Title: Sirenews
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00099157/00022
 Material Information
Title: Sirenews newsletter of the IUCNSSC Sirenia Specialist Group
Alternate Title: Siren news
Physical Description: v. : ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources -- Sirenia Specialist Group
International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources -- Sirenia Specialist Group
Publisher: IUCN/SSC Sirenia Specialist Group
Place of Publication: Washington D.C
Washington D.C
Publication Date: October 1994
Frequency: two no. a year[apr. 1984-]
Subject: Sirenia -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Marine mammals -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Additional Physical Form: Also issued via the World Wide Web.
Dates or Sequential Designation: No. 1 (Apr. 1984)-
Issuing Body: Supported 1984-Apr. 1992 by the Species Survival Commission of IUCN, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission; Oct. 1992 by the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission & U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Apr. 1993-Oct. 1994 by the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission; <Oct. 1995>- by the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission and Sea World, Inc.
General Note: Title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: No. 48 (Oct. 2007).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00099157
Volume ID: VID00022
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 35841617
lccn - 2009208704
issn - 1017-3439


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Sirenews (ISSN 1017-3439) appears twice a year

Sirenews (ISSN 1017-3439) appears twice a year
in April and October and is edited by Daryl P. Domning,
Department of Anatomy, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059 USA
(fax: 202-265-7055). It is supported by the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission.






The results of the aerial survey I conducted in 1992 indicate that at least 24,225 +_ s.e.
3,276 dugongs live in Torres Strait, the tract of sea between northern Australia and Papua
New Guinea (PNG). Torres Strait is thus the most important dugong habitat in Australia and
probably the world.
Torres Strait is a relatively pristine environment and the major impact on dugongs is
traditional hunting. Thanks to a comprehensive study by Aubrey Harris and his co-workers
from CSIRO, we now have better information on this dugong fishery than ever before.
Dugong hunting, a traditional test of manhood, is still solely a male activity. The
skilled hunter enjoys considerable prestige in the community and hunting is considered to be an
important expression of Islander culture, which is undergoing a resurgence coincident with the
increasing recognition of the rights of Indigenous Australians. Dugongs are still a prized
traditional food source for Torres Strait Islanders and for the Kiwai people of the Western
Province of PNG. The meat of dugongs still ranks highest among traditional foods in Torres
Strait, and
no celebration is considered complete without dugong on the menu. This is reflected in the
seasonality of catch, which is highest in the period of festivity leading up to Christmas and the

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New Year. This is also the season when the weather is most suitable for hunting.
In the early 1980's, Brydget Barker-Hudson questioned the sustainability of the Kiwai
dugong catch. Harris' data indicate that the catch from the Australian islands is much higher
than the catch recorded by Barker-Hudson in PNG.
Harris conducted a comprehensive quantitative study of traditional hunting and fishing
conducted by the residents of 14 communities in the Protected Zone, the area covered by the
Torres Strait Treaty, an international agreement between PNG and Australia. He did not collect
data from communities outside this area, i.e., along the Papuan coast or from Australian islands
south of the Zone.
Harris estimated that the wet weight of dugongs landed in the Protected Zone in 1991-93
was higher than the weight of any other component of the seafood catch, including finfish or
turtle. On an average day, four boats land 645 +_ s.e. 102 kg of dugong in the Zone. This
equates to an estimated annual harvest of 1226 +_ 204 dugongs or 5% of my minimum mean
estimate of the dugong population of the whole region. Given that the catch statistics do not
include any data from outside the Protected Zone, these figures are worryingly close to the
estimated maximum sustainable yield if my mean estimate of the dugong population is close to
an absolute estimate.
It is impossible to evaluate the situation more accurately without information on:
absolute estimates of dugong numbers,
catch statistics for PNG, and
current life history statistics for dugongs in Torres Strait,
but the situation certainly warrants close scrutiny.
Fortunately, the Torres Strait Islanders are demanding increasing responsibility for the
management of their marine resources. They are involved in the ongoing monitoring of the
dugong catch and hunting effort and the aerial surveys. Helene Marsh


Professor Patricia Birnie has been commissioned by UNEP to undertake a
comprehensive review and analysis of the existing legal system for the protection of all aquatic
mammals. She is having difficulty finding examples of legislation specifically concerning
sirenians, and would appreciate receipt of copies of such legislation from all sirenian-range
countries. Materials should be sent directly to her, as follows: Prof. P. W. Birnie, 78
Windmill Street, Brill, Aylesbury, Bucks HP18 9TG, England; tel. & fax: 44-844-237-880.


The Florida Power & Light Company has produced a Spanish version of its 1992 leaflet

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entitled "Guidelines for Protecting Manatees." This leaflet is designed for use in Florida and
includes facts about manatee biology as well as guidelines for swimming and boating in
manatee areas. Limited quantities of the new "Guia para Proteger al Manati" are available
from Dr. J. Ross WIlcox, Chief Ecologist, Environmental Affairs, Florida Power & Light Co. P.
0. Box 088801, North Palm Beach, Florida 33408-8801.



Satellite Tracking of Dugongs in
Northern Australia. I've been satellite-
tracking dugongs in a remote area of the Gulf
of Carpentaria since May. Aerial surveys in
1984-5 indicated that this area had one of the
highest dugong concentrations known.
However, in the following two years the area
was pounded by two cyclones and most of
the seagrass areas were lost. We do not know
what impact this had on the dugong
population, but preliminary data suggest that
there are far fewer dugongs in the area today.
An October aerial survey should clarify this.
The area is of considerable interest as it
is the site of a large lead and zinc mine
development. A port for the export of this
ore is being constructed smack in the middle
of important dugong habitat. The dugongs
are hunted by the traditional owners of the
area, the Yanyuwa people, who are
understandably very concerned about the
impacts of ore spillages and boat traffic
on the dugong population. They are also
concerned about the level of dugong
mortality in nets used by professional
barramundi fishers. It is hard to determine
how many dugongs die as a result of hunting
and gillnets, so the scale of the problem
remains unclear.

