Title: Sirenews
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00099157/00018
 Material Information
Title: Sirenews newsletter of the IUCNSSC Sirenia Specialist Group
Alternate Title: Siren news
Physical Description: v. : ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources -- Sirenia Specialist Group
International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources -- Sirenia Specialist Group
Publisher: IUCN/SSC Sirenia Specialist Group
Place of Publication: Washington D.C
Washington D.C
Publication Date: October 1992
Frequency: two no. a year[apr. 1984-]
Subject: Sirenia -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Marine mammals -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Additional Physical Form: Also issued via the World Wide Web.
Dates or Sequential Designation: No. 1 (Apr. 1984)-
Issuing Body: Supported 1984-Apr. 1992 by the Species Survival Commission of IUCN, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission; Oct. 1992 by the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission & U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Apr. 1993-Oct. 1994 by the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission; <Oct. 1995>- by the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission and Sea World, Inc.
General Note: Title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: No. 48 (Oct. 2007).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00099157
Volume ID: VID00018
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 35841617
lccn - 2009208704
issn - 1017-3439


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Sirenews (ISSN 1017-3439) appears twice a year

Sirenews (ISSN 1017-3439) appears twice a year
and is edited by Daryl P. Domning. Dept. of Anatomy,
Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059 USA
(fax: 202-265-7055). It is supported by the
U.S. Marine Mammal Commission and U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service.





The history of manatee conservation efforts in Florida has traditionally been marked by a
high level of cooperation among the many local, state, and national governmental agencies,
business firms, private organizations, and individuals involved. This outstanding record of
collaboration was marred earlier this year by a controversy arising from a most unexpected
In 1981, the Governor of Florida created the Save the Manatee Committee under the
chairmanship of popular singer Jimmy Buffett. This organization was affiliated with the
Florida Audubon Society so that it could accept donations using Audubon's tax-exempt status.
The Committee proceeded to set up the Save the Manatee Club and act as its governing board.
Since then, the Club, under the leadership of its Executive Director, Judith Delaney Vallee,
has built an enviable record of fundraising, public education, lobbying, and funding of research
on behalf of manatees in Florida and elsewhere.

In February of this year, the Save the Manatee Committee announced its intention to
incorporate itself as an organization independent from Florida Audubon, as it had intended to
do from the start. On March 4, Audubon removed Ms. Vallee as Executive Director and seized
the Club's office, records, and other assets, including its 30,000-member mailing list and
$640,000 budget. This action was apparently prompted by fears that loss of affiliation with
the Club would cut deeply into Audubon's income, much of which is reportedly generated by
public interest in manatees. The Committee then sued Audubon for the return of its assets (see

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Sirenews No. 17).
On June 26, a Circuit Court judge found in the Committee's favor and granted a temporary
injunction restoring Ms. Vallee to her post and affirming the Committee's authority to control
the Club's affairs. The judge explained that although "the purpose of a temporary injunction is ...
to preserve the status quo until the final hearing when full relief may be granted," the granting
of the injunction is based on "a substantial likelihood" that the Committee "will ultimately prevail
on the merits."
As might be expected, this dispute has attracted considerable media publicity, and the
tide of opinion has run strongly against Audubon. Not yet having had enough, however,
Audubon's officers are reportedly continuing their appeal of the judge's decision. This is
unfortunate for all concerned, especially the manatees. The months of confusion over who
was running the Save the Manatee Club, and the bad publicity surrounding this affair,
understandably created a major slump in the Club's fundraising. These distractions also
prevented the Club's participation in some important public hearings and regulatory
meetings where its support for enhanced protective measures for manatees was sorely missed.
Fortunately, with Ms. Vallee back at the helm, the Club's effectiveness was quickly restored;
but time was lost and damage was done.
It is time for this needless, senseless, and scandalous episode to end, and for the leaders of
Florida Audubon to accept defeat and put their energies back into protecting the
environment. The Save the Manatee Club is to be congratulated on its victory as well as on this,
the tenth anniversary of its founding, and we look forward with confidence to the continuation
of its superb efforts on the manatee's behalf. DPD


John Reynolds and I have been given permission to arrange a one-day Sirenia Workshop as
part of the Sixth International Theriological Congress to be held at the University of New
South Wales in Sydney, Australia from July 4 to 10, 1993. Among the 37 Symposia and 10
Workshops scheduled for the Congress, there will also be a Symposium on the Status of Marine
Mammals which will include invited review papers on the status of dugongs and manatees.

The daily schedule adopted by the conference conveners is as follows:

0830 1100 hours for poster session
1100 1200 hours for plenary session
1330 1730 hours for spoken papers

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John Reynolds and I would like to organize a specialist session on Sirenian Feeding
Ecology and Habitat Status for most of the afternoon spoken paper session. This is a topic
where there have been some interesting developments of late, as is evidenced by this issue of
We suggest allowing at least half an hour for each paper, including 20 minutes for
questions. This would provide time for seven papers assuming half an hour for afternoon tea.
If the demand is greater than this we could shorten the total time for each paper (and afternoon
tea) to 20 minutes, which would provide time for 11 papers.
The editors of Wildlife Research have indicated their willingness to consider publishing
symposium proceedings in areas appropriate to their journal. Please indicate if you would be
willing to have the Proceedings of our spoken papers published in this manner. The manuscript
would have to reach the editor by July 10, 1993, and would be subject to normal refereeing
Could those of you who would be interested in contributing to such a session please contact
John by the end of November 1992 so that we can determine whether this session is viable?
[Dr. John Reynolds, Eckerd College, 4200 54th Ave. South, St. Petersburg, FL 33711 USA;
fax 813-864-8388]
The morning of the Workshop would then be devoted to a session of posters on any
aspect of sirenian biology and management. Please also contact John by November 30, 1992 if
you would like to present a poster.
Unfortunately ITC has no funds to offset travel, accommodation, or registration costs.
We will try to obtain some assistance for speakers from developing countries. Please
indicate your need for support when you contact John. Helene Marsh


Statistics on past and contemporary exploitation of manatees and dugongs are available from
several parts of the world. However, these statistics usually take the form of tabulations of
weights of meat, fat, hides, or other products rather than numbers of actual carcasses (see,
for example, Domning, Biol. Conserv. 22(2): 101-126, 1982; Sirenews No. 15, p. 6, 1991). For
purposes of estimating the impact of such exploitation on sirenian populations, it is
obviously necessary to calculate the number of animals taken; but accurate conversion factors
are not available for any sirenian species.
It would be very desirable if those involved in carcass salvage, or (preferably) those
having opportunities to observe butchering of sirenians by hunters using traditional methods,
would make a special effort to collect such data. Most important to collect would be the weight
of fresh meat obtained, as a function of total body length and body weight. For manatees other
than T. inunguis, such data would be especially valuable if they pertained to animals less than 3
m long (i.e., in the size range of T. inunguis), so that they could be used provisionally to
interpret the catch statistics on Amazonian manatees pending the collection of such data from

