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The Effectiveness of creative problem-solving in reducing the aggression of emotionally handicapped middle school children

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Title:
The Effectiveness of creative problem-solving in reducing the aggression of emotionally handicapped middle school children
Creator:
Mathew, Saramma Thomas, 1938- ( Dissertant )
Guinagh, Barry J. ( Thesis advisor )
Holly, Marilyn M. ( Reviewer )
Olejnik, Steve F. ( Reviewer )
Sherman, Robert R. ( Reviewer )
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publisher:
University of Florida
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1981
Language:
English
Physical Description:
xi, 123 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Brainstorming ( jstor )
Control groups ( jstor )
Covariance ( jstor )
Creativity ( jstor )
Educational research ( jstor )
Emotional problems ( jstor )
Human aggression ( jstor )
Learning ( jstor )
Middle schools ( jstor )
Schools ( jstor )
Behavior modification ( lcsh )
Children with mental disabilities -- Education ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Foundations of Education -- UF
Foundations of Education thesis Ph. D
Problem children -- Education ( lcsh )
Problem solving ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
The purpose of this research was to determine if training in Creative Problem-Solving could reduce the aggression of emotionally handicapped middle school children by increasing their creativity. The sample consisted of 16 emotionally handicapped, aggressive, middle school children identified by the special education teacher as physically and verbally aggressive. Randomized pretest-posttest control group design was used in the study. The posttest scores on creativity and aggression were dependent variables, the pretest scores were the covariates, and Creative Problem-Solving was the independent variable. The Torrance Test of Creative Thinking, Verbal Form A, and the Buss-Durkee Inventory, "motor component" were administered to the subjects by the researcher prior to and after the treatment period. Following the administration of pretests, the subjects were randomly assigned into control and experimental groups using a random number table. The researcher worked with the experimental subjects on Creative Problem-Solving in small groups of two or three subjects for 30 minutes daily for 15 sessions. Meanwhile the control subjects were engaged in routine special education class activities called "precision learning." To the experimental group, the researcher explained the concepts related to Creative Problem-Solving and gave the subjects practice in brainstorming on the unusual uses of familiar objects. Further brainstorming practice was given on familiar problem situations faced in school. A summary of the five step Creative Problem-Solving process followed by a Creative Problem-Solving simulation in a story form was given. Finally, the subjects listed all the problems they faced in school that made them angry, of which they selected three to four very important problems and found solutions following the steps of Creative Problem-Solving. The scores of control and experimental groups on creativity and aggression were analyzed using the Analysis of Covariance with pretest as covariate. Results showed that total creativity, fluency, and originality increased significantly and aggression decreased significantly. Flexibility increased but was nonsignificant. The results strengthened the relationship between creativity and aggression and supported the view that training in CPS is an effective tool to treat emotionally handicapped middle school subjects to reduce their aggression.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1981.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 114-121.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Saramma Thomas Mathew.

Record Information

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University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
028170498 ( AlephBibNum )
08396949 ( OCLC )
ABS3809 ( NOTIS )

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THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CREATIVE
PROBLEM-SOLVING IN REDUCING THE
AGGRESSION OF EMOTIONALLY HANDICAPPED
MIDDLE SCHOOL CHILDREN




By

SARAMMA THOMAS MATHEW


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY












UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1981


L




































Copyright 1981

by

Saramma Thomas Mathew





































Dedicated to my Parents
















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

A study of this magnitude could not have been completed

without the cooperation and assistance of many people.

Therefore, the author wishes to express her appreciation to

all those who have been of great assistance.

The author is indebted to the following persons in

particular:

Dr. Barry J. Guinagh, chairman of the committee for his

ingenious and professional guidance;

Dr. Steve F. Olejnik for his invaluable help, support,

and inspiration;

Dr. Robert R. Sherman for his thought provoking sugges-

tions and critical comments;

Dr. Marilyn M. Holly for her much needed help, encourage-

ment, and friendship;

Dr. Crystal Compton, principal, Mrs. Sheila Richeson,

teacher, and student-participants of A. L. Mebane Middle

School, Alachua, Florida, without whose cooperation this

study would not have been possible;

Dr. Paul E. Torrance and his Scoring Service, Inc., for

the quick evaluation of the data;

Dr. S. J. Parnes, author of Creative Behavior Workbook,

1967, and Charles Scribner's Sons, publisher, for giving

iv











permission to reproduce the figural representation of

Creative Problem-Solving process;

Mrs. Barbara Huff for her excellent typing services;

and

Many others, friends and colleagues, from whom she has

learned one way or the other.

Finally, the author wishes to express her deepest

gratitude to her husband, Tom, children Teki Susan, Thomas,

Jr., and Alexander for their love, sacrifice, and support

throughout the development of this study.

















TABLE OF CONTENTS


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . . . . . . . . . .

LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . .

ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . .

CHAPTER

I INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . .


Research Questions . . .
Hypotheses . . . . .
Definition of Terms .
Basic Assumptions Underlying
Significance of the Study
Limitations . . . .
Delimitations . . . .
Organization of the Study


the Study

. . .
. .


II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE . . .

The Concept of Creative Problem-Solving
The Effect of Creative Problem-Solving
on Creativity . . . . . .
The Effect of Creative Problem-Solving
on Aggression . . . . . .
Summary . . . . . . . .

III METHODOLOGY . . . . . . .

The Sample . . . . . . . .
The Researcher . . . . . . .
The Experimental Design . . . .
Instrumentation . . . . . .
Administration and Scoring of the
Instruments . . . . . . .
Treatment . . ...
Collection of the Data . . . . .
Statistical Procedure . . . . .


Page

iv

viii


24

27

34
42

43

43
45
45
45

52
53
54
55












IV ANALYSIS OF THE DATA . . . . . . .


Page

58


Results . . . . . . . .... . 58
Hypotheses Tested . . . . . . ... 61
Summary . . . . . . . . . . 68

V DISCUSSION, IMPLICATIONS, PROBLEMS,
RECOMMENDATIONS, SUMMARY, AND CONCLUSION 70

Discussion of the Results . . . . .. 70
Problems the Researcher Faced . . . .. 76
Recommendations for Future Research . . .. 77
Implications of the Study . . . . .. 79
Summary . . . . . . . .... . 80
Conclusion . . . . . . . . .. 82

APPENDICES

A CREATIVE PROBLEM-SOLVING (CPS)
PROGRAM OUTLINE . . . . . . ... 86

B THE BUSS-DURKEE INVENTORY, "MOTOR COMPONENT" 107

C PARENT INFORMED CONSENT . . . . . .. 110

D CHILD ASSENT FORM . . . . . . ... 112

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . .. . . 114

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . . . . . . . ... 122
















LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

1 Means and Standard Deviations of Control
Group and Experimental Group on Pre and
Posttests of the Variables--Total
Creativity, Fluency, Flexibility,
Originality, and Aggression . . . . .. 60

2 Analysis of Covariance for Total
Creativity (T-score), Fluency (raw
score), Flexibility (raw score),
Originality (raw score), and Aggres-
sion (raw score) . . . . . . . . 62

3 Adjusted Posttest Means of Dependent
Variables . . . . . . . . . . 64


viii

















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy



THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CREATIVE PROBLEM-SOLVING IN
REDUCING THE AGGRESSION OF EMOTIONALLY
HANDICAPPED MIDDLE SCHOOL CHILDREN

By

Saramma Thomas Mathew

December 1981

Chairman: Barry J. Guinagh
Major Department: Foundations of Education

The purpose of this research was to determine if train-

ing in Creative Problem-Solving could reduce the aggression

of emotionally handicapped middle school children by increas-

ing their creativity.

The sample consisted of 16 emotionally handicapped,

aggressive, middle school children identified by the special

education teacher as physically and verbally aggressive.

Randomized pretest-posttest control group design was

used in the study. The posttest scores on creativity and

aggression were dependent variables, the pretest scores were

the covariates, and Creative Problem-Solving was the inde-

pendent variable. The Torrance Test of Creative Thinking,

Verbal Form A, and the Buss-Durkee Inventory, "motor component"

ix










were administered to the subjects by the researcher prior to

and after the treatment period. Following the administra-

tion of protests, the subjects were randomly assigned into

control and experimental groups using a random number table.

The researcher worked with the experimental subjects on

Creative Problem-Solving in small groups of two or three

subjects for 30 minutes daily for 15 sessions. Meanwhile

the control subjects were engaged in routine special educa-

tion class activities called "precision learning." To the

experimental group, the researcher explained the concepts

related to Creative Problem-Solving and gave the subjects

practice in brainstorming on the unusual uses of familiar

objects. Further brainstorming practice was given on familiar

problem situations faced in school. A summary of the five-

step Creative Problem-Solving process followed by a Creative

Problem-Solving simulation in a story form was given.

Finally, the subjects listed all the problems they faced in

school that made them angry, of which they selected three to

four very important problems and found solutions following

the steps of Creative Problem-Solving.

The scores of control and experimental groups on

creativity and aggression were analyzed using the Analysis

of Covariance with pretest as covariate. Results showed

that total creativity, fluency, and originality increased

significantly and aggression decreased significantly.

Flexibility increased but was nonsignificant. The results










strengthened the relationship between creativity and aggres-

sion and supported the view that training in CPS is an

effective tool to treat emotionally handicapped middle

school subjects to reduce their aggression.
















CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

There is a great concern among educators over violence

and vandalism by children in school (Violent Schools--Safe

Schools, 1978). Educators are concerned about the excessive

display of aggressive responses by school children, since it

results in misbehavior, and it also could interfere with

their academic performance.

The incidence of violence and vandalism is high in

schools in the United States. A survey done by a committee

headed by Senator Birch Bayh found that more than 100 students

were murdered on school grounds in 1973 (Van Patten, 1977).

According to the Safe School Study Report to the Congress by

the National Institute of Education (Violent Schools--Safe

Schools, 1978), surveying more than 4,000 elementary and

secondary school principals between February, 1976, and

January, 1977 (excluding summer months), it was found that

the annual cost of school crime runs from about $500 million

to $600 million. The major criminal actions were assaults

and robberies on teachers, pupils, and others. The study

revealed that about 282,000 secondary school students were

attacked in a one-month period, 40% of the attacks resulting

in some injury. The survey also found that 5,200 secondary










school teachers were attacked and 6,000 were robbed, with

the percentage of attack declining in senior high compared to

junior high, which is part of the middle school system. Both

personal violence and vandalism were more prevalent in middle

schools than in elementary schools.

Many psychologists believe that frustration leads to

various forms of aggression. According to a popular theory

of aggression in literature, the degree of aggression is a

function of the frequency of frustrating events (Bateson,

1941). The close relationship between frustration and

aggression is evident in the frustration-aggression hypothesis.

The frustration-aggression hypothesis postulates that aggres-

sion is always a consequence of frustration (Dollard, Miller,

Doob, Mowrer, and Sears, 1939). The proposition that the

occurrence of aggressive behavior always presupposes the

existence of frustration, and that this existence of frustra-

tion always leads to some form of aggression, explains frustra-

tion as the blocking or thwarting of some form of on-going,

goal-directed behavior.

An historical account of the development of frustration-

aggression hypothesis shows that an extensive use of it was

made in the work of Freud. In his early writings, Freud

regarded the tendency to seek pleasure and avoid pain as the

basic mechanism of all mental functioning (Freud, 1933).

Whenever pleasure seeking or pain-avoiding behavior was











blocked, frustration occurred. Aggression was the reaction

to that state of affairs.

An everyday situation was noted by Morgan (1936) to show

the effect of the accumulation of previous frustrations on

aggression:

Suppose we get up in the morning with the
decision that, no matter what happens
during this day, we will be sweet-tempered.
In spite of our determination things may
go wrong. We may stub our toe, lose our
collar button, cut ourselves while shav-
ing, be unable to find the styptic to
stop the bleeding, get to breakfast late
and discover that the toast is burned
and the coffee cold, but through all
this we keep cool and even-tempered.
Then some trivial thing occurs and we
unexpectedly have a violent outburst.
Those around us cannot understand why
we are so irritable. If they knew all
the facts, the repressed anger impulses
that have at last gained an outlet,
they would not be surprised. (p. 242)

Thus there is a need to pacify minor frustrations to

reduce aggression in daily social settings. If this need is

not satisfied, frustrations might pile up, leading to an out-

burst of aggression.

According to Dollard et al. (1939) and Berkowitz (1962),

drive theories of aggression attribute aggression to the

presence of specific environmental conditions (that is,

frustrating events). Aggression does not occur in a social

vacuum. The social antecedent of aggression that has received

most attention is frustration--the blocking of on-going,

goal-directed behavior.











Dollard et al. (1939) believed that there was an in-

ternal or observable instigator to an aggressive response.

An instigator refers to an antecedent condition from which

the aggressive response can be predicted. The instigation is

a qualitative concept and the strength of instigation can be

inferred from the extent to which the instigated incompatible

response can overcome.

The goal-response is the reaction which reduces the

strength of instigation to a degree at which it no longer has

the tendency to produce the predicted behavior sequence

(Dollard et al. 1939). A goal-response can terminate a pre-

dicted sequence of behavior. The termination of a behavior

sequence is usually temporary and so instigation exists again

and the subject is expected to perform the predicted sequence

a second time. The goal-response has a reinforcing effect

and is apt to be repeated as it had led successfully to the

goal. But an interference with the occurrence of an insti-

gated goal-response in the behavior sequence results in frus-

tration. An interference may be slight or great. Expressions

as "to disappoint a person," "to let someone down," and "to

block somebody in carrying out an act" indicate that one

person is imposing frustration on another.

A substitute-response is an action which reduces to some

degree the strength of the instigation, and the goal-response

of which was prevented from occurring. So a substitute







response can reduce the strength of instigation. Substitute

responses occur with great frequency in the face of frustra-

tion of all kinds.

Acts of physical violence are the most obvious forms of

aggression (Dollard et al. 1939). Aggression may be directed

at a person or an object which is perceived as causing the

frustration. A frustrated child who cannot act out his

aggression directly on the cause of his frustration often

displaces his aggression against some other person or object.

This direct or indirect aggression is a common response to

frustration and it is the expression of the child's emotional

state of frustration and is one of the most noted behavior

problems in the classroom.

In order to find the evidence of frustration-aggression,

studies were done in the laboratory setting, where pain is

the usual cue used. The subjects were insulted by a confeder-

ate of the experimenter and then they were given the oppor-

tunity to show aggression and retaliate the frustrator for

the frustration induced (Buss, 1961). In a well-known study

by Mallick and McCandless (1966), children in one group (the

frustration condition) were prevented by a confederate from

completing a series of simple tasks. The children in the

second group were not thwarted (the no-frustration condition)

by this person. Later, when these children from the two

groups were given an opportunity to aggress against the

confederate, those who had been thwarted were more aggressive









than those who had been permitted to complete the tasks.

Thus, the result supported the view that frustration leads

to aggression.

Thus, based on the results of laboratory studies and

observations, it is reasonable to assume that aggressive

behavior is traceable to some form of frustration and that

reducing frustration is a step towards reducing aggression.





There are ways to reduce frustration and subsequent

aggression. Various techniques are used in clinical and

school settings to reduce human aggression. A discussion of

these techniques is pertinent to understanding their applic-

ability at different settings. The various techniques are:

1. Catharsis. Catharsis is "a process that relieves

tension and anxiety by expressing emotions,"--emotions that

have been hidden, restrained, or unconscious (Nichols and

Zax, 1977, p. 1).

Catharsis has two related but separate components: (a)

cognitive or intellectual, the recall of forgotten memories,

and (b) physical or somatic, the discharge of emotions in

tears, laughter, or angry yelling (Nichols and Zax, 1977).

The cognitive-emotional aspect consists of the contents of

the consciousness during the reexperiencing of an emotional

event and the somatic-emotional aspect consists of the motoric

discharge of emotion in expressive sounds and actions such as








tears and sobbing of grief. The cognitive-emotional aspect

has two parts. They are: (1) recall, and (2) confession.

The recall component is the retrieval of memories and confes-

sion is the verbal cognitive aspect.

It is common in psychotherapy for both somatic and

cognitive aspects of catharsis to occur together. Clinical

research literature shows that catharsis is most effective

when it has both cognitive and somatic aspects. Grayson

(1970) believed that the somatic component of emotional dis-

charge can strengthen the ego sufficiently so that it en-

hances the patient's ability to achieve a cognitive restruct-

ing of his experience. He combined emotionally charged

cathartic mourning with the development of insight, support-

ing the view that catharsis is most effective when combina-

tion of somatic and cognitive aspects are used.

According to Freud, energy for death instinct is constant-

ly being generated within the body working toward the individ-

ual's self-destruction (Ruch and Zimbardo, 1971). Freud

often equated the death instinct with aggression. If this

energy is not released in small amounts and in socially

acceptable ways, it will accumulate and eventually be released

in the form of aggression.

Cathartic approaches to anger are used in Janov's

(1970) Primal Therapy and Casriel's (1972) New Identity

Therapy to reduce aggression.











2. Reinforcement and Punishment. Based on Thorndike's

(1930) law of effect, reinforcement and punishment are widely

used in the school setting to eliminate the disruptive

behavior of the children. Free-time from studies, token

economy, attending to appropriate behaviors of subjects by

the instructor, and praise are some of the reinforcements

used (O'Leary and O'Leary, 1972). For example, Zimmerman and

Zimmerman (1962) eliminated the temper tantrums such as

kicking and screaming of an emotionally disturbed boy by

removing the social consequences of maladaptive behavior.

When the boy sat at his desk kicking, screaming, and crying,

the instructor ignored the boy, and when the boy stopped

those behaviors, he was praised and then the instructor

worked with him. The teacher attention that the boy obtained

for appropriate behavior reinforced him to be cooperative and

to work for the remainder of the period.

Punishment consists of the delivery of a noxious or

aversive stimulus to an organism (Buss, 1961). Both actual

and threatened punishments are found to be effective in

deterring various forms of human aggression (Brown and Elliott,

1965; Ludwig, Marx, Hill, and Browning, 1969; Worchel, 1957;

Thibaut and Riecken, 1955). The punishment administered in

the society to deter aggression is based on the assumption

that if a violent person is threatened with pain and suffer-

ing, his willingness to attack fellow citizens will be held

in check.








Violent people exhibiting excessive aggression have been

treated by electric shock (punishment). Of course, aggressive

preschool or grade school children would be treated by milder

forms of punishment such as social disapproval (O'Leary,

Kaufman, Kass, and Drabman, 1970), ignoring the inappropriate

behaviors (Brown and Elliott, 1965) and removal of reinforcers

(Brown and Tyler, 1968; Tyler and Brown, 1967).

Although several studies conducted lead to the conclu-

sion that actual punishment may be effective in deterring

various forms of aggression, it may not be always successful.

If the punishment is perceived by the recipient and if the

punisher serves as an aggressive model, punishment may serve

to facilitate the occurrence of later aggression. Recent

investigations on the impact of punishment (Campbell and

Church, 1969; Fantino, 1973) suggest that punishments are

effective in predicting long term changes only when adminis-

tered in accordance with certain principles. The punishment

must be made directly contingent upon an individual's behavior

and must be administered soon after the performance of such

behavior if the result is to have long duration.

3. Drug Therapy. In accordance with the physiological

model of aggression, there are humans who have too much

spontaneous activity in the neural systems (Moyer, 1976). This

excessive stimulation results in aggressive behavior. There

are a number of different kinds of aggressive behavior and









each of them has a different physiological basis. A direct

control of aggression through manipulation of internal

environment is possible through hormone and drug therapy

(Dunn, 1941; Zimmerman, 1956; Heath and Buddington, 1967; and

Kalina, 1962), though the effect is temporary and hence

continued administration is required.

4. Exposure to Nonaggressive Model. Bandura's (1973)

social learning theory of aggression states that witnessing

aggressive models induces sharp reductions in the strength of

the observer's restraints against overt aggression facilitat-

ing the occurrence of the dangerous forms of behavior. If

this is true, it is reasonable to expect that exposure to

nonaggressive models, who behave in a restrained nonbelligerent

manner, will strengthen that behavior. A study by Baron and

Kepner (1970) revealed that exposure to actions of restrained,

nonaggressive models can be effective in preventing overt

aggression even though the subjects are strongly instigated

to such behavior.

5. Cognitive Control. Cognitive factors are important

in the control of aggression (Baron, 1977). Some of the

cognitive control techniques found effective in reducing

aggression are information concerning the cause of another's

behavior (Zillman and Cantor, 1976), one's self-statement to

get over the aggressive behavior (McCullough, Huntsinger,

and Ray, 1977), Rational-Emotive Therapy (Block, 1975) and











problem-solving (Goodwin and Mahoney, 1975; Spivack and

Shure, 1974). The cognitive control is a method that can

be successfully used to reduce frustration and diminish

aggression.

Catharsis and drug therapy are used in clinical settings,

whereas exposure to nonaggressive models, reinforcement, and

cognitive control techniques are used in school settings.

Due to the nature of cathartic technique (reexperiencing

the past traumatic emotional events accompanied by somatic

expression of emotion) it cannot be applied in the school

settings. Also drug therapy cannot be applied in the

school settings. Punishment is used in both clinical and

school settings.

Many teacher-administered and externally controlled

techniques such as the time out principle, punishment,

teacher attention and praise to task relevant behaviors,

token reinforcement program, and free time from school have

been developed. These are programs for helping emotionally

disturbed children control their impulses and overcome

their behavioral deficits in classroom settings (O'Leary

and O'Leary, 1972). Two of the limitations of these techni-

ques include (1) the return of the behavior to the pretreat-

ment levels after the termination of treatment, and (2) the

difficulties in the administration of the programs when

applied over extended periods of time (Thoresen and Mahoney,

1974).










Self-control behavior modification techniques belonging

to cognitive control category have been suggested as an

alternative solution to the problems of teacher-administered

techniques (Thoreson and Mahoney, 1974). Using the self-

control approach, children can be taught strategies to help

them control their inappropriate behavior with minimal

teacher intervention. Meichenbaum and Goodman (1971) sug-

gested cognitive self-instructional procedure as a means of

developing self-control. The subjects instructed themselves

first overtly and later covertly when they internalized the

instructions. McCullough et al. (1977) employed a self-

control training program to treat a sixteen-year-old boy to

control his violent unmanageable temper and emotional out-

bursts. Also Kenneth Block (1975) found that Rational-

Emotive Therapy, which is a cognitive-control technique, can

be used to reduce experimentally induced aggression of college

students.

Another way to help children reduce frustration and

subsequent aggression is by providing training in alternate

responses to solve their problems. Training to make alter-

nate responses is a cognitive-control technique involving

creativity. That is, if children are taught problem-solving

techniques for managing their aggression, there is a better

chance that they will exhibit less aggressive behavior (Goodwin

and Mahoney, 1975; Spivack and Shure, 1974).










"Creativity" is the ability to produce a large number of

quality ideas as alternate responses. Fluency, flexibility,

and originality comprise the triads of creativity which is

characterized by divergent thinking (Guilford, 1959).

Schubert and Biondi (1977), reported that a large per-

centage of the population who repeatedly demonstrate creative

behavior in dealing with day-to-day activities use a problem-

solving type of creativity. Thus the coping behavior of an

individual is directly related to the development of creative

behavior. Hamburg and Adams (1967) proposed "new strategies"

to broaden the individual's problem-solving capacity for

future crises. Goldfried and D'Zurilla (1969) conducted

research on the coping behavior of students at the State

University of New York at Stony Brook and discussed training

in problem-solving as a form of self-control training, in

that an individual learns to become more effective on his

own.

According to Bosse (1979), highly creative fifth-and

sixth-grade students could better cope constructively with

their environment compared to low creativity students of

equal intelligence. Highly creative students seemed calm and

aloof from classroom routine, more alert and aware, and

seemed to have developed work habits that allowed them to

finish work more rapidly than students with high IQ and low

creativity. Bosse found that creative students presented a

picture of efficient workers who were socially mature and

able to cope with frustration.










Dalton (1973) investigated the effects of five levels

(low, moderately low, moderate, moderately high, and high) of

hostility to three dimensions of the Torrance Tests of

Creative Thinking and found that subjects who were classified

as highly hostile scored significantly lower (P <.01) on the

fluency, flexibility, and originality measures of creativity,

establishing a relationship between hostility and creativity.

Schroder and Rotter (1952) demonstrated that "non-

rigidity or flexibility was a kind of higher-level behavior

which consists of expecting change and looking for alternative

pathways." Also, Kandil and Torrance (1978) found that

socially and emotionally disturbed children are high in

fluency and originality but low in flexibility scores. So

they suggested deliberate programs to make use of the subjects'

strengths to improve their flexibility and develop coping

skills or behavioral adjustment.

Creative Problem-Solving (CPS) is a cognitive control

technique which has been shown to improve fluency, flexibility,

and originality of the subjects involved in it (Parnes,

1967a, 1971).

A striking illustration of the effects of Creative

Problem-Solving programs on coping behavior was presented by

Parnes (1971) in the following excerpt from the letter of a

man who was involved in Creative Problem-Solving courses for

several years:









Over the years I have made a connec-
tion for myself between the conscious
awareness of one's creative potential
and mental health. You are probably
aware that I have made many other connec-
tions to CPS as well, but this particu-
lar one I have never discussed. It is
really quite simple: by being able to
solve many of the minor problems with
which I am confronted through conscious
effort on my part, I continually strengthen
my own belief that I am able to exercise
control over my immediate environment.
It helps keep me aware that I do in fact
have control over a large portion of my
future and in time when cause and effect
are often so many steps removed from one
another, it helps me reduce differences
to a lower common denominator enabling
me to better cope. . (pp. 27-28)

In the present study, Creative Problem-Solving was used

with emotionally handicapped middle school children to reduce

their frustration and diminish their aggression. Withdrawal,

noncooperation, impulsiveness, and aggression constitute the

personality dimensions of emotionally handicapped children

(Bullock and Brown, 1972). A large portion of the behavior

that is labelled as "emotionally disturbed," leading to the

placement of those children in special education classes,

consists of aggressive activity. It was found that the

majority of emotionally handicapped boys were in trouble

because of their aggressive behavior (Giebink, Stover,

and Fahl, 1968).

There are several slumps in creative thinking in the

developing child (Torrance, 1967). The biggest slump occurs

at fourth grade. Therefore, students older than grade four










were thought to be better candidates for CPS training. Many

students at middle school (between the fifth and eighth grades)

were having problems with aggression. Therefore, the middle

school age was thought to be a good age to teach creativity

to decrease aggressive behavior.



Research Questions

1. Is Creative Problem-Solving effective in increasing

creativity of emotionally handicapped middle school children?

l(a). Is Creative Problem-Solving effective in

increasing the fluency of emotionally handicapped middle

school children?

l(b). Is Creative Problem-Solving effective in

increasing the flexibility of emotionally handicapped middle

school children?

1(c). Is Creative Problem-Solving effective in

increasing the originality of emotionally handicapped middle

school children?

2. Is Creative Problem-Solving effective in reducing

the aggression of emotionally handicapped middle school

children?



Hypotheses

It was hypothesized that emotionally handicapped middle

school children with aggression problems would diminish their

aggression score if they were able to increase their creativity

through practice in Creative Problem-Solving.











