Title: Sirenews
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00099157/00013
 Material Information
Title: Sirenews newsletter of the IUCNSSC Sirenia Specialist Group
Alternate Title: Siren news
Physical Description: v. : ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources -- Sirenia Specialist Group
International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources -- Sirenia Specialist Group
Publisher: IUCN/SSC Sirenia Specialist Group
Place of Publication: Washington D.C
Washington D.C
Publication Date: April 1990
Frequency: two no. a year[apr. 1984-]
Subject: Sirenia -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Marine mammals -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Additional Physical Form: Also issued via the World Wide Web.
Dates or Sequential Designation: No. 1 (Apr. 1984)-
Issuing Body: Supported 1984-Apr. 1992 by the Species Survival Commission of IUCN, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission; Oct. 1992 by the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission & U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Apr. 1993-Oct. 1994 by the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission; <Oct. 1995>- by the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission and Sea World, Inc.
General Note: Title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: No. 48 (Oct. 2007).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00099157
Volume ID: VID00013
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 35841617
lccn - 2009208704
issn - 1017-3439


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April 22, 1990 has been designated as Earth Day in fitting and timely acknowledgement of
the planet whose future is so much in doubt at the start of this new decade. Environmentalists
want this to be a Decade of the Environment, and it will be, for better or worse: it may be
remembered as the decade in which our environment started repaying us in kind and in earnest
for our assaults on it. But whatever justice there may be in this will be a perversely blind justice,
for our species will not be the only one to suffer if we bring down the roof on our own
heads. Meanwhile, we continue as usual our more direct attacks on our fellow species.
In the very first days of 1990, the manatee population in Florida suffered a sickening blow,
due to unusually cold weather in the preceding weeks. In the month of January, 73 carcasses
were recovered comparable to the total of any entire year in the late 1970s. Such natural
disasters must be expected every few years, but coming on top of record and still sharply
rising human-caused mortality, the population can no longer afford them. It may even be
premature to absolve humans from all blame in this instance, given the known changes in
migration patterns caused by artificial warm-water sources, and the possibility of other,
unsuspected factors. Beyond dispute, though, is the human responsibility for at least 58 of
the unprecedented 166 manatee deaths in Florida last year.
This newsletter is aimed at specialists in a single taxonomic group of only four living
species. On this narrow front, the news is sometimes encouraging, sometimes (as above)
grim; but elsewhere there are far grimmer reverses in progress. If estimates of destruction in the
tropical rainforests are to be believed, more species are wiped out there in a single day than the
Order Sirenia presently contains more, perhaps, by an order of magnitude. While working on
behalf of manatees and dugongs, we must also help whenever we can in other phases of the
conflict especially by seizing opportunities to raise environmental consciousness in our
respective communities and nations.
As has often been said in these pages before, that consciousness needs raising most of
all on the issue of human population growth. Almost every nation on earth needs, but lacks, an
official population policy aimed at reducing its present population starting with the United
States, which devours far more than its fair share of the world's resources and where
political leadership on this issue is so shamefully lacking. Every nation must begin forging an
explicit consensus as to its optimum population, and then set about reaching that population


level through explicit national goals (such as the two-child or one-child family) and social
policies (such as tax incentives) designed to achieve those goals.
Florida is in many ways a microcosm of the U.S. In both, population growth is now mainly
the result of immigration; and neither can continue to absorb immigrants at the present rate. In
the case of immigrants to the U.S. as a whole, the humane remedy is to improve living
conditions in their home countries so that they have no reason to leave. But it will never be
possible to provide the 5.25 billion people now alive with the standard of living now
prevailing in the U.S. and other overdeveloped countries. In fact, the American society of
1990 is itself not sustainable. It is sustained now, artificially, only at the expense of poorer
nations. If a uniform worldwide standard of living can someday be achieved, how low a
standard will the human race be willing to accept? When (not if) we all finally have to
acknowledge the limits to our resources, and choose between a lower per-capita standard of
living or a smaller population, we will regret that we did not start far sooner on the latter
As long ago as 1972, the Rockefeller Commission concluded that it saw no benefit from
further population growth in the United States. That was some 40 million Americans ago -
roughly the present population of Nicaragua, Honduras, and all the Caribbean islands
combined. Our politicians have still not gotten the message. More disturbingly, over the last
decade even some environmental groups in this country have shied away from the population
issue a clear instance of political cowardice, since they, unlike many politicians, cannot plead
ignorance of the facts. It is part of our job as scientists and stewards of the biosphere to
educate and persuade these influential elements in our societies, and this Earth Day is not a bad
time to begin or redouble our efforts. DPD