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actual Amazonian manatees.
Also useful would be data on weights of fat, oil, hide, dried or cooked meat, or other
products obtained from carcasses. The exact methods of butchering and processing used
should be recorded. Of course, the larger the sample, the better; however, even one or two
specimens analyzed in this way would significantly enhance our knowledge and our ability
to interpret past records. DPD


Marine mammal research in the Philippines is still at an early stage. Data on all aspects of
the biology and ecology, particularly the stocks status, of these animals are basically
wanting. Compounding the problem is the archipelagic nature of the Philippines, which has
more than 7,000 islands.
Extensive preliminary surveys on the species composition of Philippine marine mammals, by
Aragones, Dolar, Leatherwood, and Hill in 1991, confirmed the presence of 15 species (14
cetaceans and 1 sirenian). The list includes: Risso's, bottlenose, pantropical spotted, long-
snouted spinner and Fraser's dolphins; melon-headed, short-finned pilot, pygmy killer,
Blainville's beaked, sperm, pygmy sperm, humpback, minke, and Bryde's whales; and dugongs.
Most of the species confirmed are taken incidentally in fishing operations, while others are
directly targeted. We have strong reasons to believe that there are more marine mammal species
in Philippine waters. Therefore there is a need for more surveys. In addition, the stocks of the
existing species must be determined for proper management. Reference specimens of the
various species are being held at the Biology Museum of Silliman University and the Museum of
Natural History of the University of the Philippines at Los Banos.
As part of mt Ph.D. degree at James Cook University of North Queensland, under the
supervision of Helene Marsh, I am training to carry out aerial surveys of dugong stocks within
the waters of the Great Barrier Reef. I am confident of applying this method in determining not
only the abundance and distribution of dugongs in the Philippines, particularly Palawan (which is
one of the areas of high conservation value left in the Philippines), but also all other marine
mammals and even sea turtles as well. Unfortunately, the Philippine government is not capable
of funding such an endeavor. Therefore I am appealing on behalf of the Philippine
government for funding for aerial surveys of marine mammals in Philippine waters. I believe
that if we act now we may still be able to save and manage the marine mammal resources of
the Philippines. With the help of the newly appointed Secretary of the Department of
Environment and Natural Resources of the Philippines, Dr. Angel Alcala, the Philippine
environment will hopefully take a turn for the better.
Anyone interested in helping or knowing more about marine mammal research in the
Philippines may contact me at the following address. Lemnuel V. Aragones
(Environmental Studies, James Cook Univ., Townsville, Qld. 4811, Australia)

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The Third International Conference on the Effects of Oil on Wildlife will be held in New
Orleans, Louisiana, 27-29 January 1993. It will comprise papers, workshops, and panel
discussions on governmental concerns and contingency planning, critical habitat and
resources at risk, wildlife rehabilitation and research, and a special session on the spill in the
Middle East. For more information contact Eileen Muller or Joyce Ponsell, Tri-State Bird
Rescue & Research, Inc., 110 Possum Hollow Road, Newark, Delaware 19711; phone 302-
737-7241 or 302-737-9543, FAX 302-737-9562.



Deep-water Foraging and Forage Resources for Dugongs in Shark Bay. Because a
comprehensive aerial census of dugongs in Shark Bay, Western Australia, flown by Helene
Marsh in July 1989,1ed to a much higher estimate of dugong numbers than previously suspected
and found major concentrations of dugongs in deep-water areas, questions were raised as to an
apparent lack of sufficient high-quality forage to support so large a population and as to why
dugongs should occur in deep-water areas where seagrass was believed to be absent and
foraging would have a high cost in travel time. With the intention of resolving the latter
question I mounted an expedition to the Bay between 30 June and 19 July 1992.
Hypotheses which might explain the large number of dugongs in waters > 8 m deep in the
east-central Bay, a region not known to support seagrasses, were that it was a thermal
refugium, and/or that a substantial forage resource (seagrass or invertebrate) existed there.
Selected aerial transects flown in 1989 were replicated on 3 July and 14 July 1992. Distribution
of dugongs on these transects closely approximated that found in 1989. In the interval between
the two flights, sites of dugong activity, precisely located using GPS, were visited with the
sailing catamaran Nortrek, and the sea floor was examined using a remotely controlled
underwater video camera (ROV).
The examination revealed the existence of a hitherto undiscovered pure stand of
Halophila spinulosa at depths of 9 to 14 m which is at least 50 square nautical miles in extent
and which very likely extends along the entire western edge of the Wooramel seagrass bank (if
so, a monospecific "prairie" of around 250 square nautical miles).
Dugong abundance and deep diving activity correlated with the H. spinulosa distribution in
the block examined. Excellent infrared satellite imagery is available for both the 1989 survey
and the 1992 study, and surface water temperatures were taken to provide ground truthing for
satellite imagery in 1992. It will thus be possible to integrate information on surface
temperature patterns and winter forage resources in the final report on this study.

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As H. spinulosa is a species with succulent rhizomes similar to those of Halodule uninervis,
and thus appears to be prime dugong forage, deep-water foraging in the study area can be
explained, and the picture of abundance and distribution of dugong forage resources in Shark
Bay has changed dramatically. The discovery that the Shark Bay dugong population may
rely heavily on beds of Halophila spinulosa at depths down to 14 m or more has important
management implications, since the H. spinulosa community may be extremely vulnerable to
destruction by trawling for scallops or prawns. Paul K. Anderson

The Occurrence of Dugongs in New South Wales in Winter/Spring 1992. The
southern limit of the dugong's range on the east coast of Australia is usually considered to be
Moreton Bay, which extends south from about 27 S nearly to the Queensland-New South
Wales border at 28 10' S. Even Moreton Bay may be thermally marginal for dugongs in winter;
the water in their favored feeding area is below 19 C for three months each year. Tony Preen's
work (see abstract below) shows that dugongs regularly migrate to oceanic waters outside
Moreton Bay during winter to spend time in the East Australian Current, which may be up to 5
degrees warmer than inside the Bay.
Prior to 1992, there were only eight records of dugongs from the New South Wales coast, all
single incidents in any one year. However, a resident of Port Macquarie reports occurrences
of dugongs as far south as Port Macquarie (32 30' S) between 1930 and 1940.