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The tracking is being used to identify
the dugongs' important habitat areas and
determine their movement patterns. Previous
attempts met with limited success, primarily
because of difficulties keeping the PTT
transmitters on the animals. This is not
simply a matter of having a strong tether that
does not constrict or irritate the dugong. It
must also have a weak link, allowing the
PTT to be shed if caught amongst mangrove
roots or coral outcrops. The transmitter must
also detach from the dugong before the
batteries expire, so it can be retrieved and re-
Our earlier attempts used
modifications of the weak link and
corrodible link used on manatees. Perversely,
our dugongs seem to live in a much more
corrosive and shark-infested environment
than their northern cousins. The corrodible
links lasted 6 weeks instead of 6 months, and
large sharks had a propensity to test the weak
links. After trying various variations on
the manatee theme, it became apparent that
a new approach was required. In
collaboration with Andrew Hunter, an
engineer at James Cook University, we
developed an all-new tether incorporating a
stack of camera batteries, a computer chip,
and an explosive fuse. The chip acts as a
clock and is wired to explode the fuse at a set
time (3.5 or 7 months in our case). The fuse
shatters the end-cap of the canister, and
the silicon-sheathed nylon webbing that ties
around the dugong's peduncle is released. By
being able to anticipate when the PTT will
be shed, it is possible to be in the area, thus
maximizing the chances of recovering it.
The weak link was also redesigned, and the
method of adjusting the fit of the webbing

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was greatly simplified. I also simplified the
tagging operation, which now involves just
one boat and three people, although an
aircraft is very useful to help locate and
pursue the dugongs.
Two dugongs were tracked for 113
and 114 days, and at this writing (early
October) another three tags are still on after
136 days (4.5 months). If all goes well, these
animals will be tracked until about 21
November. Of the first two, one PTT was
shed as a result of an unusual and, as yet,
inexplicable break in the 3-m flexible nylon
rod that connects the peduncle tether and the
buoyant PTT housing. The second PTT was
due to release from its dugong after about 90
days, but failed to do so. Fortunately we
were able to recapture this animal and
remove the transmitter. It turned out that at
least one of the batteries in the tether was
faulty. Due to the phase-out of mercury
batteries (owing to their contribution to
mercury pollution), it looks like we got one
that had been on the shelf too long. The other
tethers may also have bad batteries. We have
now modified the tether to use lithium batteries.
The five dugongs have so far provided
three important pieces of information. First,
dugongs are not just dugongs, they are
individuals. Second, the dugongs in this area
are highly social, and third, they move
over much larger areas than previously thought.
Starting with the last point, the
dugongs thought nothing of popping 50 km
along the coast to spend a day or two with
some other dugongs, and then hopping the 50
km back to their current core area. The five
dugongs were all caught from one herd of
about 200 near the Bing Bong Creek area.
Three spent time at a site 50 km to the west

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(Rosie Creek area). Two of these also spent
time 100 km west of the capture site
(Limmen Bight River). One spent some time
50 km east of the capture area. One that had
spent over two months in the Limmen Bight
River-Rosie Creek areas then traveled,
apparently without significant stops, 400 km
east of the capture area, where she has spent
the past two months. Hence, her range has
spanned more than 500 km of coastline.
While that dugong has been very
mobile, another has been remarkably
sedentary. With the exception of one or two
brief sojourns about 10 km to the east, she
has spent the past 4.5 months within a couple
of km of the site of her capture. The other three
dugongs have tended to divide their time
unevenly between two or three sites separated
by about 50 km. It would be premature to
generalize too much about the movement
patterns of the Bing Bong dugongs; they are
surprisingly individualistic.
They are also highly social. As I have
said, each has used 1-3 preferred areas.
Excluding the area 400 km to the east (about
which I know very little), the five dugongs
collectively use just five preferred areas.
Aerial surveys have confirmed that herds of
50-200 dugongs occurred at each of these
preferred sites. So although they move about
a lot, and move about independently of one
another, they have all been moving among
the same five dugong herds. Significantly,
very few were seen on the shoreline aerial
surveys that were not in these herds.
I also attached time-depth recorders
(TDRs) to the tethers of the five tagged
dugongs. I have data from one of these, and a
very preliminary scan indicates that the data
are very interesting. Watch this space! -

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Tony Preen


Manatee Workshop. -
Representatives from governmental
organizations, the Ministries of Agriculture,
Fisheries, Science and Technology, the
University of Havana, the Center for
Marine Studies and the Academy of
Sciences attended a two-day national
workshop on the conservation of the West
Indian manatee which was held on 19-20 May
1994 in Havana.
Various sectors of the government
expressed their willingness to join efforts in
the management of manatees, and act
cooperatively to accomplish the tasks they
agreed should be tackled first. Some of the
topics covered were the biology and status
of the manatee in Cuba; the manatee in
Laguna del Tesoro and the experiment
conducted on manatee capture, transport and
handling. The National Plan for the
Conservation of the Manatee in Cuba was
also presented.
Some of the conclusions included the
need for a) the preparation of a general
proposal to try to obtain financial support for
the activities in the next few months; b)
production of the proceedings of the meeting;
c) starting of a manatee national network;
and d) convening of a second workshop in
November 1995.
For more information contact: Dra.
Delice Salabarria, Ministerio de Ciencias y
Tecnologia, (COMARNA), Avenida 17, No.
5008 e 50 y 52 Playa, Codigo Postal 11300,
La Habana, Cuba; telephone (537) 330102;
telefax (537) 330101. (reprinted from

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CEPNEWS (UNEP) 8(3), Sept. 1994.)