Dr. Thomas J. O'Shea, Deputy Chairperson of the Sirenia Specialist Group, has worked
on the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Sirenia Project in Gainesville, Florida for about 11
years, and has headed the Project since 1985. Recently he was recognized for the hard and
often frustrating work that he has devoted to manatee research and conservation over the
past decade. On February 21, 1990, at a ceremony at the Sirenia Lab in Gainesville, he was
presented with a special plaque acknowledging his service. The plaque, which was embellished
with a section of fossilized rib of one of Florida's extinct dugongids, was inscribed "In
appreciation for your efforts to prevent the extinction of the Florida manatee, from the
IUCN Sirenia Specialist Group, 1990."
This honor is a well-deserved tribute not only to Tom but to all the current members of his
team and all those who have worked on the Sirenia Project over the nearly two decades of its
existence. They have been responsible for major advances in our knowledge of sirenian


biology, knowledge which is now being applied to management decisions on a daily basis.
The Sirenia Specialist Group thanks them all for their past and continuing dedication, and
looks forward to their future discoveries. Well done, Tom!


Anyone wishing to send communications to Sirenews by FAX is requested to use the
following number: 202-636-5523. All communications should be clearly addressed to "Dr.
Daryl Domning, Dept. of Anatomy"; addressing them to "Sirenews" is not sufficient.



"Dugongs in Deep Water". Notwithstanding the evidence cited by Helene Marsh
(Sirenews No. 12) and the fact that many of the sightings in the recent Shark Bay survey
were (to my surprise) in waters with charted depths greater than 11 m, a note of caution may be
in order. Observation of feeding dives in Shark Bay shows that the length of the dive cycle
(submerged plus surface time) increases dramatically with depth. When depth is 2 m or less,
dive cycles fall in the 45-90 second range (including a surface time of 1-2 s), and an individual
may complete in excess of 40 feeding dives per hour. At depths of 11-12 m, dive cycles may
average 420 s and surface times may be over 60 s, limiting an individual to fewer than 10 dives
per hour. Moreover, animals feeding in 11-12 m of water show what appear to be signs of stress
(resting near the surface and breathing deeply and repeatedly between dives, "exploding" to
the surface at the end of a dive). These indications of reduced foraging efficiency and high cost
as depth increases lead me to doubt the favorability of deep water habitat. The proportionately
longer surface time also suggests that when dugongs do feed in deep water they may be more
available to aerial survey enumerations. This would bias estimates of both numbers and
habitat preference. Paul Anderson

Dugongs in Deep Water: A Reply. The results of recent aerial surveys suggest that deep-
water seagrass meadows are a feature of most of the major dugong areas in Australia. A
significant proportion of dugong sightings in the Stracke River region (>30%), Torres Strait
(>20%), Hervey Bay (>25%), and Shark Bay (>60%) have been in water between 10 and 20 m
deep. To date, extensive deep-water seagrass meadows have been confirmed at all these places
except Shark Bay, which needs to be investigated further. As Paul Anderson points out, the
proportion of animals which are using these deep-water areas is unknown, as we lack
information on the relationship between diving and surfacing times for dugongs at different
depths. I have recently applied for funds for Tony Preen to conduct a study entitled "The
importance of deep-water seagrass meadows to dugongs." We plan to use both satellite tracking


and time depth recorders on dugongs in Hervey Bay. It is the easiest of these areas to work in,
and has the most pressing management problems as it has by far the largest level of human use.
- Helene Marsh

[EDITOR'S NOTE: Readers may find interesting a record of a dugong feeding in deep water
off New Ireland, Papua New Guinea, where T. R. Williams (Cryptozoology 4: 61-68, 1986)
reported surfacing "in periods ranging from 8 to about 11 minutes" in water 40-50 feet deep.
Unfortunately the lengths of times spent at the surface are not stated.]

