Citation
Work values and assertiveness in the employed and unemployed epileptic

Material Information

Title:
Work values and assertiveness in the employed and unemployed epileptic
Creator:
Gray, Jean Davis, 1948- ( Dissertant )
Fitzgerald, Paul ( Thesis advisor )
Myrick, Robert ( Reviewer )
Joiner, James ( Reviewer )
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publisher:
University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
viii, 86 leaves : ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Anxiety ( jstor )
Assertiveness ( jstor )
Disabilities ( jstor )
Employment ( jstor )
Employment interviews ( jstor )
Epilepsy ( jstor )
Labor ( jstor )
Self esteem ( jstor )
Unemployment ( jstor )
Vocational education ( jstor )
Assertiveness (Psychology) ( lcsh )
Counselor Education thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Counselor Education -- UF
Epileptics -- Psychology ( lcsh )
Work -- Psychological aspects ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to investigate work values and assertiveness levels in employed and chronically unemployed adult epileptics. The Adult Self Expression Scale (ASES) , and the Work Values Inventory (WVI) were administered to two hundred adult epileptics in the North Florida area. This sample included one hundred employed and one hundred chronically unemployed adult epileptics. A t-test for independent groups was used to determine if significant differences exist in assertiveness levels and work values between the employed and chronically unemployed. The employed group scored significantly higher on the ASES than did the chronically unemployed group. The minimum value scored by the employed group was 5 9 and the maximum value was 163. A t-value equal to -7.8255 was obtained with the probability of obtaining that value at .0001. The minimum value on the WVI for the chronically unemployed group was 76 and the maximum value was 193. The range of scores for the employed was 122 to 257. A t-value equal to -10.8155 was obtained with a probability of obtaining that value at .0001. Employed epileptics scored significantly higher on the WVI than chronically unemployed epileptics. A Pearson product moment correlation was utilized to determine if a significant relationship between the Adult Self Expression Scale (ASES) and the Work Values Inventory (WVI) exists for the employed and for the chronically unemployed group. The Pearson product correlation yielded a correlation coefficient equal to .5554 with a probability of obtaining that coefficient of .0001. The correlation is moderately high and it is significant at the .0001 level. There is a significant relationship between assertiveness levels and work values as measured by the ASES and the WVI for employed epileptics. Based on the results of this study there is a need for assertion and work values training with chronically unemployed adult epileptics. Since a positive relationship exist between assertion and work values, providing one of those services may increase both levels and decrease duplication of services.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1982.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 77-85.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Jean Davis Gray.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
000352648 ( AlephBibNum )
09807019 ( OCLC )
ABZ0624 ( NOTIS )

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WORK VALUES AND ASSERTIVENESS IN THE EMPLOYED AND
UNEMPLOYED EPILEPTIC










BY
JEAN DAVIS GRAY



























A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF THE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

1982




























Copyright 1982

by

Jean Davis Gray


















Deepest love and gratitude are expressed to

my parents, Bill and Zelma, whose love,

support, and cooperation made this

endeavor possible.


















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


With warm regards to the following persons:

Dr. Paul Fitzgerald, my doctoral chairperson, for his

support, understanding, and friendship.

Dr. James Joiner, my doctoral committee member, who

shared his wisdom and encouragement when it was most needed.

Dr. Robert Myrick, my doctoral committee member, for

help and scholarly advice.

Laura Blitzer, Cindy Bennett and Linda Hague, my

special friends, who suffered through and supported the

writing of my dissertation.



















TABLE OF CONTENTS


CHAPTER PAGE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. . . . . . .. iv

ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . .. vii

I INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . 1

Statement of the Problem . . . . . 3
Purpose of the Study . . . . . . 6
Research Questions . . . . . . 7
Definition of Terms . . . . . . 7
Organization of the Remainder of
the Study . . . . . . . . 9

II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE . . . .. 10

The Development of Work Values . . .. 10
Work Values and the Disabled . . . .. 13
Epilepsy and Work Values . . . . .. 14
What Is Assertive Behavior? . . . .. 17
What Is Nonassertive Behavior? . . .. 19
Employment and Assertiveness/Non-
assertiveness . . . . . ... 20
The Job Hunt . . . . . . .. 21
The Interview . . . . . . .. 22
The Interview and Nonverbal Assertive
Behavior . . . . . . . .. 27
The Job . . . . . . ... . 30
Variables Associated with Assertiveness/
Nonassertiveness and How They Relate to
Employment/Unemployment . . . .. 33
Self-Concept . . . . . . ... 33
Self-Concept and Employment . . .. 34
Self-Confidence . . . . . .. 34
Self-Confidence and Employment . . .. 35
Anxiety . . . . . . . ... 36
Assertiveness and/or Nonassertiveness and
Employment of the Disabled . . . .. 39









Assertiveness/Nonassertiveness and the
Epileptic . . . . . . ... 44
Conclusion . . . . . . . .. 46

III METHODOLOGY . . . . . . . .. 47

Population . . . . . . . .. 47
Sample . . . . . . . . .. 48
Hypotheses . . . . . . . .. 50
Instruments . . . . . . . .. 50
Adult Self Expression Scale . . .. 50
Work Values Inventory . . . . .. 53
Analysis of Data . . . . . . .. 64

IV RESULTS . . . . . . . . .. 65

V SUMMARY, RESULTS, LIMITATIONS, CONCLUSION,
IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS . . .. 69

Summary . . . . . . . . .. 69
Results . . . . . . . . .. 69
Limitations . . . . . . . .. 70
Conclusion . . . . . . . ... 71
Implications . . . . . . . .. 72
Recommendations . . . . . . .. 74

APPENDICES

A Agency . . . . . . . . .. 75
B Informed Consent Form . . . . .. 76

BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . ... .. . 77

BIOGRAPHICAL DATA . . . . . . . . .. 86


















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy



WORK VALUES AND ASSERTIVENESS IN THE EMPLOYED AND
UNEMPLOYED EPILEPTIC


By

Jean Davis Gray

December, 1982


Chairman: Dr. Paul Fitzgerald

Major Department: Counselor Education

The purpose of this study was to investigate work

values and assertiveness levels in employed and chronically

unemployed adult epileptics. The Adult Self Expression

Scale (ASES), and the Work Values Inventory (WVI) were ad-

ministered to two hundred adult epileptics in the North

Florida area. This sample included one hundred employed and

one hundred chronically unemployed adult epileptics.

A t-test for independent groups was used to determine

if significant differences exist in assertiveness levels and

work values between the employed and chronically unemployed.

The employed group scored significantly higher on the ASES

than did the chronically unemployed group. The minimum


-vii-








value scored by the employed group was 59 and the maximum

value was 163. A t-value equal to -7.8255 was obtained with

the probability of obtaining that value at .0001. The

minimum value on the WVI for the chronically unemployed

group was 76 and the maximum value was 193. The range of

scores for the employed was 122 to 257. A t-value equal to

-10.8155 was obtained with a probability of obtaining that

value at .0001. Employed epileptics scored significantly

higher on the WVI than chronically unemployed epileptics.

A Pearson product moment correlation was utilized to

determine if a significant relationship between the Adult

Self Expression Scale (ASES) and the Work Values Inventory

(WVI) exists for the employed and for the chronically unem-

ployed group. The Pearson product correlation yielded a

correlation coefficient equal to .5554 with a probability of

obtaining that coefficient of .0001. The correlation is

moderately high and it is significant at the .0001 level.

There is a significant relationship between assertiveness

levels and work values as measured by the ASES and the WVI

for employed epileptics.

Based on the results of this study there is a need for

assertion and work values training with chronically unem-

ployed adult epileptics. Since a positive relationship

exist between assertion and work values, providing one of

those services may increase both levels and decrease dupli-

cation of services.


-viii-


















CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

Two to four million Americans have epilepsy, approxi-

mately one in every fifty persons (Epilepsy Foundation of

America, 1979). Epilepsy is a nondiscriminating disorder.

It can occur at any age, affects all ethnic groups, and is

equally distributed between the sexes. It impairs the

abilities of the person who has it only during the seizure

itself and the usually short period of recovery time after-

wards. Most people with epilepsy, therefore, are persons

with only a part-time disability.

The history of epilepsy is probably as old as humanity.

One can find references to the "falling sickness" in Greek

writing as early as the 5th Century B.C. The first detailed

discussion is attributed to Hippocrates who, in the book On

the Sacred Disease, explained in detail the mechanism of

epileptic seizures. People of that time looked upon con-

vulsing movements, periods of blankly staring and seemingly

aimless wanderings, as being symbolic of a person's close-

ness to the gods.

In ancient Rome if a citizen had a seizure, this was

taken as a sign "from the gods" to adjourn the Senate.

Hippocrates (400 B.C.) changed the direction of thinking on






-2-


epilepsy when he wrote, "It is thus with the disease called

sacred; it appears to me to be nowise more divine nor more

sacred than other diseases, but has a natural cause from

which it originates like other affections" (Epilepsy Founda-

tion of America, 1979, p. 67).

Centuries later the pendulum began swinging toward an-

other extreme. Persons with epilepsy were believed to be

possessed by evil spirits. Exorcism by ritual and torture

have been practiced in many societies. The epileptic was

feared and in some cases executed (Epilepsy Foundation of

America, 1979).

While the facts about epilepsy are being taught, many

of the misconceptions that have surrounded this disorder

remain. "Unlike other disabilities, epilepsy carries with

it a unique problem: the profusion of misinformation and a

body of ancient superstitions" (Temkin, 1945, p. 48). As a

result, until 1969 there were still states with statutes

forbidding the marriage of persons with epilepsy. In one

state, applicants for a marriage license were forced to

attest that they were not "idiot, epileptic, or common

drunkard" (Wilder, 1968). Until recently there were states

that specifically authorized the sterilization of institu-

tionalized persons with epilepsy and one in particular that

retained a law which permitted the involuntary sterilization

of its epileptic citizens whether they were institutionalized

or not.

Though a positive measurable change in public attitudes

has occurred many barriers remain for the person who carries








the label of epileptic, irrespective of the control of their

seizures (Caveness, Merritt, Gallup & Ruby, 1965). Many

discriminatory state laws have been repealed and further

legislation is now supporting rehabilitation, training pro-

grams, and vocational education. Still, the degree of

success rehabilitation personnel achieve with the epileptic

client is considerably lower than that for other disability

groups (Risch, 1972).