New Staging Area for "Soft"
Releases of Manatees. The Captive
Manatee Interagency/Oceanaria Group
(CMIG) was created several years ago to
advise the Florida Manatee Recovery Team
on issues related to captive manatees. The
CMIG first discussed the concept of a pre-
release enclosure over 2 years ago, as a
means of conditioning long-term captives,
especially manatees born in captivity, before
releasing them into the wild. The cost of
maintaining manatees in captivity is high, and
the five major facilities currently holding
manatees must release some of their long-
term residents to make room for sick or
injured manatees in need of veterinary care.
The soft-release enclosure program
has been a cooperative effort, headed by the
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service's Field Office in
Jacksonville. Other cooperators include the
National Biological Survey's Sirenia Project,
Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge,
Kennedy Space Center, Florida Department
of Environmental Protection, Sea World, and
Save the Manatee Club.
The work conducted in the enclosure
this past summer could be regarded as a pilot
project to assess: (1) the suitability and safety
of the enclosure design; (2) if and when
manatees in the enclosure would begin
feeding on available vegetation; (3) the impact
of manatee grazing on the vegetation within
the enclosure; and (4) manatee behavior in
the enclosure and interactions with those
outside. The Sirenia Project also
conducted PTT transmitter accuracy tests

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using the impounded manatees.
Construction of the enclosure was
completed in August. It lies within the
Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge and
the Kennedy Space Center, and comprises
three adjacent pens with a total area of 4.5
The first manatee placed in it was a
rehabilitated male who had been in captivity
for 6 months. He immediately began
interacting with wild manatees outside the
enclosure, and within 5 days was grazing on
seagrasses growing inside it. He then received
a companion, an orphaned 3-year-old male,
who was next to the first animal within
minutes of his introduction into the pen. They
remained together constantly at first, but the
periods of time when they were apart
increased in frequency, duration, and distance
over time.
Both animals were recaptured at the
end of August to be reweighed and blood-
sampled. Neither had lost or gained an
appreciable amount of weight. They were
then put back into separate pens, and the
second manatee was placed with another
young orphaned male. The first manatee was
released to the wild with a radio tag on 1
September. He has since stayed in the upper
Banana River, but has not come back to the
enclosure site.
The other two stayed close together,
feeding on algae and seagrass, and often
interacted with manatees outside the fence
that were apparently attracted to the site by
the captives. Both were recaptured and
returned to Sea World on 15 September.
Although they appeared to adapt quickly to
their new saltwater surroundings, they must
be given ample time to find warm water

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sources before cold weather arrives. They
will probably be among the first manatees
placed in the enclosure next spring, and will
make good "mentors" for captive-born
manatees that have never been exposed to
natural conditions.
Comparison of before-and-after aerial
photographs and vegetation maps of the
enclosure should allow a reasonable estimate
of biomass removal. While grazing impacts
were evident, the overall impact on seagrasses
has not been as large as expected. This may
be explained by the presence of large
amounts of algae (primarily Gracilaria spp.
and Chaetomorpha), which the manatees
readily consumed; their tendency to spread
out their grazing activity; and the possibility
that they were eating less than normal
amounts. We also may have overestimated
their consumption rate.
This first trial of the soft-release
program was encouraging. The enclosure
design appears safe and "manatee-proof,"
though keeping the structure free of
encrusting organisms and drift vegetation
may become a problem. Learning by
example from experienced manatees within
the pen, and possibly from wild ones
outside, may expedite feeding and other
behaviors. Grazing impacts should allow at
least a crude estimate of carrying capacity.
Grazed areas within the enclosure should
recover by next summer. Monitoring of
released manatees will still be necessary, to
determine if long-term captives can find
their way to warm water sources and other
resources used by wild manatees. Lynn


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Manatee Breeding Successes in
Nuremberg. Recently, my husband and I
visited the zoological park in Nuremberg,
Germany to meet with the veterinarian, Dr.
Anton Gauckler, and observe the West Indian
manatees at their facility. Our visit was
sparked by a concerned visitor's letter to the
Save the Manatee Club regarding the
manatees in the zoo.
The zoo is located on 63 hectares
within the city limits and is home to
approximately 2000 animals from around the
world. The manatees are housed in the
"Tropical House" in an approximately 80 m2
(750 ft2) by 1.8 m (6 ft) deep cement/
Plexiglas pool. The Tropical House opened
in 1977 and contains other tropical animals
such as the hippopotamus, tapirs, etc.
In 1979 the zoo acquired a male and
female (both about 2 years of age) wild-
caught manatee pair from Guyana. On 27
July 1981 the pair gave birth to their first
calf. This was celebrated as a big event as
this was only the second baby manatee born
in captivity in all of Europe. Unfortunately
the calf was not accepted by its mother, but
was successfully hand-raised. Following this,
12 calves were born (including two sets of
twins), of which 10 were successfully raised
by the mother. The other two calves died as a
result of heart degeneration and a condition
known as hydrocephalus (an accumulation of
cerebrospinal fluid in the brain).
The pool is presently the home of 6
manatees, ranging from large adults to a
young nursing calf. The others are located in
other zoos or sea life parks internationally,
including Japan and Singapore. The
Nuremberg zoo has found that their animals

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thrive extremely well on an English ray
grass, Lolium perenne, which they grow
themselves on a large farm nearby. They also
supplement the grass with corn, wheat,
Antibe lettuce, cabbage, and minerals.
The animals are in a freshwater
recirculating pool with a UV light as a
water disinfectant unit. They do not
chlorinate the pools as numerous facilities in
the U.S. do; thus the pools have a patchy
slight green algal growth which is similar to
the natural environment. In addition, the water
is seined in a decreasing-size metal mesh
before going into the sand filtration system.
As anyone who has worked with manatees
knows, the voluminous amount of feces
the animals produce is a constant challenge
to filtration systems, and I found their system
to be very efficient.
The pool appears to be a bit crowded
with the number of animals it holds. They
have plans to enlarge it into the adjacent tank
in the near future, which should allow the
animals much greater mobility.
They plan to participate in genetic
studies with Freiburg University, and when I
asked Dr. Gauckler if he would be interested
in participating in such a study with the
Caribbean Stranding Network and
investigators in the United States, he agreed.
Dr. Gauckler has traveled to Guyana
and is quite familiar with the animals' natural
habitat. He studied in Munich and Vienna,
and has been a zoo veterinarian for 23 years. I
would like to thank him for taking the time to
show us the entire facility and the
dolphinarium. This was a spontaneous visit
and he spent several hours discussing at
length the manatee facility and future
expansion plans, as well as numerous

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veterinary medical and nutritional aspects of
manatees in captivity. Dr. Debra P. Moore
(Caribbean Stranding Network, Puerto Rico)
completed pregnancies in 15 years, starting at
the age of 2 or 3, is an unprecedented record
for a nursing manatee mother, as is a pair
of twin births in captivity. This report is
doubly surprising as, to my knowledge, no
reports of the births at Nuremberg
subsequent to the first one have found their
way into even the popular, let alone the
scientific, literature. Artificial insemination
was, however, reportedly used. Further
documentation of this breeding program
would be welcome.
I also note with a certain smug
satisfaction the zoo's dependence on pasture
grass as a source of manatee fodder. Since
our success with raising manatees on this kind
of food years ago at INPA in Manaus, I have
often and unsuccessfully urged U.S.
oceanaria to adopt this inexpensive
expedient. Manatees, in my view, are
designed to run best on ordinary grass
(Gramineae) of various sorts; certainly they
keep well on it, and it has always seemed to
me to be a better and cheaper option than the
usual lettuce. Hydroponically-grown grasses
have the apparent advantage of being
available year-round, but somehow the
Nuremberg zoo seems to be getting a year-
round supply of farm-grown grass even at
the temperate latitudes of Germany! Again,
more details would certainly be welcome.
Finally, can any correspondents fill us
in on the previously unreported manatee
facility in Singapore?]