Dugongs Sighted on Remote Offshore Reef. Dr. Terry Done of the Australian Institute of
Marine Science reported sighting a dugong cow and calf from a boat during a scientific
expedition to Ashmore Reef in November 1989. Seagrasses of the genera Thalassia and
Thalassodendron occur on Ashmore Reef, which is in Australian territorial waters about 400 km
off the northern coast of Western Australia and about 140 km from Timor. Helene Marsh

Traditional Hunting by Urban Aborigines and Islanders in Australia. In Australia,
Dugongs are protected by State and Federal legislation. Only indigenous people are allowed to
hunt them, and trade in dugong products is illegal. Apart from these overall restrictions, the
situation differs somewhat in different areas. The law is most restrictive in Queensland, where
only Aborigines and Islanders living in Trust Territories (formerly Reserves) are automatically
allowed to hunt under State law, although they still require a permit to hunt in the Great Barrier
Reef Marine Park.
In May 1989, four native Torres Strait Islanders with the remains of a dugong and a green
turtle in their boat were apprehended by fisheries patrol officers. All the hunters are now
resident in the coastal city of Townsville near where they had caught the dugong, and are
therefore ineligible to hunt dugongs (or sea turtles) without special permits. The Islanders
were charged with taking protected species. The case has proceeded to trial, but is currently
adjourned. The hunters explained that they procured the animals for a feast to be celebrated in
honor of their uncle who had recently died. They maintained that it is their tradition to feast
on dugongs and turtles on such occasions.
The case has also been brought before the United Nations by the Aboriginal Development
Commissioner, who said that the law restricting indigenous people from hunting dugongs and
turtles just because they did not live in a Trust area was "offensive to Aborigines and Islanders".
The situation is complicated by the large-scale movements of Aborigines and Islanders from
their traditional lands to cities and towns. The results of the 1986 census of Australia indicate
that the Islander population of the Torres Strait region is about 5000, close to the estimated
population at the time of European contact. However, the Torres Strait Islanders have
increased rapidly over the last 25 years and have emigrated in large numbers to the mainland
for economic reasons. Thus there are now more than 4000 Islanders living in the coastal cities
bordering the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park from Cairns south. These cities also have a


combined Aboriginal population of over 9000.
The dugong population of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park from Cairns south is much less
than that of Torres Strait. On the basis of aerial surveys, I estimate that there are some 12,500
dugongs in Torres Strait (mainly in the Western Straits, which are hunted mainly by
Islanders rather than Papuans). This represents a ratio of about 2.5 dugongs per Islander.
The corresponding estimate of the number of dugongs in the Great Barrier Reef region from
Cairns south is 3500, or 0.27 dugongs per indigenous person. The differences in the dugong
numbers in the two areas reflects the availability of suitable dugong habitat, and their
relative importance to dugongs has probably not changed since European contact. Thus we
now have the unfortunate situation of a change in the relative numbers of potential
predators and their prey, largely as a result of movement of the predators.
I await the outcome of the court case with some trepidation. I fear it will be the first of several
attempts to bring the law in Queensland more in line with those in other states. All
Aborigines and Islanders could then be allowed to hunt dugongs, irrespective of the
conservation implications of their doing so. Helene Marsh