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The winter and spring of 1992 have been remarkable for an unprecedented spate of sightings
of live and dead dugongs on the New South Wales coast as far south as 37 S. Comparison
of satellite imagery of the south-flowing East Australian Current in September 1992 with
corresponding imagery from 1991 indicates that the current was warmer, stronger, and flowing
closer to the coastline this year than last year. Waters above 19 C extended along most of the

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coast north of about 31 S. I have not been able to establish how unusual this is in the longer term.
Of the eight pre-1990 records listed above, some are verbal, but the Eden and Clarence River
are on the National Parks and Wildlife Service WILDATA database, and the Port Hacking and
Port Kembla records were reported in Victorian Naturalist 101(4): 157, 1984. The Sydney
Harbour specimen is believed to be in the Australian Museum, Sydney.

Notes on 1992 records:

o The Port Stevens Cabbage Tree Island report was a single sighting by divers and is
almost certainly different from the Tomaree Head dugong, which was seen over a couple
of weeks in the vicinity of a marina. This animal was reported to have survived a
collision with a boat and may be the animal dead on 7/10/92.

o The Digger's Camp sightings were reported by a Mr. Grant Farrington just off the
rocks on the northern end of Digger's Camp Beach in Yuraygir National Park. The
dugong was seen three times over three weeks while Mr. Farrington was setting his
lobster pots. It was reported to be about 3m long, slow and lethargic, and frequented
sheltered shallow water where it was probably feeding.

o The Patches Beach animal was badly decomposed and could not be necropsied, but
blubber samples were taken.

o The Barri Point, Botany Bay, Clarke's Beach, and Nowra specimens were necropsied
and tissue samples were taken where possible for heavy metal and pesticide
determination. Morphometric data were also collected. Liver tissues were also taken for
genetic studies. The skulls were collected for the Australian Museum, and the
remainders of the carcasses were buried for later excavation if necessary.

o The stomachs of these dugongs were, in most cases, full of seagrass and samples of the
contents were taken for later identification.

o Nematode parasites were present in the stomach of the Botany Bay animal, and the full
autopsy report of the Clarke's Beach animal from J. Boulton, Regional Veterinary
Laboratory, Wollongbar, indicated the presence of multiple parasitic granuloma within the
mucosa of the small intestine. Both the Clarke's Beach and the Nowra specimen had
numerous lesions on them from cookie-cutter sharks.

o The Brunswick River, Byron Bay Lighthouse, and Green Point observations were single
sightings of live animals.

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- Leighton C. Llewellyn (New South Wales National Parks & Wildlife Service)

New Manatee Research Center Established. The "Centro Peixe-boi Alagoas", the
Manatee Center for the State of Alagoas, Brazil, has recently been established by the federal
conservation agency IBAMA in the state capital of Maceio, with the support of the National
Center for the Conservation and Management of Manatees (based at Itamaraca Island,
Pernambuco, Brazil). The manager of the new center is Mario Antonio de Mello. His address
is: Mr. Mario Antonio de Mello, Gerente de Projetos SEMAM/PR, Coordenador do Centro
Peixe-boi Alagoas, C.P. 494 Centro CEP 57001, Maceio, Alagoas, Brasil.

Public Education Campaigns and Surveys of Distribution and Conservation Status of the
West Indian Manatee Along the Northeast Coast of Brazil. The National Center for the
Conservation and Management of Manatees of IBAMA, with the support of the Marine
Mammal Foundation and WWF, have created a Mobile Unit called "Igarakue" to carry out the
first two stages of its General Work Plan: to bring to the coastal communities of the Northeast
coast an elaborate public education campaign for protection of the West Indian manatee and its
habitat, and to carry out a detailed survey of the species' occurrence and status. "Igarakue"
was one of the terms used for the manatee in the language of the Brazilian Indians.
In January 1990, the Mobile Unit began to travel through the Northeastern littoral, beginning
at the Rio Fundo (Bahia/Sergipe) and arriving at the Rio Parnaiba (Piaui/Maranhao) in April
1991. It visited 199 coastal villages in seven states, logging approximately 2000 km of
coastline. Interviews of 552 fishermen provided valuable information on localities and
seasons of occurrence, catch and mortality, strandings of calves and other data (Lima et al.,
The surveys collected much historical and present-day information. Twenty-five manatee
hunters, specialists in the art of handling their small boats and sharp harpoons, furnished very
important data. They indicated that the use of harpoons to capture manatees in the Northeast
is doomed by the small number of animals remaining and by their sons' lack of interest in
learning this technique (Lima et al., 1992).
Along the Northeast coast today, the main causes of death and capture of manatees are the
constant use of nylon nets, both beach seines redess de encalhes] and trawls redess de arrasto].
Regular strandings of orphaned calves were also recorded, which led the IBAMA Manatee
Center to establish a Rehabilitation Unit for orphaned calves at Itamaraca' Island in Pernambuco.
It appears that manatees have disappeared from the Rio Fundo estuary in Sergipe, which was
identified by Albuquerque (1982) as the species' southern limit of distribution. The beach of
Pontal do Peba in Alagoas is today the most southern point in Brazil where they are sighted,
singly or in pairs (Lima et al., 1992).
The manatee's situation is most secure in Paraiba, Rio Grande do Norte, and Piaui. The
principal areas for preservation of the species and its habitat are the estuary of the Rio

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Mamanguape, Paraiba, where the first Protection and Research Base of the IBAMA Manatee
Center is installed; the Guarayras lagoon and adjacent coastal zone, Rio Grande do Norte; and
the estuary of the Rio Timonhas and adjacent coastal zone, Piaui (Lima et al., 1992).
Based on the maximum number of animals commonly seen by the fishermen in each locale
visited, the manatee population on the Northeast coast can be estimated at less than 250. The
number of animals and the frequency of sightings are said to be diminishing every year (Lima et
al., 1992).
Habitat correlates of sightings indicate that 78% of the manatees are seen along the
seacoast near reefs and sheltered beaches (Lima et al., 1992).
Aware of the difficulty of saving the manatee and its habitat in the principal locales
where it persists, the Manatee Center made a special effort to bring to the communities of the
Northeastern coast the manatee protection message and to secure the effective participation
of the public in manatee conservation. With a large body of ecological and behavioral data
and information on the main problems to be confronted in manatee conservation, we are now
working to establish Support Bases for Manatee Protection and Research in the principal areas of
manatee occurrence and to monitor other areas of occurrence in various ways, these being the
next steps in the General Work Plan of the IBAMA Manatee Center.
The organization of a Mobile Unit for expeditions to the northern coast (Maranhao, Para,
and Amapa) is planned for 1992-93, as is the commencement of work with the Amazonian
manatee. [Translated from Portuguese] Regis Pinto de Lima (Centro Peixe-Boi/IBAMA,
Estrada do Forte s/n, Ilha de Itamaraca, CEP 53.900, C.P. 01, Pernambuco, Brasil)


Albuquerque, C., and G. Marcovaldi. 1982. Ocorre^ncia e distribuicao das
populacoes do peixe-boi no litoral brasileiro (Sirenia Trichechidae, Trichechus
manatus, Linnaeus, 1758). I Simposio Internacional de Ecossistemas Costeiros: Poluicao
e Produtividade, FURG/Duke University, Rio Grande, RS, Brazil, Resumos: 27.