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Status and Exploitation of
Madagascar's Coastal Marine Resources. -
In an effort to assess and monitor the coastal
zones of western Indian Ocean states, the
Centre for Dolphin Studies Port Elizabeth
Museum (CDS-PEM), South Africa, began in
1991 a cooperative, long-term program of
coastal zone research and monitoring of the
southwestern Indian Ocean region. Primarily,
this work is aimed at determining, through
the status of marine mammals and reptiles
in particular, the 'health' of the coastal zone
systems of western Indian Ocean states.
Circumstantial evidence suggests a decline in
numbers of these species in almost all areas,
possibly due to coastal zone degradation,
including the increased use of gillnets by
artisanal fishermen. The CDS-PEM has so
far undertaken or planned limited preliminary
studies in Mozambique, Kenya and
The uniqueness and diversity of
Madagascar's terrestrial biota are well
recognized, and an immense amount of
effort and money is spent educating
Madagascans in its value and the need for its
conservation. In contrast, little thought is
given to the fauna and flora of the coastal
marine environment, which is equally
diverse and deserving of conservation.
CDS-PEM conducted a preliminary
investigation of these resources in August
through November of 1993. Time, financial
and language constraints precluded a survey
of the entire 4500 km of Madagascar's coast.
Nevertheless, observational, anecdotal and
incidental data were gathered from
individuals and organizations in as many
areas as possible.

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Primary survey effort was restricted to
two areas:
- The west coast, especially the southwest,
where most turtle hatcheries occur and there
are also extensive seagrass beds, a known
food of both dugongs and turtles. Also,
though the Toliara region has a relatively
high human population and the coastal zone
is, therefore, quite heavily exploited, the
west coast generally has a lower human
density and probably less exploitation.
- An area on the northeast coast, the Masoala
Peninsula, provided comparative data for a
relatively unpopulated area on the east coast.
The two areas differ greatly in
oceanographic and climatic features. The
Toliara region is semi-desert, with a coral
barrier reef. Mangroves occur throughout,
but are concentrated near river mouths. The
Masoala Peninsula is covered in coastal
lowland rain forest. Coral and mangroves are
found on both sides of the peninsula, the
latter principally bordering river mouths.
Information gathered by an interview
survey indicates that dugongs occur only on
the west and northeast coasts of Madagascar,
though their distribution appears to be highly
fragmented and not continuous.
On the west coast, fishermen report
seeing a group of about 5 to 10 dugongs in an
area approximately 100 km south of Toliara.
However, in the Toliara region itself,
dugongs have not been seen since the mid-
1960s and young fishermen do not know the
Malagasy word for dugong.
Fishermen report that six dugongs
were caught in October 1992 in Morombe,
approximately 200 km north of Toliara,
though there are apparently no dugongs
between the two areas. Though the coast

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north of Morombe, as far as Mahajunga, is
isolated and relatively uninhabited, fishermen
report the existence of extensive seagrass
beds and there are confirmed reports of
dugong captures in Soalala. One dugong was
captured in the Mahajunga region in 1991.
For the coast between Mahajunga and Diego
Suarez there is little information, as this area
is also sparsely populated and seldom
frequented, even by tourists (the exception is
the popular resort at Nosy Be). Nevertheless,
the northwest coast is characterized by
large sheltered bays, apparently with
extensive seagrass meadows.
There are no recent reports of
dugongs on the east coast between Fort
Dauphin and Tamatave. Divers and tourists
report sightings of two dugongs at Isle Saint
Marie, north of Tamatave, prior to spring
1992, but there are no recent confirmed
sightings. No information is available for the
area between Tamatave and Maroantsetra,
but the area is relatively densely populated,
suggesting that dugong occurrence is
Between Maroantsetra and Antalaha,
fishermen rate dugongs as abundant, but
report that their numbers are declining, and
attribute their apparent decline to fishing
pressure (F. Odendaal, pers. comm.). There
has been only one reported recent (since
1992) dugong capture from the villages visited
on the Masoala Peninsula. However, prior to
1992, there were many reports of dugong
captures. In Ambohitralana, up to two
dugongs per week were caught until 1990,
but only one subsequently (December 1993).
Most recent sightings for the area are from
the Bay of Antongil and Cap Est. Dugongs
are also reported north of Antalaha, up to

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Diego Suarez, with a confirmed sighting in
the Bay of Diego Suarez.
Large seagrass beds were found in
both the southwest and northeast regions.
Seagrass generally occurs at depths of about
1-10 m. In the Toliara region, four species
were identified, Thalassia hemprichii,
Thalassodendron, Syringodium isoetifolium
and Cymodocea sp., although other species
are known to have occurred. Seagrass beds
generally occur between the coral reef flat
and the shore and none were observed outside
the reef areas in the Toliara region. On the
windward side of the Masoala Peninsula,
extensive seagrass beds were found and their
distribution and species composition appeared
similar to the Toliara region. On the leeward
side, there are some seagrass meadows as
well as mixed seagrass and algal beds.
Coastal zone resources are used
extensively by the coastal communities. In
large areas, the sea provides the only
protein source for the local population. The
pressure on coastal resources increases in
times of drought, when agriculture is
abandoned and food gathering is done
exclusively in the coastal zone. Vegetation is
also destroyed for salt pan and large-scale
shrimp farm construction. Mangroves are
cut for firewood and building material. A
variety of shells, crabs, corals, shark jaws,
and other inshore fauna and flora is sold to
tourists by street vendors in the larger towns.
The areas surrounding algae and
seagrass beds are extensively fished.
Fishermen generally use handlines, small-
mesh gillnets (deployed from piroques), or
beach seine nets, the latter often damaging
both types of beds. Sea cucumbers and
molluscs are also harvested, although sea