Statement of the Problem

Medical science has done much to render the person with

epilepsy seizure-free or seizure-controlled. Statistics

show that 50 percent of those with epilepsy have complete

control and another 30 percent have only occasional seizures

Karan (1972) states that 75-85 percent of those people with

epilepsy can have enough control to live normal lives.

Seizures need not in themselves be a barrier to any aspect

of everyday living, particularly employment.

As Hibbard (1945) pointed out, the question "are epi-

leptics employable?" should be answered no differently from

the question, "are people employable?" During the past ten

years, unemployment among persons with epilepsy has reached

25-30 percent. In 1972, Social Security reported that the

unemployment rate for the disabled was 7.4 percent in 1966,

compared to unemployment of 3.7 percent for the nondisabled.

The unemployment rate for the severely disabled was 11 per-

cent in 1966, while at the same time, persons with epilepsy

had an unemployment rate of 15-25 percent.








Wilder (1968) stated, ". . There are relatively few

patients who are so severely involved with seizures that

productive work cannot be performed in spite of their

occurrence. Why then do unemployment statistics for epilep-

tics run better than 2 to 1 when compared to the national

average? Perhaps there is something beyond the actual

seizures" (p. 87). The Epilepsy Foundation of America

(1979) stated that one of the major barriers to employment

in this population is psychosocial, psychological and be-

havior problems. Lerman (1977) supports this notion by

stating "many epileptics are almost unemployable because of

personality problems, not the actual seizures" (p. 265).

Numerous researchers in the area feel vocational coun-

seling is a necessity for the epileptic individual (Dennerll,

1970; Muthard, 1975; Rodin, 1972 and Wilder, 1968). The

value of counseling for the person with epilepsy and who is

entering work was affirmed by the Belgian experience which

showed that next to adequate medical control of seizures,

the most important contribution to successful work adjust-

ment was guidance from an experienced counselor (Sorel,

1972). Numerous studies indicate counselors lack knowledge

and skills in working with the unique problems of the epi-

leptic client (Jacks & Toubbeh, 1975; Muthard, 1975 and

Wright, Gibbs & Linde, 1962).

Epilepsy costs the nation more than four billion

dollars each year (Epilepsy Foundation of America, 1979).

Many of the people it affects need to be vocationally








rehabilitated. The epileptic population can provide valu-

able human resources and be both economically and socially

productive.

Many feel that the rehabilitation process for the epi-

leptic is insufficient. The Maryland Developmental Dis-

abilities Council (Freeman, 1977) found that the rehabilita-

tion of persons with epilepsy is far from optimal. Less

than half of those in their study who had completed reha-

bilitation training were employed, and only one-third of

those who were employed had full-time jobs. The majority of

those who were employed had found their own jobs and were

not working at jobs for which they were trained. The fifty

percent who were not employed were not getting help from

their counselors.

In an attempt to understand the apparent weakness in

the rehabilitation process of the epileptic client, Jacks

and Toubbeh (1975) conducted a survey of rehabilitation

agencies throughout the fifty states and 87 percent responded

to the survey. The results indicated that the major barrier

to the rehabilitation of persons with epilepsy was (1) inap-

propriate and negative attitudes toward epileptic clients,

and (2) inadequate counselor knowledge of how to work with

the epileptic client, especially in the area of employment.

All forty-two states that responded to this survey indicated

that the major need in the rehabilitation of the epileptic

is further exploration of why employment is the major

problem for this population and how counselors can become

more effective in solving that problem.








Placing the client with a history of epilepsy into com-

petitive employment can be a difficult and frustrating task

for the rehabilitation counselor. It has been found that

"counselors frequently experience frustration and failure in

well-intentioned but ill-informed efforts to place epilep-

tics in suitable employment" (Wright, Gibbs & Linds, 1962,

p. 113). Likewise, Muthard (1975) stated ". . it is often

the counselor's lack of knowledge rather than the charac-

teristics of the disorder that is responsible for poor ser-

vice delivery to the epileptic client" (p. 76). Yet, a

review of the literature shows little attention being paid

to changing this shortcoming. "Efforts to help the client

with epilepsy have basically remained in the medical treat-

ment domain, yet the consequences faced by the client with

epilepsy more often occur in society" (Hopkins & Scambler,

1977, p. 43).

Eighty percent of the two to four million Americans

with epilepsy are able to work (Epilepsy Foundation of

America, 1979). The unemployment rate for epileptics is

presently 25-30 percent; over twice that of the national

average (Epilepsy Foundation of America, 1979). This popu-

lation is capable of providing economically for itself and

need not be dependent upon the rest of society.


Purpose of the Study

It is the purpose of this study to investigate work

values and assertiveness in employed and chronically unem-

ployed epileptics.






-7-

The Adult Self Expression Scale (ASES) (Gay, 1974) will

be used to determine assertiveness and The Work Values In-

ventory (WVI) (Super, 1970) will be used to assess the goals

which motivate individuals to work.

By examining work values and assertiveness in the epi-

leptic population, we will gain a better insight into why

employment consistently remains a major problem for these

individuals. This would provide needed information for

rehabilitation counselors working with the chronically un-

employed epileptic.


Research Questions

1. Do work values in the employed epileptic differ from the

unemployed epileptic?

2. Do levels of assertiveness differ in the employed and

unemployed epileptic?

3. Is there a relationship between work values and asser-

tiveness behavior levels in employed and unemployed

epileptics?


Definition of Terms

The following terms will be used in this study:

Assertive Behavior--assertion is the direct and appropriate

communication of a person's needs, wants, and opinions with-

out punishing, threatening, or putting down others and doing

this without fear during the process.

Chronically Unemployed--one who has been out of work for a

year or longer or has had a series of jobs that were held

less than six months at a time.






-8-

Disability--a condition of impairment, physical or mental,

having an objective aspect that can be medically described.

Employed--one who has held the same job for six months or

longer.

Epilepsy--a symptom, a manifestation of abnormal cerebral

function which may be due to a large number of different

causes; not a specific or a single chronic disease of the

brain.

Types of Epilepsy

Grand Mal--a seizure type. Muscles become tense, the

body rigid, followed by a temporary loss of conscious-

ness and violent shaking of the entire body. Usually

lasts about two to five minutes.

Petit Mal--seizures characterized by sudden loss of

awareness, by a vacant and glassy stare, and by sudden

interruption of the activity in which the individual

was engaged, including speech; lasts from four to

thirty seconds; occasionally accompanied by subtle

swallowing movements or lip smacking. Also referred to

as absence seizures.

Psychomotor Seizure--a seizure characterized by altered

awareness, repetitive actions and sometimes amnesia;

occurs mainly in temporal lobe epilepsy.

Temporal Lobe Seizure--seizures arising in the temporal

lobe, often called psychomotor seizures. About one-

fifth of all epileptic attacks are of this kind.








Rehabilitation--a process of restoring disabled individuals

to the fullest physical, mental, social, vocational and eco-

nomic usefulness of which they are capable.

Rehabilitation Process--a four phased process in order of

implementation: the evaluation of the client, planning with

the client a course of action, implementing the planned

treatment and termination after successful completion of all

phases.

Seizure Control--the control of epileptic seizures using

anti- convulsant medications, that allow the individual to

live as close to normal as possible.

Seizure Free--the complete and absolute control of all

seizure activity with the use of anticonvulsant medication.


Organization of the Remainder of the Study

The following review of the literature will explore the

development of work values and how the onset of a disability

such as epilepsy may cause problems in this development.

Assertiveness and nonassertiveness will be explored and how

this is related to employment and/or unemployment.

This will be followed by the methodology section which

will contain population, sample, hypotheses, instruments,

and analysis of data.


















CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


The Development of Work Values

"A value is a learned belief so thoroughly internalized

that it colors the actions and thoughts of the individual

and produces a strong emotional/intellectual response when

anything runs counter to it" (Barry & Wolf, 1965, p. 42).

The individual operating on the basis of a learned value

feels he/she must think and behave in a certain way because

it is right or good.

Speaking of values in general, Super (1975) feels that

to a considerable extent they are family derived. Parents

begin teaching certain values the day the child is born and

reinforce learning through various types of rewards and

punishments. Furthermore, some studies indicate that this

is also true of work values (Centers, 1948; Friend &

Haggard, 1948; McAuther, 1955 and Porter, 1954).

A child who learns to value work, often is one who is

raised in an environment conducive to that. Values the

child adopts can be transmitted from the parents through

verbal and nonverbal communication (Barry & Wolf, 1965). It

becomes apparent, when a father works double shifts or


-10-






-11-


moonlights or the mother becomes employed in order to im-

prove both style and standard of living, that work is neces-

sary and/or good. Miller and Form (1951) have vividly

described the emphasis on the value of money and the impor-

tance of "getting ahead," and how these values are trans-

mitted to the young child by family members.

The child may learn that certain types of behaviors are

associated with work and is often encouraged to develop

these behaviors in the home environment. Accepting respon-

sibility, for example, may be taught by assigning household

chores to the child. Rewards are often given in the form of

money or praise for extra work done such as raking the yard

or washing the family car. Wright (1980) stated, ". . the

family provides the behavioral patterns and motivational

systems that induce the child to achieve and become produc-

tive" (p. 87).

The school system often continues the process of learn-

ing the values of work. Miller and Form (1951) identify

five prescriptions about good work ways which the school

teaches.

1. The pupil is trained to stay on the job and

learn his/her lessons.

2. The pupil is encouraged to develop initiative

and to rise socially.

3. The pupil is trained to obey authority.

4. The pupil is trained to develop character.

5. The pupil is trained to get along with teachers

and schoolmates.






-12-

Through such instructions, the young child is helped to pre-

pare for the world of work.

The individual often experiences the first direct con-

tact with the world of work through a part-time job after

school and on weekends, or possibly a full-time job during

the summer months. Although this job may be seen as only

temporary, the individual may learn that certain expecta-

tions and/or behaviors must be met in order to hold the job.

Numerous research studies in the area of interest

measurement relate personality factors to interest patterns,

with the general conclusion that occupational interest re-

flects the value orientations, the needs and the motivations

of individuals (Darley & Hagenah, 1955). Values orienta-

tion, in particular, appears to be closely linked with voca-

tional choice and development. There are few occupations

which can satisfy all the needs of an individual and, as

Ginzberg (1951) suggests, a compromise occurs which takes

into account, among many things, the values of the indi-

vidual.

What one values one chooses. Once this compromise is

made and the occupation is selected, at least tentatively,

the process seems to reverse and it becomes more a question

of valuing what was chosen than choosing what is valued

(Kinnane & Gaubinger, 1963). The degree to which one values

his/her chosen occupation depends largely on the satisfaction

he/she is receiving from that occupation.

