IBAMA manatee project, Brazil:

Jacksonville University (Florida) Manatee Research Center Online: research/marco>

Manatee neuroanatomy:

"Manatee Watchers" Internet discussion list:

News clippings on Florida manatees:

Philippines Dugong Research and Conservation Project:

Save the Manatee Club:

Sea World of Florida:

SEMARNAP, Secretaria de Medio Ambiente, Recursos Naturales y Pesca, Mexico: semarnap.gob.mx/naturaleza/especies/manati/descrip.htm>

Sirenews (texts of current and recent issues): ; sirenian.org/> (for archive of most older issues)

Sirenia Project, U.S. Geological Survey: or nfrcg.gov/sirenia>


Sirenian International, Inc.: [Includes a bibliography of sirenian
literature, and an archive of Sirenews issues.]

Smithsonian Institution sirenian bibliography: htm> [This is a relatively short bibliography, compiled by Joy Gold, that provides a very good
introduction to both the technical and the popular literature.]

Steller's sea cow: < http://home.t-online.de/home/rothauscher/steller/steller.htm>; also the
website [in Finnish] of Dr. Ari Lampinen, University of Jyvaskyla, Finland: -ala/ilmasto/steller.htm>

West African manatee in Chad (Jonathan H. Salkind): manatee-index.html >


Dr. Kana Aketa, Japan Wildlife Research Center, Research Scientist, 3-10-10, Shitaya,
Taito-Ku, Tokyo 110-8676, JAPAN (tel.: +81-3-5824-0966; fax: +81-3-5824-0968; e-mail

Dr. Robert L. Brownell, Jr., Southwest Fisheries Science Center, 1352 Lighthouse Ave.,
Pacific Grove, California 93950, USA (tel.: 1-831-648-5338; fax: 1-831-648-1754; e:mail:

Dr. Leon David Olivera Gomez, CIIDIR-Sinaloa, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Km. 1,
carretera a Las Glorias, Guasave, Sinaloa, C.P. 81000, Mexico (tel.: 687 8729626; fax: 687
8729625; e-mail: )

John Twiss, Jr., 3418 Halfway Road, The Plains, Virginia 20198-1817, USA


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