Distribution and Status of Manatees in Cuba. Lourdes T. Ferrer (Centro de Investigaciones
Pesqueras, Habana) and Alberto R. Estrada report that they have completed an interview survey
of manatee distribution along the entire coastline of Cuba. A total of 293 fishermen and other
persons engaged in water-related activities reported having seen manatees. Of the most
recent sightings by each interviewee, 58% had occurred in the 12 months immediately preceding
the interview. Sightings were concentrated in 12 areas around the coasts of Cuba and the
Isla de la Juventud, especially in or near estuaries and river mouths, and were somewhat
more frequent during the rainy season (May to October). An interesting aspect of the
interviews is that many interviewees believed that females with nursing young seek safe and
secluded places in estuaries, channels, and lagoons where they can leave their calves during
the day while they go in search of food. Presently the mothers return and feed their young.
These reports have not been verified by direct observation; however, a reported aerial
observation of a group of calves in a river (see below) may be significant in this regard.
Manatees were perceived by 58% of the respondents as having increased in numbers over
the last 10 years; only 18% thought their numbers had diminished. Causes of manatee mortality
seemed to be primarily accidental, with entanglement in fishing nets being the predominant
cause reported.
These data are supplemented by the results of aerial surveys undertaken in 1985-87 by
Carlos Wotzkow (Museo Nacional de Historia Natural). Series of flights were made over two
different stretches of the south coast of Cuba, each about 90 km long: the Ensenada de la Broa,
and the south coast of Sancti Spiritus Province. Manatees were sighted a total of 98 times in the
course of 15.25 hours and 2415 km of survey: 59 sightings (9.5 hours, 1425 km) in the former


area and 39 (5.75 hours, 990 km) in the latter. The maximum number sighted on any one flight
was 14 in the former area and 11 in the latter. Only two calves were seen in each area during
the surveys; on another occasion, however, a group of 14 animals interpreted as juveniles was
seen by a pilot in the Rio Hatiguanico. Although observed several times in the lower parts of
larger rivers, manatees were never seen more than 150 m from the coastline, despite the
presence offshore of abundant beds of Thalassia. Manatees are legally protected in Cuba,
populations of sharks (potential manatee predators) have been reduced by intensive commercial
fishing, and efforts are made to apprehend illegal fishermen who might take manatees;
however, there still remain threats to the manatee population from pollution, accidental
entanglement in nets, and deliberate poaching.
The unconfirmed reports of cows leaving their calves unattended in secluded places
deserve further investigation. Such behavior has been suggested by Ed Asper (in Reynolds,
Mammalia 45: 443, 1981), but has not been confirmed for Florida manatees either. Even if
these reports prove to be illusory, they should serve to remind us of how few observations of
wild manatees by biologists have actually been made. Further study of the relatively little-
known Antillean subspecies could well reveal behavior patterns that are less common or absent
in other taxa or in other parts of the West Indian manatee's range. If the Sirenia Specialist Group
were to select an official motto, I would propose: "Never underestimate a sirenian." DPD


Seagrass Ecology and Manatee Habitat Protection. The National Ecology Research
Center Sirenia Project is cooperating in a study on seagrass ecology led by personnel of the
National Marine Fisheries Service, Southeast Fisheries Research Center, Beaufort, North
Carolina. The Bureau of Marine Research, Florida Department of Natural Resources, is also
involved in the project. Seagrass is an important food for manatees year-round, but is
especially relied upon during winter cold periods by manatees aggregating at warm water
refuges on the east coast of Florida. Hobe Sound and Jupiter Sound, the seagrass study areas,
provide significant winter foraging sites for manatees migrating to and from warm water sources
in southeast Florida.
The cooperative agreement among Federal and State agencies was prompted by concern for
the degradation of water quality and a coincident decline of seagrasses in estuaries throughout
the southeastern U.S. Florida has by far the largest amount of tropical and subtropical
seagrasses in the U.S. Some seagrass declines have been attributed to the adverse effects of
elevated levels of water turbidity, which reduce the amount of light available to submerged
vegetation. This study has characterized the submarine light regime and determined the degree
of light attenuation under various environmental conditions in Hobe Sound. Water clarity tended
to be poorest in the winter and to improve during the spring and summer. The worst conditions
occurred after the passage of Hurricane Floyd in October of 1987. Improvement in water clarity
closely tracked the increase in salinity to normal sea water levels, indicating that tidal flushing