Ginzberg, Ginzberg, Alexrad and Herma (1951) identified

three different types of satisfactions related to occupa-

tion.






-13-


First, there are the intrinsic satisfactions which
come from two sources: (1) the pleasure which is
derived from engaging in work activity (functional
pleasure), and (2) the sense of accomplishment
which is experienced from meeting social standards
of success and personal realization of abilities
through achievement. Second, there are the con-
comitant satisfactions which are associated with
the physical and psychological conditions of a
person's work. These could include working in a
clean, air conditioned plant, having many fringe
benefits, enjoying congenial co-workers, being em-
ployed by a company with worker orientation, etc.
Third, there are the extrinsic satisfactions which
are the tangible rewards of work, i.e., pay and
bonuses. (p. 421)


Work Values and the Disabled

Any discussion of work values must take into considera-

tion the environmental variables that contribute to and/or

influence the shaping of those values. The early onset of a

disability, for example, may influence the formation of work

values. The child who is born with or experiences the early

acquisition of a disability often does not follow the same

maturation process in developing work values and work roles

that the "normal" child may experience. Gellman (1961)

contrasted the situation of the normal child to that of the

disabled child.

The disabled child is often deprived of the complex
of family chores and responsibilities which develop
a sense of productivity and work satisfaction. The
birth of a child with an apparent disability may
induce parental attitudes of overprotection or re-
jection which limit independent activities. School
often brings segregation or isolation. Lower stan-
dards for the handicapped may well diminish the
achievement drive. Prejudice against the disabled
person restricts opportunities for summer or after
school work. As disabled young adults, they lack
the knowledge and experience which underpin a work
personality. Having learned how not to work, they
see themselves as unproductive and unable to work.
(p. 283)






-14-

Epilepsy and Work Values

Epilepsy may strike at any age, but it is predominantly

a disorder of youth. At least three fourths of all cases

begin in the first two decades of life (Lennox, 1960). An

estimated 90 percent of these cases have no known causes

(Epilepsy Foundation of America, 1979).

Parental reactions and attitudes toward epilepsy will,

to a large extent, determine how the child will interpret

their disability. Lerman (1977) found that 80 percent of

the families studied reacted poorly and had a change in

attitude toward the epileptic child after a diagnosis of

epilepsy had been disclosed to them. Lerman (1977) stated,

"I claim that a major factor in the genesis of psychosocial

problems in the epileptic, obviating employment, is faulty

upbringing, namely a wrong parental attitude toward the epi-

leptic child" (p. 265).

Since American culture places a high premium on perfec-

tion, the parents of an epileptic child may mourn the loss

of a perfect, "normal" child and react with depression

(Olshansky, 1962). Some parents become more than depressed

and reject the epileptic child either partially or com-

pletely (Lennox & Mohr, 1950). Other parents, as Freud's

(1946) work on ego suggested, may become emotionally

smothering and oversolicitous as a reaction formation to

their unconscious rejection of the epileptic child. Such

parental responses may arrest healthy ego development of the

child and cause a loss of ego strength, the very quality






-15-


that the child needs in order to cope with the psychosocially

stressful aspects of their disability (Goldin & Margolin,

1975).

Particularly damaging to later adjustment is the atti-

tude of guilt and resentment on the part of the parents and

the overprotection that results (Goldin & Margolin, 1975;

Lennox, 1960; Lerman, 1977 and Wright, 1980). The desire to

protect the handicapped child sometime becomes an irrational

obsession. To quote Lennox (1960), "Many parents believe it

their duty to keep the epileptic child always in sight and

forbid all activities which involve danger" (p. 212).

An example of extreme overprotection is illustrated by

Lerman (1977) in the case of a twenty-three year old male

client who had never had a job. During his childhood he had

petit mal seizures, subsequently followed by rare grand mal

episodes. All through high school his mother escorted him

to school in the morning and home in the afternoon. When

the boy was seventeen, his father shaved him every morning

since he could not be trusted with a razor.

Epileptologists and counselors have become all to

familiar with parental overprotectiveness and the problems

that result. It is well known that the tendency of parents

to overprotect a child can be greatly increased by the exis-

tence of a physical or mental disability. Aware of the many

adverse attitudes concerning epilepsy and because of the

possibility of injury as a result of one having a seizure,

many parents exert an even greater effort to protect their

epileptic child. To quote Lerman (1977),






-16-


Many seizure free epileptics are almost unemploy-
able not because of cerebral dysrhythmia or feeble-
mindedness, but because of personality problems as
a result of parental overprotection. Apart from
the personality disturbances due to organic brain
disease and/or seizures, the epileptic is often
afflicted with maladjustment problems, including
lack of emotional maturity, dependency, and moti-
vation to work, which are purely psychogenic and
not produced by the epilepsy per se. (p. 265)

Numerous other researchers in the area support this state-

ment.

Kaye (1951), investigating psychosocial maladjustment

in children with petit mal epilepsy, found an impaired

parent/child relationship as a cause. In all instances

there was parental rejection leading to hostility or compen-

satory overprotection. In another study Pond and Bidwell

(1954) found that 40 percent of their patients had difficul-

ties in social adjustment due to behavior problems as a re-

sult of parental overprotectiveness. Kanner (1960) sup-

ported this by stating that "overprotection may result in

spoiled behavior and retardation of mental and social matu-

ration" (p. 266). Finally, Fox (1947) states that "physical

danger likely to occur is really less than the mental damage

resulting from overprotection" (p. 266).

In a review of 100 children suffering from benign focal

epilepsy of childhood, Lerman and Kivity (1975) compared two

groups. One retrospective and the other prospective, which

were similar clinically but differed in the way in which

they had been brought up due to dissimilar attitudes on the

part of the treating physicians and the parents. In the








older retrospective group, a guarded prognosis had been

pronounced and excessive restrictions had been imposed re-

sulting in anxiety, overprotection and overindulgence in

most cases. In the prospective group, the favorable prog-

nosis was stressed, the parents were told that full recovery

would ensue within several years, and they were warned

against overprotection and overpermissiveness. In the for-

mer group, emotional difficulties, dependency, behavior

problems and social maladjustment were much more prominent.

Thus, we have the same kind of epilepsy but different psy-

chosocial consequences, clearly due to environmental fac-

tors. To quote Livingston (1972), "the epileptic individual

who has been treated as if they were as fragile as a piece

of crystal does not have the opportunity to develop the in-

dependence and self-reliance that is so essential in the

field of employment" (p. 436).

The most disastrous advice, often given by those in-

volved in the care and treatment of the epileptic child, is

that they should not be angered, aggravated, or opposed

lest they have a seizure. This attitude may well result in

the parents becoming overpermissive and overindulgent and in

the child's becoming pampered and spoiled. If this attitude

is present, that could affect these individuals formation of

work values. This study will examine work values in em-

ployed and unemployed epileptics.


What Is Assertive Behavior?

Assertive behavior enables a person to act in his/her

own best interest, to stand up for herself or himself without








undue anxiety, to express honest feelings comfortably, or to

exercise personal rights without denying the rights of others.

1. To act in one's own best interest refers to
the capacity to make life decisions (career,
lifestyle), to take initiative, to trust one's
own judgment, to set goals and work to achieve
them, to ask help from others, to comfortably
participate socially.
2. To stand up for oneself includes such behaviors
as saying "no," setting limits on one's time
and energy, responding to criticism or put
downs or anger, expressing or supporting or
defending one's opinion.
3. To express honest feelings comfortably means
the ability to disagree, to show anger, to
show affection or friendship, to admit fear or
anxiety, to express agreement or support, to
be spontaneous, all without painful anxiety.
4. To exercise personal rights relates to one's
competency (as a citizen, as a consumer, as a
member of a work group) to express opinions,
to work for change, to respond to violations
of one's own rights or those of others.
5. To not deny the rights of others is to accom-
plish the above personal expressions without
unfair criticisms of others, without hurtful
behavior toward others, without name-calling,
without intimidation, without controlling
others. (Alberti & Emmons, 1981, p. 28)

Assertive behavior is further defined as knowing what

you need and want, making this clear to others, working in a

self-directed way to get your needs met while showing re-

spect for others.

Above all, being assertive requires honest self-disclo-

sure. Assertive people communicate honestly and directly;

they express feelings, needs, and ideas and stand up for

their rights; they are capable of acting in their own be-

half; they take the initiative in meeting their needs; and

they ask for information and for the assistance of others

when they need it.






-19-


You will know you are behaving assertively when you ex-

perience feelings of reduced anxiety and increased satisfac-

tion, self-esteem, self-confidence, and when more of your

important needs are being met. Others will often respond

more positively to you, and some of your relationships will

become more satisfying (Adams, 1979, p. 24).

"Assertive individuals are expressive, spontaneous,

well-defined, confident and able to influence and lead

others" (Galassi, Delo, Galassi & Bastien, 1974, p. 1962).


What Is Nonassertive Behavior?

Alberti and Emmons (1981) discuss two concepts of non-

assertiveness which are useful in understanding and develop-

ing more adequate responses to life situations which call

for assertiveness.

1. Situational nonassertiveness refers to those

individuals whose behavior is typically adequate

and self-enhancing; however, certain situations

stimulate a great deal of anxiety in them which

prevents fully adequate responses to that par-

ticular situation, i.e., job interviews.

2. Generalized nonassertiveness refers to those

persons whose behavior is typically nonasser-

tive. This individual, often observed as shy,

timid, or reserved, is unable to assert rights

or act on feelings under most or nearly all

circumstances. The generally nonassertive

person is one with very low self-esteem (p. 15).






-20-

Nonassertive behavior means not expressing your feel-

ings, thoughts, needs, wants, opinions to others--failing to

act in self-directed ways to meet your important needs.

Nonassertive people react rather than act; they spend

much time and energy responding to what others say and do

instead of taking the initiative for communicating and act-

ing on their own. Many nonassertive people are so overcome

with anxiety that they won't express even their most ordi-

nary feelings, needs, and opinions. When they do express

their ideas or needs, they often do it in such a self-

effacing way that other people disregard or ignore them

(Adams, 1979, p. 21).

"Nonassertive persons, more often feel inadequate and

inferior, have marked tendencies to be oversolicitous of

emotional support from others and exhibit excessive inter-

personal anxiety" (Galassi, Delo, Galassi & Bastien, 1974,

p. 1962).