Lima, R.P., D. Paludo, R.J. Soavinski, E.M. Oliveira, and K.G. Silva. 1992. Esforcos
conservacionistas e campanhas de conscientizacao para preservacao do peixe-boi
marinho (Trichechus manatus Linnaeus, 1758) ao long do litoral nordeste do Brasil.
Revista Peixe-Boi No. 1 [in press].

Lima, R.P., D. Paludo, R.J. Soavinski, K.G. Silva, and E.M. Oliveira. 1992.
Levantamento da distribuicao, ocorrencia e status de conservacao do peixe-boi marinho
(Trichechus manatus Linnaeus, 1758) no litoral nordeste do Brasil. Revista Peixe-Boi
No. 1 [in press].

Manatee Investigations in Paraiba. Paraiba is, together with Rio Grande do Norte, the

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only state on the Brazilian Northeast coast in which the West Indian manatee has a continuous
distribution; that is, this rare and threatened marine mammal may occur at any point along the
Paraiba coast. Also in Paraiba is one of the principal areas of occurrence of the manatee in the
Northeast: the estuary of the Rio Mamanguape, 80 km from Joao Pessoa in the municipality of
Rio Tinto.
In order to preserve the West Indian manatee in Brazil, the IBAMA Manatee Center has been
carrying out studies since 1986 in the areas of manatee occurrence, as well as public
education campaigns in the coastal communities. As a result of these studies we now know
the principal areas of manatee occurrence in the state: the Rio Goiana, on the border with
Pernambuco, as far up as the port of Congac,ari; the Pedras das Galeas, Picao and Boro
Beach, in Pitimbu; the vicinity of the mouth of the Rio Abiai; the estuary of the Rio Gramame
(municipality of Conde) and its vicinity; the beaches of Nossa Senhora da Penha and Nossa
Senhora do Poc,o, in Joao Pessoa; the coastal platform of Bomsucesso, in Lucena; the
mouth of the Rio Miriri; the estuary of the Rio Mamanguape, municipality of Rio Tinto;
and the vicinity of the Rio Guaju, on the border with Rio Grande do Norte.
In these localities the public education campaign was concentrated, using talks, films,
distribution of educational material, posters, and signs. We then proceeded to a detailed
survey of the traditional significance of the manatee for the fishing communities of the state,
capture techniques, and manatee folklore. By means of interviews with fishermen and field trips,
we evaluated the animals' frequency of occurrence and the importance of coastal
environments in their life cycle.
In the Rio Mamanguape estuary, manatees are seen in groups of up to 11 which form, mainly
in summer, for breeding. The area includes 6000 hectares of mangroves, important not only
for manatees but for the sustenance of the fishing communities of the region (the villages of
Tramataia, Coqueirinho, Camurupim, and Barra de Mamanguape, among others). The
mangroves are important nurseries for fish and shrimp.
Since 1987 IBAMA has had a Support Base for Manatee Protection and Research on
the Mamanguape estuary, and has monitored manatees and their environment in the area.
Barra de Mamanguape has become the primary Area of Environmental Protection (APA)
in Paraiba, and the only coastal conservation unit in the state.
An APA is a type of conservation unit that does not rule out human use of an area, but orders
it according to a management plan. This plan is nothing more than the plan for development of
the region in accord with human needs and environmental limitations.
Examples of this type of regulation are already being implemented in the area, such as
regulation of navigation in the area in cooperation with local fishermen and the Port Captaincy,
control and inspection of drains and sewers (and, independently, of discharges from sugar-cane
plants) in cooperation with SUDEMA, control and observance of environmental legislation for
the real-estate developments being planned and carried out in the coastal zone, the contacts made
with ranchers, factory owners, tourists, municipal administration, fishing colonies, and
public and private entities for development of diverse works of organization and improvement

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of use of the area.
A Nucleus of Environmental Education has been constructed and is presently being
furnished at the Manatee Center in Barra de Mamanguape. This facility, intended principally for
the local communities, will also serve tourists in the region, informing them about the
importance of the local ecosystem. For the IBAMA Manatee Center, the work in Barra de
Mamanguape represents a more mature phase of its strategy of action. Once manatee hunting has
died out, its efforts will be invested in maintenance and improvement of the quality of the
environment and consequently of human life, fundamental to the peaceful coexistence of man
and nature. [Translated from Portuguese] Danielle Paludo (Centro Peixe-Boi/IBAMA, Av.
Dom Pedro II, no. 3484, CEP 58.040, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba, Brasil)


Manatee Research in Colombia and Venezuela. Save the Manatee Club (SMC) and the
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Sirenia Project (FWS) funded the Caribbean Stranding
Network (CSN) to conduct base-line research on the little-known Colombian and Venezuelan
manatee this past summer. Marine biologists Antonio Mignucci (from Puerto Rico) and
Rubby Montoya (from Colombia) visited eight localities in Colombia and Venezuela,
examining a total of 23 semi-captive or captive Antillean manatees and two captive
Amazonian manatees.
Mignucci and Montoya's research dealt with the history of each manatee (how they came to
be captive or semi-captive) and their health status. After conducting interviews relating to the
capture of the manatees, they used benign techniques of morphometrics and blood and
fecal sampling to assess the health of each animal. A small piece of skin was also taken for
genetic studies to be conducted by FWS.
In most instances, the animals were originally captured by fishermen as calves from nearby
rivers to be butchered and sold in the local market. Most of the animals examined were rescued
by either CSN's participants, concerned citizens, or government agencies before they were
sold. Mignucci and Montoya believe that fishermen actually capture both mothers and calves, but
the large females are either killed or, with their strength, break loose from the nets, leaving the
more easily-handled calves in the hands of the fishermen. They then attempt to sell the live
calves in the market for meat, but when CSN participants or government officials learn about
it, they confiscate the animals, transporting them to protected semi-captive or rehabilitation
facilities in Colombia.
During the past three years, CSN participants in Colombia have been involved in the rescue
of over 15 manatees, creating three protected semi-captive colonies in artificial lakes and a
rehabilitation facility where animals are safe from poaching. One of these colonies consists of 10
animals and the other two have two animals each. The rehabilitation facility has at present a
colony of five manatees. In two of the colonies, to the surprise of Montoya and Mignucci this
summer, two babies were born one conceived in the semi-captive environment, while the