is a critical aspect in maintaining water clarity in the lagoon. Recovery to pre-storm conditions
took about 70 days.
Preliminary estimates indicate that between 15% and 20% of the subtidal area is vegetated
by the co-dominant seagrass species, Halodule wrightii and Syringodium filiforme, which do
not occur beyond a depth of 2 m in Hobe Sound. About two-thirds of the lagoon's bottom is
between 2 and 3 m in depth, well within the depth limit of these seagrasses in clear tropical
waters. Submerged seagrass in Hobe Sound usually receives 20% or more of the incident light,
indicating that seagrass light requirements may be greater than previously estimated, and are
certainly greater than that allowed under current water quality standards. Researchers collected
data weekly on boat traffic, wind speed, and light attenuation in Hobe Sound to determine the
relative contributions of boat wake-wave and wind-wave energy to water turbidity. Vessel
wake waves approximately double the amount of wave energy in the lagoon and could be a
major source of sediment and organic matter resuspension. Instantaneous measurements of the
formation of turbidity plumes following the passage of wake waves also support this
conclusion. The removal of boat wake- induced turbidity could result in the conservation
and enhancement of the seagrass beds in Hobe Sound, benefiting manatees and many other
aquatic species. Martin County has already made use of the study results to support an idle
speed zone for boat traffic outside of the channel in Hobe Sound, and two Water Management
Districts are planning to extend the methods pioneered in Hobe Sound to seagrass communities
elsewhere in Florida. Lynn Lefebvre and Jud Kenworthy

The Manatee Technical Advisory Council. Manatee research and management efforts
carried on by the State of Florida are the responsibility of the State's Department of Natural
Resources (DNR). Ten years have now passed since the genesis of the Manatee Technical
Advisory Council, the body officially charged with advising DNR on the conduct of its
manatee activities. A look at the history, philosophy, and functioning of this unique
organization may be of interest in other parts of the world where sirenian protection efforts are in
The Council was created in 1980 at the urging of the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission (an
independent watchdog agency of the Federal Government), and with funds provided to DNR
by the Commission. Its first meeting was held in June 1981. The members are appointed by the
Executive Director of DNR, often on the recommendation of the Council itself, and serve
without salary for indefinite terms. At present the Council has 8 members, representing a
broad variety of backgrounds: a member of the State House of Representatives; a concerned
citizen and spouse of a State Senator; an attorney, lobbyist, and former DNR official; a
prominent conservationist and former Assistant Secretary of the Federal Department of the
Interior; a practicing ophthalmologist and interested citizen; the Executive Director of the Save
the Manatee Club (a private lobbying and fundraising organization); a biologist employed by the
Florida Power and Light Company (which operates many of the power plants used by manatees
as warm-water winter refugia); and a sirenian biologist from an out-of-state university. DNR