Employment and Assertiveness/Nonassertiveness

Once a month, prominent press coverage is given to one

statistic for the entire country. It is published by the U.

S. Government Bureau of Labor Statistics and it is the unem-

ployment figure. This figure for June 1982 was 9.5. The

annual average of unemployed persons for 1981 was 8,237,000.

"The business of getting hired is a ruthlessly competi-

tive race. Perhaps you won't see them, but you are running

with a pack of competitors" (Pettus, 1981, p. 31).






-21-

So what does employment have to do with assertive/nonas-

sertiveness? There is a process that everyone must go

through, at least partially, in order to join the ranks of

the employed. The following will examine the various steps

in this process and show how assertiveness is a factor in

each of these steps.


The Job Hunt

The whole process of the job hunt in this country
is Neanderthal. Year after year, our systems con-
demn man after man and woman after woman to go
down the same path, face the same problems, make
the same mistakes, endure the same frustrations,
go through the same loneliness, and end up still
unemployed. When we turn to the "experts" in this
field to say, "show me a better way", we are cha-
grined to discover they are just as baffled by this
job hunt, and just as aware that they haven't yet
come up with the answer to it, as we are. (Bolles,
1981, p. 39)

The job hunt should ultimately begin with choosing what

type of work one wants to do. A forty-hour a week job, done

for fifty weeks a year, adds up to 2,000 hours annually. A

study by Columbia University revealed that the overwhelming

majority of Americans, 90 percent, would prefer an occupa-

tion other than their present one. Taking time to proceed

carefully and thoroughly in choosing your work will probably

find you happier in the long run and choice is the most key

element in assertiveness (Alberti & Emmons, 1981).

Assertiveness training has been used to teach job

hunting skills. The Career Choice Information Center (CCIC)

at the University of Texas has applied the concept of asser-

tiveness to the development of effective job hunting skills.

The Assertive Job-Hunt Survey (AJHS) was administered at the






-22-

beginning and end of two different sets of assertive job

hunting classes. These classes applied the concept of as-

sertiveness by suggesting how job hunters can act on their

environment to procure information, establish contact per-

sons in organizations, and so on. The two separate groups

or sets of students taking the AJHS at the beginning and end

of four week classes in assertive job hunting showed a sig-

nificant increase in scores from pre-test to post-test.

Average increases in scores were 27 and 21 points (Becker,

1980).


The Interview

Nobody has ever gotten a job offer of any kind, at
any salary, at any point in history, without first
having that meeting known as the interview. For
too long, misdirected job applicants have treated
this crucial meeting as though it hardly matters.
In fact, the interview is all that matters. Win
the interview and you'll get hired. (Pettus, 1981,
p. 6)

As the job market becomes progressively more competi-

tive, the job interview becomes more important. The ability

to effectively communicate appears to be a crucial factor in

the selection process (Drake, Kaplan & Stone, 1972; Tschiragi,

1973). The job seeker must be prepared to effectively com-

municate verbally and nonverbally in the job interview

(Lumsden & Sharf, 1974).

Onoda and Gassert (1978) discuss several reasons why

job seekers have difficulty effectively communicating during

a job interview. The first is that they are often unpre-

pared or lack knowledge of the purpose, importance, and the






-23-

process of the job interview. In essence, the job inter-

viewees do not know how to effectively say what is impor-

tant. Second, even if the interviewees comprehend the types

of information to communicate about themselves, nonverbal

communication may undermine their efforts. It is not only

what one states about oneself, but also how one acts or re-

sponds behaviorally that communicates a message to the in-

terviewer. Third, the job interviewee may have a faulty

belief system (attitudes, opinions and beliefs) that inhibit

effective communication.

Assertiveness is communicating yourself and your ideas

(Alberti & Emmons, 1981). Assertion training was developed

as a technique to help individuals more effectively express

their rights, wants, and feelings in interpersonal situa-

tions (Alberti & Emmons, 1981; Fensterheim, 1972; Wolpe &

Lazarus, 1966). Assertion training not only includes the

elimination of maladaptive behaviors, but training in new

responses. Various techniques have been employed in asser-

tion training such as reciprocal inhibitions, shaping,

modeling, coaching, behavioral rehearsing, and modifying

negative self talk (Alberti & Emmons, 1981; Eisler, lersen &

Miller, 1974; Lange & Jakubowski, 1976; McFall & Marston,

1970; Wolpe & Lazarus, 1966).

Assertion training has been used to improve job inter-

view behaviors. McGovern (1976) adapted the assertion

training model to help individuals more effectively communi-

cate information about themselves in an employment inter-

view. Groups of 12-20 individuals participated in one four






-24-

hour workshop. The term assertion as used in these work-

shops placed more emphasis on effective communication than

on standing up for personal rights, as defined by the more

traditional assertion training programs. The group divided

into triads, with one person acting as the interviewer, one

person as interviewee, and the third person acting as an

observer. Each triad member was given the opportunity to

play each of the roles. Group members were given direct

feedback as to how he or she projected assertive responses.

Videotaping was also used as a direct feedback mechanism.

After practicing targeted behaviors in the triad, the entire

group reassembled for discussion. During these discussions,

leaders focused upon the various principles of assertive

behavior rather than offering specific responses to specific

questions. Each of the group members were assigned homework

tasks that entailed practicing assertive behaviors that were

learned. Each member had a follow-up appointment with a

counselor to roleplay an entire interview. Final results

were significant with participants displaying increased

self-knowledge of their qualities, values, strengths, and

weaknesses that relate to the job interview.

The main assertive training procedures for groups are

modeling, coaching, behavioral rehearsal, and covert rehear-

sal (Wright, 1980). In behavior rehearsal, participants

roleplay the behaviors they are trying to develop. The Job

Corps has used roleplaying to teach appropriate assertive

job interview skills. Past experience has indicated that






-25-

trainees were often plagued by problems and attitudes con-

cerning the job interview. As a result, strengths emerged

that had not occurred before. Trainees indicated they were

better prepared for a real job interview, mainly the ability

to communicate (Jackson, 1972).

Assertiveness training has been used to improve 'nter-

view skills for law students. As the job market tightens,

the job search for the would-be attorney is becoming in-

creasingly significant (Ball & Nelson, 1979). Perhaps at

one time the only prerequisite for a law graduate's employ-

ment was a degree. Apparently this is no longer true. Ball

and Nelson (1979) stated:

The law graduate now needs an edge. That edge is
obtainable through skills in human interaction
which can best be learned through assertiveness
training for job-seeking groups. Workshops in as-
sertive interview skills are not only helpful, but
necessary for the student whose goals throughout
law school have been objective and often turned
inward, away from "people skills." (p. 42)

Assertiveness skills were evaluated using the Rathus

Assertiveness Schedule before and after students partici-

pated in four one hour assertiveness training groups.

Videotaping was used for discussion and feedback of mock in-

terviews, so that nonassertive responses could be identified.

Participants paired off to practice assertive communication

skills. At the end of each session, each member was asked

"what did you say that made you feel right about your

answer?" The forced self-compliment is one way of becoming

comfortable with giving and receiving compliments, an im-

portant characteristic of the assertive person (Alberti &






-26-


Emmons, 1981). Results were significant. After assertive

training the participants exhibited a greater sense of con-

trol and choice in the job search. This was reflected in a

more positive self-concept. The group experienced a greater

self-knowledge in terms of their strengths and weaknesses,

values, and improved communication skills. "Assertiveness

is the indispensable tool of the truly successful lawyer"

(Ball & Nelson, 1979, p. 7).

Prozak (1969) found significant improvement in job

seeking skills of participants after group sessions using

modeling, roleplaying, and videotaping. The sessions empha-

sized five points: (1) ability to explain one's skills; (2)

ability to answer problem questions (poor work history, age,

mental or physical problems); (3) appropriate appearance and

mannerisms; (4) enthusiasm; and (5) fine points of the inter-

view (calling back closing "would it be alright if I called

you on Wednesday to find out about the job?").

LaFitte and Phillips (1980) of the Career Choice Infor-

mation Center, University of Texas, described a series of

job hunting classes developed at their center. The classes

included four key objectives.

1. Emphasis on both attitudinal change and skill

development.

2. Interaction and communication.

3. Vehicle to deliver career job hunting

training.

4. Development of an instrument to access job hunting

behavior.






-27-

The classes met for four sessions. The concepts taught

were structured using the basic principles of assertiveness

and effective job hunting behavior. The application of as-

sertiveness to job hunting helped students identify rights

and choices in the job hunt, and counter self-defeating

thoughts and behaviors. Videotaped feedback, lectures,

group discussions, group exercises, homework and roleplaying

methods were employed.

Evaluation of these classes indicated that they met the

stated objectives.

Many people view assertiveness as a verbal behavior.

Indeed it is, but not entirely. The manner in which one ex-

presses an assertive message is just as important as the

words used (Alberti & Emmons, 1981). The following will ex-

plore the related literature on nonverbal assertive beha-

viors and how they relate to the job interview.


The Interview and Nonverbal Assertive Behavior

Systematic observations of assertive behavior have led

behavioral scientists to conclude that there are several

important components which contribute to an assertive act.

A number of these components are nonverbal. Alberti and

Emmons (1981) discussed ways in which assertiveness can be

communicated nonverbally in the following:

1. Eye Contact--one of the most obvious aspects of

behavior when addressing another person is where

you look. If you look directly at the person

as you speak, it helps to communicate your sin-

cerity and to increase the directness of your






-28-

message. If you look down or away much of the

time, you present a lack of confidence, or a

quality of deference to the other person.

2. Body Posture--an active and erect posture, fac-

ing the other person directly, lends additional

assertiveness to your message.

3. Distance/Physical Contact--distance from the

other person has a considerable effect upon

communication. Standing or sitting very close

suggests a quality of intimacy in a relation-

ship. Coming too close may offend the other

person, make him/her defensive, or open the

door to greater intimacy.

4. Gestures--accentuating your message with appro-

priate gestures can add emphasis, openness, and

warmth. Uninhibited movement can also suggest

openness, self-confidence, and spontaneity on

the part of the speaker.

5. Facial Expression--effective assertions require

an expression that agrees with the message.

Let your face say the same thing your words are

saying.

6. Voice Tone/Inflection/Volume--the way we use

our voices is a vital element in our communi-

cations. If you can control and use your voice

effectively, you have acquired a powerful tool

in your self-expression.






-29-

7. Fluency--a smooth flow of speech is a valuable

asset in getting your point across in any type

of conversation.