The statistical hypotheses stated for this study were

as follows:

1. Emotionally handicapped middle school children with

aggression problems, who practiced Creative Problem-Solving

techniques, manifest more creativity compared to similar

school children who did not practice Creative Problem-Solving

as measured by the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking, (Verbal

Form A, titled "Thinking Creatively with Words").

l(a). Emotionally handicapped middle school children

with aggression problems, who practiced Creative Problem-

Solving techniques, manifest more fluency compared to similar

school children who did not practice Creative Problem-Solving

as measured by the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking, (Verbal

Form A, titled "Thinking Creatively with Words").

l(b). Emotionally handicapped middle school children

with aggression problems, who practiced Creative Problem-

Solving techniques, manifest more flexibility compared to

similar school children who did not practice Creative Problem-

Solving as measured by the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking,

(Verbal Form A, titled "Thinking Creatively with Words").

l(c). Emotionally handicapped middle school

children with aggression problems, who practiced Creative

Problem-Solving techniques, manifest less aggression compared

to similar school children who did not practice Creative

Problem-Solving as measured by the Torrance Test of Creative











Thinking, (Verbal Form A, titled "Thinking Creatively with

Words").

2. Emotionally handicapped middle school children with

aggression problems, who practiced Creative Problem-Solving

techniques, manifest less aggression compared to similar

school children who did not practice Creative Problem-Solving

as measured by the Buss-Durkee Inventory, "motor component."



Definition of Terms

1. Aggression. In this study aggression was defined as

acts such as fighting, kicking, beating, calling names, talk-

ing back to teachers, yelling, screaming, and lying.

Physical aggression was defined as fighting, kicking,

beating, etc., and verbal aggression was defined as yelling,

screaming, lying, calling names, and talking back to teachers.

Aggression was operationally defined in terms of a

single score on four of the subscales of the Buss-Durkee

Hostility-Guilt Inventory (Buss and Durkee, 1957). The four

subscales--Assault, Indirect Hostility, Irritability, and

Verbal Hostility--comprise a factor analytic "motor component"

called "aggression" (Sarason, 1961).

2. Creativity. In this study creativity was defined as

the ability to postulate a number of original and different

categories of ideas as solution to problems. Creativity

consists of fluency, flexibility, and originality, all of

which involve "divergent" thinking (Guilford, 1959).









Fluency was defined as the number of acceptable responses,

flexibility as the number of shifts or transformations in

response categories, and originality as statistical infrequency.

Divergent thinking was the ability to produce a lot of quality

ideas to make alternate responses. Thus creativity was

characterized by divergent thinking.

Operationally, creativity was defined as what the Torrance

Test of Creative Thinking, Verbal Form A, titled "Thinking

Creatively with Words," measures.

3. Creative Problem-Solving (CPS). CPS is a five-step

scientific process. The steps are fact-finding, problem-

finding, idea-finding, solution-finding, and acceptance-

finding.

4. Emotionally Handicapped Student. They are the

subset of all emotionally handicapped subjects who are

identified by the Alachua County Procedures for Providing

Special Education for Exceptional Students, 1980-'81, (School

Board of Alachua County, Florida, p. 72) as physically and/or

verbally aggressive.



Basic Assumptions Underlying the Study

1. Creative Problem-Solving is a cognitive-control

technique.

2. The general effectiveness of Creative Problem-

Solving may be most efficiently facilitated by training

individuals in general procedures or skills that would allow










them to deal independently with the critical situations that

confront them in day-to-day living.

3. Creative Problem-Solving is a skill that can be

learned by practice.

4. Creative Problem-Solving can be taught in a short

period.

5. Creative Problem-Solving can be learned by the

emotionally handicapped school children.



Significance of the Study

The present study is significant because it could lead

to a better understanding of Creative Problem-Solving as a

way to reduce aggression of emotionally handicapped aggressive

school children. Training of emotionally handicapped subjects

in Creative Problem-Solving could increase their creative

abilities to produce a number of quality ideas that lead to

solutions to problems. Thus, the subjects can use this skill

to meet future challenges creatively.

This study could teach children that Creative Problem-

Solving is appropriate, functional, exciting, and humanizing

in many situations. Thus, the study might result in strong

motivation to utilize one's creative potential. This could

develop a consciousness of the vital importance of creative

effort in all walks of life. This could also develop a

heightened sensitivity of the problems that surround oneself--

an attitude of "constructive discontent" towards situations










as they exist in one's life, that is, a constant desire to

improve everything that one does. This study might also add

more knowledge to the belief that creativity is related to

psychological health.

This study is further significant because its results

could have implications in training teachers, counselors, and

others working with children. If Creative Problem-Solving is

found to be effective in increasing creativity and reducing

aggression of emotionally handicapped middle school children,

it can help in making changes in the curriculum of the teachers'

training programs and the curriculum of the special education

classes for the emotionally handicapped.



Limitations

In conducting this study several limitations were recog-

nized. An important limitation of the study was that the

actual aggressive behavior of the children (frequency counts

of aggressive behavior) was not observed before or after the

program. Rather, the children were identified as aggressive

by their teachers.

Secondly, the subjects in the study were not randomly

selected from a population of emotionally handicapped aggressive

children; so the generalizability of the results is limited.

The third limitation of the study was that the treatment

was conducted in small groups of two or three subjects.

Though Torrance and Myers (1970) believed that Creative











Problem-Solving was effective for disadvantaged children, in

small groups from four to six subjects, keeping the emotionally

handicapped aggressive children on the task in groups of two

or three was difficult enough.

The fourth limitation of the study was that an attention

control group was not used in the study to see if the signifi-

cant results were due to CPS or to the attention the experi-

mental subjects received from the researcher.

Finally, the treatment was only for 15 sessions of 30

minutes. Out of 15 sessions, the first seven sessions were

spent familiarizing the subjects with the concepts and

various aspects of Creative Problem-Solving. Only eight

sessions were spent on the actual Creative Problem-Solving of

the real problems they face at school.



Delimitations

The present study was limited to 16 emotionally handi-

capped public school children attending a middle school in

Florida. The subjects were attending special education class

for the emotionally handicapped and were identified by their

teachers as aggressive on the basis of their physical and

verbal aggression. The study was also limited to those

emotionally handicapped students who were cooperative and who

had their parents' consent to participate in the study.

Another delimitation of the study was that it was limited

to paper and pencil tests of creativity and aggression. The










creativity test used in the study was limited to the Torrance

Test of Creative Thinking, (Verbal Form A) and the aggression

scale used was limited to 43 items which comprise the "motor

component" of hostility from the Buss-Durkee Inventory.



Organization of the Study

This study is organized into five chapters. Chapter I

includes the research question, statement of hypotheses,

definition of terms, basic assumptions of the study, signifi-

cance of the study, limitations, and delimitations. Chapter

II contains a review of literature pertaining to Creative

Problem-Solving and its effects on creativity and aggression.

Chapter III describes the sample, the researcher, the experi-

mental design, instrumentation, administration, and scoring

of the instruments, treatment, data collection, and statisti-

cal analysis of the data. Chapter IV reports the results and

their significance for each hypothesis. Chapter V is a

discussion of the results, problems in the study, suggestions

for future research, implications, summary, and conclusion.

















CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

The review of related literature falls under three

subheadings. The first part deals with the concept of

Creative Problem-Solving, explaining the steps involved in

the process. The second part deals with the effectiveness of

CPS on creativity. The third part deals with the effectiveness

of CPS on aggression. The literature on the effectiveness of

CPS on creativity and aggression falls under descriptive

studies, experimental studies, and anecdotal reports.



The Concept of Creative Problem-Solving

Creative Problem-Solving was first originated by Osborn

(1957) and further developed by Parnes (1967a). Torrance,

Bruch, and Torrance (1976) believed that the Osborn-Parnes

Model of Creative Problem-Solving is ideal for use because it

is flexible and can be applied to any problem or subject

matter. They also believed that it can be taught at any age

from kindergarten through graduate and professional schools.

It is particularly effective in developing the abilities

which seem to be required in solving problems in real life.

Creative Problem-Solving is a process involving creativity.

It can be defined as a thinking process which is scientific:










"Creative thinking . takes place in the process of sensing

difficulties, problems, gaps in information, missing elements,

making guesses, or formulating hypothesis about these defic-

iencies; testing these guesses and possibly revising and

retesting them; and finally in communicating the results"

(Torrance, 1965, p. 8).

Creative Problem-Solving is a five-step problem-solving

technique to help make adjustments in all walks of life.

People need to use their creative power in their studies,

jobs, or even in being a good mother and housewife. Parnes

(1977) describes Creative Problem-Solving as an:

. innovative alternation between imagina-
tion and judgement in each of five steps
toward creatively handling a situation or
meeting an objective: Fact-Finding,
Problem-Finding, Idea-Finding, Solution-
Finding, and Acceptance-Finding. It is
only one way of talking about or diagram-
ming the very amorphous process of discover-
ing new and relevant associations among
the vast data in our brains toward the
resolution of our concerns, problems, and
challenges. (p. 4)

The five steps of Creative Problem-Solving are (Torrance

and Myers, 1970; Parnes, Noller, and Biondi, 1977):

Step 1. Sensing Problems and Challenges (Fact-Finding).

The first step in CPS is to become sensitive to gaps in

knowledge and missing elements and sense problems and chal-

lenges. That is, one has to become aware of the fact there

are problems. Parnes called this situation a "big mess."

At this step, an individual has to ask questions to find out

what the basic objectives are and find additional facts.











Step 2. Definition of Problem (Problem-Finding).

Using additional facts, synthesize the "big mess" and

redefine the problem. Change the wording of the statement of

the problem and finally break it down into subproblems.

Step 3. Producing Alternate Solutions (Idea-Finding).

In Creative Problem-Solving, idea production by brain-

storming is extensively used and is recognized as the most

important part. Brainstorming is a method that is useful to

imagine lots of new ideas to help solve a problem (Noller,

Treffinger, and Houseman, 1979). Osborn's (1963) brain-

storming has four basic rules. They are:

1. Criticism is ruled out until later.
Adverse judgement of ideas must be with-
held until later.

2. "Free-wheeling" is welcomed. The
wilder the idea, the better; it is
easier to tame down than to think up.

3. Quantity is wanted. The greater the
number of ideas, the more the likelihood
of useful ideas.

4. Combination and improvement are
sought. (p. 156)

A list of idea spurring words are used to enlarge the

storehouse of ideas during brainstorming (See Worksheet No.

3, Appendix A).

Step 4. Evaluating Ideas (Solution-Finding).

When deferred judgement is used in idea-production, all

kinds of ideas are produced and their evaluation is a major

task. To select the best idea, it is necessary to select









criteria to weigh or measure the ideas. Objective standards

for selecting criteria are cost, time required, usefulness,

practicality, social acceptance, and other considerations.

Each and every idea is judged by each criterion and scores

are given on a three point scale, where 1 represents poor, 2

represents fair, and 3 represents good. The scores for each

idea are added across the rows and the ideas with the highest

score are selected.

Step 5. Preparing to Put Ideas Into Use, That is,

preparation for selling the programs (Acceptance-Finding).

After a promising idea has been found, there is a

challenge to make it acceptable. In order to implement the

ideas, changes may be necessary. This may include tailoring

the idea for special groups to make it attractive and gain

their acceptance. The subject should also plan to whom,

when, where, and how to implement the idea.

The component skills involved in Creative Problem-

Solving are identification of the problem, which falls in

Step 1 and Step 2; brainstorming, which comes mainly in Step

3; selection of criteria, which comes in Step 4; evaluation

of the solution to problem, which is part of Step 4; and

selling the program to others, which comes in Step 5.



The Effect of Creative Problem-Solving on Creativity

Research on the development of creative behavior increased

after the Presidential address of J. P. Guilford in 1950 to










the American Psychological Association. At the 1959 Univer-

sity of Utah Research conference on the Identification of

Creative Scientific Talent, a committee was appointed to

report on the "Role of Educational Experience in the Develop-

ment of Creative Scientific Talent" (Taylor, 1959). The

Committee reported that at least six research projects had

indicated that creative productivity can be developed by

deliberate process. No research report at that time was

inconsistent with this view.

Many creative thinking workbooks, workshop leaders, and

course instructors present exercises intended to strengthen

basic abilities which underlie creative potential, with the

assumption that these abilities will become stronger with

practice in the same way that learning multiplication tables,

playing a violin, solving chemistry problems, or writing a

correct sentence will improve with practice (Skinner, 1972).

Parnes and Brunelle (1967) researched over 40 studies

for teaching students to improve their sensitivity, fluency,

flexibility, originality, elaboration, and related abilities.

Approximately 90% of the total number of studies indicated

that subjects' creative-productivity levels were increased by

those educational programs. Based on the results of those

studies, deliberate educational programs for creativity

appears to be promising.

Several programs, described below, have been designed to

increase creativity at various educational levels:










The Purdue Creative Training Program (PCTP) (Feldhusen,

Treffinger, and Bahlke, 1970) consisted of 28 video-taped

presentations, each accompanied by printed exercises for the

development of creative thinking and problem-solving abilities.

The presentation focused on the stories of historical persons

and famous events in history. The exercises provided were to

develop the use of fluency, flexibility, and originality in

writing and drawing. This program was found to be effective

in fostering creative thinking, problem-solving and the

related attitude among the elementary school children.

The Productive Thinking Program (PTP) (Covington, Crutch-

field, Davies and Olton, 1972) was a programmed instructional

sequence consisting of 16 units designed to foster creative

problem-solving abilities and related attitude among fifth

and sixth graders.

Treffinger, Speedie and Brunner (1974) used PCTP and PTP

in an experimental study to find out if creative thinking and

problem-solving abilities of elementary school children can

be improved through direct educational effort. The results

of the study indicated that divergent thinking abilities,

especially verbal abilities, were significantly enhanced by

instruction with PCTP or PTP.

LaBelle (1974) used Torrance and Myers' (1970) version

of Creative Problem-Solving in nursing education so that

nurses can be more effective by making alternate responses to










alleviate the patients' suffering. Torrance (1964) started a

three-year Creative Problem-Solving program for nursing

students.

Torrance (1972) summarized the results of 142 studies

designed to test approaches to teaching children to think

creatively and reported the highest percentage of success in

programs that emphasize the Osborn-Parnes Creative Problem-

Solving and/or modifications. Osborn-Parnes Creative Problem-

Solving consists of the five steps of finding a solution to a

problem emphasizing the deferred judgement principle.

Ninety-one percent of the experiments using combinations of

techniques based on the Osborn-Parnes training program

achieved success. These studies ranged from kindergarten and

first grade through college and professional education. Some

of those studies are summarized as follows:

Khatena (1971) taught 118 disadvantaged preschool children

between five and six years of age the strategies of divergent

thinking as measured by the Torrance Tests of Creative Think-

ing, (Figural Forms) by giving them activities to reorganize

various pictures. The Solomon four-group design was used to

avoid confounding variables, to obtain strong results, and

avoid the possibility of Type I error. The analysis of

variance of the posttests showed significant main effect for

the experimental group for fluency, flexibility, originality,

and elaboration suggesting that disadvantaged children at

preschool can be taught to think creatively with everyday








learning materials. In this study, the Figural Forms of

TTCT, which was appropriate for the disadvantaged preschool

children was used.

Cartledge and Kauser (1963), designed an experiment to

stimulate creativity in first-grade children who scored

lowest on the screening test of creativity. One-hundred

twenty-eight subjects from two schools who scored the lowest

in creativity were randomly assigned into control and experi-

mental groups. The author found that experimental group that

received five 20-minute training sessions to improve a toy

dog based on Osborn's principles produced superior average

creativity score (P< .01) compared with no training.

Rouse (1967) compared 47 educable mentally retarded

children (ages between 7 years 7 months to 17 years 2 months),

enrolled in special education classes, who received lessons

to enhance creative thinking, with 31 retardates who did not

receive the lessons. The treatment was 30 consecutive lessons

of 30 minutes each covering a wide range of activities such

as brainstorming, drawings, writings of stories, and the

composition of poems. Results showed significant improvement

for the experimental group in fluency, flexibility, origin-

ality, and elaboration.

Sullivan (1969) used brainstorming and Creative Problem-

Solving on 25 slow learning elementary students based on the

belief that all children are creative. All problems were

presented by the teacher in a manner that demanded divergent










thinking. The results showed a considerable increase in the

slow learners' "verbal-creative" ability.

The Creative Problem-Solving technique was used in the

Interscholastic Future Problem-Solving Bowl for gifted grade

school children. An evaluation of that program (Torrance,

1978) showed that the effects on creativity were encouraging.

Creative Problem-Solving was successful, not only with

children, but also with college and professional students in

increasing creativity. The faculty at St. Mary's School of

Nursing tried to offer a Creative Problem-Solving program

which would develop each student's thinking abilities and

skills as each nurse is continuously confronted with problems

of which she is vaguely aware. The program gave the subjects

30 tasks calling for the production of divergent solutions,

multiple possibilities, and other types of thinking involved

in creative behavior during the 3-year diploma program. The

subjects were tested at the beginning of the freshman year

and near the end of the psychiatric nursing experience in the

senior year. The seniors were divided into three groups, but

they all took the posttests at the eighth week in psychiatry.

Torrance found that the mean scores of ideational fluency,

flexibility, originality, and elaboration of the nursing

students were higher for the seniors than for the freshmen,

and this difference was accepted with high degree of confi-

dence (P <.005). There was no control group of similar

students not participating in the nursing education program.









So the effectiveness of this particular deliberate Creative

Problem-Solving program might be argued.

Parnes (1967c) used three groups of high school seniors,

one group taking Creative Problem-Solving training with the

instructor, the second group taking the programmed instruc-

tion in Creative Problem-Solving, and the third group serving

as the control group, receiving no training between pre and

posttests. Each group consisted of 62 subjects randomly

selected from the public schools of Buffalo, New York, and

matched on the basis of IQ. Six different schools were used

to prevent contamination--to eliminate discussion between

groups. But "in-the-same-school" control groups were used

for comparison. A battery of eleven psychological tests were

given to all three groups as protests and posttests. Between

the protests and posttests, the two experimental groups met

twice a week during the entire semester for the training.

Both instructor-taught and programmed methods produced superior

creativity, compared to the control groups, strengthening the

effectiveness of CPS on creativity. The tests most representa-

tive of the outcome were Planning Elaboration, Product Improve-

ment Fluency, and Product Improvement Flexibility, Alternate

Uses, Other Uses, Product Improvement Originality, and Conse-

quences Total. Instructor-taught groups tended to be more

markedly and consistently superior to the control groups than

program-taught students who had no instructor. The presence

of the instructor might have made the course more interesting,










so the instructor-taught group felt that they gained more

from it.

Shean (1979) found that Creative Problem-Solving train-

ing workshop for students of school administration for ten

hours increased fluency, flexibility, and originality of

experimental students significantly.

By looking at the results of a number of studies con-

ducted at various educational levels where Creative Problem-

Solving or its modifications were used, one can conclude that

they are effective in increasing creative abilities.

According to Dalton (1973), there is a negative relation-

ship between the level of hostility and the level of creativ-

ity. That is, high level of hostility is related to low

level of creativity. Thus, it is pertinent to look at the

effect of Creative Problem-Solving on personality variables,

especially the level of aggression.



The Effect of Creative Problem-Solving
on Aggression

Only a few investigators have attempted to study changes

in personality as a result of experimental courses in Creative

Problem-Solving. Changes in the direction of creative

personality were evident in most of these studies, but these

changes were not as impressive as the changes in ability

factors of creativity.

Research conducted by Meadow and Parnes (1959), used

eleven batteries of tests. One battery of ten tests revealed










a substantial improvement in personality traits as well as in

creativity. Personality tests were given to 162 college

students before and after the treatment. The treatment,

which was a creative thinking and problem-solving course, was

extended throughout the semester. Fifty-four students

who had taken the course were compared with two other groups

of the same size comprised of comparable students who had not

taken the course. The subjects were matched on age, sex, and

intelligence quotient. The subjects in the course were

instructed to solve problems by postponing judicial evalua-

tion of the solution based on Osborn's principles. The

graduates of the problem-solving class attained significant

increments on five of seven measures of creative ability and

a significant increment on the California Psychological

Inventory Dominance Scale. Thus Meadow and Parnes found that

Creative Problem-Solving course produces a significant incre-

ment on certain ability measures associated with practical

creativity and on the personality variable. Meadow and

Parnes conducted studies using regular college students, and

their studies did not focus on the problem of aggression.

Yee (1965) used the instructional materials derived from

a course in Creative Problem-Solving offered at the Univer-

sity of Buffalo and studied its effects and personal-social

adjustment upon creativity of twelfth grade students. The

first and second administration of the Minnesota Tests of

Creativity and the California Test of Personality were










administered to control groups with a five week period between

each administration. Their tests were administered to the

experimental group before and after they received instruction

in Creative Problem-Solving. The instruction in Creative

Problem-Solving resulted in significantly greater creativity

test scores. High ability (high IQ) students showed a

significant increase in creativity test scores after Creative

Problem-Solving instruction as compared to students similar

in ability who did not receive instruction. Low ability (low

IQ) students who received instruction did not increase their

creativity test scores significantly as compared to students

of similar ability who did not receive instruction, though

the increase approached .05 percent level of significance.

Significant relationships were found between certain personal

adjustment traits on California Test of Personality and

creativity test scores of the Minnesota Tests of Creativity.

Creative high ability students were found to have significantly

greater sense of personal worth and fewer antisocial tenden-

cies than their counterparts who were similarly creative but

who possessed low ability. Yee found that Creative Problem-

Solving improved school adjustment of the subjects by reducing

antisocial tendencies suggesting it might reduce aggression.

Robin, Schneider, and Dolnick (1976) treated eleven

emotionally disturbed aggressive elementary children using

the Turtle Technique (Schneider, 1974) to reduce their

aggression. Turtle Technique is a promising procedure to










help children control their impulses toward aggressive

behavior. This technique makes use of the image of the

turtle which withdraws into its shell when provoked by its

external environment. Young children are taught to react to

impulses to aggress by (a) imagining that they are turtles

withdrawing into their shells, pulling their arms close to

their bodies, putting their heads down, and closing their

eyes; (b) relaxing their muscles to cope with emotional

tension; and (c) using social problem-solving to generate

prosocial alternate responses.

The subjects in the study were trained for 15 minutes

daily in the three phases of the technique--the turtle

response, relaxation, and problem-solving. They also listened

to the story of a little turtle who learned to withdraw into

his shell until he was no longer angry. Throughout the

regular class periods the teacher cued the children by calling

out "turtle" whenever she saw an incipient fight. Reinforce-

ment and peer support encouraged the subjects to "do turtle"

at appropriate times. While "doing turtle" the subjects

learned to relax by releasing tension in the various muscle

groups. During the final phase, the subjects learned to do

problem-solving consisting of role playing and discussion

aimed at teaching the children alternate strategies to cope

with problematic situations. Multiple baseline design which

is a powerful design was used where each group served both as

control and experimental group, but the control and the










experimental period was different for the groups. Thus group

A received two weeks of baseline followed by eight weeks of

treatment and group B received seven weeks of baseline

followed by three weeks of treatment. One group received

training for 8 hours and 45 minutes, and the other group

received training for 3 hours and 45 minutes.

Observations of the children's aggressive behavior were

taken as a measure of the effect of the Turtle Technique.

The mean weekly rates of aggression for subjects in group A

revealed that the rate of aggressive behavior decreased from

a mean of 20.5 during baseline to a mean of 12.0 during

treatment (P <.001). The rate of aggressive behavior in

classroom B decreases from a mean of 4.9 during baseline to a

mean of 2.7 during treatment (P <.01). The aggressive behavior

decreased from baseline to treatment for every child.

Robin et al. (1976) integrated contingency management,

turtle response with relaxation, and problem-solving into a

unified treatment to treat the subjects. The results showed

reduction in aggression during treatment, greater reduction

with longer treatment as measured by observation. This study

suggests further research to find the effectiveness of the

part played by each component of treatment.

Loughmiller (1968) found that group problem-solving was

an effective method to help control the excessive expression

of aggression using adolescent boys in a therapeutic summer

camp for emotionally handicapped. Two counselors worked with










the campers in groups of nine. In the camp, the policy was

to take care of a problem as it arose and clear the air.

When a conflict occurred which prevented the group from

obtaining its immediate goals, the group sat together and got

to the bottom of the problem without complicating the matters

by aggressive outbursts. Thus they immediately started group

problem-solving. The boys got the cues to solve the problem

from the counselors and from the discussion. They learned

from the counselors and other members of the group that there

are ways to solve a problem rather than showing their frustra-

tions or hostility. At the end of the summer camp it was

found that the boys were less aggressive.

Loughmiller did a descriptive study of the effectiveness

of group problem-solving on the aggression of emotionally

disturbed children. He used a group problem-solving tech-

nique in which the counselors and the group members discussed

the problem and helped the members to find a solution to a

conflict which prevented the group from obtaining its goals.

It was not a scientific study using control and experimental

groups under controlled conditions, but the study has impli-

cations for future research to do experimental studies for

finding the effectiveness of problem-solving on aggression

under controlled conditions.

Teaching a person how to solve a specific problem has

been found somewhat effective in changing behavior. Giebink,

Stover and Fahl (1968) taught six, ten to twelve-year-old











impulsive boys alternative adaptive ways to handle frustrat-

ing situations. The boys were randomly assigned into control

and experimental groups of three each. The control boys and

experimental boys were presented with commonly occurring

frustrating situations. The boys in the experimental condi-

tion were instructed in five alternative adaptive responses

for each of the four situations presented to them. The boys

who received instructions for a week (the number of hours is

not specified) to improve their ability in handling frustrat-

ing situations improved more than the boys who did not receive

instructions, as measured by verbal responses to questionnaire.

The mean number of adaptive responses increased from 8.8 to

10.2 and the inappropriate responses decreased from a mean of

3.2 per child to a mean of 1.2.

The study by Giebink et al. (1968) suggested the degree

of specificity in employing cognitive approach to modify

unacceptable behavior. The study was conducted under experi-

mental conditions, but due to the small number of subjects

(six children), no statistical analysis was done. Also, the

effectiveness of the result might have been greater if the

study had been carried on over a greater length of time than

one week period.

Perhaps anecdotal evidence support the hypothesis that

aggression can be reduced by creative ways of teaching

(Torrance and Myers, 1970; Torrance and Hall, 1980). Torrance

first collected data concerning teaching miracles from a











class he taught in 1964 at the University of California at

Berkeley. He called the dramatic changes in students'

attitudes "miracles." He asked 200 experienced teachers in

his class on "Creative Ways of Teaching" to try to recall

instances in which they encouraged children, young people, or

adults in their teaching to become involved creatively and

found that experience made a real difference in achievement

and behavior. A group of 165 exceptionally creative teachers

from those 200 teachers were able to recall instances where

encouraging creativity of bitter, sarcastic, and hostile

youngsters transformed their negative feelings into positive

creative energy such as kindness and success, and children

turned from well-established patterns of vandalism, destructive-

ness, and lack of school achievement to productive altruistic

behavior. Also, emotionally disturbed and unproductive

behavior changed to constructive behavior and outstanding

achievement. Similarly, fighting and uncommunicativeness of

kindergarten children who communicated with their fists

showed improved speech as a result of the imagination, planning,

and problem-solving in their project. These pieces of

information suggest the relationship between creativity and

adjustment of school children and the necessity for improving

their creativity.

The review of related literature in the area of the

effectiveness of Creative Problem-Solving on creativity and

aggression suggests that there exists a link between creativity










and aggression. But there was not a single scientific study

in which Creative Problem-Solving was used as treatment to

see if aggression can be reduced in order to help the subjects

solve their problems creatively. Also, Creative Problem-

Solving was not applied to emotionally handicapped subjects

previously.



Summary

The concept of Creative Problem-Solving as pictured by

Osborn and Parnes was depicted in the early part of the

review of related literature. The literature further revealed

that deliberate programs have been designed at various educa-

tional levels to promote creativity. The Osborn-Parnes model

of Creative Problem-Solving and its modifications produced

the highest percentage of success in increasing creative

abilities as opposed to other programs designed to promote

creativity. There are descriptive, experimental, and anec-

dotal studies in the literature, suggesting a close relation-

ship between creativity and aggression. But no systematic

study yet has been conducted on emotionally handicapped

subjects using Creative Problem-Solving as the treatment

variable to reduce their aggression, hence the necessity for

this study.

















CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY

The review of related literature has shown that the

Osborn-Parnes Model of Creative Problem-Solving and its

modifications have been successful in promoting creativity.

A few studies suggested a link between creativity and aggres-

sion. In Creative Problem-Solving, subjects learn to make

alternate responses in order to find solutions to their

problems. So CPS should be effective in reducing aggression.

But there has been no previous study conducted in which

Creative Problem-Solving was used as the independent variable

to reduce aggression. Also CPS has not been studied system-

atically with emotionally handicapped subjects. Thus, the

present study was a pioneer work to train emotionally handi-

capped subjects in CPS in order to reduce their aggression by

increasing creativity in finding solutions.



The Sample

From a pool of 27 emotionally handicapped middle school

children attending special education class, 23 children who

showed excessive physical and verbal aggression identified by

their teacher were selected for the study. Three subjects

did not receive parent consent to participate in the study

43











and were eliminated from the study. Three other subjects,

who received the consent early were assigned to a pilot study

one week prior to the actual program to familiarize the

researcher with the procedures and the unexpected problems.

Subjects were randomly assigned into control and experi-

mental groups. Of 17 subjects in control and experimental

groups, one was eliminated from the control group and from

the study because he was suspended from school toward the end

of the study. Thus, the sample consisted of 16 emotionally

handicapped aggressive middle school children. There were

four black and twelve white students in the sample, with an

average age of 13.30 and average IQ of 88.4. The subjects

ranged in grades from five through eight. There were two

girls and fourteen boys in the sample, with six boys and two

girls in the control group and eight boys in the experimental

group.

All subjects in the study attended a special education

class for emotionally handicapped students. Their regular

program consisted of a precision teaching plan used for

mathematics and reading. The students learned vocabulary

words, finding words from the dictionary with their defini-

tions and meanings. They copied words on the chalk board and

wrote them five times and learned them for a test at the end

of each week. Reading instruction was given to those who

were low in reading comprehension. The students were also

given practice in the basic mathematics skills such as










addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. It was

the practice in this class to reinforce the subjects by

tangible rewards for their good performance and cooperation.



The Researcher

The researcher was a graduate student in the department

of Foundations of Education, University of Florida. She had

a five-hour credit graduate course in creative thinking which

included classroom instruction and exercises in Creative

Problem-Solving.



The Experimental Design

A randomized pretest-posttest control group design was

used in the present study (Campbell and Stanley, 1966),

R 01 X 02

R 01 02,

where O = test, X = treatment, and R = random assignment.

In this study, the posttest scores on creativity and

aggression were the dependent variables, the pretest scores

on creativity and aggression were the covariates, and the

Creative Problem-Solving was the independent variable. The

covariates were used to reduce error variance in the analysis

and thus increase the power of the analysis.



Instrumentation

1. The Buss-Durkee Inventory (Buss and Durkee, 1957).

This Inventory is a scale of aggressiveness developed on the










basis of frustration-aggression hypothesis. So it involves

the selection of test stimuli logically related to that theory.

The test items selected were based on the classification of

different types of aggressive responses. Because of its

theoretical orientation, the content validity of the scale is

clearly defined and it seems to have potential as a meaning-

ful measure of aggressiveness. Also the authors emphasized

the internal consistency of the scale. The items with an

internal consistency of .40 or greater were selected by

correlating each item with the score of the scale in which

it belonged.

On the Inventory, hostility and aggression fall into

seven subscales. There are two kinds of hostility (resent-

ment and suspicion) and five kinds of aggression (assault,

indirect hostility, irritability, negativism, and verbal

aggression). A guilt subscale was also added to the Inven-

tory as the eighth subscale. The Buss-Durkee Inventory

consists of 75 items--66 items for hostility and aggression

and 9 items for guilt. There are 60 true items and 15 false

items, a ratio of four to one, to reduce the effect of

response sets.

The authors of the Inventory were aware that social

desirability might influence the test responses, so they

attempted to minimize the variable of social desirability by:

(a) assuming that anger was present and inquiring only how

it was expressed; (b) providing justification for admitting










aggressive acts; and (c) including cliches and idioms that

would find ready acceptance (Buss and Durkee, p. 345). A low

correlation of .27 for college men and .30 for college women

obtained between social desirability and the probability of

endorsement of the items on the Inventory reflects the

success of the item construction.

Buss-Durkee subjected the subscales to a factor analysis

and found that they were loaded on two factors on the basis

of content. One factor is an attitudinal component of

hostility (resentment and suspicion) having to do with the

attitude that involves negative labels and the other factor

is a "motor component" (assault, indirect hostility, irrit-

ability, and verbal hostility). Guilt and negativism did not

fit too well on the factors (Buss, 1961).

The Buss-Durkee Inventory (Factor A) consists of five

subscales--assault, indirect hostility, irritability, verbal

hostility, and negativism. In this study, a single index of

aggression, combining 43 items of the four subscales of Buss-

Durkee (Factor A) was used to measure aggression as a undimen-

sional variable. Thus, the Buss-Durkee "motor component"

consists of assault, indirect hostility, irritability, and

verbal hostility.

The factor analysis indicated that Factor A (aggression)

and Factor H (hostility) remain invariant across different

groups of male subjects, but there was little stability for

females. The test-retest reliability coefficient after eight










weeks for 33 members of a normal male sample for Factor A and

Factor H were .74 and .71 respectively (Buss, 1961).

Sex difference in aggressiveness and hostility were

obtained with college students using a discriminant function

analysis significant at 1% level, with males scoring higher

for assault, suspicion, and verbal aggression. Also scores

on Factor A and Factor H are unrelated to the socioeconomic

class of the subjects or the age.

A field validation study was conducted to validate Buss-

Durkee factors using 89 delinquent males of average age 14.53

and S.D. 1.31 (Edmunds and Kendrick, 1980). Each subject was

rated on a five-point aggressiveness scale by three observers,

two housemasters, and one class teacher. In order to improve

the accuracy of rating, each subject for whom there was a

discrepancy of two or more scale points between the ratings

of the two housemasters or each subject for whom there was a

discrepancy of 3.5 scale points between the two sets of

ratings was discarded. Fourteen subjects were eliminated,

and data from 75 subjects were analyzed. On the basis of the

mean rating, the subjects were classified as high aggressive

(HA) and low aggressive (LA), creating two delinquent groups

of 36 subjects and 39 subjects. A nondelinquent control

group of 38 subjects comparable in age (mean age 14.26),

socioeconomic status, and IQ was also used. The three samples

were given Buss-Durkee Factors A and H. The high aggressive










(HA) group scored high on both factors, but was significant

only on Factor A supporting its validity.

In order to find out if the Buss-Durkee Inventory,

"motor component" is valid for middle school children, it was

administered to 20 students in a regular home room class at

Mebane Middle School (12 girls and 8 boys ranging in age

from 10.5 to 15 and IQ from 80 to 121), with an arithmetic

mean of 26.13 for boys and 18.17 for girls, supporting the

idea that there is a sex difference in aggression. Their

arithmetic mean of aggression score (21.35) was lower than

that of the sample (28.25) in the study, suggesting the

validity of the instrument.

2. Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT), Verbal

Form A, titled "Thinking Creatively with Words." The Torrance

Tests of Creative Thinking are relatively free from racial

and socio-economic bias, can be used cross culturally, are

the most dependable measures of creative potentiality, and

are applicable from kindergarten through graduate and profes-

sional school (Torrance, 1971, 1974).

Anderson and Stoffer (1977) used Figural and Verbal

Forms of TTCT for delinquents on parole status and nondelin-

quent male adolescents from a high school population to

determine their creative thinking abilities. They found that

the nondelinquent group was significantly superior to the

delinquent group in verbal creativity composite scores and on

each of the verbal subscales of fluency, flexibility, and










originality. The results of this study supported the program

of juvenile rehabilitation which promotes the expression of

verbal creativity.

The Torrance Test of Creative Thinking, Verbal Form A,

titled "Thinking Creatively with Words," consists of seven

activities which can be rated for three components of

creativity--fluency (number of relevant responses), flexi-

bility (variety of categories), and originality (something

unusual, remarkable, or surprising) (Torrance, 1974).

The test tasks selected for TTCT are believed to call

into play different parts of a universe of abilities that may

be conceptualized as creative thinking abilities (Torrance,

1974). To insure content validity, a consistent and delib-

erate effort was made to base the test stimuli, the test

tasks, instructions, and scoring procedures on the best

theory and research available. Analysis of the lives of

indisputably eminent creative people have been considered in

making decisions regarding the selection of tasks. A delib-

erate attempt was made to keep the test tasks free of techni-

cal or subject matter content.

For TTCT, the interscorer reliability of the scores, and

intrascorer reliability were in excess of .90 for all vari-

ables (Torrance, 1974). The interscorer reliability was

established by comparing the scoring with that of an experienced

scorer; when there was no significant difference between the

means of the two scores and when the coefficients of










reliability was in excess of .90, the scoring was considered

reliable. The reliability coefficients of interscorers range

from .86 to .99, and the average is .95. Also, the intra-

scorer reliability coefficients have been consistently above

.90 by the scorers rescoring a specific set of tests from

time to time.

With a battery consisting of most of the tasks included

in Verbal and Figural Forms A and B (Ask-and-Guess, Product

Improvement, Unusual Uses, Incomplete Figures, and Circles),

using 29 fifth grade children, Eherts (1961) obtained a test-

retest reliability coefficient of .88 for fluency, flexi-

bility, and originality battery total with 7 months inverval.

In order to establish construct validity, Torrance

(1962) made an analysis of the personality characteristics of

the most creative boy and the most creative girl in each of

23 classes in grades one through six in three elementary

schools. The controls were matched for sex, intelligence

quotient, race, class (teacher), and age with the highly

creative subjects. The criterion measure consisted of the

composite scores on the Ask-and-Guess, Product Improvement,

Consequences, Unusual Uses, Picture Construction, Incomplete

Figures, and Circles Tests. Torrance also had available

responses to the Draw-a-House-Tree-Person Test, a set of peer

nominations on creativity criteria, and teacher nominations

on similar criteria. On the basis of the statistical analysis

of the comparison between the highly creative children and










their less creative controls, he found that three personality

characteristics differentiated the highly creative subjects

from their less creative controls. They were:

1. The highly creative children had a reputation for

producing wild or silly ideas, especially the boys.

2. Their drawings and other productions were character-

ized by a high degree of originality.

3. Their productions are characterized by humor, play-

fullness, and relative relaxation.

Two sets of norm data are available, one on the fifth

grade equivalency study sample and the other on college data,

including both graduate students and undergraduate students

(Torrance, 1974). The fifth grade data was used for convert-

ing the raw scores of elementary school children and high

school students to T-scores, and the college data with

college students and adults. T-scores are necessary to

combine fluency, flexibility, and originality in order to

make comparisons of relative strengths of individuals and

groups.



Administration and Scoring of the Instruments

In the present study, TTCT (Verbal Form A) was first

administered, followed by the Buss-Durkee Inventory, "motor

component." TTCT was administered following the instructions

given in the instructor's manual (Torrance, 1974). While

administering the Buss-Durkee Inventory, the researcher read










the items aloud to the subjects. Also, subjects were free to

ask for explanations if they did not understand the words,

idioms, or expressions in the items.

TTCT (Verbal Form A) was scored by the Torrance Tests

Scoring Service in Athens, Georgia, to avoid bias by the

researcher in favor of expected results. The Buss-Durkee

Inventory, "motor component" was scored using a hand key with

a maximum expectancy of 43 points on aggression.



Treatment: Creative Problem-Solving

The methodology of Creative Problem-Solving as formulated

by Osborn (1963) and Parnes (1967a) was used in the study.

The researcher explained the concepts and terms related to

Creative Problem-Solving and gave the subjects practice in

brainstorming on the unusual uses of familiar objects.

Further brainstorming practice was given on the familiar

problem situations faced in school. A summary was given of

Creative Problem-Solving steps, followed by a Creative Problem-

Solving simulation in a story form. Finally, the subjects

listed all the problems they face in school that make them

angry. They picked three or four problems that make them very

angry and found solutions following the steps of Creative

Problem-Solving (See appendix for CPS outline).











Collection of the Data

Seventeen emotionally handicapped children with aggres-

sion problems were identified by the special education teacher.

Prior to the experiment, a pretest of creativity (TTCT,

Verbal Form A) and the Buss-Durkee Inventory, "motor component"

were administered to each of the 17 subjects. Then the

subjects were randomly assigned into control and experimental

groups using a random number table.

After the administration of protests for all subjects,

and randomization of subjects into control and experimental

groups, the researcher worked with the experimental subjects,

dispersed from the first period until the sixth period, on

Creative Problem-Solving in small groups of two or three

subjects, while the control subjects were engaged in routine

special education class activities. The researcher used

deception and told the control subjects that she could not

work with all the subjects at the same time and so she would

work with them later. The researcher worked with the experi-

mental subjects on Creative Problem-Solving during special

education period for 30 minutes daily for 15 consecutive

sessions (3 weeks). The subjects were praised and reinforced

at the end of each session for their performance and cooper-

ation, as they were usually reinforced in the special educa-

tion class. At the end of the 15 session treatment, TTCT

(Verbal Form A) and the Buss-Durkee Inventory, "motor component"

were readministered to both control and experimental subjects

by the researcher.










Statistical Procedure

In the present study, pretest-posttest scores of TTCT,

Verbal Form A (creativity) and the Buss-Durkee Inventory,

"motor component" (aggression) were collected. In order to

increase the power of analysis and to control for any pos-

sible differences in initial levels of performance, an

analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was employed for the evalua-

tion of differences between experimental and control groups

on creativity and aggression using pretest scores as covari-

ate (Rascoe, 1974). An analysis of covariance involves a

pretest (the variable to be controlled called the "covari-

ate") and posttest (the criterion or the dependent variable)

that are to be correlated. A third variable of importance is

the independent variable whose effects on the dependent

variable is to be studied and is represented by membership in

one of the experimental groups. In the present study, the

same instrument was used for both pretest and posttest.

The analysis of covariance consists essentially of

determining that a portion of the variance of the criterion

existed prior to the experiment, and this portion is elimin-

ated from the final analysis.

The predicted score is the portion of the criterion

measure that may be determined from a knowledge of the vari-

able to be controlled. This may be subtracted from the

criterion score to obtain an adjusted criterion score. The

final analysis was based on these adjusted scores and










statistical inferences were drawn with respect to adjusted

group means. Thus ANCOVA is an analysis strategy in which

posttest scores are adjusted on the means of pretest measures.

An analysis of covariance was done using:

1. The T-Score of creativity (three components combined);

2. The raw score of the three components of creativity--

fluency, flexibility, and originality; and

3. The raw score of aggression.

In order to do the analysis of covariance, the following

assumptions were made:

1. The sample populations (control and experimental

groups) are normally distributed.

2. There is no interaction between treatment and the

covariate.

3. The variance of the distribution of sample popula-

tions is homogeneous.

4. The correlation between the covariate and dependent

variable is high enough to do ANCOVA.

The level of significance of the tests was set at .05

for creativity and .10 for aggression. The significance

level of creativity was set at .05 to reduce Type I error.

That is, the significance level of creativity was set at .05

to reduce the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis,

by chance, when it is true. Thus a very strong test is used

for creativity to see if the program is implemented. Study-

ing the effectiveness of CPS on aggression was a new venture,







57


so the significance level of aggression was set at .10 to

reduce Type II error. That is, the significance level of

aggression was set at .10 to reduce the probability of

retaining the null hypothesis by chance, when it is false.

















CHAPTER IV

ANALYSIS OF THE DATA

The purpose of this study was to determine if training

in Creative Problem-Solving could reduce the aggression of

emotionally handicapped aggressive middle school children.

For this purpose it was hypothesized that emotionally handi-

capped aggressive children would reduce their aggression

through training in Creative Problem-Solving. To see if the

program was implemented another hypothesis on creativity with

three subproblems on the components of creativity (fluency,

flexibility, and originality) were formulated. Pretests of

creativity and aggression were administered to all subjects,

followed by random assignment of subjects into control and

experimental groups. Creative Problem-Solving training was

given to the experimental subjects for 15 sessions of 30

minutes each. Posttests of creativity and aggression were

administered to both control and experimental groups after

the treatment period.



Results

Sixteen children participated in this study. The

administration of the tests and the treatment were conducted

according to the proceedings described in Chapter III, and

58










the data were analyzed using ANCOVA and the hypotheses were

tested. In order to get total creativity for each subject,

a T-Score was computed as suggested by Torrance (1974) and

was used for the analysis. The use of a raw score is appropri-

ate for pretest and posttest scores of the same individual on

the components of creativity. To find the effectiveness of

CPS on the components of creativity, the raw scores of the

three components of creativity were analyzed. A summary of

the mean and standard deviation of all variables for control

and experimental groups are presented in Table 1.

When the differences in the means between the control

and experimental groups on pre and posttest scores of total

creativity, fluency, flexibility, originality, and aggression

were compared, the effectiveness of CPS training was evident

(Table 1). The difference between the means of control and

experimental group for total creativity increased from 4.66

on the pretest to 16.03 on the posttest; for fluency, from

17.12 on the pretest to 41.13 on the posttest; for flexi-

bility, from 8.50 on the pretest to 14 on the posttest; and

for originality, from 15.50 on the pretest to 34.50 on the

posttest, all in favor of the experimental group. The differ-

ence between the means of control and experimental group

decreased on aggression from 3.75 on the pretest to 1.00 on

the posttest in favor of the experimental group.

Prior to the analysis of covariance of the data, hypoth-

eses of equal regression slopes were tested for the sample


















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populations involved to see if assumptions of the analysis of

covariance were met. For total creativity an F value of .23

with P value of .64 was obtained; for fluency an F value of

1.45 with P value of .25 was obtained; for flexibility an F

value of .00 with P value of .95 was obtained; for origin-

ality an F value of .56 with P value of .47 was obtained; and

for aggression an F value of .19 with P value of .67 was

obtained. Since the F values obtained were not significant,

it was concluded that the assumption of homogeneity of the

regression slopes was met for T-score of total creativity,

and raw scores of fluency, flexibility, originality, and

aggression at .05 level of confidence. Thus there was no

interaction between the treatment and covariate, so it was

appropriate to do the analysis of covariance.

In order to test the assumption of normality of the

sample population involved in the study, plots of errors or

residual versus predicted values of the dependent variable

were plotted for T-Score of total creativity, the raw scores

of fluency, flexibility, originality, and aggression. The

data were found to be normally distributed on both sides of

zero residual line, confirming that the normality assumption

was met.



hypotheses Tested

The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was employed to test

the statistical hypotheses. The results are presented in

Table 2.




















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The null hypotheses tested by this procedure were as

follows:

HO : Emotionally handicapped middle school children

with aggression problems practicing Creative Problem-Solving

technique manifest creativity as measured by the Torrance

Test of Creative Thinking, (Verbal Form A, titled "Thinking

Creatively with Words") to the same degree as emotionally

handicapped students with aggression problems not practicing

the technique.

The analysis of covariance was applied to total creativ-

ity (T-Score) and the result is presented in Table 2. The

computed F statistic for this hypothesis equalled 6.89. The

probability of obtaining an F value under the null hypothesis

equalled .02. Since the probability of the computed F

statistic was less than the .05 level set as the criterion

for statistical significance, the null hypothesis was rejected.

That is, there was a significant difference in the adjusted

average total creativity between the experimental and control

groups. An inspection of the adjusted posttest means of

total creativity in Table 3 indicated that the experimental

group (49.65) had higher adjusted mean scores in total creativ-

ity compared to the control (39.06). The experimental group

showed higher creativity than the control group. Thus it

was concluded that emotionally handicapped middle school

children who practiced Creative Problem-Solving increased

their creativity significantly compared to those who did not

practice Creative Problem-Solving.




















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HOl(a): Emotionally handicapped middle school children

with aggression problems practicing Creative Problem-Solving

technique manifest fluency as measured by the Torrance Test

of Creative Thinking, (Verbal Form A, titled "Thinking

Creatively with Words") to the same degree as emotionally

handicapped students with aggression problems not practicing

the technique.

The analysis of covariance was applied to fluency (raw

score), and the result is presented in Table 2. The computed

F statistic for this hypothesis equalled 8.73. The probabil-

ity of obtaining an F value under the null hypothesis equalled

.01. Since the probability of the computed F statistic was

less than the .05 level set as the criterion for statisti-

cal significance, the null hypothesis was rejected. That is,

there was a significant difference in adjusted average fluency

between the experimental and control groups. An inspection

of the adjusted posttest means of fluency in Table 3 indi-

cated that the experimental group (71.19) had higher adjusted

mean scores in fluency compared to the control group (44.44).

It was concluded that emotionally handicapped middle school

children who practiced Creative Problem-Solving increased

their fluency significantly compared to those who did not

practice Creative Problem-Solving.

HOl(b) : Emotionally handicapped middle school children

with aggression problems practicing the Creative Problem-

Solving technique manifest flexibility as measured by the










Torrance Test of Creative Thinking, (Verbal Form A, titled

"Thinking Creatively with Words") to the same degree as

emotionally handicapped students with aggression problems not

practicing the technique.

The analysis of covariance was applied to flexibility

(raw score) and the result is presented in Table 2. The

computed F statistic for this hypothesis equalled 2.06. The

probability of obtaining an F value under the null hypothesis

equalled .17. Since the probability of the computed F statistic

was greater than the .05 level set as the criterion for

statistical significance, the null hypothesis was retained.

That is, there was no significant difference in flexibility

between the experimental and control groups. An inspection

of the adjusted posttest means of flexibility in Table 3

indicated that the experimental group had higher adjusted

mean scores in flexibility (26.26) compared to the control

group (17.99), though it was not statistically significant.

HOl(c): Emotionally handicapped middle school children

with aggression problems practicing Creative Problem-Solving

technique manifest originality as measured by the Torrance

Test of Creative Thinking, (Verbal Form A, titled "Thinking

Creatively with Words") to the same degree as emotionally

handicapped students with aggression problems not practicing

the technique.

The analysis of covariance was applied to originality

(raw score) and the result is presented in Table 2. The










computed F statistic for this hypothesis equalled 4.43. The

probability of obtaining an F value under the null hypothesis

equalled .05. Since the probability of the computed F statis-

tic was equal to the .05 level set as the criterion for

statistical significance, the null hypothesis was rejected.

That is, there was a significant difference in originality

between the experimental and control groups. An inspection

of the adjusted posttest means of originality in Table 3

indicated that the experimental group (42.41) had higher

adjusted mean scores in originality compared to the control

group (22.84). Thus, it was concluded that emotionally

handicapped middle school children who practiced Creative

Problem-Solving increased their originality significantly

when compared to those who did not practice Creative Problem-

Solving.

H02: Emotionally handicapped middle school children

with aggression problems practicing Creative Problem-Solving

technique manifest aggression as measured by the Buss-Durkee

Inventory, "motor component" to the same degree as emotionally

handicapped students with aggression problems not practicing

the technique.

The analysis of covariance was applied to aggression

(raw score) and the result is presented in Table 2. The

computed F statistic for this hypothesis equalled 3.26. The

probability of obtaining an F value under the null hypothesis

equalled .09. Since the probability of the computed F










statistic was smaller than the .10 level set as the criterion

for statistical significance, the null hypothesis was rejected.

That is, there was a significant difference in aggression

between the experimental and control groups. A summary of

the adjusted posttest means of aggression is given in Table

3. An inspection of Table 3 indicates that the adjusted

posttest mean scores of the experimental group (24.88) in

aggression was less than that of the control group (28.37).

It was concluded that emotionally handicapped middle school

children with aggression problems practicing Creative Problem-

Solving decrease their aggression significantly compared to

those who do not practice Creative Problem-Solving.



Summary

Sixteen emotionally handicapped middle school children

participated in this study. The Torrance Test of Creative

Thinking, (Verbal Form A) and the Buss-Durkee Inventory,

"motor component" were administered to the subjects prior to

assigning them randomly into control and experimental groups.

The researcher worked with the experimental groups on Creative

Problem-Solving of the real problems they faced in school, in

groups of two or three for 15 sessions, while the control

subjects were engaged in their routine activities. Posttests

of creativity and aggression were administered to both groups

after the treatment period.

An analysis of covariance was employed to test the

difference between experimental and control groups on creativity







69


and aggression with pretest scores as the covariate. Signifi-

cant results were obtained for the total creativity, fluency,

originality, and aggression. Results were non-significant

for flexibility. Significance level was set at .05 for

creativity in order to obtain a strong test for creativity to

reduce Type I error. By setting the significance level for

aggression at .10, caution was taken against Type II error

without eliminating the new area of study (effectiveness of

Creative Problem-Solving on aggression of emotionally handi-

capped children) from social science research.

















CHAPTER V

DISCUSSION, IMPLICATIONS, PROBLEMS,
RECOMMENDATIONS, SUMMARY, AND CONCLUSION


Discussion of the Results

The present study dealt with the problem of whether

emotionally handicapped aggressive children would reduce

aggression as a result of practice in Creative Problem-

Solving by increasing creativity.

Hypothesis 1, that emotionally handicapped aggressive

middle school children will increase creativity as a result

of training in Creative Problem-Solving (CPS), was supported

by the analysis of covariance of total creativity (T-Score)

as measured by the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking, Verbal

Form A (P <.05). The significance level of creativity was

set at .05 to keep the probability of a Type I error low.

Thus there was a strong test for creativity to test the

implementation of the program. The results obtained confirmed

that significant difference was obtained in total creativity

between control and experimental subjects.

Hypotheses la and Ic, that emotionally handicapped

aggressive middle school children will increase their fluency

and originality, were supported by the analysis of covariance

of the raw scores of fluency and originality (P <.05). That

70









is, the results obtained for fluency and originality showed

that there was a significant difference between the control

and experimental groups. The ability to produce a large

number of ideas and the ability to produce ideas that are

away from the obvious and common place increased significantly

as a result of the training in CPS. Thus, CPS was found to

be an effective tool to increase fluency and originality of

emotionally handicapped middle school children.

Kandil and Torrance (1978) had found that emotionally

handicapped children were high in their fluency and origin-

ality, but low in flexibility. The authors suggested that

the subjects' strengths should be utilized in their special

programs to remedy the deficit in the area of flexibility.

The results of the program showed that the subjects' strong

areas improved significantly due to practice in CPS. However,

hypothesis lb, that emotionally handicapped aggressive middle

school children will increase flexibility, was not supported

by the analysis of covariance of the raw scores, contrary to

the suggestion of Kandil and Torrance (1978). There was no

significant difference in flexibility score between control

and experimental groups. That is, the subjects' ability to

produce a variety of ideas, to shift from one approach to

another, or to use a variety of strategies did not increase

significantly by practice in CPS. However, an examination of

the adjusted posttest means of flexibility suggested improve-

ment for experimental group in flexibility, supporting the










view of Kandil and Torrance. It is possible that emotionally

handicapped subjects needed more drill in making alternate

responses to produce significant increase in flexibility.

That is why precision teaching was used in their routine

special education activities. The problem with the emotion-

ally handicapped is that they are nonflexible in their ideas.

They learned the habit of sticking to a narrow range of

responses and a rigid pattern of thinking during their life-

time, and apparently it will take more than 15 training

sessions to change their flexibility significantly.

Significant results obtained in hypothesis 1, la, and Ic

are in agreement with several research findings that creativ-

ity increases with practice in Creative Problem-Solving.

(Shean, 1979; Khatena, 1971; Sullivan, 1969; Torrance, 1964).

