Citation
Student services for adults in southeastern community and junior colleges

Material Information

Title:
Student services for adults in southeastern community and junior colleges perceptions of chief student affairs officers
Creator:
Kennedy, William Cottrell, 1946- ( Dissertant )
Larsen, Janet J. ( Thesis advisor )
Meek, Phyllis M. ( Reviewer )
Wattenbarger, James L. ( Reviewer )
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publisher:
University of Florida
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1982
Language:
English
Physical Description:
x, 112 leaves; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Academic advising ( jstor )
Adult education ( jstor )
Career counseling ( jstor )
College students ( jstor )
Colleges ( jstor )
Community colleges ( jstor )
Educational services ( jstor )
Learning ( jstor )
Questionnaires ( jstor )
School counseling ( jstor )
Counseling in adult education -- Southern States ( lcsh )
Counselor Education thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Counselor Education -- UF
Student affairs administrators -- Attitudes ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
The purpose of this research was to identify and to describe examples of student services programs which were designed to serve the special needs of older (24 years and older) students by community and junior colleges. The data were collected from a questionnaire and interview with the chief student personnel administrator at each of 18 community and junior colleges in the Southeastern United States. Based on a review of the literature, five categories of student services were selected for study. These categories included admissions, counseling, financial aid, career planning and placement, and support services. The questionnaire and interview items were developed from questionnaires and information found in the literature concerning adults and higher education. An analysis of the data revealed the following facts. 1. One half of the student personnel administrators surveyed were unable to supply enrollment data by full-time or part-time, male or female students. 2. Services were not offered adults in all five of the categories studied. 3. Of those services offered most often, counseling and financial aid services received the greatest amount of institutional support and emphasis for serving adult learners. Career planning and support services received the least amount. 4. When addressing the needs of older students, as identified in the literature, community and junior college student services divisions have, on the average, made some attempt to meet those needs. None of them is attempting to meet all of their needs. 5. The chief student personnel officer of each institution perceived the services being offered adults as effective in meeting adults' needs. 6. None of the student personnel administrators could supply institutional research data confirming their positive perceptions of the impact services had had on increased enrollment and retention of older students. 7. Community and junior colleges generally did not officially differentiate between their traditional and non-traditional students, although the student services staffs normally did. Colleges which do not differentiate are less likely to have special services for older students. 3. Institutions in this study are not making adequate attempts to meet the non-academic needs of older students in all the service categories studied. Therefore, many of the needs for services held by lifelong learners are not being met by many community and junior college student services divisions.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1982.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographic references (leaves 105-110).
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by William Cottrell Kennedy II.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
028821321 ( AlephBibNum )
09483208 ( OCLC )
ABW4345 ( NOTIS )

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STUDENT SERVICES FOR ADULTS IN SOUTHEASTERN COMMUNITY AND
JUNIOR COLLEGES: PERCEPTIONS OF CHIEF
STUDENT AFFAIRS OFFICERS










BY

WILLIAM COTTRELL KENNEDY II


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


































Dedicated to

SUE















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


There are many people who have contributed to the success of this

dissertation. Dr. Janet Larsen, the chairperson of my doctoral com-

mittee, has provided immeasurable intellectual and moral support

throughout this project. Dr. Phyllis Meek and Dr. James Wattenbarger,

the other members of my committee, have also provided encouragement

and guidance in this endeavor. I am deeply appreciative of all these

people.

Special thanks are extended to Dr. Robert 0. Stripling for the

confidence and encouragement he provided in the early going. I also

want to thank Dr. Tom Goodale for his guidance and inspiration. And,

of course, I am grateful for the help and leadership provided by the

faculty in the Counselor Education Department.

At Lake-Sumter Community College, the support, guidance, and

encouragement have been instrumental in helping me achieve my goals.

My thanks go to Dr. Paul Williams, the now retired President of Lake-

Sumter, for allowing me a year's professional leave to continue my

education; to Dr. Dixie Jean Allen, Dean of Student Services, for her

patience, understanding, guidance and encouragement; to Dr. Evelyn

"Sis" Sebree, for her empathy and inspiration; and to Marylyn Leavitt

who spent many hours not only typing, but also moving me to continued

work.








A heartfelt thank you is extended to C. Edward and Anna Rae

Straight, the best parents-in-law I could have. I am particularly

grateful to my parents, William and Rhoda Kennedy, for the way they

reared me--with a lot of love, affection, and encouragement to do the

things I wanted. Most especially, my deepest gratitude goes to my

family Sue, Christine, and Hilary. Their patience, confidence,

encouragement, support and love have been unshakable during this

process. Without them, this project probably would not have come to

fruition.














TABLE OF CONTENTS


PAGE

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . 11i

LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . vii

ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . .. ... . . . viii

CHAPTER

I. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . ... . 1

Historical Overview . . . . . .... .. .. 2
The Problem . . . . . . . . . . 5
The Purpose . . . . . . .. .. . 8
Definition of Terms . . . . . . .... .11
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . 12

II. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE . . . . . .... .13

The Students . . . . . . . .... . 13
The Institution .................. 19
Recommendations for Resolution . . . .... .27
Summary . . . . . . . .. . . .32

III. DESIGN OF THE STUDY . . . . . . .... 34

Methodology and Procedures . . . . .... .34
Population of the Study . . . . . . .. 35
Description of the Instrument . . . . . 36
Data Collection . . . . . . . ... .38
Treatment of the Data . . . . . .... .39
Summary . . . . . . . . 39

IV. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS OF QUESTIONNAIRE AND
INTERVIEW RESPONSES . . . . .. .. .. . 40

Data Collection Process . .. .. . . . . 40
Questionnaire Results, Analysis, and Discussion . 43
Interview Results and Discussion . . . . .. 53
Application of the Data to the Research Questions 70
Summary . . . . . . . . ... 76








CHAPTER PAGE

V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND GENERAL OBSERVATIONS,
RECOMMENDATIONS . . . . . . . . .. 78

Summary . . . . . . . .... ..... 78
Major Findings . . . . . . . .... .81
Conclusions and General Observations . . ... 82
Recommendations . . . . . . . .... 86

APPENDICES

A. THE QUESTIONNAIRE . . . . . . ... 89

B. THE INTERVIEW QUESTIONS . . . . . .... .91

C. THE TELEPHONE INTERVIEW APPOINTMENT CARD . . .. 92

D. THE COVER LETTERS AND LETTER OF ENDORSEMENT . .. 93

E. SAMPLE INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPTION . . . . .. 96

LIST OF REFERENCES . . . . . . . .. .. . .105

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . . . . . . . .. .. . 111














LIST OF TABLES


TABLE PAGE

1. Enrollment Data by Head Count of Full-time and
Part-time, Male and Female Students in 18
Southeastern Community Colleges . . . ... 44

2. Percentage of Services Offered Adults in 18
Southeastern Community Colleges . . . ... 47

3. Weighted Mean and Rank Order of the Effectiveness
of the Service Categories as Perceived by Student
Personnel Administrators in 18 Southeastern
Community Colleges . . . . . . . . 49

4. Ranking and Assigned Weights of Student Service
Categories in 18 Southeastern Community Colleges .. 52














Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


STUDENT SERVICES FOR ADULTS IN SOUTHEASTERN COMMUNITY AND
JUNIOR COLLEGES: PERCEPTIONS OF CHIEF
STUDENT AFFAIRS OFFICERS

By

William Cottrell Kennedy II

August 1982

Chairman: Janet J. Larsen
Major Department: Counselor Education

The purpose of this research was to identify and to describe

examples of student services programs which were designed to serve the

special needs of older (24 years and older) students by community and

junior colleges. The data were collected from a questionnaire and

interview with the chief student personnel administrator at each of 18

community and junior colleges in the Southeastern United States.

Based on a review of the literature, five categories of student ser-

vices were selected for study. These categories included admissions,

counseling, financial aid, career planning and placement, and support

services.

The questionnaire and interview items were developed from ques-

tionnaires and information found in the literature concerning adults

and higher education.








An analysis of the data revealed the following facts.

1. One half of the student personnel administrators surveyed

were unable to supply enrollment data by full-time or part-time, male

or female students.

2. Services were not offered adults in all five of the cate-

gories studied.

3. Of those services offered most often, counseling and

financial aid services received the greatest amount of institutional

support and emphasis for serving adult learners. Career planning and

support services received the least amount.

4. When addressing the needs of older students, as identified in

the literature, community and junior college student services

divisions have, on the average, made some attempt to meet those needs.

None of them is attempting to meet all of their needs.

5. The chief student personnel officer of each institution per-

ceived the services being offered adults as effective in meeting

adults' needs.

6. None of the student personnel administrators could supply

institutional research data confirming their positive perceptions of

the impact services had had on increased enrollment and retention of

older students.

7. Community and junior colleges generally did not officially

differentiate between their traditional and non-traditional students,

although the student services staffs normally did. Colleges which do

not differentiate are less likely to have special services for older

students.








8. Institutions in this study are not making adequate attempts

to meet the non-academic needs of older students in all the service

categories studied. Therefore, many of the needs for services held by

lifelong learners are not being met by many community and junior

college student services divisions.














CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION


The establishment of a system of community and junior colleges

provides an educational opportunity for people to whom further edu-

cation would have otherwise been unavailable. Though serving the

traditional college-bound youth, these institutions also provide post-

secondary education to students of all ages with a variety of interests,

aptitudes, family backgrounds, academic skills and cultural patterns.

Some are intellectually and emotionally well-prepared for formal edu-

cational experiences while others are not (Higgins & Thurston, 1966).

Because of the existence of highly diverse groups of individuals,

of various ages, the services provided by community colleges should be

based on a continuous, systematic method of research concerning the

characteristics and needs of their students. Armed with the knowledge

gained from these investigations, each college can better plan and

provide for more adequate and relevant services, the goal of which

should be to assist each student in developing every aspect of his or

her learning needs.

The review of the literature generally supports two theoretical

points of view concerning adult learners. One of these is a

humanistic theory which declares that adults have a natural tendency

to learn and that they will do so if encouraged. Humanists believe


Throughout the text, the term "community collegess" should be
understood to include both community and junior colleges.








that adult learners should be provided with several options of people,

resources and materials from which to learn without passing judgment

on the nature or the quality of the experience. Adults need help in

thinking through what they want to learn and how they want to learn it

(Cross, 1981).

The second is a developmental theory which essentially states

that people learn because of changes or crises in their lives which

create challenges and stimulation. This learning is, in fact,

developmental (Cross, 1981). Adults facing developmental tasks often

need assistance in clarifying their situations and identifying ways of

dealing with them.

The non-instructional student services provided adult con-

stituents of the community college should facilitate access to the

learning resources of the institution, provide information about them-

selves (e.g., strengths and weaknesses), and provide counseling and

referral for help in overcoming anxieties, finding direction, making

decisions, choosing a career, and so forth (Cross, 1979). Williamson

views student

services in education as complementary to that of the classroom
teachers--insofar as the student's intellectual development is
concerned. With respect to other areas of his development, we
are the principle educators. (1961, pp. 18-19)


Historical Overview

The community/junior college movement originated in the middle of

the nineteenth century in an unsuccessful attempt to extend the high

school years to six, eliminating the need for the freshman and sopho-

more years at the university level. Henry Tappan, President of the

University of Michigan, and William Watts Folwell, President of the








University of Minnesota, were its principle advocates (Thornton, 1972).

In 1892, however, the President of the University of Chicago, William

Raney Harper, effectively separated the first two years (establishing

the academic--later junior--college) from the second two years (estab-

lishing the University--later senior--college). The former was

designed to augment the four-year high school curriculum with two more

years of secondary work, and, in 1900, the University began awarding

the Associate of Arts degree to all those who completed the junior

college program. The movement was supported on the West Coast

primarily by David S. Jordan of Stanford University and Alexis Lange

of the University of California (Thornton, 1972).

Four central influences encouraged the development of the idea.

These included the rapid growth of the universities and their tendency

toward large classes, the desire of the normal schools to offer col-

legiate subjects, the inability of several small colleges to provide

academic quality in a four-year degree program, and the addition of

two years to the high school curriculum to add a new dimension to

public education (Thornton, 1972).

The American Association of Junior Colleges in 1922 designated

the junior college as any institution offering the first two years of

strictly collegiate instruction. The curriculum was later expanded to

include vocational courses, and terminal degrees began receiving as

much emphasis as transfer degrees, with an attempt to meet the general

education needs of members of the local community (Thornton, 1972).

In 1930, Nicholas Ricciardi wrote that

A fully organized junior college aims to meet the needs of a com-
munity in which it is located, including preparation for








institutions of higher learning, liberal arts education for those
who are not going beyond graduation from the junior college,
vocational training for particular occupations usually designated
as semi-professional vocations, and short courses for adults with
special interest. (Cited in Thornton, 1972, p. 55)

The trend toward a comprehensive two-year college program to pro-

vide something for everyone was begun. In 1936, Byron S. Hollinshead

stated

That the junior college should be a community college, meeting
community needs; that it should serve to promote a greater social
and civic intelligence in the community; that it should provide
opportunities for increased adult education; that it should pro-
vide educational, recreational, and vocational opportunities for
young people; that the cultural facilities of the institution
should be placed at the disposal of the community; and that the
work of the community college should be closely integrated with
the work of the high schools and the work of other community
institutions. (Cited in Thornton, 1972, p. 55)

America's involvement in World War II created a decline in

enrollments for the junior colleges' regular programs. To compensate,

community action programs were designed to offer war-time alternatives

for those not overseas. Heightened interest in the world and its

social and political varieties and the desire for opportunities to

learn, or improve upon, occupational knowledge were satisfied through

the curricula of the junior colleges. Adults, who were not histori-

cally considered college material, turned to the junior college for

educational and cultural activities. After the war, these oppor-

tunities continued and the community/junior college idea was developed

(Thornton, 1972; Medsker & Tillery, 1971).

The skilled manpower needs required by technological advancements

necessitated the continuous revision and expansion of the community

college curriculum between 1958 and the decade of the 1960s (Medsker &

Tillery, 1971). This period saw an increase not only in the number of








students who were products of the post-war "baby-boom," but also in

the number of older (over 25 years) persons who were not traditionally

perceived as college students. The predictions of future enrollments

in higher education indicate increasing numbers of adults and

decreasing numbers of 18 to 21 year old students (Levitz & Noel,

1980).


The Problem

The complexion of the community college student body has been

steadily changing in recent years, and promises to continue to change

in the future. Between 1972 and 1977, the proportion of students over

the age of 25 increased from 28 percent to 33 percent, while that of

students less than 24 decreased from 71 percent to 67 percent, a trend

which is expected to continue (Levitz & Noel, 1980). In light of the

apparent pending decline in traditional college enrollments, many

postsecondary educational institutions have begun to reexamine what

they have traditionally provided for their students and are attempting

to meet the needs of the emerging older student body (Levitz & Noel,

1980).

What is being discovered about this new clientele is that there

are three general problems of access for adult learners (Cross, 1978).

The first is that, because of jobs and other adult responsibilities, a

full-time commitment to learning is inappropriate. Second, the

variety of experiences which adults have attained are greater and more

diverse than those of younger people--a special consideration for

which granting credit and class placement must be given. Finally, the








adult's orientation to formal learning will have need for adjustment

because of the numbers of years most of them have been out of school.

Evolving is a society of learners with a wide variety of unique

needs and interests on one hand, and an assortment of learning

resources to which they can turn to fulfill those needs and interests

on the other. For this learning society to prosper, each post-

secondary educational institution, especially the community college,

must rearrange its priorities so that it puts

the student first and the institution second, concentrates more
on the former's need than the latter's convenience, encourages
diversity of individual opportunity rather than uniform pre-
scription, and deemphasizes time, space, and even course require-
ments in favor of competence and, where applicable, performance.
It has concern for the learner of any age and circumstance, for
the degree aspirant as well as the person who finds sufficient
reward in enriching life through constant, periodic, or
occasional study. (Commission on Non-Traditional Study, 1973,
p. xv)

The American College Testing Program (ACT) study on Attracting

and Retaining Adult Learners, ARAL (Levitz & Noel, 1980), has identi-

fied institutions and programs which are attempting to meet this

directive. Though their survey included community and junior

colleges, the majority of the responses came from public and private

four-year institutions. Likewise, a review of the literature has

shown that the needs of older students have been generally identified.

Because of relatively high levels of anxiety, low academic self-

concept, familial misunderstandings, and general problems of adjust-

ment to a new and demanding lifestyle, there is a need for personal

counseling (Levitz & Noel, 1980; Rawlins, 1979; Bulpitt, 1973).

Many of the older students enroll in college with little or no

idea of any goals other than to learn something new and/or to prepare








for a new career. Often there is a lack of understanding of the

educational requirements to enter a career field once it has been

identified. To help these individuals there is a need for adequate

educational and career counseling and placement (Cross, 1978; Dewey,

1980; Goodman, 1981; Levine, 1978).

College costs place an additional financial burden on most people

who attend. For older students with family responsibilities,

especially those who take part-time jobs to attend classes full time,

going to school represents a loss of income.

The same is true for those on fixed incomes, primarily senior

citizens. Therefore, there is a need for financial aid among older

adult students (Cross, 1980; Cross & Zussman, 1974; Malin, Bray,

Dougherty, & Skinner, 1980).

Adult students frequently require special considerations for

recruitment and have special needs for admissions (Brodzinski, 1980;

Cross & Zussman, 1974; Rawlins, 1979). Evening students cannot always

take time from their jobs to make applications or receive academic

advisement or register for classes. Offering these services in the

evenings or in off-campus locations gives adult students alternative

opportunities for enrollment.

Finally, there are needs which must be addressed after students

are in classes. The need for such benefits as tutorial services,

learning skills (math, reading, study skills) assistance, peer

support, and child care exist because older students, many of whom

have responsibility for children, have been away from formal education

for varying periods of time. Special student support services can

help them renew their learning skills, while offering the opportunity








to have children cared for while parents are in class (Cross &

Zussman, 1974; Kasworm, 1980; Levitz & Noel, 1980).

Research studies have identified the needs of adult students, the

adequate institutional response to which could attract nearly 40

million more students (Levitz & Noel, 1980). The problem, therefore,

is to identify how community colleges are attempting to meet those

needs.


The Purpose

Statement of the Purpose

The purpose of this research was to identify and to describe

examples of student services programs which were designed to serve the

special needs of older students by community college student affairs

offices. Eighteen community and junior colleges in Alabama, Florida,

Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South

Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia were randomly selected for

the study. By identifying older students' needs through a review of

the literature, and based on the response to a preliminary survey of

student affairs practitioners, the functions of admissions, coun-

seling, financial aid, career planning and placement, and student

support services were studied as the areas most likely to fulfill

those needs.

To accomplish this purpose, the following questions were investi-

gated through the use of a questionnaire and personal interviews.

1. Which of the five services being investigated are provided

for adult students in a way which is different from the more

traditional applications?








2. Which services receive the greatest emphasis for non-

traditional students?

3. Are the student services which are offered addressing the

needs of adults as identified in the literature?

4. As perceived by the chief student personnel officers, are the

services offered effective in providing for the special needs of adult

learners?

5. Do community and junior colleges differentiate between

traditional and non-traditional students by definition?

6. Have the services offered adult students contributed to the

increased enrollment or retention of adult students?


Delimitations and Limitations

In conducting this research, the following confinements and

weaknesses were observed.

1. Because some state two-year colleges include the word

"technical" in their titles while excluding "community" or "junior,"

and to avoid including a college more technically than academically

oriented, the population of the study was confined to institutions

whose name reflected "community college" or "junior college."

2. Because the preeminent method for gathering information about

the services offered was the telephone interview, and because of the

expense and impracticality of interviewing all the community and

junior colleges in 11 states, the population for this study included a

10 percent random sample of community and junior colleges in each of

those states.








3. Because the sample size was limited, generalizations about

the extent of services offered in other institutions must be made

cautiously.

4. Due to the continuing increase of adult students in community

colleges and the recent concern for lifelong learning, the review of

the literature, with the exception of a few basic references, centered

on materials and research published since 1970.


Justification

The term "androgogy" means helping adults to learn, and it is

based on four assumptions concerning adult learners. These

assumptions include (a) the inclination of adults to be independent

and self-directed, (b) the accumulation of experiences which serve as

resources for learning, (c) a readiness to learn which is oriented to

developmental tasks, and (d) shifts in perspective from "postponed

application of knowledge to immediacy of application," and in learning

orientation from "subject-centeredness to problem-centeredness"

(Cross, 1981, p. 223). These assumptions appear to encompass both the

humanistic (assumptions a and b) and the developmental (assumptions c

and d) theories mentioned above. Regardless of the theoretical

orientation one might espouse, adults have needs for both instruc-

tional and non-instructional services which will help them to either

fulfill their natural tendency to learn or to meet their developmental

challenges.


Definition of Terms

Throughout this paper, subject-specific terms are defined as

follows:








Adult learners (or students). One would not be incorrect in

counting all college students 18 years of age or older as adults.

"Adult" has been defined by some institutions as those students over

21 years of age; by others as those with adult responsibilities or

commitments and those employed full time; and still others as those

who have had a significant break in time between educational experi-

ences (Levitz & Noel, 1980). For the purposes of this study, however,

the adult learner is defined as one who has reached the age of 24

years.

Lifelong education. Lifelong education consists of planned

experiences (formal and informal) from which an individual learns.

These experiences, as used herein, are those offered by an institution

of higher education.

Lifelong learning. Learning occurs from birth to death and is,

therefore, lifelong.

Traditional students. College students historically have been

perceived as ranging in age from 18 to 23 years and of entering

college from preparatory programs in the secondary school. They also

usually come from middle- to upper-class families. Those who enter

college with these characteristics are, therefore, traditional.

Non-traditional students. Any students not of the traditional

type are non-traditional. These include students who are 24 years of

age or older, who have weak academic experiences, who are often from

lower socioeconomic families, and who are not necessarily into

education for the purpose of earning a degree.

Student services. When not specified, student services include

the full range of non-academic services provided, i.e., counseling,








admissions, financial aid, student government, registration, student

activities, orientation, career planning, testing and evaluation,

placement, job placement, and academic advisement (Monroe, 1972).


Summary
Because of the trend for students of community colleges to be

more non-traditional, it seems only proper that the student services

provided by these colleges be evaluated and adjusted to meet the needs

and the interests of their new clientele. The literature includes

ample information concerning the needs of adult students and recom-

mendations for what community colleges should be doing for the adult

learner. However, it is devoid of comprehensive information about

what community and junior colleges are in fact doing for the adult

learner. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to discover what

services are being rendered and how well they are perceived to accom-

plish their goals. An account of these services will also be

provided.

Chapter II will present a review of the literature related to

community and junior colleges, student personnel services and adult

learners, and the relationship of each to the other. It will identify

the needs of adult students, the services traditionally available to

all students, and the apparent inability of those services to meet the

needs of the lifelong learner.














CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE


The Students

Probably the most common assumption concerning formal education

is that it includes attendance in kindergarten through 12th grades

(K-12) with perhaps some college included for the more intellectually

elite. The truth is, however, that discussion has recently centered

around the realization that, unless people vegetate, they will con-

tinue to learn throughout their lifetime (Cross, 1978). Many are

involved in learning which is informal and self-directed, while others

are engaged in one or more activities of organized instruction.

Developmentalists would contend that people progress through an adult

life cycle during which they must cope with developmental tasks as

they present themselves, i.e., leaving home, getting married, rearing

children, establishing or changing careers, losing a spouse, and

retiring (Gould, 1975; Levinson, 1978; Sheehy, 1976). As these

transitions occur, they cause a rethinking and restructuring of one's

life in "an attempt to grasp confusion, frequently accompanied with

considerable struggle, pain, anxiety or stress, [which] often prompts

courageous risk-taking as the person reaches toward a new perspective"

(Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education, 1980, p. 27).

This perspective is frequently found by enrolling in various forms of

educational activities (FIPSE, 1980).








This trend has led to the formulation of such terminology as

"lifelong learner," "lifelong education," and "learning society"

(Cross, 1978). Support for this movement is presented in the Levitz

and Noel study on Attracting and Retaining Adult Learners, ARAL

(1980), in which they have reported that the percentage of college

enrollment for men aged 25 to 34 increased from 11 percent in 1959 to

17 percent in 1978. For women of the same age range, the percentages

were 2 and 14 in 1959 and 1978 respectively. They also quote pre-

dictions for the next decade (1980-1990) which reveal that attendance

by those aged 25 to 34 will increase by 13 percent, those 35 to 44

will increase by 39 percent, and those 45 to 54 will increase by 12

percent. Conversely, those enrollees aged 18 to 24 years will decline

by 15 percent.

This influx of older students has created difficulties in

defining the adult student. The ARAL study (Levitz & Noel, 1980)

indicated that there is no set definition, that institutions will

define adults according to their (the institutions') particular needs.

Eldred and Marienau (1979) reported definitions by age range from

"under twenty" (at Kansas State University, Louisiana State Univer-

sity, and Flaming Rainbow University in Talequah, Oklahoma) to those

at least 23 (at Trinity College and Drew University). Some programs

use credits earned or years worked as criteria for classification as

an adult. Community and junior colleges are most likely to set the

lower limits of "adulthood" at age 18. Cross (1981) defines the non-

traditional adult student as a part-time learner with full-time adult

responsibilities.








Characteristically, many members of this learning society are

predominantly privileged, middle- and upper-class Caucasians who are

already well-educated and who occupy white collar positions in the

work force (Cross & Zussman, 1974; Eldred & Marienau, 1979). They are

students who

view themselves as self-directing individuals, capable of making
decisions about their education and accepting the consequences of
their actions. They are able to engage in self-diagnosis of
their educational needs based on their perceived match of past
experience and future goals. They prefer action-oriented
learning techniques to achieve that match. (Eldred & Marienau,
1979, p. 10)

Their decision to attend college is often influenced by the promise of

social status and economic gain, and as an opportunity to change

and/or express their present interests (Eldred & Marienau, 1979).

On the other hand, entering higher education in greater numbers,

especially in community and junior colleges, are minority adults and

senior citizens, many of whom have part-time jobs, low income and very

little educational attainment (Cross, 1978). On the average, they

suffer with a weak self-concept and little confidence in their

academic ability (Bulpitt, 1973). Cross (1978) says that these under-

represented would-be learners are interested in career and educational

counseling but have little information about these services and educa-

tional opportunities. Furthermore, many of them are job-oriented with

interest in degrees and certificates which are salable in the world of

work, yet they perceive the cost of attaining a degree or certificate

as a barrier.

Many undergraduates over 30 years of age face both physical and

psychological barriers to their participation in a formal learning

experience in an institution of postsecondary education. There are








fears of being too conspicuous and of being rejected because of the

difference in age between them and the traditional students on campus.

There is also anxiety concerning their ability to communicate at an

appropriate level (Rawlins, 1979). These individuals frequently lack

self-confidence in their ability to successfully compete with younger

students with more recent formal educational experiences (Heffernan,

Macy, & Vickers, 1976). In 1972, the Educational Testing Service

(ETS) found that approximately 26 million adults did not participate

for reasons which could have been remedied through adequate counseling

(Heffernan et al., 1976).

Remembering that adult learners can be defined as those learners

with adult responsibilities (Cross, 1980), other barriers become evi-

dent. Levitz and Noel (1980) report conflicts between job responsi-

bilities and class scheduling in which participation in one often

prohibits participation in the other; conflict with home and family

life where there may be a lack of understanding of the learner's moti-

vation to return to school and a lack of support for the venture; con-

flict with child-care obligations and the lack of child-care services

which could relieve a parent of such obligations long enough to attend

classes.

Malin, Bray, Dougherty and Skinner (1980) studied factors which

affect the performance and satisfaction of adult college students and

found that men have more difficulty adjusting to college than do

women. On the average they have lower grade point averages (GPAs);

they enjoy less positive intellectual and personal achievement; and

they have more family complaints about the amount of money spent on








college. Most men place greater emphasis on job roles than on

intellectual goals.

Finally, for adults to return to formal education they often must

experience a reduced level of income because of the necessity to

change from full time to part time employment in order to attend

classes, or because payment for tuition takes funds away from other

personal expenditures. This fact has its own problems which can com-

pound the other problems already discussed (Cross, 1981; Malin et al.,

1980).

Levine (1978), in his Handbook of Undergraduate Curriculum, lists

12 most common reasons for students "stopping out" (leaving school

then returning after an unpredetermined period of time). The list

contains reasons which summarize the barriers faced by adult learners

and reveals commonalities between traditional and non-traditional

students. Among these barriers are personal circumstances, medical or

health problems, financial difficulties and poor academic performances.

It has been estimated that 40 million adults would return to

classroom study if institutions were more responsive to their personal

and educational needs (Levitz & Noel, 1980). Because of these varying

needs (which can cause difficulties for traditional as well as non-

traditional students), institutions must offer opportunities and

services devoted to this new clientele (Cross & Zussman, 1974).

Included among these could be such services as an adult-centered

orientation (to include spouses), financial aid considerations (there

is little financial aid for students taking less than a half-time

class load), child-care services, separate counseling and advising

services, the business office and computer terminals. Institutions








need to facilitate the initial enrollment process for adults, make

special efforts to interpret the curriculum, to evaluate past academic

experiences, to plan a program of study, and to deal with reentry

concerns and obstacles (Cross & Zussman, 1974; Rawlins, 1979).

Although one study of 256 full- and part-time, traditional and

non-traditional students attending a California community college

showed no significant difference in the counseling needs of these two

groups of students (Ancheta, 1980), others have found that adults

place more emphasis on their needs for personal growth and development

and their learning experiences, and less on social involvement and

companionship than do the more traditional students (Dewey, 1980;

Goodman, 1981). The need for counseling services directly applicable

toward adult students with their particular needs is implied in these

findings.

Because the non-traditional students are, in most cases, both

physically and emotionally different from younger students, several

student services traditionally found on many campuses have been deemed

inappropriate (Brodzinski, 1980). These include

1. adolescent social programs;

2. counseling geared toward the developmental needs of 18 to
21 year olds;

3. midday activities on weekdays;

4. admissions procedures requiring recommendations from high
school teachers;

5. correspondence addressed "dear parent";

6. high caloried adolescent food in the cafeteria;

7. job placement which focuses on entry level positions;








8. orientations which focus on adapting to college and making
decisions for the first time;

9. schedules and programs for students with more flexible time
limitations;

10. inappropriate use of fees;

11. closing offices at 5:30 p.m. (Brodzinski, 1980, p. 6)

Another study (Kasworm, 1980) compared the use of various student

services by younger (traditional) and older (non-traditional) students

at the University of Georgia. Younger students were more likely to

use such services as orientation, housing, physical health facilities,

student union activities, religious centers and academic advising.

Older students, on the other hand, were more inclined to want tutoring

services, career counseling, job placement, personal counseling and

financial aid.


The Institution

Learning cannot be confined to the limits of several years nor to

the restriction of four walls; it can occur daily throughout the span

of a lifetime and in any place. Many who want to learn something new

prefer to do so individually by reading, talking to experts in the

field, or seeking experiences for first-hand knowledge. Institutions

of higher learning are trying to "legitimize" this learning by

attracting adults to college classes, by "getting more and more

citizens to conduct their learning activities within the organiza-

tional arrangements of the formal educational system" (Ziegler, 1977,

pp. 15-16).

If postsecondary educational institutions are going to accept the
responsibility for planning and directing the learning programs
for adult learners, then they must adjust their policies and pro-
cedures to fully meet this responsibility. (Cross, 1978, p. 32)








The Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE)

sponsored four programs for adult higher education (Clark University,

Loretto Heights College, Mary Baldwin College and Vermont State

Colleges). Though each of the programs differed, four common

premises, applicable to any institution serving adults, were evident

(FIPSE, 1980):

1. The decision to return to school is a major step in an
adult's life. The daily lives of adults are complex, consisting
of many demanding responsibilities; the additional burden of
study cannot be lightly assumed.

2. Adults often seek more from their return to education than
further accumulation of knowledge or technical training. Quite
often, in fact, at the time of re-enrollment, they are undergoing
a major change in life perspective. Research in adulthood can
help us to understand this phenomenon and suggest constructive
ways in which to respond.

3. In order for educational programs to respond to adults'
needs, institutions must often make major changes in curriculum,
teaching methodologies, advising, and administrative
arrangements.

4. In order for a responsive program for adults to flourish, a
strong institutional commitment is needed. Faculty, adminis-
tration, and staff may need to rethink their attitudes about
students, the nature of teaching and learning, and the societal
mission of teaching and learning. (p. 2)

With concern for the mature learner in higher education, insti-

tutions must reevaluate their philosophies to match, within the con-

text of education and learning, the goals of the institution with

those of their new students. In order to do this, three principles

need to be modified. These principles include program accessibility

(admissions criteria, time options for completing the degree, and

assessment of prior learning), flexibility (residency requirements,

scheduling), and synthesis (merging the theoretical and practical

nature of the curricula) (Pierce, 1979; Robbins, 1973). Programs also








need to be personalized by building on teaching and counseling

strengths and by providing institutional encouragement for students to

learn at their own pace (Robbins, 1973).

Facilitating adults should not be a new experience for community

college personnel, but to do it well requires that adequate attention

to the existence of older students be given by the institution's

administrators, and that the student services function be integrated

with the academic function pragmatically as well as philosophically.

Though achieving this requires the school to create a singular goal in

which institutional commitment is made to organize, develop and sup-

port programs which adequately serve adults, it must also balance the

integration of special adult programs into the curriculum with the

autonomy of both traditional and non-traditional programs to ensure

adults are appropriately served. Finally, programs and services must

be financially feasible, allowing the program to grow without draining

institutional resources (FIPSE, 1980).

In order to attract, serve and retain the adult learner more

adequately, institutions must recognize the restrictions and personal,

developmental, and educational needs of this clientele and adapt their

programs accordingly (Miller, 1978). The student services divisions in

at least 20 percent of higher educational institutions have begun to

question their age orientation and the relevance of their basic

philosophy and goals regarding older students (Kasworm, 1930).

Knox (1979) and Monroe (1972) list several traditional functions

for student services. These are orientation at which students receive

information concerning the campus, the curriculum, careers, and extra-

curricular activities; appraisal of attitudes, interests and








abilities; consultation involving pre-admissions counseling and

academic advisement; participation functions which govern cocurricular

activities and student government; publicity, recruitment, regis-

tration and record-keeping; services to provide financial aid and job

placement; and organizational responsibilities for articulation of

programs, in-service education, program evaluation, and its own admin-

istrative organization. Student services personnel are challenged to

create an environment for the non-traditional students which will

foster their success and development, and to keep faculty and adminis-

tration abreast of the behavioral and developmental needs of these

students (Dewey, 1980).

Community colleges are convenient! In Florida, the goal to pro-

vide post high school educational opportunities within commuting

distance of 99 percent of the population was achieved in 1972 with the

establishment of its 28th community college. Each college provides

community services, vocational education opportunities, and general

academic education (Wygal, 1980). Because they are relatively close

to so many in the state, they are more likely to serve blue collar

workers, the educationally disadvantaged who are in school for job

training, and the senior citizens pursuing lifelong learning because

these are the people most likely to prefer locations near home or work

(Levine, 1978; Murphy, 1980).

So little of the literature written about adult programs includes

examples of what institutions are currently doing. One such study,

however, questioned the services provided older students in Florida

community colleges (Fauquet, 1977). The findings indicated that only

50 percent of the colleges had made any attempt at reconciling








accessibility for adults in the admissions and registration function.

Credit for past experiences was usually evaluated only by the College

Level Examination Program (CLEP). Only about one-half of the colleges

offered courses and services away from campus in locations more con-

venient to students. Financial aid was usually available, including

tuition waivers for senior citizens.

It was found that, though counseling services were available,

there was little use of peers in the process, and publicity on the

availability of services was rarely directed toward adults. Food

services were available usually in the mornings and early afternoons

(rarely in the evenings). Very little of the materials covered in

orientation was designed for older students. Eleven of the schools

offered courses in life problems and needs, 18 had off-campus services

available, and only 3 had a staff especially trained and designated to

serve older students.

Several special efforts to serve adults were identified from this

study (Fauquet, 1977). These included recruitment in special places

where potential older students might be found, special women's and

mature students' programs, peer counseling and advisement, and special

publicity.

Levitz and Noel (1980) found that as many as 72 percent of the

schools they surveyed had made some effort toward facilitating adults

in the areas of admissions, marketing, counseling, registration,

scheduling, financial aid, and course offerings. The least amount of

effort was in the area of special student services (adult student

center, day-care facility), faculty development, program evaluation,

and funding of new programs. They concluded that the proportion of








adult enrollment to the total enrollment will alter the institution's

perception of the essential nature of programs for adult learners.

In another study, 140 southeastern community colleges of less

than 5,000 enrollment were surveyed about the counseling services they

provided for older students (Goodman & Beard, 1976). The services

were ranked according to the emphasis placed on them for adults. The

rank order was as follows: (1) academic counseling; (2) vocational

counseling; (3) personal adjustment; (4) college transfer;

(5) financial aid; (6) testing; (7) job placement. It was concluded

that more career planning and placement and more personal counseling

were needed.

This ranking is somewhat reinforced by Wolf and Dameron (1975)

who emphasized that community college counselors spend more time in

academic counseling than in personal or social counseling. Cross

(1978) states that only 10 percent of those institutions which serve

adults provide counseling services directed toward their special

needs. She indicates that there are several ways of doing this,

"ranging from the one-on-one traditional counseling model, to group

sessions and classes on educational planning and consumer choice, to

interactive computer models" (Cross, 1978, p. 47).

Academic advising is a very important service, yet in many cases

there is little institutional agreement about who has responsibility

for advising tasks. "Institutions have not translated advising

services into clear practices and statements of policy" (Muller,

1980). Those who serve the advising function must be astute in

helping adult learners synthesize the relationship between life prob-

lems and educational problems. The skills of the advisor should








complement those of the faculty in teaching their courses, making the

instructional process more effective (Eldred & Marienau, 1979).

Part-time students are less satisfied with academic advising than

are full-time students. Part-time students have unique needs which

are often overlooked, in many cases because community college coun-

selors give only lip service to addressing those needs (Teague, 1977).

Adults expect help with planning and guiding their formal learning

(Tough, 1978). Counselors must be able to help students to (a) iden-

tify problems, needs, interests, wants or options; (b) gain self-

insight or accurate self-assessments; (c) examine a variety of

options, both self- and professionally planned; (d) set priorities and

choose a direction for learning; (e) select a general strategy and

appropriate resources; (f) perform tasks required for guiding the

learning effort through a successful completion (Tough, 1978, p. 260).

To fulfill these tasks and duties requires a staff sensitive to

the needs of adults, preferably a staff who have also taken the

emotional and intellectual risks involved with beginning or returning

to academic endeavor. Key staff members must be philosophically in

accord with the goals of any of the institution's programs which serve

adults (FIPSE, 1980). The student services staff has the responsi-

bility for the "process" of advising while adjunct members (faculty

and community resources) would have more responsibility for the

"content" (factual information) of the program.

It is important that staff members realize that it is neither

them nor the institution which needs to be accommodated, but rather

the students (Pierce, 1979). Too often are student services designed

to meet the needs of the institution rather than those of the students








served. "A people-to-people relationship built on response to real

and individual needs is the quality of service for students that the

community college is all about" (Ebersole & Hargis, 1974, p. 24).

Student services has come under criticism, much of it justi-

fiable, for its shortcomings (Monroe, 1972). As a division within the

institution, it is still not without its problems. One is that, due

to differing philosophical points of view, many faculty consider stu-

dent personnel workers as second class citizens (Blocker, 1974).

Counselors have been accused of being a crutch for weak and irre-

sponsible students, helping them to escape their academic

responsibility (Monroe, 1972).

But these are problems of a philosophical nature and may never be

satisfactorily resolved. According to several authors (Knox, 1979;

Thornton & Mitchell, 1979), three factors have contributed to a lack

of services for older students. First, quite often the administration

sees little need for providing such services. Secondly, there is a

lack of serious commitment toward the program's success. Finally,

there is a reluctance to make clear-cut role distinctions in adult

programs. What happens when adequate guidance and counseling services

are not provided is that students tend to select courses without

regard for prerequisites; they sometimes over- or under-estimate their

academic ability; they sometimes fail to take sequential courses in

progression; and they frequently remain unfamiliar with course and/or

program requirements (Thornton & Mitchell, 1979).

The major problems confronting student services include lack of

adequate communication about services available, lack of support from

other staff and trustees, difficulty in coordinating services with








outside groups, identifying the needs and interests of the clientele,

planning, administering, supervising and evaluating programs, lack of

adequate financial resources, identifying objectives, and developing

a philosophy compatible with program goals (Medsker & Tillery, 1971).

With regard to counseling the adult student, problems exist in

the lack of students' self-confidence related to their learning

ability, their unrealistic expectations of progress, their irrelevant

learning tasks, their seeking help from wrong sources or not seeking

it in time, and their lack of appropriate study habits (Knox, 1979).


Recommendations for Resolution

Cross has stated that

A Volkswagon is not a cheaper, lighter Cadilac; it is a different
car designed for different purposes. Similarly, college for the
masses is not a low-standard version of college for the elite;
it is a different kind of education with high standards true to
its own purpose. (Cited in Overly, 1979, p. 37)

Colleges in general, and student services personnel in particular,

must work toward maintaining high standards in order not to deprive

the adult students of quality education and the services to enhance

that education (Cross, 1978).

Educational brokering services, a relatively new proprietary con-

cept in services for students, provide help for their clients in

defining their educational goals through self-assessment, values

clarification and long-term planning. Through this assessment pro-

cedure, clients are better prepared to make decisions and to set

objectives for their further education, and to select methods by which

they will receive that education. Finally, the brokering service

assists students in gaining access to appropriate learning experiences








by facilitating the admissions process, financial aid applications,

recognition for prior learning, and other services in order to smooth

the transition back into formal learning (Heffernan et al., 1976).

Tough (1978) indirectly reinforces these procedures. He claims

that, in order to foster policy revision and to provide these kinds of

new services, institutions must carefully examine the services needed

and provided. The results would furnish insight into which services,

programs, and help would be most beneficial.

To meet more adequately the needs of the part-time, older stu-

dents, policies and procedures must be reexamined in terms of their

responsiveness to those needs. The areas of admissions, credit for

prior learning, career counseling and placement, personal counseling,

financial assistance, teaching methodologies and the curriculum must,

where necessary, be revised for this clientele (Watson, 1980). It is

imperative for student services to develop a responsiveness to adult

student needs. Ways of becoming responsive are by following a human

development model, examining values, goals and objectives, both col-

lectively as a staff and individually, and allowing student partici-

pation in making decisions about programs and services (Neher &

Potter, 1974; Wygal, 1980).

Pierce (1979) recommends change in the following services:

1. admissions--make special considerations where applicable; be

flexible

2. registration--eliminate as much red tape as possible; provide

a special orientation to clarify directions

3. financial aid--provide a deferred payment plan








4. class schedules and course selection--provide schedule

flexibility, location options, short-term sessions and child care

5. physical plant--improve the readability of signs, access to

parking, accessibility of buildings and grounds

6. information and assistance--provide open offices, methods for

contacting students in case of cancelled or rescheduled classes, more

telephones, bulletin boards and security personnel

In addition to the areas listed above, Thornton and Mitchell

(1979) have suggested that the needs of adult learners be further

researched, that referral services encompassing financial aid,

academic resources, social and medical facilities be identified, that

counseling be student-centered rather than institution-centered, and

that the range of available counseling activities be clarified. Like-

wise, Wygal (1980) recommends that community educational information

centers be established to provide all these services in one location.

The Florida Assembly on Policies for Lifelong Education (1980)

has made recommendations to various state and local administrative

levels to improve the quality of services for lifelong learners. To

the state legislature they recommend the appropriation of extra funds

for counseling and registration services and for adequate facilities

for providing these services. The Legislature must also support a

commitment to provide such services to assure the attainment of

necessary skills to deal with the changing society.

The Assembly recommended that the Division of Community Colleges

take the lead in developing policy for meeting the financial aid needs

and eligibility criteria for part-time students. The Division is








charged with removing barriers to access for adults into programs and

services.

The district boards of trustees are urged to adopt policies and

procedures to foster lifelong learning. This would include the modi-

fication of, among other areas, student services and recruitment. In

the former, there must be a commitment to non-traditional financial

aid, admissions policies, registration, orientation, counseling (both

personal and career), child care and referrals. For the latter, it

includes intensive community outreach to the financially and educa-

tionally disadvantaged citizens, veterans, institutionalized clients

and others.

To the individual community colleges, the Assembly recommends

establishing policies and procedures which apply equally to all stu-

dents; developing programs and services which respond to the needs of

lifelong learners; providing enrichment opportunities, peer coun-

seling, and attitudes of acceptance for non-traditional students

(Wygal, 1980).

Recommendations have been made also from similar Assemblies in

California and in North Carolina. The California Assembly recommended

that community colleges provide support services for continuing edu-

cation students based on needs assessments; that greater consideration

be given for lifelong experiences in placement in classes and in

granting of credit; that flexibility be a keyword for providing for

the needs of adult students, i.e., outreach, class length, instruc-

tional methodologies; and staff development with emphasis on teaching

strategies for, and sensitivity toward,adult learners (Gilder, 1981).








The North Carolina Assembly recommended expanded student services

for part-time and non-credit students, increased access to federal

student aid, more off-campus delivery sites, and improved publicity

for greater understanding of what services are available (Gilder,

1981b).