8. Listening--assertive listening involves an ac-

tive commitment to the other person. Effective

listening may involve the act of giving feed-

back to the other person so that it is clear

that you understand what was said.

The job seeker must be prepared to effectively communi-

cate verbally and nonverbally. Onoda and Gassert (1978)

stated, ". . there are several reasons why job candidates

have difficulty effectively communicating during a job in-

terview. One of the reasons listed was that if the inter-

viewees comprehend the types of information to communicate

about themselves, nonverbal communication may undermine

their efforts. It is not only what one states about one-

self, but also how one acts or responds behaviorally that

communicates a message to the interviewer" (p. 492).

Eisler, Hersen and Miller (1974) measured the effects

of modeling on eight verbal and nonverbal aspects of asser-

tive behavior. Three groups were used: (1) modeling group,

(2) practice-control, and (3) test-retest. Results showed

that the modeling group clearly demonstrated more positive

effects of treatment than the other two groups. Specifically,

the modeling participants showed greater changes in five of

the eight variables studied: (1) longest duration of reply,

(2) greatest number of request for new behavior, (3) greatest

affect, (4) louder, clearer speech, and (5) greatest overall






-30-

assertiveness. Ball and Nelson (1979) also found signifi-

cant positive change in nonverbal assertive behaviors in in-

dividuals after participating in an assertiveness training

workshop, which placed emphasis on body language, using a

handshake exercise to point out the importance of eye con-

tact, facial gestures, body posture, and voice control.

Onoda and Gassert (1978) found similar results.

Rogers (1982) stated:

Once inside the door, nonverbal communication
comes through in everything from your initial
handshake to your facial expressions and the
way you sit in your chair. Remember that your
body speaks for you, so train it to speak favor-
ably. (p. 119)


The Job

"No man or woman is ever assertive enough. It is a

glittering half truth that women fail on the job because

they are not assertive. That's true of men too" (Irish,

1978, p. 25).

The best that assertive behavior can do is help you

communicate so you feel more comfortable (Baer, 1976). Most

jobs require some form of communication, whether it is with

an employer, supervisor, or co-worker. Assertiveness train-

ing has been used to improve communications in the work

place.

Many of the people teaching assertiveness do so in work

related situations. Kirkman used assertion training in af-

firmative action programs that she works up for large corpo-

rations. Gold and Flug have had success using assertiveness






-31-

techniques in career workshops for women, workshops designed

to help women get more from their jobs (Baer, 1976).

Many view passive individuals as the sole losers in in-

terpersonal encounters. Yet, passivity frequently has a

detrimental impact upon others also (Hubert, 1982). The

supervisor who passively yields to every pressure may even-

tually destroy the morale of his or her subordinates who be-

come dismayed by lack of leadership or dependable support.

The employee who cannot ask for a deserved raise or promo-

tion may become disgruntled and negatively affect company

morale. Employees who rarely express their ideas, feelings,

and goals deprive their firms of their full organizational

participation, deny fellow employees opportunity to interact

and develop authentic interpersonal relationships, and

hinder their own personal and professional growth. Passive

behavior creates a vicious cycle in which unassertive indi-

viduals eventually harm everyone--including themselves

(Hubert, 1982).

By learning assertion one is actually learning to give

and take more equally with others, and to be of more service

to self and others (Alberti & Emmons, 1981).

The assertive individual is able to stand up for his/

her rights. By expressing themselves forthrightly and

effectively, assertive individuals are able to gain the

respect of others (Baer, 1976).

Hubert (1982) stated:

. Since ours is an interdependent world in
which one must rely on others to obtain even the
basic necessities, it appears axiomatic that any






-32-

behavior that improves one's ability to express
clearly his or her ideas, feelings, and needs
and enhances one's interpersonal skills is de-
sirable. Through responsible assertive behavior,
people are able to develop mutually rewarding
interpersonal relationships, foster their own
personal and professional development and there-
fore, make valuable organizational contributions.
(p. 26).

Assertion training has been used to improve job perfor-

mance of counselors. Flowers and Goldman (1975) found as-

sertion trained counselors were superior to untrained coun-

selors on a set of counselor effectiveness measures. The

assertion trained counselors were more effective than un-

trained counselors at (a) inducing clients to specify the

particular conditions under which their problems occurred,

(b) inducing the client to clearly define the ways to behave

when facing those problems in the future, and (c) helping

the client specify precisely how to change his/her behavior

in order to reach his/her aforementioned goal.

The Rathus Assertiveness Scale was used to compare the

assertiveness of assertion trained counselors with control

subjects (there were no pretreatment differences). The mean

for the assertion trainee group was +8.12 and the control

group mean was -2.38.

Supervisors of professional women employed in the

largest 500 industrial firms in the United States were sur-

veyed to see if they felt professional females employed in

their companies were assertive enough to function success-

fully in managerial jobs.

Supervisors of four-year female college graduates felt

women needed assertiveness training in the ability to






-33-

express feelings by speaking up during meetings, making re-

quest of others by delegating workload to subordinates, and

dealing with criticism by not letting pressure and opposi-

tion affect their work performance (Adams, 1979).

It is very difficult to be successful in business,

either your own or someone else's without a reasonable

degree of assertiveness (Jeffers & Carr, 1980). Gradually,

large business is becoming more aware of the need to be as-

sertive. Jenelyn Block Associates is an affirmative action

and organization development firm which began five years ago

with career development and assertion programs. They now

teach assertiveness training in the following organizations:

Bell Laboratories, Agency for International Development,

Exxon, Avon, World Bank, United Virginia Bankshares and

Hoffman LaRoche.

Research has shown that there are certain variables as-

sociated with assertiveness/nonassertiveness. In the

following we will discuss these variables and how they re-

late to employment/unemployment.


Variables Associated with Assertiveness/Nonassertiveness
and How They Relate to Employment/Unemployment


Self-Concept

One variable that seems to relate to assertiveness is

self-concept. Percell, Berwick and Beigel (1974) found a

significant positive correlation between assertiveness and

self-concept when they administered a battery of tests,

including the Lawrence Interpersonal Behavior Test (for






-34-

assertiveness) and the Self-Acceptance Scale of the

California Psychological Inventory, to a group of outpatient

psychiatric patients. Later, in an experiment to access the

effects of assertion training on the same population, they

found that as individuals became more assertive they also

became more self-accepting (Percell et al., 1974). Numerous

other researchers in the area have also witnessed a signifi-

cant increase in self-concept after assertion training (Ball

& Nelson, 1979; Carlson, 1976; Lomont, Gilner, Spector &

Skinner, 1969; Mayo & Pearlman, 1977; Onoda & Gassert, 1978;

Percell, Berwick & Beigel, 1974).


Self-Concept and Employment

Negative self-concepts frequently foster self-fulfill-

ing prophecies of failure (Hubert, 1982). The person who

forsees failure in getting a job will probably be extremely

nervous at the employment interview and perform poorly.

Employees who retreat from friendly approaches from co-

workers because they feel others will not like them may soon

find themselves being ignored at the work place. Creative

ideas and opinions may never be expressed by the individual

who feels he or she has nothing of value to offer. Negative

self-concept denies the individual opportunities for profes-

sional growth and development as well as opportunities for

personal satisfaction and enjoyment (Hubert, 1982).


Self-Confidence

A number of theoreticians in the area of assertiveness

have speculated that there is a relationship between a






-35-

person's level of assertiveness and their feelings of self-

confidence (Alberti & Emmons, 1981). Gay, Hollandsworth and

Galassi (1975) found that the subjects scoring high on the

Adult Self Expression Scale (ASES) described themselves as

more confident than low scorers. Correlational data for the

ASES with the Adjective Check List needs scales indicated

that high scorers are more achievement oriented, more likely

to seek leadership roles and individual relationships, more

independent, less likely to express feelings of inferiority

through self-depreciation and less deferential in relation-

ships with others. These findings are very similar to the

findings of both Bates and Zimmerman (1971) and Galassi,

Delo, Galassi and Bastien (1974).

Soucy (1980) found a significant increase in self-con-

fidence in individuals who participated in a program he

designed called "Self-Confidence Through Assertive Problem

Solving (SCAPS)." Participants met once a week, two hours

per session for eight weeks, with 8-10 per group.


Self-Confidence and Employment

It becomes critical that one's self-confidence is ap-

parent at the interview. Roger (1982) stated, ". at the

interview one will certainly want to be assertive enough to

show self-confidence and drive. The potential employees are

actually sellers. They are trying to sell a product--them-

selves. If you are confident in your product your inter-

viewer will be more likely to invest. Indeed to hire an

employee is an investment" (p. 47).






-36-


In 1982 the College Placement Council conducted a sur-

vey to determine traits employers most frequently seek in

job candidates. In order of relevance, self-confidence

ranked third on a list of sixteen. Northwestern University,

in 1981, conducted a survey of 186 companies to determine

factors that lead to the rejection of a job applicants. The

first three in order read: (1) inability to demonstrate

self-confidence, (2) lack of enthusiasm, and (3) inability

to demonstrate a clear set of goals (Rogers, 1982).

Coopers and Lybrand, the nation's third largest account-

ing firm rates job candidates from outstanding to unsatis-

factory in a number of areas. They refer to this rating as

the "Confidential Performance Report." Number one on the

list is initial impression created (self-confidence, poise,

maturity) (Jeffers, 1980).


Anxiety

The variable which has received the most attention re-

garding its relationship to assertive behavior is anxiety.

Bates and Zimmerman (1971) administered the Constriction

Scale and the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List to 600

students as one of the validation procedures for the Con-

striction Scale. They found a significant correlation

between scores on the two scales which affirmed their hy-

pothesis that anxiety is positively correlated with being

nonassertive.

In another study, Galassi, Delo, Galassi and Bastien

(1974) found that college students scoring low on a measure






-37-

of assertiveness selected adjectives on a checklist that in-

dicated excessive interpersonal anxiety. Gay et al. (1975)

using 464 subjects ranging in age from 18 to 60 years, ad-

ministered the Adult Self Expression Scale and the Taylor's

Manifest Anxiety Scale as one of the validation studies for

the ASES. They found that the measure of anxiety clearly

differentiated low from high assertiveness as identified by

the ASES. Percell et al. (1974) hypothesized that there

would be significant negative correlation between measures

of assertiveness and anxiety. The hypothesis was supported

in a study of 100 psychiatric patients. Orenstein,

Orenstein and Carr (1975) found the same, using 450 college

students.

Assertiveness training has been used to reduce anxiety.