Hypothesis 2, that emotionally handicapped aggressive

children practicing Creative Problem-Solving (CPS) will

reduce their aggression, was supported by the analysis of

covariance of the single index raw score obtained from the

four subscales comprising the "motor component" of the Buss-

Durkee Inventory (P <.10). That is, significant difference

was obtained in aggression between experimental and control

groups supporting the hypothesis that training in CPS reduces

aggression. This result is in agreement with the results of

the studies of Loughmiller (1978), Robin et al. (1976), and

Giebink et al. (1968) where aggression was reduced by cognitive










control technique in which problem-solving or alternate

response was emphasized.

The significance level of aggression was set at .10 to

reduce the probability of retaining the null hypothesis when

it was false. Studying the effect of CPS on aggression of

emotionally handicapped students is a new topic of interest

and is a pioneer work in the area of developing a special

program for the emotionally handicapped. Thus if CPS is

effective in reducing aggression, its effects ought to be

recognized by doing further studies in this area to help

students who need special programs, hence the justification

for setting the significance level of aggression at .10.

Edmunds and Kendrick (1980) believed that the Buss-

Durkee Inventory used in this study to measure aggression is

an excellent instrument, for it was constructed on the basis

of theoretical principles, internal consistency, and factorial

analysis. The social desirability variable was controlled by

taking caution in the construction of each item. In the item

construction, it was assumed that anger was present. So

inquiry was made on how anger was expressed. Justification

was provided for admitting aggressive acts, and familiar

phrases and expressions were used. In the present study to

test if social desirability was controlled, the arithmetic

mean of the aggression score for the samples (28.25) used in

the study was compared to that of the regular homeroom class

(21.35) as measured by the Buss-Durkee Inventory, "motor










component". The mean aggression score of the subjects in the

homeroom class was lower than that of the sample used in the

study, supporting the validity of the instrument in identi-

fying aggressive middle school children from less aggressive

middle school children. The subjects were not hiding their

aggression, and the evidence was in the results. However,

the examination of the results obtained for aggression showed

that it was significant only at .10 level of confidence,

suggesting a need for some finer measure of aggression such

as observation of the frequency counts of aggressive behavior

(Kauffman, 1977) in the special education class where the

treatment took place before and after the study.

One of the limitations of the study was that there were

only 16 subjects. It is possible that the result for aggres-

sion was significant only at .10 level of confidence due to

small sample size.

The Buss-Durkee factors were invariant for male subjects,

but unstable for female students (Edmunds and Kendrick,

1980). The administration of the Buss-Durkee Inventory,

"motor component" to the homeroom children showed an arithmetic

mean of 26.13 for boys and 18.17 for girls supporting a sex

difference in aggression. It might be possible that the

presence of two female subjects in the control group might

have affected the outcome of the study slightly resulting in

lower level of confidence in aggression (P < .10).










The arithmetic mean of the Buss-Durkee Inventory, "motor

component' for the homeroom children supported a sex differ-

ence in aggression (26.13 for boys and 18.17 for girls).

Also Dalton (1973) used the Torrance Test of Creative Think-

ing and found a sex difference in favor of women on fluency,

flexibility, and originality variables of creativity, suggest-

ing a sex factor in creativity. The sex factor in creativity

and aggression suggest future studies using males and females

separately.

The researcher did not work with the control group on

Creative Problem-Solving at the end of the experiment,

though the subjects believed that she would work with them

later, so the issue of Hawthorne effect may have been intro-

duced. One might suspect whether the significant results on

aggression were obtained due to CPS or to the attention the

experimental subjects got from the researcher. There may

be an attention effect, though the researcher believed that

CPS was effective. Thus the study suggests that future

research needs to have an attention control group.

In conclusion, the total creativity, fluency, and origin-

ality increased significantly at .05 level of confidence

supporting the implementation of the program. In addition

there was a significant difference between the control and

experimental groups, and significant decrease for aggression.

Thus, the validity of the treatment was supported.










Problems the Researcher Faced

The emotionally handicapped aggressive subjects had had

problems with the law or the school authorities previously,

so they were afraid to sign any form or to get their parents

to sign any form. The researcher had to assure them that

their answers on the pre and posttests would be confidential,

and that it would not get them into trouble.

The researcher had to have several extra copies of

parent consent forms and child assent forms because some

students had lost their copies. Sometimes they left their

copy somewhere in the classroom or in their folder and forgot

to show them to their parents when they were home. The

researcher had to keep reminding the subjects to return the

signed forms, had to inquire about the status of the unreturned

forms from time to time, and had to replace the lost ones.

The emotionally handicapped subjects were frequently

absent from school for various reasons--sickness, running

away from home, broken bones, suspension from school, etc.

When a member of the treatment group was absent from the

session, the researcher had to keep note of what the subject

missed and had to work with them separately to help them

catch up with the rest of the small group they were part of.

Thus absenteeism was a real problem the researcher had to

face when working with groups of emotionally handicapped

children. The researcher also had to work often with subjects










with broken bones and who were angry. Thus she had to use

skill and patience to work with them.

Though the subjects were physically present, on some

days they were not cooperative to work on Creative Problem-

Solving. The problems the subjects faced in other classes

were carried over to the special education class. In those

cases also, the researcher had to help them on the parts they

missed.

The researcher was always under the threat that the

subjects in the study might be eliminated from the program

due to suspension from school. One subject from the control

group was suspended from school toward the end of the program,

and was removed from the program.

The Creative Problem-Solving treatment was for three

weeks (15 sessions). But the researcher had to spend seven

weeks with the subjects at school from the time of the

distribution of consent forms to the completion of the collec-

tion of the data. This was because the subjects were afraid

to get the parent consent forms and child assent forms signed,

and subsequent delay in returning the forms, and their

absenteeism from class and lack of cooperation.



Recommendations for Future Research

Many questions came up as a result of the present study.

Therefore, the following recommendations are made:











It would be beneficial to replicate the present experi-

ment employing observational techniques and making a fre-

quency count of the occurrence of the aggressive responses of

the subjects during special education class, before and after

the treatment adjunct to the Buss-Durkee Inventory, "motor

component." The observational technique together with the

paper and pencil test will strengthen the results of the study.

Further research should be conducted using male and

female samples separately because there is a sex factor in

creativity in favor of females. Thus the sex of the partici-

pant could be a factor related to the efficiency of the

Creative Problem-Solving.

Further research also should be conducted giving the

subjects practice on Creative Problem-Solving for longer

periods, to give them a thorough knowledge of the procedure

of the technique especially on the alternate responses to

increase flexibility significantly to draw stronger conclusions.

Since it was hard to keep even a small group of emotion-

ally handicapped children on Creative Problem-Solving tasks,

future research should be done using one subject at a time to

get stronger results. It is costly to the schools or the

agency involved to use emotionally handicapped aggressive

subjects for CPS training on one-to-one basis. But it will

pay off when the program is effective and the subjects cope

with their frustrations and reduce aggression.










The study may be replicated using a larger sample to

obtain stronger results.

Similarly, future research may be conducted using an

experimental group, an attention control group, and a control

group to see if the significant results obtained in this

study is due to the treatment effect or to the attention the

subjects obtained from the researcher.

Finally, a follow-up study may be conducted to find the

duration of the effectiveness of the program on aggression.

In order to do it, follow up the subjects (both control and

experimental) in the study after a series of intervals and

test them for creativity and aggression and see how long does

the effectiveness of the program last.



Implications of the Study

The findings of this study have implications within the

therapeutic milieu. Osborn's (1963) brainstorming process

helped produce valuable ideas for solving problems. It not

only produced ideas but also changed people's attitudes when

they practiced the process repeatedly. Thus the subjects

start appreciating and respecting their own well of knowledge.

Because of this, psychologists are currently suggesting

Creative Problem-Solving as an important part of therapy.

The beginning of most cognitive therapy process is a simple

generation of ideas. Even "well" people seem to be quite

inhibited with regard to the free flow of ideas. Emotionally










disturbed children are low in their creativity to produce

alternate original ideas, and they can get some therapeutic

effect from the Creative Problem-Solving programs. Thus,

this study has implications on the curriculum of special

education class for the emotionally handicapped.

The results of the study also have implications for the

training of teachers, counselors, and others who come into

contact with children. Since Creative Problem-Solving

was found to be effective in increasing creativity and reduc-

ing aggression of emotionally handicapped school children,

one could help make changes in the curriculum of teachers'

training programs by introducing required courses in creative

thinking. Creativity courses may help teachers and counselors

to be aware of their own creativity as well as that of their

students, and thus be more effective in dealing with children.

Teachers and counselors can use Creative Problem-Solving as

an intervention program to teach children that there are

alternate solutions to problems rather than aggression.



Summary

The present study was conducted to study the effective-

ness of Creative Problem-Solving on aggression of emotionally

handicapped middle school children by increasing creativity.

The subjects were 16 aggressive children from a middle school

attending special education class for the emotionally handi-

capped. Pretests of creativity (Torrance Test of Creative










Thinking, Verbal Form A) and aggression (The Buss-Durkee

Inventory, "motor component") were administered to the subjects,

followed by randomization of them into control and experi-

mental groups. The researcher worked with the experimental

subjects in groups of two to three for three weeks (15 sessions

of 30 minutes each). They worked on the real problems they

faced in school, following the steps of Creative Problem-

Solving after the introduction of CPS concepts and a few warm

up exercises. The control group was engaged in the routine

precision learning of the special class. Tests of creativity

and aggression were readministered to both control and experi-

mental subjects following the treatment period.

The data collected were analyzed by the ANCOVA technique,

using the protests as covariates. The results showed that

total creativity, fluency, and originality increased signifi-

cantly at .05 level of confidence and aggression decreased

significantly at .10 level of confidence, strengthening the

relationship between creativity and aggression. Flexibility

increased, but was nonsignificant. The significant level for

creativity was set at .05 to get stronger results for creativ-

ity, in order to see if the program was implemented. The

significant level for aggression was set at .10 because this

was the first systematic study in which the effectiveness of

CPS on aggression was studied and to avoid the possibility of

throwing out the area by chance from future research if it

was truly effective. The results supported the hypothesis










that training in Creative Problem-Solving increases creativity

and decreases aggression, though flexibility did not increase

significantly.

Because of the results obtained, it was recommended

that future research be conducted, using a larger sample,

using either males or females only, employing observa-

tional technique in addition to a paper and pencil test

to measure aggression, giving more drill on CPS to find

alternate responses as solutions to problems, and using

an attention control group followed by a follow-up study

to see how long the effects of treatment last on creativity

and aggression.



Conclusion

The results of the study showed that Creative Problem-

Solving is an effective tool in reducing aggression. The

results supported the view that creativity increases by

practice. This study strengthened the relationship between

creativity and aggression because increase in total creativity,

fluency, and originality and decrease in aggression were

significant. That is, increase in creativity is related

to decrease in aggression.

The emotionally handicapped subjects are particularly

low in their flexibility (Kandil and Torrance, 1978), and

are low in their ability to solve problems by making

alternate responses. Practice of Creative Problem-Solving











in this study increased the total creativity and the compo-

nents, though flexibility was not significant. The non-

significant result of flexibility would have been because

of the short duration of CPS practice in the study. Perhaps,

the emotionally handicapped children who learned the habit

of aggressing physically and verbally, rather than making

different categories of responses to solve their problems,

need more practice to break from their habit. The training

of Creative Problem-Solving in this study was only for three

weeks (15 sessions of 30 minutes each), so training for a

longer period (say, 30 sessions) might have increased the

flexibility score significantly.

The study was conducted in April/May when the subjects

were looking forward to the end of the school year. Also

the temperature was hot during the time of the study,

and it was hard on the subjects to work in their school

building which was not air-conditioned. Therefore, the

researcher believes that the subjects were not as responsive

as they would have been during another time in the academic

year.

By taking the obstacles in this study into account

and looking at the results, one might conclude that the

study was a success. It can, therefore, be concluded that

training in Creative Problem-Solving is an effective tool

in increasing the creativity and reducing the aggression of







84



emotionally handicapped aggressive middle school children

when emphasis is on training that emphasizes other ways

of handling problems.









































APPENDICES

















APPENDIX A

CREATIVE PROBLEM-SOLVING (CPS) PROGRAM OUTLINE



1st Session

Explanation of Words and Ideas Related to CPS (Show all

underlined words and concepts on posterboards).

A problem may be defined as any need requiring action

felt by individuals. (Give examples of problem to subjects).

E.g., 1: In the morning, when I am ready to go to

school and if my car does not start, then I have a problem

with my transportation. I have to find a way to get to

school on time, that is, I have to find a solution to the

problem.

E.g., 2: There is a particular parking lot where I can

park my car at the University of Florida campus. If I go a

few minutes after nine o'clock, that particular parking lot

is full and so I do not get a place to park my car. Then I

have a problem as I might get a ticket for parking my car

elsewhere as I am allowed to park only in one particular

parking lot.

E.g., 3: I set the alarm clock at night but it does not

go off sometimes, and so I wake up late. I miss my eight

o'clock class. Then I face a problem as I miss the lecture.

86










E.g., 4: Sometimes my children do not like the meals I

cook for them. Then I face a problem.

Thus, I face a lot of problems at home and at school.

(Ask the subjects to give examples of problems they

face).

Ask the subjects how do they feel when they face a

problem.

rotten, frustrated, angry, aggressive, etc.

How do people show their anger or aggression?

Physical aggression kicking, hitting, beating, slapping,

spitting, biting, etc.

Verbal aggression lying, gossiping, calling names,

etc.

Everyone faces one problem or the other at home, at

school, or at work. Then one has to do something about it.

When we face a problem, instead of showing our aggression, we

have to learn to solve the problem by making alternate

responses that will reduce negative consequences and increase

positive consequences. Negative consequences are bad results

and positive consequences are good results.



2nd Session

Creative Problem-Solving

When creativity or creative thinking is applied to

problem-solving it is called Creative Problem-Solving. That

is, a lot of imagination is used to find the best solution to

the problems.










Creativity (Define): Ability to do something original

or create something new.

Three parts of creativity:

fluency number of ideas

flexibility number of category of ideas

originality uniqueness of ideas

Explain these three components of creativity on the

basis of ideas produced for a familiar object, say a plastic

container.

Inventors, famous writers, artists, painters, and

architects show extreme degree of creativity, but creativity

exists in all individuals. Creativity is expressed in a

variety of ways. One can read, write, draw, cook, or

decorate creatively. One can think creatively and solve a

problem. Thus creativity can be expressed in all walks of

life. (The researcher shows an example of her creative work

to the children. For example, the researcher wanted to

improve her candle making skill. She made different kinds of

candles in different shapes, sizes, and colors and arranged

them around a theme for presentation to her creative thinking

course).

Ask the children to give an example of their creativity,

something unique they produced or created.











3rd Session

Osborn's Brainstorming Rules

In Creative Problem-Solving idea production by brain-

storming is recognized as the most important part. Brain-

storming is a method to think up lots of quality ideas.

Explain Osborn's four simple "ground rules" for brain-

storming.

1. Defer judgement. Criticism is ruled out.

2. Freewheeling is encouraged. Be a free-wheeler.

3. Quantity is wanted.

4. Combination and improvement are sought. Be a hitch-

hiker.

"Defer judgement" means postpone judgement or evaluation

of ideas until later. Separate imagination and evaluation.

Hitchhiker is one who hitchhikes. To hitchhike while

brainstorming means to combine ideas.

Freewheeler. To freewheel while brainstorming is to

think up or imagine without any consideration of rules,

forms, responsibilities, or consequences.

Quantity is number.

When practice in brainstorming is given, show Osborn's

rules and idea spurring words on posterboards as shown on

Worksheet No. 3. The researcher should encourage playfulness

and informality. Invitation to regress should be extended

saying that it is just for fun, not for grades. If the

subjects "bog down", try some idea getting strategies such as




Full Text

PAGE 1

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CREATIVE PROBLEM-SOLVING IN REDUCING THE AGGRESSION OF EMOTIONALLY HANDICAPPED MIDDLE SCHOOL CHILDREN By SARAMMA THOMAS MATHEW A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 1981

PAGE 2

Copyright 1981 by Saramma Thomas Mathew

PAGE 3

Dedicated to my Parents

PAGE 4

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS A study of this magnitude could not have been completed without the cooperation and assistance of many people. Therefore, the author wishes to express her appreciation to all those who have been of great assistance. The author is indebted to the following persons in particular: Dr. Barry J. Guinagh, chairman of the committee for his ingenious and professional guidance; Dr. Steve F. Olejnik for his invaluable help, support, and inspiration; Dr. Robert R. Sherman for his thought provoking suggestions and critical comments; Dr. Marilyn M. Holly for her much needed help, encouragement, and friendship; Dr. Crystal Compton, principal, Mrs. Sheila Richeson, teacher, and student-participants of A. L. Mebane Middle School, Alachua, Florida, without whose cooperation this study would not have been possible; Dr. Paul E. Torrance and his Scoring Service, Inc., for the quick evaluation of the data; Dr. S. J. Parnes, author of Creative Behavior Workbook, 1967, and Charles Scribner's Sons, publisher, for giving

PAGE 5

permission to reproduce the figural representation of Creative Problem-Solving process; Mrs. Barbara Huff for her excellent typing services; and Many others, friends and colleagues, from whom she has learned one way or the other. Finally, the author wishes to express her deepest gratitude to her husband, Tom, children Teki Susan, Thomas, Jr., and Alexander for their love, sacrifice, and support throughout the development of this study.

PAGE 6

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iv LIST OF TABLES viii ABSTRACT i* CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1 Research Questions 16 Hypotheses 16 Definition of Terms 18 Basic Assumptions Underlying the Study 19 Significance of the Study 20 Limitations 21 Delimitations 22 Organization of the Study 23 II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 2 4 The Concept of Creative Problem-Solving .... 24 The Effect of Creative Problem-Solving on Creativity 27 The Effect of Creative Problem-Solving on Aggression 34 Summary H ^ III METHODOLOGY Collection of the Data 43 The Sample 43 The Researcher 45 The Experimental Design 4 5 Instrumentation q J Administration and Scoring of the j ,,..,,_, „„„.„..... 52 Treatment 54 Statistical Procedure

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Page IV ANALYSIS OF THE DATA 58 Results 58 Hypotheses Tested 61 Summary 68 V DISCUSSION, IMPLICATIONS, PROBLEMS, RECOMMENDATIONS, SUMMARY, AND CONCLUSION . . 70 Discussion of the Results 70 Problems the Researcher Faced 76 Recommendations for Future Research 77 Implications of the Study 79 Summary 80 Conclusion 82 APPENDICES A CREATIVE PROBLEM-SOLVING (CPS) PROGRAM OUTLINE 86 B THE BUSS-DURKEE INVENTORY, "MOTOR COMPONENT" . . 10 7 C PARENT INFORMED CONSENT HO D CHILD ASSENT FORM 112 REFERENCES H 4 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 122 VI l

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LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1 Means and Standard Deviations of Control Group and Experimental Group on Pre and Posttests of the Variables — Total Creativity, Fluency, Flexibility, Originality, and Aggression 60 2 Analysis of Covariance for Total Creativity (T-score) , Fluency (raw score) , Flexibility (raw score) , Originality (raw score) , and Aggression (raw score) 62 3 Adjusted Posttest Means of Dependent Variables 64

PAGE 9

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CREATIVE PROBLEM-SOLVING IN REDUCING THE AGGRESSION OF EMOTIONALLY HANDICAPPED MIDDLE SCHOOL CHILDREN By Saramma Thomas Mathew December 1981 Chairman: Barry J. Guinagh Major Department: Foundations of Education The purpose of this research was to determine if training in Creative Problem-Solving could reduce the aggression of emotionally handicapped middle school children by increasing their creativity. The sample consisted of 16 emotionally handicapped, aggressive, middle school children identified by the special education teacher as physically and verbally aggressive. Randomized pretest-posttest control group design was used in the study. The posttest scores on creativity and aggression were dependent variables, the pretest scores were the covariates, and Creative Problem-Solving was the independent variable. The Torrance Test of Creative Thinking, Verbal Form A, and the Buss-Durkee Inventory, "motor component"

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were administered to the subjects by the researcher prior to and after the treatment period. Following the administration of pretests, the subjects were randomly assigned into control and experimental groups using a random number table. The researcher worked with the experimental subjects on Creative Problem-Solving in small groups of two or three subjects for 30 minutes daily for 15 sessions. Meanwhile the control subjects were engaged in routine special education class activities called "precision learning." To the experimental group, the researcher explained the concepts related to Creative Problem-Solving and gave the subjects practice in brainstorming on the unusual uses of familiar objects. Further brainstorming practice was given on familiar problem situations faced in school. A summary of the fivestep Creative Problem-Solving process followed by a Creative Problem-Solving simulation in a story form was given. Finally, the subjects listed all the problems they faced in school that made them angry, of which they selected three to four very important problems and found solutions following the steps of Creative Problem-Solving. The scores of control and experimental groups on creativity and aggression were analyzed using the Analysis of Covariance with pretest as covariate. Results showed that total creativity, fluency, and originality increased significantly and aggression decreased significantly. Flexibility increased but was nonsignificant. The results x

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strengthened the relationship between creativity and aggression and supported the view that training in CPS is an effective tool to treat emotionally handicapped middle school subjects to reduce their aggression.

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION There is a great concern among educators over violence and vandalism by children in school (Violent Schools--Saf e Schools, 19 78). Educators are concerned about the excessive display of aggressive responses by school children, since it results in misbehavior, and it also could interfere with their academic performance. The incidence of violence and vandalism is high in schools in the United States. A survey done by a committee headed by Senator Birch Bayh found that more than 10 students were murdered on school grounds in 1973 (Van Patten, 1977) . According to the Safe School Study Report to the Congress by the National Institute of Education (Violent Schools--Safe Schools, 1978), surveying more than 4,000 elementary and secondary school principals between February, 19 76, and January, 1977 (excluding summer months) , it was found that the annual cost of school crime runs from about $500 million to $600 million. The major criminal actions were assaults and robberies on teachers, pupils, and others. The study revealed that about 282,000 secondary school students were attacked in a one-month period, 40% of the attacks resulting in some injury. The survey also found that 5,200 secondary 1

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school teachers were attacked and 6,000 were robbed, with the percentage of attack declining in senior high compared to junior high, which is part of the middle school system. Both personal violence and vandalism were more prevalent in middle schools than in elementary schools. Many psychologists believe that frustration leads to various forms of aggression. According to a popular theory of aggression in literature, the degree of aggression is a function of the frequency of frustrating events (Bateson, 1941) . The close relationship between frustration and aggression is evident in the frustration-aggression hypothesis, The frustration-aggression hypothesis postulates that aggression is always a consequence of frustration (Dollard, Miller, Doob, Mowrer , and Sears, 1939). The proposition that the occurrence of aggressive behavior always presupposes the existence of frustration, and that this existence of frustration always leads to some form of aggression, explains frustration as the blocking or thwarting of some form of on-going, goal-directed behavior. An historical account of the development of frustrationaggression hypothesis shows that an extensive use of it was made in the work of Freud. In his early writings, Freud regarded the tendency to seek pleasure and avoid pain as the basic mechanism of all mental functioning (Freud, 1933). Whenever pleasure seeking or pain-avoiding behavior was

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blocked, frustration occurred. Aggression was the reaction to that state of affairs. An everyday situation was noted by Morgan (1936) to show the effect of the accumulation of previous frustrations on aggression: Suppose we get up in the morning with the decision that, no matter what happens during this day, we will be sweet-tempered. In spite of our determination things may go wrong. We may stub our toe, lose our collar button, cut ourselves while shaving, be unable to find the styptic to stop the bleeding, get to breakfast late and discover that the toast is burned and the coffee cold, but through all this we keep cool and even-tempered. Then some trivial thing occurs and we unexpectedly have a violent outburst. Those around us cannot understand why we are so irritable. If they knew all the facts, the repressed anger impulses that have at last gained an outlet, they would not be surprised. (p. 242) Thus there is a need to pacify minor frustrations to reduce aggression in daily social settings. If this need is not satisfied, frustrations might pile up, leading to an outburst of aggression. According to Dollard et al. (1939) and Berkowitz (1962) , drive theories of aggression attribute aggression to the presence of specific environmental conditions (that is, frustrating events) . Aggression does not occur in a social vacuum. The social antecedent of aggression that has received most attention is f rustration--the blocking of on-going, goal-directed behavior.

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Dollard et al. (1939) believed that there was an internal or observable instigator to an aggressive response. An instigator refers to an antecedent condition from which the aggressive response can be predicted. The instigation is a qualitative concept and the strength of instigation can be inferred from the extent to which the instigated incompatible response can overcome. The goal-response is the reaction which reduces the strength of instigation to a degree at which it no longer has the tendency to produce the predicted behavior sequence (Dollard et al . 1939). A goal-response can terminate a predicted sequence of behavior. The termination of a behavior sequence is usually temporary and so instigation exists again and the subject is expected to perform the predicted sequence a second time. The goal-response has a reinforcing effect and is apt to be repeated as it had led successfully to the goal. But an interference with the occurrence of an instigated goal-response in the behavior sequence results in frustration. An interference may be slight or great. Expressions as "to disappoint a person," "to let someone down," and "to block somebody in carrying out an act" indicate that one person is imposing frustration on another. A substitute-response is an action which reduces to some degree the strength of the instigation, and the goal-response of which was prevented from occurring. So a substitute

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response can reduce the strength of instigation. Substitute responses occur with great frequency in the face of frustration of all kinds. Acts of physical violence are the most obvious forms of aggression (Dollard et al. 1939) . Aggression may be directed at a person or an object which is perceived as causing the frustration. A frustrated child who cannot act out his aggression directly on the cause of his frustration often displaces his aggression against some other person or object. This direct or indirect aggression is a common response to frustration and it is the expression of the child's emotional state of frustration and is one of the most noted behavior problems in the classroom. In order to find the evidence of frustration-aggression, studies were done in the laboratory setting, where pain is the usual cue used. The subjects were insulted by a confederate of the experimenter and then they were given the opportunity to show aggression and retaliate the frustrator for the frustration induced (Buss, 1961). In a well-known study by Mallick and McCandless (1966) , children in one group (the frustration condition) were prevented by a confederate from completing a series of simple tasks. The children in the second group were not thwarted (the no-frustration condition) by this person. Later, when these children from the two groups were given an opportunity to aggress against the confederate, those who had been thwarted were more aggressive

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than those who had been permitted to complete the tasks . Thus, the result supported the view that frustration leads to aggression. Thus, based on the results of laboratory studies and observations, it is reasonable to assume that aggressive behavior is traceable to some form of frustration and that reducing frustration is a step towards reducing aggression. There are ways to reduce frustration and subsequent aggression. Various techniques are used in clinical and school settings to reduce human aggression. A discussion of these techniques is pertinent to understanding their applicability at different settings. The various techniques are: 1. Catharsis . Catharsis is "a process that relieves tension and anxiety by expressing emotions," — emotions that have been hidden, restrained, or unconscious (Nichols and Zax, 1977, p. 1) . Catharsis has two related but separate components: (a) cognitive or intellectual, the recall of forgotten memories, and (b) physical or somatic, the discharge of emotions in tears, laughter, or angry yelling (Nichols and Zax, 1977) . The cognitive-emotional aspect consists of the contents of the consciousness during the reexperiencing of an emotional event and the somatic-emotional aspect consists of the motoric discharge of emotion in expressive sounds and actions such as

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tears and sobbing of grief. The cognitive-emotional aspect has two parts. They are: (1) recall, and (2) confession. The recall component is the retrieval of memories and confession is the verbal cognitive aspect. It is common in psychotherapy for both somatic and cognitive aspects of catharsis to occur together. Clinical research literature shows that catharsis is most effective when it has both cognitive and somatic aspects. Grayson (1970) believed that the somatic component of emotional discharge can strengthen the ego sufficiently so that it enhances the patient's ability to achieve a cognitive restructing of his experience. He combined emotionally charged cathartic mourning with the development of insight, supporting the view that catharsis is most effective when combination of somatic and cognitive aspects are used. According to Freud, energy for death instinct is constantly being generated within the body working toward the individual's self-destruction (Ruch and Zimbardo, 1971). Freud often equated the death instinct with aggression. If this energy is not released in small amounts and in socially acceptable ways, it will accumulate and eventually be released in the form of aggression. Cathartic approaches to anger are used in Janov's (1970) Primal Therapy and Casriel's (1972) New Identity Therapy to reduce aggression.