Summarizing the final reports of these various state assemblies

for lifelong learners, Gilder (1981a) concludes that community colleges

have the primary (though not the exclusive) responsibility for pro-

viding education for adults in local service areas. She recommends

that

the lifelong education mission of the community college be sup-
ported with regard to (a) internal and external constituencies;
(b) expectations of comprehensive programs and services; (c) new
learners' needs in a changing culture; (d) special student
groups; (e) staff and faculty commitment to the mission.
(Gilder, 1981, p. 4)

Cross (1978) has compiled a list of recommendations gleaned from

reports by various state and national studies which address access

issues in adult higher education. The recommendations were classified

into the major headings of information, counseling services, support

services, access and advocacy, financial aid, and credit. The

following are examples of recommendations from each area:

Information. A statewide information retrieval and coun-
seling system (should be established) for advising adult students
about the full range of postsecondary opportunities available to
them (Illinois).

Counseling services. Construct and implement a plan for
more adequate information, referral and counseling services for
the adult learners (New York).

Support services. Existing campus facilities should be
available to the part-time student, particularly in the late
afternoons, evenings, on week-ends and in the summer
(California).








Access and advocacy. Mandate public policy which enables
the state's adult learners to have the educational resources and
services of public and private postsecondary educational insti-
tutions accessible to them throughout their lifetime, and that
such access be made available without regard to race, age, sex,
or place of residence (Florida).

Financial aid. Examine present practices in administering
student financial aids and, where necessary, take steps to make
financial aid equitable for all students--full-time and part-
time, younger and older, male and female (Utah).

Credit. There should be continued experimentation with
forms of non-traditional study which minimizes the traditional
rigidities of campus life: time (prescribed years of study);
space (residence on campus); and systems of academic accounting
(credits or honor points earned) (United States). (pp. 57-79)


Summary

America is growing older. The enrollment impact of the post-

World War II baby boom on secondary and postsecondary education has

peaked and begun to decline. The traditional students (age 18-22

years) will not be as abundant in the future as they are today.

Higher educational institutions throughout the United States are now

experiencing the phenomenon of the lifelong learners, non-traditional

students whose age might be anywhere above 24 years and whose learning

goals range from personal enrichment to improving job skills to pre-

paring for a career change. Each of these learners comes to college

with a unique background and unique personal and educational needs.

Most are relatively well-educated, middle-income people. But less

well-educated, lower-income, disadvantaged people are also seeking

further education. Regardless of their socioeconomic status, many

share the same physical and psychological barriers to participation.

Because their needs usually differ from those of the younger,

traditional student, the adult learners' needs for and use of various








services will usually differ also. Adults are more likely than

younger students to use tutoring services, career counseling, job

placement, personal counseling and financial aid.

Postsecondary educational institutions have been somewhat

neglectful of the needs of lifelong learners. Each school must

reexamine its philosophy and make changes in its actions and attitudes

toward adults as students. New services must be developed and old

ones revised to match the needs and the goals of older students.

Because of their educational philosophies and accessibility, community

and junior colleges are perhaps the best suited among postsecondary

educational institutions to provide for these needs and goals.

But community and junior colleges are not altogether prepared

either. Though many have attempted to provide necessary services,

many others have not provided the accessibility to quality programs

which adults as consumers expect. Several studies of the needs of

adult learners have recommended that special efforts be made to

improve the services offered in light of these needs.

Because so little is known of the services provided especially

for adult students at community colleges, this study will examine the

institutional commitments made to adult learners by examining the

services provided by several southeastern community colleges in the

areas of admissions, counseling, financial aid, career planning and

placement, and support services. The next chapter will describe the

design of the study including its purposes and objectives.














CHAPTER III
DESIGN OF THE STUDY


Methodology and Procedures

This research was conducted because the literature in the fields

of older students and student services is nearly devoid of how commu-

nity colleges are attempting to meet the non-academic needs of their

older students (Cross, 1981). Furthermore, a pilot study conducted

prior to the commencement of this study indicated that student per-

sonnel practitioners in Florida recognize a need to research the

services offered older students attending community colleges, rein-

forcing the need for research in this field.

The study was designed to reveal the extent to which community

colleges in 11 southern states have taken steps toward meeting the

special needs of adult students in their respective districts. In

addition, the research was designed to evaluate the effectiveness for

adult students of the programs being offered, and the importance

placed on these services by each institution.

Based on the research reported in the literature and on a pre-

liminary survey of student personnel practitioners, the services in

question included admissions, counseling, career planning and place-

ment, financial aid, and support services.

To accomplish these objectives, a questionnaire was constructed

using as a guide two instruments from two other similar studies








(Fauquet, 1977; Levitz & Noel, 1980) which were found in a review of

the literature written between 1970 and 1981. The questionnaire was

distributed to several community college student personnel practi-

tioners for validation. Any needed revisions were made, and the ques-

tionnaire was mailed to the chief student affairs officers in randomly

selected community colleges in 11 southern states. A follow-up

mailing was made to all non-respondents three weeks later in order to

obtain the greatest possible return.

Upon return of the questionnaire, respondents or their designees

were interviewed by telephone to gain further knowledge of specific

programs. The results were tabulated, analyzed and described and

recommendations have been made on the basis of the findings. The

research is a descriptive study based on an analysis of the results of

the questionnaire and of the program descriptions gained through the

telephone interview.


Population of the Study

The population of this study included the chief student personnel

administrators, or their designees, in randomly selected community

colleges in the Southeast. As a matter of limitation, each of the

colleges surveyed was a public one accredited by the Southern Asso-

ciation of Colleges and Secondary Schools as identified by the 1980

Community, Junior, and Technical College Directory of the American

Association of Community and Junior Colleges (AACJC, 1980). To assure

that all surveyed institutions were community or junior colleges and

not simply technical colleges, institutional names had to include the

words "community" or "junior." Ten percent of the schools listed as








"community colleges" or "junior colleges" in each state were selected

as members of the population for this study. Randomness was achieved

through use of a table of random numbers. Included among the 18

colleges were 2 colleges from Alabama, 3 from Florida, 2 from Georgia,

1 from Kentucky, 2 from Mississippi, 2 from North Carolina, 1 in

Tennessee, 3 in Texas and 2 in Virginia. Because Louisiana had only

two colleges listed as "community" or "junior," a 10 percent sampling

was impractical. South Carolina was not included because none of its

two-year institutions are named "community" or "junior" colleges.

The names of the chief student affairs officers were identified

from lists of faculty and staff located in the catalogs from each

college (Career Guidance Foundation, 1979-80).


Description of the Instrument

The questionnaire used to collect part of the data for this study

was designed to provide some enrollment data and definitions of "adult

students." Also, it provided information on whether or not any of the

five areas of student services, i.e., admissions, counseling,

financial aid, career planning and placement, and support services,

were available especially for older students, how effective they were

perceived to be, and how each compares with the other in terms of the

emphasis they receive at each institution. The items used in two

questionnaires, one developed in 1980 by Randi S. Levitz and Lee Noel

of the American College Testing Program (Levitz & Noel, 1980), and the

other developed in 1977 by Tom Fauquet (Fauquet, 1977), were used as

guides in the development of this instrument. Items from these two

studies not pertinent to this study were eliminated, and additional








items were modified for the purpose of eliciting information con-

cerning the student services provided especially for the adult, non-

traditional student.

The interview questions were designed to extract further infor-

mation about the services offered as well as to learn of the problems

encountered and the benefits realized both by the institution and the

students served. The items for the interview were extrapolated from

the same two studies as was the questionnaire.

Prior to distribution, validation of the need for the survey and

of the questionnaire and interview questions to be used to gather the

data was accomplished by soliciting the opinion of several profes-

sionals in the student services field regarding the breadth of the

survey, the content of information sought, the clarity of the items,

and the ease of administration and readability of the instruments.

Further modification and revision was made to the instruments after

the comments from these professionals were received.

The instrument included a list of the five services being studied

with examples of possible services in each category for clarification.

Each category had a space to be checked "yes" or "no" indicating

whether or not the service was offered for adult students. A Likert-

type scale, from one (high) to five (low), was used for rating the

effectiveness of each service by circling the appropriate number. A

third section gave respondents an opportunity to rank the five service

categories in their order of the emphasis received at their respective

institutions. An opportunity was also provided for respondents to

include services used in their schools which they felt to be

especially effective for adult students.








Copies of each item mailed and a list of interview questions are

included in the Appendix.


Data Collection

The questionnaire in its final form was mailed on November 11,

1981, to the chief student personnel officers in 18 public community

and junior colleges throughout the South. Accompanying each survey

was a cover letter explaining the study and giving directions for the

completion of the questionnaire and its return within two weeks; a

telephone interview appointment card giving the respondent an oppor-

tunity to provide both a preferred and an alternate day and time for

submitting to an interview; a letter of endorsement from the Institute

of Higher Education at the University of Florida asking for the

cooperation of those being surveyed; and a stamped, self-addressed

envelope for respondents' convenience.

A follow-up letter was mailed on December 6, 1981, to those who

had not responded to the first mailing. This also included the ques-

tionnaire, the telephone interview appointment card, and the self-

addressed, stamped envelope.

Finally, on the days and at the times previously arranged, each

respondent was interviewed by telephone and tape recorded. Each person

was asked the same major questions concerning their institution's ser-

vices for older students, how they decided to offer them, obstacles

which had to be overcome, how services were publicized, their contri-

bution to increased enrollment and retention of older students, and

the institutional attitudes toward the older students. During each








response, however, questions were asked for purposes of clarification

and, in some instances, to encourage more detailed responses.


Treatment of the Data

The data obtained from the returned questionnaires were evaluated

in terms of descriptive statistics yielding simple frequencies, per-

centage distributions, weighted means, simple rank-ordering, and

range.

Descriptions of specific programs, or aspects thereof, in each

category were analyzed on the basis of the data provided. Information

regarding the services--funding, personnel, support, utility, and

effectiveness--provided by the surveyed community and junior colleges

for their older students was summarized.


Summary

The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which

selected community colleges are providing services for older students

in the area of admissions, counseling, career planning and placement,

financial aid, and support services. The research was designed to

reveal the steps being taken for adult students toward meeting their

special needs in these fields, the effectiveness for adults of the

services offered, and the importance placed on these services by each

institution. A questionnaire was developed to yield information con-

cerning the availability of services, their use and their effective-

ness. The study included an initial mailing, a follow-up mailing and

telephone interview for collecting the data. Chapter IV will present

an analysis of the data collected.














CHAPTER IV
RESULTS AND ANALYSIS OF QUESTIONNAIRE
AND INTERVIEW RESPONSES


This chapter is divided into five sections. The first section

includes a discussion of the data collection process. The second

section presents the responses to the questionnaire items and a dis-

cussion of the analysis of the responses. The third section of the

chapter provides a discussion of the interview responses and an

analysis of how the services offered adults are meeting the needs of

adults as identified in the literature. The fourth section will

evaluate the data in terms of answering the research questions and the

final section will provide a summary of the chapter.


Data Collection Process

The Questionnaire

After consultation with community college student personnel prac-

titioners and after making the recommended revisions, a final ques-

tionnaire was developed (see Appendix A). The questionnaire was

designed to acquire information concerning (a) whether or not a

service in each category was offered older students, (b) how effective

the services were in meeting the needs of older students, and (c) how

important each institution feels each service to be for its older

students. For item (b), a Likert-type scale from one (high) to five

(low) was used, and for (c), a rank order of the five services was








used. In addition, enrollment by head count and by male and female,

full-time and part-time adult students was also requested.


The Interview

Following essentially the same procedure for developing the ques-

tionnaire, the interview questions were designed (a) to elicit clari-

fying information concerning responses to the questionnaire, and

(b) to gain knowledge of specific services offered adult students,

including administrative details, effectiveness and institutional

attitudes (see Appendix B). The interviews were conducted by tele-

phone after the questionnaires were returned to provide a reference

for both interviewer and interviewee. The day and time for each

interview were prearranged using a telephone interview appointment card

which was returned with the questionnaire.


The Respondents

Eighteen public community colleges in Alabama, Florida, Georgia,

Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia

were chosen at random and the chief student personnel officer at each

institution was identified to be surveyed. Colleges were limited to

those named as a community or junior college which were accredited by

the Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools. Adminis-

trators were determined from the respective college catalogs. Because

of the function of the position of the respondents, i.e., vice presi-

dents, deans, or directors of student services, it was felt that these

were the most likely people on each campus to have sufficient knowl-

edge of the five student services areas of admissions, counseling,

financial aid, career planning and placement, and support services.








In only two cases did the chief student affairs officer designate

someone else (in each case a counselor) to respond.


Collection of the Data

A questionnaire regarding student services for adult students was

mailed to each student affairs administrator with a cover letter and a

letter of endorsement for the study (see Appendix C). Also included

was a telephone interview appointment card for arranging the day and

time of interview (see Appendix D). For purposes of managing the

interview process, administrators were asked to identify themselves

and their institutions, yet anonymity was guaranteed to ensure the

confidentiality of the respondents. A follow-up mailing was made

after the deadline to encourage return of the questionnaire. All but

six responded necessitating a telephone call to obtain both ques-

tionnaire and interview responses simultaneously. Eventually, data

were collected from all 18 institutions. The data, therefore,

represent a 100 percent response rate.

The interviews were tape recorded and transcribed to facilitate

analysis of the responses. The length of the interviews ranged from

11 to 35 minutes with an average of 18.5 minutes.


Treatment of the Data

As was mentioned earlier, chief student affairs administrators

responded to both a questionnaire and an interview. An analysis of

the questionnaire revealed whether or not services for adults were

offered, how effective the services were (as perceived by the respon-

dents), and how the services ranked in importance in terms of the

emphasis placed on each service by the institutions. Enrollment data








were gathered to find the ratio of adult students enrolled to the

total number of students enrolled.

Responses to the interview items were analyzed and are described

to indicate support for and clarification of the questionnaire items,

and for identification of specific services offered for adult stu-

dents, in admissions, counseling, career planning and placement,

financial aid and support services. The responses were also analyzed

in relation to how they are meeting the needs of adult students as

identified in the review of the literature.


Questionnaire Results, Analysis, and Discussion

Enrollment Data

Enrollment by credit head count of the institutions surveyed

ranged from 652 to 8,505 with a mean size of 3,400 and a median size

of 2,220. Two thirds of the institutions enrolled less than 5,000

students in credit classes.

Of the 18 responding institutions, only nine were able to report

the division of their adult enrollment into full-time males and part-

time males, full-time females and part-time females. Of these nine,

five had more part-time adult students than full-time adult students;

seven had more part-time female students than full-time female stu-

dents; and seven had more full-time male students than part-time male

students. For the nine colleges collectively, there were on the

average more part-time students than full-time students. There were

as many males as females attending full time, but there were more

women than men attending part time. These data are presented in

Table 1. The administrators at the other nine institutions could not



























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provide the information concerning the age, sex, or enrollment status

of their students.

A generalization which could be open for speculation concerns

item number six in Table 1. This institution defines adult as anyone

24 and over, and was the only one of the nine institutions tabulated

which does not use "18 and above" as its definition for adult student.

This item reveals a much smaller percentage of full-time adult stu-

dents than do the others. Though this is but one institution, it is

possible that the other colleges might show similar numbers in their

"over 24" enrollment categories. If this were the case, the impli-

cations for student services would be to address more fully the

services offered their older adult students.

One half of the 18 colleges considered all of their students over

18 years of age as adults. This corresponds with findings in the

literature (Levitz & Noel, 1980) which indicate that community and

junior colleges are inclined to define adults as anyone 18 years of

age or older. Four of the remaining nine institutions use a minimum

age for determining an adult status some age above 18. One of them

defines adult students as those over 21 years of age, another defines

them as those over 24, and two designate all students over 25 to be

adults.

The remaining five institutions claim either not to have an

official age limit or to have no definition. One definition which was

offered was that an adult is "an individual who is fully developed and

mature, who possesses certain characteristics of adulthood." Because

the vagueness of these responses tends to leave the lower age limit to

interpretation, and because the legal age of majority is generally 18,








these were treated in the analysis as having age 18 as the lower age

limit of the definition.

Remembering that for the purposes of this research an adult stu-

dent is defined as one who has reached the age of 24, the fact that

78 percent of the surveyed institutions use age 18 as a definition

might indicate that services for the non-traditional students might

not be any different on the average than the services available to

anyone else. This was not necessarily the case, however, as all

institutions did make at least some provision for their older stu-

dents. This point will be discussed in more detail in the discussion

of the interview responses.


Data on Service Availability

The data on the availability of services for adults are given in

Table 2. Respondents were asked to indicate whether or not they had

designed any new services or modified any old services in the areas of

admissions, counseling, financial aid, career planning and placement,

and student support services for their adult students. Table 2 dis-

closes the fact that in all of these student services areas, the

majority of the colleges surveyed provide at least minimum services

for adults. If this can be considered a representative sample, this

finding indicates an improvement over what has been previously

reported in the literature. Although Fauquet (1977) found only one

half of the colleges surveyed in Florida had provided for admissions

accessibility, 88.9 percent (16) of the institutions surveyed in this

study indicated having done so.








Table 2

Percentage of Services Offered Adults in
18 Southeastern Community Colleges


Service Yes No
No. % No. %

Admissions 16 88.9 2 11.1
Counseling 16 88.9 2 11.1
Career Planning and Placement 17 77.8 4 22.2
Financial Aid 13 72.2 5 27.8
Support Services 10 55.6 8 44.4


Cross (1978) stated that only 10 percent of those institutions

which serve adults provide counseling services directed toward their

special needs. The responses to the counseling item on this ques-

tionnaire indicated that almost nine times as many community and junior

colleges are now doing so.

Goodman and Beard (1976) concluded that more career planning and

placement were needed. Improvement has been made in this area also, as

14 of the 18 schools in this study claim the existence at their

institutions of these services.

Financial aid for older students has been shown in the literature

to have been one service area provided at most institutions (Goodman &

Beard, 1976; Levitz & Noel, 1980). This study reinforces this fact,

showing almost three fourths of the institutions polled providing this

service for adults. However, caution must be exercised in this

analysis because of the existence of federal financial aid programs

which are available to all need-qualified students attempting at least

a half-time course load.








Though it still reveals fewer support services being provided

than services in the other service fields, even this area is provided

by more schools than is not. This study reveals that 55.6 percent

(10) of the responding institutions offered some kind of student

support service for adult students. This supports the Levitz and Noel

(1980) study which found that the least amount of effort was made in

this area. However, with the research which has been conducted

showing the deficit of programs in this area, this finding is para-

doxical since one would think more colleges would be providing support

services for their adult students, especially in light of the "adult"

definition by a majority of the colleges in this survey.


Service Effectiveness

For each service offered, respondents were asked to rate the

effectiveness, as they perceived it, of the services provided. Using

a Likert-type scale, each service was to be rated from a high of one

to a low of five. The results were analyzed by assigning weights to

each response, then finding a weighted mean to indicate the relative

effectiveness of the services for all schools reporting. A response

of "1" was assigned a weight of five; a response of "2" was assigned a

weight of four; a "3" was assigned three; a "4" received a two; and

"5" was weighted one. Therefore, on this five point scale, the higher

the weight, the greater the perceived effectiveness. Not every col-

lege rated the effectiveness of every service category. Usually, if a

service was not offered, it was not rated. The data for the effec-

tiveness of services are presented in Table 3.















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By comparing the weighted means of each of the service cate-

gories, it can be seen that the chief student personnel officers at

each institution generally perceive the services they offer older

students to be effective in doing so. The lowest mean for any service

area was for the support services area, which had a weighted mean of

4.10. An average mean would have been a 2.50 on this particular

scale. The perceived effectiveness for adults of all service areas

varies by only .34 among the institutions offering such services. To

rank order the service areas by weighted mean would reveal counseling

to be most effective for adult students. The next most effective

would be admissions, followed by career planning and placement,

financial aid and support services as the third, fourth, and fifth

ranked services respectively. Only .11 separated the last three

categories.


Institutional Emphasis on Services for Adults

If someone were to study the relationship of administrative

emphasis for a program and the success of that program, it is likely

that one would find that the amount of time, money, personnel, or

effort an institution devotes to a particular program--or even a

philosophy behind a program--will often determine the success or

failure of that program, and sometimes whether or not the program will

even exist. When emphasis is strong, programs will be strong. When

it is weak, the programs will be weak. The responses to the ques-

tionnaire item asking respondents to rank their services in terms of

the emphasis placed on each by their respective institutions give an

indication of how successful a program in one of these service areas








might be. This is somewhat true in this study when the rank order of

the five service areas with regard to the emphasis each receives is

compared with the rank order of each area's effectiveness for adult

students. For example, counseling services are ranked first in both

emphasis received and in effectiveness, and support services are

ranked last on both accounts. The other three services areas, how-

ever, received a difference between the ranking of their effectiveness

and the ranking of the emphasis each had received. Financial aid

ranked second in emphasis and fourth in effectiveness. Admissions

ranked third in emphasis and second in effectiveness. Finally, career

planning and placement ranked fourth in emphasis and third in effec-

tiveness. The differences here could result in the dedication and

enthusiasm of the student services staff, or lack thereof, toward the

programs in these areas.

Table 4 indicates that counseling services receive the most

emphasis, while financial aid receives the next most emphasis,

admissions the third most, career planning and placement the fourth,

and support services the least. It also reveals that, when weights

are assigned each ranking (five for one, four for two, three for

three, two for four, and one for five), not much difference in

emphasis exists between counseling (number 1) and financial aid

(number 2) or between financial aid (number 2) and admissions

(number 3).

In a study by Goodman and Beard (1976), vocational counseling

(career planning) was found to rank second in emphasis among 140

southeastern community colleges, whereas in this study career planning

ranked fourth. Academic counseling and personal adjustment (both

















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counseling matters) ranked first and third respectively in the Goodman

and Beard (1976) study, while counseling services ranked first in this

study. Caution must also be used here in comparing results as dif-

ferences in ranking might result from differences in sample size.


Service Descriptions

The final item on the questionnaire offered respondents an oppor-

tunity to briefly explain all or parts of any services they felt to be

especially effective for their adult students. Only six chose to give

comments to this item. Most of these comments contained only labels

rather than descriptions. Some of these included developmental

courses in math, English and reading, supplemented with a learning lab

offering help in these areas; counseling and off-campus courses (no

explanations); special services for older students returning for

formal education; daily student services newsletters; displaced home-

maker programs; and a strong evening program providing counselors who

offer assistance in all the student services areas.

As questionnaire responses, these in themselves are of little

value. Their worth lies in the opening they gave to questions in the

interview.


Interview Results and Discussion

The interview responses provided insight into the programs

offered at the various institutions around the Southeastern United

States. More is being done for older students in community and junior

colleges than a review of the literature would indicate. Some insti-

tutions are doing more than others, but all the institutions in this

study revealed they were doing at least something for their older








clientele. In fact, the one student personnel administrator who

claimed on the questionnaire not to be offering any of these services

especially for adult students, realized during the interview that

there were several services being provided at his institution for

these students. This was often the case in identifying other programs

at other schools, though generally student services were offered at

the same level and with the same emphasis for all students, regardless

of age.


Responses to Interview Questions

Are the services offered by your institution available to both

day and evening students at the same level and with the same emphasis?

This question was posed in this manner because more often than not the

majority of evening students are older, part-time (non-traditional)

students. If services are available to both groups in the same way,

then it could generally be concluded that services for non-traditional

students are being provided. As can be seen from an analysis of the

interview responses to this question, availability varies from insti-

tution to institution, but some services are usually accessible to

adults.

Two respondents answered unequivocally that services for evening

students were the same as for day students. The remainder, however,

answered with a qualified no. In almost all cases, lack of funding

and personnel prevented the same services offered during the day from

carrying over into the evening hours. Most of the institutions main-

tained a reduced staff in the evenings. The staff ranged from one

person (counselor, registrar, financial aid staff member, or








secretary, who served more or less as an information giver and

referral source) to having the counseling office, the admissions and

records office and a nursing office open until late evening, providing

the range of services usually offered by these offices.

The remaining institutions provided services on an appointment

basis. For example, if a potential student should want to talk with

an admissions officer or a counselor, the appropriate staff member

would make an appointment and stay to meet with that person. The same

held true for other student services offices.

One institution maintained its career planning center both day

and night. This center provided all the career development services

to evening as well as day students. During evening hours, it also

provided admissions information, financial aid information, academic

advisement, and information of a general nature which might come from

any other student services office during the day. Another institution

kept evening hours in admissions, counseling and child care. The

admissions office provided an early registration for evening students,

while counseling provided academic advisement and testing at night.

The reason given by one dean for not having the same services at

night as during the day was that "since most of our evening students

would be adults or people coming back to school with pretty clear-cut

idea of what they want todo and what their objectives are, Ithink there

is a whole lot less need for perhaps counseling, and they certainly

are not interested in extra class activities." This view contradicts

the need adult students have for counseling and career planning

identified in the literature (Cross & Zussman, 1974; Kasworm, 1980;








Rawlins, 1979). The following are examples of answers to this

question in the interview.

Sample responses. We don't have as heavy a staff on at night as
we do during the day, but we have our Career Planning Center open
day and night. If a student comes in at night and wants
admissions information, financial aid information, or what have
you, he can get it through the Career Planning Center.

I think we probably have the same kind of problem that other
institutions have, and that would be finances. We have a full-
time counselor, administrator, and two secretaries in the
evening, but nothing like what we have available in the daytime.

Summary. More adult students attend classes during evening hours

than during the day. Some institutions are providing some services

equally to both day and evening students. Most services, if offered

at all, are drastically reduced at night. Therefore, many adult stu-

dents at many colleges are not being served as well as they perhaps

could be.


Have any new services or programs been developed, or have old

services or programs been modified which speak directly to the special

needs of older students? None of the 18 colleges were doing anything

for adults in all five classifications which differed from what they

were doing for younger students. All of them, however, were providing

for their older students in at least one category.

The area of concentration offered most was in programs designed

for groups of older students, particularly women. These were provided

by eight colleges. Most of these programs were designed to offer

returning students the opportunity to get together with others (peers)

in their same situation for support purposes. The problems common to

most older students, especially after they have decided to return to

formal schooling, include anxiety, lack of academic self-confidence,








and poor study habits. These problems have usually been the ones

addressed in these groups. These kinds of groups were found to exist

in many of the institutions surveyed in the Fauquet (1977) study.

One such group was called the "Second Wind Group" designed and

promoted as a club for students aged 25 and older. Aside from pro-

viding social opportunities, it offered peer support for those who

were hesitant about returning to school because of the competition

with younger students in the classroom, because they are somewhat test

anxious, because they lack confidence in their ability to make good

grades, and because they are feeling some guilt about spending more

time with their studies than with their housework or families.

The same institution had a program for "displaced homemakers."

This group provided for some of the needs (counseling, tutorial, peer

support) of the divorced or widowed women on campus.

Another campus provided a similar group for older women called

"Women on the Way" (WOW). This group also operated as a club for

women who, because their children were in school, decided to return to

school themselves. It also served women who had divorced or otherwise

lost their husbands and were returning to learn to make a living. The

group received no formal financial support from the college, but was

supported with contributions and fund raising activities.

The second most offered programs were in the area of career

planning and placement. Many older students are interested in career

counseling for help in defining career goals and opportunities (Cross,

1978). One institution, through financial assistance from the Compre-

hensive Education and Training Act (CETA), developed a Career Develop-

ment Center. The program was designed primarily to assist the








disadvantaged members of the community and displaced homemakers in

identifying interests, abilities, career options and vocational and

educational goals. In addition, as part of the self-assessment

portion of the program, participants had the opportunity to clarify

their values and to explore themselves in terms of their wants, needs,

ideas, beliefs and feelings. The center is staffed with two pro-

fessional counselors and a secretary, and is so popular, appointments

must be made two weeks in advance. Although it was planned for adults

on campus and in the community, all students have become aware of this

program, and it now serves students of all ages.

Another college has a similar program which basically attracts

adults from the community. The Career Center facilitates the

admissions and financial aid application process, provides career

counseling, and opportunities for job placement. These people are

placed into a group called a "Second-Time-Around Group." The group

receives peer support from students who have been on campus at least

a year. The process aids in career and educational goal identifi-

cation and helps students plan their academic programs to meet those

goals. The idea is to mainstream as many of these students as

possible in the least amount of time.

A third service emphasized by several colleges was in financial

aid. Because attending college represents a potential loss of income

for many older people (Cross, 1974; Rawlins, 1979), they hesitate in

making the decision to enroll. Two states--Florida and Tennessee--

have laws which provide tuition waivers for senior citizens (citizens

over age 62). These are available on a space-available basis only

after the regular registration period is over, and paying students








have had the first opportunity for the courses. These laws have pro-

vided an incentive for those on a fixed income to participate in a

formal learning experience.

Two other schools have designed special scholarship programs for

older students. Most of these programs are supported by special

interest groups and service organizations in the surrounding commu-

nities. One college has provided a "Second Career Scholarship" which

pays tuition for students who have been out of high school for five

years or more. Its purpose is to provide incentive for students to

return to formal education.

All of the institutions offer the full range of federal aid pro-

grams. Students, of course, must meet the appropriate requirements.

Other new or modified services designed for adults at various

community colleges included developmental or guided studies programs.

These programs essentially consist of orientation courses which

support older newcomers through the transition back to the status of

student. Still other guided studies programs have provided

remediation for students whose academic qualifications require it, and

emotional support for those whose self-esteem and confidence require

it. These have been cooperative endeavors between the academic

divisions and student services staff, primarily counselors.

Several colleges have made a concerted effort toward recruiting

older students. One admissions office sends peer recruiters--older

adults already enrolled--to visit various clubs, organizations,

churches, businesses and any other place older people congregate, and

to give information about the college, its courses, its facilities,

and its services. Another admissions office works very closely with








the academic divisions in providing courses and programs for the

numerous industries in its district, and in gaining support from

employers for these courses and programs. Still another college

offered registration by telephone.

The following are examples of answers to this question in the

interview.

Sample responses. For us, placement is relatively new. We added
a vocational/technical component to our campus about five years
ago, and we've been gradually working on placement. This falls
under our career program. Our services are for all students.
We've geared up our program knowing we have a large percent, but
we haven't specifically designed a program for them.

We've been doing a lot with taking classes off campus to
locations more accessible to our older students. We're in an
area with a high retirement population and many of these folks
live in fancy mobile home parks. What we do is take courses to
these parks as often as possible. The courses don't fall under
student services, but we take the admissions process to them. We
don't offer anything special in orientation or counseling for
adults.

Summary. Thirteen of the colleges have created some innovative

programs to serve their older student population. Each of these pro-

grams can be categorized into one of the five concerns of this

research--admissions, counseling, financial aid, career planning and

placement, and student support services.


Which service for adults receives the greatest emphasis in terms

of budget, personnel, and facilities? More and more adults are

returning to formal educational institutions. In order to serve these

students adequately, colleges must be committed to organizing,

developing and supporting programs to ensure that adults are appro-

priately served (FIPSE, 1980). The majority of the colleges in this

study have recognized this need and have put at least some of the








services at a higher priority so that the adult learner might be

better served. Slightly over one-fourth of these colleges have not

placed their emphasis on any one service area, but have "spread the

wealth," as one administrator put it, in order to maintain all

services at least at their present level. One dean claimed, "Every-

thing gets the same amount of emphasis." Another said, "We try to

provide a balance of services and try to put as much emphasis on one

as we do the others. I can't say that any of our service in student

services is particularly paramount over another."

Nearly three-fifths of the colleges surveyed did place emphasis

on either admissions, financial aid, or counseling. The rationale for

emphasizing the admissions programs was generally budgetary--adequate

personnel were required to satisfactorily recruit a sufficient number

of new students of all ages. In several instances, the admissions

operation had the largest staff. Radio and television advertising,

and travel for recruiting had consumed large parts of the resources

available for student services at one college.

The financial aid programs at these schools received the most

emphasis because, according to the respondents, the amount of money

which flows through these federal programs requires a substantial

amount of time, energy, and personnel. However, one institution

placed least emphasis on financial aid because of the large amounts of

federal money in the program, and because many of these students

"have part-time jobs and such, and just don't qualify."

In order that student services might expand their efforts to pro-

vide for special groups, to purchase equipment and material, and to








extend hours without enlarging the staff, counseling and career

planning have been receiving the greatest emphasis at three colleges.

One dean was not happy with the emphasis his institution placed

on student services. He stated, "We're going through the budget cut

procedures as most schools are . and my opinion is we're not

getting our fair share. . services always go first. . I think

services should get more to retain the people as opposed to recruiting

them."

The following are examples of answers to this question in the

interview.

Sample responses. Admissions operations is the largest thing--
the staff is the largest we've got. Career planning and coun-
seling are the second largest. They are two little bags in a big
bag, for federal accounting purposes.

In relation to the adult student, the counseling end of it by a
long shot.

I know the students get alot of counseling around here--alot of
counseling! I would say counseling gets more attention.

I guess the one which receives the most use would be career
planning simply because of the fact it is more highly publicized
and has been pushed by the CETA Manpower folks and an awful lot
of their clients are using it. Since it has become part of the
campus, it has gained a good deal of visibility and many of our
current students, young and old, are using it . as far as
other services are concerned, I would have to say admission
receives the next greatest amount of effort and energies.

Summary. There is little commonality among the 18 community

colleges about the student services which receive the greatest

emphasis. Although some have divided talents, money, and enthusiasm

equally, most have done so among counseling and career planning,

admissions, and financial aid.








How did your institution decide to provide these services for

adults? For the most part, there was a need perceived by the student

services staff to provide services for older students. It was felt by

one institution that something needed to be done for the older stu-

dents, especially women, because so many were returning to school.

With so many students on campus only in the evening, extending

services into the evening hours seemed to three other colleges to be

a necessity, in order to meet students'needs.

With the decline in full-time enrollment by traditional students,

several colleges began looking at programs for the older, non-

traditional students. "When we looked at enrollment problems and FTE

decline or stabilization, and hoping to raise it a little bit, we

looked at providing more services to the community and trying to get

more of the non-traditional students in." This reason was expressed

by three of the respondents.

Only two schools developed their services in response to student

need surveys. Each of these surveyed current adult students and com-

munity members to determine what they wanted and expected from the

college. One indicated that staff traveled to other schools to

observe their programs.

One of the institutions developed services through the pressure

of community civic groups. In one community, for example, the local

Junior League became interested in the growing number of displaced

homemakers in the district and began inquiring of college officials

concerning the services--both academic and non-academic--which could

be made available for them. With this interest and interest from








displaced homemakers who were already enrolled, a special program was

developed with funding from the Junior League and state agencies.

The following are examples of answers to this question in the

interview.

Sample responses. Well, we just felt a need to do something for
the older student, and a number of people felt that we needed to
move in the direction of special services for women. I felt that
we should not single women . that men had problems too. So,
let's develop a center that works for both.

Probably the most critical thing was sheer numbers. The evening
program had roughly a third of our enrollment, and many of those
people had no contact at all with the college in the daytime.

We have students who are not of the traditional age we would have
thought of 20 years ago. Students are older--our average student
is 28-29 years of age. With dwindling enrollments, we tend to
put emphasis in the so-called adult students. Naturally we have
to consider them. As the war babies sort of wind down, there
goes the traditional student.

Summary. Services for adults have been developed and offered for

adults founded more on a perceived or observed need than on need

identified through formal survey. Institutions have been made aware

of a need for services from local interest groups as well as their own

reaction to declining enrollment. The latter is an example of

designing services to meet the institutional needs of increased

revenue through increased FTE (full time equivalent) students rather

than students' needs for appropriate services.


How have older students been made aware of your services and how

many have been served? The mere existence of a program does not

guarantee it will be well attended. Most must be well-publicized.

Fauquet (1977) found that publicity on the availability of services

was rarely directed toward adults. The programs offered through the

18 community colleges included in this study were publicized through








a variety of means. On campus methods included posters, weekly

bulletins, flyers, college catalogs, school newspapers and class

schedules. Many thought that verbal confirmation by satisfied users

of the services was one of the most effective means of publicity. In

one case, faculty and student services staff had developed a

respectful relationship resulting in faculty support for student

services activities which helped to promote the service through

faculty referrals.

Another student services staff displayed pictures of each of its

members identifying the services, responsibilities, and names of each

one. It was felt that this helped students recognize staff members

and their affiliated programs and provided an "icebreaker" for

potential clients.

Off-campus publicity included both paid advertisements and public

service broadcasts on radio and television. Also included were

brochures and catalogs left in public places, brochures and announce-

ments in bank statements, newsletters, and direct mailings to alumni,

friends of the college, members of boards of trustees and anyone else

who might be included on a mailing list, including current students.

Fifteen of the 18 institutions in this study could not identify

the number of students served. Comments included "a lot in job place-

ment," "business every night," "a large contingency of older stu-

dents." One institution was able to identify a number of 15 to 20

persons per term in their women's program, whereas another women's

program claimed 2,500 participants the first year, and a third

expanded from 400 to 1,400 unduplicated head count.








As might be expected, all of the administrators claimed their

programs to have been successful and effective in meeting the needs of

their older student population. This reinforces the responses to the

questionnaire item on effectiveness. The method for measuring the

effectiveness was usually non-scientific, however. The general

feeling was that if it seemed effective, it probably was. "If you

don't lose them, you must be doing something right," was one

response.

The following are examples of answers to this question in the

interview.

Sample responses. We publicize in numerous ways. We have
flyers. Our schedules that go out indicate the hours that the
counseling center, etcetera, is open. We have notices on every
door of the student services area that tell the hours and days
. it helps, I think.

We've served a goodly number of students, though I can't put my
finger on the number. But, it's growing. The more people find
out about the fact we're here, the more our services will be
used. Now, we publicize with posters, ads in the papers, and all
kinds of things to let students know we are available, and that
we have these services going.

We've publicized this through every way possible--media on and
off campus, posters. In every program area we have notices that
tutorial services are available.

Summary. Publicity occurred in many forms from the simplest

poster to elaborate television advertising. Though few were able to

provide information on the numbers served in each area, some kept

records for accountability. Most programs were considered effective,

but the method for measuring the effectiveness usually was not.


Have you any indication whether or not these services have con-

tributed to the increased enrollment and/or retention of adult

students? One study found that approximately 26 million adults did








not participate for reasons which could have been remedied through

adequate counseling (Heffernan, Macy, & Vickers, 1976). Another esti-

mated that 40 million adults would return to classroom study if

institutions were more responsive to their personal and educational

needs (Levitz & Noel, 1980).

Because there are many variables which can contribute to

increased enrollment and retention, this question was a difficult one

for the interviewees to answer. However, most answered positively--

the services and programs offered did improve retention and enrollment

among those who used them. One guided studies program averaged 60 to

70 completers per year, most of whom moved directly into the regular

curriculum. One dean stated, "We do have the feeling from feedback we

get from people that it (full-time evening counselor) has been

worthwhile."

Another indicated, "lie haven't made any studies to show it.

Certainly we have students who have enrolled who have stated they

would not have done so without the publicity or other students'

comments. By that kind of informal review, we can say it has helped

enrollment."

Some negative comments included, "We are running what I feel is a

high dropout rate, about 21 to 22 percent per quarter. So, I'm not

sure what we're doing is correct." "Even now that we have a full time

evening counselor, I don't think we'll see much significant change."

"In a very limited way, if at all."

The following are examples of answers to this question in the

interview.








Sample responses. I think definitely! As far as being able to
show you statistical information to back that up, we are probably
not that far along yet. But, I don't think there is any question
about it, that we see the individual case where that is indeed
making a difference.

I don't think we'll see much significant change. Maybe we'll
just be doing a little better job of what we're doing. Most of
your adults are going to come, you know, and they pretty well are
going to tough it out on their own, whether they have any help
or not.

Summary. None of the interviewees had any survey data supporting

increased enrollment or retention of older students resulting from use

of the student services provided. The feeling generally was that

there had been increased enrollment and retention.


How do you perceive the attitudes of the institution as a whole

toward older students? In a report on four programs for adult higher

education the Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education

(FIPSE, 1980) stated that a strong institutional commitment and a

positive attitude by faculty, administrators, and staff toward adult

students are necessary for program success and perhaps institutional

survival.

The attitudes of the faculty, administration, and staff toward

older students at all 18 institutions in this study were reported as

positive but not without problems. One college reported the diffi-

culty some new, young faculty had with feeling comfortable teaching

older students. Another reported an elitist attitude among some

faculty wherein they felt they should not waste their time on students

who lack the ability to do college work. It was emphasized that this

attitude was not directed solely to older students. Yet because of

some of the problems which manifest themselves among adults who have








been away from formal education for, in some cases, many years, atti-

tudes toward adults by some faculty were negative.

Three other student affairs administrators perceived the attitude

toward older students to be no different than the attitude toward the

younger ones, i.e., students are students. This perspective could be

problematic for adult student programs because, if adults are per-

ceived as not being unlike younger ones, it would be difficult to gain

support for providing different services. This apparently was not the

case in these three institutions, as each reported numerous services

for older students. One reported, "We're all just students; probably

a tremendous melting pot as far as age is concerned. I just don't see

any negative aspects to the more mature student . they all seem to

be working toward the same thing. I think this is for better

education."

Because of the investment adults make, i.e., time, money, reduced

income, and possible familial stresses, they tend to take their

schooling a little more seriously. As a result, faculty sometimes

prefer having adults in class rather than younger ones (or at least a

mix). One dean stated, "I'm of the opinion it [adult presence] adds a

great deal of maturity in a hurry to the attitudes of younger kids."

Finally, another dean declared, "We realize and acknowledge their

presence and we know we need to be much more conscious of their needs.

We are devoting time and energy and spirit to becoming more aware, as

well as putting into effect services and programs for the students

25 and over."

The following are examples of answers to this question in the

interview.








Sample responses. The attitude is a very positive one. What we
do concerning programs and services is try to create adult pro-
grams which address the needs of the population.

I think an overwhelming positive, for this reason. The adult
students who are coming to us are here for a purpose and they
really get after a grade to the point that if a teacher is sick
and can't come to class, and you have a student that has driven
15 miles to class, they're mad. They do exceptionally well on
their grade point average, and we found that by doing research on
the second careers scholarship program.

Summary. Older students have become a part of the community

college environment. As such, they are accepted and welcomed by all

facets of the institutions which serve them, with the exception of

those who view them as threats or as incompetent students.


Application of the Data to the Research Questions

Research Question 1

Which of the five services being investigated are provided for

adult students in a way which is different from their more traditional

applications? Generally, services were found to be offered adult

students in all five student services categories, though none of the

surveyed institutions offered services in all five at any one time. A

category by category analysis of the data revealed that 88.9 percent

(16) of the colleges offered services for adults in the admissions

area and the counseling area. Career planning services were available

in 77.8 percent (14) of the colleges. Financial aid services and

support services were available in 72.2 percent (13) and 55.6 percent

(10) of the institutions respectively.

According to the information gathered through the interviews,

special services in admissions have included recruitment programs

aimed at employees--and their spouses--of local industries, simplified








application procedures, and registration services taken to senior

citizen centers for their convenience.

Counseling services which were offered older students usually

were done as part of the services to which students had access through

the various women's groups, e.g., Women on the Way; older student

groups, e.g., Second Wind Group; and career development groups, e.g.,

Second Time Around Group.

Though not specifically designed for older students, to make

counseling services more accessible to adults, hours of operation for

counseling services were often extended to the evening hours.

Federal financial aid programs are available to all students who

are at least half-time students (usually taking six credits per term).

Because many adults take only one course per term, this source of aid

is not available to them. Some of the financial aid services from

several of the schools in this study have made available scholarships

for returning older students, often given as incentives to continue

their education. Senior citizens in two states have been granted

tuition waivers through state legislative action. These have been

helpful for those on fixed income.

Career planning and placement services have included special

groups and services emphasizing meeting the needs of older students

for establishing or clarifying career goals.

The support services, in addition to the clubs and groups

mentioned in the discussion of the counseling services, have provided

day care facilities and tutorial services for adults, helping them to

become acclimated to academic work.








Research Question 2

Which services receive the greatest emphasis for non-traditional

students? As perceived by the chief student personnel officers at

each college surveyed, counseling services receive the greatest

emphasis in terms of budgetary support, number of personnel assigned,

time allotted, and energy expended. This was because of the need for

many adults to have an opportunity to overcome their reentry problems,

i.e., lack of adequate study habits, test and school anxieties, and

lack of academic self-confidence.

Ranked second were financial aid services which many older stu-

dents need in order to afford their college costs. Without this aid,

whether it be federal, state, local, public or private, many adults

would find it difficult to attend because of their reduced level of

income while enrolled.

Admissions was ranked third. This is where the emphasis is

placed for recruitment. Likewise, efforts were made to facilitate the

admissions process for older students by providing services off campus

in locations convenient for them.

Ranking fourth and fifth were career planning and support

services respectively. There were in some cases feelings among

student affairs administrators that older students have identified

career and educational goals, have decided how they want to attain

them, and therefore have little or no need for career planning. Aside

from special support groups, other support services such as child-care

centers were frequently not available. These inadequacies were often

due to lack of funds rather than attitude or concern for adult

learners.








Research Question 3

Are the student services which are offered addressing the needs

of adults (as identified in the literature)? Generally, the needs of

adult learners were being met by the services available to them at the

community and junior colleges, but none of the colleges were offering

all five service areas for adults. Even through the traditional

applications, with some effort and sacrifice on the students' part,

their needs can be met. On the average, however, most of their needs

are being met at many colleges through the provision of new and often

innovative services offered specifically for that reason. At any one

college, however, services were available to meet, at most, only a few

of the adults' special needs.

Cross (1978) identified the needs of would-be learners for both

career and educational counseling, but that these people have little

information about where to receive these services. All schools in

this study indicated the presence of a publicity program designed to

provide the consumer--both on and off campus--with information con-

cerning services offered,for whom they were designed, when they were

available, how much they cost, what their goals and objectives were,

and any other information necessary to attract students. This infor-

mation was presented through various printed media, and radio and

television. In addition, it was felt that satisfied customers were a

positive source of publicity.