provides the Council with staff support.
The Council generally meets two to four times a year at different locations in Florida,
which often provides the opportunity for field trips on which the Council members can
personally inspect sites currently of importance to manatee protection. The meetings are
open to the public and typically last about half a day. They are routinely attended by
representatives of DNR, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Florida Marine Patrol, and
other agencies involved in manatee research and/or conservation. The agenda typically
consists of briefings by these representatives on their agencies' manatee-related activities since
the last meeting, followed in each case by general discussion, and often by specific
recommendations in the form of resolutions of the Council. Formal minutes of all meetings
are kept.
In view of the Council's name, it might appear that its actual makeup is short on the
required expertise in manatee biology. Such an inference, however, would be mistaken. The
issues coming before the Council are almost always administrative or political rather than
biological in nature a reflection of the basic fact that it is not manatees but people that need
managing. Therefore, the technical expertise which the Council needs, and has, is primarily
expertise in the techniques of environmental legislation and public administration. The needed
scientific input is readily available at Council meetings thanks to the regular attendance of
leading manatee biologists from the federal, state, and other entities active in Florida.
In recent years, with the increasing shift of manatee responsibilities from the federal to the
state government, DNR's advisory council has come to have increasing strategic
importance. However, the attendance at its meetings of representatives from other
agencies has proven to have an importance at least equal to that of the Council's own
deliberations. Since their inception, Council meetings have provided an informal but
extremely useful forum for interagency communication and coordination. Under the auspices
and scrutiny of the Council, disagreements, friction, and misunderstandings within and among
DNR, the Fish and Wildlife Service, the Marine Patrol, the Save the Manatee Club, the Army
Corps of Engineers, Florida Power and Light, and other organizations have been aired and
resolved. In other words, although the Council's mandate is nominally restricted to advising
DNR and Florida's Governor and Cabinet, in practice it has been able to influence manatee-
related affairs in a much wider arena, often merely by getting other organizations to talk to
each other. This has contributed significantly to the climate of interagency cooperation and
teamwork which is the hallmark of the manatee protection effort in Florida in welcome
contrast to the conflicts and rivalry that too often beset work on other species and in other places
by the same and similar organizations. DPD


Sirenian Bibliography Update. The computerization of my hand-written bibliography
and index of the sirenian and desmostylian literature has been completed, and all the data are


now in machine-readable form. As of this writing, the database comprises 3,996 main
entries (bibliographic references alphabetized by author) and 11,921 index entries filed
under a total of 1,003 different subject headings. Over 40% of the main entries are fully
indexed and annotated; each of these is indexed under anywhere from one to as many as 124
subject headings. Many of the remaining main entries are partially indexed and annotated.
The main task to be completed before publication is the full indexing of as many of these as
time permits; emphasis here is being placed on those works most important to the study and
conservation of living sirenians. I expect to cut off this activity arbitrarily sometime in the
early fall, and then generate a camera-ready hard copy for publication. Implication: If you
want your latest work included, please send me reprints as soon as humanly possible! DPD


Bay, D., and V. Demoulin. 1989. The seagrass beds of Hansa Bay (north coast of Papua
New Guinea). Bull. Soc. R. Bot. Belg. 122(1): 3-17.

Buffre'nil, V. de, and D. Schoevaert. 1989. Donne'es quantitatives et observations
histologiques sur la pachyostose du squelette du dugong, Dugong dugon (Mu"ller)
(Sirenia, Dugongidae). Canad. J. Zool. 67: 2107-2119.

Clark, M.G. 1990. The vanishing manatee. New York, Cobblehill Books: 1-64. [Children's

Coy Otero, A. 1989. A new species of trematode of the genus Chiorchis (Diplodiscidae),
a parasite of the manatee Trichechus manatus (Sirenia) in Cuba. Poeyana (Inst. Zool.
Acad. Cienc. Cuba) No. 378: 1-4. [In Spanish; English summary. Describes Chiorchis
groschafti, n. sp.]

Delaney, J., W. Hale, and R. Stone. 1989. Manatees: an educator's guide. Second Edition
(revised by M. Lamphear). Maitland, Florida, Save the Manatee Club: 1-29.

Domning, D.P. 1989. Fossil sirenians from the Suwannee River, Florida and Georgia. In:
G. S. Morgan (ed.), Miocene paleontology and stratigraphy of the Suwannee River basin
of north Florida and south Georgia. Southeastern Geol. Soc. Guidebook No. 30: 54-60.

Domning, D.P. 1989. Fossil Sirenia of the West Atlantic and Caribbean region. II.
Dioplotherium manigaulti Cope, 1883. J. Vert. Paleont. 9(4): 415-428.


Domning, D.P. 1989. Fossil Sirenia of the West Atlantic and Caribbean region. III.
Xenosiren yucateca, gen. et sp. nov. J. Vert. Paleont. 9(4): 429-437.