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2. Reinforcement and Punishment . Based on Thorndike ' s (1930) law of effect, reinforcement and punishment are widely used in the school setting to eliminate the disruptive behavior of the children. Free-time from studies, token economy, attending to appropriate behaviors of subjects by the instructor, and praise are some of the reinforcements used {O'Leary and O'Leary, 1972) . For example, Zimmerman and Zimmerman (1962) eliminated the temper tantrums such as kicking and screaming of an emotionally disturbed boy by removing the social consequences of maladaptive behavior. When the boy sat at his desk kicking, screaming, and crying, the instructor ignored the boy, and when the boy stopped those behaviors, he was praised and then the instructor worked with him. The teacher attention that the boy obtained for appropriate behavior reinforced him to be cooperative and to work for the remainder of the period. Punishment consists of the delivery of a noxious or aversive stimulus to an organism (Buss, 1961) . Both actual and threatened punishments are found to be effective in deterring various forms of human aggression (Brown and Elliott, 1965; Ludwig, Marx, Hill, and Browning, 1969; Worchel , 1957; Thibaut and Riecken, 1955) . The punishment administered in the society to deter aggression is based on the assumption that if a violent person is threatened with pain and suffering, his willingness to attack fellow citizens will be held in check.

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Violent people exhibiting excessive aggression have been treated by electric shock (punishment) . Of course, aggressive preschool or grade school children would be treated by milder forms of punishment such as social disapproval (O'Leary, Kaufman, Kass, and Drabman, 19 70) , ignoring the inappropriate behaviors (Brown and Elliott, 1965) and removal of reinforcers (Brown and Tyler, 1968; Tyler and Brown, 1967) . Although several studies conducted lead to the conclusion that actual punishment may be effective in deterring various forms of aggression, it may not be always successful. If the punishment is perceived by the recipient and if the punisher serves as an aggressive model, punishment may serve to facilitate the occurrence of later aggression. Recent investigations on the impact of punishment (Campbell and Church, 1969; Fantino, 1973) suggest that punishments are effective in predicting long term changes only when administered in accordance with certain principles. The punishment must be made directly contingent upon an individual's behavior and must be administered soon after the performance of such behavior if the result is to have long duration. 3. Drug Therapy . In accordance with the physiological model of aggression, there are humans who have too much spontaneous activity in the neural systems (Moyer, 1976) . This excessive stimulation results in aggressive behavior. There are a number of different kinds of aggressive behavior and

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10 each of them has a different physiological basis. A direct control of aggression through manipulation of internal environment is possible through hormone and drug therapy (Dunn, 1941; Zimmerman, 1956; Heath and Buddington, 1967; and Kalina, 1962) , though the effect is temporary and hence continued administration is required. 4. Exposure to Nonaggressive Model . Bandura's (1973) social learning theory of aggression states that witnessing aggressive models induces sharp reductions in the strength of the observer's restraints against overt aggression facilitating the occurrence of the dangerous forms of behavior. If this is true, it is reasonable to expect that exposure to nonaggressive models, who behave in a restrained nonbelligerent manner, will strengthen that behavior. A study by Baron and Kepner (1970) revealed that exposure to actions of restrained, nonaggressive models can be effective in preventing overt aggression even though the subjects are strongly instigated to such behavior. 5. Cognitive Control . Cognitive factors are important in the control of aggression (Baron, 1977) . Some of the cognitive control techniques found effective in reducing aggression are information concerning the cause of another's behavior (Zillman and Cantor, 1976), one's self-statement to get over the aggressive behavior (McCullough, Huntsinger, and Ray, 19 77) , Rational-Emotive Therapy (Block, 19 75) and

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11 problem-solving (Goodwin and Mahoney, 1975; Spivack and Shure, 1974) . The cognitive control is a method that can be successfully used to reduce frustration and diminish aggression. Catharsis and drug therapy are used in clinical settings, whereas exposure to nonaggressive models, reinforcement, and cognitive control techniques are used in school settings. Due to the nature of cathartic technique (reexperiencing the past traumatic emotional events accompanied by somatic expression of emotion) it cannot be applied in the school settings. Also drug therapy cannot be applied in the school settings. Punishment is used in both clinical and school settings. Many teacher-administered and externally controlled techniques such as the time out principle, punishment, teacher attention and praise to task relevant behaviors, token reinforcement program, and free time from school have been developed. These are programs for helping emotionally disturbed children control their impulses and overcome their behavioral deficits in classroom settings (O'Leary and O'Leary, 1972). Two of the limitations of these techniques include (1) the return of the behavior to the pretreatment levels after the termination of treatment, and (2) the difficulties in the administration of the programs when applied over extended periods of time (Thoresen and Mahoney, 1974) .

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12 Self-control behavior modification techniques belonging to cognitive control category have been suggested as an alternative solution to the problems of teacher-administered techniques (Thoreson and Mahoney, 19 74) . Using the selfcontrol approach, children can be taught strategies to help them control their inappropriate behavior with minimal teacher intervention. Meichenbaum and Goodman (19 71) suggested cognitive self-instructional procedure as a means of developing self-control. The subjects instructed themselves first overtly and later covertly when they internalized the instructions. McCullough et al. (1977) employed a selfcontrol training program to treat a sixteen-year-old boy to control his violent unmanageable temper and emotional outbursts. Also Kenneth Block (1975) found that RationalEmotive Therapy, which is a cognitive-control technique, can be used to reduce experimentally induced aggression of college students. Another way to help children reduce frustration and subsequent aggression is by providing training in alternate responses to solve their problems. Training to make alternate responses is a cognitive-control technique involving creativity. That is, if children are taught problem-solving techniques for managing their aggression, there is a better chance that they will exhibit less aggressive behavior (Goodwin and Mahoney, 1975; Spivack and Shure, 1974) .

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13 "Creativity" is the ability to produce a large number of quality ideas as alternate responses. Fluency, flexibility, and originality comprise the triads of creativity which is characterized by divergent thinking (Guilford, 1959) . Schubert and Biondi (1977) , reported that a large percentage of the population who repeatedly demonstrate creative behavior in dealing with day-to-day activities use a problemsolving type of creativity. Thus the coping behavior of an individual is directly related to the development of creative behavior. Hamburg and Adams (1967) proposed "new strategies" to broaden the individual's problem-solving capacity for future crises. Goldfried and D'Zurilla (1969) conducted research on the coping behavior of students at the State University of New York at Stony Brook and discussed training in problem-solving as a form of self-control training, in that an individual learns to become more effective on his own. According to Bosse (1979) , highly creative fifth-and sixth-grade students could better cope constructively with their environment compared to low creativity students of equal intelligence. Highly creative students seemed calm and aloof from classroom routine, more alert and aware, and seemed to have developed work habits that allowed them to finish work more rapidly than students with high IQ and low creativity. Bosse found that creative students presented a picture of efficient workers who were socially mature and able to cope with frustration.

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14 Dalton (1973) investigated the effects of five levels (low, moderately low, moderate, moderately high, and high) of hostility to three dimensions of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking and found that subjects who were classified as highly hostile scored significantly lower (P <.01) on the fluency, flexibility, and originality measures of creativity, establishing a relationship between hostility and creativity. Schroder and Rotter (19 52) demonstrated that "nonrigidity or flexibility was a kind of higher-level behavior which consists of expecting change and looking for alternative pathways." Also, Kandil and Torrance (1978) found that socially and emotionally disturbed children are high in fluency and originality but low in flexibility scores. So they suggested deliberate programs to make use of the subjects' strengths to improve their flexibility and develop coping skills or behavioral adjustment. Creative Problem-Solving (CPS) is a cognitive control technique which has been shown to improve fluency, flexibility, and originality of the subjects involved in it (Parnes, 1967a, 1971) . A striking illustration of the effects of Creative Problem-Solving programs on coping behavior was presented by Parnes (1971) in the following excerpt from the letter of a man who was involved in Creative Problem-Solving courses for several years :

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15 Over the years I have made a connection for myself between the conscious awareness of one's creative potential and mental health. You are probably aware that I have made many other connections to CPS as well, but this particular one I have never discussed. It is really quite simple: by being able to solve many of the minor problems with which I am confronted through conscious effort on my part, I continually strengthen my own belief that I am able to exercise control over my immediate environment. It helps keep me aware that I do in fact have control over a large portion of my future and in time when cause and effect are often so many steps removed from one another, it helps me reduce differences to a lower common denominator enabling me to better cope. . . . (pp. 27-28) In the present study, Creative Problem-Solving was used with emotionally handicapped middle school children to reduce their frustration and diminish their aggression. Withdrawal, noncooperation, impulsiveness, and aggression constitute the personality dimensions of emotionally handicapped children (Bullock and Brown, 1972) . A large portion of the behavior that is labelled as "emotionally disturbed," leading to the placement of those children in special education classes, consists of aggressive activity. It was found that the majority of emotionally handicapped boys were in trouble because of their aggressive behavior (Giebink, Stover, and Fahl, 1968) . There are several slumps in creative thinking in the developing child (Torrance, 1967) . The biggest slump occurs at fourth grade. Therefore, students older than grade four

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16 were thought to be better candidates for CPS training. Many students at middle school (between the fifth and eighth grades) were having problems with aggression. Therefore, the middle school age was thought to be a good age to teach creativity to decrease aggressive behavior. Research Questions 1. Is Creative Problem-Solving effective in increasing creativity of emotionally handicapped middle school children? 1(a). Is Creative Problem-Solving effective in increasing the fluency of emotionally handicapped middle school children? 1(b). Is Creative Problem-Solving effective in increasing the flexibility of emotionally handicapped middle school children? 1(c). Is Creative Problem-Solving effective in increasing the originality of emotionally handicapped middle school children? 2. Is Creative Problem-Solving effective in reducing the aggression of emotionally handicapped middle school children? Hypotheses It was hypothesized that emotionally handicapped middle school children with aggression problems would diminish their aggression score if they were able to increase their creativity through practice in Creative Problem-Solving.

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17 The statistical hypotheses stated for this study were as follows: 1. Emotionally handicapped middle school children with aggression problems, who practiced Creative Problem-Solving techniques, manifest more creativity compared to similar school children who did not practice Creative Problem-Solving as measured by the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking, (Verbal Form A, titled "Thinking Creatively with Words") . 1(a). Emotionally handicapped middle school children with aggression problems, who practiced Creative ProblemSolving techniques, manifest more fluency compared to similar school children who did not practice Creative Problem-Solving as measured by the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking, (Verbal Form A, titled "Thinking Creatively with Words") . 1(b). Emotionally handicapped middle school children with aggression problems, who practiced Creative ProblemSolving techniques, manifest more flexibility compared to similar school children who did not practice Creative ProblemSolving as measured by the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking, (Verbal Form A, titled "Thinking Creatively with Words") . 1(c). Emotionally handicapped middle school children with aggression problems, who practiced Creative Problem-Solving techniques, manifest less aggression compared to similar school children who did not practice Creative Problem-Solving as measured by the Torrance Test of Creative

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18 Thinking, (Verbal Form A, titled "Thinking Creatively with Words") . 2. Emotionally handicapped middle school children with aggression problems, who practiced Creative Problem-Solving techniques, manifest less aggression compared to similiar school children who did not practice Creative Problem-Solving as measured by the Buss-Durkee Inventory, "motor component." Definition of Terms 1. Aggression . In this study aggression was defined as acts such as fighting, kicking, beating, calling names, talking back to teachers, yelling, screaming, and lying. Physical aggression was defined as fighting, kicking, beating, etc., and verbal aggression was defined as yelling, screaming, lying, calling names, and talking back to teachers. Aggression was operationally defined in terms of a single score on four of the subscales of the Buss-Durkee Hostility-Guilt Inventory (Buss and Durkee, 1957) . The four subscales--Assault, Indirect Hostility, Irritability, and Verbal Hostility — comprise a factor analytic "motor component" called "aggression" (Sarason, 1961) . 2. Creativity . In this study creativity was defined as the ability to postulate a number of original and different categories of ideas as solution to problems. Creativity consists of fluency, flexibility, and originality, all of which involve "divergent" thinking (Guilford, 1959) .

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19 Fluency was defined as the number of acceptable responses, flexibility as the number of shifts or transformations in response categories, and originality as statistical infrequency, Divergent thinking was the ability to produce a lot of quality ideas to make alternate responses. Thus creativity was characterized by divergent thinking. Operationally, creativity was defined as what the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking, Verbal Form A, titled "Thinking Creatively with Words," measures. 3. Creative Problem-Solving (CPS) . CPS is a five-step scientific process. The steps are fact-finding, problemfinding, idea-finding, solution-finding, and acceptancefinding. 4. Emotionally Handicapped Student . They are the subset of all emotionally handicapped subjects who are identified by the Alachua County Procedures for Providing Special Education for Exceptional Students, 1980'81, (School Board of Alachua County, Florida, p. 72) as physically and/or verbally aggressive. Basic Assumptions Underlying the Study 1. Creative Problem-Solving is a cognitive-control technique. 2. The general effectiveness of Creative ProblemSolving may be most efficiently facilitated by training individuals in general procedures or skills that would allow

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20 them to deal independently with the critical situations that confront them in day-to-day living. 3. Creative Problem-Solving is a skill that can be learned by practice. 4. Creative Problem-Solving can be taught in a short period. 5. Creative Problem-Solving can be learned by the emotionally handicapped school children. Significance of the Study The present study is significant because it could lead to a better understanding of Creative Problem-Solving as a way to reduce aggression of emotionally handicapped aggressive school children. Training of emotionally handicapped subjects in Creative Problem-Solving could increase their creative abilities to produce a number of quality ideas that lead to solutions to problems. Thus, the subjects can use this skill to meet future challenges creatively. This study could teach children that Creative ProblemSolving is appropriate, functional, exciting, and humanizing in many situations. Thus, the study might result in strong motivation to utilize one's creative potential. This could develop a consciousness of the vital importance of creative effort in all walks of life. This could also develop a heightened sensitivity of the problems that surround oneself — an attitude of "constructive discontent" towards situations

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21 as they exist in one's life, that is, a constant desire to improve everything that one does. This study might also add more knowledge to the belief that creativity is related to psychological health. This study is further significant because its results could have implications in training teachers, counselors, and others working with children. If Creative Problem-Solving is found to be effective in increasing creativity and reducing aggression of emotionally handicapped middle school children, it can help in making changes in the curriculum of the teachers' training programs and the curriculum of the special education classes for the emotionally handicapped. Limitations In conducting this study several limitations were recognized. An important limitation of the study was that the actual aggressive behavior of the children (frequency counts of aggressive behavior) was not observed before or after the program. Rather, the children were identified as aggressive by their teachers. Secondly, the subjects in the study were not randomly selected from a population of emotionally handicapped aggressive children; so the generalizability of the results is limited. The third limitation of the study was that the treatment was conducted in small groups of two or three subjects. Though Torrance and Myers (1970) believed that Creative

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22 Problem-Solving was effective for disadvantaged children, in small groups from four to six subjects, keeping the emotionallyhandicapped aggressive children on the task in groups of two or three was difficult enough. The fourth limitation of the study was that an attention control group was not used in the study to see if the significant results were due to CPS or to the attention the experimental subjects received from the researcher. Finally, the treatment was only for 15 sessions of 30 minutes. Out of 15 sessions, the first seven sessions were spent familiarizing the subjects with the concepts and various aspects of Creative Problem-Solving. Only eight sessions were spent on the actual Creative Problem-Solving of the real problems they face at school. Delimitations The present study was limited to 16 emotionally handicapped public school children attending a middle school in Florida. The subjects were attending special education class for the emotionally handicapped and were identified by their teachers as aggressive on the basis of their physical and verbal aggression. The study was also limited to those emotionally handicapped students who were cooperative and who had their parents' consent to particiate in the study. Another delimitation of the study was that it was limited to paper and pencil tests of creativity and aggression. The

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23 creativity test used in the study was limited to the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking, (Verbal Form A) and the aggression scale used was limited to 4 3 items which comprise the "motor component" of hostility from the Buss-Durkee Inventory. Organization of the Study This study is organized into five chapters. Chapter I includes the research question, statement of hypotheses, definition of terms, basic assumptions of the study, significance of the study, limitations, and delimitations. Chapter II contains a review of literature pertaining to Creative Problem-Solving and its effects on creativity and aggression. Chapter III describes the sample, the researcher, the experimental design, instrumentation, administration, and scoring of the instruments, treatment, data collection, and statistical analysis of the data. Chapter IV reports the results and their significance for each hypothesis. Chapter V is a discussion of the results, problems in the study, suggestions for future research, implications, summary, and conclusion.

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CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE The review of related literature falls under three subheadings. The first part deals with the concept of Creative Problem-Solving, explaining the steps involved in the process. The second part deals with the effectiveness of CPS on creativity. The third part deals with the effectiveness of CPS on aggression. The literature on the effectiveness of CPS on creativity and aggression falls under descriptive studies, experimental studies, and anecdotal reports. The Concept of Creative Problem-Solving Creative Problem-Solving was first originated by Osborn (1957) and further developed by Parnes (1967a) . Torrance, Bruch, and Torrance (19 76) believed that the Osborn-Parnes Model of Creative Problem-Solving is ideal for use because it is flexible and can be applied to any problem or subject matter. They also believed that it can be taught at any age from kindergarten through graduate and professional schools. It is particularly effective in developing the abilities which seem to be required in solving problems in real life. Creative Problem-Solving is a process involving creativity. It can be defined as a thinking process which is scientific: 24

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25 "Creative thinking . . . takes place in the process of sensing difficulties, problems, gaps in information, missing elements, making guesses, or formulating hypothesis about these deficiencies; testing these guesses and possibly revising and retesting them; and finally in communicating the results" (Torrance, 1965, p. 8) . Creative Problem-Solving is a five-step problem-solving technique to help make adjustments in all walks of life. People need to use their creative power in their studies, jobs, or even in being a good mother and housewife. Parnes (1977) describes Creative Problem-Solving as an: . . . innovative alternation between imagination and judgement in each of five steps toward creatively handling a situation or meeting an objective: Fact-Finding, Problem-Finding, Idea-Finding, SolutionFinding, and Acceptance-Finding. It is only one way of talking about or diagramming the very amorphous process of discovering new and relevant associations among the vast data in our brains toward the resolution of our concerns, problems, and challenges. (p. 4) The five steps of Creative Problem-Solving are (Torrance and Myers, 1970; Parnes, Noller, and Biondi, 1977) : Step 1. Sensing Problems and Challenges (Fact-Finding) . The first step in CPS is to become sensitive to gaps in knowledge and missing elements and sense problems and challenges. That is, one has to become aware of the fact there are problems. Parnes called this situation a "big mess." At this step, an individual has to ask questions to find out what the basic objectives are and find additional facts.

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26 Step 2. Definition of Problem (Problem-Finding) . Using additional facts, synthesize the "big mess" and redefine the problem. Change the wording of the statement of the problem and finally break it down into subproblems. Step 3. Producing Alternate Solutions (Idea-Finding) . In Creative Problem-Solving, idea production by brainstorming is extensively used and is recognized as the most important part. Brainstorming is a method that is useful to imagine lots of new ideas to help solve a problem (Noller, Treffinger, and Houseman, 1979). Osborn's (1963) brainstorming has four basic rules. They are: 1. Criticism is ruled out until later. Adverse judgement of ideas must be withheld until later. 2. "Free-wheeling" is welcomed. The wilder the idea, the better; it is easier to tame down than to think up. 3. Quantity is wanted. The greater the number of ideas, the more the likelihood of useful ideas. 4 . Combination and improvement are sought. (p. 156) A list of idea spurring words are used to enlarge the storehouse of ideas during brainstorming (See Worksheet No. 3, Appendix A) . Step 4. Evaluating Ideas (Solution-Finding) . When deferred judgement is used in idea-production, all kinds of ideas are produced and their evaluation is a major task. To select the best idea, it is necessary to select

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27 criteria to weigh or measure the ideas. Objective standards for selecting criteria are cost, time required, usefulness, practicality, social acceptance, and other considerations. Each and every idea is judged by each criterion and scores are given on a three point scale, where 1 represents poor, 2 represents fair, and 3 represents good. The scores for each idea are added across the rows and the ideas with the highest score are selected. Step 5. Preparing to Put Ideas Into Use, That is, preparation for selling the programs (Acceptance-Finding) . After a promising idea has been found, there is a challenge to make it acceptable. In order to implement the ideas, changes may be necessary. This may include tailoring the idea for special groups to make it attractive and gain their acceptance. The subject should also plan to whom, when, where, and how to implement the idea. The component skills involved in Creative ProblemSolving are identification of the problem, which falls in Step 1 and Step 2; brainstorming, which comes mainly in Step 3; selection of criteria, which comes in Step 4; evaluation of the solution to problem, which is part of Step 4; and selling the program to others, which comes in Step 5. The Effect of Creative Problem-Solving on Creativity Research on the development of creative behavior increased after the Presidential address of J. P. Guilford in 1950 to

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28 the American Psychological Association. At the 1959 University of Utah Research conference on the Identification of Creative Scientific Talent, a committee was appointed to report on the "Role of Educational Experience in the Development of Creative Scientific Talent" (Taylor, 1959) . The Committee reported that at least six research projects had indicated that creative productivity can be developed by deliberate process. No research report at that time was inconsistent with this view. Many creative thinking workbooks, workshop leaders, and course instructors present exercises intended to strengthen basic abilities which underlie creative potential, with the assumption that these abilities will become stronger with practice in the same way that learning multiplication tables, playing a violin, solving chemistry problems, or writing a correct sentence will improve with practice (Skinner, 1972) . Parnes and Brunelle (1967) researched over 40 studies for teaching students to improve their sensitivity, fluency, flexibility, originality, elaboration, and related abilities. Approximately 90% of the total number of studies indicated that subjects' creative-productivity levels were increased by those educational programs. Based on the results of those studies, deliberate educational programs for creativity appears to be promising. Several programs, described below, have been designed to increase creativity at various educational levels:

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29 The Purdue Creative Training Program (PCTP) (Feldhusen, Treffinger, and Bahlke, 1970) consisted of 28 video-taped presentations, each accompanied by printed exercises for the development of creative thinking and problem-solving abilities, The presentation focused on the stories of historical persons and famous events in history. The exercises provided were to develop the use of fluency, flexibility, and originality in writing and drawing. This program was found to be effective in fostering creative thinking, problem-solving and the related attitude among the elementary school children. The Productive Thinking Program (PTP) (Covington, Crutchfield, Davies and Olton, 1972) was a programmed instructional sequence consisting of 16 units designed to foster creative problem-solving abilities and related attitude among fifth and sixth graders. Treffinger, Speedie and Brunner (1974) used PCTP and PTP in an experimental study to find out if creative thinking and problem-solving abilities of elementary school children can be improved through direct educational effort. The results of the study indicated that divergent thinking abilities, especially verbal abilities, were significantly enhanced by instruction with PCTP or PTP. LaBelle (1974) used Torrance and Myers' (1970) version of Creative Problem-Solving in nursing education so that nurses can be more effective by making alternate responses to

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30 alleviate the patients' suffering. Torrance (1964) started a three-year Creative Problem-Solving program for nursing students . Torrance (1972) summarized the results of 142 studies designed to test approaches to teaching children to think creatively and reported the highest percentage of success in programs that emphasize the Osborn-Parnes Creative ProblemSolving and/or modifications. Osborn-Parnes Creative ProblemSolving consists of the five steps of finding a solution to a problem emphasizing the deferred judgement principle. Ninety-one percent of the experiments using combinations of techniques based on the Osborn-Parnes training program achieved success. These studies ranged from kindergarten and first grade through college and professional education. Some of those studies are summarized as follows: Khatena (1971) taught 118 disadvantaged preschool children between five and six years of age the strategies of divergent thinking as measured by the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking, (Figural Forms) by giving them activities to reorganize various pictures. The Solomon four-group design was used to avoid confounding variables, to obtain strong results, and avoid the possibility of Type I error. The analysis of variance of the posttests showed significant main effect for the experimental group for fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration suggesting that disadvantaged children at preschool can be taught to think creatively with everyday

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31 learning materials. In this study, the Figural Forms of TTCT, which was appropriate for the disadvantaged preschool children was used. Cartledge and Kauser (1963) , designed an experiment to stimulate creativity in first-grade children who scored lowest on the screening test of creativity. One-hundred twenty-eight subjects from two schools who scored the lowest in creativity were randomly assigned into control and experimental groups. The author found that experimental group that received five 20-minute training sessions to improve a toy dog based on Osborn's principles produced superior average creativity score (P < .01) compared with no training. Rouse (1967) compared 47 educable mentally retarded children (ages between 7 years 7 months to 17 years 2 months) , enrolled in special education classes, who received lessons to enhance creative thinking, with 31 retardates who did not receive the lessons. The treatment was 30 consecutive lessons of 30 minutes each covering a wide range of activities such as brainstorming, drawings, writings of stories, and the composition of poems. Results showed significant improvement for the experimental group in fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration. Sullivan (1969) used brainstorming and Creative ProblemSolving on 25 slow learning elementary students based on the belief that all children are creative. All problems were presented by the teacher in a manner that demanded divergent

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32 thinking. The results showed a considerable increase in the slow learners' "verbal-creative" ability. The Creative Problem-Solving technique was used in the Interscholastic Future Problem-Solving Bowl for gifted grade school children. An evaluation of that program (Torrance, 1978) showed that the effects on creativity were encouraging. Creative Problem-Solving was successful, not only with children, but also with college and professional students in increasing creativity. The faculty at St. Mary's School of Nursing tried to offer a Creative Problem-Solving program which would develop each student's thinking abilities and skills as each nurse is continuously confronted with problems of which she is vaguely aware. The program gave the subjects 30 tasks calling for the production of divergent solutions, multiple possibilities, and other types of thinking involved in creative behavior during the 3-year diploma program. The subjects were tested at the beginning of the freshman year and near the end of the psychiatric nursing experience in the senior year. The seniors were divided into three groups, but they all took the posttests at the eighth week in psychiatry. Torrance found that the mean scores of ideational fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration of the nursing students were higher for the seniors than for the freshmen, and this difference was accepted with high degree of confidence (P <.005). There was no control group of similar students not participating in the nursing education program.