To meet their needs identified by Bulpitt (1973) for improved

self-concept and confidence in their academic ability, three of the

colleges started special support groups which were open-ended and

on-going. These groups gave adults the opportunity to share their








feelings and thoughts with others in the same situation and to gain

support from them. Also provided through these groups and through

other support services (learning labs), tutorial and study skills

assistance was available.

The Educational Testing Services predicted that millions of

adults did not participate in formal educational programs for reasons

which could have been remedied through adequate counseling (Heffernan,

Macy, & Vickers, 1976). To remedy this deficiency in counseling

services, all but two of the colleges in this study at least made

their counseling services more accessible to their older students.

This accessibility was accomplished by extending hours of operation to

include evenings, and by developing the support groups already

mentioned.

Cross (1980) and Malin, Bray, Dougherty, and Skinner (1980) found

that, because adults often must experience a reduced level of income

out of the necessity to change from full-time to part-time employment

in order to attend classes, they have a need for financial assistance.

Federal aid programs available at all public institutions have greatly

helped ease this situation. Three of the colleges in this study have

contributed to the pool of funds available by establishing special

scholarship and loan programs for adult students. Senior citizens in

two states can take advantage of state-mandated tuition waivers.


Research Question 4

As perceived by the chief student personnel officers, are the

services offered effective in providing for the special needs of adult

learners? Responses to the questionnaire item on service effectiveness








and statements in the interviews addressing effectiveness indicated

that, on the average, services are quite effective. Applying weights

to the responses to a Likert-type scale and the questionnaire, a

weighted mean was determined for each category of service (on a five-

point scale). The means ranged from a low of 4.10 for support

services to a high of 4.44 for counseling. Thus it can be concluded

that, for the services offered, there is a relatively high degree of

effectiveness for meeting adult student needs.


Research Question 5

Do community and junior colleges differentiate between tradi-

tional and non-traditional students by definition? For purposes of

statistical reporting, all but four of the 18 colleges in this survey

defined adult as anyone over 18 years of age. This would imply a

failure to recognize the differences between the needs and require-

ments of younger (traditional) students and older (non-traditional)

students. Conversations with student affairs administrators indicated

that, in actuality, this was not the case. Each institution's student

services division had recognized the difference and had, in one

respect or another, designed programs to accommodate those dif-

ferences. These programs included special interest groups, scholar-

ships for adults, special recruiting and admissions programs, extended

hours, and guided studies programs.


Research Question 6

Have the services offered adult students contributed to the

increased enrollment or retention of adult students? Though none of

the colleges could provide any survey data on the question of








enrollment and retention, nearly every one perceived that its enroll-

ment and retention of older students had improved with the availa-

bility of these services. Developmental studies programs had

acclimated students to college and academic life. Women's and older

student support groups had helped smooth the rough edges of again

becoming a student. Career development centers had provided the

assistance needed to identify career and educational goals, and to

learn employability skills. Financial aid services had helped make it

financially possible for many to attend college. Admissions offices

made it easier for students to apply and enroll in the programs of

their choice. Counseling had become more readily accessible, and was

available as part of the process for each of the other service areas

in order to help adults adjust to the new demands and responsi-

bilities of being a student. The counseling services provided

included academic advising, career counseling, and personal

counseling.


Summary

Chapter IV contains the results and an analysis of the question-

naire and interview items presented to the chief student personnel

officers at 18 Southeastern public community colleges. All five of

the student services areas (admissions, counseling, career planning

and placement, financial aid, and support services) were found to be

available for older students. Some colleges offered more than others,

but all had recognized the need to improve services for adult

learners. Counseling and admissions services were available most fre-

quently (88.9 percent of the colleges). Support services were offered





77


the least (55.6 percent of the colleges). The services which were

available were perceived to be quite effective by the student services

administrators. The ranking of effectiveness for each service was, in

descending order, counseling, admissions, career planning, financial

aid, and support services. The ranking of the emphasis placed on each

service by the institution was, in descending order, counseling,

financial aid, admissions, career planning, and support services. The

interviews provided insight and reinforcement for the questionnaire

responses.














CHAPTER V
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND GENERAL OBSERVATIONS,
RECOMMENDATIONS


This chapter is organized into three sections: a summary of the

study, major findings, general observations and conclusions based on

the analysis of the responses to the questionnaire and the interview,

and recommendations.


Summary

The purpose of this research was to identify and to describe the

extent to which the special needs of older students are being addressed

through the offices of student services of 18 randomly selected commu-

nity and junior colleges in 11 southern states. The services to be

researched were identified through a review of the literature which

revealed the needs of adult learners. The service categories

included: (1) Admissions, (2) Counseling, (3) Financial Aid,

(4) Career Planning and Placement, (5) Support Services. The research

was designed to reveal the steps taken toward meeting the special

needs of adult students, to evaluate the effectiveness for adult

students of the programs offered, and to evaluate the importance

placed on these services by each institution.

The chief student affairs officer at each institution was asked

to respond to a questionnaire designed to reveal (a) the number of

adult students enrolled, (b) the institution's definition of adult,









(c) whether or not services in each category were available to older

students, (d) how effective they were in serving the adults, and

(e) the institutional emphasis placed on each service category.

A preliminary questionnaire and interview questions were provided

several student personnel practitioners for their reaction to the

appropriateness and clarity of the items. Changes were made in accord

with their recommendations. The questionnaire (Appendix A) was mailed

to the student personnel administrator in 18 public community colleges

in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina,

Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia. Louisiana and South Carolina were not

represented because institutions in these states did not meet the

population selection criteria. Cover letters and the letter of

endorsement were mailed with each questionnaire (Appendix B).

Telephone interviews were prearranged through use of the Tele-

phone Interview Appointment Card (Appendix C) which was returned with

each questionnaire. Each interview was conducted to clarify responses

to the questionnaire and to identify the specific programs being used.

Questionnaire and interview responses revealed that, on the

average, all 18 community and junior colleges in this study were pro-

viding student services specifically designed to meet the needs of

their older students. Though this new clientele can be served with

traditional services, programs have been conceived and developed

specifically to serve adults. None of the colleges, however, were

offering services in all five categories.

Generally, the service which received the most institutional

emphasis and support was counseling, the services of which have most

often been distributed among the five service categories. Financial








aid programs with special incentive scholarships for adults, and

admissions programs designed to recruit and easily enroll adults were

also strongly emphasized. Career planning and placement programs and

support service programs were least emphasized.

When comparing the results, especially interview results, with

the findings in the literature on adult student needs, the student

services divisions of the surveyed institutions seemed to be aware of

and sympathetic to the needs of adult learners. Results show efforts

are being made to meet those needs and that, according to the student

personnel administrators, those efforts,though limited, have been

effective in doing so.

In terms of age, most community colleges considered all students

over 18 as adults. Differentiation between traditional and non-

traditional students was usually done ona program-by-program basis and

with emphasis from each student services staff, rarely by the insti-

tution. The general feeling among the student services administrators

was that providing quality, effective programs for older students will

entice them to enroll, and to continue in their courses once they do.

None of the colleges could support this feeling with numbers.

Chapter IV presented the results of the questionnaire and analysis

of the responses to it and to the interview items. Descriptions of

programs and answers to the research questions are included.


Major Findings

An analysis of the data from both the questionnaire and the

interview items (representing a 100 percent response rate) revealed

the following major findings.








1. One half of the student personnel administrators surveyed

were unable to supply enrollment data by full-time or part-time, male

or female students.

2. Services were not offered adults in all five of the cate-

gories studied.

3. Of those services offered most often, counseling and

financial aid services received the greatest amount of institutional

support and emphasis for serving adult learners. Career planning and

support services received the least amount.

4. When addressing the needs of older students, as identified in

the literature, community and junior college student services

divisions have, on the average, made some attempt to meet those needs.

None of them is attempting to meet all of their needs.

5. The chief student personnel officer of each institution per-

ceived the services being offered adults as effective in meeting

adults' needs.

6. None of the student personnel administrators could supply

institutional research data confirming their positive perceptions of

the impact services had had on increased enrollment and retention of

older students.

7. Community and junior colleges generally did not officially

differentiate between their traditional and non-traditional students,

although the student services staffs normally did. Colleges which do

not differentiate are less likely to have special services for older

students.

8. Institutions in this study are not making adequate attempts

to meet the non-academic needs of older students in all the service








categories studied. Therefore, many of the needs for services held by

lifelong learners are not being met by many community and junior

college student services divisions.


Conclusions and General Observations

The analysis of both the questionnaire and the interview

responses indicated that services for adults in community and junior

colleges are apparently improving over what they have been as reported

in the literature. The special needs of adult students are being

addressed by some of the institutions surveyed, but only in a limited

way, and none of them in all five of the service categories studied.

Through various counselor-led groups, or through traditional one-

to-one counseling sessions, student services staffs are attempting to

help older students in overcoming their anxieties, their low self-

esteem, and their lack of confidence in their academic ability and

interpersonal relationships. The most popular method of reaching

these people was through clubs and organizations which have been

designed to offer emotional support while at the same time providing a

ready resource of information concerning various aspects of college

life.

According to the literature, younger students tend to tolerate

the traditional methods of hurdling the application/registration

obstacles, but adults quite often see no necessity for the paperwork

and the procedure, and they become irritated with much of it. Results

of this study showed that admissions services are attempting to elimi-

nate some of these annoyances. Applications are becoming shorter and

less complex, requiring less time to complete. Registration (as well








as course offerings) are being taken to locations convenient for

senior citizens or working adults. Registration by mail and by

telephone are becoming popular.

Recruitment has moved beyond high school walls. Brochures,

posters, and visitations to areas of adult concentration, i.e., places

of employment, professional offices, and shopping areas, have brought

colleges and the services they offer to the attention of more adult

learners. Community colleges are becoming places for adults as well

as youth.

Much of the financial aid is regulated and determined by federal

law and requirements. Basic grants, college work-study programs, and

federal loan programs are available only to students enrolled as half

time or more. Tuition waivers for senior citizens have provided an

incentive for people over 62 years of age to remain mentally active

and alert by covering the tuition costs of attending college. Other

innovative incentive scholarships are being developed and funded

through endowments and foundations. Those who receive these scholar-

ships usually become active recruiters simply by telling others of

their fortune.

Career planning and placement services are becoming hubs of

activity, not only for traditional students searching for a career

goal, but also for older students and community members who are

seeking or undergoing a change in their lifestyle. Divorcees and

mothers whose children are in school are looking for career opportu-

nities and the training necessary for attaining them. Mid-life career

changers are searching for options to their current career patterns

and occupations. The services of the career planning offices are








assisting in the decision-making process before students enter college,

and are providing support where necessary while they are on campus.

However, aside from the fact that this research has revealed

several attempts to meet the special needs of adult learners, dis-

cussions with the chief student personnel officers have aroused some

major concerns. One is that, since most colleges do not officially

define adult, or when they do, they include anyone over 18 years of

age, institutions are only paying lip-service to support for non-

traditional students while continuing to provide services in the same

fashion for all students. Members of student services staffs may recog-

nize the necessity for discriminating between services for youth and

services for adults. The problem arises when others, i.e., adminis-

trators and faculty, cannot be convinced of the necessity for doing

so. If services for adults are not recognized as a priority item by

the top administrators in an institution, it is not likely that sup-

port for these programs will be more than minimal. To fulfill the

mission of the community college for providing educational and support

services for its constituents, administrators must be made aware of

the needs and understand what must be done to meet those needs.

A second concern is that the pilot study conducted prior to

initiating this study indicated that student personnel administrators

recognize the need for adult student services and for research in this

field. If this might be considered a prevailing attitude among stu-

dent personnel professionals, then it seems somewhat neglectful for

institutions not to be providing a broader range of services for

adults at each institution.








Institutional research, or lack thereof, regarding the effective-

ness of programs and services on the enrollment and retention of adult

students is another concern. If services are going to be offered,

they must be so based on research of the needs of students and how

well those services are meeting their needs. Only two of the insti-

tutions surveyed had conducted the research; the others based their

comments either on what they had heard in casual conversation with

participants, or on "feelings" they had developed about the success of

their programs.

A third concern is that the development of services for adults

may be institution-centered rather than student-centered. Several

respondents reported a decline in full time equivalent enrollment

(FTE) as a major factor in their decision to expand services for

adults. If the driving force behind the move to help the older stu-

dents is increased FTE, then the commitment made by the institutions

in this study might not necessarily be to the student but rather to

the institution.

The lifelong learning goals and objectives of the older student

can be at least partially met at the community or junior college. But

services must be available which address the non-academic needs of

this clientele. The results of this study show that colleges are

attempting to do so, yet only in a limited way. Where there were

services for adults in counseling and financial aid, there were none

in admissions or career planning, and vice versa.

In the final analysis, the attempts to meet the non-academic

needs of older students through each of the student services areas--

admissions, counseling, career planning and placement, financial aid,








or supportservices--at the same time have been inadequate. Therefore,

according to this research, many of the needs for services held by

lifelong learners are not being addressed by the community and junior

college student services divisions at the institutions surveyed.


Recommendations

The purpose of this study was to identify and to describe, through

questionnaire and personal interview, the extent towhich community and

junior colleges are providing services to meet the needs of older stu-

dents. As an outcome of the results of this research, several

recommendations can be made.

1. It is recommended that all community colleges evaluate their

definition of adult student to ensure the services they offer are appro-

priate for meeting the needs of the various ages of their clientele.

2. It is recommended that student services practitioners more care-

fully evaluate the needs of their students in order to focus more ade-

quately on those needs in providing services. Many of the respondents

in this study indicated that the need for their programs was determined

by feelings and observations rather than formal assessments of need.

3. It is recommended that financial aid offices attempt to

create special scholarships for older students, the selection criteria

for which might include time away from school or similar standard.

The bulk of financial aid funds is made available through federal

programs. Many adults do not qualify for these funds because of

income or because they are not enrolled at least half time.

4. It is recommended that institutions research the need and

feasibility of offering a day care service on campus. These centers








could be either self-supporting, separate student services sponsored,

or they might be developed as part of an early childhood education

program. Only two of the colleges in this study provided day care

facilities for the children of their students.

5. It is recommended that research of a similar nature be con-

ducted throughout other geographic regions of the United States to

examine the findings of this study, and to compare them in terms of

the consistency of enrollment patterns, the institutional commitment

to serving adult students' needs, and the types of services offered.

6. It is recommended that the next step in the research process

be to investigate how students who have used these services perceive

the effectiveness of these programs--who is staying and who is not.

7. It is recommended that services from each category of ser-

vices be provided through the conduct of on-going support groups for

adults. With the presence of a given number of students at regularly

scheduled times, adequate support and appropriate information can be

given from each service category providing growth and development

opportunities for each participant.

8. For those who do not choose to join a group, it is recom-

mended that a centralized, diverse program of services be made

available for ease of disseminating information and providing for

proper support for adding adult students.

9. It is recommended that career planning programs be evaluated

and revised to include special services for adult learners. Though

many are enrolling for personal enrichment, many others are enrolling

for retraining purposes, to gain new skills, to become employable.








Yet a large number of these have little or no idea how to make

appropriate choices in these areas.

10. It is recommended that effort be made to publicize more ade-

quately the services available. A public relations effort with local

service organizations, clubs, and church groups would help to promote

the services. Peer and financial support might also result from such

efforts.

11. It is recommended that efforts be made to increase the

active involvement of older students in various activities on campus.

Several influential, tactful adults active in the proper areas, e.g.,

peer counseling, tutoring, and work-study programs, could help in con-

vincing administrators and faculty of the value of providing services

for adult students.














APPENDIX A
QUESTIONNAIRE ON STUDENT SERVICES FOR
ADULTS IN COMMUNITY COLLEGES


Name of your institution

Total enrollment, Fall 1981 (credit head count):


Adult enrollment, Fall 1981 (credit head count):
Full time: male
Part time: male


, female
, female


How does your institution define "adult?"


In the categories of student services below, check whether or not you
provide each as a new or modified one for adult students, and rate the
effectiveness of each service as you perceive it by circling the
appropriate numeral (1--high, 5--low).


OFFERED
yes no
ADMISSIONS (e.g., recruitment,
orientation, assessing prior
learning, etc.)
COUNSELING (e.g., academic
advising, special support
groups, evening hours, etc.)
FINANCIAL AID (e.g., tuition
waivers, special scholarships,
etc.)
CAREER PLANNING/PLACEMENT (e.g.,
career change workshops,
resume writing, etc.)
SUPPORT SERVICES (e.g., adult
resource center, child care,
etc.)


EFFECTIVENESS


1 2 3 4 5


1 2 3 4 5


1 2 3 4 5


1 2 3 4 5


1 2 3 4 5


Rank the services listed above with regard to the emphasis each
receives at your institution, using the appropriate letter (1--high,
5--192).
1 ,2 ,3 ,4 ,5








Briefly explain any service (or aspects thereof) you feel to be
especially effective for adult students at your institution:

















Thank you for your assistance. Please return the card identifying a
convenient time for me to phone you along with the completed ques-
tionnaire in the enclosed self-addressed, stamped enveloped.


WCKII/LSCC/31




Full Text

PAGE 1

STUDENT SERVICES FOR ADULTS IN SOUTHEASTERN COMMUNITY AND JUNIOR COLLEGES: PERCEPTIONS OF CHIEF STUDENT AFFAIRS OFFICERS BY WILLIAM COTTRELL KENNEDY II A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 1982

PAGE 2

Dedicated to SUE

PAGE 3

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS There are many people who have contributed to the success of this dissertation. Dr. Janet Larsen, the chairperson of my doctoral committee, has provided immeasurable intellectual and moral support throughout this project. Dr. Phyllis Meek and Dr. James Wattenbarger, the other members of my committee, have also provided encouragement and guidance in this endeavor. I am deeply appreciative of all these people. Special thanks are extended to Dr. Robert 0. Stripling for the confidence and encouragement he provided in the early going. I also want to thank Dr. Tom Goodale for his guidance and inspiration. And, of course, I am grateful for the help and leadership provided by the faculty in the Counselor Education Department. At Lake-Sumter Community College, the support, guidance, and encouragement have been instrumental in helping me achieve my goals. My thanks go to Dr. Paul Williams, the now retired President of LakeSumter, for allowing me a year's professional leave to continue my education; to Dr. Dixie Jean Allen, Dean of Student Services, for her patience, understanding, guidance and encouragement; to Dr. Evelyn "Sis" Sebree, for her empathy and inspiration; and to Marylyn Leavitt who spent many hours not only typing, but also moving me to continued work. in

PAGE 4

A heartfelt thank you is extended to C. Edward and Anna Rae Straight, the best parents-in-law I could have. I am particularly grateful to my parents, William and Rhoda Kennedy, for the way they reared me--with a lot of love, affection, and encouragement to do the things I wanted. Most especially, my deepest gratitude goes to my family Sue, Christine, and Hilary. Their patience, confidence, encouragement, support and love have been unshakable during this process. Without them, this project probably would not have come to fruition.

PAGE 5

TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iii LIST OF TABLES vii ABSTRACT viii CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION 1 Historical Overview 2 The Problem 5 The Purpose 3 Definition of Terms 11 Summary 12 II. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 13 The Students 13 The Institution 19 Recommendations for Resolution 27 Summary 32 III. DESIGN OF THE STUDY 34 Methodology and Procedures 34 Population of the Study . 35 Description of the Instrument 36 Data Collection 38 Treatment of the Data 39 Summary 39 IV. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS OF QUESTIONNAIRE AND INTERVIEW RESPONSES 40 Data Collection Process 40 Questionnaire Results, Analysis, and Discussion . . 43 Interview Results and Discussion 53 Application of the Data to the Research Questions . 70 Summary 76

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CHAPTER PAGE V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND GENERAL OBSERVATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS 78 Summary 78 Major Findings 81 Conclusions and General Observations 82 Recommendations 86 APPENDICES A. THE QUESTIONNAIRE 89 B. THE INTERVIEW QUESTIONS 91 C THE TELEPHONE INTERVIEW APPOINTMENT CARD 92 D. THE COVER LETTERS AND LETTER OF ENDORSEMENT .... 93 E. SAMPLE INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPTION 96 LIST OF REFERENCES 105 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Ill VI

PAGE 7

LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 1. Enrollment Data by Head Count of Full-time and Part-time, Male and Female Students in 18 Southeastern Community Colleges 44 2. Percentage of Services Offered Adults in 18 Southeastern Community Colleges 47 3. Weighted Mean and Rank Order of the Effectiveness of the Service Categories as Perceived by Student Personnel Administrators in 18 Southeastern Community Colleges 49 4. Ranking and Assigned Weights of Student Service Categories in 18 Southeastern Community Colleges . . 52 vn

PAGE 8

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy STUDENT SERVICES FOR ADULTS IN SOUTHEASTERN COMMUNITY AND JUNIOR COLLEGES: PERCEPTIONS OF CHIEF STUDENT AFFAIRS OFFICERS By William Cottrell Kennedy II August 1932 Chairman: Janet J. Lars en Major Department: Counselor Education The purpose of this research was to identify and to describe examples of student services programs which were designed to serve the special needs of older (24 years and older) students by community and junior colleges. The data were collected from a questionnaire and interview with the chief student personnel administrator at each of 18 community and junior colleges in the Southeastern United States. Based on a review of the literature, five categories of student services were selected for study. These categories included admissions, counseling, financial aid, career planning and placement, and support services. The questionnaire and interview items were developed from questionnaires and information found in the literature concerning adults and higher education. vm

PAGE 9

An analysis of the data revealed the following facts. 1. One half of the student personnel administrators surveyed were unable to supply enrollment data by full-time or part-time, male or female students. 2. Services were not offered adults in all five of the categories studied. 3. Of those services offered most often, counseling and financial aid services received the greatest amount of institutional support and emphasis for serving adult learners. Career planning and support services received the least amount. 4. When addressing the needs of older students, as identified in the literature, community and junior college student services divisions have, on the average, made some attempt to meet those needs. None of them is attempting to meet all of their needs. 5. The chief student personnel officer of each institution perceived the services being offered adults as effective in meeting adults' needs. 6. None of the student personnel administrators could supply institutional research data confirming their positive perceptions of the impact services had had on increased enrollment and retention of older students. 7. Community and junior colleges generally did not officially differentiate between their traditional and non-traditional students, although the student services staffs normally did. Colleges which do not differentiate are less likely to have special services for older students.

PAGE 10

3. Institutions in this study are not making adequate attempts to meet the non-academic needs of older students in all the service categories studied. Therefore, many of the needs for services held by lifelong learners are not being met by many community and junior college student services divisions.

PAGE 11

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The establishment of a system of community and junior colleges provides an educational opportunity for people to whom further education would have otherwise been unavailable. Though serving the traditional college-bound youth, these institutions also provide postsecondary education to students of all ages with a variety of interests, aptitudes, family backgrounds, academic skills and cultural patterns. Some are intellectually and emotionally well-prepared for formal educational experiences while others are not (Higgins & Thurston, 1966). Because of the existence of highly diverse groups of individuals, of various ages, the services provided by community colleges should be based on a continuous, systematic method of research concerning the characteristics and needs of their students. Armed with the knowledge gained from these investigations, each college can better plan and provide for more adequate and relevant services, the goal of which should be to assist each student in developing every aspect of his or her learning needs. The review of the literature generally supports two theoretical points of view concerning adult learners. One of these is a humanistic theory which declares that adults have a natural tendency to learn and that they will do so if encouraged. Humanists believe Throughout the text, the term "community college(s)" should be understood to include both community and junior colleges.

PAGE 12

that adult learners should be provided with several options of people, resources and materials from which to learn without passing judgment on the nature or the quality of the experience. Adults need help in thinking through what they want to learn and how they want to learn it (Cross, 1981). The second is a developmental theory which essentially states that people learn because of changes or crises in their lives which create challenges and stimulation. This learning is, in fact, developmental (Cross, 1981). Adults facing developmental tasks often need assistance in clarifying their situations and identifying ways of dealing with them. The non-instructional student services provided adult constituents of the community college should facilitate access to the learning resources of the institution, provide information about themselves (e.g., strengths and weaknesses), and provide counseling and referral for help in overcoming anxieties, finding direction, making decisions, choosing a career, and so forth (Cross, 1979). Williamson views student services in education as complementary to that of the classroom teachers— insofar as the student's intellectual development is concerned. With respect to other areas of his development, we are the principle educators. (1961, pp. 18-19) Historical Overview The community/junior college movement originated in the middle of the nineteenth century in an unsuccessful attempt to extend the high school years to six, eliminating the need for the freshman and sophomore years at the university level. Henry Tappan, President of the University of Michigan, and William Watts Folwell, President of the

PAGE 13

University of Minnesota, were its principle advocates (Thornton, 1972). In 1892, however, the President of the University of Chicago, William Raney Harper, effectively separated the first two years (establishing the academic— later junior—college) from the second two years (establishing the University—later senior— college). The former was designed to augment the four-year high school curriculum with two more years of secondary work, and, in 1900, the University began awarding the Associate of Arts degree to all those who completed the junior college program. The movement was supported on the West Coast primarily by David S. Jordan of Stanford University and Alexis Lange of the University of California (Thornton, 1972). Four central influences encouraged the development of the idea. These included the rapid growth of the universities and their tendency toward large classes, the desire of the normal schools to offer collegiate subjects, the inability of several small colleges to provide academic quality in a four-year degree program, and the addition of two years to the high school curriculum to add a new dimension to public education (Thornton, 1972). The American Association of Junior Colleges in 1922 designated the junior college as any institution offering the first two years of strictly collegiate instruction. The curriculum was later expanded to include vocational courses, and terminal degrees began receiving as much emphasis as transfer degrees, with an attempt to meet the general education needs of members of the local community (Thornton, 1972). In 1930, Nicholas Ricciardi wrote that A fully organized junior college aims to meet the needs of a community in which it is located, including preparation for

PAGE 14

institutions of higher learning, liberal arts education for those who are not going beyond graduation from the junior college, vocational training for particular occupations usually designated as semi-professional vocations, and short courses for adults with special interest. (Cited in Thornton, 1972, p. 55) The trend toward a comprehensive two-year college program to provide something for everyone was begun. In 1936, Byron S. Hollinshead stated That the junior college should be a community college, meeting community needs; that it should serve to promote a greater social and civic intelligence in the community; that it should provide opportunities for increased adult education; that it should provide educational, recreational, and vocational opportunities for young people; that the cultural facilities of the institution should be placed at the disposal of the community; and that the work of the community college should be closely integrated with the work of the high schools and the work of other community institutions. (Cited in Thornton, 1972, p. 55) America's involvement in World War II created a decline in enrollments for the junior colleges' regular programs. To compensate, community action programs were designed to offer war-time alternatives for those not overseas. Heightened interest in the world and its social and political varieties and the desire for opportunities to learn, or improve upon, occupational knowledge were satisfied through the curricula of the junior colleges. Adults, who were not historically considered college material, turned to the junior college for educational and cultural activities. After the war, these opportunities continued and the community/junior college idea was developed (Thornton, 1972; Medsker & Tillery, 1971). The skilled manpower needs required by technological advancements necessitated the continuous revision and expansion of the community college curriculum between 1958 and the decade of the 1960s (Medsker & Tillery, 1971). This period saw an increase not only in the number of

PAGE 15

students who were products of the post-war "baby-boom," but also in the number of older (over 25 years) persons who were not traditionally perceived as college students. The predictions of future enrollments in higher education indicate increasing numbers of adults and decreasing numbers of 18 to 21 year old students (Levitz & Noel, 1980). The Problem The complexion of the community college student body has been steadily changing in recent years, and promises to continue to change in the future. Between 1972 and 1977, the proportion of students over the age of 25 increased from 28 percent to 33 percent, while that of students less than 24 decreased from 71 percent to 67 percent, a trend which is expected to continue (Levitz & Noel, 1980). In light of the apparent pending decline in traditional college enrollments, many postsecondary educational institutions have begun to reexamine what they have traditionally provided for their students and are attempting to meet the needs of the emerging older student body (Levitz & Noel, 1980). What is being discovered about this new clientele is that there are three general problems of access for adult learners (Cross, 1978). The first is that, because of jobs and other adult responsibilities, a full-time commitment to learning is inappropriate. Second, the variety of experiences which adults have attained are greater and more diverse than those of younger people--a special consideration for which granting credit and class placement must be given. Finally, the

PAGE 16

adult's orientation to formal learning will have need for adjustment because of the numbers of years most of them have been out of school. Evolving is a society of learners with a wide variety of unique needs and interests on one hand, and an assortment of learning resources to which they can turn to fulfill those needs and interests on the other. For this learning society to prosper, each postsecondary educational institution, especially the community college, must rearrange its priorities so that it puts the student first and the institution second, concentrates more on the former's need than the Tatter's convenience, encourages diversity of individual opportunity rather than uniform prescription, and deemphasizes time, space, and even course requirements in favor of competence and, where applicable, performance. It has concern for the learner of any age and circumstance, for the degree aspirant as well as the person who finds sufficient reward in enriching life through constant, periodic, or occasional study. (Commission on Non-Traditional Study, 1973, p. xv) The American College Testing Program (ACT) study on Attracting and Retaining Adult Learners , ARAL (Levitz & Noel, 1980), has identified institutions and programs which are attempting to meet this directive. Though their survey included community and junior colleges, the majority of the responses came from public and private four-year institutions. Likewise, a review of the literature has shown that the needs of older students have been generally identified. Because of relatively high levels of anxiety, low academic selfconcept, familial misunderstandings, and general problems of adjustment to a new and demanding lifestyle, there is a need for personal counseling (Levitz & Noel, 1980; Rawlins, 1979; Bulpitt, 1973). Many of the older students enroll in college with little or no idea of any goals other than to learn something new and/or to prepare

PAGE 17

for a new career. Often there is a lack of understanding of the educational requirements to enter a career field once it has been identified. To help these individuals there is a need for adequate educational and career counseling and placement (Cross, 1973; Dewey, 1980; Goodman, 1981; Levine, 1978). College costs place an additional financial burden on most people who attend. For older students with family responsibilities, especially those who take part-time jobs to attend classes full time, going to school represents a loss of income. The same is true for those on fixed incomes, primarily senior citizens. Therefore, there is a need for financial aid among older adult students (Cross, 1980; Cross & Zussman, 1974; Malin, Bray, Dougherty, & Skinner, 1980). Adult students frequently require special considerations for recruitment and have special needs for admissions (Brodzinski, 1980; Cross & Zussman, 1974; Rawlins, 1979). Evening students cannot always take time from their jobs to make applications or receive academic advisement or register for classes. Offering these services in the evenings or in off -campus locations gives adult students alternative opportunities for enrollment. Finally, there are needs which must be addressed after students are in classes. The need for such benefits as tutorial services, learning skills (math, reading, study skills) assistance, peer support, and child care exist because older students, many of whom have responsibility for children, have been away from formal education for varying periods of time. Special student support services can help them renew their learning skills, while offering the opportunity

PAGE 18

to have children cared for while parents are in class (Cross & Zussman, 1974; Kasworm, 1980; Levitz & Noel, 1980). Research studies have identified the needs of adult students, the adequate institutional response to which could attract nearly 40 million more students (Levitz & Noel, 1980). The problem, therefore, is to identify how community colleges are attempting to meet those needs. The Purpose Statement of the Purpose The purpose of this research was to identify and to describe examples of student services programs which were designed to serve the special needs of older students by community college student affairs offices. Eighteen community and junior colleges in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia were randomly selected for the study. By identifying older students' needs through a review of the literature, and based on the response to a preliminary survey of student affairs practitioners, the functions of admissions, counseling, financial aid, career planning and placement, and student support services were studied as the areas most likely to fulfill those needs. To accomplish this purpose, the following questions were investigated through the use of a questionnaire and personal interviews. 1. Which of the five services being investigated are provided for adult students in a way which is different from the more traditional applications?

PAGE 19

2. Which services receive the greatest emphasis for nontraditional students? 3. Are the student services which are offered addressing the needs of adults as identified in the literature? 4. As perceived by the chief student personnel officers, are the services offered effective in providing for the special needs of adult learners? 5. Do community and junior colleges differentiate between traditional and non-traditional students by definition? 6. Have the services offered adult students contributed to the increased enrollment or retention of adult students? Delimitations and Limitations In conducting this research, the following confinements and weaknesses were observed. 1. Because some state two-year colleges include the word "technical" in their titles while excluding "community" or "junior," and to avoid including a college more technically than academically oriented, the population of the study was confined to institutions whose name reflected "community college" or "junior college." 2. Because the preeminent method for gathering information about the services offered was the telephone interview, and because of the expense and impractical ity of interviewing all the community and junior colleges in 11 states, the population for this study included a 10 percent random sample of community and junior colleges in each of those states.

PAGE 20

10 3. Because the sample size was limited, generalizations about the extent of services offered in other institutions must be made cautiously. 4. Due to the continuing increase of adult students in community colleges and the recent concern for lifelong learning, the review of the literature, with the exception of a few basic references, centered on materials and research published since 1970. Justification The term "androgogy" means helping adults to learn, and it is based on four assumptions concerning adult learners. These assumptions include (a) the inclination of adults to be independent and self-directed, (b) the accumulation of experiences which serve as resources for learning, (c) a readiness to learn which is oriented to developmental tasks, and (d) shifts in perspective from "postponed application of knowledge to immediacy of application," and in learning orientation from "subject-centeredness to problem-centeredness" (Cross, 1981, p. 223). These assumptions appear to encompass both the humanistic (assumptions a and b) and the developmental (assumptions c and d) theories mentioned above. Regardless of the theoretical orientation one might espouse, adults have needs for both instructional and non -instructional services which will help them to either fulfill their natural tendency to learn or to meet their developmental chal lenges. Definition of Terms Throughout this paper, subject-specific terms are defined as follows:

PAGE 21

11 Adult learners (or students ). One would not be incorrect in counting all college students 18 years of age or older as adults. "Adult" has been defined by some institutions as those students over 21 years of age; by others as those with adult responsibilities or commitments and those employed full time; and still others as those who have had a significant break in time between educational experiences (Levitz & Noel, 1980). For the purposes of this study, however, the adult learner is defined as one who has reached the age of 24 years. Lifelong education . Lifelong education consists of planned experiences (formal and informal) from which an individual learns. These experiences, as used herein, are those offered by an institution of higher education. Lifelong learning . Learning occurs from birth to death and is, therefore, lifelong. Traditional students . College students historically have been perceived as ranging in age from 18 to 23 years and of entering college from preparatory programs in the secondary school. They also usually come from middleto upper-class families. Those who enter college with these characteristics are, therefore, traditional. Non-traditional students . Any students not of the traditional type are non-traditional. These include students who are 24 years of age or older, who have weak academic experiences, who are often from lower socioeconomic families, and who are not necessarily into education for the purpose of earning a degree. Student services . When not specified, student services include the full range of non-academic services provided, i.e., counseling,

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12 admissions, financial aid, student government, registration, student activities, orientation, career planning, testing and evaluation, placement, job placement, and academic advisement (Monroe, 1972). Summary Because of the trend for students of community colleges to be more non-traditional, it seems only proper that the student services provided by these colleges be evaluated and adjusted to meet the needs and the interests of their new clientele. The literature includes ample information concerning the needs of adult students and recommendations for what community colleges should be doing for the adult learner. However, it is devoid of comprehensive information about what community and junior colleges are in fact doing for the adult learner. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to discover what services are being rendered and how well they are perceived to accomplish their goals. An account of these services will also be provided. Chapter II will present a review of the literature related to community and junior colleges, student personnel services and adult learners, and the relationship of each to the other. It will identify the needs of adult students, the services traditionally available to all students, and the apparent inability of those services to meet the needs of the lifelong learner.

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CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE The Students Probably the most common assumption concerning formal education is that it includes attendance in kindergarten through 12th grades (K-12) with perhaps some college included for the more intellectually elite. The truth is, however, that discussion has recently centered around the realization that, unless people vegetate, they will continue to learn throughout their lifetime (Cross, 1978). Many are involved in learning which is informal and self-directed, while others are engaged in one or more activities of organized instruction. Developmental ists would contend that people progress through an adult life cycle during which they must cope with developmental tasks as they present themselves, i.e., leaving home, getting married, rearing children, establishing or changing careers, losing a spouse, and retiring (Gould, 1975; Levinson, 1978; Sheehy, 1976). As these transitions occur, they cause a rethinking and restructuring of one's life in "an attempt to grasp confusion, frequently accompanied with considerable struggle, pain, anxiety or stress, [which] often prompts courageous risk-taking as the person reaches toward a new perspective" (Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education, 1980, p. 27). This perspective is frequently found by enrolling in various forms of educational activities (FIPSE, 1980). 13

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14 This trend has led to the formulation of such terminology as "lifelong learner," "lifelong education," and "learning society" (Cross, 1978). Support for this movement is presented in the Levitz and Noel study on Attracting and Retaining Adult Learners , ARAL (1980), in which they have reported that the percentage of college enrollment for men aged 25 to 34 increased from 11 percent in 1959 to 17 percent in 1978. For women of the same age range, the percentages were 2 and 14 in 1959 and 1978 respectively. They also quote predictions for the next decade (1980-1990) which reveal that attendance by those aged 25 to 34 will increase by 13 percent, those 35 to 44 will increase by 39 percent, and those 45 to 54 will increase by 12 percent. Conversely, those enrollees aged 18 to 24 years will decline by 15 percent. This influx of older students has created difficulties in defining the adult student. The ARAL study (Levitz & Noel, 1980) indicated that there is no set definition, that institutions will define adults according to their (the institutions') particular needs. Eldred and Marienau (1979) reported definitions by age range from "under twenty" (at Kansas State University, Louisiana State University, and Flaming Rainbow University in Talequah, Oklahoma) to those at least 23 (at Trinity College and Drew University). Some programs use credits earned or years worked as criteria for classification as an adult. Community and junior colleges are most likely to set the lower limits of "adulthood" at age 18. Cross (1981) defines the nontraditional adult student as a part-time learner with full-time adult responsibilities.

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15 Characteristically, many members of this learning society are predominantly privileged, middleand upper-class Caucasians who are already well-educated and who occupy white collar positions in the work force (Cross & Zussman, 1974; Eldred & Marienau, 1979). They are students who view themselves as self-directing individuals, capable of making decisions about their education and accepting the consequences of their actions. They are able to engage in self-diagnosis of their educational needs based on their perceived match of past experience and future goals. They prefer action-oriented learning techniques to achieve that match. (Eldred & Marienau, 1979, p. 10) Their decision to attend college is often influenced by the promise of social status and economic gain, and as an opportunity to change and/or express their present interests (Eldred & Marienau, 1979). On the other hand, entering higher education in greater numbers, especially in community and junior colleges, are minority adults and senior citizens, many of whom have part-time jobs, low income and very little educational attainment (Cross, 1978). On the average, they suffer with a weak self-concept and little confidence in their academic ability (Bulpitt, 1973). Cross (1978) says that these underrepresented would-be learners are interested in career and educational counseling but have little information about these services and educational opportunities. Furthermore, many of them are job-oriented with interest in degrees and certificates which are salable in the world of work, yet they perceive the cost of attaining a degree or certificate as a barrier. Many undergraduates over 30 years of age face both physical and psychological barriers to their participation in a formal learning experience in an institution of postsecondary education. There are

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16 fears of being too conspicuous and of being rejected because of the difference in age between them and the traditional students on campus. There is also anxiety concerning their ability to communicate at an appropriate level (Rawlins, 1979). These individuals frequently lack self-confidence in their ability to successfully compete with younger students with more recent formal educational experiences (Heffernan, Macy, & Vickers, 1976). In 1972, the Educational Testing Service (ETS) found that approximately 26 million adults did not participate for reasons which could have been remedied through adequate counseling (Heffernan et al., 1976). Remembering that adult learners can be defined as those learners with adult responsibilities (Cross, 1980), other barriers become evident. Levitz and Noel (1980) report conflicts between job responsibilities and class scheduling in which participation in one often prohibits participation in the other; conflict with home and family life where there may be a lack of understanding of the learner's motivation to return to school and a lack of support for the venture; conflict with child-care obligations and the lack of child-care services which could relieve a parent of such obligations long enough to attend classes. Malin, Bray, Dougherty and Skinner (1980) studied factors which affect the performance and satisfaction of adult college students and found that men have more difficulty adjusting to college than do women. On the average they have lower grade point averages (GPAs); they enjoy less positive intellectual and personal achievement; and they have more family complaints about the amount of money spent on

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17 college. Most men place greater emphasis on job roles than on intellectual goals. Finally, for adults to return to formal education they often must experience a reduced level of income because of the necessity to change from full time to part time employment in order to attend classes, or because payment for tuition takes funds away from other personal expenditures. This fact has its own problems which can compound the other problems already discussed (Cross, 1981; Mai in et al . , 1980). Levine (1978), in his Handbook of Undergraduate Curriculum , lists 12 most common reasons for students "stopping out" (leaving school then returning after an unpredetermined period of time). The list contains reasons which summarize the barriers faced by adult learners and reveals commonalities between traditional and non-traditional students. Among these barriers are personal circumstances, medical or health problems, financial difficulties and poor academic performances. It has been estimated that 40 million adults would return to classroom study if institutions were more responsive to their personal and educational needs (Levitz & Noel, 1980). Because of these varying needs (which can cause difficulties for traditional as well as nontraditional students), institutions must offer opportunities and services devoted to this new clientele (Cross & Zussman, 1974). Included among these could be such services as an adult-centered orientation (to include spouses), financial aid considerations (there is little financial aid for students taking less than a half-time class load), child-care services, separate counseling and advising services, the business office and computer terminals. Institutions

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18 need to facilitate the initial enrollment process for adults, make special efforts to interpret the curriculum, to evaluate past academic experiences, to plan a program of study, and to deal with reentry concerns and obstacles (Cross & Zussman, 1974; Rawlins, 1979). Although one study of 256 fulland part-time, traditional and non-traditional students attending a California community college showed no significant difference in the counseling needs of these two groups of students (Ancheta, 1980), others have found that adults place more emphasis on their needs for personal growth and development and their learning experiences, and less on social involvement and companionship than do the more traditional students (Dewey, 1980; Goodman, 1981). The need for counseling services directly applicable toward adult students with their particular needs is implied in these findings. Because the non-traditional students are, in most cases, both physically and emotionally different from younger students, several student services traditionally found on many campuses have been deemed inappropriate (Brodzinski, 1980). These include 1. adolescent social programs; 2. counseling geared toward the developmental needs of 18 to 21 year olds; 3. midday activities on weekdays; 4. admissions procedures requiring recommendations from high school teachers; 5. correspondence addressed "dear parent"; 6. high caloried adolescent food in the cafeteria; 7. job placement which focuses on entry level positions;

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19 8. orientations which focus on adapting to college and making decisions for the first time; 9. schedules and programs for students with more flexible time limitations; 10. inappropriate use of fees; 11. closing offices at 5:30 p.m. (Brodzinski, 1980, p. 6) Another study (Kasworm, 1980) compared the use of various student services by younger (traditional) and older (non-traditional) students at the University of Georgia. Younger students were more likely to use such services as orientation, housing, physical health facilities, student union activities, religious centers and academic advising. Older students, on the other hand, were more inclined to want tutoring services, career counseling, job placement, personal counseling and financial aid. The Institution Learning cannot be confined to the limits of several years nor to the restriction of four walls; it can occur daily throughout the span of a lifetime and in any place. Many who want to learn something new prefer to do so individually by reading, talking to experts in the field, or seeking experiences for first-hand knowledge. Institutions of higher learning are trying to "legitimize" this learning by attracting adults to college classes, by "getting more and more citizens to conduct their learning activities within the organizational arrangements of the formal educational system" (Ziegler, 1977, pp. 15-16). If postsecondary educational institutions are going to accept the responsibility for planning and directing the learning programs for adult learners, then they must adjust their policies and procedures to fully meet this responsibility. (Cross, 1978, p. 32)

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20 The Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE) sponsored four programs for adult higher education (Clark University, Loretto Heights College, Mary Baldwin College and Vermont State Colleges). Though each of the programs differed, four common premises, applicable to any institution serving adults, were evident (FIPSE, 1980): 1. The decision to return to school is a major step in an adult's life. The daily lives of adults are complex, consisting of many demanding responsibilities; the additional burden of study cannot be lightly assumed. 2. Adults often seek more from their return to education than further accumulation of knowledge or technical training. Quite often, in fact, at the time of re-enrollment, they are undergoing a major change in life perspective. Research in adulthood can help us to understand this phenomenon and suggest constructive ways in which to respond. 3. In order for educational programs to respond to adults' needs, institutions must often make major changes in curriculum, teaching methodologies, advising, and administrative arrangements. 4. In order for a responsive program for adults to flourish, a strong institutional commitment is needed. Faculty, administration, and staff may need to rethink their attitudes about students, the nature of teaching and learning, and the societal mission of teaching and learning, (p. 2) With concern for the mature learner in higher education, institutions must reevaluate their philosophies to match, within the context of education and learning, the goals of the institution with those of their new students. In order to do this, three principles need to be modified. These principles include program accessibility (admissions criteria, time options for completing the degree, and assessment of prior learning), flexibility (residency requirements, scheduling), and synthesis (merging the theoretical and practical nature of the curricula) (Pierce, 1979; Robbins, 1973). Programs also