Percell, Berwick and Beigel (1974) used two groups of 12

psychiatric outpatients experiencing problems with social or

interpersonal skills, who were randomly selected, to par-

ticipate in eight sessions of either assertiveness training

or a relationship-control group. The two groups were basi-

cally the same. The Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale was used

as a pre- and post-test. The assertiveness training group

showed a significant decrease in anxiety. The control group

showed no statistically significant change. Lee (1977)

found similar results with a group of nurses who received

assertion training. DeLange (1978) used assertiveness

training with a group of 120 volunteer women who participated

in one of two control conditions over a six-week period. A






-38-

significant reduction of anxiety was produced. Lange and

Jakubowski (1976) found that after assertiveness training,

increased assertion correlated with decreased anxiety with a

group of 36 graduate students.


Anxiety and Employment

Almost everyone is apprehensive about looking for a

job. This is completely understandable, because one does

not look for a job that often. Powell (1981) discussed an

individual she was counseling who experienced such anxiety

over finding employment that he visited six different

employment agencies during the job hunt and never entered

any of them. In this situation his fear of being rejected

prevented him from even attempting to become employed.

When one is actually in an interview situation the

ability to communicate is very important. In 1980, North-

western University surveyed 166 employers to determine why

applicants were not offered jobs. The inability to communi-

cate was second on the list. One who experiences a great

deal of anxiety during the interview may not be able to com-

municate the information needed to secure the job. Fraser

(1954) stated, ". In conducting an interview one must

get at the facts of a candidate's previous history, and must

go into it as thoroughly and in as great detail as possible

in the time available. . It is upon these facts alone

that a sound assessment can be established" (p. 32).






-39-


Anxiety may also cause problems for the individual who

is employed. Powell (1981) gives an example of such a situ-

ation in the following:

Leon, an engineer with a major oil company, came
to me for help because he experienced severe
anxiety symptoms in business conferences and was
so uncomfortable making sales presentations that
he avoided them whenever possible, though he knew
this behavior was preventing his advancement in
the company. He initially experienced an anxiety
attack while conducting a sales meeting in South
America. Unable to complete his presentation, he
excused himself and sought medical assistance.
This continued for several years. He was referred
to a psychiatrist and was using Valium daily.
After six months of desensitization and assertive
training, medication was significantly decreased
and he was making sales presentations on a regular
basis. He felt optimistic about his chances for
advancement, and his self-image was greatly im-
proved. (p. 163)

The preceding has explored assertiveness and/or non-

assertiveness and how this relates to employment in general.

It has been shown in the review of the literature that

assertiveness plays an important role in seeking employment

and functioning at the work site. This role may be even

more important to the disabled person.


Assertiveness and/or Nonassertiveness and Employment
of the Disabled

The past few years have witnessed an increased emphasis

on the use of assertiveness training in the area of reha-

bilitation (Luck & Lassiter, 1978). Many clients in reha-

bilitation settings have numerous employability handicaps at

the onset of the job seeking process.

Clients who have been institutionalized or hospitalized

may have learned certain behaviors that are detrimental to






-40-

them vocationally. Ullman and Krasner (1975) noted that

patients in institutions are taught to be quiet, docile, and

helpful, not assertive, articulate and energetic. Increased

medication and bad reports to one's psychiatrist or doctor

are frequent consequences for assertiveness. The patient

who is hospitalized is frequently rewarded with better care,

treatment, and kindness for being the "good patient."

Patients often enter the world of work with irrational

beliefs based on experiences such as these. These beliefs

may block many social interactions, effective job acquisi-

tion, and job maintenance skills (Pifer, Pychwalski & King,

1979).

Family and parental conditioning often follows a simi-

lar vein. Clients may not be encouraged to challenge their

environment and test themselves. They may be treated as

"large children" by family members and parents. The cumula-

tive result is one of conditioned helplessness (Seligman,

1975). The client is unable to cope with either work or

social situations.

Clients who have been out of the job market for some

time, due to a disability, may be handicapped by a lack of

marketable skills, poor employment record, employer miscon-

ceptions about the candidate's disability, etc. It would

seem that such deficits might be remediated through a job

interviewing skills training program, especially since the

job interview alone often depends on whether the individual

get the job. In a polling of 2,500 employers by Prentice-

Hall Publishing Company and the American Society for






-41-


Personal Administration, the evaluation interview was desig-

nated as the single most important employee selection cri-

terion. Stone and Geppert (1979) used assertion training to

enhance job interviewing skills of rehabilitation clients.

Forty clients (31 male and 9 female) from a large midwestern

rehabilitation facility volunteered to serve as partici-

pants. They ranged in age from 18 to 57 years. Primary

disabilities of the clients were varied and included mild

mental retardation, back injury, alcoholism, epilepsy, cere-

bral palsy, and hearing impaired. All clients were enrolled

in work training programs, but none had received any pre-

vious training in job placement or interviewing. Pre- and

post-tests were used. Post-test showed significant positive

effects in the appropriate direction. Stone and Geppert

(1979) stated, ". . with the present emphasis in rehabili-

tation on placement, these findings may present some timely

suggestions. We urge that roleplay training be incorporated

into job seeking skills programs. Clients who learn asser-

tiveness and self-confidence through learning specific

interviewing skills are potentially better prepared in

actual interviews when they begin to seek employment" (p.

400).

Assertiveness training has been used to improve job in-

terviewing and interpersonal skills training for welfare re-

habilitation clients. Successful adjustment to work during

the vocational rehabilitation process seems particularly

difficult for welfare clients of minority race, those of low

socioeconomic status, or those with emotional disabilities.






-42-

In a 1954 study, Hana reported supportive findings that in-

dicate that these unemployed persons are often not exposed

to, and therefore do not learn, the interpersonal skills or

attitudes necessary to impress an employer. Barbee and Keil

(1973) also recognized that the hardcore unemployed typically

appear passive and unspontaneous in personal interviews.

Arnold and Ross (1978) used clients receiving services at

the Fort Worth, Texas Rehabilitation Department of Human Re-

sources in an exploratory group treatment program. The

State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Behavioral Assertive-

ness Assessment Procedure Rating Scale were used to measure

anxiety and assertiveness. Results yielded a significant

relative superiority in interview assertiveness for treat-

ment clients (+ = 2.835; p < .025). Arnold and Ross (1978)

stated, ". The differential increase in assertive job

interviewing skills seem to indicate that the brief, two

hour sessions that focused on assertive interviewing skills

were sufficient to produce the desired behavior changes" (p.

18).

For the disabled individual, problems may arise on the

job with co-workers or supervisors making it extremely dif-

ficult to maintain the position. Interpersonal relations

are greatly influenced by disability. Wright (1960) pre-

sented a convincing description of the many forms of discri-

mination experienced by the disabled. As a result of dis-

ability, the person often becomes the recipient of negative

reactions such as discourteous stares, sympathetic offers of






-43-

help, remarks of pity or disgust, excessive curiosity, re-

strictions on his/her behavior, and disapproval. The dis-

abled individual must deal with such reactions and acquire a

positive approach to overcoming the social negativity.

Mischel (1978) conducted a study to determine whether asser-

tive training is an effective method for teaching disabled

persons to handle negative treatment from others. Partici-

pants were 14 disabled persons; 9 students and 5 noncollege

students with a mean age of 23 years. Pre- and post-testing

utilized the Behavioral Assertiveness Test, the Activity

Budget, and the Wolpe-Lazarus Assertive Scale. Following

pre-testing, participants were placed in the treatment or

control waiting groups. Treatment subjects met three hours

weekly for five weeks during which they were presented per-

sonal anxiety arousing interpersonal situations which were

used as training items. Training included behavioral

rehearsal, role reversal, modeling, coaching, feedback and

videotaping. Post-test measures revealed that assertion

trained subjects reported significantly greater gains in

assertive behavior and showed greater improvement in perfor-

mance on seven criterion measures than did control subjects.

Transfer of training to the natural environment was evidenced.

This indicates that assertion training could be a valuable

method of helping the disabled deal with co-workers and

supervisors, which has presented problems for rehabilitation

counselors in the past. Among the foremost reasons for






-44-

failure of clients placed from vocational rehabilitation

centers in job settings is difficulty in interpersonal work

relations (Pifer, 1978).


Assertiveness/Nonassertiveness and the Epileptic

A study conducted by Joiner, Lovett and Hague (1981)

indicated that individuals with neurological disorders, such

as epilepsy, are clearly deficit in appropriate self-expres-

sion. The Adult Self Expression Scale was used to measure

levels of assertiveness in a sample of 91 applicants for vo-

cational rehabilitation services. The type and frequency of

primary disability claimed was as follows: cardiovascular,

10; neurologic, 16; orthopedic, 26; psychiatric, 11; other,

20. While the subgroup populations were relatively small,

there was rather clear evidence that persons with neurologi-

cal disabilities should be closely assessed in regard to ap-

propriate expression training and a strong likelihood that

almost half of these persons are in need of assertion train-

ing.

A number of the variables that have been associated

with nonassertive behavior such as poor self-concept, lack

of confidence, and anxiety have been used frequently in the

literature when discussing personality problems among epi-

leptic individuals.

Goldin and Margolin (1975) stated that "the person with

epilepsy has difficulties developing a positive self-con-

cept" (p. 71). Dennerll (1970) supported the notion that

epileptics frequently exhibit poor self-concept in the







-45-

following: "The chronically unemployed person with epilepsy

is characterized by negative thinking and a low opinion of

self" (p. 78).

Lack of self-confidence is illustrated in the following

example presented by Livingston (1972):

One of our female clients lacked self-confidence
to the degree that she felt she was incapable of
functioning as an employee. Even though she had
a college degree she was absolutely sure no one
would hire her. She regarded herself as inade-
quate and damaged. She was so fearful of being
rejected, she refused to even look for work. In
spite of her parents prodding she stayed home
every day feeling more and more depressed. (p. 213)

Behavioral difficulties observed in epileptic clients

are frequently related to anxiety and/or depressive states

which stem, in most instances, from the fear of being out of

control, fear of injury as a result of the seizure, or fear

of having their disorder exposed to others (Livingston,

1972). Extreme anxiety may prevent the epileptic from being

able to function in any capacity. Clients who conceal their

disorder from employers live in constant anxiety which stems

from the realization that exposure of their condition may

result in dismissal. "The epileptic's anxieties and fears

work to erode self-confidence, family relationships, social

exchanges, and expectations toward getting and holding a

job" (Morgan, 1962, p. 52).