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cucumbers appear to be severely depleted,
even in remote areas. Seaweed is collected
in some areas, but not extensively. The
influence of this on seagrass beds is unknown.
Large fish traps, extending from the shore up
to 150 m in to the sea, are used in the lee
of the Masoala Peninsula.
Industrial pollution is limited to the
major coastal towns. There are reports that
the waste from the sugar cane refineries on
Nosy Be has hurt large areas of coral. Human
waste constitutes the bulk of pollution in the
rural coastal areas. As the population
increases, this may pose a considerable
human health threat, and may eventually also
cause eutrophication in coastal waters.
Though little siltation of reefs or
mangroves was observed in either the Toliara
or Masoala regions, large siltation plumes
can be seen from the air off many rivers,
especially on the west coast. These plumes
are probably a result of erosion caused by
overgrazing and destruction of riverine
vegetation in the higher reaches of river
catchment areas. Siltation of coral reefs
between Morondava and Mahajunga is
reported by divers and it is likely, therefore,
that seagrass beds in the region are also
adversely affected.
Although intense deforestation occurs
on the Masoala Peninsula, crops are planted
in these areas immediately, limiting topsoil
loss. However, slash and burn deforestation
('tavy) on river banks and steep hill slopes
causes substantial erosion, especially after
Spears and harpoons are used to catch
crayfish, octopus, dolphins, dugongs and
turtles. Though gillnets are seldom
intentionally set for dolphins, dugongs or

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turtles, these species are actively pursued
once observed. If dugongs are frequently
seen in an area, nets are set for them.
Fishermen from established villages
(older than 5 years) report that they never see
dugongs over inshore seagrass beds during
the day, but only between dusk and dawn.
Dugongs apparently move out to sea during
the day. In more recent settlements,
fishermen report dugongs during the day in
areas where seagrass beds occur. All
fishermen report that dugongs avoid
contact with humans and are generally seen
alone even smaller animals, with only one
group larger than two reported.
Poverty and a growing population's
need for food are the biggest problems facing
conservation in Madagascar. Cash and
subsistence crop production is hampered
by either seasonal droughts or floods, as well
as poor transport and marketing
facilities. Consequently, exploitation of the
inshore region of Madagascar fulfills two
basic, immediate needs of the local people,
food and money. Unfortunately, the inshore
zone is already heavily exploited and many of
the methods used are either indiscriminate
or destructive. Fortunately, the fishermen
interviewed were aware of a decline in
catches and expressed an interest in
alternative fishing methods and a
sustainable fishing resource. Despite this, in
view of the growing population and its need
for food and wealth, destructive exploitation
of coastal resources is likely to continue,
and probably increase. This is already
evident in the increase in shark gillnetting
in recent years and the continued decline in
fish and coral resources. As the destructive
exploitation of coastal resources is caused

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primarily by coastal communities, the
solutions to the problem seemingly lie with
these communities.
For both marine mammals and turtles,
an increase in coastal resource exploitation
will negatively impact local stocks, especially
those using coastal resources. This is
especially so when local stocks become
targeted, because of their value as meat
or tourist accoutrements, rather than
incidental catches, as has happened in South
America. The proliferation of targeted
hunting for marine mammals and turtles
should be avoided at all costs.
Although ecotourismi' is hailed as one
way to save the environment, it is a two-
edged sword. One problem is that it creates
high expectations within the local population,
who are invariably disappointed when only a
trickle of tourists, and even less money, pass
their way. Additionally, though ecotourism
may have some potential for dugong
conservation, dugong behavior may mitigate
against its success. Dugongs are apparently
shy and will generally avoid contact with
humans, especially in areas where they
have been hunted. Consequently, using
'dugong watching' to attract tourists may
cause the animals to leave an area.
Nevertheless, community-based ecotourisin
(where the community benefits directly from
tourists and the money they spend, rather
than indirectly, through a hotel, etc.), in
combination with engendering an awareness
of the need for sustainable use of community-
owned resources, is one way of increasing the
value of natural resources to local
In Australia, dugongs are known to
have large feeding ranges and may migrate

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seasonally. As a result, fixed protected areas
may have only a limited value for their
conservation, particularly if fishing and
hunting in unprotected areas increases. But
the creation of protected, or limited-use,
areas may be beneficial, especially where
human population density is low. Relatively
undisturbed areas still exist in the northwest
and northeast of Madagascar and they not
only have immense tourist potential, but
could also provide respite for vulnerable
inshore resources.
Despite these problems, dugong and
turtle conservation is urgent and can probably
best be effected through a combination of
protected areas, ecotourism, education and
'community legislation' where the resource
becomes the 'royal game', or property, of all
community members. This may prevent the
exploitation of the resource by only a section
of the community and could lead the
community, as a whole, to finding the best
possible way of using (preserving) its
'common property'. In view of the past, and
possibly current, substantial catch of
dugongs and turtles throughout Madagascar,
a pilot project to assess the effectiveness of
such an approach to conservation should
be initiated immediately.
Possibly the most pressing immediate
need is to establish some 'base-line' estimate
of dugong, and concurrently turtle,
distribution and abundance. This is best
accomplished through aerial surveys. Not
only should the unknown areas of the coast
be surveyed, but also areas of known
dugong occurrence, as identified by this
preliminary survey. Subsequently, the
movements, feeding dynamics and
conservation potential (through community