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21 need to be personalized by building on teaching and counseling strengths and by providing institutional encouragement for students to learn at their own pace (Robbins, 1973). Facilitating adults should not be a new experience for community college personnel, but to do it well requires that adequate attention to the existence of older students be given by the institution's administrators, and that the student services function be integrated with the academic function pragmatically as well as philosophically. Though achieving this requires the school to create a singular goal in which institutional commitment is made to organize, develop and support programs which adequately serve adults, it must also balance the integration of special adult programs into the curriculum with the autonomy of both traditional and non-traditional programs to ensure adults are appropriately served. Finally, programs and services must be financially feasible, allowing the program to grow without draining institutional resources (FIPSE, 1980). In order to attract, serve and retain the adult learner more adequately, institutions must recognize the restrictions and personal, developmental, and educational needs of this clientele and adapt their programs accordingly (Miller, 1978). The student services divisions in at least 20 percent of higher educational institutions have begun to question their age orientation and the relevance of their basic philosophy and goals regarding older students (Kasworm, 1930). Knox (1979) and Monroe (1972) list several traditional functions for student services. These are orientation at which students receive information concerning the campus, the curriculum, careers, and extracurricular activities; appraisal of attitudes, interests and

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22 abilities; consultation involving pre-admissions counseling and academic advisement; participation functions which govern cocurricular activities and student government; publicity, recruitment, registration and record-keeping; services to provide financial aid and job placement; and organizational responsibilities for articulation of programs, in-service education, program evaluation, and its own administrative organization. Student services personnel are challenged to create an environment for the non-traditional students which will foster their success and development, and to keep faculty and administration abreast of the behavioral and developmental needs of these students (Dewey, 1980). Community colleges are convenient! In Florida, the goal to provide post high school educational opportunities within commuting distance of 99 percent of the population was achieved in 1972 with the establishment of its 28th community college. Each college provides community services, vocational education opportunities, and general academic education (Wygal , 1980). Because they are relatively close to so many in the state, they are more likely to serve blue collar workers, the educationally disadvantaged who are in school for job training, and the senior citizens pursuing lifelong learning because these are the people most likely to prefer locations near home or work (Levine, 1978; Murphy, 1980). So little of the literature written about adult programs includes examples of what institutions are currently doing. One such study, however, questioned the services provided older students in Florida community colleges (Fauquet, 1977). The findings indicated that only 50 percent of the colleges had made any attempt at reconciling

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23 accessibility for adults in the admissions and registration function. Credit for past experiences was usually evaluated only by the College Level Examination Program (CLEP). Only about one-half of the colleges offered courses and services away from campus in locations more convenient to students. Financial aid was usually available, including tuition waivers for senior citizens. It was found that, though counseling services were available, there was little use of peers in the process, and publicity on the availability of services was rarely directed toward adults. Food services were available usually in the mornings and early afternoons (rarely in the evenings). Very little of the materials covered in orientation was designed for older students. Eleven of the schools offered courses in life problems and needs, 18 had off -campus services available, and only 3 had a staff especially trained and designated to serve older students. Several special efforts to serve adults were identified from this study (Fauquet, 1977). These included recruitment in special places where potential older students might be found, special women's and mature students' programs, peer counseling and advisement, and special publicity. Levitz and Noel (1980) found that as many as 72 percent of the schools they surveyed had made some effort toward facilitating adults in the areas of admissions, marketing, counseling, registration, scheduling, financial aid, and course offerings. The least amount of effort was in the area of special student services (adult student center, day-care facility), faculty development, program evaluation, and funding of new programs. They concluded that the proportion of

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24 adult enrollment to the total enrollment will alter the institution's perception of the essential nature of programs for adult learners. In another study, 140 southeastern community colleges of less than 5,000 enrollment were surveyed about the counseling services they provided for older students (Goodman & Beard, 1976). The services were ranked according to the emphasis placed on them for adults. The rank order was as follows: (1) academic counseling; (2) vocational counseling; (3) personal adjustment; (4) college transfer; (5) financial aid; (6) testing; (7) job placement. It was concluded that more career planning and placement and more personal counseling were needed. This ranking is somewhat reinforced by Wolf and Dameron (1975) who emphasized that community college counselors spend more time in academic counseling than in personal or social counseling. Cross (1978) states that only 10 percent of those institutions which serve adults provide counseling services directed toward their special needs. She indicates that there are several ways of doing this, "ranging from the one-on-one traditional counseling model, to group sessions and classes on educational planning and consumer choice, to interactive computer models" (Cross, 1978, p. 47). Academic advising is a very important service, yet in many cases there is little institutional agreement about who has responsibility for advising tasks. "Institutions have not translated advising services into clear practices and statements of policy" (Muller, 1980). Those who serve the advising function must be astute in helping adult learners synthesize the relationship between life problems and educational problems. The skills of the advisor should

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25 complement those of the faculty in teaching their courses, making the instructional process more effective (Eldred & Marienau, 1979). Part-time students are less satisfied with academic advising than are full-time students. Part-time students have unique needs which are often overlooked, in many cases because community college counselors give only lip service to addressing those needs (Teague, 1977). Adults expect help with planning and guiding their formal learning (Tough, 1978). Counselors must be able to help students to (a) identify problems, needs, interests, wants or options; (b) gain selfinsight or accurate self-assessments; (c) examine a variety of options, both selfand professionally planned; (d) set priorities and choose a direction for learning; (e) select a general strategy and appropriate resources; (f) perform tasks required for guiding the learning effort through a successful completion (Tough, 1978, p. 260). To fulfill these tasks and duties requires a staff sensitive to the needs of adults, preferably a staff who have also taken the emotional and intellectual risks involved with beginning or returning to academic endeavor. Key staff members must be philosophically in accord with the goals of any of the institution's programs which serve adults (FIPSE, 1980). The student services staff has the responsibility for the "process" of advising while adjunct members (faculty and community resources) would have more responsibility for the "content" (factual information) of the program. It is important that staff members realize that it is neither them nor the institution which needs to be accommodated, but rather the students (Pierce, 1979). Too often are student services designed to meet the needs of the institution rather than those of the students

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26 served. "A people-to-people relationship built on response to real and individual needs is the quality of service for students that the community college is all about" (Ebersole & Hargis, 1974, p. 24). Student services has come under criticism, much of it justifiable, for its shortcomings (Monroe, 1972). As a division within the institution, it is still not without its problems. One is that, due to differing philosophical points of view, many faculty consider student personnel workers as second class citizens (Blocker, 1974). Counselors have been accused of being a crutch for weak and irresponsible students, helping them to escape their academic responsibility (Monroe, 1972). But these are problems of a philosophical nature and may never be satisfactorily resolved. According to several authors (Knox, 1979; Thornton & Mitchell, 1979), three factors have contributed to a lack of services for older students. First, quite often the administration sees little need for providing such services. Secondly, there is a lack of serious commitment toward the program's success. Finally, there is a reluctance to make clear-cut role distinctions in adult programs. What happens when adequate guidance and counseling services are not provided is that students tend to select courses without regard for prerequisites; they sometimes overor under-estimate their academic ability; they sometimes fail to take sequential courses in progression; and they frequently remain unfamiliar with course and/or program requirements (Thornton & Mitchell, 1979). The major problems confronting student services include lack of adequate communication about services available, lack of support from other staff and trustees, difficulty in coordinating services with

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27 outside groups, identifying the needs and interests of the clientele, planning, administering, supervising and evaluating programs, lack of adequate financial resources, identifying objectives, and developing a philosophy compatible with program goals (Medsker & Tillery, 1971). With regard to counseling the adult student, problems exist in the lack of students' self-confidence related to their learning ability, their unrealistic expectations of progress, their irrelevant learning tasks, their seeking help from wrong sources or not seeking it in time, and their lack of appropriate study habits (Knox, 1979). Recommendations for Resolution Cross has stated that A Volkswagon is not a cheaper, lighter Cadilac; it is a different car designed for different purposes. Similarly, college for the masses is not a low-standard version of college for the elite; it is a different kind of education with high standards true to its own purpose. (Cited in Overly, 1979, p. 37) Colleges in general, and student services personnel in particular, must work toward maintaining high standards in order not to deprive the adult students of quality education and the services to enhance that education (Cross, 1978). Educational brokering services, a relatively new proprietary concept in services for students, provide help for their clients in defining their educational goals through self-assessment, values clarification and long-term planning. Through this assessment procedure, clients are better prepared to make decisions and to set objectives for their further education, and to select methods by which they will receive that education. Finally, the brokering service assists students in gaining access to appropriate learning experiences

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26 by facilitating the admissions process, financial aid applications, recognition for prior learning, and other services in order to smooth the transition back into formal learning (Heffernan et al., 1976). Tough (1978) indirectly reinforces these procedures. He claims that, in order to foster policy revision and to provide these kinds of new services, institutions must carefully examine the services needed and provided. The results would furnish insight into which services, programs, and help would be most beneficial. To meet more adequately the needs of the part-time, older students, policies and procedures must be reexamined in terms of their responsiveness to those needs. The areas of admissions, credit for prior learning, career counseling and placement, personal counseling, financial assistance, teaching methodologies and the curriculum must, where necessary, be revised for this clientele (Watson, 1980). It is imperative for student services to develop a responsiveness to adult student needs. Ways of becoming responsive are by following a human development model, examining values, goals and objectives, both collectively as a staff and individually, and allowing student participation in making decisions about programs and services (Neher & Potter, 1974; Wygal , 1980). Pierce (1979) recommends change in the following services: 1. admissions— make special considerations where applicable; be flexible 2. registration— el iminate as much red tape as possible; provide a special orientation to clarify directions 3. financial aid—provide a deferred payment plan

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29 4. class schedules and course selection — provide schedule flexibility, location options, short-term sessions and child care 5. physical plant—improve the readability of signs, access to parking, accessibility of buildings and grounds 6. information and assistance— provide open offices, methods for contacting students in case of cancelled or rescheduled classes, more telephones, bulletin boards and security personnel In addition to the areas listed above, Thornton and Mitchell (1979) have suggested that the needs of adult learners be further researched, that referral services encompassing financial aid, academic resources, social and medical facilities be identified, that counseling be student-centered rather than institution-centered, and that the range of available counseling activities be clarified. Likewise, Wygal (1980) recommends that community educational information centers be established to provide all these services in one location. The Florida Assembly on Policies for Lifelong Education (1980) has made recommendations to various state and local administrative levels to improve the quality of services for lifelong learners. To the state legislature they recommend the appropriation of extra funds for counseling and registration services and for adequate facilities for providing these services. The Legislature must also support a commitment to provide such services to assure the attainment of necessary skills to deal with the changing society. The Assembly recommended that the Division of Community Colleges take the lead in developing policy for meeting the financial aid needs and eligibility criteria for part-time students. The Division is

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30 charged with removing barriers to access for adults into programs and services. The district boards of trustees are urged to adopt policies and procedures to foster lifelong learning. This would include the modification of, among other areas, student services and recruitment. In the former, there must be a commitment to non-traditional financial aid, admissions policies, registration, orientation, counseling (both personal and career), child care and referrals. For the latter, it includes intensive community outreach to the financially and educationally disadvantaged citizens, veterans, institutionalized clients and others. To the individual community colleges, the Assembly recommends establishing policies and procedures which apply equally to all students; developing programs and services which respond to the needs of lifelong learners; providing enrichment opportunities, peer counseling, and attitudes of acceptance for non-traditional students (Wygal, 1980). Recommendations have been made also from similar Assemblies in California and in North Carolina. The California Assembly recommended that community colleges provide support services for continuing education students based on needs assessments; that greater consideration be given for lifelong experiences in placement in classes and in granting of credit; that flexibility be a keyword for providing for the needs of adult students, i.e., outreach, class length, instructional methodologies; and staff development with emphasis on teaching strategies for, and sensitivity toward, adult learners (Gilder, 1981).

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31 The North Carolina Assembly recommended expanded student services for part-time and non-credit students, increased access to federal student aid, more off-campus delivery sites, and improved publicity for greater understanding of what services are available (Gilder, 1981b). Summarizing the final reports of these various state assemblies for lifelong learners, Gilder (1981a) concludes that community colleges have the primary (though not the exclusive) responsibility for providing education for adults in local service areas. She recommends that the lifelong education mission of the community college be supported with regard to (a) internal and external constituencies; (b) expectations of comprehensive programs and services; (c) new learners' needs in a changing culture; (d) special student groups; (e) staff and faculty commitment to the mission. (Gilder, 1981, p. 4) Cross (1978) has compiled a list of recommendations gleaned from reports by various state and national studies which address access issues in adult higher education. The recommendations were classified into the major headings of information, counseling services, support services, access and advocacy, financial aid, and credit. The following are examples of recommendations from each area: Information . A statewide information retrieval and counsel i ng~s7stenT~(s"hou Id be established) for advising adult students about the full range of postsecondary opportunities available to them (Illinois). Counseling services . Construct and implement a plan for more adequate information, referral and counseling services for the adult learners (New York). Support services . Existing campus facilities should be available to the part-time student, particularly in the late afternoons, evenings, on week-ends and in the summer (Cal ifornia).

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32 Access and advocacy . Mandate public policy which enables the state's adult learners to have the educational resources and services of public and private postsecondary educational institutions accessible to them throughout their lifetime, and that such access be made available without regard to race, age, sex, or place of residence (Florida). Financial aid . Examine present practices in administering student financial aids and, where necessary, take steps to make financial aid equitable for all students—full-time and parttime, younger and older, male and female (Utah). Credit . There should be continued experimentation with forms of non-traditional study which minimizes the traditional rigidities of campus life: time (prescribed years of study); space (residence on campus); and systems of academic accounting (credits or honor points earned) (United States), (pp. 57-79) Summary America is growing older. The enrollment impact of the postWorld War II baby boom on secondary and postsecondary education has peaked and begun to decline. The traditional students (age 18-22 years) will not be as abundant in the future as they are today. Higher educational institutions throughout the United States are now experiencing the phenomenon of the lifelong learners, non-traditional students whose age might be anywhere above 24 years and whose learning goals range from personal enrichment to improving job skills to preparing for a career change. Each of these learners comes to college with a unique background and unique personal and educational needs. Most are relatively well-educated, middle-income people. But less well-educated, lower-income, disadvantaged people are also seeking further education. Regardless of their socioeconomic status, many share the same physical and psychological barriers to participation. Because their needs usually differ from those of the younger, traditional student, the adult learners' needs for and use of various

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33 services will usually differ also. Adults are more likely than younger students to use tutoring services, career counseling, job placement, personal counseling and financial aid. Postsecondary educational institutions have been somewhat neglectful of the needs of lifelong learners. Each school must reexamine its philosophy and make changes in its actions and attitudes toward adults as students. New services must be developed and old ones revised to match the needs and the goals of older students. Because of their educational philosophies and accessibility, community and junior colleges are perhaps the best suited among postsecondary educational institutions to provide for these needs and goals. But community and junior colleges are not altogether prepared either. Though many have attempted to provide necessary services, many others have not provided the accessibility to quality programs which adults as consumers expect. Several studies of the needs of adult learners have recommended that special efforts be made to improve the services offered in light of these needs. Because so little is known of the services provided especially for adult students at community colleges, this study will examine the institutional commitments made to adult learners by examining the services provided by several southeastern community colleges in the areas of admissions, counseling, financial aid, career planning and placement, and support services. The next chapter will describe the design of the study including its purposes and objectives.

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CHAPTER III DESIGN OF THE STUDY Methodology and Procedures This research was conducted because the literature in the fields of older students and student services is nearly devoid of how community colleges are attempting to meet the non-academic needs of their older students (Cross, 1981). Furthermore, a pilot study conducted prior to the commencement of this study indicated that student personnel practitioners in Florida recognize a need to research the services offered older students attending community colleges, reinforcing the need for research in this field. The study was designed to reveal the extent to which community colleges in 11 southern states have taken steps toward meeting the special needs of adult students in their respective districts. In addition, the research was designed to evaluate the effectiveness for adult students of the programs being offered, and the importance placed on these services by each institution. Based on the research reported in the literature and on a preliminary survey of student personnel practitioners, the services in question included admissions, counseling, career planning and placement, financial aid, and support services. To accomplish these objectives, a questionnaire was constructed using as a guide two instruments from two other similar studies 34

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35 (Fauquet, 1977; Levitz & Noel, 1980) which were found in a review of the literature written between 1970 and 1981. The questionnaire was distributed to several community college student personnel practitioners for validation. Any needed revisions were made, and the questionnaire was mailed to the chief student affairs officers in randomly selected community colleges in 11 southern states. A follow-up mailing was made to all non-respondents three weeks later in order to obtain the greatest possible return. Upon return of the questionnaire, respondents or their designees were interviewed by telephone to gain further knowledge of specific programs. The results were tabulated, analyzed and described and recommendations have been made on the basis of the findings. The research is a descriptive study based on an analysis of the results of the questionnaire and of the program descriptions gained through the telephone interview. Population of the Study The population of this study included the chief student personnel administrators, or their designees, in randomly selected community colleges in the Southeast. As a matter of limitation, each of the colleges surveyed was a public one accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools as identified by the 1980 Community, Junior, and Technical College Directory of the American Association of Community and Junior Colleges (AACJC, 1980). To assure that all surveyed institutions were community or junior colleges and not simply technical colleges, institutional names had to include the words "community" or "junior." Ten percent of the schools listed as

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36 "community colleges" or "junior colleges" in each state were selected as members of the population for this study. Randomness was achieved through use of a table of random numbers. Included among the 18 colleges were 2 colleges from Alabama, 3 from Florida, 2 from Georgia, 1 from Kentucky, 2 from Mississippi, 2 from North Carolina, 1 in Tennessee, 3 in Texas and 2 in Virginia. Because Louisiana had only two colleges listed as "community" or "junior," a 10 percent sampling was impractical. South Carolina was not included because none of its two-year institutions are named "community" or "junior" colleges. The names of the chief student affairs officers were identified from lists of faculty and staff located in the catalogs from each college (Career Guidance Foundation, 1979-80). Description of the Instrument The questionnaire used to collect part of the data for this study was designed to provide some enrollment data and definitions of "adult students." Also, it provided information on whether or not any of the five areas of student services, i.e., admissions, counseling, financial aid, career planning and placement, and support services, were available especially for older students, how effective they were perceived to be, and how each compares with the other in terms of the emphasis they receive at each institution. The items used in two questionnaires, one developed in 1980 by Randi S. Levitz and Lee Noel of the American College Testing Program (Levitz & Noel, 1980), and the other developed in 1977 by Tom Fauquet (Fauquet, 1977), were used as guides in the development of this instrument. Items from these two studies not pertinent to this study were eliminated, and additional

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37 items were modified for the purpose of eliciting information concerning the student services provided especially for the adult, nontraditional student. The interview questions were designed to extract further information about the services offered as well as to learn of the problems encountered and the benefits realized both by the institution and the students served. The items for the interview were extrapolated from the same two studies as was the questionnaire. Prior to distribution, validation of the need for the survey and of the questionnaire and interview questions to be used to gather the data was accomplished by soliciting the opinion of several professionals in the student services field regarding the breadth of the survey, the content of information sought, the clarity of the items, and the ease of administration and readability of the instruments. Further modification and revision was made to the instruments after the comments from these professionals were received. The instrument included a list of the five services being studied with examples of possible services in each category for clarification. Each category had a space to be checked "yes" or "no" indicating whether or not the service was offered for adult students. A Likerttype scale, from one (high) to five (low), was used for rating the effectiveness of each service by circling the appropriate number. A third section gave respondents an opportunity to rank the five service categories in their order of the emphasis received at their respective institutions. An opportunity was also provided for respondents to include services used in their schools which they felt to be especially effective for adult students.

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38 Copies of each item mailed and a list of interview questions are included in the Appendix. Data Collection The questionnaire in its final form was mailed on November 11, 1981, to the chief student personnel officers in 18 public community and junior colleges throughout the South. Accompanying each survey was a cover letter explaining the study and giving directions for the completion of the questionnaire and its return within two weeks; a telephone interview appointment card giving the respondent an opportunity to provide both a preferred and an alternate day and time for submitting to an interview; a letter of endorsement from the Institute of Higher Education at the University of Florida asking for the cooperation of those being surveyed; and a stamped, self-addressed envelope for respondents' convenience. A follow-up letter was mailed on December 6, 1981, to those who had not responded to the first mailing. This also included the questionnaire, the telephone interview appointment card, and the selfaddressed, stamped envelope. Finally, on the days and at the times previously arranged, each respondent was interviewed by telephone and tape recorded. Each person was asked the same major questions concerning their institution's services for older students, how they decided to offer them, obstacles which had to be overcome, how services were publicized, their contribution to increased enrollment and retention of older students, and the institutional attitudes toward the older students. During each

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39 response, however, questions were asked for purposes of clarification and, in some instances, to encourage more detailed responses. Treatment of the Data The data obtained from the returned questionnaires were evaluated in terms of descriptive statistics yielding simple frequencies, percentage distributions, weighted means, simple rank-ordering, and range. Descriptions of specific programs, or aspects thereof, in each category were analyzed on the basis of the data provided. Information regarding the services— funding, personnel, support, utility, and effectiveness— provided by the surveyed community and junior colleges for their older students was summarized. Summary The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which selected community colleges are providing services for older students in the area of admissions, counseling, career planning and placement, financial aid, and support services. The research was designed to reveal the steps being taken for adult students toward meeting their special needs in these fields, the effectiveness for adults of the services offered, and the importance placed on these services by each institution. A questionnaire was developed to yield information concerning the availability of services, their use and their effectiveness. The study included an initial mailing, a follow-up mailing and telephone interview for collecting the data. Chapter IV will present an analysis of the data collected.

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CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND ANALYSIS OF QUESTIONNAIRE AND INTERVIEW RESPONSES This chapter is divided into five sections. The first section includes a discussion of the data collection process. The second section presents the responses to the questionnaire items and a discussion of the analysis of the responses. The third section of the chapter provides a discussion of the interview responses and an analysis of how the services offered adults are meeting the needs of adults as identified in the literature. The fourth section will evaluate the data in terms of answering the research questions and the final section will provide a summary of the chapter. Data Collection Process The Questionnaire After consultation with community college student personnel practitioners and after making the recommended revisions, a final questionnaire was developed (see Appendix A). The questionnaire was designed to acquire information concerning (a) whether or not a service in each category was offered older students, (b) how effective the services were in meeting the needs of older students, and (c) how important each institution feels each service to be for its older students. For item (b), a Likert-type scale from one (high) to five (low) was used, and for (c), a rank order of the five services was 40

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41 used. In addition, enrollment by head count and by male and female, full -time and part-time adult students was also requested. The Interview Following essentially the same procedure for developing the questionnaire, the interview questions were designed (a) to elicit clarifying information concerning responses to the questionnaire, and (b) to gain knowledge of specific services offered adult students, including administrative details, effectiveness and institutional attitudes (see Appendix B). The interviews were conducted by telephone after the questionnaires were returned to provide a reference for both interviewer and interviewee. The day and time for each interview were prearranged using a telephone interview appointment card which was returned with the questionnaire. The Respondents Eighteen public community colleges in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia were chosen at random and the chief student personnel officer at each institution was identified to be surveyed. Colleges were limited to those named as a community or junior college which were accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools. Administrators were determined from the respective college catalogs. Because of the function of the position of the respondents, i.e., vice presidents, deans, or directors of student services, it was felt that these were the most likely people on each campus to have sufficient knowledge of the five student services areas of admissions, counseling, financial aid, career planning and placement, and support services.

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42 In only two cases did the chief student affairs officer designate someone else (in each case a counselor) to respond. Collection of the Data A questionnaire regarding student services for adult students was mailed to each student affairs administrator with a cover letter and a letter of endorsement for the study (see Appendix C). Also included was a telephone interview appointment card for arranging the day and time of interview (see Appendix D). For purposes of managing the interview process, administrators were asked to identify themselves and their institutions, yet anonymity was guaranteed to ensure the confidentiality of the respondents. A follow-up mailing was made after the deadline to encourage return of the questionnaire. All but six responded necessitating a telephone call to obtain both questionnaire and interview responses simultaneously. Eventually, data were collected from all 18 institutions. The data, therefore, represent a 100 percent response rate. The interviews were tape recorded and transcribed to facilitate analysis of the responses. The length of the interviews ranged from 11 to 35 minutes with an average of 18.5 minutes. Treatment of the Data As was mentioned earlier, chief student affairs administrators responded to both a questionnaire and an interview. An analysis of the questionnaire revealed whether or not services for adults were offered, how effective the services were (as perceived by the respondents), and how the services ranked in importance in terms of the emphasis placed on each service by the institutions. Enrollment data

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43 were gathered to find the ratio of adult students enrolled to the total number of students enrolled. Responses to the interview items were analyzed and are described to indicate support for and clarification of the questionnaire items, and for identification of specific services offered for adult students, in admissions, counseling, career planning and placement, financial aid and support services. The responses were also analyzed in relation to how they are meeting the needs of adult students as identified in the review of the literature. Questionnaire Results, Analysis, and Discussion Enrollment Data Enrollment by credit head count of the institutions surveyed ranged from 652 to 8,505 with a mean size of 3,400 and a median size of 2,220. Two thirds of the institutions enrolled less than 5,000 students in credit classes. Of the 18 responding institutions, only nine were able to report the division of their adult enrollment into full-time males and parttime males, full-time females and part-time females. Of these nine, five had more part-time adult students than full-time adult students; seven had more part-time female students than full-time female students; and seven had more full-time male students than part-time male students. For the nine colleges collectively, there were on the average more part-time students than full-time students. There were as many males as females attending full time, but there were more women than men attending part time. These data are presented in Table 1. The administrators at the other nine institutions could not

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44 o

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45 provide the information concerning the age, sex, or enrollment status of their students. A generalization which could be open for speculation concerns item number six in Table 1. This institution defines adult as anyone 24 and over, and was the only one of the nine institutions tabulated which does not use "18 and above" as its definition for adult student. This item reveals a much smaller percentage of full -time adult students than do the others. Though this is but one institution, it is possible that the other colleges might show similar numbers in their "over 24" enrollment categories. If this were the case, the implications for student services would be to address more fully the services offered their older adult students. One half of the 18 colleges considered all of their students over 18 years of age as adults. This corresponds with findings in the literature (Levitz & Noel, 1980) which indicate that community and junior colleges are inclined to define adults as anyone 18 years of age or older. Four of the remaining nine institutions use a minimum age for determining an adult status some age above 18. One of them defines adult students as those over 21 years of age, another defines them as those over 24, and two designate all students over 25 to be adults. The remaining five institutions claim either not to have an official age limit or to have no definition. One definition which was offered was that an adult is "an individual who is fully developed and mature, who possesses certain characteristics of adulthood." Because the vagueness of these responses tends to leave the lower age limit to interpretation, and because the legal age of majority is generally 18,

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46 these were treated in the analysis as having age 18 as the lower age limit of the definition. Remembering that for the purposes of this research an adult student is defined as one who has reached the age of 24, the fact that 78 percent of the surveyed institutions use age 18 as a definition might indicate that services for the non-traditional students might not be any different on the average than the services available to anyone else. This was not necessarily the case, however, as all institutions did make at least some provision for their older students. This point will be discussed in more detail in the discussion of the interview responses. Data on Service Availability The data on the availability of services for adults are given in Table 2. Respondents were asked to indicate whether or not they had designed any new services or modified any old services in the areas of admissions, counseling, financial aid, career planning and placement, and student support services for their adult students. Table 2 discloses the fact that in all of these student services areas, the majority of the colleges surveyed provide at least minimum services for adults. If this can be considered a representative sample, this finding indicates an improvement over what has been previously reported in the literature. Although Fauquet (1977) found only one half of the colleges surveyed in Florida had provided for admissions accessibility, 88.9 percent (16) of the institutions surveyed in this study indicated having done so.

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47 Table 2 Percentage of Services Offered Adults in 18 Southeastern Community Colleges Service

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43 Though it still reveals fewer support services being provided than services in the other service fields, even this area is provided by more schools than is not. This study reveals that 55.6 percent (10) of the responding institutions offered some kind of student support service for adult students. This supports the Levitz and Noel (1980) study which found that the least amount of effort was made in this area. However, with the research which has been conducted showing the deficit of programs in this area, this finding is paradoxical since one would think more colleges would be providing support services for their adult students, especially in light of the "adult" definition by a majority of the colleges in this survey. Service Effectiveness For each service offered, respondents were asked to rate the effectiveness, as they perceived it, of the services provided. Using a Likert-type scale, each service was to be rated from a high of one to a low of five. The results were analyzed by assigning weights to each response, then finding a weighted mean to indicate the relative effectiveness of the services for all schools reporting. A response of "1" was assigned a weight of five; a response of "2" was assigned a weight of four; a "3" was assigned three; a "4" received a two; and "5" was weighted one. Therefore, on this five point scale, the higher the weight, the greater the perceived effectiveness. Not ewery college rated the effectiveness of ewery service category. Usually, if a service was not offered, it was not rated. The data for the effectiveness of services are presented in Table 3.

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49 O 4-> OViI— CD T-Q > fO •!— CO
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50 By comparing the weighted means of each of the service categories, it can be seen that the chief student personnel officers at each institution generally perceive the services they offer older students to be effective in doing so. The lowest mean for any service area was for the support services area, which had a weighted mean of 4.10. An average mean would have been a 2.50 on this particular scale. The perceived effectiveness for adults of all service areas varies by only .34 among the institutions offering such services. To rank order the service areas by weighted mean would reveal counseling to be most effective for adult students. The next most effective would be admissions, followed by career planning and placement, financial aid and support services as the third, fourth, and fifth ranked services respectively. Only .11 separated the last three categories. Institutional Emphasis on Services for Adults If someone were to study the relationship of administrative emphasis for a program and the success of that program, it is likely that one would find that the amount of time, money, personnel, or effort an institution devotes to a particular program--or even a philosophy behind a program—will often determine the success or failure of that program, and sometimes whether or not the program will even exist. When emphasis is strong, programs will be strong. When it is weak, the programs will be weak. The responses to the questionnaire item asking respondents to rank their services in terms of the emphasis placed on each by their respective institutions give an indication of how successful a program in one of these service areas

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51 might be. This is somewhat true in this study when the rank order of the five service areas with regard to the emphasis each receives is compared with the rank order of each area's effectiveness for adult students. For example, counseling services are ranked first in both emphasis received and in effectiveness, and support services are ranked last on both accounts. The other three services areas, however, received a difference between the ranking of their effectiveness and the ranking of the emphasis each had received. Financial aid ranked second in emphasis and fourth in effectiveness. Admissions ranked third in emphasis and second in effectiveness. Finally, career planning and placement ranked fourth in emphasis and third in effectiveness. The differences here could result in the dedication and enthusiasm of the student services staff, or lack thereof, toward the programs in these areas. Table 4 indicates that counseling services receive the most emphasis, while financial aid receives the next most emphasis, admissions the third most, career planning and placement the fourth, and support services the least. It also reveals that, when weights are assigned each ranking (five for one, four for two, three for three, two for four, and one for five), not much difference in emphasis exists between counseling (number 1) and financial aid (number 2) or between financial aid (number 2) and admissions (number 3) . In a study by Goodman and Beard (1976), vocational counseling (career planning) was found to rank second in emphasis among 140 southeastern community colleges, whereas in this study career planning ranked fourth. Academic counseling and personal adjustment (both

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52 CD i — CM i — r-» cd i — <£> IT) lO «dCM O i — <*0 CTl CM i — ID Ol l£) *j
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53 counseling matters) ranked first and third respectively in the Goodman and Beard (1976) study, while counseling services ranked first in this study. Caution must also be used here in comparing results as differences in ranking might result from differences in sample size. Service Descriptions The final item on the questionnaire offered respondents an opportunity to briefly explain all or parts of any services they felt to be especially effective for their adult students. Only six chose to give comments to this item. Most of these comments contained only labels rather than descriptions. Some of these included developmental courses in math, English and reading, supplemented with a learning lab offering help in these areas; counseling and off-campus courses (no explanations); special services for older students returning for formal education; daily student services newsletters; displaced homemaker programs; and a strong evening program providing counselors who offer assistance in all the student services areas. As questionnaire responses, these in themselves are of little value. Their worth lies in the opening they gave to questions in the interview. Interview Results and Discussion The interview responses provided insight into the programs offered at the various institutions around the Southeastern United States. More is being done for older students in community and junior colleges than a review of the literature would indicate. Some institutions are doing more than others, but all the institutions in this study revealed they were doing at least something for their older

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54 clientele. In fact, the one student personnel administrator who claimed on the questionnaire not to be offering any of these services especially for adult students, realized during the interview that there were several services being provided at his institution for these students. This was often the case in identifying other programs at other schools, though generally student services were offered at the same level and with the same emphasis for all students, regardless of age. Responses to Interview Questions Are the services offered by your institution available to both day and evening students at the same level and with the same emphasis? This question was posed in this manner because more often than not the majority of evening students are older, part-time (non-traditional) students. If services are available to both groups in the same way, then it could generally be concluded that services for non-traditional students are being provided. As can be seen from an analysis of the interview responses to this question, availability varies from institution to institution, but some services are usually accessible to adults. Two respondents answered unequivocally that services for evening students were the same as for day students. The remainder, however, answered with a qualified no. In almost all cases, lack of funding and personnel prevented the same services offered during the day from carrying over into the evening hours. Most of the institutions maintained a reduced staff in the evenings. The staff ranged from one person (counselor, registrar, financial aid staff member, or

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55 secretary, who served more or less as an information giver and referral source) to having the counseling office, the admissions and records office and a nursing office open until late evening, providing the range of services usually offered by these offices. The remaining institutions provided services on an appointment basis. For example, if a potential student should want to talk with an admissions officer or a counselor, the appropriate staff member would make an appointment and stay to meet with that person. The same held true for other student services offices. One institution maintained its career planning center both day and night. This center provided all the career development services to evening as well as day students. During evening hours, it also provided admissions information, financial aid information, academic advisement, and information of a general nature which might come from any other student services office during the day. Another institution kept evening hours in admissions, counseling and child care. The admissions office provided an early registration for evening students, while counseling provided academic advisement and testing at night. The reason given by one dean for not having the same services at night as during the day was that "since most of our evening students would be adults or people coming back to school with a pretty clear-cut idea of what they want to do and what their objectives are, I think there is a whole lot less need for perhaps counseling, and they certainly are not interested in extra class activities." This view contradicts the need adult students have for counseling and career planning identified in the literature (Cross & Zussman, 1974; Kasworm, 1980;

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56 Rawlins, 1979). The following are examples of answers to this question in the interview. Sample responses . We don't have as heavy a staff on at night as we do during the day, but we have our Career Planning Center open day and night. If a student comes in at night and wants admissions information, financial aid information, or what have you, he can get it through the Career Planning Center. I think we probably have the same kind of problem that other institutions have, and that would be finances. We have a fulltime counselor, administrator, and two secretaries in the evening, but nothing like what we have available in the daytime. Summary . More adult students attend classes during evening hours than during the day. Some institutions are providing some services equally to both day and evening students. Host services, if offered at all, are drastically reduced at night. Therefore, many adult students at many colleges are not being served as well as they perhaps could be. Have any new services or programs been developed, or have old services or programs been modified which speak directly to the special needs of older students? None of the 18 colleges were doing anything for adults in all five classifications which differed from what they were doing for younger students. All of them, however, were providing for their older students in at least one category. The area of concentration offered most was in programs designed for groups of older students, particularly women. These were provided by eight colleges. Most of these programs were designed to offer returning students the opportunity to get together with others (peers) in their same situation for support purposes. The problems common to most older students, especially after they have decided to return to formal schooling, include anxiety, lack of academic self-confidence,

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57 and poor study habits. These problems have usually been the ones addressed in these groups. These kinds of groups were found to exist in many of the institutions surveyed in the Fauquet (1977) study. One such group was called the "Second Wind Group" designed and promoted as a club for students aged 25 and older. Aside from providing social opportunities, it offered peer support for those who were hesitant about returning to school because of the competition with younger students in the classroom, because they are somewhat test anxious, because they lack confidence in their ability to make good grades, and because they are feeling some guilt about spending more time with their studies than with their housework or families. The same institution had a program for "displaced homemakers." This group provided for some of the needs (counseling, tutorial, peer support) of the divorced or widowed women on campus. Another campus provided a similar group for older women called "Women on the Way" (WOW). This group also operated as a club for women who, because their children were in school, decided to return to school themselves. It also served women who had divorced or otherwise lost their husbands and were returning to learn to make a living. The group received no formal financial support from the college, but was supported with contributions and fund raising activities. The second most offered programs were in the area of career planning and placement. Many older students are interested in career counseling for help in defining career goals and opportunities (Cross, 1978). One institution, through financial assistance from the Comprehensive Education and Training Act (CETA), developed a Career Development Center. The program was designed primarily to assist the

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58 disadvantaged members of the community and displaced homemakers in identifying interests, abilities, career options and vocational and educational goals. In addition, as part of the self-assessment portion of the program, participants had the opportunity to clarify their values and to explore themselves in terms of their wants, needs, ideas, beliefs and feelings. The center is staffed with two professional counselors and a secretary, and is so popular, appointments must be made two weeks in advance. Although it was planned for adults on campus and in the community, all students have become aware of this program, and it now serves students of all ages. Another college has a similar program which basically attracts adults from the community. The Career Center facilitates the admissions and financial aid application process, provides career counseling, and opportunities for job placement. These people are placed into a group called a "Second-Time-Around Group." The group receives peer support from students who have been on campus at least a year. The process aids in career and educational goal identification and helps students plan their academic programs to meet those goals. The idea is to mainstream as many of these students as possible in the least amount of time. A third service emphasized by several colleges was in financial aid. Because attending college represents a potential loss of income for many older people (Cross, 1974; Rawlins, 1979), they hesitate in making the decision to enroll. Two states— Florida and Tennessee — have laws which provide tuition waivers for senior citizens (citizens over age 62). These are available on a space-available basis only after the regular registration period is over, and paying students

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59 have had the first opportunity for the courses. These laws have provided an incentive for those on a fixed income to participate in a formal learning experience. Two other schools have designed special scholarship programs for older students. Most of these programs are supported by special interest groups and service organizations in the surrounding communities. One college has provided a "Second Career Scholarship" which pays tuition for students who have been out of high school for five years or more. Its purpose is to provide incentive for students to return to formal education. All of the institutions offer the full range of federal aid programs. Students, of course, must meet the appropriate requirements. Other new or modified services designed for adults at various community colleges included developmental or guided studies programs. These programs essentially consist of orientation courses which support older newcomers through the transition back to the status of student. Still other guided studies programs have provided remediation for students whose academic qualifications require it, and emotional support for those whose self-esteem and confidence require it. These have been cooperative endeavors between the academic divisions and student services staff, primarily counselors. Several colleges have made a concerted effort toward recruiting older students. One admissions office sends peer recruiters—older adults already enrolled — to visit various clubs, organizations, churches, businesses and any other place older people congregate, and to give information about the college, its courses, its facilities, and its services. Another admissions office works very closely with

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60 the academic divisions in providing courses and programs for the numerous industries in its district, and in gaining support from employers for these courses and programs. Still another college offered registration by telephone. The following are examples of answers to this question in the interview. Sample responses . For us, placement is relatively new. We added a vocational/technical component to our campus about five years ago, and we've been gradually working on placement. This falls under our career program. Our services are for all students. We've geared up our program knowing we have a large percent, but we haven't specifically designed a program for them. We've been doing a lot with taking classes off campus to locations more accessible to our older students. We're in an area with a high retirement population and many of these folks live in fancy mobile home parks. What we do is take courses to these parks as often as possible. The courses don't fall under student services, but we take the admissions process to them. We don't offer anything special in orientation or counseling for adults. Summary . Thirteen of the colleges have created some innovative programs to serve their older student population. Each of these programs can be categorized into one of the five concerns of this research—admissions, counseling, financial aid, career planning and placement, and student support services. Which service for adults receives the greatest emphasis in terms of budget, personnel, and facilities? More and more adults are returning to formal educational institutions. In order to serve these students adequately, colleges must be committed to organizing, developing and supporting programs to ensure that adults are appropriately served (FIPSE, 1980). The majority of the colleges in this study have recognized this need and have put at least some of the

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61 services at a higher priority so that the adult learner might be better served. Slightly over one-fourth of these colleges have not placed their emphasis on any one service area, but have "spread the wealth," as one administrator put it, in order to maintain all services at least at their present level. One dean claimed, "Everything gets the same amount of emphasis." Another said, "We try to provide a balance of services and try to put as much emphasis on one as we do the others. I can't say that any of our service in student services is particularly paramount over another." Nearly three-fifths of the colleges surveyed did place emphasis on either admissions, financial aid, or counseling. The rationale for emphasizing the admissions programs was generally budgetary—adequate personnel were required to satisfactorily recruit a sufficient number of new students of all ages. In several instances, the admissions operation had the largest staff. Radio and television advertising, and travel for recruiting had consumed large parts of the resources available for student services at one college. The financial aid programs at these schools received the most emphasis because, according to the respondents, the amount of money which flows through these federal programs requires a substantial amount of time, energy, and personnel. However, one institution placed least emphasis on financial aid because of the large amounts of federal money in the program, and because many of these students "have part-time jobs and such, and just don't qualify." In order that student services might expand their efforts to provide for special groups, to purchase equipment and material, and to

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62 extend hours without enlarging the staff, counseling and career planning have been receiving the greatest emphasis at three colleges. One dean was not happy with the emphasis his institution placed on student services. He stated, "We're going through the budget cut procedures as most schools are . . . and my opinion is we're not getting our fair share. . . . services always go first. ... I think services should get more to retain the people as opposed to recruiting them. " The following are examples of answers to this question in the interview. Sample responses . Admissions operations is the largest thing— the staff is the largest we've got. Career planning and counseling are the second largest. They are two little bags in a big bag, for federal accounting purposes. In relation to the adult student, the counseling end of it by a long shot. I know the students get alot of counseling around here--alot of counseling! I would say counseling gets more attention. I guess the one which receives the most use would be career planning simply because of the fact it is more highly publicized and has been pushed by the CETA Manpower folks and an awful lot of their clients are using it. Since it has become part of the campus, it has gained a good deal of visibility and many of our current students, young and old, are using it ... as far as other services are concerned, I would have to say admission receives the next greatest amount of effort and energies. Summary . There is little commonality among the 18 community colleges about the student services which receive the greatest emphasis. Although some have divided talents, money, and enthusiasm equally, most have done so among counseling and career planning, admissions, and financial aid.

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63 How did your institution decide to provide these services for adults? For the most part, there was a need perceived by the student services staff to provide services for older students. It was felt by one institution that something needed to be done for the older students, especially women, because so many were returning to school. With so many students on campus only in the evening, extending services into the evening hours seemed to three other colleges to be a necessity, in order to meet students' needs. With the decline in full -time enrollment by traditional students, several colleges began looking at programs for the older, nontraditional students. "When we looked at enrollment problems and FTE decline or stabilization, and hoping to raise it a little bit, we looked at providing more services to the community and trying to get more of the non-traditional students in." This reason was expressed by three of the respondents. Only two schools developed their services in response to student need surveys. Each of these surveyed current adult students and community members to determine what they wanted and expected from the college. One indicated that staff traveled to other schools to observe their programs. One of the institutions developed services through the pressure of community civic groups. In one community, for example, the local Junior League became interested in the growing number of displaced homemakers in the district and began inquiring of college officials concerning the services — both academic and non-academic— which could be made available for them. With this interest and interest from

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64 displaced homemakers who were already enrolled, a special program was developed with funding from the Junior League and state agencies. The following are examples of answers to this question in the interview. Sample responses . Well, we just felt a need to do something for the older student, and a number of people felt that we needed to move in the direction of special services for women. I felt that we should not single women . . . that men had problems too. So, let's develop a center that works for both. Probably the most critical thing was sheer numbers. The evening program had roughly a third of our enrollment, and many of those people had no contact at all with the college in the daytime. We have students who are not of the traditional age we would have thought of 20 years ago. Students are older— our average student is 28-29 years of age. With dwindling enrollments, we tend to put emphasis in the so-called adult students. Naturally we have to consider them. As the war babies sort of wind down, there goes the traditional student. Summary . Services for adults have been developed and offered for adults founded more on a perceived or observed need than on need identified through formal survey. Institutions have been made aware of a need for services from local interest groups as well as their own reaction to declining enrollment. The latter is an example of designing services to meet the institutional needs of increased revenue through increased FTE (full time equivalent) students rather than students' needs for appropriate services. How have older students been made aware of your services and how many have been served? The mere existence of a program does not guarantee it will be well attended. Most must be well-publicized. Fauquet (1977) found that publicity on the availability of services was rarely directed toward adults. The programs offered through the 13 community colleges included in this study were publicized through

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65 a variety of means. On campus methods included posters, weekly bulletins, flyers, college catalogs, school newspapers and class schedules. Many thought that verbal confirmation by satisfied users of the services was one of the most effective means of publicity. In one case, faculty and student services staff had developed a respectful relationship resulting in faculty support for student services activities which helped to promote the service through faculty referrals. Another student services staff displayed pictures of each of its members identifying the services, responsibilities, and names of each one. It was felt that this helped students recognize staff members and their affiliated programs and provided an "icebreaker" for potential clients. Off-campus publicity included both paid advertisements and public service broadcasts on radio and television. Also included were brochures and catalogs left in public places, brochures and announcements in bank statements, newsletters, and direct mailings to alumni, friends of the college, members of boards of trustees and anyone else who might be included on a mailing list, including current students. Fifteen of the 18 institutions in this study could not identify the number of students served. Comments included "a lot in job placement," "business every night," "a large contingency of older students." One institution was able to identify a number of 15 to 20 persons per term in their women's program, whereas another women's program claimed 2,500 participants the first year, and a third expanded from 400 to 1,400 unduplicated head count.