It would seem, then, that there is an association be-

tween nonassertiveness and epilepsy.






-46-

Conclusion

The review of the related literature has explored epi-

lepsy in relation to work values and assertiveness. It has

been shown how these two areas may be related to the unem-

ployment problem in this population. Following this conclu-

sion is the methodology section with an explanation of how

this study will be conducted.


















CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY


The purpose of this study was to investigate work

values and assertiveness in employed and chronically unem-

ployed epileptics. The Adult Self Expression Scale (Gay,

1974) and the Work Values Inventory (Super, 1970) were

administered to a sample of employed and unemployed adult

epilepsys in the North Florida area. The population, sampl-

ing procedures, sample, instruments, data collection proce-

dures and analysis of data are described in this chapter.


Population

To determine the exact number of individuals with epi-

lepsy is virtually impossible. The reason being that epi-

lepsy can be hidden and, due to the stigma attached to the

disorder, it often is hidden. The Epilepsy Foundation of

America (1979) estimates that two percent of the population

has epilepsy. Based on this, there is an estimated 194,800

epileptics in the State of Florida with approximately 3,147

of those individuals living in Alachua County. The Shands

Hospital Neurology Clinic treats approximately 5,000 epilep-

tics of all ages and socioeconomic levels per year.


-47-






-48-

Sample

Subjects for this study consisted of 200 adult epilep-

tics in the North Florida area. Subjects were selected in

order of their scheduled attendance at the Shands Hospital

Neurology Clinic until the sample size of 100 chronically

unemployed adult epileptics and 100 employed adult epilep-

tics were obtained.

Eash day prior to neurology clinic, a complete list was

made of all patients that were scheduled to be seen on that

day. Every patient on the list was individually told, by

the researcher, in detail the purpose of the study and that

their participation was strictly on a voluntary basis. If

they chose to participate they were individually given a

reading sample to assure they could read the WVI and the

ASES without any difficulty. Instructions for taking the

two tests were gone over in detail with each participant.

Four private examining rooms, identical to each other, were

used to administer the tests. Only the examiner and the

patient were present when each test was administered.

The average age for the unemployed was 30.1 and for the

employed 30.5. The average grade completed was unemployed

11.9 and employed 13.1. The average length of disability

for both groups was approximately 13 years. Demographic

characteristics for the two groups can be found in Table 1.

Individuals were used only on a voluntary basis and

Informed Consent Forms were obtained from all subjects. The

Health Center Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects






-49-

was contacted and permission was given to use

A letter of approval to conduct the study was

this committee.


Table 1
Demographic Characteristics

Unemployed

N 100


these patients.

solicited from


Employed

100


Male

Female


Race

Caucasion

Black

Hispanic


Marital Status

Single

Married

Divorced

Separated

Widowed


Residence

Urban

Rural






-50-

Hypotheses

This study tested the following null hypotheses:

1. There is no significant difference in work values be-

tween employed and chronically unemployed epileptics.

2. There is no significant difference in assertiveness

levels between employed and chronically unemployed epi-

leptics.

3. There is no significant relationship between work values

and assertiveness levels among employed epileptics.

4. There is no significant relationship between work values

and assertiveness levels among chronically unemployed

epileptics.


Instruments

The two instruments used in this study were the Adult

Self Expression Scale (ASES)(Gay, 1974) and the Work Values

Inventory (WVI)(Super, 1970).


Adult Self Expression Scale

The ASES (Gay, 1974) is a 48 item self-report measure

of assertiveness, designed to be used with adults. It is

based on a two dimensional model of assertiveness. One

dimension specifies interpersonal situations in which asser-

tive behavior might occur, such as interactions with family,

public or friends. The second dimension specifies the as-

sertive behavior that may occur in these situations, such as

expressing feelings or asking favors.

The ASES uses a five point Likert format (0-4). Re-

spondents are asked to answer the questions by indicating






-51-

how they generally express themselves in a variety of situa-

tions. The choices for responses are (0) "Almost Always" or

"Always," (1) "Usually," (2) "Sometimes," (3) "Seldom," or

(4) "Never" or "Rarely." The respondents are told their

answers should not reflect how they feel they ought to act

or how they would like to act, but rather how they generally

do act. It takes approximately 15 minutes to complete the

ASES (Gay, 1974).

The mean ASES score obtained from 640 adults between

the ages of 18 to 60 was 115, with a standard deviation of

approximately 20. ASES scores falling about 135 or higher

are considered as high scores and scores falling below 95

are considered to be low (Gay, 1974).

Subjects for reliability and validity studies were

selected from a large community college. Test-retest reli-

abilities conducted over two week and five week intervals,

with two samples of subjects resulted in high reliability

coefficients. A Pearson product moment correlation computed

after two week and five week intervals produced reliability

coefficients of .88 and .91 respectively. Internal con-

sistency was determined by correlating the odd/even scores

for 464 subjects. A Pearson product moment correlation re-

sulted in a .79 reliability coefficient (Gay, 1974; Gay,

Hollandsworth & Galassi, 1975).

Several validity studies have been conducted for the

ASES (Gay, 1974 and Hollandsworth, Galassi & Gay, 1977).

Construct validity was established by correlating the total

scores of individuals taking the ASES with their scores on






-52-

the 24 scales of the Adjective Check List (ACL). The ASES

was found to correlate positively and significantly (p <

.001) with the number of Adjective Checked, and the Self-

Confidence, Ability, Achievement, Dominance, Affiliation,

Heterosexuality, Exhibition, Autonomy, Aggression and Charge

Scales. A negative correlation was found (p < .001) with

ASES and Succorance, Abasement, and Deference Scales of the

ACL.

The method of contrasting groups was used to establish

construct validity for the ASES. Thirty-two clients seeking

personal adjustment counseling scored significantly (p < .05)

lower (x = 101.81) on the ASES than did subjects who were

not counseled (x = 114.20). Discriminant validity was es-

tablished for the ASES by examining the relationship between

assertiveness and anxiety, and self-confidence and locus of

control. Anxiety was measured by the Taylor Manifest

Anxiety Scale. Self-confidence was measured by the Self-

Confidence Scale of the Adjective Check List. Locus of con-

trol was measured by Rotter's I-E which is a measure of

generalized expectancy for internal versus external control

of reinforcement. A discriminant analysis resulted in a

significant F value (F(3,54))=9.56, p < .001). The variate

tests for the three variables revealed that anxiety (F(1,56)

= 17.86, p < .291) did not discriminate between low and high

assertive groups (Hollandsworth, Galassi & Gay, 1977).

Covergent and discriminate validity was established by

the Campbell-Fiske multitrait-multimethod procedures.






-53-

Convergent validity was established in terms of the ASES'

relationship with the constructs of dominance and abasement

as measured by a self-report method. Discriminant validity

via different assessment methods is only moderate in

strength. The inconsistency of discriminate validity find-

ings may be due to the fact that the ASES assesses asser-

tiveness responses in terms of frequency of response instead

of verbal content of the situation (Hollandsworth, Galassi &

Gay, 1971).


Work Values Inventory

The WVI (Super, 1970) is a 45 item self-report inven-

tory developed to assess the goals which motivate the indi-

vidual to work. It may be used with boys and girls in

junior and senior high school, with college and university

students, and with adults who have completed at least ele-

mentary education. Although the vocabulary is simple enough

for seventh graders, it is acceptable to graduate students,

executives or professional men and women.

The WVI is designed primarily for use in counseling in

schools, colleges and community agencies. As a self-report

instrument it is subject to deliberate and unconscious

distortion, as subjects seek to impress the user of the in-

ventory or to gratify their needs by portraying themselves

in a particular way. When motivation is good, and when the

subject is interested in understanding themselves or in

making wise decisions, deliberate distortion need not be a

matter of concern. Unconscious distortion may in some






-54-

instances prevent a true picture of the person's values from

emerging, but the values which a person would unconsciously

like to be seen as possessing represent real drives which

may have quite as much predictive value as those which

he/she actually does hold.

The original form of the WVI was a 210 item forced-

choice and 15 item subscale; this was reduced to the current

form of the WVI with 45 items and 15 item subscale. The

source of items was the literature on values and on job sat-

isfaction, which served as a basis for writing trial items.

The reinforcement of items was done several times, in a

series of tape recorded interviews with eighth grade boys as

to the meaning they saw in the items, and of essays written

by other junior high school pupils on the meaning of these

items and constructs. Item refinement was also carried out

in two series of experiments in which items typed on 3x5

cards were sorted and labelled by young men in order to as-

certain uniformity of understanding, or internal consistency

of scales. Inventories made up of the seemingly best items

were tried out, item analyzed, and examined for test-retest

reliability.

Factor analyses have been carried out to further

clarify the meaning of the scales developed. Several for-

mats were tried; forced-choice, rank order, and rating on a

five point scale, singly and in combination. The rating of

each value statement proved to be the most reliable method,

and it was chosen despite the fact that this meant the loss

of some differentiating power.






-55-

A variety of curricular groups in high school, college

and technical school programs have been tested, as have men

and women in various professions, business occupations,

skilled trades and semi-skilled jobs. No predictive studies

have as yet been completed.

Occupational norms are currently being accumulated for

this form. Though such norms are not yet available, occu-

pational and post high school curricular data obtained on

the earlier 210 item forced-choice and 15 item subscale does

exist.

The WVI has no actual time limit, but most people

finish within 10 to 15 minutes--20 minutes at the most. The

WVI uses a Likert scale. Respondents are asked to answer

the questions by indicating how important it is or would be

to them. The choices for responses are (A5) "Very Impor-

tant," (A4) "Important," (A3) "Moderately Important," (A2)

"Of Little Importance," and (Al) "Unimportant." Each item

has a possible value of 5, 4, 3, 2 or 1 and the total of the

values assigned to the three items for each of the fifteen

scales yields the raw score for each scale. Therefore, each

scale may have a raw score as high as 15 or as low as 3. If

an item is skipped, the assigned weight for that item is 3.

There are fifteen subscales in the WVI.

1. Altruism--this work value, or goal, is present in

work which enables one to contribute to the welfare

of others.

2. Esthetic--a value inherent in work which permits

one to make beautiful things and to contribute

beauty to the world.






-56-

3. Creativity--a value associated with work which per-

mits one to invent new things, design new products,

or develop new ideas.

4. Intellectual Stimulation--associated with work

which provides opportunity for independent thinking

and for learning how and why things work.

5. Achievement--a value associated with work which

gives one a feeling of accomplishment in doing a

job well.