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other was born from a female rescued already pregnant and close to giving birth.
External examinations and the blood analyses revealed that most of the manatees were in
good health, except for an animal kept by the Barranquilla Zoo, which for the past three years
has been kept in extremely inhumane conditions. The pool occupied by this seven-foot female -
named Zallida is only 18 inches deep, impeding her swimming and normal growth. She is
also even fed meat at times! The CSN is leading efforts with the Colombian government's
natural resources agency to rescue Zallida from this precarious condition and send her for
rehabilitation to one of the CSN-sponsored semi-captive colonies where she could
convalesce and live in a healthy, spacious, and protected manatee community.
The funding provided by SMC to the CSN during the past two years has enabled Latin
American biologists in Puerto Rico and Colombia to begin studying manatees in areas where
they have not previously been studied, and where their chances of survival are severely
hampered by direct and heavy poaching by fishermen. SMC funds have also aided in beginning
education campaigns in these areas which will help change the attitudes of Latin Americans,
and move toward better protection of manatees throughout their entire range. Antonio


Sirenia Project News. Tom O'Shea, former Sirenia Project Leader in Gainesville, Florida,
took the position of Assistant Director of the National Ecology Research Center (NERC) in Ft.
Collins, Colorado, in late July 1992. Since the Gainesville Sirenia research lab is a field
station of NERC, we haven't lost him; we're just sharing his many talents. Tom has long wanted
to return to Ft. Collins, where he and his wife Sherry went to college, and where Sherry's
parents still live. Lynn Lefebvre has been serving as Acting Sirenia Project Leader, and is
currently in the process of officially applying for the position.
Lynn Lefebvre, Galen Rathbun (Sirenia Project Leader before Tom), and John Reynolds III
visited Chetumal, Mexico, in early September to discuss current and future manatee research
and management efforts in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico, and its neighbor to the south,
Belize. The Centro de Investigaciones de Quintana Roo (CIQRO) hosted the meeting, and
representatives from CIQRO and the Belize Ministry of Natural Resources and COastal Zone
Management Project also participated. Lynn has since prepared a study proposal to initiate a
cooperative project on manatee conservation in the Chetumal Bay-Belize region, which is being
submitted to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Office of International Affairs. The U.S.-
Mexico Joint Committee will review proposals at their meeting in Texas in early December.
Jim Reid is in Puerto Rico, radiotracking and retagging manatees that were captured and
tagged there last May. The project is providing information on manatee movements and habitat
use, particularly in the vicinity of Roosevelt Roads Naval Station. Additional manatees will
be radiotagged in Puerto Rico next spring. Lynn Lefebvre

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"Missing Link" in Dugong Evolution Discovered. Although sirenians in general have a
comparatively good fossil record, the extant dugong has remained alone among the three Recent
genera in lacking any documentation at all of its immediate ancestry. Even its more remote
ancestry within the Dugongidae was unclear until last year, when it became apparent that
Dugong dugon is cladistically a member of a group (now renamed the Dugonginae) whose
origin and greatest diversity appear to have lain in the Caribbean region (see Sirenews Nos.
7, 14, and 16). My expectation has been that Dugong would prove to have evolved in the
Indopacific region (where a useful sirenian fossil record is still lacking) from primitive
dugongines that had dispersed across the Atlantic to the Old World and reached the Indian
Ocean by way of the Tethys Seaway, probably by the Early Miocene.
This plausible scenario now seems ruled out by the discovery of a fossil skull very similar to
that of D. dugon in, of all places, Florida! The nearly complete and splendidly preserved
skull was found in a shell pit near Punta Gorda on Florida's Gulf Coast. It is now in a private
collection, but negotiations are in progress to secure it for a museum. It appears to be of Late
Pliocene age, perhaps less than 2 million years old, and therefore the latest known record of
a dugongid of any kind in the Caribbean-West Atlantic.
Morphologically, the specimen shares several derived character states with the
modem dugong, and it would be reasonable to refer it to the same genus. However, it is
significantly more primitive than D. dugon in several respects, particularly in its dentition. Most
importantly, its cheek teeth are unmodified from the ancestral condition i.e., brachydont and
bunodont with well-developed enamel crowns showing a typical dugongid cusp pattern. D.
dugon, in contrast, has vestigial enamel crowns that quickly wear off, as well as ever-
growing roots on the last two molars. The fossil species has large, fully-erupted tusks, but
these likewise appear to have borne small, conical enamel crowns and seem more primitive
than those of the Recent species. On the whole, the Punta Gorda skull is virtually a perfect
intermediate form linking D. dugon with the dugongines of the Late Oligocene and Early
Miocene, and confirms my expectations that the dental specializations of the modern dugong
are of relatively recent origin, like (indeed, even more so than) those of Hydrodamalis and
Totally unexpected, of course, is the discovery that an animal so close to the modern
dugong in time and morphology once existed in the New World. It raises numerous and
obvious questions whether and by what geographic route the Caribbean species gave rise to
the Indopacific one; whether the same or a similar form inhabited the Indopacific in the
Pliocene; how it partitioned the Caribbean seagrass resources with other Pliocene dugongids;
what role, if any, manatees invading the Caribbean from South America played in the
extinction of dugongs in the New World. All that is clear for the moment is that the sirenian
fossil record is far from being completely known. DPD


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Dugong Seminar. Hans de Iongh reports that his team hopes to organize a seminar on
dugong ecology by the end of 1992 in Ambon, inviting national experts and possibly a number
of foreign experts. They are in communication with UNESCO concerning possible financial
support. No further details are available at this time.

Dugong Sightings in Indonesia. Staff of the EC-funded Project for Dugong Conservation
and Management recently made a number of field sightings of dugongs, which are a
protected species in Indonesia.
The first encounter took place in Kampung Dusun Toisapu, Desa Hutumuri, on the south
coast of Ambon. Fisherman Johannes Souhwat had caught a juvenile dugong, nicknamed
Nelly, on 8 January 1992 at 22:00 h in his gillnet, which was set close to the village. When
project staff arrived, he had tied the animal by the base of the tail fluke to an anchored rope. The
animal had a total length of 1.20 m and was still suckling; however, it accepted small amounts
of seagrass.
According to local people a larger dugong, probably the mother, tried to approach the calf
at night, and it was decided to release the latter the same night at high tide.
On 8 April 1992, another fisherman named Rahman caught a dugong in his gillnet close to
Hative village, in the outer Bay of Ambon near the airport. This animal was also tied by the tail
with an anchored rope, and when project staff were notified two days later, on 10 April, it had
severe abrasions on the skin where the rope was attached. This dugong measured 1.80 m, and
was released the same day on the advice of project staff and by order of the local officer of the
Nature Conservation Service PHPA.
Finally, project staff encountered an adult dugong while snorkeling in the Bay of Saparoua
on 15 March 1992. The animal approached to within 2 m in crystal-clear water and swam past
two snorkeling staff members (Tiny Luiten and Janien van Rossum). It had in its mouth a branch
with leaves, which was later identified as a mangrove twig (Sonneratia alba), commonly
found near the Bay of Saparoua.
Another sighting of a captured dugong was reportedly made on 13 January 1991 by staff of
the Ancol Oceanarium and villagers of the Desa Tanjung Jaya in West Java, close to the
National Park Ujong Kulon, in the Bay of Miskam. Local people stated that this animal was up
to 3.30 m long, but careful analyses of photographs proved that it was perhaps 2.40 m long.
This dugong had been caught in a traditional tidal trap (sero) and had also been tied by a rope
to an anchor. It was eventually released by order of the local police superintendent.
According to villagers, their tidal traps regularly get destroyed by dugongs, particularly
during the West Monsoon, when dugongs tend to seek shelter in the Bay of Miskam near the
village. So far, each year two seros have gotten damaged this way, indicating the presence of
dugongs or other large marine creatures. In the Bay of Miskam some 50 tidal traps were in use
at the time of our visit. Hans de Iongh