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66 As might be expected, all of the administrators claimed their programs to have been successful and effective in meeting the needs of their older student population. This reinforces the responses to the questionnaire item on effectiveness. The method for measuring the effectiveness was usually non-scientific, however. The general feeling was that if it seemed effective, it probably was. "If you don't lose them, you must be doing something right," was one response. The following are examples of answers to this question in the interview. Sample responses . We publicize in numerous ways. We have flyers. Our schedules that go out indicate the hours that the counseling center, etcetera, is open. We have notices on every door of the student services area that tell the hours and days ... it helps, I think. We've served a goodly number of students, though I can't put my finger on the number. But, it's growing. The more people find out about the fact we're here, the more our services will be used. Now, we publicize with posters, ads in the papers, and all kinds of things to let students know we are available, and that we have these services going. We've publicized this through e^ery way possible—media on and off campus, posters. In every program area we have notices that tutorial services are available. Summary . Publicity occurred in many forms from the simplest poster to elaborate television advertising. Though few were able to provide information on the numbers served in each area, some kept records for accountability. Most programs were considered effective, but the method for measuring the effectiveness usually was not. Have you any indication whether or not these services have contributed to the increased enrollment and/or retention of adult students ? One study found that approximately 26 million adults did

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67 not participate for reasons which could have been remedied through adequate counseling (Heffernan, Macy, & Vickers, 1976). Another estimated that 40 million adults would return to classroom study if institutions were more responsive to their personal and educational needs (Levitz & Noel, 1930). Because there are many variables which can contribute to increased enrollment and retention, this question was a difficult one for the interviewees to answer. However, most answered positively-the services and programs offered did improve retention and enrollment among those who used them. One guided studies program averaged 60 to 70 completers per year, most of whom moved directly into the regular curriculum. One dean stated, "We do have the feeling from feedback we get from people that it (full-time evening counselor) has been worthwhile." Another indicated, "He haven't made any studies to show it. Certainly we have students who have enrolled who have stated they would not have done so without the publicity or other students' comments. By that kind of informal review, we can say it has helped enrollment." Some negative comments included, "We are running what I feel is a high dropout rate, about 21 to 22 percent per quarter. So, I'm not sure what we're doing is correct." "Even now that we have a full time evening counselor, I don't think we'll see much significant change." "In a very limited way, if at all." The following are examples of answers to this question in the interview.

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68 Sample responses . I think definitely! As far as being able to show you statistical information to back that up, we are probably not that far along yet. But, I don't think there is any question about it, that we see the individual case where that is indeed making a difference. I don't think we'll see much significant change. Maybe we'll just be doing a little better job of what we're doing. Most of your adults are going to come, you know, and they pretty well are going to tough it out on their own, whether they have any help or not. Summary . None of the interviewees had any survey data supporting increased enrollment or retention of older students resulting from use of the student services provided. The feeling generally was that there had been increased enrollment and retention. How do you perceive the attitudes of the institution as a whole toward older students ? In a report on four programs for adult higher education the Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE, 1980) stated that a strong instituional commitment and a positive attitude by faculty, administrators, and staff toward adult students are necessary for program success and perhaps institutional survival . The attitudes of the faculty, administration, and staff toward older students at all 18 institutions in this study were reported as positive but not without problems. One college reported the difficulty some new, young faculty had with feeling comfortable teaching older students. Another reported an elitist attitude among some faculty wherein they felt they should not waste their time on students who lack the ability to do college work. It was emphasized that this attitude was not directed solely to older students. Yet because of some of the problems which manifest themselves among adults who have

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69 been away from formal education for, in some cases, many years, attitudes toward adults by some faculty were negative. Three other student affairs administrators perceived the attitude toward older students to be no different than the attitude toward the younger ones, i.e., students are students. This perspective could be problematic for adult student programs because, if adults are perceived as not being unlike younger ones, it would be difficult to gain support for providing different services. This apparently was not the case in these three institutions, as each reported numerous services for older students. One reported, "We're all just students; probably a tremendous melting pot as far as age is concerned. I just don't see any negative aspects to the more mature student . . . they all seem to be working toward the same thing. I think this is for better education. " Because of the investment adults make, i.e., time, money, reduced income, and possible familial stresses, they tend to take their schooling a little more seriously. As a result, faculty sometimes prefer having adults in class rather than younger ones (or at least a mix). One dean stated, "I'm of the opinion it [adult presence] adds a great deal of maturity in a hurry to the attitudes of younger kids." Finally, another dean declared, "We realize and acknowledge their presence and we know we need to be much more conscious of their needs. We are devoting time and energy and spirit to becoming more aware, as well as putting into effect services and programs for the students 25 and over. " The following are examples of answers to this question in the interview.

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70 Sample responses . The attitude is a very positive one. What we do concerning programs and services is try to create adult programs which address the needs of the population. I think an overwhelming positive, for this reason. The adult students who are coming to us are here for a purpose and they really get after a grade to the point that if a teacher is sick and can't come to class, and you have a student that has driven 15 miles to class, they're mad. They do exceptionally well on their grade point average, and we found that by doing research on the second careers scholarship program. Summary . Older students have become a part of the community college environment. As such, they are accepted and welcomed by all facets of the institutions which serve them, with the exception of those who view them as threats or as incompetent students. Application of the Data to the Research Questions Research Question 1 Which of the five services being investigated are provided for adult students in a way which is different from their more traditional applications? Generally, services were found to be offered adult students in all five student services categories, though none of the surveyed institutions offered services in all five at any one time. A category by category analysis of the data revealed that 88.9 percent (16) of the colleges offered services for adults in the admissions area and the counseling area. Career planning services were available in 77.8 percent (14) of the colleges. Financial aid services and support services were available in 72.2 percent (13) and 55.5 percent (10) of the institutions respectively. According to the information gathered through the interviews, special services in admissions have included recruitment programs aimed at employees— and their spouses--of local industries, simplified

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71 application procedures, and registration services taken to senior citizen centers for their convenience. Counseling services which were offered older students usually were done as part of the services to which students had access through the various women's groups, e.g., Women on the Way; older student groups, e.g., Second Wind Group; and career development groups, e.g., Second Time Around Group. Though not specifically designed for older students, to make counseling services more accessible to adults, hours of operation for counseling services were often extended to the evening hours. Federal financial aid programs are available to all students who are at least half-time students (usually taking six credits per term). Because many adults take only one course per term, this source of aid is not available to them. Some of the financial aid services from several of the schools in this study have made available scholarships for returning older students, often given as incentives to continue their education. Senior citizens in two states have been granted tuition waivers through state legislative action. These have been helpful for those on fixed income. Career planning and placement services have included special groups and services emphasizing meeting the needs of older students for establishing or clarifying career goals. The support services, in addition to the clubs and groups mentioned in the discussion of the counseling services, have provided day care facilities and tutorial services for adults, helping them to become acclimated to academic work.

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72 Research Question 2 Which services receive the greatest emphasis for no n-traditional students ? As perceived by the chief student personnel officers at each college surveyed, counseling services receive the greatest emphasis in terms of budgetary support, number of personnel assigned, time allotted, and energy expended. This was because of the need for many adults to have an opportunity to overcome their reentry problems, i.e., lack of adequate study habits, test and school anxieties, and lack of academic self-confidence. Ranked second were financial aid services which many older students need in order to afford their college costs. Without this aid, whether it be federal, state, local, public or private, many adults would find it difficult to attend because of their reduced level of income while enrolled. Admissions was ranked third. This is where the emphasis is placed for recruitment. Likewise, efforts were made to facilitate the admissions process for older students by providing services off campus in locations convenient for them. Ranking fourth and fifth were career planning and support services respectively. There were in some cases feelings among student affairs administrators that older students have identified career and educational goals, have decided how they want to attain them, and therefore have little or no need for career planning. Aside from special support groups, other support services such as child-care centers were frequently not available. These inadequacies were often due to lack of funds rather than attitude or concern for adult learners.

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73 Research Question 3 Are the student services which are offered addressing the needs of adults (as identified in the literature )? Generally, the needs of adult learners were being met by the services available to them at the community and junior colleges, but none of the colleges were offering all five service areas for adults. Even through the traditional applications, with some effort and sacrifice on the students' part, their needs can be met. On the average, however, most of their needs are being met at many colleges through the provision of new and often innovative services offered specifically for that reason. At any one college, however, services were available to meet, at most, only a few of the adults' special needs. Cross (1978) identified the needs of would-be learners for both career and educational counseling, but that these people have little information about where to receive these services. All schools in this study indicated the presence of a publicity program designed to provide the consumer— both on and off campus--with information concerning services offered, for whom they were designed, when they were available, how much they cost, what their goals and objectives were, and any other information necessary to attract students. This information was presented through various printed media, and radio and television. In addition, it was felt that satisfied customers were a positive source of publicity. To meet their needs identified by Bulpitt (1973) for improved self-concept and confidence in their academic ability, three of the colleges started special support groups which were open-ended and on-going. These groups gave adults the opportunity to share their

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74 feelings and thoughts with others in the same situation and to gain support from them. Also provided through these groups and through other support services (learning labs), tutorial and study skills assistance was available. The Educational Testing Services predicted that millions of adults did not participate in formal educational programs for reasons which could have been remedied through adequate counseling (Heffernan, Macy, & Vickers, 1976). To remedy this deficiency in counseling services, all but two of the colleges in this study at least made their counseling services more accessible to their older students. This accessibility was accomplished by extending hours of operation to include evenings, and by developing the support groups already mentioned. Cross (1930) and Mai in, Bray, Dougherty, and Skinner (1930) found that, because adults often must experience a reduced level of income out of the necessity to change from full -time to part-time employment in order to attend classes, they have a need for financial assistance. Federal aid programs available at all public institutions have greatly helped ease this situation. Three of the colleges in this study have contributed to the pool of funds available by establishing special scholarship and loan programs for adult students. Senior citizens in two states can take advantage of state-mandated tuition waivers. Research Question 4 As perceived by the chief student personnel officers, are the services offered effective in providing for the special needs of adult learners? Responses to the questionnaire item on service effectiveness

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75 and statements in the interviews addressing effectiveness indicated that, on the average, services are quite effective. Applying weights to the responses to a Likert-type scale and the questionnaire, a weighted mean was determined for each category of service (on a fivepoint scale). The means ranged from a low of 4.10 for support services to a high of 4.44 for counseling. Thus it can be concluded that, for the services offered, there is a relatively high degree of effectiveness for meeting adult student needs. Research Question 5 Do community and junior colleges differentiate between traditional and non-traditional students by definition? For purposes of statistical reporting, all but four of the 18 colleges in this survey defined adult as anyone over 18 years of age. This would imply a failure to recognize the differences between the needs and requirements of younger (traditional) students and older (non-traditional) students. Conversations with student affairs administrators indicated that, in actuality, this was not the case. Each institution's student services division had recognized the difference and had, in one respect or another, designed programs to accommodate those differences. These programs included special interest groups, scholarships for adults, special recruiting and admissions programs, extended hours, and guided studies programs. Research Question 6 Have the services offered adult students contributed to the increased enrollment or retention of adult students? Though none of the colleges could provide any survey data on the question of

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76 enrollment and retention, nearly every one perceived that its enrollment and retention of older students had improved with the availability of these services. Developmental studies programs had acclimated students to college and academic life. Women's and older student support groups had helped smooth the rough edges of again becoming a student. Career development centers had provided the assistance needed to identify career and educational goals, and to learn employability skills. Financial aid services had helped make it financially possible for many to attend college. Admissions offices made it easier for students to apply and enroll in the programs of their choice. Counseling had become more readily accessible, and was available as part of the process for each of the other service areas in order to help adults adjust to the new demands and responsibilities of being a student. The counseling services provided included academic advising, career counseling, and personal counsel ing. Summary Chapter IV contains the results and an analysis of the questionnaire and interview items presented to the chief student personnel officers at 18 Southeastern public community colleges. All five of the student services areas (admissions, counseling, career planning and placement, financial aid, and support services) were found to be available for older students. Some colleges offered more than others, but all had recognized the need to improve services for adult learners. Counseling and admissions services were available most frequently (88.9 percent of the colleges). Support services were offered

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77 the least (55.6 percent of the colleges). The services which were available were perceived to be quite effective by the student services administrators. The ranking of effectiveness for each service was, in descending order, counseling, admissions, career planning, financial aid, and support services. The ranking of the emphasis placed on each service by the institution was, in descending order, counseling, financial aid, admissions, career planning, and support services. The interviews provided insight and reinforcement for the questionnaire responses.

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CHAPTER V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND GENERAL OBSERVATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS This chapter is organized into three sections: a summary of the study, major findings, general observations and conclusions based on the analysis of the responses to the questionnaire and the interview, and recommendations. Summary The purpose of this research was to identify and to describe the extent to which the special needs of older students are being addressed through the offices of student services of 18 randomly selected community and junior colleges in 11 southern states. The services to be researched were identified through a review of the literature which revealed the needs of adult learners. The service categories included: (1) Admissions, (2) Counseling, (3) Financial Aid, (4) Career Planning and Placement, (5) Support Services. The research was designed to reveal the steps taken toward meeting the special needs of adult students, to evaluate the effectiveness for adult students of the programs offered, and to evaluate the importance placed on these services by each institution. The chief student affairs officer at each institution was asked to respond to a questionnaire designed to reveal (a) the number of adult students enrolled, (b) the institution's definition of adult, 78

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79 (c) whether or not services in each category were available to older students, (d) how effective they were in serving the adults, and (e) the institutional emphasis placed on each service category. A preliminary questionnaire and interview questions were provided several student personnel practitioners for their reaction to the appropriateness and clarity of the items. Changes were made in accord with their recommendations. The questionnaire (Appendix A) was mailed to the student personnel administrator in 18 public community colleges in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia. Louisiana and South Carolina were not represented because institutions in these states did not meet the population selection criteria. Cover letters and the letter of endorsement were mailed with each questionnaire (Appendix B). Telephone interviews were prearranged through use of the Telephone Interview Appointment Card (Appendix C) which was returned with each questionnaire. Each interview was conducted to clarify responses to the questionnaire and to identify the specific programs being used. Questionnaire and interview responses revealed that, on the average, all 18 community and junior colleges in this study were providing student services specifically designed to meet the needs of their older students. Though this new clientele can be served with traditional services, programs have been conceived and developed specifically to serve adults. None of the colleges, however, were offering services in all five categories. Generally, the service which received the most institutional emphasis and support was counseling, the services of which have most often been distributed among the five service categories. Financial

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30 aid programs with special incentive scholarships for adults, and admissions programs designed to recruit and easily enroll adults were also strongly emphasized. Career planning and placement programs and support service programs were least emphasized. When comparing the results, especially interview results, with the findings in the literature on adult student needs, the student services divisions of the surveyed institutions seemed to be aware of and sympathetic to the needs of adult learners. Results show efforts are being made to meet those needs and that, according to the student personnel administrators, those efforts, though limited, have been effective in doing so. In terms of age, most community colleges considered all students over 18 as adults. Differentiation between traditional and nontraditional students was usually done on a program-by-program basis and with emphasis from each student services staff, rarely by the institution. The general feeling among the student services administrators was that providing quality, effective programs for older students will entice them to enroll, and to continue in their courses once they do. None of the colleges could support this feeling with numbers. Chapter IV presented the results of the questionnaire and analysis of the responses to it and to the interview items. Descriptions of programs and answers to the research questions are included. Major Findings An analysis of the data from both the questionnaire and the interview items (representing a 100 percent response rate) revealed the following major findings.

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81 1. One half of the student personnel administrators surveyed were unable to supply enrollment data by full-time or part-time, male or female students. 2. Services were not offered adults in all five of the categories studied. 3. Of those services offered most often, counseling and financial aid services received the greatest amount of institutional support and emphasis for serving adult learners. Career planning and support services received the least amount. 4. When addressing the needs of older students, as identified in the literature, community and junior college student services divisions have, on the average, made some attempt to meet those needs. None of them is attempting to meet all of their needs. 5. The chief student personnel officer of each institution perceived the services being offered adults as effective in meeting adults' needs. 6. None of the student personnel administrators could supply institutional research data confirming their positive perceptions of the impact services had had on increased enrollment and retention of older students. 7. Community and junior colleges generally did not officially differentiate between their traditional and non-traditional students, although the student services staffs normally did. Colleges which do not differentiate are less likely to have special services for older students. 8. Institutions in this study are not making adequate attempts to meet the non-academic needs of older students in all the service

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82 categories studied. Therefore, many of the needs for services held by lifelong learners are not being met by many community and junior college student services divisions. Conclusions and General Observations The analysis of both the questionnaire and the interview responses indicated that services for adults in community and junior colleges are apparently improving over what they have been as reported in the literature. The special needs of adult students are being addressed by some of the institutions surveyed, but only in a limited way, and none of them in all five of the service categories studied. Through various counselor-led groups, or through traditional oneto-one counseling sessions, student services staffs are attempting to help older students in overcoming their anxieties, their low selfesteem, and their lack of confidence in their academic ability and interpersonal relationships. The most popular method of reaching these people was through clubs and organizations which have been designed to offer emotional support while at the same time providing a ready resource of information concerning various aspects of college life. According to the literature, younger students tend to tolerate the traditional methods of hurdling the application/registration obstacles, but adults quite often see no necessity for the paperwork and the procedure, and they become irritated with much of it. Results of this study showed that admissions services are attempting to eliminate some of these annoyances. Applications are becoming shorter and less complex, requiring less time to complete. Registration (as well

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83 as course offerings) are being taken to locations convenient for senior citizens or working adults. Registration by mail and by telephone are becoming popular. Recruitment has moved beyond high school walls. Brochures, posters, and visitations to areas of adult concentration, i.e., places of employment, professional offices, and shopping areas, have brought colleges and the services they offer to the attention of more adult learners. Community colleges are becoming places for adults as well as youth. Much of the financial aid is regulated and determined by federal law and requirements. Basic grants, college work-study programs, and federal loan programs are available only to students enrolled as half time or more. Tuition waivers for senior citizens have provided an incentive for people over 62 years of age to remain mentally active and alert by covering the tuition costs of attending college. Other innovative incentive scholarships are being developed and funded through endowments and foundations. Those who receive these scholarships usually become active recruiters simply by telling others of their fortune. Career planning and placement services are becoming hubs of activity, not only for traditional students searching for a career goal, but also for older students and community members who are seeking or undergoing a change in their lifestyle. Divorcees and mothers whose children are in school are looking for career opportunities and the training necessary for attaining them. Mid-life career changers are searching for options to their current career patterns and occupations. The services of the career planning offices are

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84 assisting in the decision-making process before students enter college, and are providing support where necessary while they are on campus. However, aside from the fact that this research has revealed several attempts to meet the special needs of adult learners, discussions with the chief student personnel officers have aroused some major concerns. One is that, since most colleges do not officially define adult, or when they do, they include anyone over 18 years of age, institutions are only paying lip-service to support for nontraditional students while continuing to provide services in the same fashion for all students. Members of student services staffs may recognize the necessity for discriminating between services for youth and services for adults. The problem arises when others, i.e., administrators and faculty, cannot be convinced of the necessity for doing so. If services for adults are not recognized as a priority item by the top administrators in an institution, it is not likely that support for these programs will be more than minimal. To fulfill the mission of the community college for providing educational and support services for its constituents, administrators must be made aware of the needs and understand what must be done to meet those needs. A second concern is that the pilot study conducted prior to initiating this study indicated that student personnel administrators recognize the need for adult student services and for research in this field. If this might be considered a prevailing attitude among student personnel professionals, then it seems somewhat neglectful for institutions not to be providing a broader range of services for adults at each institution.

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85 Institutional research, or lack thereof, regarding the effectiveness of programs and services on the enrollment and retention of adult students is another concern. If services are going to be offered, they must be so based on research of the needs of students and how well those services are meeting their needs. Only two of the institutions surveyed had conducted the research; the others based their comments either on what they had heard in casual conversation with participants, or on "feelings" they had developed about the success of their programs. A third concern is that the development of services for adults may be institution-centered rather than student-centered. Several respondents reported a decline in full time equivalent enrollment (FTE) as a major factor in their decision to expand services for adults. If the driving force behind the move to help the older students is increased FTE, then the commitment made by the institutions in this study might not necessarily be to the student but rather to the institution. The lifelong learning goals and objectives of the older student can be at least partially met at the community or junior college. But services must be available which address the non-academic needs of this clientele. The results of this study show that colleges are attempting to do so, yet only in a limited way. Where there were services for adults in counseling and financial aid, there were none in admissions or career planning, and vice versa. In the final analysis, the attempts to meet the non-academic needs of older students through each of the student services areas — admissions, counseling, career planning and placement, financial aid,

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36 or support services—at the same time have been inadequate. Therefore, according to this research, many of the needs for services held by lifelong learners are not being addressed by the community and junior college student services divisions at the institutions surveyed. Recommendations The purpose of this study was to identify and to describe, through questionnaire and personal interview, the extent to which community and junior colleges are providing services to meet the needs of older students. As an outcome of the results of this research, several recommendations can be made. 1. It is recommended that all community colleges evaluate their definition of adult student to ensure the services they offer are appropriate for meeting the needs of the various ages of their clientele. 2. It is recommended that student services practitioners more carefully evaluate the needs of their students in order to focus more adequately on those needs in providing services. Many of the respondents in this study indicated that the needfortheir programs was determined by feelings and observations rather than formal assessments of need. 3. It is recommended that financial aid offices attempt to create special scholarships for older students, the selection criteria for which might include time away from school or similar standard. The bulk of financial aid funds is made available through federal programs. Many adults do not qualify for these funds because of income or because they are not enrolled at least half time. 4. It is recommended that institutions research the need and feasibility of offering a day care service on campus. These centers

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87 could be either self-supporting, separate student services sponsored, or they might be developed as part of an early childhood education program. Only two of the colleges in this study provided day care facilities for the children of their students. 5. It is recommended that research of a similar nature be conducted throughout other geographic regions of the United States to examine the findings of this study, and to compare them in terms of the consistency of enrollment patterns, the institutional commitment to serving adult students' needs, and the types of services offered. 6. It is recommended that the next step in the research process be to investigate how students who have used these services perceive the effectiveness of these programs—who is staying and who is not. 7. It is recommended that services from each category of services be provided through the conduct of on-going support groups for adults. With the presence of a given number of students at regularly scheduled times, adequate support and appropriate information can be given from each service category providing growth and development opportunities for each participant. 8. For those who do not choose to join a group, it is recommended that a centralized, diverse program of services be made available for ease of disseminating information and providing for proper support for adding adult students. 9. It is recommended that career planning programs be evaluated and revised to include special services for adult learners. Though many are enrolling for personal enrichment, many others are enrolling for retraining purposes, to gain new skills, to become employable.

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Yet a large number of these have little or no idea how to make appropriate choices in these areas. 10. It is recommended that effort be made to publicize more adequately the services available. A public relations effort with local service organizations, clubs, and church groups would help to promote the services. Peer and financial support might also result from such efforts. 11. It is recommended that efforts be made to increase the active involvement of older students in various activities on campus. Several influential, tactful adults active in the proper areas, e.g., peer counseling, tutoring, and work-study programs, could help in convincing administrators and faculty of the value of providing services for adult students.

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APPENDIX A QUESTIONNAIRE ON STUDENT SERVICES FOR ADULTS IN COMMUNITY COLLEGES Name of your institution lotal enrollment, Fall 1981 (credit head count): Adult enrollment, Fall 1981 (credit head count): Full time: male , female Part time: male , female How does your institution define "adult?" In the categories of student services below, check whether or not you provide each as a new or modified one for adult students , and rate the effectiveness of each service as you perceive it by circling the appropriate numeral (1 — high, 5 — low). OFFERED EFFECTIVENESS yes no high low a. ADMISSIONS (e.g., recruitment, 12 3 4 5 orientation, assessing prior learning, etc.) b. COUNSELING (e.g., academic 12 3 4 5 advising, special support groups, evening hours, etc.) c. FINANCIAL AID (e.g., tuition 12 3 4 5 waivers, special scholarships, etc.) d. CAREER PLANNING/PLACEMENT (e.g., 12 3 4 5 career change workshops, resume writing, etc.) e. SUPPORT SERVICES (e.g., adult 12 3 4 5 resource center, child care, etc. ) Rank the services listed above with regard to the emphasis each receives at your institution, using the appropriate letter (1— high, 5—192). 1 ,2 ,3 ,4 ,5

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90 Briefly explain any service (or aspects thereof) you feel to be especially effective for adult students at your institution: Thank you for your assistance. Please return the card identifying a convenient time for me to phone you along with the completed questionnaire in the enclosed self-addressed, stamped enveloped. WCKII/LSCC/31

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APPENDIX B THE INTERVIEW QUESTIONS 1. Are the services offered by your institution available to both day and evening students at the same level and with the same emphasis? 2. Have any new services or programs been developed, or have old services or programs been modified, which speak directly to the special needs of older students? 3. Which service for adults receives the greatest emphasis in terms of budget, personnel, and facilities? 4. How did your institution decide to provide these services for adults? 5. How have older students been made aware of your services and how many have been served? 6. Have you any indication whether or not these services have contributed to the increased enrollment and/or retention of adult students? 7. How do you perceive the attitudes of the institution as a whole toward older students? 91

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APPENDIX C THE TELEPHONE INTERVIEW APPOINTMENT CARD Telephone Interview Appointment Name Institution Phone ( ) P — preferred day/time A — alternate day/time 11:00 a.m. Thur., Dec. 17 11 :00 a.m. Fri . , Dec. 18 11:00 a.m. Mon., Dec. 21 Please return this card along with the completed questionnaire in the envelope provided. WCKII/LSCC/81 92

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APPENDIX D THE COVER LETTER AND LETTER OF ENDORSEMENT November 11 , 1981 x Dear Lifelong learning. What better place can many lifelong learning goals be realized than in the community college? Adults are turning to the community college to learn new skills, to upgrade old ones, or simply enrich their lives through academic pursuit. Though we are meeting these needs, are we meeting the personal needs of this "new breed" of college student through our student services? To find out if we are meeting their needs, I am conducting a twophased research project which will consist of a short questionnaire (enclosed) and a telephone interview to follow. Please take a few minutes to complete the questionnaire and to make a copy for future reference. Then complete the Telephone Interview Appointment card, indicating the best day for me to phone you. To avoid conflicts with others who might prefer the same day you do select an alternate day as well. Put both the original questionnaire and the appointment card in the enclosed self-addressed, stamped envelope and return it to me by November 20, 1981 . I will call you on one of the appointed days to discuss the five student services areas your institution provides for adult students. (Your copy of the completed questionnaire will serve as a good reference for the interview.) For control purposes, your name and your school's name are needed. Neither, however, will be used in the research report. Your help and consideration in this venture will be greatly appreciated, and I will gladly share my results with you. Sincerely, William C. Kennedy II Counselor 93

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94 December 6, 1981 Dear : Well, this is what you get for not answering my questionnaire the first time--a FOLLOW-UP!!! I have enclosed another one for your convenience, so please take about ten minutes of your busy schedule to answer the questions. Make a copy of the completed questionnaire for your reference when we talk. Indicate a time I can call you for an interview (see the enclosed telephone interview card), then return both card and questionnaire to me in the enclosed self-addressed, stamped envelope by December 15, 1981, so I can wrap up the datacollection portion of this study as soon as possible. Your attention to this matter will be greatly appreciated. I will send the results of this study to you when it is completed. Respectfully yours, Will iam C. Kennedy II Counselor

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UF College of Education 95 University of Florida Gainesville, Fla. 32611 Dear Mr. William Kennedy who is on the faculty at Lake-Sumter Community College is conducting a study of student services for adults in the community college. This is being carried out under the sponsorship of the Institute of Higher Education at the University of Florida. You may be assured of its scholarship import and supervision. May I urge that you cooperate with Bill by completing his short questionnaire and by talking to him on the phone. We will be pleased to share the results with you when the study is completed. Cordially yours, James L. Wattenbarger, Director Institute of Hiaher Education Enclosures

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APPENDIX E SAMPLE INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPTION The following interview transcriptions are representative examples of the telephone interviews conducted with the chief student personnel officers of the 18 Southeastern community colleges surveyed in this research. The letter "I" indicates questions or comments by the interviewer; the letter "D" represents the responses of the interviewee (Dean). Interview 1 I— Are the services offered by your institution available to both day and evening students at the same level and with the same emphasis? D— Within certain definitions, yes they do get the same treatment. For example, admissions, counseling, financial aid. We have limited staff, and they all work from say 3:00-4:30. Then we have a night employee whose job it is to be counselor, admissions officer—everything rolled into one, especially for the benefit of night students. That person, if you come out to apply, will take an application; that person is a counselor with a masters degree, a requirement for that position, and the only difference between their duty hours and everybody else's is that they're assigned to work from 1:00-9:00, everyone else the 8:00-5:00 routine. I--Have any new services or programs been developed, or have old services or programs been modified, which speak directly to the special needs of adult students? D--Bill, there will be nothing here in terms of special programs for this type of person. We have tried a couple of things this fall having like a special room set aside, and there really weren't any takers. So we stopped the idea. As far as programs—something you are probably familiar with from the federal end of it— is with what is called the Displaced Homemakers Program. That's the only thing we have here in the way 9 6

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97 of a special program, and because of the nature of the program, it's going to meet the needs of most of the adult students. I — Concerning the special room, what did you do to let people know this was available? D--During the registration process they announced it to students in orientations; during the first couple of weeks of classes, there were signs posted around hallways and things like that. I— Which service receives the greatest emphasis in terms of budget, personnel, and facilities? D--That's in relation to the adult student, correct? I — Right. D--0K! The counseling end of it by a long shot. We made a commitment, I guess 3 or 4 years ago. When I first came on, that's how we started was a part-time counselor for the evening program, and I was also coordinator of continuing ed. Over a period of years, we moved to a full-time coordinator of continuing ed, and a full-time counselor for the night student. And that's the stage we're at now. So counseling by a long shot. Now that counselor does such admissions work, financial aid work as they can do at night. Again there are other people in the day time to bring the stuff in to. I— Which of the other services receives similar emphasis? D— In terms of commitment of time and money, counseling has it. Financial aid second, again probably because of the money, and we have a financial aid clerk who--that's her total responsibility. Our admissions clerk is also secretary to me, so she's halftime admissions clerk, halftime secretary. And then as far as support services go, we have nothing like child care or things like that. We do have a learning resource center, but that isn't part of my division per se--it relates to the whole school. And of course career planning-placement is part of the responsibilities of the counselor. But even then, that becomes a minor part. Most of the counselor's job other than academic type counseling and a little personal counseling, career planning perhaps occasionally enters the picture. Most of their job is almost anything but career planning, or this type of thing. In our system that is pretty much a function of the advisors. I--How did your institution decide to provide these services for adults?

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98 D--Probably the most critical thing was sheer numbers. The evening program has approximately 300 students out of 1,000. So roughly a third of the enrollment was at night, and many of those people had no contact at all with the college in the day time. And of course everybody at that time went home at 5 and there was no one here except custodians. If they wanted a transcript sent, there was nobody here. If you needed to see a counselor, there was no one here in that capacity. So that was our basic thing, and we kinda decided to at least make a financial commitment to one person being here. That was the deal . I— What has been the effectiveness of this evening program? (Feedback from students, etc?) What are the details—cost, when started, number served, publicity, effectiveness. D--I feel like from the standpoint of the evening student comments we've heard, that one person at night is a big asset to that program. We would love to be able to fund like you know a part-time secretary to work at night to help. That would help to keep the college switchboard open which we cannot do at the present time. The biggest problem we have run into is that, in the past couple of years, with the economy being like it is, our evening students are diminishing in terms of the number of them. And of course, we're committed to keeping that one full-time person on, but we would like to see the enrollment higher at night to justify that person. I--Have you done any research, in terms of questionnaires, of evening students to see how they are looking at this service you are providing? Any quantitative things? D— Well , not anything extensive. Of course as far as that person's effectiveness in connection with our annual performance review of faculty and staff, that person goes through a certain evaluation and one of the questions asked of the counselors is "are you aware that they are here?" type thing. We have surveyed our evening students more from the standpoint of wanting to know what they're interested in taking. I~Have you any indication whether or not these services have contributed to increased enrollment and retention of adult students? D--This is just a feeling that I have from observation and little comments that have been made in the last two or three years. I really don't believe that having the person at night we have increased enrollment or retention, nor do I feel like it has hurt it. I feel like it's been the aspect of--we look at it from the standpoint of what is fair and right to the students. If a third of your student body is here at night. We did a survey shortly after I came on 76-77 along in there, and at

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99 that particular time--this is kinda an indepth study we did of what kind of student is out here at night— we found that, say of a thousand students, approximately 50 percent had some kind of contact with the night program; either a full-time student at night, or part time, what have you, or they were taking one class at night. So when you consider 50 percent of your student body has some contact with the night program, and then about a third of those students, 300 of them, have exclusive contact (never here in the daytime) we felt that from the standpoint of budgetary allotment, with a third of your student body only here at night and 50 percent having some contact with it, we definitely ought to have someone here to provide the program. That was the reason and the rationale behind it. I'm sure that there probably is some advantage that's come about but nothing that you can really cite. I can't say that because we have a counselor at night we have more people at night, that wouldn't be borne out by the actual facts. By the same token, that person--you 're talking about one person with a lot of different responsibilities—I'm sure that because that person was here and gave them a financial aid paper or form, but there is nothing objective I can look at and say "yes, it's justifiable." We do have the feeling from feedback we get from people that it has been worthwhile, and we felt that we had an academic commitment to be fair to the student body and provide somebody here at night. I--How do you perceive the attitudes of the institution toward the adult students? D— Officially as well as in terms of operation, we regard the adult student as strictly a student like anyone else. We try to be fair with them. We try in our night program. For example, many schools like a separate dean for the night program; we don't. It's all handled as part of a total responsibilities of the school. Our teaching faculty, if they have say 5 classes to teach, in most cases they'll have 4 daytime and one night. So we try to feel like there's no difference in what you get at night as opposed to what you'd get in the daytime, with the exception of the schedule arrangement. We use two-and-a-half hour class meeting once a week for the most part. As far as reaction this past time with budget crunches being what they are and freezes on positions, we have had people quit which has caused us to have vacancies in our night program, and the faculty have been most concerned that when we started cuttin' and coverin', it was hard to cut and cover our night classes. There wasn't that much flexibility there, so I found that they were concerned that that happened, and that we had to use a part-time instructor to flush out those classes. In terms of availability to advisors, many of our faculty are concerned that the night student doesn't have quite the availability, and that maybe we could assign an advisor so maybe he is here at night. We use a program approach. If

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100 your major is law enforcement, you'll be assigned to the law enforcement instructor. And if he's not here at night, that particular semester, it's kind of a problem there. Most of our faculty do make a commitment. They'll come out one night maybe to preregister their students or counsel with them or whatever. But it's a problem. But I think you could safely say that if administratively, as well as our faculty position, is that of support for the night students. We want to make sure that they have the same type of things. When we talk about adult, we don't really pull them out as a separate category. We do break it down for statistical and analytical purposes. A student is a student, and your age is kind of irrelevant to us. We have had off -campus classes, we have done some TV type classes. But we really haven't had success with them that some of our sister institutions have had, and again that audience is mostly an adult audience. It's just what we find here, and I think it's probably a philosophy of this school. We followed an institution that folded about a year before we started, that was a junior college. So in the community, there is a lot of what might be called an interest in the liberal arts. Many of the people here are, you know, the program is here in existence. They are oriented to the idea of coming out of the campus to take classes. Nontraditional forms just have not had the appeal we thought it might. So it's the type of thing we've offered them, but they want to be in the classroom. I think that is a uniqueness to the community, and within our community college system we've been told many times we are regarded as the liberal arts college, kind of the elitest type college. Our student population is probably 50-50 or closer to 60-40 transfer versus technical, but the community has an orientation to higher education that's the old junior college orientation. You don't really buck it, you simply go along with it. Interview 2 I--Are the services offered by your institution available to both day and evening students at the same level? D — We've looked at special services for the 25 and older student, although we consider all of our students to be adults. This we do because of the particular needs of this group, though they don't seem to be extraordinarily different from the other students. No! That's where it is. Now in our effort, we do emphasize it, but we are now in the process of gearing up for the evening student. Now the other thing is, we operate in the

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1Q1 premise that most of our evening students come and--now, I said no because I was thinking about a particular program. As far as admissions is concerned, yes! As far as registration is concerned, and counseling is concerned, yes! As far as, you know, child care, yes! But as far as having the financial aid office open for the evening student, we don't. We do it by appointment only. For career planning and placement, by appointment only. For veterans, by appointment only. We don't have a registered nurse or health services on duty in the evening, only 8 to 5. A nurse is on duty, but she is an instructor at night. When I said no, it had to be a qualified no, because in admissions, for example, we have a special early evening registration. We have counseling and advising and testing at night. But we have it one night a week. Testing is one night a week, counseling is four nights a week. So whereas testing is available to our students during the daytime for five days compared to one night for the evening student. Now most, we think most of our adult students are here at night, but we're not sure, we don't have that data. I--Are there any special programs during the day for the adult student? D--Yes. We have what we call the Second Wind Group, a group which supports, a growth group, an informal club for second winders. They're the 25 and older who have or are a little hesitant about returning to school, especially competing with the young student in the classroom; a little test anxious; not so sure they can make good grades; having little guilt complexes because they are assigning more time to study than to housekeeping and that kind of thing. So, we have a special emphasis for that kind of support. We also have support services for those people who are handicapped in the daytime. We have it at night, but we really have some people that are older and have heart trouble, are arthritic, and so forth. We have a full support service for them in the daytime. Special programs for that. Then, as far as admissions is concerned, we have a special feature whereby an adult student can come in and do a short form on the admissions application and you know, he's in, right then. He doesn't have to worry about a transcript. It's a temporary thing that we provide for them, and we allow them 12 hours to get their feet wet and not hassle them about having to get their transcript from their high schools from which they graduated 30 years ago--though they eventually have to have that. I— Have any new services or programs (or modified services or programs) been developed which speak directly to the special needs of the adult student?

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102 D — Yes, we have another program called a displaced homemakers program for the divorced, the widowed, and so forth, and we do have that particular program. That is relatively new, and it's taken on like you wouldn't believe! We have tutorial services for them as well as for the regular traditional student, and we give them an opportunity to serve as tutors. And they do, by the way. This gives peer support as well. I— Which service for adults receives the greatest emphasis in terms of budget, personnel, and facilities? D— That's hard to say! The tutorial program, displaced homemakers, and so forth, that's soft money. Career planning is soft money. Of the five, specifically, . . . now you say for what is the greatest budget in these five areas for the adult student? I really can't say. The least would probably be financial aid because the people we're talking about have part-time jobs and such and just don't qualify because of the federal guidelines and so forth. We do have adult students, however, who are recipients of private donor scholarships. There are several. We have several mothers who are on private donor scholarships now, you know, nurses, etcetera. I — How about senior citizens tuition waivers? Do you give any of these or anything? D— No. Not yet. I--You've already addressed the question of which service receives the next most emphasis, so the next question is, how did your institution decide to provide these services for adults? D--We have a vice president who is in charge of the program development, and he was in contact with a local junior league of the city. The junior league asked for some information on the number of displaced homemakers that were available around this area and from that question and our interest in the older student--you know for a long time we have had an interest in the older student. We just haven't gotten around to having a sure enough program for them. But with that question, and the interest on the part of the junior league, the emphasis from some of the students who were already enrolled, we moved forward with it, and developed the program and developed and been funded through the junior league and the state agencies for this, our third year. Now, the tutorial service--0h! By the way, there is another program--the mentoring program that we started just because we knew that there were people who on campus who were fearful of being here, so we decided to do a faculty mentoring program for older students. It works beautifully! For some students, we've lost them; for others we've kept them. But at the same time the concept is really

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103 something and we're really-I see some really good things coming from this. But back to the tutorial services. What happened there was that we needed to move forward with tutoring. We realized that many students were coming to us with academic skills that were below those necessary to succeed in the college setting so we sat down and decided that it just had to be a service to students. So we dug down deep and did a proposal and submitted it and received funds. And so, what we did was not only provide tutoring for those that needed academic skills, developing academic skills, but also we were thinking in terms of the older students who could provide and give them an opportunity to be of service and to serve in that capacity, to build their own self-concept and confidence as tutors, and it has worked fine. I — How many are you serving in any of these programs? D--I don't have that number right off the top of my head, but I know the first year in the displaced homemaker program we served about 400, and now about 1,400 unduplicated heads. And we serve them in small groups or individually. Counseling. Large support groups. We have a group that meets every Monday night, and it's been a very rewarding experience for us. Now the tutorial center we started with a target of 400. The first year we served about 325 and went up to about 600 in the third year. Students do not pay for this service. It comes from soft money. Tutors are chosen from faculty-recommended students who are interested and could serve well in the tutoring setting. We also request the Phi Theta Kappa to tutor. We train the tutors and have weekly and monthly meetings with the tutors. We also solicit help from Baylor University in special fields of biology or whatever. I — How have older students been made aware of your services? D--Through every way possible— media on and off campus, posters. In every program area we have notices that tutorial services are available. The tutorial center has carrells and areas for small group sessions, chalkboards. Now, we're looking toward the concept of the classroom facilitator. So we have people in the classroom now working with the instructor helping the students. And we have satellite labs--math, communications, science. They are under the instructional dean, but we supply the manpower for those. I — You feel that these services have been effective for these people? D— Oh, decidedly! I~Have you measured it in any way?

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104 D--Yes, but I don't have the results with me. We've seen great change. The most important thing is that we don't lose them. Those with academic potential stay with us. If they start with a 'D', they may go up to a 'C. But they don't quit, which I think is successful. I — Have you any indication whether or not these services have contributed to the increased enrollment and/or retention of adult students? D— We really don't know, but I feel that it has. I--How do you perceive the attitudes of the institution as a whole toward older students? D— Very, very positive! We realize and acknowledge their presence, and we know we need to be much more conscious of their needs. We are devoting time and energy and spirit to be more aware, as well as to put into effect to implement services and programs and even class scheduling for the students 25 and above. We have a Saturday college—not very large, but that's to accommodate the older student who cannot come during the week or the night. So, some come and take courses on Saturday. The attitude is exceptional. We know we can do better. We have some very special programs here. You know, without the adult students, we wouldn't need the special programs, and we'd be out of jobs.

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LIST OF REFERENCES Advisory Panel on Research Needs in Lifelong Learning during Adulthood. Lifelong learning during adulthood . New York: College Entrance Examination Board, 1978. American Association of Community and Junior Colleges. 1980 Community, junior, and technical college directory . Washington, D.C.: Author, 1980. Ancheta, B. Counseling needs of traditional and non-traditional community college students. Journal of College Student Personnel , 1980, 2J_, 564-567. Blocker, C. E. Student services: The future. In C. E. Blocker (Ed.), Humanizing student services . San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1974. Brodzinski, F. R. Old myths and new realities: Restructuring student services for adult learners . Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Association for Higher Education, Washington, D.C.: Author, 1980. Bulpitt, M. The adult student. In M. Bulpitt (Ed.), Understanding diverse students . San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1973. Career Guidance Foundation. Microfiche college catalog . San Diego: Author, 1979-80. '~ Carnegie Commission on Higher Education. Toward a learning society : Alternative channels to life . New York: McGraw-Hill, 1973. Chambers, E. N. Guidelines for recruitment of older students into programs of study in the state university system (Doctoral dissertation, University of Florida, 1980). Dissertation Abstracts International, 1981, 4J_, 3794-A. (University Microfilms No. 81-05,566) Commission on Non-traditional Study. Diversity by design . San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1973. Cross, K. P. The missing link: Connecting adult learners to learning resources . Berkeley, California: Educational Testing Service, TW! 105

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106 Cross, K. P. Adult learners: Characteristics, needs, and interests. In R. E. Paterson and Associates (Ed.), Lifelong learning in America: An overview of current practices, available resources , and future prospects . San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1979. Cross, K. P. Adults as learners . San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1981. Cross, K. P., & Zussman, J. planning non-traditional programs . San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1974. Demko, D. Developing an older population program. In P. A. Walsh (Ed.), Serving new populations . San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1979. Dewey, D. New kid on the block. Journal of College Student Personnel, 1980, 21_, 498-502. Dickson, E. A. Community college orientation options for adults: An assessment of perceived relevance (Doctoral dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1979). Dissertation Abstracts International , 1980, 40, 52 95A. (University Microfilms No. 80-07,333] ~~ Ebersole, J. F. , & Hargis, W. D. The platonic dilemma. In C. E. Blocker (Ed.), Humanizing student services . San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1974. Eldred, M. D. , & Marienau, C. Adult baccalaureate programs . Washington, D.C.: American Association of Higher Education, 1979. Fauquet, T. Report of results of a questionnaire on student development services for older students in Florida community colleges . Gainesville, Florida: University of Florida, 1977. (ERIC Docume n t Reproduction Service No. ED 153 158) Florida Assembly on Policies for Lifelong Education. Final report . Orlando, Florida: Author, 1980. Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education. Designing for development: Four programs for adult undergraduates . Washington, D.C.: Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 1980. Gilder, J. State policy recommendations from four states: Summary and analysis. In J. Gilder (Ed.), Modernizing state policies : Community colleges and lifelong education . Washington, D.C.: American Association of Community and Junior Colleges, 1981. (a) Gilder, J. (Ed.). Modernizing state policies: Community colleges and lifelong education ^ Washington, D.C.: American Association of Community and Junior Colleges, 1981. (b) Goodman, H. H. Adult education and counseling: An emerging synthesis. Personnel and Guidance Journal , 1981, 59, 465-469.