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work) of dugongs and turtles in areas
where they are abundant should be
Figures given and conclusions drawn
from this survey are preliminary and reflect
only information gathered from a small
sample of areas and fishermen.
Consequently, they should be viewed with
caution until such time as more information
is available. As an example: Most fishermen
questioned reported a decline in dugong
sightings and catches. Although this may
imply a decline in dugong numbers in most
areas, it may also only indicate a change in
dugong behavior! Fishing operations often
entail considerable disturbance, such as
beating the water surface with oars, and
fishermen confidently report that dugongs
move offshore and are not seen during the
day. In conjunction, the latter two facts
suggest that sightings and captures have only
decreased because dugongs avoid people; that
during the day they may move out to deeper
seagrass beds, at depths of 30-50 m, where
fishermen don'tfish.
Given this uncertainty, the vulnerability
of marine mammals and turtles to
exploitation, and the possibility of local area
extinction of some species (e.g., dugongs), it
is imperative that further work be done. This
should include:
1. Creation and implementation of a
coastal zone management plan for
Madagascar, particularly areas where
dugongs and turtles are still abundant.
2. Increasing local awareness of the
need for coastal resource conservation, and
developing local expertise in research and
3. For dugongs and turtles, conducting

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aerial surveys to identify areas of abundance
and estimate numbers.
4. Identifying areas suitable for
establishment of marine reserves. With the
consent and co-operation of local
communities, these should be established
(through Governmental legislation,
community consensus or both) and
biological research on the inshore biota
5. In established protected areas
especially, alternative fishing practices should
be investigated and artisanal fishermen
instructed and encouraged in their use.
6. The effect of the shark-fishing
operation on marine mammals and turtles
should be further investigated and methods
found to prevent incidental capture of these
animals. Berthin Pierre Rakotonirina, V.
G. Cockcroft, M. Kroese, and Michel Vily


New Northern Record for Manatee
Distribution. A wayward Florida manatee
recently set a new record for the
northernmost scientifically-substantiated
occurrence of his species. After having
been sighted several times in mid- and late
September in the upper Chesapeake Bay, he
was finally captured near Queenstown
(latitude 390 north) by federal and state
wildlife authorities on 1 October. He proved
to be a large male (310 cm, 1,416 pounds)
in apparent good condition. He was taken
to the National Aquarium in Baltimore for
several days of observation, then flown to
Sea World in Florida. A U.S. Coast Guard
C-130 cargo plane was used for the
transport, since it allowed control of cabin

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temperature and pressure. The manatee has
numerous healed scars, which will hopefully
allow his identification and eventual return
to his normal home range in Florida waters.
Manatees, especially males, typically
range north from Florida during the summer,
but occurrences north of Cape Hatteras are
uncommon. This animal just barely bested
the previous northernmost record, set in
August 1980 by a manatee sighted in the
Potomac River in Washington, D.C. It is
thought that this was the same individual that
was found dead at Hampton, Virginia, on 23
October of the same year, underlining the
importance of returning such strays to
warmer waters as fall approaches.
There is anecdotal evidence that
manatees were more common summer
visitors to the Chesapeake region in past
decades. Fossil manatees, probably
Pleistocene in age, have been reported from
New Jersey, and alleged strandings in
Greenland and the North Sea are recorded in
the late eighteenth-century literature. It
seems possible that animals entrained by
the Gulf Stream might have survived long
enough to drift to those places, especially
if an unusually warm summer and/or a
larger manatee population in Florida caused
larger-than-usual numbers of animals to
disperse northward. DPD


Moises the Manatee Released. -
Moises the Manatee, an orphaned 2-week-old
calf found stranded in November 1991, had
grown to 235 cm and over 286 kg by March
1994, and was moved from La Parguera to
Roosevelt Roads Naval Station, where a

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reintroduction staging area had been
prepared. This comprised an
approximately 350, 000-square-foot area
enclosed by a 750ft. chain-link fence,
containing water 1-5 ft. deep over a mostly
muddy bottom with Syringodium, Thalassia,
and red mangroves.
Over the next three months, his condition and behavior were intensively monitored. As
of mid-June, he was in good physical condition, active, and regularly drinking from a fresh-
water hose. However, he had shown considerable resistance to adopting a seagrass diet,
despite denial of his accustomed lettuce, and had lost over 7% of his body weight.
Supplemental feeding with a mixture of lettuce and seagrass was begun again, and efforts
were made to lure wild manatees closer to or within the enclosure so (Item: It was recently
reported that Baltimore, Maryland has the worst postal service in the U.S. The following
appeared on the editorial page of the Baltimore Sun, 4 October 1994. [Copyright c
Cartoonists and Writers Syndicate. Used with permission.])

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that Moises could observe and hopefully
mimic their feeding behavior. By 17 June he
had begun grazing on Thalassia; as of 12
September he had joined up with some wild
manatees and was exploring the shores of the
naval base, carrying a satellite tag. -
Caribbean Stranding Network

New Baby Manatee Healthy and
Growing. Another orphaned baby manatee
rescued in Puerto Rico in May 1993 is doing
fine and growing. He arrived at the
Carribean Stranding Network (CSN) facility
after being found alone for a week off Ocean
Park in San Juan, on the north coast. The 2-
week-old baby, only 4 feet in length and
63 pounds, suffered from intestinal infection
and was in critical condition for months.
Thanks to aggressive antibiotic treatment, and
bottle-feeding with manatee milk sent by the
Miami Seaquarium, he has now passed 286
pounds and is being weaned from a soybean
and goat milk formula to seagrass. We
expect to release him back to the wild on his
turning two years of age. Caribbean
Stranding Network

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Reward Offered for Killer of
Manatee. A US$5, 000 reward was posted
on 18 July 1994 for information leading to
the arrest and conviction of the killer of an
Antillean manatee found in Ceiba, Puerto
Rico, with a 5-inch gunshot wound to its
chest, an act punishable by imprisonment.
The 10-foot adult manatee was found floating
just offshore on 15 July, having been shot
that morning.
The Caribbean Stranding Network
(CSN), which performed a necropsy,
believes the shot came from either a shotgun
or a power head, a speargun-like weapon
used for hunting sharks. The shot ruptured the
left ventricle of the heart.
The U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service
offered a $2,500 reward for information
leading to the conviction of the manatee's
slayer. The Marine Industry Association of
Puerto Rico matched the reward.
The U.S. Endangered Species Act,
administered by the Fish & Wildlife Service,
mandates a year in prison and/or up to a
$100,000 fine for killing a manatee.
Nonetheless, humans cause most manatee
deaths in Puerto Rico. Last year, six were
found dead, most by human agency. One was
found shot dead in Fajardo, near the locality
of this year's killing. Typically, they are
killed by boats or nets. Less common are
deaths from natural causes. According to
aerial surveys, there are between 60 and
250 manatees in Puerto Rico; it is
unknown whether their numbers have grown
or diminished since they were declared
endangered. (adapted from the San Juan
Star, 19 July 1994)