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Rescued Manatee Calf Thriving. Moses, a baby manatee rescued by the Caribbean
Stranding Network (CSN) in November 1991 as a two-week-old orphan weighing 60 pounds,
had attained a weight of 320 pounds as of August. He is being kept at the Isla Magueyes
Marine Laboratories at La Parguera. His milk intake has been reduced from 3.6 to 2 liters of
goat's milk and soya formula per day, and he is now eating 40 pounds of plants per day, with
complete weaning anticipated by the time he reaches his first birthday. Six months later, he
will be transferred to an enclosure in the sea where he can acclimate to a marine
environment over the next four to six months. If all goes as planned, he will then be
radiotagged and released into the wild.
During the past ten months, several private firms, as well as the Save the Manatee Club and
numerous private citizens, have supported the care of Moses and other marine animals being
rehabilitated by the CSN. The CSN is totally dependent on such donations; the cost of caring
for the baby manatee alone now amounts to some US$40 per day, and has so far exceeded US
$20,000, not including the caretakers' time. Those desiring more information about him, or
wishing to help with his support, can contact the Caribbean Stranding Network, P.O. Box 908,
Lajas, PR 00667. [Translated from Spanish] Antonio Mignucci


Manatee Exhibit. The Trinidad and Tobago Field Naturalists' Club mounted an
exhibit on the West Indian manatee as part of a national exhibition entitled "Our Marine
Heritage", which took place at the Cruise Ship Complex, Port of Spain, during the period
September 22-27, 1992. The exhibit has been designed as an ongoing, interactive educational
resource covering broad environmental issues and making a strong statement for the protection
of manatees and their habitat. It is designed to be transportable for wider public exposure. We
hope to target rural populations in proximity to manatee habitats, encouraging community
conservation efforts.
The Club will also be presenting a lecture and panel discussion on manatees at St.
Mary's College on March 11, 1993. Please contact us if you can contribute to our ongoing
educational efforts in any way (with audio or audiovisual material, manatee models,
posters, etc.). Jalaludin Khan (Trinidad & Tobago Field Naturalists' Club, c/o Mr. Hans E.
A. Boos, Curator, Zoological Society of Trinidad & Tobago Inc., Emperor Valley Zoo, St.
Clair, Port of Spain)

Manatee Surveys. In 1991, as part of its ongoing manatee study, the Forestry Division
(Wildlife Section) conducted an aerial survey of the North Oropuche/Nariva Swamp areas.
The researchers were looking for the characteristic concentric rings made in the silty water when
a manatee dives. The research team recorded evidence of four manatees.
This survey was followed up with a 1991 boat survey along the North Oropuche River. This

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time evidence of manatee feeding was sought and found.
Manatees in Trinidad and Tobago are threatened by drainage of swamps and wetlands,
particularly development of the Nariva Swamp for rice and aquaculture; pesticide runoff
and water pollution; and mortality in fishing nets. There have been reports of manatee meat
being sold at local markets, but whether this represents deliberate killing for meat is not easy to
ascertain. Debby Seddon [abstracted from an article in the Port of Spain Express, July 8, 1992,
p. 42]


The Nutritional Ecology of the Dugong (Dugong dugon) in Tropical North Queensland
(Janet M. Lanyon). The dugong is a large, long-lived marine mammal with a low and highly
variable reproductive rate. Within tropical north Queensland its breeding pattern is diffusely
seasonal, with most calving occurring between September and November. Dentinal layer
deposition in the tusks indicates that growth is also seasonal. This study examined the effects of
variation in nutrient availability on growth and reproduction of the dugong in tropical north
Queensland. Nutrient availability was considered in terms of diet selection, the digestive
structure and function of the animal, and the structural and chemical composition of the diet.
The dugong is a benthic-feeding herbivore grazing almost exclusively on seagrasses.
Seagrasses are structurally and chemically distinct from terrestrial monocotyledons, being
generally low in total nitrogen, fiber, and lignin and having generally different fracture and
digestive properties from terrestrial grasses. Their high breakability is reflected in the
specialized mechanical processing organs of the dugong.
The morphology, structural composition, small size, and high variability of the cheekteeth of
the adult dugong indicate that the teeth do not play an important role in the maceration of
seagrass. In contrast, the development of opposing horny pads provides a highly effective food
ingestion and processing organ capable of effectively processing large quantities of low-fiber
seagrass during short dive times. The nature of seagrass also makes it particularly amenable
to mechanical and fermentative reduction during passage through the long digestive tract. The
gut passage rate of the dugong is one of the slowest measured in any mammal.
The high degree of specialization of mouthparts with the loss of functional teeth may
impose constraints on the feeding niche of the dugong. Diet selection in the dugong is
correlated with the chemical and structural composition of seagrass. The more frequently
selected species are lowest in fiber and highest in available nitrogen and presumed
digestibility (based on particle size reduction of the digesta). Digestibility is likely to vary
depending on the seagrass species selected. One of the most fibrous seagrasses, Zostera
capricorni, appears to be the least digestible based on the large particle size in the feces. The
preferred species are lower seral or "pioneer" species. Within tropical north Queensland,
assemblages of these preferred species are typically found in shallow inshore coastal regions.
The highly specialized dietary requirements of the dugong suggest that only certain seagrass

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meadows may constitute suitable dugong habitat.
Variation in the abundance of tropical intertidal seagrasses, especially those species
preferred by dugongs, follows a seasonal pattern with maximum abundance in the wet
season and minimum abundance in the dry season. It appears that wet-season conditions are
favorable for maximum seagrass growth. If nutrient limitation occurs, it is likely to be in the
dry season when available nitrogen levels are lower and the most digestible and least toxic
seagrasses are generally less available.
This seasonal pattern of nutrient availability correlates with the breeding pattern of the
dugong. Most births coincide with the time of greatest nutrient availability. During late
pregnancy and early lactation, energetic requirements are likely to be greatest for the female
dugong. In addition to high interyear variation in nutrient availability, the tropics are subject
to longer-term unpredictable fluctuations in rainfall, storm/wind action, and nutrients available
for seagrass growth. This variation and unpredictability in nutrient availability may
consequently influence the reproductive strategy of the dugong and may be at least partly
responsible for its slow and highly variable breeding pattern. [Abstract of a doctoral thesis in
Ecology and Evolutionary Biology submitted to Monash University, Australia, in August 1991
and supervised by Gordon Sanson and Helene Marsh.]