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107 Goodman, L. H., & Beard, R. L. An analysis of reported counseling services in selected public community colleges in the southeastern United States. Community and Junior College Research Quarterly , 1976, 1_, 81-96. Gould, R. Adult life stages: Growth toward self-tolerance. Psychology Today , February 1975, pp. 74-78. Hamilton, E. H. Adult part-time students and the Higher Education Act. Lifelong Learning , 1979, 3_, 10-11; 26. Heffernan, J. M., Macy, F. IL, & Vickers, D. F. Educational brokering: A new service for adult learners . Syracuse, New York: National Center for Educational Brokering, 1976. Higgins, S., & Thurston, A. Student personnel in the junior colleges in the years ahead. In G. Klopf (Ed.), College student personnel work in the years ahead . Washington, D.CTi American College Personnel Association, 1966. Humphreys, J. A. Toward improved programs of student personnel services. Junior College Journal , 1952, 32_, 382-392. Johnson, R. P. Counselors' goals and roles to assist older persons in federally supported programs (Doctoral dissertation, University of Florida, 1980). Dissertation Abstracts International , 1981, 4J_, 3883-A. (University Microfilms No. 81-05,588) Kasworm, C. Student services for the older undergraduate student. Journal of College Student Personnel , 1980, 21_, 163-169. Knox, B. E. Counseling needs of ABE students. Community College Review, 1979, 7_, 56-64. LaCalle, J. F. A comparative study of the need for selected collegeprovided services of part-time versus full-time students at five Maryland community colleges (Doctoral dissertation, The American University, 1979). Dissertation Abstracts International , 1979, 40, 634-A. (University Microfilms No. 79-16,855) Levine, A. Handbook on undergraduate curriculum . San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1978. Levinson, D. J. The seasons of a man's life . New York: Knopf, 1978. Levitz, R. S. , & Noel, L. Attracting and retaining adult learners : Summary of a nationwide survey . Iowa City, Iowa: The American College Testing Program, 1980. Mai in, J. T., Bray, J. H., Dougherty, T. W., & Skinner, W. K. Factors affecting the performance and satisfaction of adult men and women attending college. Research in High Education, 1980, 13, 115-130.

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108 Maslow, A. H. Motivation and personality (2nd ed.). New York: Harper and Row, 1970. McDaniel, J. W. Essential student personnel practices for junior colleges . Washington, D.C.: American Association of Junior Colleges, 1962. Medsker, L. L., & Tillery, C. Breaking the access barriers. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1971. Merriam, S. Middle age: A review of the literature and its implications for educational intervention. Adult Education , 1978, 29_, 39-54. ~ Miller, M. R. Retaining adults: New educational designs for a new clientele. In L. Noel (Ed.), Reducing the dropout rate . San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1978. Monette, M. L. Need assessment: A critique of philosophical assumptions. Adult Education , 1979, 29, 83-95. Monroe, C. R. Profile of the community college . San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1972. Muller, A. Seminar on 2+2 retention at University of South Florida . Tampa, Florida: Author, 1980. Murphy, G. The community college as a resource for older adults: A working model. Lifelong Learner , 1980, 3_, 4-6. Neher, T. , & Potter, C. The experience of learning. In C. E. Blocker (Ed.), Humanizing student services . San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1974. O'Banion, T. Counseling and the emerging model of student development. In C. E. Blocker (Ed.), Humanizing student services . San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1974. Overly, N. V. (Ed.). Lifelong learning: A human agenda . Alexandria, Virginia: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1979. Perdue, B. M. Guidelines for educational gerontology in Florida's public institutions of higher education (Doctoral dissertation, University of Florida, 1976). Dissertation Abstracts International , 1977, 37_, 4068-A. (University Microfilms No. 77-1,140) Pierce, W. Implications for change. In Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (Ed.), The older student phenomenon: Planning ahead . Atlanta, Georgia, 1979"! (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 184 489)

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109 Rawlins, M. E. Life made easier for the over-thirty undergrads. Personnel and Guidance Journal , 1979, 58_, 139-143. Recruitment and retention of the non-traditional student. Colleg e and University , 1978, 53_, 592-593. Robbins, W. A. The nontraditional young adult student. In D. M. Knoell (Ed.), Understanding diverse students . San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1973. Sawhill, J. C. Lifelong learning: Scandal of the next decade? Change , 1978, TO., 7. Sharon, J. B. Emeritus college: Learning from here to eternity. In P. A. Walsh (Ed.), Serving new populations . San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1979. Sheehy, G. Passages: Predictable cris es of adult life. New York: Dutton, 1976: ' ~~ Snider, J., & Roderfield, J. College for living: Continuing education for the disabled. Lifelong Learning , 1979, 3, 16-19. Stewart, D. W. Interest group roles in the development and passage of the Mondale lifelong learning legislation. Adult Education, 1978, 28, 264-275. Teague, G. Community college statistics with four types of academic advisement. Journal of College Student Personnel, 1977, 18, 281-285. — Thornton, J. W. The community junior college (3rd ed.). New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1972. Thornton, R., & Mitchell, I. Counseling the distance learners: A survey of trends and literature . Australia: Adelaide University, 1979. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 177 296) Tough, A. Major learning efforts: Recent research and future directions. Adult Education , 1978, 28_, 250-263. Watson, N. The community college in the 1980's: Promises and perils . Paper presented to the Annual Convention of the American Association of Community and Junior Colleges, San Francisco, 1980. Williamson, E. G. Student personnel services in colleges and universities . New York! McGraw-Hill , 1961 . Wolf, J. C, & Dameron, J. D. Counseling center functions in two-year and four-year colleges. Journal of College Student Personnel, 1975, 16, 482-485.

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no Wygal , B. R. A discussion paper prepared for the AACJC 1980 Florida Assembly on Lifelong Learning . Orlando, Florida: Author, 1980. Ziegler, W. L. The future of adult education and learning in the United States . Syracuse, New York: The Educational Policy Research Center, Syracuse Research Corporation, 1977.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH William Cottrell Kennedy II was born December 5, 1946, in DeLand, Florida. As the dependent son of a career Army officer, he grew up in various states in the United States and countries in Europe. He graduated from Palma High School in Salinas, California, in 1964. He attended Monterey Peninsula College in Monterey, California, and LakeSumter Community College in Leesburg, Florida, earning an Associate of Arts degree in August, 1967. In September, 1967, he attended Stetson University where he received his Bachelor of Arts in May, 1970, with a major in English and a commission as a Second Lieutenant in the United States Army. The following year he taught English and journalism at Eustis High School. From 1971 to 1973 he served as a platoon leader and company executive officer with the 4th Batallion, 63rd Armor, 1st Infantry Division, Fort Riley, Kansas. Following active duty, he taught English at Tavares High School, Tavares, Florida, then returned to Stetson University in 1974 to earn a Master of Arts in counseling in August, 1975. After graduation, he joined the faculty of Lake-Sumter Community College, Leesburg, Florida, as the counselor. He was granted a year's professional leave in 1978-1979 to attend the University of Florida to complete his doctoral course requirements in counselor education. In 111

PAGE 122

112 1979-1980, he returned to work at Lake-Sumter while continuing his graduate work. In August, 1982, he received the degree Doctor of Philosophy.

PAGE 123

I certify that I have read this study and that in rny opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholary presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. , -D f j&£^+\ J a ne tcJ L a F se•TyChij irman Professor of -Counselor Education I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Phyllis M. Meek Associate Professor of Counselor Education I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Wattenbarger of Educational Administration and Supervision This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Department of Counselor Education in the College ef Education and to the Graduate Council, arid was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. August, 1982 Dean for Graduate Studies and Researcf

PAGE 124

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 3 1262 08553 1142


STUDENT SERVICES FOR ADULTS IN SOUTHEASTERN COMMUNITY AND
JUNIOR COLLEGES: PERCEPTIONS OF CHIEF
STUDENT AFFAIRS OFFICERS
BY
WILLIAM COTTRELL KENNEDY II
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1982

Dedicated to
SUE

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
There are many people who have contributed to the success of this
dissertation. Dr. Janet Larsen, the chairperson of my doctoral com¬
mittee, has provided immeasurable intellectual and moral support
throughout this project. Dr. Phyllis Meek and Dr. James Wattenbarger,
the other members of my committee, have also provided encouragement
and guidance in this endeavor. I am deeply appreciative of all these
people.
Special thanks are extended to Dr. Robert 0. Stripling for the
confidence and encouragement he provided in the early going. I also
want to thank Dr. Tom Goodale for his guidance and inspiration. And,
of course, I am grateful for the help and leadership provided by the
faculty in the Counselor Education Department.
At Lake-Sumter Community College, the support, guidance, and
encouragement have been instrumental in helping me achieve my goals.
My thanks go to Dr. Paul Williams, the now retired President of Lake-
Sumter, for allowing me a year's professional leave to continue my
education; to Dr. Dixie Jean Allen, Dean of Student Services, for her
patience, understanding, guidance and encouragement; to Dr. Evelyn
"Sis" Sebree, for her empathy and inspiration; and to Marylyn Leavitt
who spent many hours not only typing, but also moving me to continued
m
work.

A heartfelt thank you is extended to C. Edward and Anna Rae
Straight, the best parents-in-law I could have. I am particularly
grateful to my parents, William and Rhoda Kennedy, for the way they
reared me—with a lot of love, affection, and encouragement to do the
things I wanted. Most especially, my deepest gratitude goes to my
family Sue, Christine, and Hilary. Their patience, confidence,
encouragement, support and love have been unshakable during this
process. Without them, this project probably would not have come to
fruition.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iii
LIST OF TABLES vii
ABSTRACT viii
CHAPTER
I.INTRODUCTION 1
Historical Overview 2
The Problem 5
The Purpose 3
Definition of Terms 11
Summary 12
II.REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 13
The Students 13
The Institution 19
Recommendations for Resolution 27
Summary 32
III.DESIGN OF THE STUDY 34
Methodology and Procedures 34
Population of the Study 35
Description of the Instrument 36
Data Collection 38
Treatment of the Data 39
Summary 39
IV.RESULTS AND ANALYSIS OF QUESTIONNAIRE AND
INTERVIEW RESPONSES 40
Data Collection Process 40
Questionnaire Results, Analysis, and Discussion . . 43
Interview Results and Discussion 53
Application of the Data to the Research Questions . 70
Summary 76
v

CHAPTER
PAGE
V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND GENERAL OBSERVATIONS,
RECOMMENDATIONS 78
Summary 78
Major Findings 81
Conclusions and General Observations 82
Recommendations 86
APPENDICES
A. THE QUESTIONNAIRE 89
B. THE INTERVIEW QUESTIONS 91
C. THE TELEPHONE INTERVIEW APPOINTMENT CARD 92
D. THE COVER LETTERS AND LETTER OF ENDORSEMENT .... 93
E. SAMPLE INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPTION 96
LIST OF REFERENCES 105
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Ill
vi

LIST OF TABLES
TABLE PAGE
1. Enrollment Data by Head Count of Full-time and
Part-time, Male and Female Students in 18
Southeastern Community Colleges 44
2. Percentage of Services Offered Adults in 18
Southeastern Community Colleges 47
3. Weighted Mean and Rank Order of the Effectiveness
of the Service Categories as Perceived by Student
Personnel Administrators in 18 Southeastern
Community Colleges 49
4. Ranking and Assigned Weights of Student Service
Categories in 18 Southeastern Community Colleges . . 52
vi i

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
STUDENT SERVICES FOR ADULTS IN SOUTHEASTERN COMMUNITY AND
JUNIOR COLLEGES: PERCEPTIONS OF CHIEF
STUDENT AFFAIRS OFFICERS
By
William Cottrell Kennedy II
August 1932
Chairman: Janet J. Larsen
Major Department: Counselor Education
The purpose of this research was to identify and to describe
examples of student services programs which were designed to serve the
special needs of older (24 years and older) students by community and
junior colleges. The data were collected from a questionnaire and
interview with the chief student personnel administrator at each of 18
community and junior colleges in the Southeastern United States.
Based on a review of the literature, five categories of student ser¬
vices were selected for study. These categories included admissions,
counseling, financial aid, career planning and placement, and support
services.
The questionnaire and interview items were developed from ques¬
tionnaires and information found in the literature concerning adults
and higher education.
vi i i

An analysis of the data revealed the following facts.
1. One half of the student personnel administrators surveyed
were unable to supply enrollment data by full-time or part-time, male
or female students.
2. Services were not offered adults in all five of the cate¬
gories studied.
3. Of those services offered most often, counseling and
financial aid services received the greatest amount of institutional
support and emphasis for serving adult learners. Career planning and
support services received the least amount.
4. When addressing the needs of older students, as identified in
the literature, community and junior college student services
divisions have, on the average, made some attempt to meet those needs.
None of them is attempting to meet all of their needs.
5. The chief student personnel officer of each institution per¬
ceived the services being offered adults as effective in meeting
adults' needs.
6. None of the student personnel administrators could supply
institutional research data confirming their positive perceptions of
the impact services had had on increased enrollment and retention of
older students.
7. Community and junior colleges generally did not officially
differentiate between their traditional and non-traditional students,
although the student services staffs normally did. Colleges which do
not differentiate are less likely to have special services for older
students.
IX

3. Institutions in this study are not making adequate attempts
to meet the non-academic needs of older students in all the service
categories studied. Therefore, many of the needs for services held by
lifelong learners are not being met by many community and junior
college student services divisions.
x

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
The establishment of a system of community and junior colleges
provides an educational opportunity for people to whom further edu¬
cation would have otherwise been unavailable. Though serving the
traditional college-bound youth, these institutions also provide post¬
secondary education to students of al 1 ages with a variety of interests,
aptitudes, family backgrounds, academic skills and cultural patterns.
Some are intellectually and emotionally wel1-prepared for formal edu¬
cational experiences while others are not (Higgins & Thurston, 1966).
Because of the existence of highly diverse groups of individuals,
of various ages, the services provided by community colleges' should be
based on a continuous, systematic method of research concerning the
characteristics and needs of their students. Armed with the knowledge
gained from these investigations, each college can better plan and
provide for more adequate and relevant services, the goal of which
should be to assist each student in developing every aspect of his or
her learning needs.
The review of the literature generally supports two theoretical
points of view concerning adult learners. One of these is a
humanistic theory which declares that adults have a natural tendency
to learn and that they will do so if encouraged. Humanists believe
'Throughout the text, the term "community college(s)" should be
understood to include both community and junior colleges.
1

2
that adult learners should be provided with several options of people,
resources and materials from which to learn without passing judgment
on the nature or the quality of the experience. Adults need help in
thinking through what they want to learn and how they want to learn it
(Cross, 1981).
The second is a developmental theory which essentially states
that people learn because of changes or crises in their lives which
create challenges and stimulation. This learning is, in fact,
developmental (Cross, 1981). Adults facing developmental tasks often
need assistance in clarifying their situations and identifying ways of
dealing with them.
The non-instructional student services provided adult con¬
stituents of the community college should facilitate access to the
learning resources of the institution, provide information about them¬
selves (e.g., strengths and weaknesses), and provide counseling and
referral for help in overcoming anxieties, finding direction, making
decisions, choosing a career, and so forth (Cross, 1979). Williamson
views student
services in education as complementary to that of the classroom
teachers--insofar as the student's intellectual development is
concerned. With respect to other areas of his development, we
are the principle educators. (1961, pp. 18-19)
Historical Overview
The community/junior college movement originated in the middle of
the nineteenth century in an unsuccessful attempt to extend the high
school years to six, eliminating the need for the freshman and sopho¬
more years at the university level. Henry Tappan, President of the
University of Michigan, and William Watts Folwell, President of the

3
University of Minnesota, were its principle advocates (Thornton, 1972).
In 1892, however, the President of the University of Chicago, William
Raney Harper, effectively separated the first two years (establishing
the academic--later junior-college) from the second two years (estab¬
lishing the University--later senior-college). The former was
designed to augment the four-year high school curriculum with two more
years of secondary work, and, in 1900, the University began awarding
the Associate of Arts degree to all those who completed the junior
college program. The movement was supported on the West Coast
primarily by David S. Jordan of Stanford University and Alexis Lange
of the University of California (Thornton, 1972).
Four central influences encouraged the development of the idea.
These included the rapid growth of the universities and their tendency
toward large classes, the desire of the normal schools to offer col¬
legiate subjects, the inability of several small colleges to provide
academic quality in a four-year degree program, and the addition of
two years to the high school curriculum to add a new dimension to
public education (Thornton, 1972).
The American Association of Junior Colleges in 1922 designated
the junior college as any institution offering the first two years of
strictly collegiate instruction. The curriculum was later expanded to
include vocational courses, and terminal degrees began receiving as
much emphasis as transfer degrees, with an attempt to meet the general
education needs of members of the local community (Thornton, 1972).
In 1930, Nicholas Ricciardi wrote that
A fully organized junior college aims to meet the needs of a com¬
munity in which it is located, including preparation for

4
institutions of higher learning, liberal arts education for those
who are not going beyond graduation from the junior college,
vocational training for particular occupations usually designated
as semi-professional vocations, and short courses for adults with
special interest. (Cited in Thornton, 1972, p. 55)
The trend toward a comprehensive two-year college program to pro¬
vide something for everyone was begun. In 1936, Byron S. Hollinshead
stated
That the junior college should be a community college, meeting
community needs; that it should serve to promote a greater social
and civic intelligence in the community; that it should provide
opportunities for increased adult education; that it should pro¬
vide educational, recreational, and vocational opportunities for
young people; that the cultural facilities of the institution
should be placed at the disposal of the community; and that the
work of the community college should be closely integrated with
the work of the high schools and the work of other community
institutions. (Cited in Thornton, 1972, p. 55)
America's involvement in World War II created a decline in
enrollments for the junior colleges' regular programs. To compensate,
community action programs were designed to offer war-time alternatives
for those not overseas. Heightened interest in the world and its
social and political varieties and the desire for opportunities to
learn, or improve upon, occupational knowledge were satisfied through
the curricula of the junior colleges. Adults, who were not histori¬
cally considered college material, turned to the junior college for
educational and cultural activities. After the war, these oppor¬
tunities continued and the community/junior college idea was developed
(Thornton, 1972; Medsker & Tillery, 1971).
The skilled manpower needs required by technological advancements
necessitated the continuous revision and expansion of the community
college curriculum between 1953 and the decade of the 1960s (Medsker &
Tillery, 1971). This period saw an increase not only in the number of

5
students who were products of the post-war "baby-boom," but also in
the number of older (over 25 years) persons who were not traditionally
perceived as college students. The predictions of future enrollments
in higher education indicate increasing numbers of adults and
decreasing numbers of 18 to 21 year old students (Levitz & Noel,
1980).
The Problem
The complexion of the community college student body has been
steadily changing in recent years, and promises to continue to change
in the future. Between 1972 and 1977, the proportion of students over
the age of 25 increased from 28 percent to 33 percent, while that of
students less than 24 decreased from 71 percent to 67 percent, a trend
which is expected to continue (Levitz & Noel, 1980). In light of the
apparent pending decline in traditional college enrollments, many
postsecondary educational institutions have begun to reexamine what
they have traditionally provided for their students and are attempting
to meet the needs of the emerging older student body (Levitz & Noel,
1980).
What is being discovered about this new clientele is that there
are three general problems of access for adult learners (Cross, 1978).
The first is that, because of jobs and other adult responsibilities, a
full-time commitment to learning is inappropriate. Second, the
variety of experiences which adults have attained are greater and more
diverse than those of younger people--a special consideration for
which granting credit and class placement must be given. Finally, the

adult's orientation to formal learning will have need for adjustment
because of the numbers of years most of them have been out of school.
Evolving is a society of learners with a wide variety of unique
needs and interests on one hand, and an assortment of learning
resources to which they can turn to fulfill those needs and interests
on the other. For this learning society to prosper, each post¬
secondary educational institution, especially the community college,
must rearrange its priorities so that it puts
the student first and the institution second, concentrates more
on the former's need than the latter's convenience, encourages
diversity of individual opportunity rather than uniform pre¬
scription, and deemphasizes time, space, and even course require
ments in favor of competence and, where applicable, performance.
It has concern for the learner of any age and circumstance, for
the degree aspirant as well as the person who finds sufficient
reward in enriching life through constant, periodic, or
occasional study. (Commission on Non-Traditional Study, 1973,
p. xv)
The American College Testing Program (ACT) study on Attracting
and Retaining Adult Learners, ARAL (Levitz & Noel, 1980), has identi¬
fied institutions and programs which are attempting to meet this
directive. Though their survey included community and junior
colleges, the majority of the responses came from public and private
four-year institutions. Likewise, a review of the literature has
shown that the needs of older students have been generally identified
Because of relatively high levels of anxiety, low academic self-
concept, familial misunderstandings, and general problems of adjust¬
ment to a new and demanding lifestyle, there is a need for personal
counseling (Levitz A Noel, 1980; Rawlins, 1979; Bulpitt, 1973).
Many of the older students enroll in college with little or no
idea of any goals other than to learn something new and/or to prepare

7
for a new career. Often there is a lack of understanding of the
educational requirements to enter a career field once it has been
identified. To help these individuals there is a need for adequate
educational and career counseling and placement (Cross, 1973; Dewey,
1980; Goodman, 1981; Levine, 1978).
College costs place an additional financial burden on most people
who attend. For older students with family responsibilities,
especially those who take part-time jobs to attend classes full time,
going to school represents a loss of income.
The same is true for those on fixed incomes, primarily senior
citizens. Therefore, there is a need for financial aid among older
adult students (Cross, 1980; Cross & Zussman, 1974; Malin, Bray,
Dougherty, & Skinner, 1980).
Adult students frequently require special considerations for
recruitment and have special needs for admissions (Brodzinski, 1980;
Cross & Zussman, 1974; Rawlins, 1979). Evening students cannot always
take time from their jobs to make applications or receive academic
advisement or register for classes. Offering these services in the
evenings or in off-campus locations gives adult students alternative
opportunities for enrollment.
Finally, there are needs which must be addressed after students
are in classes. The need for such benefits as tutorial services,
learning skills (math, reading, study skills) assistance, peer
support, and child care exist because older students, many of wham
have responsibility for children, have been away from formal education
for varying periods of time. Special student support services can
help them renew their learning skills, while offering the opportunity

8
to have children cared for while parents are in class (Cross a
Zussman, 1974; Kasworm, 1980; Levitz & Noel, 1980).
Research studies have identified the needs of adult students, the
adequate institutional response to which could attract nearly 40
million more students (Levitz & Noel, 1980). The problem, therefore,
is to identify how community colleges are attempting to meet those
needs.
The Purpose
Statement of the Purpose
The purpose of this research was to identify and to describe
examples of student services programs which were designed to serve the
special needs of older students by community college student affairs
offices. Eighteen community and junior colleges in Alabama, Florida,
Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South
Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia were randomly selected for
the study. By identifying older students' needs through a review of
the literature, and based on the response to a preliminary survey of
student affairs practitioners, the functions of admissions, coun¬
seling, financial aid, career planning and placement, and student
support services were studied as the areas most likely to fulfill
those needs.
To accomplish this purpose, the following questions were investi¬
gated through the use of a questionnaire and personal interviews.
1. Which of the five services being investigated are provided
for adult students in a way which is different from the more
traditional applications?

9
2. Which services receive the greatest emphasis for non-
traditional students?
3. Are the student services which are offered addressing the
needs of adults as identified in the literature?
4. As perceived by the chief student personnel officers, are the
services offered effective in providing for the special needs of adult
1 earners?
5. Do community and junior colleges differentiate between
traditional and non-traditional students by definition?
6. Have the services offered adult students contributed to the
increased enrollment or retention of adult students?
Delimitations and Limitations
In conducting this research, the following confinements and
weaknesses were observed.
1. Because some state two-year colleges include the word
"technical" in their titles while excluding "community" or "junior,"
and to avoid including a college more technically than academically
oriented, the population of the study was confined to institutions
whose name reflected "community college" or "junior college."
2. Because the preeminent method for gathering information about
the services offered was the telephone interview, and because of the
expense and impracticality of interviewing all the community and
junior colleges in 11 states, the population for this study included a
10 percent random sample of community and junior colleges in each of
those states.

10
3. Because the sample size was limited, generalizations about
the extent of services offered in other institutions must be made
cautiously.
4. Due to the continuing increase of adult students in community
colleges and the recent concern for lifelong learning, the review of
the literature, with the exception of a few basic references, centered
on materials and research published since 1970.
Justification
The term "androgogy" means helping adults to learn, and it is
based on four assumptions concerning adult learners. These
assumptions include (a) the inclination of adults to be independent
and self-directed, (b) the accumulation of experiences which serve as
resources for learning, (c) a readiness to learn which is oriented to
developmental tasks, and (d) shifts in perspective from "postponed
application of knowledge to immediacy of application," and in learning
orientation from "subject-centeredness to problem-centeredness"
(Cross, 1981, p. 223). These assumptions appear to encompass both the
humanistic (assumptions a and b) and the developmental (assumptions c
and d) theories mentioned above. Regardless of the theoretical
orientation one might espouse, adults have needs for both instruc¬
tional and non-instructional services which will help them to either
fulfill their natural tendency to learn or to meet their developmental
challenges.
Definition of Terms
Throughout this paper, subject-specific terms are defined as
follows:

n
Adult learners (or students). One would not be incorrect in
counting all college students 18 years of age or older as adults.
"Adult" has been defined by some institutions as those students over
21 years of age; by others as those with adult responsibilities or
commitments and those employed full time; and still others as those
who have had a significant break in time between educational experi¬
ences (Levitz a Noel, 1980). For the purposes of this study, however,
the adult learner is defined as one who has reached the age of 24
years.
Lifelong education. Lifelong education consists of planned
experiences (formal and informal) from which an individual learns.
These experiences, as used herein, are those offered by an institution
of higher education.
Lifelong learning. Learning occurs from birth to death and is,
therefore, lifelong.
Traditional students. College students historically have been
perceived as ranging in age from 18 to 23 years and of entering
college from preparatory programs in the secondary school. They also
usually come from middle- to upper-class families. Those who enter
college with these characteristics are, therefore, traditional.
Non-traditional students. Any students not of the traditional
type are non-traditional. These include students who are 24 years of
age or older, who have weak academic experiences, who are often from
lower socioeconomic families, and who are not necessarily into
education for the purpose of earning a degree.
Student services. When not specified, student services include
the full range of non-academic services provided, i.e., counseling,

12
admissions, financial aid, student government, registration, student
activities, orientation, career planning, testing and evaluation,
placement, job placement, and academic advisement (Monroe, 1972).
Summary
Because of the trend for students of community colleges to be
more non-traditional, it seems only proper that the student services
provided by these colleges be evaluated and adjusted to meet the needs
and the interests of their new clientele. The literature includes
ample information concerning the needs of adult students and recom¬
mendations for what community colleges should be doing for the adult
learner. However, it is devoid of comprehensive information about
what community and junior colleges are in fact doing for the adult
learner. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to discover what
services are being rendered and how well they are perceived to accom¬
plish their goals. An account of these services will also be
provided.
Chapter II will present a review of the literature related to
community and junior colleges, student personnel services and adult
learners, and the relationship of each to the other. It will identify
the needs of adult students, the services traditionally available to
all students, and the apparent inability of those services to meet the
needs of the lifelong learner.

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE
The Students
Probably the most common assumption concerning formal education
is that it includes attendance in kindergarten through 12th grades
(K-12) with perhaps some college included for the more intellectually
elite. The truth is, however, that discussion has recently centered
around the realization that, unless people vegetate, they will con¬
tinue to learn throughout their lifetime (Cross, 1978). Many are
involved in learning which is informal and self-directed, while others
are engaged in one or more activities of organized instruction.
Developmentalists would contend that people progress through an adult
life cycle during which they must cope with developmental tasks as
they present themselves, i.e., leaving home, getting married, rearing
children, establishing or changing careers, losing a spouse, and
retiring (Gould, 1975; Levinson, 1978; Sheehy, 1976). As these
transitions occur, they cause a rethinking and restructuring of one's
life in "an attempt to grasp confusion, frequently accompanied with
considerable struggle, pain, anxiety or stress, [which] often prompts
courageous risk-taking as the person reaches toward a new perspective"
(Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education, 1980, p. 27).
This perspective is frequently found by enrolling in various forms of
educational activities (FIPSE, 1980).
13

14
This trend has led to the formulation of such terminology as
"lifelong learner," "lifelong education," and "learning society"
(Cross, 1978). Support for this movement is presented in the Levitz
and Noel study on Attracting and Retaining Adult Learners, ARAL
(1930), in which they have reported that the percentage of college
enrollment for men aged 25 to 34 increased from 11 percent in 1959 to
17 percent in 1978. For women of the same age range, the percentages
were 2 and 14 in 1959 and 1978 respectively. They also quote pre¬
dictions for the next decade (1980-1990) which reveal that attendance
by those aged 25 to 34 will increase by 13 percent, those 35 to 44
will increase by 39 percent, and those 45 to 54 will increase by 12
percent. Conversely, those enrol lees aged 18 to 24 years will decline
by 15 percent.
This influx of older students has created difficulties in
defining the adult student. The ARAL study (Levitz & Noel, 1980)
indicated that there is no set definition, that institutions will
define adults according to their (the institutions') particular needs.
Eldred and Marienau (1 979) reported definitions by age range from
"under twenty" (at Kansas State University, Louisiana State Univer¬
sity, and Flaming Rainbow University in Talequah, Oklahoma) to those
at least 23 (at Trinity College and Drew University). Some programs
use credits earned or years worked as criteria for classification as
an adult. Community and junior colleges are most likely to set the
lower limits of "adulthood" at age 18. Cross (1981) defines the non-
traditional adult student as a part-time learner with full-time adult
responsibilities.

15
Characteristically, many members of this learning society are
predominantly privileged, middle- and upper-class Caucasians who are
already well-educated and who occupy white collar positions in the
work force (Cross & Zussman, 1974; Eldred & Marienau, 1979). They are
students who
view themselves as self-directing individuals, capable of making
decisions about their education and accepting the consequences of
their actions. They are able to engage in self-diagnosis of
their educational needs based on their perceived match of past
experience and future goals. They prefer action-oriented
learning techniques to achieve that match. (Eldred & Marienau,
1979, p. 10)
Their decision to attend college is often influenced by the promise of
social status and economic gain, and as an opportunity to change
and/or express their present interests (Eldred & Marienau, 1 979).
On the other hand, entering higher education in greater numbers,
especially in community and junior colleges, are minority adults and
senior citizens, many of whom have part-time jobs, low income and very
little educational attainment (Cross, 1978). On the average, they
suffer with a weak self-concept and little confidence in their
academic ability (Bulpitt, 1973). Cross (1978) says that these under¬
represented would-be learners are interested in career and educational
counseling but have little information about these services and educa¬
tional opportunities. Furthermore, many of them are job-oriented with
interest in degrees and certificates which are salable in the world of
work, yet they perceive the cost of attaining a degree or certificate
as a barrier.
Many undergraduates over 30 years of age face both physical and
psychological barriers to their participation in a formal learning
experience in an institution of postsecondary education. There are

16
fears of being too conspicuous and of being rejected because of the
difference in age between them and the traditional students on campus.
There is also anxiety concerning their ability to communicate at an
appropriate level (Rawlins, 1979). These individuals frequently lack
self-confidence in their ability to successfully compete with younger
students with more recent formal educational experiences (Heffernan,
Macy, & Vickers, 1976). In 1972, the Educational Testing Service
(ETS) found that approximately 26 million adults did not participate
for reasons which could have been remedied through adequate counseling
(Heffernan et al., 1976).
Remembering that adult learners can be defined as those learners
with adult responsibilities (Cross, 1980), other barriers become evi¬
dent. Levitz and Noel (1980) report conflicts between job responsi¬
bilities and class scheduling in which participation in one often
prohibits participation in the other; conflict with home and family
life where there may be a lack of understanding of the learner's moti¬
vation to return to school and a lack of support for the venture; con¬
flict with child-care obligations and the lack of child-care services
which could relieve a parent of such obligations long enough to attend
classes.
Malin, Bray, Dougherty and Skinner (1980) studied factors which
affect the performance and satisfaction of adult college students and
found that men have more difficulty adjusting to college than do
women. On the average they have lower grade point averages (GPAs);
they enjoy less positive intellectual and personal achievement; and
they have more family complaints about the amount of money spent on

17
college. Most men place greater emphasis on job roles than on
intellectual goals.
Finally, for adults to return to formal education they often must
experience a reduced level of income because of the necessity to
change from full time to part time employment in order to attend
classes, or because payment for tuition takes funds away from other
personal expenditures. This fact has its own problems which can com¬
pound the other problems already discussed (Cross, 1981; Malin et al.,
1980).
Levine (1978), in his Handbook of Undergraduate Curriculum, lists
12 most common reasons for students "stopping out" (leaving school
then returning after an unpredetermined period of time). The list
contains reasons which summarize the barriers faced by adult learners
and reveals commonalities between traditional and non-traditional
students. Among these barriers are personal circumstances, medical or
health problems, financial difficulties and poor academic performances.
It has been estimated that 40 million adults would return to
classroom study if institutions were more responsive to their personal
and educational needs (Levitz & Noel, 1980). Because of these varying
needs (which can cause difficulties for traditional as well as non-
traditional students), institutions must offer opportunities and
services devoted to this new clientele (Cross & Zussman, 1974).
Included among these could be such services as an adult-centered
orientation (to include spouses), financial aid considerations (there
is little financial aid for students taking less than a half-time
class load), child-care services, separate counseling and advising
services, the business office and computer terminals. Institutions

18
need to facilitate the initial enrollment process for adults, make
special efforts to interpret the curriculum, to evaluate past academic
experiences, to plan a program of study, and to deal with reentry
concerns and obstacles (Cross & Zussman, 1974; Rawlins, 1979).
Although one study of 256 full- and part-time, traditional and
non-traditional students attending a California community college
showed no significant difference in the counseling needs of these two
groups of students (Ancheta, 1980), others have found that adults
place more emphasis on their needs for personal growth and development
and their learning experiences, and less on social involvement and
companionship than do the more traditional students (Dewey, 1930;
Goodman, 1981). The need for counseling services directly applicable
toward adult students with their particular needs is implied in these
findings.
Because the non-traditional students are, in most cases, both
physically and emotionally different from younger students, several
student services traditionally found on many campuses have been deemed
inappropriate (Brodzinski, 1980). These include
1. adolescent social programs;
2. counseling geared toward the developmental needs of 18 to
21 year olds;
3. midday activities on weekdays;
4. admissions procedures requiring recommendations from high
school teachers;
5. correspondence addressed "dear parent";
6. high caloried adolescent food in the cafeteria;
7. job placement which focuses on entry level positions;

19
8. orientations which focus on adapting to college and making
decisions for the first time;
9. schedules and programs for students with more flexible time
1 imitations;
10. inappropriate use of fees;
11. closing offices at 5:30 p.m. (Brodzinski, 1980, p. 6)
Another study (Kasworm, 1980) compared the use of various student
services by younger (traditional) and older (non-traditional) students
at the University of Georgia. Younger students were more likely to
use such services as orientation, housing, physical health facilities,
student union activities, religious centers and academic advising.
Older students, on the other hand, were more inclined to want tutoring
services, career counseling, job placement, personal counseling and
financial aid.
The Institution
Learning cannot be confined to the limits of several years nor to
the restriction of four walls; it can occur daily throughout the span
of a lifetime and in any place. Many who want to learn something new
prefer to do so individually by reading, talking to experts in the
field, or seeking experiences for first-hand knowledge. Institutions
of higher learning are trying to "legitimize" this learning by
attracting adults to college classes, by "getting more and more
citizens to conduct their learning activities within the organiza¬
tional arrangements of the formal educational system" (Ziegler, 1977,
pp. 15-16).
If postsecondary educational institutions are going to accept the
responsibility for planning and directing the learning programs
for adult learners, then they must adjust their policies and pro¬
cedures to fully meet this responsibility. (Cross, 1978, p. 32)

20
The Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE)
sponsored four programs for adult higher education (Clark University,
Loretto Heights College, Mary Baldwin College and Vermont State
Colleges). Though each of the programs differed, four common
premises, applicable to any institution serving adults, were evident
(FIPSE, 1980):
1. The decision to return to school is a major step in an
adult's life. The daily lives of adults are complex, consisting
of many demanding responsibilities; the additional burden of
study cannot be lightly assumed.
2. Adults often seek more from their return to education than
further accumulation of knowledge or technical training. Quite
often, in fact, at the time of re-enrollment, they are undergoing
a major change in life perspective. Research in adulthood can
help us to understand this phenomenon and suggest constructive
ways in which to respond.
3. In order for educational programs to respond to adults'
needs, institutions must often make major changes in curriculum,
teaching methodologies, advising, and administrative
arrangements.
4. In order for a responsive program for adults to flourish, a
strong institutional commitment is needed. Faculty, adminis¬
tration, and staff may need to rethink their attitudes about
students, the nature of teaching and learning, and the societal
mission of teaching and learning, (p. 2)
With concern for the mature learner in higher education, insti¬
tutions must reevaluate their philosophies to match, within the con¬
text of education and learning, the goals of the institution with
those of their new students. In order to do this, three principles
need to be modified. These principles include program accessibility
(admissions criteria, time options for completing the degree, and
assessment of prior learning), flexibility (residency requirements,
scheduling), and synthesis (merging the theoretical and practical
nature of the curricula) (Pierce, 1979; Robbins, 1973). Programs also

21
need to be personalized by building on teaching and counseling
strengths and by providing institutional encouragement for students to
learn at their own pace (Robbins, 1973).
Facilitating adults should not be a new experience for community
college personnel, but to do it well requires that adequate attention
to the existence of older students be given by the institution's
administrators, and that the student services function be integrated
with the academic function pragmatically as well as philosophically.
Though achieving this requires the school to create a singular goal in
which institutional commitment is made to organize, develop and sup¬
port programs which adequately serve adults, it must also balance the
integration of special adult programs into the curriculum with the
autonomy of both traditional ana non-traditional programs to ensure
adults are appropriately served. Finally, programs and services must
be financially feasible, allowing the program to grow without draining
institutional resources (FIPSE, 1980).
In order to attract, serve and retain the adult learner more
adequately, institutions must recognize the restrictions and personal,
developmental, and educational needs of this clientele and adapt their
programs accordingly (Miller, 1978). The student services divisions in
at least 20 percent of higher educational institutions have begun to
question their age orientation and the relevance of their basic
philosophy and goals regarding older students (Kasworm, 1930).
Knox (1979) and Monroe (1972) list several traditional functions
for student services. These are orientation at which students receive
information concerning the campus, the curriculum, careers, and extra¬
curricular activities; appraisal of attitudes, interests and

22
abilities; consultation involving pre-admissions counseling and
academic advisement; participation functions which govern cocurricular
activities and student government; publicity, recruitment, regis¬
tration and record-keeping; services to provide financial aid and job
placement; and organizational responsibilities for articulation of
programs, in-service education, program evaluation, and its own admin¬
istrative organization. Student services personnel are challenged to
create an environment for the non-traditional students which will
foster their success and development, and to keep faculty and adminis¬
tration abreast of the behavioral and developmental needs of these
students (Dewey, 1980).
Community colleges are convenient! In Florida, the goal to pro¬
vide post high school educational opportunities within commuting
distance of 99 percent of the population was achieved in 1972 with the
establishment of its 28th community college. Each college provides
community services, vocational education opportunities, and general
academic education (Wygal, 1980). Because they are relatively close
to so many in the state, they are more likely to serve blue collar
workers, the educationally disadvantaged who are in school for job
training, and the senior citizens pursuing lifelong learning because
these are the people most likely to prefer locations near home or work
(Levine, 1978; Murphy, 1980).
So little of the literature written about adult programs includes
examples of what institutions are currently doing. One such study,
however, questioned the services provided older students in Florida
community colleges (Fauquet, 1977). The findings indicated that only
50 percent of the colleges had made any attempt at reconciling

23
accessibility for adults in the admissions and registration function.
Credit for past experiences was usually evaluated only by the College
Level Examination Program (CLEP). Only about one-half of the colleges
offered courses and services away from campus in locations more con¬
venient to students. Financial aid was usually available, including
tuition waivers for senior citizens.
It was found that, though counseling services were available,
there was little use of peers in the process, and publicity on the
availability of services was rarely directed toward adults. Food
services were available usually in the mornings and early afternoons
(rarely in the evenings). Very little of the materials covered in
orientation was designed for older students. Eleven of the schools
offered courses in life problems and needs, 18 had off-campus services
available, and only 3 had a staff especially trained and designated to
serve older students.
Several special efforts to serve adults were identified from this
study (Fauquet, 1977). These included recruitment in special places
where potential older students might be found, special women's and
mature students' programs, peer counseling and advisement, and special
publ icity.
Levitz and Noel (1980) found that as many as 72 percent of the
schools they surveyed had made some effort toward facilitating adults
in the areas of admissions, marketing, counseling, registration,
scheduling, financial aid, and course offerings. The least amount of
effort was in the area of special student services (adult student
center, day-care facility), faculty development, program evaluation,
and funding of new programs. They concluded that the proportion of

24
adult enrollment to the total enrollment will alter the institution's
perception of the essential nature of programs for adult learners.
In another study, 140 southeastern community colleges of less
than 5,000 enrollment were surveyed about the counseling services they
provided for older students (Goodman & Beard, 1976). The services
were ranked according to the emphasis placed on them for adults. The
rank order was as follows: (1) academic counseling; (2) vocational
counseling; (3) personal adjustment; (4) college transfer;
(5) financial aid; (6) testing; (7) job placement. It was concluded
that more career planning and placement and more personal counseling
were needed.
This ranking is somewhat reinforced by Wolf and Dameron (1975)
who emphasized that community college counselors spend more time in
academic counseling than in personal or social counseling. Cross
(1978) states that only 10 percent of those institutions which serve
adults provide counseling services directed toward their special
needs. She indicates that there are several ways of doing this,
"ranging from the one-on-one traditional counseling model, to group
sessions and classes on educational planning and consumer choice, to
interactive computer models" (Cross, 1978, p. 47).
Academic advising is a very important service, yet in many cases
there is little institutional agreement about who has responsibility
for advising tasks. "Institutions have not translated advising
services into clear practices and statements of policy" (Muller,
1980). Those who serve the advising function must be astute in
helping adult learners synthesize the relationship between life prob¬
lems and educational problems. The skills of the advisor should

25
complement those of the faculty in teaching their courses, making the
instructional process more effective (Eldred & Marienau, 1979).
Part-time students are less satisfied with academic advising than
are full-time students. Part-time students have unique needs which
are often overlooked, in many cases because community college coun¬
selors give only lip service to addressing those needs (Teague, 1977).
Adults expect help with planning and guiding their formal learning
(Tough, 1978). Counselors must be able to help students to (a) iden¬
tify problems, needs, interests, wants or options; (b) gain self¬
insight or accurate self-assessments; (c) examine a variety of
options, both self- and professionally planned; (d) set priorities and
choose a direction for learning; (e) select a general strategy and
appropriate resources; (f) perform tasks required for guiding the
learning effort through a successful completion (Tough, 1978, p. 260).
To fulfill these tasks and duties requires a staff sensitive to
the needs of adults, preferably a staff who have also taken the
emotional and intellectual risks involved with beginning or returning
to academic endeavor. Key staff members must be philosophically in
accord with the goals of any of the institution's programs which serve
adults (FIPSE, 1980). The student services staff has the responsi¬
bility for the "process" of advising while adjunct members (faculty
and community resources) would have more responsibility for the
"content" (factual information) of the program.
It is important that staff members realize that it is neither
them nor the institution which needs to be accommodated, but rather
the students (Pierce, 1979). Too often are student services designed
to meet the needs of the institution rather than those of the students

26
served. "A people-to-people relationship built on response to real
and individual needs is the quality of service for students that the
community college is all about" (Ebersole & Hargis, 1974, p. 24).
Student services has come under criticism, much of it justi¬
fiable, for its shortcomings (Monroe, 1972). As a division within the
institution, it is still not without its problems. One is that, due
to differing philosophical points of view, many faculty consider stu¬
dent personnel workers as second class citizens (Blocker, 1974).
Counselors have been accused of being a crutch for weak and irre¬
sponsible students, helping them to escape their academic
responsibility (Monroe, 1972).
But these are problems of a philosophical nature and may never be
satisfactorily resolved. According to several authors (Knox, 1979;
Thornton & Mitchell, 1979), three factors have contributed to a lack
of services for older students. First, quite often the administration
sees little need for providing such services. Secondly, there is a
lack of serious commitment toward the program's success. Finally,
there is a reluctance to make clear-cut role distinctions in adult
programs. What happens when adequate guidance and counseling services
are not provided is that students tend to select courses without
regard for prerequisites; they sometimes over- or under-estimate their
academic ability; they sometimes fail to take sequential courses in
progression; and they frequently remain unfamiliar with course and/or
program requirements (Thornton & Mitchell, 1979).
The major problems confronting student services include lack of
adequate communication about services available, lack of support from
other staff and trustees, difficulty in coordinating services with

27
outside groups, identifying the needs and interests of the clientele,
planning, administering, supervising and evaluating programs, lack of
adequate financial resources, identifying objectives, and developing
a philosophy compatible with program goals (Medsker & Tillery, 1971).
With regard to counseling the adult student, problems exist in
the lack of students' self-confidence related to their learning
ability, their unrealistic expectations of progress, their irrelevant
learning tasks, their seeking help from wrong sources or not seeking
it in time, and their lack of appropriate study habits (Knox, 1979).
Recommendations for Resolution
Cross has stated that
A Volkswagon is not a cheaper, lighter Cadilac; it is a different
car designed for different purposes. Similarly, college for the
masses is not a low-standard version of college for the elite;
it is a different kind of education with high standards true to
its own purpose. (Cited in Overly, 1979, p. 37)
Colleges in general, and student services personnel in particular,
must work toward maintaining high standards in order not to deprive
the adult students of quality education and the services to enhance
that education (Cross, 1978).
Educational brokering services, a relatively new proprietary con¬
cept in services for students, provide help for their clients in
defining their educational goals through self-assessment, values
clarification and long-term planning. Through this assessment pro¬
cedure, clients are better prepared to make decisions and to set
objectives for their further education, and to select methods by which
they will receive that education. Finally, the brokering service
assists students in gaining access to appropriate learning experiences

28
by facilitating the admissions process, financial aid applications,
recognition for prior learning, and other services in order to smooth
the transition back into formal learning (Heffernan et a 1 ., 1976).
Tough (1978) indirectly reinforces these procedures. He claims
that, in order to foster policy revision and to provide these kinds of
new services, institutions must carefully examine the services needed
and provided. The results would furnish insight into which services,
programs, and help would be most beneficial.
To meet more adequately the needs of the part-time, older stu¬
dents, policies and procedures must be reexamined in terms of their
responsiveness to those needs. The areas of admissions, credit for
prior learning, career counseling and placement, personal counseling,
financial assistance, teaching methodologies and the curriculum must,
where necessary, be revised for this clientele (Watson, 1980). It is
imperative for student services to develop a responsiveness to adult
student needs. Ways of becoming responsive are by following a human
development model, examining values, goals and objectives, both col¬
lectively as a staff and individually, and allowing student partici¬
pation in making decisions about programs and services (Neher &
Potter, 1974; Wygal, 1980).
Pierce (1979) recomnends change in the following services:
1. admissions--make special considerations where applicable; be
flexible
2. registration--eliminate as much red tape as possible; provide
a special orientation to clarify directions
3. financial aid--provide a deferred payment plan

29
4. class schedules and course selection--provide schedule
flexibility, location options, short-term sessions and child care
5. physical p1ant--improve the readability of signs, access to
parking, accessibility of buildings and grounds
6. information and assistance--provide open offices, methods for
contacting students in case of cancelled or rescheduled classes, more
telephones, bulletin boards and security personnel
In addition to the areas listed above, Thornton and Mitchell
(1979) have suggested that the needs of adult learners be further
researched, that referral services encompassing financial aid,
academic resources, social and medical facilities be identified, that
counseling be student-centered rather than institution-centered, and
that the range of available counseling activities be clarified. Like¬
wise, Wygal (1980) recommends that community educational information
centers be established to provide all these services in one location.
The Florida Assembly on Policies for Lifelong Education (1980)
has made recommendations to various state and local administrative
levels to improve the quality of services for lifelong learners. To
the state legislature they recommend the appropriation of extra funds
for counseling and registration services and for adequate facilities
for providing these services. The Legislature must also support a
commitment to provide such services to assure the attainment of
necessary skills to deal with the changing society.
The Assembly recommended that the Division of Community Colleges
take the lead in developing policy for meeting the financial aid needs
and eligibility criteria for part-time students. The Division is

30
charged with removing barriers to access for adults into programs and
services.
The district boards of trustees are urged to adopt policies and
procedures to foster lifelong learning. This would include the modi¬
fication of, among other areas, student services and recruitment. In
the former, there must be a commitment to non-traditional financial
aid, admissions policies, registration, orientation, counseling (both
personal and career), child care and referrals. For the latter, it
includes intensive community outreach to the financially and educa¬
tional ly di sadvantaged citizens, veterans, institutionalized clients
and others.
To the individual community colleges, the Assembly recommends
establishing policies and procedures which apply equally to all stu¬
dents; developing programs and services which respond to the needs of
lifelong learners; providing enrichment opportunities, peer coun¬
seling, and attitudes of acceptance for non-traditional students
(Wygal, 1980).
Recommendations have been made also from similar Assemblies in
California and in North Carolina. The California Assembly recommended
that community colleges provide support services for continuing edu¬
cation students based on needs assessments; that greater consideration
be given for lifelong experiences in placement in classes and in
granting of credit; that flexibility be a keyword for providing for
the needs of adult students, i.e., outreach, class length, instruc¬
tional methodologies; and staff development with emphasis on teaching
strategies for, and sensitivity toward,adult learners (Gilder, 1981).