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33 So the effectiveness of this particular deliberate Creative Problem-Solving program might be argued. Parnes (1967c) used three groups of high school seniors, one group taking Creative Problem-Solving training with the instructor, the second group taking the programmed instruction in Creative Problem-Solving, and the third group serving as the control group, receiving no training between pre and posttests. Each group consisted of 62 subjects randomly selected from the public schools of Buffalo, New York, and matched on the basis of IQ. Six different schools were used to prevent contamination--to eliminate discussion between groups. But "in-the-same-school" control groups were used for comparison. A battery of eleven psychological tests were given to all three groups as pretests and posttests. Between the pretests and posttests, the two experimental groups met twice a week during the entire semester for the training. Both instructor-taught and programmed methods produced superior creativity, compared to the control groups, strengthening the effectiveness of CPS on creativity. The tests most representative of the outcome were Planning Elaboration, Product Improvement Fluency, and Product Improvement Flexibility, Alternate Uses, Other Uses, Product Improvement Originality, and Consequences Total. Instructortaught groups tended to be more markedly and consistently superior to the control groups than programtaught students who had no instructor. The presence of the instructor might have made the course more interesting,

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34 so the instructor-taught group felt that they gained more from it. Shean (1979) found that Creative Problem-Solving training workshop for students of school administration for ten hours increased fluency, flexibility, and originality of experimental students significantly. By looking at the results of a number of studies conducted at various educational levels where Creative ProblemSolving or its modifications were used, one can conclude that they are effective in increasing creative abilities. According to Dalton (1973) , there is a negative relationship between the level of hostility and the level of creativity. That is, high level of hostility is related to low level of creativity. Thus, it is pertinent to look at the effect of Creative Problem-Solving on personality variables, especially the level of aggression. The Effect of Creative Problem-Solving on Aggression Only a few investigators have attempted to study changes in personality as a result of experimental courses in Creative ProblemSolving. Changes in the direction of creative personality were evident in most of these studies, but these changes were not as impressive as the changes in ability factors of creativity. Research conducted by Meadow and Parnes (1959) , used eleven batteries of tests. One battery of ten tests revealed

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35 a substantial improvement in personality traits as well as in creativity. Personality tests were given to 162 college students before and after the treatment. The treatment, which was a creative thinking and problem-solving course, was extended throughout the semester. Fifty-four students who had taken the course were compared with two other groups of the same size comprised of comparable students who had not taken the course. The subjects were matched on age, sex, and intelligence quotient. The subjects in the course were instructed to solve problems by postponing judicial evaluation of the solution based on Osborn's principles. The graduates of the problem-solving class attained significant increments on five of seven measures of creative ability and a significant increment on the California Psychological Inventory Dominance Scale. Thus Meadow and Parnes found that Creative Problem-Solving course produces a significant increment on certain ability measures associated with practical creativity and on the personality variable. Meadow and Parnes conducted studies using regular college students, and their studies did not focus on the problem of aggression. Yee (1965) used the instructional materials derived from a course in Creative Problem-Solving offered at the University of Buffalo and studied its effects and personal-social adjustment upon creativity of twelfth grade students. The first and second administration of the Minnesota Tests of Creativity and the California Test of Personality were

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36 administered to control groups with a five week period between each administration. Their tests were administered to the experimental group before and after they received instruction in Creative Problem-Solving. The instruction in Creative Problem-Solving resulted in significantly greater creativity test scores. High ability (high IQ) students showed a significant increase in creativity test scores after Creative Problem-Solving instruction as compared to students similar in ability who did not receive instruction. Low ability (low IQ) students who received instruction did not increase their creativity test scores significantly as compared to students of similar ability who did not receive instruction, though the increase approached .05 percent level of significance. Significant relationships were found between certain personal adjustment traits on California Test of Personality and creativity test scores of the Minnesota Tests of Creativity. Creative high ability students were found to have significantly greater sense of personal worth and fewer antisocial tendencies than their counterparts who were similarly creative but who possessed low ability. Yee found that Creative ProblemSolving improved school adjustment of the subjects by reducing antisocial tendencies suggesting it might reduce aggression. Robin, Schneider, and Dolnick (1976) treated eleven emotionally disturbed aggressive elementary children using the Turtle Technique (Schneider, 1974) to reduce their aggression. Turtle Technique is a promising procedure to

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37 help children control their impulses toward aggressive behavior. This technique makes use of the image of the turtle which withdraws into its shell when provoked by its external environment. Young children are taught to react to impulses to aggress by (a) imagining that they are turtles withdrawing into their shells, pulling their arms close to their bodies, putting their heads down, and closing their eyes; (b) relaxing their muscles to cope with emotional tension; and (c) using social problem-solving to generate prosocial alternate responses. The subjects in the study were trained for 15 minutes daily in the three phases of the technique — the turtle response, relaxation, and problem-solving. They also listened to the story of a little turtle who learned to withdraw into his shell until he was no longer angry. Throughout the regular class periods the teacher cued the children by calling out "turtle" whenever she saw an incipient fight. Reinforcement and peer support encouraged the subjects to "do turtle" at appropriate times. While "doing turtle" the subjects learned to relax by releasing tension in the various muscle groups. During the final phase, the subjects learned to do problem-solving consisting of role playing and discussion aimed at teaching the children alternate strategies to cope with problematic situations. Multiple baseline design which is a powerful design was used where each group served both as control and experimental group, but the control and the

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38 experimental period was different for the groups. Thus group A received two weeks of baseline followed by eight weeks of treatment and group B received seven weeks of baseline followed by three weeks of treatment. One group received training for 8 hours and 4 5 minutes, and the other group received training for 3 hours and 45 minutes. Observations of the children's aggressive behavior were taken as a measure of the effect of the Turtle Technique. The mean weekly rates of aggression for subjects in group A revealed that the rate of aggressive behavior decreased from a mean of 20.5 during baseline to a mean of 12.0 during treatment (P <.001). The rate of aggressive behavior in classroom B decreases from a mean of 4.9 during baseline to a mean of 2.7 during treatment (P <.01). The aggressive behavior decreased from baseline to treatment for every child. Robin et al. (1976) integrated contingency management, turtle response with relaxation, and problem-solving into a unified treatment to treat the subjects. The results showed reduction in aggression during treatment, greater reduction with longer treatment as measured by observation. This study suggests further research to find the effectiveness of the part played by each component of treatment. Loughmiller (1968) found that group problem-solving was an effective method to help control the excessive expression of aggression using adolescent boys in a therapeutic summer camp for emotionally handicapped. Two counselors worked with

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39 the campers in groups of nine. In the camp, the policy was to take care of a problem as it arose and clear the air. When a conflict occurred which prevented the group from obtaining its immediate goals, the group sat together and got to the bottom of the problem without complicating the matters by aggressive outbursts. Thus they immediately started group problem-solving. The boys got the cues to solve the problem from the counselors and from the discussion. They learned from the counselors and other members of the group that there are ways to solve a problem rather than showing their frustrations or hostility. At the end of the summer camp it was found that the boys were less aggressive. Loughmiller did a descriptive study of the effectiveness of group problem-solving on the aggression of emotionally disturbed children. He used a group problem-solving technique in which the counselors and the group members discussed the problem and helped the members to find a solution to a conflict which prevented the group from obtaining its goals. It was not a scientific study using control and experimental groups under controlled conditions, but the study has implications for future research to do experimental studies for finding the effectiveness of problem-solving on aggression under controlled conditions. Teaching a person how to solve a specific problem has been found somewhat effective in changing behavior. Giebink, Stover and Fahl (196 8) taught six, ten to twelve-year-old

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40 impulsive boys alternative adaptive ways to handle frustrating situations. The boys were randomly assigned into control and experimental groups of three each. The control boys and experimental boys were presented with commonly occurring frustrating situations. The boys in the experimental condition were instructed in five alternative adaptive responses for each of the four situations presented to them. The boys who received instructions for a week (the number of hours is not specified) to improve their ability in handling frustrating situations improved more than the boys who did not receive instructions, as measured by verbal responses to questionnaire, The mean number of adaptive responses increased from 8.8 to 10.2 and the inappropriate responses decreased from a mean of 3.2 per child to a mean of 1.2. The study by Giebink et al. (1968) suggested the degree of specificity in employing cognitive approach to modify unacceptable behavior. The study was conducted under experimental conditions, but due to the small number of subjects (six children) , no statistical analysis was done. Also, the effectiveness of the result might have been greater if the study had been carried on over a greater length of time than one week period. Perhaps anecdotal evidence support the hypothesis that aggression can be reduced by creative ways of teaching (Torrance and Myers, 1970; Torrance and Hall, 1980). Torrance first collected data concerning teaching miracles from a

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41 class he taught in 1964 at the University of California at Berkeley. He called the dramatic changes in students' attitudes "miracles." He asked 200 experienced teachers in his class on "Creative Ways of Teaching" to try to recall instances in which they encouraged children, young people, or adults in their teaching to become involved creatively and found that experience made a real difference in achievement and behavior. A group of 165 exceptionally creative teachers from those 200 teachers were able to recall instances where encouraging creativity of bitter, sarcastic, and hostile youngsters transformed their negative feelings into positive creative energy such as kindness and success, and children turned from well-established patterns of vandalism, destructiveness, and lack of school achievement to productive altruistic behavior. Also, emotionally disturbed and unproductive behavior changed to constructive behavior and outstanding achievement. Similarly, fighting and uncommunicativeness of kindergarten children who communicated with their fists showed improved speech as a result of the imagination, planning, and problem-solving in their project. These pieces of information suggest the relationship between creativity and adjustment of school children and the necessity for improving their creativity. The review of related literature in the area of the effectiveness of Creative Problem-Solving on creativity and aggression suggests that there exists a link between creativity

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42 and aggression. But there was not a single scientific study in which Creative Problem-Solving was used as treatment to see if aggression can be reduced in order to help the subjects solve their problems creatively. Also, Creative ProblemSolving was not applied to emotionally handicapped subjects previously. Summary The concept of Creative Problem-Solving as pictured by Osborn and Parnes was depicted in the early part of the review of related literature. The literature further revealed that deliberate programs have been designed at various educational levels to promote creativity. The Osborn-Parnes model of Creative Problem-Solving and its modifications produced the highest percentage of success in increasing creative abilities as opposed to other programs designed to promote creativity. There are descriptive, experimental, and anecdotal studies in the literature, suggesting a close relationship between creativity and aggression. But no systematic study yet has been conducted on emotionally handicapped subjects using Creative Problem-Solving as the treatment variable to reduce their aggression, hence the necessity for this study.

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CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY The review of related literature has shown that the Osborn-Parnes Model of Creative Problem-Solving and its modifications have been successful in promoting creativity. A few studies suggested a link between creativity and aggression. In Creative Problem-Solving, subjects learn to make alternate responses in order to find solutions to their problems. So CPS should be effective in reducing aggression. But there has been no previous study conducted in which Creative Problem-Solving was used as the independent variable to reduce aggression. Also CPS has not been studied systematically with emotionally handicapped subjects. Thus, the present study was a pioneer work to train emotionally handicapped subjects in CPS in order to reduce their aggression by increasing creativity in finding solutions. The Sample From a pool of 27 emotionally handicapped middle school children attending special education class, 23 children who showed excessive physical and verbal aggression identified by their teacher were selected for the study. Three subjects did not receive parent consent to participate in the study 43

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44 and were eliminated from the studyThree other subjects, who received the consent early were assigned to a pilot study one week prior to the actual program to familiarize the researcher with the procedures and the unexpected problems. Subjects were randomly assigned into control and experimental groups. Of 17 subjects in control and experimental groups, one was eliminated from the control group and from the study because he was suspended from school toward the end of the study. Thus, the sample consisted of 16 emotionally handicapped aggressive middle school children. There were four black and twelve white students in the sample, with an average age of 13.30 and average IQ of 88.4. The subjects ranged in grades from five through eight. There were two girls and fourteen boys in the sample, with six boys and two girls in the control group and eight boys in the experimental group. All subjects in the study attended a special education class for emotionally handicapped students. Their regular program consisted of a precision teaching plan used for mathematics and reading. The students learned vocabulary words, finding words from the dictionary with their definitions and meanings. They copied words on the chalk board and wrote them five times and learned them for a test at the end of each week. Reading instruction was given to those who were low in reading comprehension. The students were also given practice in the basic mathematics skills such as

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45 addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. It was the practice in this class to reinforce the subjects by tangible rewards for their good performance and cooperation. The Researcher The researcher was a graduate student in the department of Foundations of Education, University of Florida. She had a five-hour credit graduate course in creative thinking which included classroom instruction and exercises in Creative Problem-Solving . The Experimental Design A randomized pretest-posttest control group design was used in the present study (Campbell and Stanley, 1966), R X X 2 R 0-l 2f where = test, X = treatment, and R = random assignment. In this study, the posttest scores on creativity and aggression were the dependent variables, the pretest scores on creativity and aggression were the covariates, and the Creative Problem-Solving was the independent variable. The covariates were used to reduce error variance in the analysis and thus increase the power of the analysis. Instrumentation 1. The Buss-Durkee Inventory (Buss and Durkee, 1957) . This Inventory is a scale of aggressiveness developed on the

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46 basis of frustration-aggression hypothesis. So it involves the selection of test stimuli logically related to that theory, The test items selected were based on the classification of different types of aggressive responses. Because of its theoretical orientation, the content validity of the scale is clearly defined and it seems to have potential as a meaningful measure of aggressiveness. Also the authors emphasized the internal consistency of the scale. The items with an internal consistencey of .40 or greater were selected by correlating each item with the score of the scale in which it belonged. On the Inventory, hostility and aggression fall into seven subscales. There are two kinds of hostility (resentment and suspicion) and five kinds of aggression (assault, indirect hostility, irritability, negativism, and verbal aggression) . A guilt subscale was also added to the Inventory as the eighth subscale. The Buss-Durkee Inventory consists of 75 items--66 items for hostility and aggression and 9 items for guilt. There are 60 true items and 15 false items, a ratio of four to one, to reduce the effect of response sets. The authors of the Inventory were aware that social desirability might influence the test responses, so they attempted to minimize the variable of social desirability by: (a) assuming that anger was present and inquiring only how it was expressed; (b) providing justification for admitting

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47 aggressive acts; and (c) including cliches and idioms that would find ready acceptance (Buss and Durkee, p. 345) . A low correlation of .27 for college men and .30 for college women obtained between social desirability and the probability of endorsement of the items on the Inventory reflects the success of the item construction. Buss-Durkee subjected the subscales to a factor analysis and found that they were loaded on two factors on the basis of content. One factor is an attitudinal component of hostility (resentment and suspicion) having to do with the attitude that involves negative labels and the other factor is a "motor component" (assault, indirect hostility, irritability, and verbal hostility) . Guilt and negativism did not fit too well on the factors (Buss, 1961). The Buss-Durkee Inventory (Factor A) consists of five subscales — assault, indirect hostility, irritability, verbal hostility, and negativism. In this study, a single index of aggression, combining 43 items of the four subscales of BussDurkee (Factor A) was used to measure aggression as a undimensional variable. Thus, the Buss-Durkee "motor component" consists of assault, indirect hostility, irritability, and verbal hostility. The factor analysis indicated that Factor A (aggression) and Factor H (hostility) remain invariant across different groups of male subjects, but there was little stability for females. The test-retest reliability coefficient after eight

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48 weeks for 3 3 members of a normal male sample for Factor A and Factor H were .74 and .71 respectively (Buss, 1961). Sex difference in aggressiveness and hostility were obtained with college students using a discriminant function analysis significant at 1% level, with males scoring higher for assault, suspicion, and verbal aggression. Also scores on Factor A and Factor H are unrelated to the socioeconomic class of the subjects or the age. A field validation study was conducted to validate BussDurkee factors using 89 delinquent males of average age 14.53 and S.D. 1.31 (Edmunds and Kendrick, 1980). Each subject was rated on a five-point aggressiveness scale by three observers, two housemasters, and one class teacher. In order to improve the accuracy of rating, each subject for whom there was a discrepancy of two or more scale points between the ratings of the two housemasters or each subject for whom there was a discrepancy of 3.5 scale points between the two sets of ratings was discarded. Fourteen subjects were eliminated, and data from 75 subjects were analyzed. On the basis of the mean rating, the subjects were classified as high aggressive (HA) and low aggressive (LA) , creating two delinquent groups of 36 subjects and 39 subjects. A nondelinquent control group of 38 subjects comparable in age (mean age 14.26), socioeconomic status, and IQ was also used. The three samples were given Buss-Durkee Factors A and H. The high aggressive

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50 originality. The results of this study supported the program of juvenile rehabilitation which promotes the expression of verbal creativity. The Torrance Test of Creative Thinking, Verbal Form A, titled "Thinking Creatively with Words," consists of seven activities which can be rated for three components of creativity — fluency (number of relevant responses) , flexibility (variety of categories) , and originality (something unusual, remarkable, or surprising) (Torrance, 1974). The test tasks selected for TTCT are believed to call into play different parts of a universe of abilities that may be conceptualized as creative thinking abilities (Torrance, 1974) . To insure content validity, a consistent and deliberate effort was made to base the test stimuli, the test tasks, instructions, and scoring procedures on the best theory and research available. Analysis of the lives of indisputably eminent creative people have been considered in making decisions regarding the selection of tasks. A deliberate attempt was made to keep the test tasks free of technical or subject matter content. For TTCT, the interscorer reliability of the scores, and intrascorer reliability were in excess of .90 for all variables (Torrance, 1974) . The interscorer reliability was established by comparing the scoring with that of an experienced scorer; when there was no significant difference between the means of the two scores and when the coefficients of

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51 reliability was in excess of .90, the scoring was considered reliable. The reliability coefficients of interscorers range from .86 to .99, and the average is .95. Also, the intrascorer reliability coefficients have been consistently above .90 by the scorers rescoring a specific set of tests from time to time. With a battery consisting of most of the tasks included in Verbal and Figural Forms A and B (Ask-and-Guess , Product Improvement, Unusual Uses, Incomplete Figures, and Circles), using 29 fifth grade children, Eherts (1961) obtained a testretest reliability coefficient of .88 for fluency, flexibility, and originality battery total with 7 months inverval . In order to establish construct validity, Torrance (1962) made an analysis of the personality characteristics of the most creative boy and the most creative girl in each of 23 classes in grades one through six in three elementary schools. The controls were matched for sex, intelligence quotient, race, class (teacher) , and age with the highly creative subjects. The criterion measure consisted of the composite scores on the Ask-and-Guess, Product Improvement, Consequences, Unusual Uses, Picture Construction, Incomplete Figures, and Circles Tests. Torrance also had available responses to the Draw-a-House-Tree-Person Test, a set of peer nominations on creativity criteria, and teacher nominations on similar criteria. On the basis of the statistical analysis of the comparison between the highly creative children and

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52 their less creative controls, he found that three personality characteristics differentiated the highly creative subjects from their less creative controls. They were: 1. The highly creative children had a reputation for producing wild or silly ideas, especially the boys. 2. Their drawings and other productions were characterized by a high degree of originality. 3. Their productions are characterized by humor, playfullness, and relative relaxation. Two sets of norm data are available, one on the fifth grade equivalency study sample and the other on college data, including both graduate students and undergraduate students (Torrance, 1974) . The fifth grade data was used for converting the raw scores of elementary school children and high school students to T-scores, and the college data with college students and adults. T-scores are necessary to combine fluency, flexibility, and originality in order to make comparisons of relative strengths of individuals and groups . Administration and Scoring of the Instruments In the present study, TTCT (Verbal Form A) was first administered, followed by the Buss-Durkee Inventory, "motor component." TTCT was administered following the instructions given in the instructor's manual (Torrance, 1974). While administering the Buss-Durkee Inventory, the researcher read

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53 the items aloud to the subjects. Also, subjects were free to ask for explanations if they did not understand the words, idioms, or expressions in the items. TTCT (Verbal Form A) was scored by the Torrance Tests Scoring Service in Athens, Georgia, to avoid bias by the researcher in favor of expected results. The Buss-Durkee Inventory, "motor component" was scored using a hand key with a maximum expectancy of 4 3 points on aggression. Treatment: Creative Problem-Solving The methodology of Creative Problem-Solving as formulated by Osborn (1963) and Parnes (1967a) was used in the study. The researcher explained the concepts and terms related to Creative Problem-Solving and gave the subjects practice in brainstorming on the unusual uses of familiar objects. Further brainstorming practice was given on the familiar problem situations faced in school. A summary was given of Creative Problem-Solving steps, followed by a Creative ProblemSolving simulation in a story form. Finally, the subjects listed all the problems they face in school that make them angry. They picked three or four problems that make them very angry and found solutions following the steps of Creative Problem-Solving (See appendix for CPS outline) .

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54 Collection of the Data Seventeen emotionally handicapped children with aggression problems were identified by the special education teacher. Prior to the experiment, a pretest of creativity (TTCT, Verbal Form A) and the Buss-Durkee Inventory, "motor component" were administered to each of the 17 subjects. Then the subjects were randomly assigned into control and experimental groups using a random number table. After the administration of pretests for all subjects, and randomization of subjects into control and experimental groups, the researcher worked with the experimental subjects, dispersed from the first period until the sixth period, on Creative Problem-Solving in small groups of two or three subjects, while the control subjects were engaged in routine special education class activities. The researcher used deception and told the control subjects that she could not work with all the subjects at the same time and so she would work with them later. The researcher worked with the experimental subjects on Creative Problem-Solving during special education period for 30 minutes daily for 15 consecutive sessions (3 weeks). The subjects were praised and reinforced at the end of each session for their performance and cooperation, as they were usually reinforced in the special education class. At the end of the 15 session treatment, TTCT (Verbal Form A) and the Buss-Durkee Inventory, "motor component" were readministered to both control and experimental subjects by the researcher.

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55 Statistical Procedure In the present study, pretest-posttest scores of TTCT, Verbal Form A (creativity) and the Buss-Durkee Inventory, "motor component" (aggression) were collected. In order to increase the power of analysis and to control for any possible differences in initial levels of performance, an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was employed for the evaluation of differences between experimental and control groups on creativity and aggression using pretest scores as covariate (Rascoe, 1974). An analysis of covariance involves a pretest (the variable to be controlled called the "covariate") and posttest (the criterion or the dependent variable) that are to be correlated. A third variable of importance is the independent variable whose effects on the dependent variable is to be studied and is represented by membership in one of the experimental groups. In the present study, the same instrument was used for both pretest and posttest. The analysis of covariance consists essentially of determining that a portion of the variance of the criterion existed prior to the experiment, and this portion is eliminated from the final analysis. The predicted score is the portion of the criterion measure that may be determined from a knowledge of the variable to be controlled. This may be subtracted from the criterion score to obtain an adjusted criterion score. The final analysis was based on these adjusted scores and

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56 statistical inferences were drawn with respect to adjusted group means. Thus ANCOVA is an analysis strategy in which posttest scores are adjusted on the means of pretest measures. An analysis of covariance was done using: 1. The T-Score of creativity (three components combined) 2. The raw score of the three components of creativity — fluency, flexibility, and originality; and 3. The raw score of aggression. In order to do the analysis of covariance, the following assumptions were made: 1. The sample populations (control and experimental groups) are normally distributed. 2. There is no interaction between treatment and the covariate. 3. The variance of the distribution of sample populations is homogeneous. 4. The correlation between the covariate and dependent variable is high enough to do ANCOVA. The level of significance of the tests was set at .05 for creativity and .10 for aggression. The significance level of creativity was set at .05 to reduce Type I error. That is, the significance level of creativity was set at .05 to reduce the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis, by chance, when it is true. Thus a very strong test is used for creativity to see if the program is implemented. Studying the effectiveness of CPS on aggression was a new venture,

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57 so the significance level of aggression was set at .10 to reduce Type II error. That is, the significance level of aggression was set at .10 to reduce the probability of retaining the null hypothesis by chance, when it is false.

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CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS OF THE DATA The purpose of this study was to determine if training in Creative Problem-Solving could reduce the aggression of emotionally handicapped aggressive middle school children. For this purpose it was hypothesized that emotionally handicapped aggressive children would reduce their aggression through training in Creative Problem-Solving. To see if the program was implemented another hypothesis on creativity with three subproblems on the components of creativity (fluency, flexibility, and originality) were formulated. Pretests of creativity and aggression were administered to all subjects, followed by random assignment of subjects into control and experimental groups. Creative Problem-Solving training was given to the experimental subjects for 15 sessions of 30 minutes each. Posttests of creativity and aggression were administered to both control and experimental groups after the treatment period. Results Sixteen children participated in this study. The administration of the tests and the treatment were conducted according to the proceedings described in Chapter III, and 58

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59 the data were analyzed using ANCOVA and the hypotheses were tested. In order to get total creativity for each subject, a T-Score was computed as suggested by Torrance (19 74) and was used for the analysis. The use of a raw score is appropriate for pretest and posttest scores of the same individual on the components of creativity. To find the effectiveness of CPS on the components of creativity, the raw scores of the three components of creativity were analyzed. A summary of the mean and standard deviation of all variables for control and experimental groups are presented in Table 1. When the differences in the means between the control and experimental groups on pre and posttest scores of total creativity, fluency, flexibility, originality, and aggression were compared, the effectiveness of CPS training was evident (Table 1) . The difference between the means of control and experimental group for total creativity increased from 4.66 on the pretest to 16.03 on the posttest; for fluency, from 17.12 on the pretest to 41.13 on the posttest; for flexibility, from 8.50 on the pretest to 14 on the posttest; and for originality, from 15.50 on the pretest to 34.50 on the posttest, all in favor of the experimental group. The difference between the means of control and experimental group decreased on aggression from 3.75 on the pretest to 1.00 on the posttest in favor of the experimental group. Prior to the analysis of covariance of the data, hypotheses of equal regression slopes were tested for the sample

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60 i i en CD <-{ & Cn i O Cm -P c H Cn •H M O 4-> T3 H (0 > CD CD Q 5h T3 M C (0 O Ti a U 3 C C rH cC rd -P C 0) E -H -H M -P CD 05 a CU X U W U T3 rH C fd nl -P O o O a p a 0) £ H 5h CD a. x w o in o c a o u -H «j -p 13 fd C -H (d > -P -P CD cn a CTi CO oo vd cn oo in ,-h vd in CTi *x> co in oo ^f •>* o (No cn <* cn^ji i-l CN OO rH r-t CN oo en oo ^r CO OO co m rin r> ^r

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61 populations involved to see if assumptions of the analysis of covariance were met. For total creativity an F value of .23 with P value of .64 was obtained; for fluency an F value of 1.45 with P value of .25 was obtained; for flexibility an F value of .00 with P value of .95 was obtained; for originality an F value of .56 with P value of .47 was obtained; and for aggression an F value of .19 with P value of .67 was obtained. Since the F values obtained were not significant, it was concluded that the assumption of homogeneity of the regression slopes was met for T-score of total creativity, and raw scores of fluency, flexibility, originality, and aggression at .05 level of confidence. Thus there was no interaction between the treatment and covariate, so it was appropriate to do the analysis of covariance. In order to test the assumption of normality of the sample population involved in the study, plots of errors or residual versus predicted values of the dependent variable were plotted for T-Score of total creativity, the raw scores of fluency, flexibility, originality, and aggression. The data were found to be normally distributed on both sides of zero residual line, confirming that the normality assumption was met. Hypotheses Tested The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was employed to test the statistical hypotheses. The results are presented in Table 2.

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62

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63 The null hypotheses tested by this procedure were as follows : HO : Emotionally handicapped middle school children with aggression problems practicing Creative Problem-Solving technique manifest creativity as measured by the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking, (Verbal Form A, titled "Thinking Creatively with Words" ) to the same degree as emotionally handicapped students with aggression problems not practicing the technique. The analysis of covariance was applied to total creativity (T-Score) and the result is presented in Table 2. The computed F statistic for this hypothesis equalled 6.89. The probability of obtaining an F value under the null hypothesis equalled .02. Since the probability of the computed F statistic was less than the .05 level set as the criterion for statistical significance, the null hypothesis was rejected. That is, there was a significant difference in the adjusted average total creativity between the experimental and control groups. An inspection of the adjusted posttest means of total creativity in Table 3 indicated that the experimental group (49.65) had higher adjusted mean scores in total creativity compared to the control (39.06). The experimental group showed higher creativity than the control group. Thus it was concluded that emotionally handicapped middle school children who practiced Creative Problem-Solving increased their creativity significantly compared to those who did not practice Creative Problem-Solving.