Fernandez, S., and S.C. Jones. 1990. Manatee stranding on the coast of Texas. Texas Jour.
Sci. 42(1): 103.

Galantsev, V.P., and D.A. Kuz'min. 1989. Trends in development of adaptive characters in
the venous system of hydrobiont and amphibiont mammals. Zool. Zhur. 68(10): 107-
117. [In Russian; English summary.]

Inuzuka, N. 1989. [Desmostylus and Behemotops.] Pp. 40-76 in: Report of Research on
Ashoro Mammalian Fauna. Ashoro Town Board of Education, Hokkaido, Japan, 201 pp. [In

Jacquet, A., T. Kleinschmidt, T. Dubois, A.G. Schnek, Y. Looze, & G. Braunitzer. 1989. The
thiol proteinases from the latex of Carica papaya L.: IV. Proteolytic specificities of
chymopapain and papaya proteinase determined by digestion of -globin chains. Biol.
Chem. Hoppe-Seyler 370(8): 819- 830. [A study of plant enzymes, using -chains of
manatee and mole hemoglobin as substrates.]

Leatherwood, S., and R.R. Reeves (eds.). 1989. Marine mammal research and
conservation in Sri Lanka, 1985-1986. United Nations Environment Programme (Nairobi,
Kenya), Marine Mammal Tech. Rept. No. 1: vi + 138.

Lefebvre, L.W., T.J. O'Shea, G.B. Rathbun, and R.C. Best. 1989. Distribution, status, and
biogeography of the West Indian manatee. In: C.A. Woods (ed.), Biogeography of the
West Indies. Gainesville (Florida), Sandhill Crane Press: 567- 609.

Marsh, H., and G.B. Rathbun. 1990. Development and application of conventional and
satellite radio-tracking techniques for studying dugong movements and habitat usage.
Austral. Wildl. Res. 17(1) (in press).

Morgan, G.S. 1989. Miocene vertebrate faunas from the Suwannee River basin of north
Florida and south Georgia. In: G. S. Morgan (ed.), Miocene paleontology and stratigraphy
of the Suwannee River basin of north Florida and south Georgia. Southeastern Geol.
Soc. Guidebook No. 30: 26-53.


Packard, J.M., R.K. Frohlich, J.E. Reynolds III, and J.R. Wilcox. 1989. Manatee response
to interruption of a thermal effluent. Jour. Wildl. Manage. 53(3): 692-700.

Preen, A. 1989. Observations of mating behavior in dugongs
Mamm. Sci. 5(4): 382-387.

Preen, A. 1989. The status and conservation
Meteorological & Environmental Protection
Marine Management Series, Report No. 10,

(Dugong dugon). Mar.

of dugongs in the Arabian region.
Administration (Saudi Arabia), Coastal &
Vol. 1: xix + 200.

Preen, A., H. Marsh, and G. E. Heinsohn. 1989. Recommendations for the conservation and
management of dugong in the Arabian region. Meteorological & Environmental
Protection Administration (Saudi Arabia), Coastal & Marine Management Series, Report
No. 10, Vol. 2: iv + 43.

Yoshii, M., M. Une, K. Kihira, T. Kuramoto, and T. Hoshita. 1989.
cholestane-3 ,6 ,7 ,25,26-pentol and identification of a novel
trichechol, present in West Indian manatee bile. Chem. Pharm.

Synthesis of 5 -
bile alcohol, -
Bull. (Tokyo) 37(7):


Paul K. Anderson, Biological Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4,

Aquatic Plant Information Retrieval System, University of Florida, Center for Aquatic
Plants, 7922 N.W. 71st St., Gainesville, Florida 32606 USA

Carlos A. Bohorquez R., CEINER, P.O. Box 7877, Cartagena de Indias, COLOMBIA

Monica Borobia, P.O. Box 361, Price, Quebec GOJ IZO, CANADA

Jose' A. Ottenwalder, Dept. of Natural Sciences, Florida Museum of
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 USA

Natural History,


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