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Manatee Status Survey Planned. -
The Caribbean Stranding Network (CSN)
recently visited Trinidad to investigate the
feasibility of helping the government and
local non-governmental organizations
(NGOs) study the status of manatees in this
island, where until recently they were
thought to be extinct. Antonio Mignucci met
with local and government representatives,
and visited the Mitan River in the Nariva
Swamp to observe manatees from an elevated
platform constructed by the local Rotary Club
in cooperation with the government's
Wildlife Section, the Field Naturalist Club,
and other NGOs. About half a dozen
manatees have been documented by
volunteers in the river during the past few
years, and efforts have been started to
develop community conservation programs.
Although local interest was very high
and volunteers were very eager to participate
in manatee conservation, little is known to
date about the Trinidadian manatee. It is not
known how many live around the island, nor
whether those in the Mitan River leave it to
mingle with manatees elsewhere, or if they
are naturally impounded there. Concerns
have been expressed regarding chemical
pollution (pesticides, herbicides, etc.) of the
swamp and river by nearby agriculture.
Ms. Nadra Nathai-Gyan, head of the
Wildlife Section, expressed the government's
high interest in assessing manatee status and
encouraging local and international
organizations to study and protect the species.
Following the initiative of Gupte
Lutchmedial, Jalaludin Khan, and Nicole

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Leotaud, locals who have been very active in
sparking interest in manatees in Trinidad and
doing base-line work, the CSN is looking
forward to assisting the Wildlife Division and
local NGOs in 1995. They will present a
research proposal and seek funding for aerial
surveys, for a research program at the Mitan
River on manatee health status, life history,
and genetic variability, and hopefully for a
radiotelemetry study of manatee movements. -
Caribbean Stranding Network


Captive Manatees Examined. The
Caribbean Stranding Network's Scientific
Coordinator, Antonio Mignucci, recently
visited Venezuela to examine four captive
manatees held at different zoos, document
their status, health, and life-history
parameters, make recommendations for
better captive care, and collect skin
samples for a research project on genetic
identification of manatee populations from
different parts of the Caribbean.
The first manatee was rescued from
poachers in 1985 as a calf and reared by the
Aquarium J V. Seijas in Valencia. He is
now 9 years old. The second and third
animals, both females, were also rescued
as calves in 1992 in the municipality of
Apure and cared for at an aquaculture
station. The fourth calf was rescued in 1992
near Maracaibo and kept at the
Zoologico Miguel Romero Antoni in
Barquisimeto, where the smaller female from
Apure was also moved early this year.
The two males are healthy and
showing normal growth. The females,
however, were found to be in need of

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immediate care, as their growth rate was less
than 2 cm/year. The diets of the manatees
at Barquisimeto were found to be
appropriate, but those of the others were
not, and all four animals are in need of
improved water quality.
The captive facilities were very willing
to make plans to improve the manatees'
maintenance, including larger tanks with
filter systems and diversified diets. The CSN
will recommend to Venezuela's national
wildlife agency (PROFAUNA) that the
Barquisimeto Zoo be allowed to take custody
of the second female manatee as well. -
Caribbean Stranding Network


Progress on Publication of Sirenian
Bibliography. Domning's Bibliography
and Index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia is
presently in galley proofs; publication by the
Smithsonian Institution Press is planned for
early in 1995. It is anticipated that copies
will be purchasable directly from the
Smithsonian Press. DPD

Isolation and characterization of a partial cDNA encoding interleukin 2 from the Florida
manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris (Mary Elizabeth Cashman). Due to the extreme
importance of IL-2 production in the mammalian immune response, and because very little is
known about the immune response in the endangered Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus
latirostris, a partial cDNA encoding manatee IL-2 was isolated and characterized. The manatee
IL-2 cDNA was molecularly cloned by reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
using primers derived from IL-2 regions conserved among various mammalian species. The
resulting manatee IL-2 fragment, which comprised 75% of the human IL-2 open reading
frame, consisted of 347 base pairs encoding for a predicted product of 115 amino acid
residues. The partial manatee IL-2 cDNA displayed 84%o, 79o%, 75o%, 75o%, 72%o, and 72% DNA
sequence homology and 69%o, 65%o, 59o%, 58%o, 55%, and 53% amino acid homology with
human, pig, sheep, cow, rat, and mouse IL-2, respectively. [Abstract of a thesis for the

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degree of Bachelor of Science in Marine Science, submitted to Eckerd College, St. Petersburg,
Florida, in 1994.]

Preliminary serum chemistry reference ranges of the Antillean manatee (Trichechus
manatus manatus) in Colombia and Puerto Rico (Ruby Adiela Montoya Ospina). Preliminary
serum chemistry reference ranges for 20 parameters (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate
aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, creatine kinase, lactic dehydrogenase,
blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid, glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, amylase, total
protein, albumin, sodium, chloride, potassium, phosphorus and calcium) were determined for
two populations ofAntillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus). Values were obtained
from 11 wild, apparently healthy manatees captured in Puerto Rico in April 1992 and May
1993 and from 10 apparently healthy semicaptive manatees in Colombia in June 1993. The
objectives of this study were to establish reference ranges for this endangered species in order
to conduct adequate rehabilitation work and to compare the results with published values from
other Antillean manatee populations and from the Florida manatee (T. m. latirostris).
Reference ranges were established using the percentile analysis and the comparisons
between populations were conducted using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U-test at a 95%
confidence level. It was found that between the Colombia and Puerto Rico populations, 13 out
of 19 parameters were significantly different, 9 out of 14 were significantly different between the
Colombia and Florida populations, and 6 out of 14 were significantly different between the
Colombia and Guyana populations. It was also found that between the Puerto Rico population
and the Florida and Guyana populations, 10 out of 14 and 7 out of 13 parameters were
significantly different, respectively.