31
The North Carolina Assembly recommended expanded student services
for part-time and non-credit students, increased access to federal
student aid, more off-campus delivery sites, and improved publicity
for greater understanding of what services are available (Gilder,
1981b).
Summarizing the final reports of these various state assemblies
for lifelong learners, Gilder (1981a) concludes that community colleges
have the primary (though not the exclusive) responsibility for pro¬
viding education for adults in local service areas. She recommends
that
the lifelong education mission of the community college be sup¬
ported with regard to (a) internal and external constituencies;
(b) expectations of comprehensive programs and services; (c) new
learners' needs in a changing culture; (d) special student
groups; (e) staff and faculty commitment to the mission.
(Gilder, 1981, p. 4)
Cross (1978) has compiled a list of recommendations gleaned from
reports by various state and national studies which address access
issues in adult higher education. The recommendations were classified
into the major headings of information, counseling services, support
services, access and advocacy, financial aid, and credit. The
following are examples of recommendations from each area:
Information. A statewide information retrieval and coun¬
sel ing^systeSPIYhouId be established) for advising adult students
about the full range of postsecondary opportunities available to
them (Illinois).
Counseling services. Construct and implement a plan for
more adequate information, referral and counseling services for
the adult learners (New York).
Support services. Existing campus facilities should be
available to the part-time student, particularly in the late
afternoons, evenings, on week-ends and in the summer
(California).

32
Access and advocacy. Mandate public policy which enables
the state's adult learners to have the educational resources and
services of public and private postsecondary educational insti¬
tutions accessible to them throughout their lifetime, and that
such access be made available without regard to race, age, sex,
or place of residence (Florida).
Financial aid. Examine present practices in administering
student financial aids and, where necessary, take steps to make
financial aid equitable for all students--ful1-time and part-
time, younger and older, male and female (Utah).
Credit. There should be continued experimentation with
forms of non-traditional study which minimizes the traditional
rigidities of campus life: time (prescribed years of study);
space (residence on campus); and systems of academic accounting
(credits or honor points earned) (United States), (pp. 57-79)
Summary
America is growing older. The enrollment impact of the post-
World War II baby boom on secondary and postsecondary education has
peaked and begun to decline. The traditional students (age 18-22
years) will not be as abundant in the future as they are today.
Higher educational institutions throughout the United States are now
experiencing the phenomenon of the lifelong learners, non-traditional
students whose age might be anywhere above 24 years and whose learning
goals range from personal enrichment to improving job skills to pre¬
paring for a career change. Each of these learners comes to college
with a unique background and unique personal and educational needs.
Most are relatively well-educated, middle-income people. But less
well-educated, lower-income, disadvantaged people are also seeking
further education. Regardless of their socioeconomic status, many
share the same physical and psychological barriers to participation.
Because their needs usually differ from those of the younger,
traditional student, the adult learners' needs for and use of various

33
services will usually differ also. Adults are more likely than
younger students to use tutoring services, career counseling, job
placement, personal counseling and financial aid.
Postsecondary educational institutions have been somewhat
neglectful of the needs of lifelong learners. Each school must
reexamine its philosophy and make changes in its actions and attitudes
toward adults as students. New services must be developed and old
ones revised to match the needs and the goals of older students.
Because of their educational philosophies and accessibility, community
and junior colleges are perhaps the best suited among postsecondary
educational institutions to provide for these needs and goals.
But community and junior colleges are not altogether prepared
either. Though many have attempted to provide necessary services,
many others have not provided the accessibility to quality programs
which adults as consumers expect. Several studies of the needs of
adult learners have recoimtended that special efforts be made to
improve the services offered in light of these needs.
Because so little is known of the services provided especially
for adult students at community colleges, this study will examine the
institutional commitments made to adult learners by examining the
services provided by several southeastern community colleges in the
areas of admissions, counseling, financial aid, career planning and
placement, and support services. The next chapter will describe the
design of the study including its purposes and objectives.

CHAPTER III
DESIGN OF THE STUDY
Methodology and Procedures
This research was conducted because the literature in the fields
of older students and student services is nearly devoid of how commu¬
nity colleges are attempting to meet the non-academic needs of their
older students (Cross, 1981). Furthermore, a pilot study conducted
prior to the commencement of this study indicated that student per¬
sonnel practitioners in Florida recognize a need to research the
services offered older students attending community colleges, rein¬
forcing the need for research in this field.
The study was designed to reveal the extent to which community
colleges in 11 southern states have taken steps toward meeting the
special needs of adult students in their respective districts. In
addition, the research was designed to evaluate the effectiveness for
adult students of the programs being offered, and the importance
placed on these services by each institution.
Based on the research reported in the literature and on a pre¬
liminary survey of student personnel practitioners, the services in
question included admissions, counseling, career planning and place¬
ment, financial aid, and support services.
To accomplish these objectives, a questionnaire was constructed
using as a guide two instruments from two other similar studies
34

35
(Fauquet, 1977; Levitz & Noel, 1980) which were found in a review of
the literature written between 1970 and 1981. The questionnaire was
distributed to several community college student personnel practi¬
tioners for validation. Any needed revisions were made, and the ques¬
tionnaire was mailed to the chief student affairs officers in randomly
selected community colleges in 11 southern states. A follow-up
mailing was made to all non-respondents three weeks later in order to
obtain the greatest possible return.
Upon return of the questionnaire, respondents or their designees
were interviewed by telephone to gain further knowledge of specific
programs. The results were tabulated, analyzed and described and
recommendations have been made on the basis of the findings. The
research is a descriptive study based on an analysis of the results of
the questionnaire and of the program descriptions gained through the
telephone interview.
Population of the Study
The population of this study included the chief student personnel
administrators, or their designees, in randomly selected community
colleges in the Southeast. As a matter of limitation, each of the
colleges surveyed was a public one accredited by the Southern Asso¬
ciation of Colleges and Secondary Schools as identified by the 1980
Community, Junior, and Technical College Directory of the American
Association of Community and Junior Colleges (AACJC, 1980). To assure
that all surveyed institutions were community or junior colleges and
not simply technical colleges, institutional names had to include the
words "community" or "junior." Ten percent of the schools listed as

36
"community colleges" or "junior colleges" in each state were selected
as members of the population for this study. Randomness was achieved
through use of a table of random numbers. Included among the 18
colleges were 2 colleges from Alabama, 3 from Florida, 2 from Georgia,
1 from Kentucky, 2 from Mississippi, 2 from North Carolina, 1 in
Tennessee, 3 in Texas and 2 in Virginia. Because Louisiana had only
two colleges listed as "community" or "junior," a 10 percent sampling
was impractical. South Carolina was not included because none of its
two-year institutions are named "community" or "junior" colleges.
The names of the chief student affairs officers were identified
from lists of faculty and staff located in the catalogs from each
college (Career Guidance Foundation, 1979-80).
Description of the Instrument
The questionnaire used to collect part of the data for this study
was designed to provide some enrollment data and definitions of "adult
students." Also, it provided information on whether or not any of the
five areas of student services, i.e., admissions, counseling,
financial aid, career planning and placement, and support services,
were available especially for older students, how effective they were
perceived to be, and how each compares with the other in terms of the
emphasis they receive at each institution. The items used in two
questionnaires, one developed in 1980 by Randi S. Levitz and Lee Noel
of the American College Testing Program (Levitz & Noel, 1980), and the
other developed in 1977 by Tom Fauquet (Fauquet, 1977), were used as
guides in the development of this instrument. Items from these two
studies not pertinent to this study were eliminated, and additional

37
items were modified for the purpose of eliciting information con¬
cerning the student services provided especially for the adult, non-
traditional student.
The interview questions were designed to extract further infor¬
mation about the services offered as well as to learn of the problems
encountered and the benefits realized both by the institution and the
students served. The items for the interview were extrapolated from
the same two studies as was the questionnaire.
Prior to distribution, validation of the need for the survey and
of the questionnaire and interview questions to be used to gather the
data was accomplished by soliciting the opinion of several profes¬
sionals in the student services field regarding the breadth of the
survey, the content of information sought, the clarity of the items,
and the ease of administration and readability of the instruments.
Further modification and revision was made to the instruments after
the comments from these professionals were received.
The instrument included a list of the five services being studied
with examples of possible services in each category for clarification.
Each category had a space to be checked "yes" or "no" indicating
whether or not the service was offered for adult students. A Likert-
type scale, from one (high) to five (low), was used for rating the
effectiveness of each service by circling the appropriate number. A
third section gave respondents an opportunity to rank the five service
categories in their order of the emphasis received at their respective
institutions. An opportunity was also provided for respondents to
include services used in their schools which they felt to be
especially effective for adult students.

38
Copies of each item mailed and a list of interview questions are
included in the Appendix.
Data Collection
The questionnaire in its final form was mailed on November 11,
1981, to the chief student personnel officers in 18 public community
and junior colleges throughout the South. Accompanying each survey
was a cover letter explaining the study and giving directions for the
completion of the questionnaire and its return within two weeks; a
telephone interview appointment card giving the respondent an oppor¬
tunity to provide both a preferred and an alternate day and time for
submitting to an interview; a letter of endorsement from the Institute
of Higher Education at the University of Florida asking for the
cooperation of those being surveyed; and a stamped, self-addressed
envelope for respondents' convenience.
A follow-up letter was mailed on December 6, 1981, to those who
had not responded to the first mailing. This also included the ques¬
tionnaire, the telephone interview appointment card, and the self-
addressed, stamped envelope.
Finally, an the days and at the times previously arranged, each
respondent was interviewed by telephone and tape recorded. Each person
was asked the same major questions concerning their institution's ser¬
vices for older students, how they decided to offer them, obstacles
which had to be overcome, how services were publicized, their contri¬
bution to increased enrollment and retention of older students, and
the institutional attitudes toward the older students. During each

39
response, however, questions were asked for purposes of clarification
and, in some instances, to encourage more detailed responses.
Treatment of the Data
The data obtained from the returned questionnaires were evaluated
in terms of descriptive statistics yielding simple frequencies, per¬
centage distributions, weighted means, simple rank-ordering, and
range.
Descriptions of specific programs, or aspects thereof, in each
category were analyzed on the basis of the data provided. Information
regarding the services--funding, personnel, support, utility, and
effectiveness-provided by the surveyed community and junior colleges
for their older students was summarized.
Summary
The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which
selected community colleges are providing services for older students
in the area of admissions, counseling, career planning and placement,
financial aid, and support services. The research was designed to
reveal the steps being taken for adult students toward meeting their
special needs in these fields, the effectiveness for adults of the
services offered, and the importance placed on these services by each
institution. A questionnaire was developed to yield information con¬
cerning the availability of services, their use and their effective¬
ness. The study included an initial mailing, a follow-up mailing and
telephone interview for collecting the data. Chapter IV will present
an analysis of the data collected.

CHAPTER IV
RESULTS AND ANALYSIS OF QUESTIONNAIRE
AND INTERVIEW RESPONSES
This chapter is divided into five sections. The first section
includes a discussion of the data collection process. The second
section presents the responses to the questionnaire items and a dis¬
cussion of the analysis of the responses. The third section of the
chapter provides a discussion of the interview responses and an
analysis of how the services offered adults are meeting the needs of
adults as identified in the literature. The fourth section will
evaluate the data in terms of answering the research questions and the
final section will provide a summary of the chapter.
Data Collection Process
The Questionnaire
After consultation with community college student personnel prac¬
titioners and after making the recommended revisions, a final ques¬
tionnaire was developed (see Appendix A). The questionnaire was
designed to acquire information concerning (a) whether or not a
service in each category was offered older students, (b) how effective
the services were in meeting the needs of older students, and (c) how
important each institution feels each service to be for its older
students. For item (b), a Likert-type scale from one (high) to five
(low) was used, and for (c), a rank order of the five services was
40

41
used. In addition, enrollment by head count and by male and female,
ful 1-time and part-time adult students was also requested.
The Interview
Following essentially the same procedure for developing the ques¬
tionnaire, the interview questions were designed (a) to elicit clari¬
fying information concerning responses to the questionnaire, and
(b) to gain knowledge of specific services offered adult students,
including administrative details, effectiveness and institutional
attitudes (see Appendix B). The interviews were conducted by tele¬
phone after the questionnaires were returned to provide a reference
for both interviewer and interviewee. The day and time for each
interview were prearranged using a telephone interview appointment card
which was returned with the questionnaire.
The Respondents
Eighteen public comnunity colleges in Alabama, Florida, Georgia,
Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia
were chosen at random and the chief student personnel officer at each
institution was identified to be surveyed. Colleges were limited to
those named as a community or junior college which were accredited by
the Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools. Adminis¬
trators were determined from the respective college catalogs. Because
of the function of the position of the respondents, i.e., vice presi¬
dents, deans, or directors of student services, it was felt that these
were the most likely people on each campus to have sufficient knowl¬
edge of the five student services areas of admissions, counseling,
financial aid, career planning and placement, and support services.

42
In only two cases did the chief student affairs officer designate
someone else (in each case a counselor) to respond.
Collection of the Data
A questionnaire regarding student services for adult students was
mailed to each student affairs administrator with a cover letter and a
letter of endorsement for the study (see Appendix C). Also included
was a telephone interview appointment card for arranging the day and
time of interview (see Appendix D). For purposes of managing the
interview process, administrators were asked to identify themselves
and their institutions, yet anonymity was guaranteed to ensure the
confidentiality of the respondents. A follow-up mailing was made
after the deadline to encourage return of the questionnaire. All but
six responded necessitating a telephone call to obtain both ques¬
tionnaire and interview responses simultaneously. Eventually, data
were collected from all 18 institutions. The data, therefore,
represent a 100 percent response rate.
The interviews were tape recorded and transcribed to facilitate
analysis of the responses. The length of the interviews ranged from
11 to 35 minutes with an average of 18.5 minutes.
Treatment of the Data
As was mentioned earlier, chief student affairs administrators
responded to both a questionnaire and an interview. An analysis of
the questionnaire revealed whether or not services for adults were
offered, how effective the services were (as perceived by the respon¬
dents), and how the services ranked in importance in terms of the
emphasis placed on each service by the institutions. Enrollment data

43
were gathered to find the ratio of adult students enrolled to the
total number of students enrolled.
Responses to the interview items were analyzed and are described
to indicate support for and clarification of the questionnaire items,
and for identification of specific services offered for adult stu¬
dents, in admissions, counseling, career planning and placement,
financial aid and support services. The responses were also analyzed
in relation to how they are meeting the needs of adult students as
identified in the review of the literature.
Questionnaire Results, Analysis, and Discussion
Enrollment Data
Enrollment by credit head count of the institutions surveyed
ranged from 652 to 8,505 with a mean size of 3,400 and a median size
of 2,220. Two thirds of the institutions enrolled less than 5,000
students in credit classes.
Of the 18 responding institutions, only nine were able to report
the division of their adult enrollment into full-time males and part-
time males, full-time females and part-time females. Of these nine,
five had more part-time adult students than full-time adult students;
seven had more part-time female students than full-time female stu¬
dents; and seven had more full-time male students than part-time male
students. For the nine colleges collectively, there were on the
average more part-time students than full-time students. There were
as many males as females attending full time, but there were more
women than men attending part time. These data are presented in
Table 1. The administrators at the other nine institutions could not

Table 1
Enrollment Data by Head Count of Full-time and Part-time, Male and Female Students
in 18 Southeastern Community Colleges
Col 1ege
Number
Total
Head
Count
FTa
N
%
FTM
N
ib
%
FTFC
N %
z:
"O
—i
Q-
%
PTMe
N %
PTFf
N %
Total Adult
N %
1
8,505
3,210
38
1 ,485
46
1,725
54
5,295
62
2,236
42
3,059
58
8,505
100
2
6,537
2,905
44
1,705
59
1,197
41
3,635
56
2,529
70
1,106
30
6,537
100
3
6,493
2,174
33
931
43
1,243
57
4,319
67
2,020
40
2,299
60
6,493
100
4
2,225
867
39
450
52
427
48
1,358
61
568
42
790
58
2,225
100
5
2,216
2,040
92
967
47
1 ,073
53
176
8
51
29
125
71
2,216
100
69
2,005
98
5
38
39
60
61
803
95
270
34
533
66
901
45
7
1,528
1,000
65
400
47
600
53
523
35
275
52
253
48
1,528
100
8
1,173
758
68
354
47
404
53
415
35
167
40
248
60
1 ,173
100
9
1,082
617
57
216
35
401
65
465
43
146
31
319
69
1,032
100
Total
31,764
13,666
43
6,546
48
7,120
52
16,994
54
8,262
49
8,732
51
30,660
97
aFull time.
t>Ful 1 -time male.
cFul1-time female.
dpart time.
ePart-time male.
^Part-time female.
Sfhis was the only institution defining adult as over 24 and giving an enrollment differentiation.
4^
4^

45
provide the information concerning the age, sex, or enrollment status
of their students.
A generalization which could be open for speculation concerns
item number six in Table 1. This institution defines adult as anyone
24 and over, and was the only one of the nine institutions tabulated
which does not use "18 and above" as its definition for adult student.
This item reveals a much smaller percentage of full-time adult stu¬
dents than do the others. Though this is but one institution, it is
possible that the other colleges might show similar numbers in their
"over 24" enrollment categories. If this were the case, the impli¬
cations for student services would be to address more fully the
services offered their older adult students.
One half of the 18 colleges considered all of their students over
18 years of age as adults. This corresponds with findings in the
literature (Levitz & Noel, 1980) which indicate that community and
junior colleges are inclined to define adults as anyone 18 years of
age or older. Four of the remaining nine institutions use a minimum
age for determining an adult status some age above 18. One of them
defines adult students as those over 21 years of age, another defines
them as those over 24, and two designate all students over 25 to be
adults.
The remaining five institutions claim either not to have an
official age limit or to have no definition. One definition which was
offered was that an adult is "an individual who is fully developed and
mature, who possesses certain characteristics of adulthood." Because
the vagueness of these responses tends to leave the lower age limit to
interpretation, and because the legal age of majority is generally 18,

46
these were treated in the analysis as having age 18 as the lower age
limit of the definition.
Remembering that for the purposes of this research an adult stu¬
dent is defined as one who has reached the age of 24, the fact that
78 percent of the surveyed institutions use age 18 as a definition
might indicate that services for the non-traditional students might
not be any different on the average than the services available to
anyone else. This was not necessarily the case, however, as all
institutions did make at least some provision for their older stu¬
dents. This point will be discussed in more detail in the discussion
of the interview responses.
Data on Service Availability
The data on the availability of services for adults are given in
Table 2. Respondents were asked to indicate whether or not they had
designed any new services or modified any old services in the areas of
admissions, counseling, financial aid, career planning and placement,
and student support services for their adult students. Table 2 dis¬
closes the fact that in all of these student services areas, the
majority of the colleges surveyed provide at least minimum services
for adults. If this can be considered a representative sample, this
finding indicates an improvement over what has been previously
reported in the literature. Although Fauquet (1977) found only one
half of the colleges surveyed in Florida had provided for admissions
accessibility, 88.9 percent (16) of the institutions surveyed in this
study indicated having done so.

47
Table 2
Percentage of Services Offered Adults in
18 Southeastern Community Colleges
Service
No.
Yes
%
No.
No
l
Admissions
16
88.9
2
11.1
Counseling
16
88.9
2
11.1
Career Planning and Placement
17
77.8
4
22.2
Financial Aid
13
72.2
5
27.8
Support Services
10
55.6
8
44.4
Cross (1978) stated that only 10 percent of those institutions
which serve adults provide counseling services directed toward their
special needs. The responses to the counseling item on this ques¬
tionnaire indicated that almost nine times as many community and junior
colleges are now doing so.
Goodman and Beard (1976) concluded that more career planning and
placement were needed. Improvement has been made in this area also, as
14 of the 18 schools in this study claim the existence at their
institutions of these services.
Financial aid for older students has been shown in the literature
to have been one service area provided at most institutions (Goodman &
Beard, 1976; Levitz & Noel, 1980). This study reinforces this fact,
showing almost three fourths of the institutions polled providing this
service for adults. However, caution must be exercised in this
analysis because of the existence of federal financial aid programs
which are available to all need-qualified students attempting at least
a half-time course load.

43
Though it still reveals fewer support services being provided
than services in the other service fields, even this area is provided
by more schools than is not. This study reveals that 55.6 percent
(10) of the responding institutions offered some kind of student
support service for adult students. This supports the Levitz and Noel
(1980) study which found that the least amount of effort was made in
this area. However, with the research which has been conducted
showing the deficit of programs in this area, this finding is para¬
doxical since one would think more colleges would be providing support
services for their adult students, especially in light of the "adult"
definition by a majority of the colleges in this survey.
Service Effectiveness
For each service offered, respondents were asked to rate the
effectiveness, as they perceived it, of the services provided. Using
a Likert-type scale, each service was to be rated from a high of one
to a low of five. The results were analyzed by assigning weights to
each response, then finding a weighted mean to indicate the relative
effectiveness of the services for all schools reporting. A response
of "1" was assigned a weight of five; a response of "2" was assigned a
weight of four; a "3" was assigned three; a "4" received a two; and
"5" was weighted one. Therefore, on this five point scale, the higher
the weight, the greater the perceived effectiveness. Not every col¬
lege rated the effectiveness of every service category. Usually, if a
service was not offered, it was not rated. The data for the effec¬
tiveness of services are presented in Table 3.

Table 3
Weighted Mean and Rank Order of the Effectiveness of the Service Categories as Perceived
by Student Personnel Administrators in 18 Southeastern Community Colleges
Category
N
1
l
N
Ranking
2
%
by
N
Respondents
3
% N
4
%
5
N
%
Total
N %
Weighted
Meana
Rank
Order
Admissions
6
37.5
9
56.2
1
6.3
0
0
0
0
18
100
4.31
2
Counseling
8
50.0
7
43.7
1
6.3
0
0
0
0
16
100
4.44
1
Financial Aid
7
53.8
2
15.4
3
23.1
1 .
7.7
0
0
13
100
4.15
4
Career Planning
7
50.0
3
21 .4
4
28.6
0
0
0
0
14
100
4.21
3
Support Services
3
30.0
5
50.0
2
20.0
0
0
0
0
10
100
4.10
5
^Weights were assigned to responses as follows: response 1, weight 5; response 2, weight 4; response 3,
weight 3; response 4, weight 2; response 5, weight 1.
4=»

50
By comparing the weighted means of each of the service cate¬
gories, it can be seen that the chief student personnel officers at
each institution generally perceive the services they offer older
students to be effective in doing so. The lowest mean for any service
area was for the support services area, which had a weighted mean of
4.10. An average mean would have been a 2.50 on this particular
scale. The perceived effectiveness for adults of all service areas
varies by only .34 among the institutions offering such services. To
rank order the service areas by weighted mean would reveal counseling
to be most effective for adult students. The next most effective
would be admissions, followed by career planning and placement,
financial aid and support services as the third, fourth, and fifth
ranked services respectively. Only .11 separated the last three
categories.
Institutional Emphasis on Services for Adults
If someone were to study the relationship of administrative
emphasis for a program and the success of that program, it is likely
that one would find that the amount of time, money, personnel, or
effort an institution devotes to a particular program--or even a
philosophy behind a program--will often determine the success or
failure of that program, and sometimes whether or not the program will
even exist. When emphasis is strong, programs will be strong. When
it is weak, the programs will be weak. The responses to the ques¬
tionnaire item asking respondents to rank their services in terms of
the emphasis placed on each by their respective institutions give an
indication of how successful a program in one of these service areas

51
might be. This is somewhat true in this study when the rank order of
the five service areas with regard to the emphasis each receives is
compared with the rank order of each area's effectiveness for adult
students. For example, counseling services are ranked first in both
emphasis received and in effectiveness, and support services are
ranked last on both accounts. The other three services areas, how¬
ever, received a difference between the ranking of their effectiveness
and the ranking of the emphasis each had received. Financial aid
ranked second in emphasis and fourth in effectiveness. Admissions
ranked third in emphasis and second in effectiveness. Finally, career
planning and placement ranked fourth in emphasis and third in effec¬
tiveness. The differences here could result in the dedication and
enthusiasm of the student services staff, or lack thereof, toward the
programs in these areas.
Table 4 indicates that counseling services receive the most
emphasis, while financial aid receives the next most emphasis,
admissions the third most, career planning and placement the fourth,
and support services the least. It also reveals that, when weights
are assigned each ranking (five for one, four for two, three for
three, two for four, and one for five), not much difference in
emphasis exists between counseling (number 1) and financial aid
(number 2) or between financial aid (number 2) and admissions
(number 3).
In a study by Goodman and Beard (1976), vocational counseling
(career planning) was found to rank second in emphasis among 140
southeastern community colleges, whereas in this study career planning
ranked fourth. Academic counseling and personal adjustment (both

Table 4
Ranking and Assigned Heights of Student Service Categories in 18 Southeastern Community Colleges
Category
N
1
Wta
2
N
Wt
Ranking
3
N Wt
4
N
Wt
5
N
Wt
Total
Rank
Order
Admissions
5
25
4
16
4
12
3
6
2
2
61
3
Counseling
7
35
4
16
4
12
2
4
0
0
67
1
Financial Aid
3
15
8
32
3
9
3
6
1
1
63
2
Career Planning
2
10
1
4
3
9
6
12
6
6
41
4
Support Services
1
5
1
4
4
12
4
8
9
9
38
5
aWeights were assigned as follows: rank 1, weight 5; rank 2, weight 4; rank 3, weight 3; rank 4,
weight 2; rank 5, weight 1.
04
ro

53
counseling matters) ranked first and third respectively in the Goodman
and Beard (1976) study, while counseling services ranked first in this
study. Caution must also be used here in comparing results as dif¬
ferences in ranking might result from differences in sample size.
Service Descriptions
The final item on the questionnaire offered respondents an oppor¬
tunity to briefly explain all or parts of any services they felt to be
especially effective for their adult students. Only six chose to give
comments to this item. Most of these comments contained only labels
rather than descriptions. Some of these included developmental
courses in math, English and reading, supplemented with a learning lab
offering help in these areas; counseling and off-campus courses (no
explanations); special services for older students returning for
formal education; daily student services newsletters; displaced home¬
maker programs; and a strong evening program providing counselors who
offer assistance in all the student services areas.
As questionnaire responses, these in themselves are of little
value. Their worth lies in the opening they gave to questions in the
interview.
Interview Results and Discussion
The interview responses provided insight into the programs
offered at the various institutions around the Southeastern United
States. More is being done for older students in community and junior
colleges than a review of the literature would indicate. Some insti¬
tutions are doing more than others, but all the institutions in this
study revealed they were doing at least something for their older

54
clientele. In fact, the one student personnel administrator who
claimed on the questionnaire not to be offering any of these services
especially for adult students, realized during the interview that
there were several services being provided at his institution for
these students. This was often the case in identifying other programs
at other schools, though generally student services were offered at
the same level and with the same emphasis for all students, regardless
of age.
Responses to Interview Questions
Are the services offered by your institution available to both
day and evening students at the same level and with the same emphasis?
This question was posed in this manner because more often than not the
majority of evening students are older, part-time (non-traditional)
students. If services are available to both groups in the same way,
then it could generally be concluded that services for non-traditional
students are being provided. As can be seen from an analysis of the
interview responses to this question, availability varies from insti¬
tution to institution, but some services are usually accessible to
adults.
Two respondents answered unequivocally that services for evening
students were the same as for day students. The remainder, however,
answered with a qualified no. In almost all cases, lack of funding
and personnel prevented the same services offered during the day from
carrying over into the evening hours. Most of the institutions main¬
tained a reduced staff in the evenings. The staff ranged from one
person (counselor, registrar, financial aid staff member, or

55
secretary, who served more or less as an information giver and
referral source) to having the counseling office, the admissions and
records office and a nursing office open until late evening, providing
the range of services usually offered by these offices.
The remaining institutions provided services on an appointment
basis. For example, if a potential student should want to talk with
an admissions officer or a counselor, the appropriate staff member
would make an appointment and stay to meet with that person. The same
held true for other student services offices.
One institution maintained its career planning center both day
and night. This center provided all the career development services
to evening as well as day students. During evening hours, it also
provided admissions information, financial aid information, academic
advisement, and information of a general nature which might come from
any other student services office during the day. Another institution
kept evening hours in admissions, counseling and child care. The
admissions office provided an early registration for evening students,
while counseling provided academic advisement and testing at night.
The reason given by one dean for not having the same services at
night as during the day was that "since most of our evening students
would be adults or people coming back to school with a pretty clear-cut
idea ofwhat they want to do and what their objectives are, I think there
is a whole lot less need for perhaps counseling, and they certainly
are not interested in extra class activities." This view contradicts
the need adult students have for counseling and career planning
identified in the literature (Cross & Zussman, 1974; Kasworm, 1980;

56
Rawlins, 1979). The following are examples of answers to this
question in the interview.
Sample responses. We don't have as heavy a staff on at night as
we do during the day, but we have our Career Planning Center open
day and night. If a student comes in at night and wants
admissions information, financial aid information, or what have
you, he can get it through the Career Planning Center.
I think we probably have the same kind of problem that other
institutions have, and that would be finances. We have a full-
time counselor, administrator, and two secretaries in the
evening, but nothing like what we have available in the daytime.
Summary. More adult students attend classes during evening hours
than during the day. Some institutions are providing some services
equally to both day and evening students. Most services, if offered
at all, are drastically reduced at night. Therefore, many adult stu¬
dents at many colleges are not being served as well as they perhaps
could be.
Have any new services or programs been developed, or have old
services or programs been modified which speak directly to the special
needs of older students? Hone of the 18 colleges were doing anything
for adults in all five classifications which differed from what they
were doing for younger students. All of them, however, were providing
for their older students in at least one category.
The area of concentration offered most was in programs designed
for groups of older students, particularly women. These were provided
by eight colleges. Most of these programs were designed to offer
returning students the opportunity to get together with others (peers)
in their same situation for support purposes. The problems common to
most older students, especially after they have decided to return to
formal schooling, include anxiety, lack of academic self-confidence,

57
and poor study habits. These problems have usually been the ones
addressed in these groups. These kinds of groups were found to exist
in many of the institutions surveyed in the Fauquet (1977) study.
One such group was called the "Second Wind Group" designed and
promoted as a club for students aged 25 and older. Aside from pro¬
viding social opportunities, it offered peer support for those who
were hesitant about returning to school because of the competition
with younger students in the classroom, because they are somewhat test
anxious, because they lack confidence in their ability to make good
grades, and because they are feeling some guilt about spending more
time with their studies than with their housework or families.
The same institution had a program for "displaced homemakers."
This group provided for some of the needs (counseling, tutorial, peer
support) of the divorced or widowed women on campus.
Another campus provided a similar group for older women called
"Women on the Way" (WOW). This group also operated as a club for
women who, because their children were in school, decided to return to
school themselves. It also served women who had divorced or otherwise
lost their husbands and were returning to learn to make a living. The
group received no formal financial support from the college, but was
supported with contributions and fund raising activities.
The second most offered programs were in the area of career
planning and placement. Many older students are interested in career
counseling for help in defining career goals and opportunities (Cross,
1978). One institution, through financial assistance from the Compre¬
hensive Education and Training Act (CETA), developed a Career Develop¬
ment Center. The program was designed primarily to assist the

58
disadvantaged members of the community and displaced homemakers in
identifying interests, abilities, career options and vocational and
educational goals. In addition, as part of the self-assessment
portion of the program, participants had the opportunity to clarify
their values and to explore themselves in terms of their wants, needs,
ideas, beliefs and feelings. The center is staffed with two pro¬
fessional counselors and a secretary, and is so popular, appointments
must be made two weeks in advance. Although it was planned for adults
on campus and in the community, all students have become aware of this
program, and it now serves students of all ages.
Another college has a similar program which basically attracts
adults from the community. The Career Center facilitates the
admissions and financial aid application process, provides career
counseling, and opportunities for job placement. These people are
placed into a group called a "Second-Time-Around Group." The group
receives peer support from students who have been on campus at least
a year. The process aids in career and educational goal identifi¬
cation and helps students plan their academic programs to meet those
goals. The idea is to mainstream as many of these students as
possible in the least amount of time.
A third service emphasized by several colleges was in financial
aid. Because attending college represents a potential loss of income
for many older people (Cross, 1974; Rawlins, 1979), they hesitate in
making the decision to enroll. Two states--Florida and Tennessee--
have laws which provide tuition waivers for senior citizens (citizens
over age 62). These are available on a space-available basis only
after the regular registration period is over, and paying students

59
have had the first opportunity for the courses. These laws have pro¬
vided an incentive for those on a fixed income to participate in a
formal learning experience.
Two other schools have designed special scholarship programs for
older students. Most of these programs are supported by special
interest groups and service organizations in the surrounding commu¬
nities. One college has provided a "Second Career Scholarship" which
pays tuition for students who have been out of high school for five
years or more. Its purpose is to provide incentive for students to
return to formal education.
All of the institutions offer the full range of federal aid pro¬
grams. Students, of course, must meet the appropriate requirements.
Other new or modified services designed for adults at various
community colleges included developmental or guided studies programs.
These programs essentially consist of orientation courses which
support older newcomers through the transition back to the status of
student. Still other guided studies programs have provided
remediation for students whose academic qualifications require it, and
emotional support for those whose self-esteem and confidence require
it. These have been cooperative endeavors between the academic
divisions and student services staff, primarily counselors.
Several colleges have made a concerted effort toward recruiting
older students. One admissions office sends peer recruiters--older
adults already enrolled--to visit various clubs, organizations,
churches, businesses and any other place older people congregate, and
to give information about the college, its courses, its facilities,
and its services. Another admissions office works very closely with

60
the academic divisions in providing courses and programs for the
numerous industries in its district, and in gaining support from
employers for these courses and programs. Still another college
offered registration by telephone.
The following are examples of answers to this question in the
interview.
Sample responses. For us, placement is relatively new. We added
a vocational/technical component to our campus about five years
ago, and we've been gradually working on placement. This falls
under our career program. Our services are for all students.
We've geared up our program knowing we have a large percent, but
we haven't specifically designed a program for them.
We've been doing a lot with taking classes off campus to
locations more accessible to our older students. We're in an
area with a high retirement population and many of these folks
live in fancy mobile home parks. What we do is take courses to
these parks as often as possible. The courses don't fall under
student services, but we take the admissions process to them. We
don't offer anything special in orientation or counseling for
adults.
Summary. Thirteen of the colleges have created some innovative
programs to serve their older student population. Each of these pro¬
grams can be categorized into one of the five concerns of this
research—admissions, counseling, financial aid, career planning and
placement, and student support services.
Which service for adults receives the greatest emphasis in terms
of budget, personnel, and facilities? More and more adults are
returning to formal educational institutions. In order to serve these
students adequately, colleges must be committed to organizing,
developing and supporting programs to ensure that adults are appro¬
priately served (FIPSE, 1980). The majority of the colleges in this
study have recognized this need and have put at least some of the

61
services at a higher priority so that the adult learner might be
better served. Slightly over one-fourth of these colleges have not
placed their emphasis on any one service area, but have "spread the
wealth," as one administrator put it, in order to maintain all
services at least at their present level. One dean claimed, "Every¬
thing gets the same amount of emphasis." Another said, "We try to
provide a balance of services and try to put as much emphasis on one
as we do the others. I can't say that any of our service in student
services is particularly paramount over another."
Nearly three-fifths of the colleges surveyed did place emphasis
on either admissions, financial aid, or counseling. The rationale for
emphasizing the admissions programs was generally budgetary—adequate
personnel were required to satisfactorily recruit a sufficient number
of new students of all ages. In several instances, the admissions
operation had the largest staff. Radio and television advertising,
and travel for recruiting had consumed large parts of the resources
available for student services at one college.
The financial aid programs at these schools received the most
emphasis because, according to the respondents, the amount of money
which flows through these federal programs requires a substantial
amount of time, energy, and personnel. However, one institution
placed least emphasis on financial aid because of the large amounts of
federal money in the program, and because many of these students
"have part-time jobs and such, and just don't qualify."
In order that student services might expand their efforts to pro¬
vide for special groups, to purchase equipment and material, and to

62
extend hours without enlarging the staff, counseling and career
planning have been receiving the greatest emphasis at three colleges.
One dean was not happy with the emphasis his institution placed
on student services. He stated, "We're going through the budget cut
procedures as most schools are . . . and my opinion is we're not
getting our fair share. . . . services always go first. ... I think
services should get more to retain the people as opposed to recruiting
them."
The following are examples of answers to this question in the
interview.
Sample responses. Admissions operations is the largest thing—
the staff is the largest we've got. Career planning and coun¬
seling are the second largest. They are two little bags in a big
bag, for federal accounting purposes.
In relation to the adult student, the counseling end of it by a
long shot.
I know the students get alot of counseling around here—alot of
counseling! I would say counseling gets more attention.
I guess the one which receives the most use would be career
planning simply because of the fact it is more highly publicized
and has been pushed by the CETA Manpower folks and an awful lot
of their clients are using it. Since it has become part of the
campus, it has gained a good deal of visibility and many of our
current students, young and old, are using it . . . as far as
other services are concerned, I would have to say admission
receives the next greatest amount of effort and energies.
Summary. There is little commonality among the 18 community
colleges about the student services which receive the greatest
emphasis. Although some have divided talents, money, and enthusiasm
equally, most have done so among counseling and career planning,
admissions, and financial aid.

63
How did your institution decide to provide these services for
adults? For the most part, there was a need perceived by the student
services staff to provide services for older students. It was felt by
one institution that something needed to be done for the older stu¬
dents, especially women, because so many were returning to school.
With so many students on campus only in the evening, extending
services into the evening hours seemed to three other colleges to be
a necessity, in order to meet students' needs.
With the decline in full-time enrollment by traditional students,
several colleges began looking at programs for the older, non-
traditional students. "When we looked at enrollment problems and FTE
decline or stabilization, and hoping to raise it a little bit, we
looked at providing more services to the community and trying to get
more of the non-traditional students in." This reason was expressed
by three of the respondents.
Only two schools developed their services in response to student
need surveys. Each of these surveyed current adult students and com¬
munity members to determine what they wanted and expected from the
college. One indicated that staff traveled to other schools to
observe their programs.
One of the institutions developed services through the pressure
of community civic groups. In one community, for example, the local
Junior League became interested in the growing number of displaced
homemakers in the district and began inquiring of college officials
concerning the services—both academic and non-academic—which could
be made available for them. With this interest and interest from

64
displaced homemakers who were already enrolled, a special program was
developed with funding from the Junior League and state agencies.
The following are examples of answers to this question in the
interview.
Sample responses. Well, we just felt a need to do something for
the older student, and a number of people felt that we needed to
move in the direction of special services for women. I felt that
we should not single women . . . that men had problems too. So,
let's develop a center that works for both.
Probably the most critical thing was sheer numbers. The evening
program had roughly a third of our enrollment, and many of those
people had no contact at all with the college in the daytime.
We have students who are not of the traditional age we would have
thought of 20 years ago. Students are older--our average student
is 28-29 years of age. With dwindling enrollments, we tend to
put emphasis in the so-called adult students, naturally we have
to consider them. As the war babies sort of wind down, there
goes the traditional student.
Summary. Services for adults have been developed and offered for
adults founded more on a perceived or observed need than on need
identified through formal survey. Institutions have been made aware
of a need for services from local interest groups as well as their own
reaction to declining enrollment. The latter is an example of
designing services to meet the institutional needs of increased
revenue through increased FTE (full time equivalent) students rather
than students' needs for appropriate services.
How have older students been made aware of your services and how
many have been served? The mere existence of a program does not
guarantee it will be well attended. Most must be wel1-publicized.
Fauquet (1977) found that publicity on the availability of services
was rarely directed toward adults. The programs offered through the
18 community colleges included in this study were publicized through

65
a variety of means. On campus methods included posters, weekly
bulletins, flyers, college catalogs, school newspapers and class
schedules. Many thought that verbal confirmation by satisfied users
of the services was one of the most effective means of publicity. In
one case, faculty and student services staff had developed a
respectful relationship resulting in faculty support for student
services activities which helped to promote the service through
faculty referrals.
Another student services staff displayed pictures of each of its
members identifying the services, responsibilities, and names of each
one. It was felt that this helped students recognize staff members
and their affiliated programs and provided an "icebreaker" for
potential clients.
Off-campus publicity included both paid advertisements and public
service broadcasts on radio and television. Also included were
brochures and catalogs left in public places, brochures and announce¬
ments in bank statements, newsletters, and direct mailings to alumni,
friends of the college, members of boards of trustees and anyone else
who might be included on a mailing list, including current students.
Fifteen of the 18 institutions in this study could not identify
the number of students served. Comments included "a lot in job place¬
ment," "business every night," "a large contingency of older stu¬
dents." One institution was able to identify a number of 15 to 20
persons per term in their women's program, whereas another women's
program claimed 2,500 participants the first year, and a third
expanded from 400 to 1,400 unduplicated head count.

66
As might be expected, all of the administrators claimed their
programs to have been successful and effective in meeting the needs of
their older student population. This reinforces the responses to the
questionnaire item on effectiveness. The method for measuring the
effectiveness was usually non-scientific, however. The general
feeling vías that if it seemed effective, it probably was. "If you
don't lose them, you must be doing something right," was one
response.
The following are examples of answers to this question in the
interview.
Sample responses. We publicize in numerous ways. We have
flyers. Our schedules that go out indicate the hours that the
counseling center, etcetera, is open. We have notices on every
door of the student services area that tell the hours and days
... it helps, I think.
We've served a goodly number of students, though I can't put my
finger on the number. But, it's growing. The more people find
out about the fact we're here, the more our services will be
used. Now, we publicize with posters, ads in the papers, and all
kinds of things to let students know we are available, and that
we have these services going.
We've publicized this through every way possible-media on and
off campus, posters. In every program area we have notices that
tutorial services are available.
Summary. Publicity occurred in many forms from the simplest
poster to elaborate television advertising. Though few were able to
provide information on the numbers served in each area, some kept
records for accountability. Most programs were considered effective,
but the method for measuring the effectiveness usually was not.
Have you any indication whether or not these services have con-
tributed to the increased enrollment and/or retention of adult
students? One study found that approximately 26 million adults did

67
not participate for reasons which could have been remedied through
adequate counseling (Heffernan, Macy, & Vickers, 1976). Another esti¬
mated that 40 million adults would return to classroom study if
institutions were more responsive to their personal and educational
needs (Levitz & Noel, 1930).
Because there are many variables which can contribute to
increased enrollment and retention, this question was a difficult one
for the interviewees to answer. However, most answered positively--
the services and programs offered did improve retention and enrollment
among those who used them. One guided studies program averaged 60 to
70 completers per year, most of whom moved directly into the regular
curriculum. One dean stated, "We do have the feeling from feedback we
get from people that it (full-time evening counselor) has been
worthwhile."
Another indicated, "He haven't made any studies to show it.
Certainly we have students who have enrolled who have stated they
would not have done so without the publicity or other students'
comments. By that kind of informal review, we can say it has helped
enrollment."
Some negative comments included, "We are running what I feel is a
high dropout rate, about 21 to 22 percent per quarter. So, I'm not
sure what we're doing is correct." "Even now that we have a full time
evening counselor, I don't think we'll see much significant change."
"In a very limited way, if at all."
The following are examples of answers to this question in the
interview.