Interactions Between Dugongs and Seagrasses in a Subtropical Environment (Tony Preen). -
This study investigated the ecology of dugongs in subtropical Moreton Bay, Australia. The
dugongs' distribution, movements, home range, habitat selection, feeding, diet, and food
preferences were examined in relation to seagrasses and physical resources.
Seagrasses were quantitatively mapped in two study areas, encompassing 133 sq. km of
seagrass, in Moreton Bay. Communities dominated by species of Halophila were the most
widespread, covering 51% of the total area, but they accounted for only 9% of the total standing
crop of seagrass. In comparison, communities dominated by Zostera capricorni (broad-leaf
morph) occupied 38% of the area of seagrass, but contained 75% of the standing crop.
Some areas were rarely, if ever, used by dugongs, while other areas were persistently
used. Almost all of the avoided areas were dominated by Z. capricorni. Of the dugongs sighted
on seagrass during 28 aerial surveys (n = 8,504), 76% were in areas dominated by Halophila.
Likewise, 75% of locations from satellite-tracked dugongs (n = 773) were from Halophila-
dominated areas. Dugongs feeding in areas dominated by Z. capricorni (broad) frequently
grazed selectively, avoiding patches of Z. capricorni. Excluding the contribution of Z.
capricorni (broad), the mean biomass where dugongs were sighted and where tracking fixes
occurred was 21.2 g DW/sq. m and 15.3 g DW/sq. m, respectively. In comparison,
communities dominated by Z. capricorni (broad) typically contained 100-200 g seagrass/sq. m.
Based on the nutritional composition of the dugongs' preferred species (Halophila ovalis
>_ Halodule uninervis thin > Halophila spinulosa >_ Syringodium isoetifolium > Z. capricorni
broad), it is apparent that they select primarily on the basis of high nitrogen and low fiber
content. They may also select for high soluble carbohydrate content during spring, when they

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fed on fruiting Z. capricorni (thin-leaf morph).
Grazing dugongs removed 85.6% of shoots, 90.8% of above-ground biomass, 58.5% of
rhizome biomass and 25.1% of root biomass from along feeding trails. Total biomass
(above- plus below-ground) was reduced by 53.1% along feeding trails, or 65.2% excluding sites
dominated by Z. capricorni.
Dugongs in Moreton Bay probably suffer particular nutritional stresses, especially
during winter, due to (1) the limitation of nitrogen availability, due to seasonally low levels of
nitrogen content and seagrass abundance, and (2) cold water temperatures. For one quarter of
each year, the water on the eastern banks is below 19 C, which may be close to the threshold
temperature below which dugongs cannot maintain homeostasis indefinitely. The dugongs
counter these winter stresses by (1) regularly migrating to an oceanic area outside the Bay (a
15-40 km round trip), thus raising their ambient temperature by up to 5 C, and (2) by maximizing
the quality of their diet. They optimize their diet by (1) selectively feeding in communities and
patches of favored, nutritionally superior seagrasses, (2) feeding on invertebrates (the remains
of ascidians occurred in 73% of fecal samples, constituting, on average, 26% of the bulk of
the samples), and (3) "cultivation" grazing.
"Cultivation" grazing occurs when the large herds of dugongs that are typical of, and perhaps
unique to, Moreton Bay (median herd size was 140) feed persistently at one location for periods
of up to 35 days. As a result, they can reduce the abundance of seagrass by as much as 95%
over large areas (40-75 ha). Disturbance caused by "cultivation" grazing can effect changes in
the species composition, age structure and nutrient status of seagrass meadows. These
changes may result in a meadow-wide increase in nitrogen levels and decrease in fiber levels.
By concentrating their grazing in favored regions, dugongs may alter the composition of
seagrass communities over large areas (several square km). It is suggested that grazing by
dugongs is responsible for some of the spatial heterogeneity of seagrass communities on the
eastern banks in Moreton Bay.
In favored areas, dugongs may consume on the order of 28% of the total seagrass production.
This compares with consumption levels of <3-10% of above-ground production only by
grazers (invertebrates, fish, waterbirds) in other studies (excluding atypical populations of
urchins). Previously, little attention has been paid to the role of large herbivores, such as
sirenians and green turtles, in the energy flow through seagrass systems. Consequently, our
understanding of the functioning of these systems has been based on the assumption that large
herbivores do not consume a significant proportion of production, and therefore do not play a
major role in the ecology of the systems. The results of this study question those assumptions.
[Abstract of a doctoral thesis in Zoology submitted to James Cook University, Townsville,
Australia, and supervised by Helene Marsh.]

Chetumal Bay and its Importance to the Manatee in the Mexican Caribbean (Benjamin
Morales V. & David Olivera G.). In recent years a considerable amount of detailed
information has been generated concerning the manatee in Quintana Roo, Mexico. Previously

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there was only partial information derived from a preliminary reconnaissance of the coasts of
the Gulf of Mexico and Mexican Caribbean carried out by Campbell and Gicca in 1976
(Campbell & Gicca, 1978).
This new information has been generated from various field observations such as those of
Gallo (1983) in creeks and sinkholes in the northern part of the state, and those of Fuentes and
Aguayo (1989) along the coasts of Quintana Roo. With this latter work we began to glimpse a
possible north-south gradient of distribution of animals in the state, and the importance of
Chetumal Bay began to be evident.
In 1987 and 1988 the manatee research effort was intensified throughout the state. As
a result, Colmenero et al. (1988) obtained a population estimate of 110 animals in Quintana
Roo, and showed that most of these were found in the extreme southern part of the state within
the Chetumal Bay system.
In April 1990 we began a study of the manatees of Quintana Roo, focusing principally on
the Chetumal Bay system. In April 1991, at the 16th International Conference on the Study of
Marine Mammals held in Nayarit, we presented the first results, among which were a
population estimate for Chetumal Bay of 88 +_ 17 manatees and the identification of
several important areas (Morales & Olivera, 1991). The objective of this work is to
demonstrate the importance of Chetumal Bay for the conservation of the manatee in the
Mexican Caribbean. [Abstract of a paper presented at the 17th International Conference on the
Study of Marine Mammals, La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico, April 21-25, 1992. Translated
from Spanish.]


Anonymous. 1992. Rumble in Manateeville. People 37(19): 89. May 18, 1992. [Account of
the Save the Manatee Club-Florida Audubon controversy.]