Differences were less pronounced between populations of the same subspecies and those
with similar environments and diets. Greater differences were found between populations of
different subspecies, although a direct correlation with environmental or dietal variation was
not clearly observed. It is possible that habitat, food habits and chemical composition of plants,
behavior, metabolism, and perhaps taxonomic variables may have different effects on each of
the above parameters and, most probably, the mechanisms to balance these effects are also
very complex. The adaptations of each population to specific environmental conditions are
manifested, apparently, in different serum chemistry values. In addition, variations due to
methods of capture, sampling, techniques of restraining the animals, blood sample handling,
and laboratory methodology may have some effect on the serum chemistry values reported
here. [Abstract of a thesis for the degree of Master of Science in Marine Sciences submitted to
the University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, in 1994.]


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Anonymous. 1993. The last sirenians. Aqua Geographia 6: 60-72.

Asano, S. (ed.) 1993. [Dugong.]. Shizen [Nature] (Tokyo, Froebel-kan Co., Ltd.) 11: 1-
28. [In Japanese. Hardbound book for kindergarten children, with numerous color

Barriel, V., P. Darlu, and P. Tassy. 1993. Mammalian phylogeny and conflicts
between morphological and molecular data. Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool. & Biol. Anim. 14(4):
157-171. [French summ.]

Basu, P.K., D.P. Das, and T.C. Lahiri. 1991. Study of fossil marine Palaeogene mammals
of Gujarat. Recs. Geol. Surv. India 124(2): 9-10.

Brooks, L.S. 1994. Manatees on the air. ASPCA Animal Watch 14(3): 33.

Cave, A.J.E. 1993. On the morphological constitution of the cetacean pituitary
region. Investigations on Cetacea 24: 253-258. [T. manatus, 256-258.]

Fish, F.E. 1993. Influence of hydrodynamic design and propulsive mode on
mammalian swimming energetic. Austral. Jour. Zool. 42: 79-101.

Frey, R. 1994. Der Zusammenhang zwischen Lokomotionsweise, Begattungsstellung
und Penisla"nge bei Sa"ugetieren. I. Testiconda (Mammalia mit intraabdominaler
Hodenlage). Zs. Zool. Syst. Evolut.-forsch. 32: 137-155. [Engl. summ.]

Furusa'ia, H. 1994. The survey and subjects of North Pacific sirenian evolution from the
viewpoint of paleobiogeography. Monogr. Assoc. Geol. Collab. Japan 43: 99-110.
[In Japanese; Engl. summ.]

Furusaira, H., and N. Kohno. 1994. Steller's sea-cow (Sirenia: Hydrodamalis gigas) from
the Middle Pleistocene Mandano Formation of the Boso Peninsula, central Japan.
Fossils 56: 26-32. [In Japanese; Engl. summ.]

Johnson, JI., JA.W. Kirsch, R.L. Reep, and R.C. Switzer. 1994. Phylogeny through
brain traits: more characters for the analysis of mammalian evolution. Brain Behav.
Evol. 43(6): 319-347.

Kobayashi, S. 1994. On the comparison of the fossil sirenian skull from the
Shiotsubo Formation (Upper Miocene) in Takasato, Fukushima Prefecture, with
those ofDusisiren jordani and Dusisiren dewana. Monogr. Assoc. Geol. Collab. Japan

Sirenews (ISSN 1017-3439) appears twice a year

43: 91-97.

Livingston, A.D., andH. Livingston. 1993. Edible plants and animals: unusual foods
from aardvark to zamia. New York, Facts on File. [Manatee and dugong, 84-85.]

Marsh, H., R.I.T. Prince, WK. Saalfeld, andR. Shepherd. 1994. The distribution
and abundance of the dugong in Shark Bay, Western Australia. Wildlife Research 21
(2): 149-161.

Massette, B. 1994. At home with the manatees. Dive Travel 9(6): 14, 16.

Morgan, G.S. 1994. Miocene and Pliocene marine mammal fiunas from the Bone
Valley Formation of central Florida. Proc. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist. 29: 239-268.

Nishinakagawa, H., M Matsumoto, J. Otsuka, and S. Kawaguchi. 1994. Mammals
from archaeological sites of the Jomon Period in Kagoshima Prefecture. Jour. Mamm.
Soc. Japan 19(1): 57-66. [Record of dugong bones from Yoron Is., Amami Shoto.]

O'Shea, T.J. 1994. Manatees. Sci. Amer. 271(1): 66-72.

Pietsch, T.W. 1991. Samuel Fallours and his "Sirenne" from the province ofAmbon.
Archives of Nat. Hist. 18(1): 1-25.

Reynolds, J.E., III, & J.R. Wilcox. 1994. Observations on Florida manatees
(Trichechus manatus latirostris) around selected power plants in winter. Mar. Mamm.
Sci. 10(2): 163-177.

Rosas, F.C. W. 1994. Biology, conservation and status of the Amazonian manatee
Trichechus inunguis. Mamm. Rev. 24(2): 49-59.

Savage, R.JG., D.P. Domning and J.G.M Thewissen. 1994. Fossil Sirenia of the
West Atlantic and Caribbean region. V. The most primitive known sirenian,
Prorastomus sirenoides Owen, 1855. Jour. Vert. Pal. 14(3): 427-449.

Springer, M.S., and J.A.W. Kirsch. 1993. A molecular perspective on the phylogeny
ofplacental mammals based on mitochondrial 12S rDNA sequences, with special
reference to the problem of the Paenungulata. Jour. Mamm. Evol. 1(2): 149-166.

Tilmant, J. T., R.W. Curry, R. Jones, A. Szimant, J.C. Zieman, M Flora, M.B. Robblee, D.
Smith, R.W. Snow, andH. Wanless. 1994. Hurricane Andrew's effects on marine

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resources: the small underwater impact contrasts sharply with the destruction in
mangrove and upland-forest communities. Bioscience 44(4): 230-237.


Pieter A. Folkens, 940 Adams St., Benicia, Calif 94510-2950, USA

James A. Powell, Dept. of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street,

Tony Preen, Dept. of Tropical Environment Studies and Geography, James Cook
University, Townsville 4811, AUSTRALIA; fax: *61- 77-814020.

D. R. Rioux, 1330-B Broadway, Chico, Calif 95928, USA

Jim Valade, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, 6620 Southpoint Dr. South, Jacksonville,
Fla. 32216-0912, USA

Diana Weinhardt, Houston Zoological Gardens, 1513 North MacGregor, Houston,
Texas 77030 USA


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