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p a 0) e H U 0) a x w 64 tn a) H X! Id. H M > a) c tu Q 4-1 o to c rfl 0) S a. o u o

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65 H0 l(a) : Emot i° na lly handicapped middle school children with aggression problems practicing Creative Problem-Solving technique manifest fluency as measured by the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking, (Verbal Form A, titled "Thinking Creatively with Words") to the same degree as emotionally handicapped students with aggression problems not practicing the technique. The analysis of covariance was applied to fluency (raw score), and the result is presented in Table 2. The computed F statistic for this hypothesis equalled 8.73. The probability of obtaining an F value under the null hypothesis equalled .01. Since the probability of the computed F statistic was less than the .05 level set as the criterion for statistical significance, the null hypothesis was rejected. That is, there was a significant difference in adjusted average fluency between the experimental and control groups. An inspection of the adjusted posttest means of fluency in Table 3 indicated that the experimental group (71.19) had higher adjusted mean scores in fluency compared to the control group (44.44). It was concluded that emotionally handicapped middle school children who practiced Creative Problem-Solving increased their fluency significantly compared to those who did not practice Creative Problem-Solving. HO . * : Emotionally handicapped middle school children with aggression problems practicing the Creative ProblemSolving technique manifest flexibility as measured by the

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66 Torrance Test of Creative Thinking, (Verbal Form A, titled "Thinking Creatively with Words") to the same degree as emotionally handicapped students with aggression problems not practicing the technique. The analysis of covariance was applied to flexbility (raw score) and the result is presented in Table 2. The computed F statistic for this hypothesis equalled 2.06. The probability of obtaining an F value under the null hypothesis equalled .17. Since the probability of the computed P statistic was greater than the .05 level set as the criterion for statistical significance, the null hypothesis was retained. That is, there was no significant difference in flexibility between the experimental and control groups. An inspection of the adjusted posttest means of flexibility in Table 3 indicated that the experimental group had higher adjusted mean scores in flexibility (26.26) compared to the control group (17.99), though it was not statistically significant. H0-j, c ) : Emotionally handicapped middle school children with aggression problems practicing Creative Problem-Solving technique manifest originality as measured by the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking, (Verbal Form A, titled "Thinking Creatively with Words") to the same degree as emotionally handicapped students with aggression problems not practicing the technique. The analysis of covariance was applied to originality (raw score) and the result is presented in Table 2. The

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67 computed P statistic for this hypothesis equalled 4.43. The probability of obtaining an F value under the null hypothesis equalled .05. Since the probability of the computed F statistic was equal to the .05 level set as the criterion for statistical significance, the null hypothesis was rejected. That is, there was a significant difference in originality between the experimental and control groups. An inspection of the adjusted posttest means of originality in Table 3 indicated that the experimental group (42.41) had higher adjusted mean scores in originality compared to the control group (22.84). Thus, it was concluded that emotionally handicapped middle school children who practiced Creative Problem-Solving increased their originality significantly when compared to those who did not practice Creative ProblemSolving. H0 2 : Emotionally handicapped middle school children with aggression problems practicing Creative Problem-Solving technique manifest aggression as measured by the Buss-Durkee Inventory, "motor component" to the same degree as emotionally handicapped students with aggression problems not practicing the technique. The analysis of covariance was applied to aggression (raw score) and the result is presented in Table 2. The computed F statistic for this hypothesis equalled 3.26. The probability of obtaining an F value under the null hypothesis equalled .09. Since the probability of the computed F

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68 statistic was smaller than the .10 level set as the criterion for statistical significance, the null hypothesis was rejected. That is, there was a significant difference in aggression between the experimental and control groups. A summary of the adjusted posttest means of aggression is given in Table 3. An inspection of Table 3 indicates that the adjusted posttest mean scores of the experimental group (24.88) in aggression was less than that of the control group (28.37). It was concluded that emotionally handicapped middle school children with aggression problems practicing Creative ProblemSolving decrease their aggression significantly compared to those who do not practice Creative Problem-Solving. Summary Sixteen emotionally handicapped middle school children participated in this study. The Torrance Test of Creative Thinking, (Verbal Form A) and the Buss-Durkee Inventory, "motor component" were administered to the subjects prior to assigning them randomly into control and experimental groups. The researcher worked with the experimental groups on Creative Problem-Solving of the real problems they faced in school, in groups of two or three for 15 sessions, while the control subjects were engaged in their routine activities. Posttests of creativity and aggression were administered to both groups after the treatment period. An analysis of covariance was employed to test the difference between experimental and control groups on creativity

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69 and aggression with pretest scores as the covariate. Significant results were obtained for the total creativity, fluency, originality, and aggression. Results were non-significant for flexibility. Significance level was set at .05 for creativity in order to obtain a strong test for creativity to reduce Type I error. By setting the significance level for aggression at .10, caution was taken against Type II error without eliminating the new area of study (effectiveness of Creative Problem-Solving on aggression of emotionally handicapped children) from social science research.

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CHAPTER V DISCUSSION, IMPLICATIONS, PROBLEMS, RECOMMENDATIONS, SUMMARY, AND CONCLUSION Discussion of the Results The present study dealt with the problem of whether emotionally handicapped aggressive children would reduce aggression as a result of practice in Creative ProblemSolving by increasing creativity. Hypothesis 1, that emotionally handicapped aggressive middle school children will increase creativity as a result of training in Creative Problem-Solving (CPS) , was supported by the analysis of covariance of total creativity (T-Score) as measured by the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking, Verbal Form A (P <.05). The significance level of creativity was set at .05 to keep the probability of a Type I error low. Thus there was a strong test for creativity to test the implementation of the program. The results obtained confirmed that significant difference was obtained in total creativity between control and experimental subjects. Hypotheses la and lc, that emotionally handicapped aggressive middle school children will increase their fluency and originality, were supported by the analysis of covariance of the raw scores of fluency and originality (P <.05). That 70

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71 is, the results obtained for fluency and originality showed that there was a significant difference between the control and experimental groups. The ability to produce a large number of ideas and the ability to produce ideas that are away from the obvious and common place increased significantly as a result of the training in CPS. Thus, CPS was found to be an effective tool to increase fluency and originality of emotionally handicapped middle school children. Kandil and Torrance (1978) had found that emotionally handicapped children were high in their fluency and originality, but low in flexibility. The authors suggested that the subjects' strengths should be utilized in their special programs to remedy the deficit in the area of flexibility. The results of the program showed that the subjects' strong areas improved significantly due to practice in CPS. However, hypothesis lb, that emotionally handicapped aggressive middle school children will increase flexibility, was not supported by the analysis of covariance of the raw scores, contrary to the suggestion of Kandil and Torrance (1978) . There was no significant difference in flexibility score between control and experimental groups. That is, the subjects' ability to produce a variety of ideas, to shift from one approach to another, or to use a variety of strategies did not increase significantly by practice in CPS. However, an examination of the adjusted posttest means of flexibility suggested improvement for experimental group in flexibility, supporting the

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72 view of Kandil and Torrance. It is possible that emotionally handicapped subjects needed more drill in making alternate responses to produce significant increase in flexibility. That is why precision teaching was used in their routine special education activities. The problem with the emotionally handicapped is that they are nonflexible in their ideas. They learned the habit of sticking to a narrow range of responses and a rigid pattern of thinking during their lifetime, and apparently it will take more than 15 training sessions to change their flexibility significantly. Significant results obtained in hypothesis 1, la, and lc are in agreement with several research findings that creativity increases with practice in Creative Problem-Solving. (Shean, 1979; Khatena, 1971; Sullivan, 1969; Torrance, 1964). Hypothesis 2, that emotionally handicapped aggressive children practicing Creative Problem-Solving (CPS) will reduce their aggression, was supported by the analysis of covariance of the single index raw score obtained from the four subscales comprising the "motor component" of the BussDurkee Inventory (P <.10). That is, significant difference was obtained in aggression between experimental and control groups supporting the hypothesis that training in CPS reduces aggression. This result is in agreement with the results of the studies of Loughmiller (1978), Robin et al. (1976), and Giebink et al. (1968) where aggression was reduced by cognitive

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73 control technique in which problem-solving or alternate response was emphasized. The significance level of aggression was set at .10 to reduce the probability of retaining the null hypothesis when it was false. Studying the effect of CPS on aggression of emotionally handicapped students is a new topic of interest and is a pioneer work in the area of developing a special program for the emotionally handicapped. Thus if CPS is effective in reducing aggression, its effects ought to be recognized by doing further studies in this area to help students who need special programs, hence the justification for setting the significance level of aggression at .10. Edmunds and Kendrick (1980) believed that the BussDurkee Inventory used in this study to measure aggression is an excellent instrument, for it was constructed on the basis of theoretical principles, internal consistency, and factorial analysis. The social desirability variable was controlled by taking caution in the construction of each item. In the item construction, it was assumed that anger was present. So inquiry was made on how anger was expressed. Justification was provided for admitting aggressive acts, and familiar phrases and expressions were used. In the present study to test if social desirability was controlled, the arithmetic mean of the aggression score for the samples (28.25) used in the study was compared to that of the regular homeroom class (21.35) as measured by the Buss-Durkee Inventory, "motor

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74 component". The mean aggression score of the subjects in the homeroom class was lower than that of the sample used in the study, supporting the validity of the instrument in identifying aggressive middle school children from less aggressive middle school children. The subjects were not hiding their aggression, and the evidence was in the results. However, the examination of the results obtained for aggression showed that it was significant only at .10 level of confidence, suggesting a need for some finer measure of aggression such as observation of the frequency counts of aggressive behavior (Kauffman, 1977) in the special education class where the treatment took place before and after the study. One of the limitations of the study was that there were only 16 subjects. It is possible that the result for aggression was significant only at .10 level of confidence due to small sample size. The Buss-Durkee factors were invariant for male subjects, but unstable for female students (Edmunds and Kendrick, 1980) . The administration of the Buss-Durkee Inventory, "motor component" to the homeroom children showed an arithmetic mean of 26.13 for boys and 18.17 for girls supporting a sex difference in aggression. It might be possible that the presence of two female subjects in the control group might have affected the outcome of the study slightly resulting in lower level of confidence in aggression (P < .10) .

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75 The arithmetic mean of the Buss-Durkee Inventory, "motor component' for the homeroom children supported a sex difference in aggression (26.13 for boys and 18.17 for girls). Also Dalton (1973) used the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking and found a sex difference in favor of women on fluency, flexibility, and originality variables of creativity, suggesting a sex factor in creativity. The sex factor in creativity and aggression suggest future studies using males and females separately. The researcher did not work with the control group on Creative Problem-Solving at the end of the experiment, though the subjects believed that she would work with them later, so the issue of Hawthorne effect may have been introduced. One might suspect whether the significant results on aggression were obtained due to CPS or to the attention the experimental subjects got from the researcher. There may be an attention effect, though the researcher believed that CPS was effective. Thus the study suggests that future research needs to have an attention control group. In conclusion, the total creativity, fluency, and originality increased significantly at .05 level of confidence supporting the implementation of the program. In addition there was a significant difference between the control and experimental groups, and significant decrease for aggression. Thus, the validity of the treatment was supported.

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76 Problems the Researcher Faced The emotionally handicapped aggressive subjects had had problems with the law or the school authorities previously, so they were afraid to sign any form or to get their parents to sign any form. The researcher had to assure them that their answers on the pre and posttests would be confidential, and that it would not get them into trouble. The researcher had to have several extra copies of parent consent forms and child assent forms because some students had lost their copies. Sometimes they left their copy somewhere in the classroom or in their folder and forgot to show them to their parents when they were home. The researcher had to keep reminding the subjects to return the signed forms, had to inquire about the status of the unreturned forms from time to time, and had to replace the lost ones. The emotionally handicapped subjects were frequently absent from school for various reasons— sickness, running away from home, broken bones, suspension from school, etc. When a member of the treatment group was absent from the session, the researcher had to keep note of what the subject missed and had to work with them separately to help them catch up with the rest of the small group they were part of. Thus absenteeism was a real problem the researcher had to face when working with groups of emotionally handicapped children. The researcher also had to work often with subjects

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77 with broken bones and who were angry. Thus she had to use skill and patience to work with them. Though the subjects were physically present, on some days they were not cooperative to work on Creative ProblemSolving. The problems the subjects faced in other classes were carried over to the special education class. In those cases also, the researcher had to help them on the parts they missed. The researcher was always under the threat that the subjects in the study might be eliminated from the program due to suspension from school. One subject from the control group was suspended from school toward the end of the program, and was removed from the program. The Creative Problem-Solving treatment was for three weeks (15 sessions) . But the researcher had to spend seven weeks with the subjects at school from the time of the distribution of consent forms to the completion of the collection of the data. This was because the subjects were afraid to get the parent consent forms and child assent forms signed, and subsequent delay in returning the forms, and their absenteeism from class and lack of cooperation. Recommendations for Future Research Many questions came up as a result of the present study. Therefore, the following recommendations are made:

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78 It would be beneficial to replicate the present experiment employing observational techniques and making a frequency count of the occurrence of the aggressive responses of the subjects during special education class, before and after the treatment adjunct to the Buss-Durkee Inventory, "motor component. " The observational technique together with the paper and pencil test will strengthen the results of the study. Further research should be conducted using male and female samples separately because there is a sex factor in creativity in favor of females. Thus the sex of the participant could be a factor related to the efficiency of the Creative Problem-Solving. Further research also should be conducted giving the subjects practice on Creative Problem-Solving for longer periods, to give them a thorough knowledge of the procedure of the technique especially on the alternate responses to increase flexibility significantly to draw stronger conclusions Since it was hard to keep even a small group of emotionally handicapped children on Creative Problem-Solving tasks, future research should be done using one subject at a time to get stronger results. It is costly to the schools or the agency involved to use emotionally handicapped aggressive subjects for CPS training on one-to-one basis. But it will pay off when the program is effective and the subjects cope with their frustrations and reduce aggression.

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79 The study may be replicated using a larger sample to obtain stronger results. Similarly, future research may be conducted using an experimental group, an attention control group, and a control group to see if the significant results obtained in this study is due to the treatment effect or to the attention the subjects obtained from the researcher. Finally, a follow-up study may be conducted to find the duration of the effectiveness of the program on aggression. In order to do it, follow up the subjects (both control and experimental) in the study after a series of intervals and test them for creativity and aggression and see how long does the effectiveness of the program last. Implications of the Study The findings of this study have implications within the therapeutic milieu. Osborn's (1963) brainstorming process helped produce valuable ideas for solving problems. It not only produced ideas but also changed people's attitudes when they practiced the process repeatedly. Thus the subjects start appreciating and respecting their own well of knowledge. Because of this, psychologists are currently suggesting Creative Problem-Solving as an important part of therapy. The beginning of most cognitive therapy process is a simple generation of ideas. Even "well" people seem to be quite inhibited with regard to the free flow of ideas. Emotionally

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80 disturbed children are low in their creativity to produce alternate original ideas, and they can get some therapeutic effect from the Creative Problem-Solving programs. Thus, this study has implications on the curriculum of special education class for the emotionally handicapped. The results of the study also have implications for the training of teachers, counselors, and others who come into contact with children. Since Creative Problem-Solving was found to be effective in increasing creativity and reducing aggression of emotionally handicapped school children, one could help make changes in the curriculum of teachers' training programs by introducing required courses in creative thinking. Creativity courses may help teachers and counselors to be aware of their own creativity as well as that of their students, and thus be more effective in dealing with children. Teachers and counselors can use Creative Problem-Solving as an intervention program to teach children that there are alternate solutions to problems rather than aggression. Summary The present study was conducted to study the effectiveness of Creative Problem-Solving on aggression of emotionally handicapped middle school children by increasing creativity. The subjects were 16 aggressive children from a middle school attending special education class for the emotionally handicapped. Pretests of creativity (Torrance Test of Creative

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81 Thinking, Verbal Form A) and aggression (The Buss-Durkee Inventory, "motor component") were administered to the subjects, followed by randomization of them into control and experimental groups. The researcher worked with the experimental subjects in groups of two to three for three weeks (15 sessions of 30 minutes each) . They worked on the real problems they faced in school, following the steps of Creative ProblemSolving after the introduction of CPS concepts and a few warm up exercises. The control group was engaged in the routine precision learning of the special class. Tests of creativity and aggression were readministered to both control and experimental subjects following the treatment period. The data collected were analyzed by the ANCOVA technique, using the pretests as covariates. The results showed that total creativity, fluency, and originality increased significantly at .05 level of confidence and aggression decreased significantly at .10 level of confidence, strengthening the relationship between creativity and aggression. Flexibility increased, but was nonsignificant. The significant level for creativity was set at .05 to get stronger results for creativity, in order to see if the program was implemented. The significant level for aggression was set at .10 because this was the first systematic study in which the effectiveness of CPS on aggression was studied and to avoid the possibility of throwing out the area by chance from future research if it was truly effective. The results supported the hypothesis

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82 that training in Creative Problem-Solving increases creativity and decreases aggression, though flexibility did not increase significantly. Because of the results obtained, it was recommended that future research be conducted, using a larger sample, using either males or females only, employing observational technique in addition to a paper and pencil test to measure aggression, giving more drill on CPS to find alternate responses as solutions to problems, and using an attention control group followed by a follow-up study to see how long the effects of treatment last on creativity and aggression. Conclu sion The results of the study showed that Creative ProblemSolving is an effective tool in reducing aggression. The results supported the view that creativity increases by practice. This study strengthened the relationship between creativity and aggression because increase in total creativity, fluency, and originality and decrease in aggression were significant. That is, increase in creativity is related to decrease in aggression. The emotionally handicapped subjects are particularly low in their flexibility (Kandil and Torrance, 1978) , and are low in their ability to solve problems by making alternate responses. Practice of Creative Problem-Solving

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83 in this study increased the total creativity and the components, though flexibility was not significant. The nonsignificant result of flexibility would have been because of the short duration of CPS practice in the study. Perhaps, tne emotionally handicapped children who learned the habit of aggressing physically and verbally, rather than making different categories of responses to solve their problems, need more practice to break from their habit. The training of Creative Problem-Solving in this study was only for three weeks (15 sessions of 30 minutes each) , so training for a longer period (say, 30 sessions) might have increased the flexibility score significantly. The study was conducted in April/May when the subjects were looking forward to the end of the school year. Also the temperature was hot during the time of the study, and it was hard on the subjects to work in their school building which was not air-conditioned. Therefore, the researcher believes that the subjects were not as responsive as they would have been during another time in the academic year. By taking the obstacles in this study into account and looking at the results, one might conclude that the study was a success. It can, therefore, be concluded that training in Creative Problem-Solving is an effective tool in increasing the creativity and reducing the aggression of

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84 emotionally handicapped aggressive middle school children when emphasis is on training that emphasizes other ways of handling problems.

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APPENDICES

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APPENDIX A CREATIVE PROBLEM-SOLVING (CPS) PROGRAM OUTLINE 1st Session Explanation of Words and Ideas Related to CPS (Show all underlined words and concepts on posterboards) . A problem may be defined as any need requiring action felt by individuals. (Give examples of problem to subjects). E.g., 1: In the morning, when I am ready to go to school and if my car does not start, then I have a problem with my transportation. I have to find a way to get to school on time, that is, I have to find a solution to the problem . E.g., 2: There is a particular parking lot where I can park my car at the University of Florida campus. If I go a few minutes after nine o'clock, that particular parking lot is full and so I do not get a place to park my car. Then I have a problem as I might get a ticket for parking my car elsewhere as I am allowed to park only in one particular parking lot. E.g., 3: I set the alarm clock at night but it does not go off sometimes, and so I wake up late. I miss my eight o'clock class. Then I face a problem as I miss the lecture. 86

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87 E.g., 4: Sometimes my children do not like the meals I cook for them. Then I face a problem. Thus, I face a lot of problems at home and at school. (Ask the subjects to give examples of problems they face) . Ask the subjects how do they feel when they face a problem. rotten, frustrated, angry, aggressive, etc. How do people show their anger or aggression ? Physical aggression kicking, hitting, beating, slapping, spitting, biting, etc. Verbal aggression lying, gossiping, calling names, etc. Everyone faces one problem or the other at home, at school, or at work. Then one has to do something about it. When we face a problem , instead of showing our aggression , we have to learn to solve the problem by making alternate responses that will reduce negative consequences and increase positive consequences . Negative consequences are bad results and positive consequences are good results. 2nd Session Creative Problem-Solving When creativity or creative thinking is applied to problem-solving it is called Creative Problem-Solving. That is, a lot of imagination is used to find the best solution to the problems.

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Creativity (Define) : Ability to do something original or create something new. Three parts of creativity : fluency number of ideas flexibility number of category of ideas originality uniqueness of ideas Explain these three components of creativity on the basis of ideas produced for a familiar object, say a plastic container. Inventors, famous writers, artists, painters, and architects show extreme degree of creativity, but creativity exists in all individuals. Creativity is expressed in a variety of ways. One can read, write, draw, cook, or decorate creatively. One can think creatively and solve a problem. Thus creativity can be expressed in all walks of life. (The researcher shows an example of her creative work to the children. For example, the researcher wanted to improve her candle making skill. She made different kinds of candles in different shapes, sizes, and colors and arranged them around a theme for presentation to her creative thinking course) . Ask the children to give an example of their creativity, something unique they produced or created.

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89 3rd Session Osborn's Brainstorming Rules In Creative Problem-Solving idea production by brainstorming is recognized as the most important part. Brainstorming is a method to think up lots of quality ideas. Explain Osborn's four simple "ground rules" for brain storming . 1. Defer judgement. Criticism is ruled out. 2. Freewheeling is encouraged. Be a free-wheeler. 3. Quantity is wanted. 4. Combination and improvement are sought. Be a hitchhiker. "Defer judgement" means postpone judgement or evaluation of ideas until later. Separate imagination and evaluation. Hitchhiker is one who hitchhikes. To hitchhike while brainstorming means to combine ideas. Freewheeler. To freewheel while brainstorming is to think up or imagine without any consideration of rules, forms, responsibilities, or consequences. Quantity is number. When practice in brainstorming is given, show Osborn's rules and idea spurring words on posterboards as shown on Worksheet No. 3. The researcher should encourage playfulness and informality. Invitation to regress should be extended saying that it is just for fun, not for grades. If the subjects "bog down", try some idea getting strategies such as

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90 »T ^+I 'Let's try to get our motor started again by getting more ideas" . Encourage them to combine ideas (hitch-hike) . Encourage them to give a new idea, preferably a wild one. Let the researcher give an idea when the subject gives one idea or let the researcher give an idea when the subject gives two ideas . Following the principles of brainstorming, give an exercise to brainstorm on a familiar object, e.g., write down the unusual uses of a paperclip . Let each subject hold the paper clip, manipulate it, and use all the senses while brainstorming, 4th Session Give more brainstorming practice on unusual uses of familiar objects following the "ground rules". WORKSHEET NO. 1 LIST THE UNUSUAL USES OF THE FOLLOWING FAMILIAR OBJECTS: (10 minutes each) 1. A paperclip 2. A newspaper 3. A bottle 4. A tin can 5th Session In order to give more practice in brainstorming on real problems, take a pool of potentially frustrating situations

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91 occurring at the school which are likely to lead to unacceptable aggressive behaviors. The situations selected here are adapted from the Aggression Inventory of Doyal (1976) as suggested by Giebink et al. (1968) . WORKSHEET NO. 2 PRACTICE ON ADAPTIVE ALTERNATIVE RESPONSES TO PROBLEMATIC SITUATIONS THROUGH BRAINSTORMING Example 1. Suppose the teacher enters the room to find it noisy. You were not one of the noisy people. But the teacher makes everyone do a task 100 times as the punishment. You are angry. How would you react to this situation? Generate alternate adaptive response ideas to solve this problem situation (10 minutes) . (Gave space to list the responses) Example 2. Suppose you are eating your lunch and someone accidentally spills your soup all over your sandwich and makes you angry. What would you do? Generate all possible ideas to solve this problem (10 minutes) . (Gave space to list the responses) Example 3. Someone wrote a dirty word on the bathroom wall and the classmates blame you and the teacher sends you to the principal's office for a spanking. You are angry. Generate alternate adaptive ideas to solve this problem (10 minutes) . (Gave space to list the responses) 6th and 7th Session Creative Problem-Solving Process Summary Introduce Creative Problem-Solving (CPS) summary in a diagramatic way. Explain the steps of CPS and the component skills involved. (Show the figural representation of Creative

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92 Problem-Solving process, Osborn's principles and idea spurring words on posterboards . ) 8th Session Creative Problem-Solving Simulation The children listened to a CPS simulation developed in a story form. The researcher read the story to the subjects while the subjects read the story silently. In order to introduce a simulation of Creative ProblemSolving technique a story is depicted as follows: The experimental subjects listened to a story of a middle school student named Robby who reduced his aggression by practicing Creative Problem-Solving (CPS) . Once there was a student named Robby. He fought with his classmates, talked back to the teachers and got into trouble. He was sent to the counselor and to the principal several times because he could not control his aggression. At times he was angry at his classmates, his teachers, and others. He could not explain what was bothering him. He was in a mess. So, he was put in a special class where he got some practice in Creative Problem-Solving daily. He followed the five steps in CPS, one after another, emphasizing the principle of deferred judgement of brainstorming at each step. The five steps of CPS are: 1. Fact-finding 2. Problem-finding

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93 3. Idea-finding 4. Solution-finding, and 5. Acceptance-finding In order to find facts, Robby asked himself the following questions: 1. What is bugging me? 2. Who has been on my mind? teachers, classmates or others? Why? 3. What sort of conflict have I got on my mind? 4. What is a goal I would like to attain this year, this month, or this day? For example, can I get good grades this term? 5. What is bothering me in my relationship with my teachers and classmates at school? In Problem-finding Robby was asked to generate a list of problems. He was given 10 minutes to write down the following problems without judging: 1. My classmates tease me and fight with me. 2. I am not popular among my classmates. 3. I have problems with my school work. I lose my worksheets . 4. I find it difficult to get good grades. (I make poor grades) . 5. I become tardy in school. 6. I fall asleep in class. 7. I get into trouble with teachers and classmates.

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94 8. I forget to bring my homework. 9. I do not complete my homework. 10. Someone breaks into my locker often. 11. I get my things stolen (books, pencils, backpack, cap, etc. ) . 12. I get suspended from school often. Then, Robby was asked to pick the problem that makes him very, very angry at school. He picked problem No. 7 and circled it. He reworded and redefined the problem as follows for creative attack setting time limits. So, he asked the following open-ended question: "In What Ways Might I improve my relationship at school?" He could substitute the different words and change the problem. Improve [ Promote school ! classroom .1 J. Develop i Better lunchi playground room quarter i semester 1 At school can be changed month [ year to teachers and classmates "In What Ways Might I develop better relationship in school?" OR "In What Ways Might I promote better relationship in school?" OR "In What Ways Might I improve my relationship in school?"

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95 OR "In What Ways Might I improve my relationship with my teacher and classmates?" OR "In What Ways Might I improve my relationship with my teachers and classmates during this year?" OR "In Wnat Ways Might I improve my relationship with my teachers and classmates during this semester or quarter?" OR "In What Ways Might I improve my relationship with my teachers and classmates during this month?" OR "In What Ways Might I improve my relationship with my teachers and classmates in the lunchroom?" OR "In What Ways Might I improve my relationship with my teachers and classmates in the playground?" etc. Thus the reworded question for creative attack is "IN WHAT WAYS MIGHT I IMPROVE MY RELATIONSHIP WITH MY TEACHERS AND CLASSMATES DURING THIS QUARTER?" Robby looked at the problem and broke the problem into subproblems. 1. "In What Ways Might I improve my relationship with my teacher during this quarter?"