Bisselink, A.-M. 1990. Manatees at Burgers' Zoo, Arnhem, The Netherlands. IZN
(International Zoo News) 37(7)(224): 5-7.

Borobia, M., and L. Lodi. 1992. Recent observations and records of the West Indian
manatee Trichechus manatus in northeastern Brazil. Biol. Conserv. 59(1): 37-43.

Colares, F.A.P., I.G. Colares, F.C.W. Rosas, and E.P. Colares. 1990. Amazonian manatees
(Trichechus inunguis): a 15 year long-term study. Proc. Amer. Assoc. Zoo Vets. 1990: 43-47.

Colmenero-R., L. del C. 1991. Proposal of the recovery plan for the Mexican manatee
Trichechus manatus. An. Inst. Biol. Univ. Nac. Auton. Mex., Ser. Zool. 62(2): 203-218.

Fernandez Badillo, A., R. Guerrero, R. Lord, J. Ochoa, and G.

Ulloa. 1988. Marniferos en

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Venezuela. Lista y claves para su
+ 185.

identification. Maracay, Univ. Central de Venezuela: x

Fuchs, H.B. 1990. Einige Angaben zur Kenntnis von fossilen Sirenen (VII).
Sirenenza"hne aus der Umgebung von Cluj (Klausenburg, Ruma"nien). Fo"ldtani
Ko"zlo"ny 120(1-2): 89-92. [In Hungarian; German & Russian summaries.]

Furusawa, H. 1989. [Study of the Takikawa sea cow: a message from 5 million years ago.]
Takikawa (Japan), Takikawa Mus. of Art & Nat. Hist.: 1-81. [In Japanese.]

Furusawa, H. 1990. Scenario of the sirenian evolution in the
Akira Kasugai Memorial Vol.: 97- 104.

North Pacific Ocean. Prof.

Gingerich, P.D. 1992. Marine mammals (Cetacea and Sirenia) from the Eocene of Gebel
Mokattam and Fayum, Egypt: stratigraphy, age, and paleoenvironments. Univ. Michigan
Papers on Paleontology No. 30: ix + 84.

Haigh, M.D. 1991. The use of manatees for the control of aquatic weeds in Guyana. Irrigation
& Drainage Systems 5(4): 339-350.

Ho, Hua Chew. 1988. The dugong in Singapore waters. Malayan Naturalist 42(1): 22-25.

Hulbert, R.C., Jr. 1992. A checklist of the fossil vertebrates of Florida. Papers in Florida
Paleontology No. 6: 1-35.

Kadel, J.J., and G.W. Patton. 1992. Aerial studies of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus
manatus) on the west coast of Florida from 1985-1990: a comprehensive six year study.
Mote Marine Lab. Tech. Rept. No. 246: iv + 17 + 5 + 17.

Kamei, T., N. Kuga, N. Inuzuka, H. Kamiya, and H. Saegusa. 1989. [Report of
Paleoparadoxia fossils from Tsuyama.] Ann. Rept. Tsuyama Mus. No. 1: [vii] + 48. [In

Kamiya, T. 1992. Marine mammals 34. Some note of the
14(3)(80): 198-199. [In Japanese.]

Desmostylia. Aquabiology

Kaneko, K., and N. Inuzuka. 1992. Desmostylian fossils from the Yatsuo Group in Toyama
Prefecture, central Japan and their paleoenvironments. Earth Science (Chikyu Kagaku) 46(2):
153- 164. [In Japanese; Engl. summ.]

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Marmontel, M., D.K. Odell, and J.E. Reynolds, III. 1992. Reproductive biology of
South American manatees. IN: W.C. Hamlett (ed.), Reproductive biology of South
American vertebrates. New York, Springer-Verlag: 295-312.

Mukhametov, L.M., O.I. Lyamin, I.S. Chetyrbok, A.A. Vassilyev, and R.P. Diaz. 1992.
Sleep in an Amazonian manatee. Experientia (Basel) 48(4): 417-419.

Murray, J.A. (ed.). 1991. The islands and the sea: five centuries of nature writing from the
Caribbean. New York & Oxford, Oxford Univ. Press: [xx] + 329. [Includes passages on
the West Indian manatee quoted from Strachey, Dampier, Sloane, and Caras.]

Novacek, M.J. 1992. Fossils, topologies, missing data, and the higher level phylogeny of
eutherian mammals. Syst. Biol. 41(1): 58-73.

O'Shea, T.J., B.B. Ackerman, and H.F. Percival (eds.). Interim report of the Technical
Workshop on Manatee Population Biology. Manatee Population Research Rept. (Florida
Coop. Fish & Wildlife Research Unit, Univ. of Fla., Gainesville) No. 10: ii + 83.

Shackley, M. 1992. Manatees and tourism in southern Florida: opportunity or threat? Jour.
Environ. Manage. 34(4): 257- 265.

Sigurdsson, J.B., and C.M. Yang. 1990. Marine mammals of Singapore. IN: Chou Loke
Ming & P.K.L. Ng (eds.), Essays in zoology. Papers commemorating the 40th anniversary
of the Department of Zoology, National University of Singapore. Singapore, Dept.
Zool., Natl. Univ. of Singapore (476 pp.): 25-37.

Sleeper, B. 1990. Manatees. Whalewatcher 24(1): 3-7.

Wood, D.A., B.A. Millsap, and P.M. Rose. 1992. Florida's nongame and endangered species
programs. Endangered Species Update (Univ. of Michigan) 9(9-10): 8, 10-12.

Yokel, B.J. 1992. The endangered manatee: commitment and controversy. Florida
Naturalist, Summer 1992: 14-15. [Florida Audubon's side of its dispute with the Save
the Manatee Club.]


Monica Borobia, UNEP OCA/PAC, Box 30552, Nairobi, KENYA

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Jessica Kadel, 125 Beach Rd., Sarasota, Fla. 34242 USA

Dr. Helene Marsh, Director of Environmental Studies, James Cook
Queensland 4811, AUSTRALIA [fax: +61 77 815581]

Emb. Edgardo Mondolfi, Quinta Masapo, Avenida Norte de Alta

Dr. Thomas J. O'Shea, National Ecology Research Center, U.S. Fish
4512 McMurray Ave., Ft. Collins, Colo. 80525 USA

University, Townsville,

Florida, Caracas 1050,

& Wildlife Service,

Dr. Rodney V. Salm, Marine Programme
68200, Nairobi, KENYA [telefax: 02-

Coordinator, IUCN Regional

Office, P. 0. Box

Dr. J. Ross Wilcox, Environmental Affairs, Florida Power & Light
North Palm Beach, Fla. 33408-8801 USA [fax: 407-625-7665]

Co., P.O. Box 088801,


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