68
Sample responses. I think definitely! As far as being able to
show you statistical information to back that up, we are probably
not that far along yet. But, I don't think there is any question
about it, that we see the individual case where that is indeed
making a difference.
I don't think we'll see much significant change. Maybe we'll
just be doing a little better job of what we're doing. Most of
your adults are going to come, you know, and they pretty well are
going to tough it out on their own, whether they have any help
or not.
Summary. None of the interviewees had any survey data supporting
increased enrollment or retention of older students resulting from use
of the student services provided. The feeling generally was that
there had been increased enrollment and retention.
How do you perceive the attitudes of the institution as a whole
toward older students? In a report on four programs for adult higher
education the Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education
(FIPSE, 1980) stated that a strong instituional commitment and a
positive attitude by faculty, administrators, and staff toward adult
students are necessary for program success and perhaps institutional
survival.
The attitudes of the faculty, administration, and staff toward
older students at all 18 institutions in this study were reported as
positive but not without problems. One college reported the diffi¬
culty some new, young faculty had with feeling comfortable teaching
older students. Another reported an elitist attitude among some
faculty wherein they felt they should not waste their time on students
who lack the ability to do college work. It was emphasized that this
attitude was not directed solely to older students. Yet because of
some of the problems which manifest themselves among adults who have

69
been away from formal education for, in some cases, many years, atti¬
tudes toward adults by some faculty were negative.
Three other student affairs administrators perceived the attitude
toward older students to be no different than the attitude toward the
younger ones, i.e., students are students. This perspective could be
problematic for adult student programs because, if adults are per¬
ceived as not being unlike younger ones, it would be difficult to gain
support for providing different services. This apparently was not the
case in these three institutions, as each reported numerous services
for older students. One reported, "We're all just students; probably
a tremendous melting pot as far as age is concerned. I just don't see
any negative aspects to the more mature student . . . they all seem to
be working toward the same thing. I think this is for better
education."
Because of the investment adults make, i.e., time, money, reduced
income, and possible familial stresses, they tend to take their
schooling a little more seriously. As a result, faculty sometimes
prefer having adults in class rather than younger ones (or at least a
mix). One dean stated, "I'm of the opinion it [adult presence] adds a
great deal of maturity in a hurry to the attitudes of younger kids."
Finally, another dean declared, "We realize and acknowledge their
presence and we know we need to be much more conscious of their needs.
We are devoting time and energy and spirit to becoming more aware, as
well as putting into effect services and programs for the students
25 and over."
The following are examples of answers to this question in the
interview.

70
Sample responses. The attitude is a very positive one. What we
do concerning programs and services is try to create adult pro¬
grams which address the needs of the population.
I think an overwhelming positive, for this reason. The adult
students who are coming to us are here for a purpose and they
really get after a grade to the point that if a teacher is sick
and can't come to class, and you have a student that has driven
15 miles to class, they're mad. They do exceptionally well on
their grade point average, and we found that by doing research on
the second careers scholarship program.
Summary. Older students have become a part of the community
college environment. As such, they are accepted and welcomed by all
facets of the institutions which serve them, with the exception of
those who view them as threats or as incompetent students.
Application of the Data to the Research Questions
Research Question 1
Which of the five services being investigated are provided for
adult students in a way which is different from their more traditional
applications? Generally, services were found to be offered adult
students in all five student services categories, though none of the
surveyed institutions offered services in all five at any one time. A
category by category analysis of the data revealed that 88.9 percent
(16) of the colleges offered services for adults in the admissions
area and the counseling area. Career planning services were available
in 77.8 percent (14) of the colleges. Financial aid services and
support services were available in 72.2 percent (13) and 55.6 percent
(10) of the institutions respectively.
According to the information gathered through the interviews,
special services in admissions have included recruitment programs
aimed at employees—and their spouses--of local industries, simplified

71
application procedures, and registration services taken to senior
citizen centers for their convenience.
Counseling services which were offered older students usually
were done as part of the services to which students had access through
the various women's groups, e.g., Women on the Way; older student
groups, e.g., Second Wind Group; and career development groups, e.g.,
Second Time Around Group.
Though not specifically designed for older students, to make
counseling services more accessible to adults, hours of operation for
counseling services were often extended to the evening hours.
Federal financial aid programs are available to all students who
are at least half-time students (usually taking six credits per term).
Because many adults take only one course per term, this source of aid
is not available to them. Some of the financial aid services from
several of the schools in this study have made available scholarships
for returning older students, often given as incentives to continue
their education. Senior citizens in two states have been granted
tuition waivers through state legislative action. These have been
helpful for those on fixed income.
Career planning and placement services have included special
groups and services emphasizing meeting the needs of older students
for establishing or clarifying career goals.
The support services, in addition to the clubs and groups
mentioned in the discussion of the counseling services, have provided
day care facilities and tutorial services for adults, helping them to
become acclimated to academic work.

72
Research Question 2
Which services receive the greatest emphasis for non-traditional
students? As perceived by the chief student personnel officers at
each college surveyed, counseling services receive the greatest
emphasis in terms of budgetary support, number of personnel assigned,
time allotted, and energy expended. This was because of the need for
many adults to have an opportunity to overcome their reentry problems,
i.e., lack of adequate study habits, test and school anxieties, and
lack of academic self-confidence.
Ranked second were financial aid services which many older stu¬
dents need in order to afford their college costs. Without this aid,
whether it be federal, state, local, public or private, many adults
would find it difficult to attend because of their reduced level of
income while enrolled.
Admissions was ranked third. This is where the emphasis is
placed for recruitment. Likewise, efforts were made to facilitate the
admissions process for older students by providing services off campus
in locations convenient for them.
Ranking fourth and fifth were career planning and support
services respectively. There were in some cases feelings among
student affairs administrators that older students have identified
career and educational goals, have decided how they want to attain
them, and therefore have little or no need for career planning. Aside
from special support groups, other support services such as child-care
centers were frequently not available. These inadequacies were often
due to lack of funds rather than attitude or concern for adult
learners.

73
Research Question 3
Are the student services which are offered addressing the needs
of adults (as identified in the literature)? Generally, the needs of
adult learners were being met by the services available to them at the
community and junior colleges, but none of the colleges were offering
all five service areas for adults. Even through the traditional
applications, with some effort and sacrifice on the students' part,
their needs can be met. On the average, however, most of their needs
are being met at many colleges through the provision of new and often
innovative services offered specifically for that reason. At any one
college, however, services were available to meet, at most, only a few
of the adults' special needs.
Cross (1978) identified the needs of would-be learners for both
career and educational counseling, but that these people have little
information about where to receive these services. All schools in
this study indicated the presence of a publicity program designed to
provide the consumer—both on and off campus—with information con¬
cerning services offered, for whom they were designed, when they were
available, how much they cost, what their goals and objectives were,
and any other information necessary to attract students. This infor¬
mation was presented through various printed media, and radio and
television. In addition, it was felt that satisfied customers were a
positive source of publicity.
To meet their needs identified by Bulpitt (1973) for improved
self-concept and confidence in their academic ability, three of the
colleges started special support groups which were open-ended and
on-going. These groups gave adults the opportunity to share their

74
feelings and thoughts with others in the same situation and to gain
support from them. Also provided through these groups and through
other support services (learning labs), tutorial and study skills
assistance was available.
The Educational Testing Services predicted that millions of
adults did not participate in formal educational programs for reasons
which could have been remedied through adequate counseling (Heffernan,
Macy, & Vickers, 1976). To remedy this deficiency in counseling
services, all but two of the colleges in this study at least made
their counseling services more accessible to their older students.
This accessibility was accomplished by extending hours of operation to
include evenings, and by developing the support groups already
mentioned.
Cross (1930) and Mai in, Bray, Dougherty, and Skinner (1930) found
that, because adults often must experience a reduced level of income
out of the necessity to change from full-time to part-time employment
in order to attend classes, they have a need for financial assistance.
Federal aid programs available at all public institutions have greatly
helped ease this situation. Three of the colleges in this study have
contributed to the pool of funds available by establishing special
scholarship and loan programs for adult students. Senior citizens in
two states can take advantage of state-mandated tuition waivers.
Research Question 4
As perceived by the chief student personnel officers, are the
services offered effective in providing for the special needs of adult
1 earners? Responses to the questionnaire item on service effectiveness

75
and statements in the interviews addressing effectiveness indicated
that, on the average, services are quite effective. Applying weights
to the responses to a Likert-type scale and the questionnaire, a
weighted mean was determined for each category of service (on a five-
point scale). The means ranged from a low of 4.10 for support
services to a high of 4.44 for counseling. Thus it can be concluded
that, for the services offered, there is a relatively high degree of
effectiveness for meeting adult student needs.
Research Question 5
Do community and junior colleges differentiate between tradi¬
tional and non-traditional students by definition? For purposes of
statistical reporting, all but four of the 18 colleges in this survey
defined adult as anyone over 18 years of age. This would imply a
failure to recognize the differences between the needs and require¬
ments of younger (traditional) students and older (non-traditional)
students. Conversations with student affairs administrators indicated
that, in actuality, this was not the case. Each institution's student
services division had recognized the difference and had, in one
respect or another, designed programs to accommodate those dif¬
ferences. These programs included special interest groups, scholar¬
ships for adults, special recruiting and admissions programs, extended
hours, and guided studies programs.
Research Question 6
Have the services offered adult students contributed to the
increased enrollment or retention of adult students? Though none of
the colleges could provide any survey data on the question of

76
enrollment and retention, nearly every one perceived that its enroll¬
ment and retention of older students had improved with the availa¬
bility of these services. Developmental studies programs had
acclimated students to college and academic life. Women's and older
student support groups had helped smooth the rough edges of again
becoming a student. Career development centers had provided the
assistance needed to identify career and educational goals, and to
learn employability skills. Financial aid services had helped make it
financially possible for many to attend college. Admissions offices
made it easier for students to apply and enroll in the programs of
their choice. Counseling had become more readily accessible, and was
available as part of the process for each of the other service areas
in order to help adults adjust to the new demands and responsi¬
bilities of being a student. The counseling services provided
included academic advising, career counseling, and personal
counseling.
Summary
Chapter IV contains the results and an analysis of the question¬
naire and interview items presented to the chief student personnel
officers at 18 Southeastern public community colleges. All five of
the student services areas (admissions, counseling, career planning
and placement, financial aid, and support services) were found to be
available for older students. Some colleges offered more than others,
but all had recognized the need to improve services for adult
learners. Counseling and admissions services were available most fre¬
quently (88.9 percent of the colleges). Support services were offered

77
the least (55.6 percent of the colleges). The services which were
available were perceived to be quite effective by the student services
administrators. The ranking of effectiveness for each service was, in
descending order, counseling, admissions, career planning, financial
aid, and support services. The ranking of the emphasis placed on each
service by the institution was, in descending order, counseling,
financial aid, admissions, career planning, and support services. The
interviews provided insight and reinforcement for the questionnaire
responses.

CHAPTER V
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND GENERAL OBSERVATIONS,
RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter is organized into three sections: a summary of the
study, major findings, general observations and conclusions based on
the analysis of the responses to the questionnaire and the interview,
and recommendations.
Summary
The purpose of this research was to identify and to describe the
extent to which the special needs of older students are being addressed
through the offices of student services of 18 randomly selected commu¬
nity and junior colleges in 11 southern states. The services to be
researched were identified through a review of the literature which
revealed the needs of adult learners. The service categories
included: (1) Admissions, (2) Counseling, (3) Financial Aid,
(4) Career Planning and Placement, (5) Support Services. The research
was designed to reveal the steps taken toward meeting the special
needs of adult students, to evaluate the effectiveness for adult
students of the programs offered, and to evaluate the importance
placed on these services by each institution.
The chief student affairs officer at each institution was asked
to respond to a questionnaire designed to reveal (a) the number of
adult students enrolled, (b) the institution's definition of adult,
78

79
(c) whether or not services in each category were available to older
students, (d) how effective they were in serving the adults, and
(e) the institutional emphasis placed on each service category.
A preliminary questionnaire and interview questions were provided
several student personnel practitioners for their reaction to the
appropriateness and clarity of the items. Changes were made in accord
with their recommendations. The questionnaire (Appendix A) was mailed
to the student personnel administrator in 18 public community colleges
in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina,
Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia. Louisiana and South Carolina were not
represented because institutions in these states did not meet the
population selection criteria. Cover letters and the letter of
endorsement were mailed with each questionnaire (Appendix B).
Telephone interviews were prearranged through use of the Tele¬
phone Interview Appointment Card (Appendix C) which was returned with
each questionnaire. Each interview was conducted to clarify responses
to the questionnaire and to identify the specific programs being used.
Questionnaire and interview responses revealed that, on the
average, all 13 community and junior colleges in this study were pro¬
viding student services specifically designed to meet the needs of
their older students. Though this new clientele can be served with
traditional services, programs have been conceived and developed
specifically to serve adults. None of the colleges, however, were
offering services in all five categories.
Generally, the service which received the most institutional
emphasis and support was counseling, the services of which have most
often been distributed among the five service categories. Financial

80
aid programs with special incentive scholarships for adults, and
admissions programs designed to recruit and easily enroll adults were
also strongly emphasized. Career planning and placement programs and
support service programs were least emphasized.
When comparing the results, especially interview results, with
the findings in the literature on adult student needs, the student
services divisions of the surveyed institutions seemed to be aware of
and sympathetic to the needs of adult learners. Results show efforts
are being made to meet those needs and that, according to the student
personnel administrators, those efforts, though limited, have been
effective in doing so.
In terms of age, most community colleges considered all students
over 18 as adults. Differentiation between traditional and non-
traditional students was usually done on a program-by-program basis and
with emphasis from each student services staff, rarely by the insti¬
tution. The general feeling among the student services administrators
was that providing quality, effective programs for older students will
entice them to enroll, and to continue in their courses once they do.
None of the colleges could support this feeling with numbers.
Chapter IV presented the results of the questionnaire and analysis
of the responses to it and to the interview items. Descriptions of
programs and answers to the research questions are included.
Major Findings
An analysis of the data from both the questionnaire and the
interview items (representing a 100 percent response rate) revealed
the following major findings.

81
1. One half of the student personnel administrators surveyed
were unable to supply enrollment data by full-time or part-time, male
or female students.
2. Services were not offered adults in all five of the cate¬
gories studied.
3. Of those services offered most often, counseling and
financial aid services received the greatest amount of institutional
support and emphasis for serving adult learners. Career planning and
support services received the least amount.
4. When addressing the needs of older students, as identified in
the literature, community and junior college student services
divisions have, on the average, made some attempt to meet those needs,
hone of them is attempting to meet all of their needs.
5. The chief student personnel officer of each institution per¬
ceived the services being offered adults as effective in meeting
adults* needs.
6. None of the student personnel administrators could supply
institutional research data confirming their positive perceptions of
the impact services had had on increased enrollment and retention of
older students.
7. Community and junior colleges generally did not officially
differentiate between their traditional and non-traditional students,
although the student services staffs normally did. Colleges which do
not differentiate are less likely to have special services for older
students.
8. Institutions in this study are not making adequate attempts
to meet the non-academic needs of older students in all the service

82
categories studied. Therefore, many of the needs for services held by
lifelong learners are not being met by many community and junior
college student services divisions.
Conclusions and General Observations
The analysis of both the questionnaire and the interview
responses indicated that services for adults in community and junior
colleges are apparently improving over what they have been as reported
in the literature. The special needs of adult students are being
addressed by some of the institutions surveyed, but only in a limited
way, and none of them in all five of the service categories studied.
Through various counselor-led groups, or through traditional one-
to-one counseling sessions, student services staffs are attempting to
help older students in overcoming their anxieties, their low self¬
esteem, and their lack of confidence in their academic ability and
interpersonal relationships. The most popular method of reaching
these people was through clubs and organizations which have been
designed to offer emotional support while at the same time providing a
ready resource of information concerning various aspects of college
life.
According to the literature, younger students tend to tolerate
the traditional methods of hurdling the application/registration
obstacles, but adults quite often see no necessity for the paperwork
and the procedure, and they become irritated with much of it. Results
of this study showed that admissions services are attempting to elimi¬
nate some of these annoyances. Applications are becoming shorter and
less complex, requiring less time to complete. Registration (as well

83
as course offerings) are being taken to locations convenient for
senior citizens or working adults. Registration by mail and by
telephone are becoming popular.
Recruitment has moved beyond high school walls. Brochures,
posters, and visitations to areas of adult concentration, i.e., places
of employment, professional offices, and shopping areas, have brought
colleges and the services they offer to the attention of more adult
learners. Community colleges are becoming places for adults as well
as youth.
Much of the financial aid is regulated and determined by federal
law and requirements. Basic grants, college work-study programs, and
federal loan programs are available only to students enrolled as half
time or more. Tuition waivers for senior citizens have provided an
incentive for people over 62 years of age to remain mentally active
and alert by covering the tuition costs of attending college. Other
innovative incentive scholarships are being developed and funded
through endowments and foundations. Those who receive these scholar¬
ships usually become active recruiters simply by telling others of
their fortune.
Career planning and placement services are becoming hubs of
activity, not only for traditional students searching for a career
goal, but also for older students and community members who are
seeking or undergoing a change in their lifestyle. Divorcees and
mothers whose children are in school are looking for career opportu¬
nities and the training necessary for attaining them. Mid-life career
changers are searching for options to their current career patterns
and occupations. The services of the career planning offices are

84
assisting in the decision-making process before students enter college,
and are providing support where necessary while they are on campus.
However, aside from the fact that this research has revealed
several attempts to meet the special needs of adult learners, dis¬
cussions with the chief student personnel officers have aroused some
major concerns. One is that, since most colleges do not officially
define adult, or when they do, they include anyone over 18 years of
age, institutions are only paying lip-service to support for non-
traditional students while continuing to provide services in the same
fashion for all students. Members of student services staffs may recog¬
nize the necessity for discriminating between services for youth and
services for adults. The problem arises when others, i.e., adminis¬
trators and faculty, cannot be convinced of the necessity for doing
so. If services for adults are not recognized as a priority item by
the top administrators in an institution, it is not likely that sup¬
port for these programs will be more than minimal. To fulfill the
mission of the community college for providing educational and support
services for its constituents, administrators must be made aware of
the needs and understand what must be done to meet those needs.
A second concern is that the pilot study conducted prior to
initiating this study indicated that student personnel administrators
recognize the need for adult student services and for research in this
field. If this might be considered a prevailing attitude among stu¬
dent personnel professionals, then it seems somewhat neglectful for
institutions not to be providing a broader range of services for
adults at each institution.

85
Institutional research, or lack thereof, regarding the effective¬
ness of programs and services on the enrollment and retention of adult
students is another concern. If services are going to be offered,
they must be so based on research of the needs of students and how
well those services are meeting their needs. Only two of the insti¬
tutions surveyed had conducted the research; the others based their
comments either on what they had heard in casual conversation with
participants, or on "feelings" they had developed about the success of
their programs.
A third concern is that the development of services for adults
may be institution-centered rather than student-centered. Several
respondents reported a decline in full time equivalent enrollment
(FTE) as a major factor in their decision to expand services for
adults. If the driving force behind the move to help the older stu¬
dents is increased FTE, then the commitment made by the institutions
in this study might not necessarily be to the student but rather to
the institution.
The lifelong learning goals and objectives of the older student
can be at least partially met at the community or junior college. But
services must be available which address the non-academic needs of
this clientele. The results of this study show that colleges are
attempting to do so, yet only in a limited way. Where there were
services for adults in counseling and financial aid, there were none
in admissions or career planning, and vice versa.
In the final analysis, the attempts to meet the non-academic
needs of older students through each of the student services areas--
admissions, counseling, career planning and placement, financial aid,

86
or supportservices--at the same time have been inadequate. Therefore,
according to this research, many of the needs for services held by
lifelong learners are not being addressed by the community and junior
college student services divisions at the institutions surveyed.
Recommendations
The purpose of this study was to identify and to describe, through
questionnaire and personal interview, the extent to which community and
junior colleges are providing services to meet the needs ofolder stu¬
dents. As an outcome of the results of this research, several
recommendations can be made.
1. It is recommended that all community colleges evaluate their
definition of adul t student to ensure the services they offer are appro¬
priate for meeting the needs of the various ages of their clientele.
2. It is recommended that student services practitioners more care¬
fully evaluate the needs of their students in order to focus more ade¬
quately on those needs in providing services. Many of the respondents
in this study indicated that the need for their programs was determined
by feelings and observations rather than formal assessments of need.
3. It is recommended that financial aid offices attempt to
create special scholarships for older students, the selection criteria
for which might include time away from school or similar standard.
The bulk of financial aid funds is made available through federal
programs. Many adults do not qualify for these funds because of
income or because they are not enrolled at least half time.
4. It is recommended that institutions research the need and
feasibility of offering a day care service on campus. These centers

87
could be either self-supporting, separate student services sponsored,
or they might be developed as part of an early childhood education
program. Only two of the colleges in this study provided day care
facilities for the children of their students.
5. It is recommended that research of a similar nature be con¬
ducted throughout other geographic regions of the United States to
examine the findings of this study, and to compare them in terms of
the consistency of enrollment patterns, the institutional commitment
to serving adult students' needs, and the types of services offered.
6. It is recommended that the next step in the research process
be to investigate how students who have used these services perceive
the effectiveness of these programs--who is staying and who is not.
7. It is recommended that services from each category of ser¬
vices be provided through the conduct of on-going support groups for
adults. With the presence of a given number of students at regularly
scheduled times, adequate support and appropriate information can be
given from each service category providing growth and development
opportunities for each participant.
8. For those who do not choose to join a group, it is recom¬
mended that a centralized, diverse program of services be made
available for ease of disseminating information and providing for
proper support for adding adult students.
9. It is recommended that career planning programs be evaluated
and revised to include special services for adult learners. Though
many are enrolling for personal enrichment, many others are enrolling
for retraining purposes, to gain new skills, to become employable.

88
Yet a large number of these have little or no idea how to make
appropriate choices in these areas.
10. It is recommended that effort be made to publicize more ade¬
quately the services available. A public relations effort with local
service organizations, clubs, and church groups would help to promote
the services. Peer and financial support might also result from such
efforts.
11. It is recommended that efforts be made to increase the
active involvement of older students in various activities on campus.
Several influential, tactful adults active in the proper areas, e.g.,
peer counseling, tutoring, and work-study programs, could help in con¬
vincing administrators and faculty of the value of providing services
for adult students.

APPENDIX A
QUESTIONNAIRE ON STUDENT SERVICES FOR
ADULTS IN COMMUNITY COLLEGES
Name of your institution
Total enrollment, Fall 1981 (credit head count):
Adult enrollment, Fall 1981 (credit head count):
Full time: male
Part time: male
How does your institution define "adult?"
, female
', female
In the categories of student services below, check whether or not you
provide each as a new or modified one for adult students, and rate the
effectiveness of each service as you perceive it by circling the
appropriate numeral (1 --high, 5—low).
OFFERED
yes no
EFFECTIVENESS
high low
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
ADMISSIONS (e.g., recruitment,
orientation, assessing prior
learning, etc.)
COUNSELING (e.g., academic
advising, special support
groups, evening hours, etc.)
FINANCIAL AID (e.g., tuition
waivers, special scholarships,
etc.)
CAREER PLANNING/PLACEMENT (e.g.,
career change workshops,
resume writing, etc.)
SUPPORT SERVICES (e.g., adult
resource center, child care,
etc.)
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
Rank the services listed above with regard to the emphasis each
receives at your institution, using the appropriate letter {1 —high,
5-192).
1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5
89

Briefly explain any service (or aspects thereof) you feel to be
especially effective for adult students at your institution:
Thank you for your assistance. Please return the card identifying
convenient time for me to phone you along with the completed ques¬
tionnaire in the enclosed self-addressed, stamped enveloped.
WCKII/LSCC/31

APPEND IX B
THE INTERVIEW QUESTIONS
1. Are the services offered by your institution available to both
day and evening students at the same level and with the same
emphasis?
2. Have any new services or programs been developed, or have old
services or programs been modified, which speak directly to the
special needs of older students?
3. Which service for adults receives the greatest emphasis in terms
of budget, personnel, and facilities?
4. How did your institution decide to provide these services for
adults?
5. How have older students been made aware of your services and how
many have been served?
6. Have you any indication whether or not these services have con¬
tributed to the increased enrollment and/or retention of adult
students?
7. How do you perceive the attitudes of the institution as a whole
toward older students?
91

APPENDIX C
THE TELEPHONE INTERVIEW APPOINTMENT CARD
Telephone Interview Appointment
Name
Institution
Phone ( )
P--preferred day/time
A--aIternate day/time
11:00 a.m. Thur., Dec. 17
11:00 a.m. Fri., Dec. 18
11:00 a.m. Mon., Dec. 21
Please return this card along with
the completed questionnaire in the
envelope provided.
WCKII/LSCC/81
52

APPENDIX D
THE COVER LETTER AND LETTER OF ENDORSEMENT
November 11, 1981
x
x
Dear
Lifelong learning. What better place can many lifelong learning goals
be realized than in the community college? Adults are turning to the
community college to learn new skills, to upgrade old ones, or simply
enrich their lives through academic pursuit. Though we are meeting
these needs, are we meeting the personal needs of this "new breed" of
college student through our student services?
To find out if we are meeting their needs, I am conducting a two-
phased research project which will consist of a short questionnaire
(enclosed) and a telephone interview to follow. Please take a few
minutes to complete the questionnaire and to make a copy for future
reference. Then complete the Telephone Interview Appointment card,
indicating the best day for me to phone you. To avoid conflicts with
others who might prefer the same day you do select an alternate day as
wel1. Put both the original questionnaire and the appointment card in
the encTosed self-addressed, stamped envelope and return it to me by
November 20, 198IT
I will call you on one of the appointed days to discuss the five stu¬
dent services areas your institution provides for adult students.
(Your copy of the completed questionnaire will serve as a good
reference for the interview.)
For control purposes, your name and your school's name are needed.
Neither, however, will be used in the research report.
Your help and consideration in this venture will be greatly
appreciated, and I will gladly share my results with you.
Sincerely,
William C. Kennedy II
Counselor
93

94
December 6, 1981
Dear :
Well, this is what you get for not answering my questionnaire the
first time--a FOLLOW-UP!!! I have enclosed another one for your con¬
venience, so please take about ten minutes of your busy schedule to
answer the questions. Make a copy of the completed questionnaire for
your reference when we talk. Indicate a time I can call you for an
interview (see the enclosed telephone interview card), then return
both card and questionnaire to me in the enclosed self-addressed,
stamped envelope by December 15, 1981, so I can wrap up the data-
collection portion of this study as soon as possible.
Your attention to this matter will be greatly appreciated. I will
send the results of this study to you when it is completed.
Respectfully yours,
William C. Kennedy II
Counselor

UF College of Education
95
University of Florida
Gainesville, Fla. 32611
Dear
Mr. William Kennedy who is on the faculty at Lake-Sumter Community
College is conducting a study of student services for adults in the
community college. This is being carried out under the sponsorship
of the Institute of Higher Education at the University of Florida.
You may be assured of its scholarship import and supervision.
May I urge that you cooperate with Bill by completing his short ques¬
tionnaire and by talking to him on the phone. We will be pleased to
share the results with you when the study is completed.
Cordially yours,
Enclosures
James L. Wattenbarger, Director
Institute of Higher Education

APPENDIX E
SAMPLE INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPTION
The following interview transcriptions are representative
examples of the telephone interviews conducted with the chief student
personnel officers of the 18 Southeastern community colleges surveyed
in this research. The letter "I" indicates questions or comments by
the interviewer; the letter "D" represents the responses of the
interviewee (Dean).
Interview 1
I—Are the services offered by your institution available to both
day and evening students at the same level and with the same
emphasis?
D—Within certain definitions, yes they do get the same treat¬
ment. For example, admissions, counseling, financial aid. We
have limited staff, and they all work from say 8:00-4:30.
Then we have a night employee whose job it is to be counselor,
admissions officer—everything rolled into one, especially for
the benefit of night students. That person, if you come out
to apply, will take an application; that person is a counselor
with a masters degree, a requirement for that position, and
the only difference between their duty hours and everybody
else's is that they're assigned to work from 1:00-9:00, every¬
one else the 8:00-5:00 routine.
I--Have any new services or programs been developed, or have old
services or programs been modified, which speak directly to
the special needs of adult students?
ü—Bill, there will be nothing here in terms of special programs
for this type of person. We have tried a couple of things
this fall having like a special room set aside, and there
really weren't any takers. So we stopped the idea. As far as
programs--something you are probably familiar with from the
federal end of it—is with what is called the Displaced Home¬
makers Program. That's the only thing we have here in the way
96

97
of a special program, and because of the nature of the pro¬
gram, it's going to meet the needs of most of the adult
students.
I--Concerning the special room, what did you do to let people
know this was available?
0--During the registration process they announced it to students
in orientations; during the first couple of weeks of classes,
there were signs posted around hallways and things like that.
I—Which service receives the greatest emphasis in terms of
budget, personnel, and facilities?
D—That's in relation to the adult student, correct?
I—Ri g ht.
D--0K! The counseling end of it by a long shot. We made a com¬
mitment, I guess 3 or 4 years ago. When I first came on,
that's how we started was a part-time counselor for the
evening program, and I was also coordinator of continuing ed.
Over a period of years, we moved to a full-time coordinator of
continuing ed, and a full-time counselor for the night stu¬
dent. And that's the stage we're at now. So counseling by a
long shot. Now that counselor does such admissions work,
financial aid work as they can do at night. Again there are
other people in the day time to bring the stuff in to.
I—Which of the other services receives similar emphasis?
D--In terms of commitment of time and money, counseling has it.
Financial aid second, again probably because of the money, and
we have a financial aid clerk who—that's her total respon¬
sibility. Our admissions clerk is also secretary to me, so
she's halftime admissions clerk, halftime secretary. And then
as far as support services go, we have nothing like child care
or things like that. We do have a learning resource center,
but that isn't part of my division per se—it relates to the
whole school. And of course career planning-placement is part
of the responsibilities of the counselor. But even then, that
becomes a minor part. Most of the counselor's job other than
academic type counseling and a little personal counseling,
career planning perhaps occasionally enters the picture. Most
of their job is almost anything but career planning, or this
type of thing. In our system that is pretty much a function
of the advisors.
I — How did your institution decide to provide these services for
adults?

â–¡--Probably the most critical thing was sheer numbers. The
evening program has approximately 300 students out of 1,000.
So roughly a third of the enrollment was at night, and many of
those people had no contact at all with the college in the
day time. And of course everybody at that time went home at
5 and there was no one here except custodians. If they wanted
a transcript sent, there was nobody here. If you needed to
see a counselor, there was no one here in that capacity. So
that was our basic thing, and we kinda decided to at least
make a financial commitment to one person being here. That
was the deal.
I—What has been the effectiveness of this evening program?
(Feedback from students, etc?) What are the details--cost,
when started, number served, publicity, effectiveness.
Ü--I feel like from the standpoint of the evening student com¬
ments we've heard, that one person at night is a big asset to
that program. We would love to be able to fund like you know
a part-time secretary to work at night to help. That would
help to keep the college switchboard open which we cannot do
at the present time. The biggest problem we have run into is
that, in the past couple of years, with the economy being like
it is, our evening students are diminishing in terms of the
number of them. And of course, we're committed to keeping
that one full-time person on, but we would like to see the
enrollment higher at night to justify that person.
I--Have you done any research, in terms of questionnaires, of
evening students to see how they are looking at this service
you are providing? Any quantitative things?
D—Well, not anything extensive. Of course as far as that
person's effectiveness in connection with our annual perfor¬
mance review of faculty and staff, that person goes through a
certain evaluation and one of the questions asked of the
counselors is "are you aware that they are here?" type thing.
We have surveyed our evening students more from the standpoint
of wanting to know what they're interested in taking.
I--Have you any indication whether or not these services have
contributed to increased enrollment and retention of adult
students?
D--This is just a feeling that I have from observation and little
comments that have been made in the last two or three years.
I really don't believe that having the person at night we have
increased enrollment or retention, nor do I feel like it has
hurt it. I feel like it's been the aspect of—we look at it
from the standpoint of what is fair and right to the students.
If a third of your student body is here at night. We did a
survey shortly after I came on 76-77 along in there, and at

S9
that particular time—this is kinda an indepth study we did of
what kind of student is out here at night—we found that, say
of a thousand students, approximately 50 percent had some kind
of contact with the night program; either a full-time student
at night, or part time, what have you, or they were taking one
class at night. So when you consider 50 percent of your stu¬
dent body has some contact with the night program, and then
about a third of those students, 300 of them, have exclusive
contact (never here in the daytime) we felt that from the
standpoint of budgetary allotment, with a third of your
student body only here at night and 50 percent having some
contact with it, we definitely ought to have someone here to
provide the program. That was the reason and the rationale
behind it. I'm sure that there probably is some advantage
that's come about but nothing that you can really cite. I
can't say that because we have a counselor at night we have
more people at night, that wouldn't be borne out by the actual
facts. By the same token, that person—you’re talking about
one person with a lot of different responsibilities—I'm sure
that because that person was here and gave them a financial
aid paper or form, but there is nothing objective I can look
at and say "yes, it's justifiable." We do have the feeling
from feedback we get from people that it has been worthwhile,
and we felt that we had an academic commitment to be fair to
the student body and provide somebody here at night.
I—How do you perceive the attitudes of the institution toward
the adult students?
D—Officially as well as in terms of operation, we regard the
adult student as strictly a student like anyone else. We try
to be fair with them. We try in our night program. For
example, many schools like a separate dean for the night pro¬
gram; we don't. It's all handled as part of a total respon¬
sibilities of the school. Our teaching faculty, if they have
say 5 classes to teach, in most cases they'll have 4 daytime
and one night. So we try to feel like there's no difference
in what you get at night as opposed to what you'd get in the
daytime, with the exception of the schedule arrangement. We
use two-and-a-half hour class meeting once a week for the most
part. As far as reaction this past time with budget crunches
being what they are and freezes on positions, we have had
people quit which has caused us to have vacancies in our night
program, and the faculty have been most concerned that when we
started cuttin1 and coverin', it was hard to cut and cover our
night classes. There wasn't that much flexibility there, so I
found that they were concerned that that happened, and that we
had to use a part-time instructor to flush out those classes.
In terms of availability to advisors, many of our faculty are
concerned that the night student doesn't have quite the
availability, and that maybe we could assign an advisor so
maybe he is here at night. We use a program approach. If

1 GO
your major is law enforcement, you'll be assigned to the law
enforcement instructor. And if he's not here at night, that
particular semester, it's kind of a problem there. Most of
our faculty do make a commitment. They'll come out one night
maybe to preregister their students or counsel with them or
whatever. But it's a problem. But I think you could safely
say that if administratively, as well as our faculty position,
is that of support for the night students. We want to make
sure that they have the same type of things.
When we talk about adult, we don't really pull them out as a
separate category. We do break it down for statistical and
analytical purposes. A student is a student, and your age is
kind of irrelevant to us.
We have had off-campus classes, we have done some TV type
classes. But we really haven't had success with them that
some of our sister institutions have had, and again that
audience is mostly an adult audience. It's just what we find
here, and I think it's probably a philosophy of this school.
We followed an institution that folded about a year before we
started, that was a junior college. So in the community,
there is a lot of what might be called an interest in the
liberal arts. Many of the people here are, you know, the pro¬
gram is here in existence. They are oriented to the idea of
coming out of the campus to take classes. Nontraditional
forms just have not had the appeal we thought it might. So
it's the type of thing we've offered them, but they want to be
in the classroom. I think that is a uniqueness to the commu¬
nity, and within our community college system we've been told
many times we are regarded as the liberal arts college, kind
of the elitest type college. Our student population is
probably 50-50 or closer to 60-40 transfer versus technical,
but the community has an orientation to higher education
that's the old junior college orientation. You don't really
buck it, you simply go along with it.
Interview 2
I--Are the services offered by your institution available to both
day and evening students at the same level?
D--We've looked at special services for the 25 and older student,
although we consider all of our students to be adults. This
we do because of the particular needs of this group, though
they don’t seem to be extraordinarily different from the other
students.
No! That's where it is. Wow in our effort, we do emphasize
it, but we are now in the process of gearing up for the
evening student. Now the other thing is, we operate in the

premise that most of our evening students come and--now, I
said no because I was thinking about a particular program.
As far as admissions is concerned, yes! As far as regis¬
tration is concerned, and counseling is concerned, yes! As
far as, you know, child care, yes! But as far as having the
financial aid office open for the evening student, we don't.
We do it by appointment only. For career planning and place¬
ment, by appointment only. For veterans, by appointment only.
We don't have a registered nurse or health services on duty in
the evening, only 8 to 5. A nurse is on duty, but she is an
instructor at night. When I said no, it had to be a qualified
no, because in admissions, for example, we have a special
early evening registration. We have counseling and advising
and testing at night. But we have it one night a week.
Testing is one night a week, counseling is four nights a week.
So whereas testing is available to our students during the
daytime for five days compared to one night for the evening
student. Now most, we think most of our adult students are
here at night, but we're not sure, we don't have that data.
I--Are there any special programs during the day for the adult
student?
D—Yes. We have what we call the Second Wind Group, a group
which supports, a growth group, an informal club for second
winders. They're the 25 and older who have or are a little
hesitant about returning to school, especially competing with
the young student in the classroom; a little test anxious; not
so sure they can make good grades; having little guilt com¬
plexes because they are assigning more time to study than to
housekeeping and that kind of thing. So, we have a special
emphasis for that kind of support. We also have support
services for those people who are handicapped in the daytime.
We have it at night, but we really have some people that are
older and have heart trouble, are arthritic, and so forth. We
have a full support service for them in the daytime. Special
programs for that. Then, as far as admissions is concerned,
we have a special feature whereby an adult student can come in
and do a short form on the admissions application and you
know, he's in, right then. He doesn't have to worry about a
transcript. It's a temporary thing that we provide for them,
and we allow them 12 hours to get their feet wet and not
hassle them about having to get their transcript from their
high schools from which they graduated 30 years ago--though
they eventually have to have that.
I--Have any new services or programs (or modified services or
programs) been developed which speak directly to the special
needs of the adult student?

102
D--Yes, we have another program called a displaced homemakers
program for the divorced, the widowed, and so forth, and we do
have that particular program. That is relatively new, and
it's taken on like you wouldn't believe! We have tutorial
services for them as well as for the regular traditional stu¬
dent, and we give them an opportunity to serve as tutors. And
they do, by the way. This gives peer support as well.
¡--Which service for adults receives the greatest emphasis in
terms of budget, personnel, and facilities?
D--That's hard to say! The tutorial program, displaced home¬
makers, and so forth, that's soft money. Career planning is
soft money. Of the five, specifically, . . . now you say for
what is the greatest budget in these five areas for the adult
student? I really can't say. The least would probably be
financial aid because the people we're talking about have
part-time jobs and such and just don't qualify because of the
federal guidelines and so forth. We do have adult students,
however, who are recipients of private donor scholarships.
There are several. We have several mothers who are on private
donor scholarships now, you know, nurses, etcetera.
I—How about senior citizens tuition waivers? Do you give any of
these or anything?
D—No. Not yet.
I—You've already addressed the question of which service
receives the next most emphasis, so the next question is, how
did your institution decide to provide these services for
adults?
D—We have a vice president who is in charge of the program
development, and he was in contact with a local junior league
of the city. The junior league asked for some information on
the number of displaced homemakers that were available around
this area and from that question and our interest in the older
student--you know for a long time we have had an interest in
the older student. We just haven't gotten around to having a
sure enougli program for them. But with that question, and the
interest on the part of the junior league, the emphasis from
some of the students who were already enrolled, we moved
forward with it, and developed the program and developed and
been funded through the junior league and the state agencies
for this, our third year. Now, the tutorial service--0h!
By the way, there is another program--the mentoring program
that we started just because we knew that there were people
who on campus who were fearful of being here, so we decided to
do a faculty mentoring program for older students. It works
beautifully! For some students, we've lost them; for others
we've kept them. But at the same time the concept is really

103
something arid we're really--1 see some really good things
coming from this. But back to the tutorial services. What
happened there was that we needed to move forward with
tutoring. We realized that many students were coming to us
with academic skills that were below those necessary to
succeed in the college setting so we sat down and decided that
it just had to be a service to students. So we dug down deep
and did a proposal and submitted it and received funds. And
so, what we did was not only provide tutoring for those that
needed academic skills, developing academic skills, but also
we were thinking in terms of the older students who could pro¬
vide and give them an opportunity to be of service and to
serve in that capacity, to build their own self-concept and
confidence as tutors, and it has worked fine.
I--How many are you serving in any of these programs?
D — I don't have that number right off the top of my head, but I
know the first year in the displaced homemaker program we
served about 400, and now about 1,400 unduplicated heads. And
we serve them in small groups or individually. Counseling.
Large support groups. We have a group that meets every Monday
night, and it's been a very rewarding experience for us. Now
the tutorial center we started with a target of 400. The
first year we served about 325 and went up to about 600 in the
third year. Students do not pay for this service. It comes
from soft money. Tutors are chosen from faculty-recommended
students who are interested and could serve well in the
tutoring setting. We also request the Phi Theta Kappa to
tutor. We train the tutors and have weekly and monthly
meetings with the tutors. We also solicit help from Baylor
University in special fields of biology or whatever.
I—How have older students been made aware of your services?
D—Through every way possible—media on and off campus, posters.
In every program area we have notices that tutorial services
are available. The tutorial center has carrel Is and areas for
small group sessions, chalkboards. Now, we're looking toward
the concept of the classroom facilitator. So we have people
in the classroom now working with the instructor helping the
students. And we have satellite labs—math, communications,
science. They are under the instructional dean, but we supply
the manpower for those.
I—You feel that these services have been effective for these
peopl e?
0—Oh, decidedly!
I--Have you measured it in any way?

104
D—Yes, but I don't have the results with me. We've seen great
change. The most important thing is that we don't lose them.
Those with academic potential stay with us. If they start
with a 'D', they may go up to a 'C. But they don't quit,
which I think is successful.
I—Have you any indication whether or not these services have
contributed to the increased enrollment and/or retention of
adult students?
D—We really don't know, but I feel that it has.
I—How do you perceive the attitudes of the institution as a
whole toward older students?
D--Very, very positive! We realize and acknowledge their
presence, and we know we need to be much more conscious of
their needs. We are devoting time and energy and spirit to be
more aware, as well as to put into effect to implement
services and programs and even class scheduling for the stu¬
dents 25 and above. We have a Saturday college—not very
large, but that's to accommodate the older student who cannot
come during the week or the night. So, some come and take
courses on Saturday. The attitude is exceptional. We know we
can do better. We have some very special programs here. You
know, without the adult students, we wouldn't need the special
programs, and we'd be out of jobs.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
William Cottrell Kennedy II was born December 5, 1946, in DeLand,
Florida. As the dependent son of a career Army officer, he grew up in
various states in the United States and countries in Europe. He
graduated from Palma High School in Salinas, California, in 1964. He
attended Monterey Peninsula College in Monterey, California, and Lake-
Sumter Community College in Leesburg, Florida, earning an Associate of
Arts degree in August, 1967. In September, 1967, he attended Stetson
University where he received his Bachelor of Arts in May, 1970, with a
major in English and a commission as a Second Lieutenant in the United
States Army.
The following year he taught English and journalism at Eustis
High School. From 1971 to 1973 he served as a platoon leader and
company executive officer with the 4th Batallion, 63rd Armor, 1st
Infantry Division, Fort Riley, Kansas. Following active duty, he
taught English at Tavares High School, Tavares, Florida, then returned
to Stetson University in 1974 to earn a Master of Arts in counseling
in August, 1975.
After graduation, he joined the faculty of Lake-Sumter Community
College, Leesburg, Florida, as the counselor. He was granted a year's
professional leave in 1978-1979 to attend the University of Florida to
complete his doctoral course requirements in counselor education. In
111

112
1979-1930, he returned to work at Lake-Sumter while continuing his
graduate work. In August, 1982, he received the degree Doctor of
Philosophy.

I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion
it conforms to acceptable standards of scholary presentation and is
fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree
of Doctor of Philosophy.
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is
fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree
of Doctor of Philosophy.
Phyllis M. Meek
Associate Professor of Counselor
Education
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presenta tier: and is
fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree
of Doctor of Philosophy.
¡5/nes L. Wattenbaryer ¿V
(rofessor of Educational
Administration and Supervision
This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Depart¬
ment of Counselor Education in the College of Education and to the
Graduate Council, and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the
requirements foi* the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
August, 1982
Dean for Graduate Studies and Research

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
3 1262 08553 1142