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96 2. "In What Ways Might I improve my relationship with my classmates during this quarter?" At first Robby took subproblem No. 1 and generated ideas by brainstorming technique (10 minutes) as follows: 1. Do my homework and classwork well. 2. Be seated in chair without disturbing neighbors. 3. Complain about the teacher. 4. Bribe the teacher (give an apple to the teacher). 5. Have a conference with the teacher to find out how I could improve my relationship with her. Next, Robby moved into the Criteria-finding state. He made a list of criteria to evaluate the ideas produced based on consequences. They are as follows: 1. Is the idea useful? 2. Is the idea an improvement? 3. Is the idea timely? 4. Is the idea efficient? 5. Is the idea simple enough to implement? That is, is the idea practical? 6. Is the idea within my budget? That is, is it costly? 7. Will this idea make me happy, etc.? Robby picked four criteria appropriate for his subproblem and circled them. Then he evaluated each idea he produced against those four criteria using a three point scale where 1 equals poor, 2 equals fair, and 3 equals good.

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97 [ Is the JIs the j Is the J Will j Sum J idea "idea J idea j this 'Scores i an i timely? i simple i idea \ | improve| (time | enough | make * J ment? [spent) [ to be j me j i i i implei happy? i ! " t | mented? | [ 1. Do my work well. i 3 i 3 "1 J 2 i 9 1 r i 1 1 2. Be seated without [3 J 3 j 2 j 2 j 10 bothering others, i i i i i 1 -r 1 1 1 3. Complain about ] 1 ] 3 J 1 j 1 \ 6 the teacher. j ' ! ! ! 1 r 1 1 1 4. Bribe the teacher.} 1 J 2 j 1 J 1 \ 5 1 v 1 1 * 5. Have conference \ 3 i 3 j 3 i 2 i 11 with teacher. i ! ! ! ! Robby picked the ideas which scored 9 points or higher. Also, he combined some ideas. Robby decided to do his school work without disturbing others. Also, Robby decided to have a conference with the teacher to find out ways to improve his relationship with the teacher. Robby had to find acceptance for his solution to the problem. So, he had to find out to whom he will sell the program, when, where, and how? Robby had conflict with his teacher and so he found out criteria to sell his decision or solution to his teachers and other authorities in the school. His criteria for implementing his plan or selling his plan are as follows: 1. Will the solution to my problem make my teacher happy?

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98 2. Will my counselors and principal be happy? 3. Is it possible to implement it within the time limit, that is, within this quarter? Next evaluate the two solutions selected against the criteria using a three point scale where 1 equals poor, 2 equals fair and 3 equals good. Will my Will the Will I Sum teachers principal be able Scores be and to imhappy? counselor plement be happy? it this quarter? 1. Do the school work 3 3 3 9 without disturbing others . 2. Have a conference with the teacher. Robby combined and summarized the solution to the problem. ROBBY DECIDED TO HAVE A CONFERENCE WITH THE TEACHER TO IMPROVE HIS RELATIONSHIP WITH THE TEACHER AND DECIDED TO WORK HARD AND BEHAVE WELL IN SCHOOL. Robby communicated his decision with the teacher. The teacher was happy and so was Robby. He did not get into trouble with the teacher anymore and he could control his aggression. Similarly Robby took the second subproblem, "In What Ways Might I improve my relationship with my classmates during this quarter?" for creative attack and found solution to his problem and adjusted well.

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99 9th, 10th and 11th Session Creative Problem-Solving of Real Problems Give the subjects practice to go through a real problem that makes them angry at school following the steps of CPS after they list all the problems they face in school on the front page of worksheet handed out. (Worksheet No. 3) 12th to 15th Session Practice in Creative Problem-Solving of Real Problems (continued) Give practice on at least two more real problems that make them angry using the steps in CPS. Children worked on their own problems they brainstormed on Worksheet No. 3.

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100 WORKSHEET NO. 3 CREATIVE PROBLEM-SOLVING (Adapted from the handout given by E. Paul Torrance and Pansy Torrance in the Creative Thinking course at the University of Georgia, Athens, Ga.) IN THE SPACE BELOW, LIST AS RAPIDLY AS POSSIBLE PROBLEMS THAT FACE YOU RIGHT NOW IN SCHOOL THAT MAKE YOU ANGRY. JUST LIST THEM NOW. YOU WILL BE WORKING WITH SOME OF THESE DURING THE NEXT PERIODS. (Words to increase your sensitivity to problems are: improvements? goals? transportation? friends? teachers? grades? appearance? personality? safety? meals? personal things? (15 minutes to list the problems) Gave Space CPS FLOWSHEET SHOWING 5 STEPS F-F -> P-F -^ I-F — ^ S-F -> A-F — $> Plan CREATIVE PROBLEM-SOLVING COMPONENT SKILLS: 1. PROBLEM DEFINITION 2. BRAINSTORMING 3. CRITERIA SELECTION 4. EVALUATION OF IDEAS 5. PREPARATION OF SELLING PROGRAM

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101 Program Summary CREATIVE PROBLEM-SOLVING PROCESS Fact-Finding Problem-Finding Idea-Finding Solution-Finding Acceptance-Finding Typical Flow of the Creative Problem-Solving Process. Used by permission from S.J. Parnes, Creative Behavior Workbook. New York: Charles Scribner ' s Sons, 196 7b.

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102 LOOK AGAIN AT FRONT PAGE WHERE YOU LISTED YOUR PROBLEMS. CHOOSE THE PROBLEM WHICH MAKES YOU VERY ANGRY AND WORD IT FOR CREATIVE ATTACK. THEN LIST AT LEAST 5 QUESTIONS ABOUT THE PROBLEM TO FIND FACTS . TURN THE PROBLEM AROUND, UPSIDE DOWN, INSIDE OUT. ADD ENOUGH FACTS TO MAKE THE PROBLEM CLEAR. Gave Space PROBLEM-FINDING REDEFINITION: USING THE IDEAS YOU OBTAINED IN THE CPS SESSIONS REDEFINE THE PROBLEM YOU ARE WORKING ON. REDEFINE THE PROBLEM USING THE FORM "IN WHAT WAYS MIGHT I ?" STATEMENT 1. Gave Space STATEMENT 2. (After Rearrangement of words in the original statement) Gave Space BREAK THE PROBLEM INTO SUB-PROBLEMS IF NEEDED AND WRITE THEM IN THE SPACE BELOW. Subproblem 1. Subproblem 2 Subproblem 3. Gave Space Gave Space Gave Space

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103 BRAINSTORMING Osborn's (1963) Four Basic Rules 1. CRITICISM IS RULED OUT. Defer judgement until later. (That is, imagination and judgement are separated) . 2. "FREE-WHEELING" IS WELCOMED. The wilder the idea, the better; it is easier to "tame down" than to think up. 3. QUANTITY IS WANTED. The greater the number of ideas, the better are the chance to produce good ideas. 4. COMBINATION AND IMPROVEMENT ARE SOUGHT. Combine two or more ideas. Be a "hitch-hiker." A list of idea spurring words can be used to enlarge the storehouse of ideas (Noller, Treffinger, and Houseman, 1979 p. 35) IDEA SPURRING WORDS: S Substitute (material, place, name, time, color, function, etc . ) C Combine (unite, join, embody, assimilate, blend, etc. ) A Adapt, add (conform, regulate, adjust, etc.) M Modify (transform, alter, vary, moderate, etc.) Magnify (add, larger, multiply, stronger, etc.) Minify (subtract, divide, smaller, etc.) P Put to other uses (altered, reversed, etc.) E Eliminate (remove, omit, cut out, etc.) R Reverse (invert, opposites, backward, inside out, upside down) Rearrange (change order or adjust component parts, how else use, etc.)

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104 IDEA-FINDING WRITE ALL YOUR IDEAS THAT ARE SOLUTIONS TO YOUR PROBLEM. (10 minutes) (READ PAGE 7 CAREFULLY BEFORE IDEA PRODUCTION AND FOLLOW THE RULES OF OSBORN) . Gave Space SOLUTION-FINDING EVALUATING IDEAS: Two things are needed: Ideas to evaluate, and criteria to weigh or measure the ideas with. Criterion: A yardstick, a standard of judging. Each and Every idea is judged by ONE criterion, then one moves to the second criterion to judge all ideas, etc. FROM THE IDEAS YOU BRAINSTORMED FOR YOUR OWN PROBLEM YOU FACE IN SCHOOL, DEVELOP THE KIND OF CRITERIA YOU NEED TO WEIGH OR MEASURE (the yardstick you will use) . GENERATE CRITERIA BY BRAINSTORMING. CIRCLE FIVE CRITERIA MOST PERTINENT TO THIS PARTICULAR PROBLEM. 1. Criteria are in the vertical columns. Ideas are in the horizontal columns. 2. Weigh all ideas, one by one, by just ONE criterion. DO NOT go across the page, go vertically. G is good or 3; F is fair or 2; P is poor or 1. EVALUATION MATRIX CRITERIA Ideas below 1. 2.

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105 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. SUM THE SCORES OBTAINED FOR EACH IDEA ACROSS THE PAGE. CHOOSE THE THREE BEST IDEAS AND LIST THE WAYS YOU COULD SELL THEM — TO WHOM, HOW, WHEN, WHERE, ETC.? ACCEPTANCE-FINDING SELLING THE IDEA Brainstormed ideas for selling. LIST THE WAYS YOU COULD SELL THE IDEA. TO WHOM? HOW? WHEN? WHY? Evaluation of selling ideas using criteria: Ideas Criteria 1.

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106 2. 3. SELECT THE BEST IDEA. COMBINE THE IDEAS IF THEY ARE EQUALLY GOOD . STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM FROM THE FUZZY SITUATION AND YOUR PLAN FOR ITS SOLUTION. (A brief summary) Gave Space

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APPENDIX B THE BUSS-DURKEE INVENTORY "MOTOR COMPONENT" 1. I seldom strike back, even if someone hits me first. T F 2. I sometimes spread gossip about people I don't like. T F 3. I lose my temper easily but get over it quickly. T F 4. When I disapprove of my friend's behavior, I let them know it. T F 5. Once in a while I cannot control my urge to harm others. T F 6. I never get mad enough to throw things. T F 7. Sometimes people bother me just by being around. T F 8. I often find myself disagreeing with people. — T F 9. I can think of no good reason for hitting anyone. T F 10. When I am angry, I sometimes sulk. T F 11. I am irritated a great deal more than people are aware of. T F 12. I can't help getting into arguments when people disagree with me. T F 13. If someone hits me first, I let him have it. — T F 14. When I am mad, I sometimes slam doors. T F 15. I am always patient with others. T F 16. I demand that people respect my rights. T F 17. Whoever insults me or my family is asking for a fight. T F 107

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108 18. I never play practical jokes. T 19. It makes my blood boil to have somebody make fun of me. T F 20. Even when my anger is aroused, I don't use "strong language" . rp p 21. People who continually pester me are asking for a punch in the nose. T F 22. 24 28, I sometimes pout when I don't get my own way. T F 23. If somebody annoys me, I am apt to tell him what I think of him. T p I often feel like a powder keg ready to explode. T F 25. When people yell at me, I yell back. T F 26. When I really lose my temper, I am capable of slapping someone. T F 27. Since the age of ten, I have never had a temper tantrum. >P p When I get mad, I say nasty things. T F 29. I sometimes carry a chip on my shoulders. T F 30. I could not put someone in his place, even if he needed it. >P p 31. I get into fights about as often as the next person. ^ F 32. I can remember being so angry that I picked up the nearest thing and broke it. T F 33. I often make threats I don't really mean to carry OUt. ij> p 34. I can't help being a little rude to people I don't like. T F 35. I generally cover up my poor opinion of others. T F 36. If I have to resort to physical violence to defend my rights, I will. T F 37. If someone doesn't treat me right, I don't let it annoy me. P p

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109 38. When arguing, I tend to raise my voice. T F 39. I have known people who pushed me so far that we came to blows. T F 40. I don't let a lot of unimportant things irritate me. T F 41. Lately, I have been kind of grouchy. T F 42. I would rather concede a point than get into an argument. T F 43. I sometimes show my anger by banging on the table. T F

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APPENDIX C PARENT INFORMED CONSENT PROJECT: Training in Creative Problem-Solving Dear Parent: I have been given permission to conduct a study in your child's special education class. I am interested in helping children learn to deal with problem situations. I would like your permission for your child to participate in a Creative Problem-Solving training program that I have developed to help children solve problems. Your child will participate in the program for 30 minutes during special education period daily for three weeks (15 sessions) . I will give them some tests before and after the program. I will explain the steps in Creative ProblemSolving and will show the procedure in a story form. Next, your child will try to use the method to find solutions to adjust to problem situations. There is no known physical or psychological harm in this process. You may withdraw your permission for your child's participation at any time. I will ask the school for your child's date of birth and IQ scores. Your child's identity will be kept confidential within legal limits. A copy of this study is available at the school. There is no monetary compensation for participation in the study. 110

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Ill Your cooperation and that of your child can be very helpful for the study to help children adjust better by practicing Creative Problem-Solving. Please indicate your answer below, sign, and return this form with your child tomorrow. A copy of this consent form will be returned to you. Thank you very much for your assistance. Sincerely, I have read and understood the procedure described above. I give permission for my child, to participate in the procedure. Signatures : Parent Date Witness Date Researcher Date If you have any question you may call Saramma T. Mathew Principal Investigator 392-0723 or 392-0725

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APPENDIX D CHILD ASSENT FORM PROJECT: Training in Creative Problem-Solving The present study is set up so that you will learn creative ways to deal with problem situations. You will leave your special education class for 30 minutes each day for three weeks to study Creative Problem-Solving. Before the program starts an instructor will give you some tests. Then the instructor will talk with you about Creative ProblemSolving and will explain the steps one by one. You will listen to a Creative Problem-Solving procedure in a story form. Next, you will try to use the method to find solutions to adjust to problem situations you face. Finally, the instructor will give you tests to see your improvements. Your participation in the study will help educators to plan your program. You may stop being in the program at any time that you would like. If you have any questions about the study, please call: Saramma T. Mathew 392-0723 or 392-0725 112

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113 "I have read and understood the procedure described above. I agree to participate in the procedure and I have received a copy of this description." Signatures: Subject Date Witness Date Relationship if other Date Principal Date than subject Investigator 1403 Norman Hall College of Ed. , Univ. of Fl. , Gainesville, Fl .

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REFERENCES Alachua county procedures for providing special education for exceptional students . 1980-' 81, School Board of Alachua County, Florida. Anderson, CM., & Stoffer, G.R. Abstract: Creative thinking and juvenile delinquency: A study of delinquent and non-delinquent youth on the Torrance test of creative thinking. Journal of Creative Behavior, 1977, 11(2), 207. ~ Bandura, A. Aggression: A social learning analysis . Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1973. Baron, R.A. Human aggression . New York: Plenum Press, 1977. Baron, R.A. , & Kepner, C.R. Model's behavior and attraction toward the model as determinants of adult aggressive behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1970, 14, 335-344. "~ ' Bateson, G. The frustration-aggression hypothesis and culture, Psychological Review , 1941, 48, 350-355. Berkowitz, L. Aggression: A social psychological analysis . New York City: McGraw-Hill, 1962. Bloch, A.M. The battered teacher. Todays Education , March/ April 1977, 66(2), 58-62. . Block, K. A cognitive approach for reducing aggression . Doctoral Dissertation, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, 1975. Bosse, M.A. Do creative children behave differently? Journ al of Creative Behavior , 1979, 13 (2) , 119-126. Brown, P., & Elliott, R. Control of aggression in a nursery school class. Journal of Experimental Child P sychology, 1965, 2, 103-107^ ~~ Brown, D.G., & Tyler, V.O., Jr. Time out from reinforcement: A technique for dethroning the "Duke" of an institutionalized group. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines , 1968, 9, 203-211. 114

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115 Bullock, L.M., & Brown, R.K. Behavioral dimension of emotionally disturbed children. Exceptional Children, 1972, 38(9), 740-741. Buss, A.H. The psychology of aggression. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. , 1961. Buss, A.K., & Durkee, A. A. An inventory for assessing different kinds of hostility. Journal of Con sulting Psychology , 1957, 21(4), 343-34
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116 Eherts, A.S. An experimental investigation of the effects of extraneous motivation on the development of creative thinking ^ Master's thesis, Stetson University, Stetson, Florida, 1961. Fatino, E. Aversive control. In J. A. Nevin & G.S Reynolds (Eds.), The study of behavior: Learning, motivation , emotion and instinct . Glenview, 111., Scott Foresman, 1973. Feldhusen, J.F., Treffinger, D.J., & Bahlke, S.J. Developing creative thinking: The Purdue creative program. Journal of Creative Behavior , 1970, 4(2), 85-90. Freud, S. New introductory lectures on Psycho-analys is. Translated by W.J.H. Sprott. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1933. Giebink, J.W. , Stover, D.O., & Fahl, M.A. Teaching adaptive responses to frustration to emotionally distrubed boys. Journal of Consulting and Clinical P sychology, 1968, 32(3), 366-368. ~~ — Goldfried, M. , & D'Zurilla, T.A. Behavioral-analytic model for assessing competence. In CD. Spielberger (Ed.), Current Topics in Clinical and Community Psychology , (Vol. 1) . New York: Academic Press, 1969. Goodwin, S.E., & Mahoney, M.J. Modification of aggression through modeling: An experimental probe. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental P sychiatry, 1975, 6, 200-202. Grayson, H. Grief reactions to relinquishing of unfulfilled wishes. American Journal of Psychiatry , 1970, 24, 287-295. " — Guilford, J. P. Three faces of intellect. American Psychologist, 1959, 14(8), 469-479. Guilford, J. P. The nature of human intelligence . New York City: McGraw-Hill, 1967. Hamburg, D.A., & Adams, J.E. Perspective on coping behavior. Archives of General Psychiatry , 1967, r7_, 277-284. Heath, R.G., & Buddington, W. Drugs for stimulation of mental and physical activity. In W. Modell (Ed.), Drugs of Choice 1968-1969 . St. Louis: Mosby, 1967. Janov, A. The primal scream; primal therapy: the cure for neurosis . New York: Putnam, 1970 .

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117 Kalina, K.R. Use of diazepam in the violent psychotic patient: A preliminary report. Colorado GP , 1962, 4_, 11-14. Kandil, S.A., & Torrance, P.E. Abstract: Further verification of high creative potential among emotionally disturbed and behavior disordered children. Journal of Creative Behavior , 1978, 12J4), 280. ~~ Kauffman, J.M. Characteristics of children's behavior disorders . Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. Merrill Publishing Co. , 1977. Khatena, J. Teaching disadvantaged preschool children to think creatively with pictures. Journal of Educational Psychology , 1971, 62(5), 384-386. LaBelle, B.M. Creative problem-solving techniques in nursing. Journal of Creative Behavior , 1974, 8(1), 55-56. Loughmiller, C. Wilderness Road . Austin, Texas: University of Texas, 1978. Ludwig, A.M., Marx, A.J., Hill, P. A., & Browning, R.M. The control of violent behavior through faradic shock. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease , 1969, 148, 624-637. " " ' Mallick, S.K., & McCandless, B.R. A study of catharsis of aggression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychol ogy , 1966, 4, 591-596. McCullough, J. P., Huntsinger, G.M. , & Ray, R.W. Self-control treatment of aggression in a 16-year-old male. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology , 1977, 45(2T~i 322-331. Meadow, A., & Parnes, S.J. Evaluation of training in creative problem-solving. Journal of Applied Psychology , 1959, 43(3), 189-194. ~ Meichenbaum, D.H., & Goodman, J. Training impulsive children to talk to themselves: A means of developing selfcontrol. Journal of Abnormal Psychology , 1971, 77(2), 115-126. " — Morgan, J.J.B. The psychology of abnormal people (2nd ed.). New York: Longmans Green, 1936. Moyer, K.E. (Ed.) Physiology of aggression and implications for control: An anthology of readings . New York: Raven Press, 1976.

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118 Nichols, M.P., & Zax, M. Catharsis in psychotherapy . New York: Gardner Press, Inc. , 1977 . Noller, R.B., Treffinger, D.J., & Houseman, E.D. It's a gas to be gifted or CPS for the gifted and talented . Buffalo, N.Y.: DOK Publishers, Inc., 1979. O'Leary, K.D., Kaufman, K.F., Kass, R. , & Drabman, R. The effects of loud and soft reprimands on the behavior of disruptive students. Exceptional Children, 1970, 37(2), 145-155. — O'Leary, K.D., & O'Leary, S.G. Classroom management: The successful use of behavior modification . New York: Pergamon Press, 1972. Osborn, A.F. Applied Imagination . Principles and procedures of creative problem-solving (rev! ed. ) . New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1957, 1963. Parnes, S.J. Creative behavior guidebook . New York: Charles Scribner ' s Sons, 1967a. Parnes, S.J. Creative behavior workbook . New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1967b. Parnes, S.J. Programming creative behavior. Journal of Creative Behavior , 1967c, 1(1), 85-87. Parnes, S.J. Creativity: Developing human potential. Journal of Creative Behavior , 1971, 5(1), 19-36. Parnes, S.J. CPSI .The general system. Journal of Creative Behavior , 1977, 11(1), 1-10. Parnes, S.J., & Brunelle, E.A. The literature of creativity (Part 1). Journal of Creative Behavior, 1967, 1(1). 52-109. ~ ~ Parnes, S.M., Noller, R.B., & Biondi, A.M. Guide to creative action. Revised edition of creative behavior guidebook . New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 19 77. Robin, A., Schneider, M. , & Dolnick, M. The turtle technique: An extended case study of self-control in the classroom. Psychology in the Schools , 1976, 13J4), 449-453. Rouse, S.T. Effect of a training program on the productive thinking of educable mental retardates. American Journal of Mental Deficiency , March 1965, 69, 666-673.

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119 Ruch, F.L., & Zimbardo, P.G. Psychology and life (8th ed.). Illinois: Scott, Foresman and Company, 1971. Sarason, Irwin G. Intercorrelations among measures of hostility. Journal of C linical Psychology, 1961, 17(2) 192-195. — " ^ — Schneider, M. Turtle technique in the classroom. Teaching Exceptional Children , 1974, 7(1), 22-24. Schroder, H.M. , & Rotter, J.B. Rigidity as learned behavior. Journal of Experimental Psychology , 1952, 43(3), 149. Schubert, D.S.P., & Biondi, A.M. Creativity and mental health: Part III Creativity and adjustment. Journal of Creative Behavior , 1977, 11(3), 186-197. Shean, J.M. Abstract: The effect of training in creative problem-solving on divergent thinking and organizational perceptions of students of school administration. Journal of Creative Behavior , 1979, 13(3), 222-223. Skinner, B.F. Cumulative record: A selection of papers (3rd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1972. Spivack, G., & Shure, M.B. Social adjustment of young children: A cognitive approach to solving real-life problems . San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1974. Sullivan, T. Developing problem-solving ability in slow learning elementary students. Journal o f Creative Behavior , 1969, 3(4), 284-290. ' Taylor, C.W. (Ed.) Research conference on the identification of creative scientific talent Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1959. Thibaut, J.W., & Riecken, H.W. Some determinants and consequences of the perception of social causality. Journal of Personality , 1955, 24_(1) , 113-133. " Thoreson, C.E., &Mahoney, M.J. Behavioral sel f-control. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1974. Thorndike, E.L. Education psychology, volume 2. The psychology of learning . New York: Teachers College , Columbia University, 1930. Torrance, E.P. Rewarding creative behavior . Englewood Cliffs, N.jTi Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1965.

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120 Torrance, E.P. Understanding the fourth-grade slump in creative thinking . Final USOE Report, Cooperative Research Project 994. Athens, Ga . : Georgia Studies of Creative Behavior, 1967. Torrance, E.P. Are the Torrance tests of creative thinking biased against or in favor of disadvantaged groups? Gifted Child Quarterly , 1971, 15(2), 75-80. Torrance, E.P. Can we teach children to think creatively? Journal of Creative Behavior , 1972, 6_(2), 114-143. Torrance, E.P. Torrance tests of creative thinking norms technical manual . Bensenville, Illinois: Scholastic Testing Service, 1974. Torrance, E.P. Giftedness in solving future problems. Journal of Creative Behavior , 1978, 12(2), 75-86. Torrance, E.P., Bruch , C.B., & Torrance, P.J. Interscholastic futurists creative problem-solving. Journal of Creative Behavior , 1976, 10(2), 117-125. Torrance, E.P., & Hall, L.K. Assessing the further reaches of creative potential. Journal of Creative Behavior , 1980, 14(1) , 1-19. "" Torrance, E.P., & Myers, R.E. Creative learning and teaching . New York: Dodd, Mead and Company, 19 70. Torrance, P.N. Does nursing education reduce creativity? Nursing Outlook , 1964, 12, 27-30. Treffinger, D.J., Speedie , S.M., & Brunner, W.D. Improving children's creative problem-solving ability: The effects of distribution of training, teacher involvement and teacher's divergent thinking ability instruction-final report of USOE. Journal of Creative Behavior , 1974, 8(1), 20-30. Tyler, V.D., & Brown, G.D. The use of swift, brief isolation as a group control device for institutionalized delinquents. Behavior Research and Therapy , 1967, 5(1), 1-9. " ' "" U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare (National Institute of Education). Violent schoo ls--safe schools. The safe school study report to the congress, executive summary. Washington", D.C. : 1978 .

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121 Van Patten, J.J. Violence and vandalism in our schools. Educational Forum , 1977, 42(1), 57-65. Worchel, P. Catharsis and the relief of hostility. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology , 1957, 55_, 238-243. Yee, G.F. The influences of problem-solving instruction and personal-social adjustment upon creativity test scores of twelfth grade students (Doctoral dissertation, The Pennsylvania State University, 1964) . Dissertation Abstracts International , 1965, 26J2), 916^ Zillman, D. , & Cantor, J.R. Effect of timing of information about mitigating circumstances on emotional responses to provocation and retaliatory behavior. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology , 1976, IT, 38-55. Zimmerman, F.T. Explosive behavior anomalies in children of an epileptic basis. New York State Journal of Medicine , August 1956, 56^ 2537-2543. Zimmerman, E., s. Zimmerman, J. The alteration of behavior in a special classroom situation. Journal of Experi mental Analysis of Behavior, 1962, 5, 59-60.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Mrs. Saramma Thomas Mathew was born on June 6, 19 38, at Kuriyannoor, Kerala, India, as the eldest of four children. She attended the C.M.S. School at Kuzhikala and graduated with honors from high school in 1954. She attended H.H. The Maharaja's College for Women, Trivandrum, Kerala, and received, with honors, a Bachelor of Science degree with zoology and chemistry as her elective subjects. In 1958, she went to Hawabagh Teachers' Training College for Women, Jabalpur, M.P., India, and received the Bachelor of Teaching degree, also with honors, in 1959. From 1959 to 1963 she worked as a teacher in Kerala, India, first in Padmanabhodayam Basic Training School, Mezhuveli, and later in the Kerala education system of the Public Service Commission at the high school level. Between 1965 and 1976, she worked in George Washington University, Vanderbilt University, and University of Georgia as a research assistant. She also taught as a part-time instructor at Piedmont College and Truett-McConnell College in Georgia. In 1968, she received a Master of Arts degree in education from Howard University, Washington, D.C. She did further graduate studies in the University of Georgia, and in Fall 1977 she began a graduate study in the department of 122

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123 Foundations of Education, University of Florida, where she also worked as a graduate assistant. Mrs. Mathew is a member of Kappa Delta Pi, American Association of University Women, and John Dewey Society. She is married to Dr. Tom Mathew, and they have three children — two boys and a girl.

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I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. h Barry Jy'Guinagh, Chairman Associate Professor of Foundations of Education I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. f /Oi-t^i.^^, ' r^t-Ccsi Marilyn M. Holly / Associate Professor of Philosophy and Psychology I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. iT
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This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Department of Foundations of Education in the College of Education and to the Graduate Council, and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. December 1981 Vv\M6Uxf Chairman, Foundations of Education Dean for Graduate Studies and Research

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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 3 1262 08553 1456


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