6. Independence--associated with work which permits

one to work in his/her own way, as fast or as

slowly as they wish.

7. Prestige--work which gives one standing in the eyes

of others and evokes respect.

8. Management--work which permits one to plan and lay

out work for others to do.

9. Economic Returns--work which pays well and enables

one to have things he/she wants.

10. Security--work which provides one with the cer-

tainty of having a job.

11. Surroundings--work which is carried out under plea-

sant conditions.

12. Supervisory Relations--work which is carried out

under a supervisor who is fair and with whom one

can get along with.

13. Associates--work which brings one into contact with

fellow workers who are liked.






-57-


14. Way of Life--associated with the kind of work that

permits one to live the kind of life he/she chooses.

15. Variety--work that provides an opportunity to do

different types of jobs.

Scales which are developed on the basis of a logic de-

rived from theory and research, and refined by internal con-

sistency methods, as were those of the WVI, generally show a

significant number of positive intercorrelations. This is

especially true of scales which consist of rated items

rather than of forced-choice items, for in the former re-

sponse sets tend to inflate the true correlations, and in

the latter the fact of preferring one alternative precludes

making a positive response to the other option and thus

makes the obtained correlations lower than the true (Super,

1970).

In younger boys, seventh graders, there are no correla-

tions as high as .50; that which is highest in twelfth

graders (Economic Returns-Security) being .45; there are 44

equal to or exceeding .30. For girls the comparable figures

are as follows: (1) for correlations of .50 or more there

are four in grade 12, none in grade 7; (2) for correlations

of .30 or more there are thirty-nine in grade 12, thirty-

four in grade 7. The highest are again those for Material

factor scales, Economic Returns and Security and correlating

.58 for twelfth grade girls and .475 for seventh grade girls.

girls. The Intellectual Stimulation and Creativity scales

are somewhat less correlated for girls than for boys, fall-

ing below the .50 mark (.45 and .32 for grades 12 and 7).






-58-

It is clear that there is considerable overlap between the

Economic Returns, Security, Surroundings and Supervisory

scales; that there is considerable overlap between the

Intellectual Stimulation and Creativity scales in males but

less in females; and the amount of overlap is less in early

adolescence than in later adolescence.

O'Connor and Kinnane (1961) used a form of the WVI

which consisted of 30 items (two statements for each value)

rated on a four point scale--an earlier form which antici-

pated the present 45 item, five point scale form. They

administered the WVI to 191 male college students, made in-

dividual frequency distributions and dichomotized each item

as closely to the mean as possible. Tetrachoric correla-

tions between items were computed and the matrix was fac-

tored by the complete centroid method until six factors were

extracted; these were totaled until a simple structure solu-

tion was achieved. An attempt was made to extract second

order factors, but none were found. The first order factors

appeared to be identifiable as shown in the following:

Factor A: Security--Economic--Material

Factor B: Social--Artistic

Factor C: Work Conditions and Associates

Factor D: Heuristic--Creative

Factor E: Achievement--Prestige

Factor F: Independence--Variety

O'Connor and Kinnane (1961) relate their findings to

Ginzberg's (1951) and Super's (1957) discussions of work






-59-

values. They stated, "It would seem that there is no justi-

fication for combining into one category the rewards of work

such as pay and prestige, and the products of work such as

the good done to others, the creation of beautiful things,

and the material objects provided." Ginzberg's classifica-

tion of work satisfaction is too broad and each category

contains work values which are relatively independent of

each other (p. 7).

The content of the fifteen present scales was designed

to deal with the same fifteen values as the scales used on

earlier research forms. The selection of new items by sort-

ing a scrambled item pool which included both original and

new items, retaining only reliably sorted items for each

scale, and item correlation data reported in the following

(Table 2) confirms this.


Table 2
Correlation of New Items with Original Item Based on 99
10th Grade Students


Size of Correlation Frequency Percent

0.43 to 0.59 17 28

0.60 to 0.59 24 40

0.70 to 0.79 15 25

0.80 and greater 4 7


Test-retest reliabilities, means, and standard devia-

tions are reported in Table 3. In this study, the current

(1968-69) form of the WVI was administered two weeks apart

to a sample of 99 high school students in a suburb of Albany,



















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-61-

New York. The differences found between mean scores for

males and females (Table 3) were not significant when tested

statistically, although the apparent differences are consis-

tent with related findings; girls appear to exhibit higher

scores for Altruism and lower scores for Economic Returns

than do boys.

It is clear from this information that the 15 scales of

this short 45 item inventory in which each scale consists of

three items, are internally consistent and stable over a

time interval of two weeks. The lowest retest reliability

is .74, the highest .88, and the median is .83.

Construct validity is often shown by the correlations

of the test in question with appropriate scales of other

tests designed to assess the same traits. The WVI, as a

measure of values, has been studied in relation to the

Allport-Vernon-Lindzay Study of Values as a direct measure

of values, and to the Strong Vocational Interest Blank and

the Kuder Preference Record (vocational) as indirect

measures of values. It should be borne in mind that all

correlations reported, whether positive or negative, are

necessarily somewhat lowered because of the positive nature

of either or both of the instruments employed. They may,

therefore, be regarded as underestimates.

WVI Form D and Strong's Vocational Interest Blank with

fifty-two Peace Corpsmen r=.23, p=.05 one-tailed; r=.27,

p=.05 two-tailed. WVI Form B and Kuder Preference Record

Vocational Form CH with eighty-five Boston University fresh-

men r=.18, p=.05 one-tailed; r=.21, p=.05 two-tailed. WVI






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1968-69 and Allport-Vernon-Lindzay Study of Values with 304

twelfth grade boys r=.055, p=.05 one-tailed; r=.ll, p=.05

two-tailed. Subscales were correlated for each of the in-

struments with the WVI, the correlations ranged from .01 to

.60.

The case for the content validity of the WVI rests on

the phrasing of items on the basis of a study of the litera-

ture on values, and on the revamping of the items in light

of their comprehension by teenagers and young adults.

Values are often thought of as manifestations of per-

sonality traits and adjustments, as well as being related to

the activities in which they may be achieved (Super, 1970).

For this reason, the first kind of theoretically based

concurrent validation to assay may be the correlations be-

tween WVI scales and scores on personality and adjustment

measures. Few significant relationships were found in one

study of 9th grade boys (Super, 1962). Academic ability,

school achievement, and extracurricular activity has been

studied in relation to WVI (Super, 1962) with results which

are generally negative.

Although it is true that choice of curriculum in the

junior year and even senior high school is determined large-

ly by sex, socioeconomic status, and intellectual level, it

seems likely that values are part of the same complex con-

stellation of determinants. Curricular differences, in

grades 7-12, are in most instances no greater than one raw

score point or one half of a standard deviation. The light

differences which do appear are: boys in the college






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preparatory curriculum have slightly higher mean scores on

Intellectual Stimulation values than do boys in Commercial

and Vocational curricula, and somewhat lower means on

Economic Returns than Commercial pupils, while Vocational

students are a little higher on Esthetic values. These and

other differences, which appear to contribute to the con-

struct validity of the WVI, are not great enough to be of

practical value in counseling or in selection. Curricular

differences at higher educational levels may well prove sig-

nificant, for studies using other methods of reporting, and

the existence of occupational differences with the WVI

support this expectation. Data with earlier forms of the

WVI do show value differences between various types of

technical and business institute studies.

Differences in grade groups can be expected to reflect,

to a high degree, whatever age differences might exist.

Hana (1954) used the WVI to demonstrate a lack of age and

grade differences in values during the junior and senior

high school years. Boys appear to show some slight decrease

in Altruism as they progress from grade 7 to grade 12, and a

similar decrease in Esthetics scores is noticeable. Girls

show grade changes in values which are generally similar to

those suggested in both.

Values have frequently been observed to differ with

sex. Girls tend to make slightly higher scores on the

Altruism scale in the twelfth grade, but differ less if at

all in the seventh, at which level sex differences in values

are truly negative. Boys tend to make higher scores on the








Independence scale in twelfth grade, but the difference in

seventh grade is negligible. The greater concern of girls

with human values, and the greater stress put by boys on

independence are such as one might expect to find with a

values inventory. None of the differences are clear cut,

for the two sexes overlap considerably on each value scale.

Data on the occupational predictor validity of the WVI

are now being collected.


Analysis of Data

Parametric statistics were used to analyze the data for

this study. A sample of employed and chronically unemployed

epileptics in the North Florida area were utilized. The

discrete data variable was the unemployed and employed

status. The continuous data variables were the scores from

the ASES and the WVI.

A t-test for independent samples was used to determine

if significant differences exist between the employed and

chronically unemployed epileptics on the WVI and for the

ASES.

A Pearson product moment correlation was utilized to

determine if a significant relationship exists between the

WVI and the ASES for the chronically unemployed and the em-

ployed epileptic.

A .05 alpha level of significance was used for all

analysis in this study.


















CHAPTER IV
RESULTS


The purpose of this study was to investigate work

values and assertiveness in employed and chronically unem-

ployed adult epileptics. Previous chapters have established

a need for the study, reviewed literature pertinent to the

subject and outlined research procedures. This chapter will

present statistical analyses of results.

A t-test for independent groups was used to determine

if significant differences exist in assertiveness and work

values between the employed and chronically unemployed adult

epileptic. A Pearson product moment correlation was uti-

lized to determine if a significant relationship between the

Adult Self Expression Scale (ASES) and the Work Values In-

ventory (WVI) exists for the employed group and for the

chronically unemployed group. An alpha level of .05 was

used for all the data analysis.

Hypothesis 1: There are no significant differences in

work values between employed and chronically unemployed

epileptics. The results of the t-test, means and standard

deviations appear in Table 4.


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Table 4
Work Values Inventory


Standard
Mean Deviation t-test Probability

Unemployed 134.4 26.7 -10.8155 .0001

Employed 172.7 23.1


The range of scores for the chronically unemployed

group was 76-193. The range of scores for the employed was

122 to 257. A t-value equal to -10.8155 was obtained with a

probability of obtaining that value at .0001. The null hy-

pothesis was rejected. Employed epileptics scored signifi-

cantly higher on the WVI than chronically unemployed epilep-

tics.

Hypothesis 2: There is no significant difference in

assertiveness levels between employed and chronically unem-

ployed epileptics. The results of the t-tests, means and

standard deviations appear in Table 5.


Table 5
Adult Self Expression Scale


Standard
Mean Deviation t-test Probability

Unemployed 78.8 21.6 -7.82 .0001

Employed 105.1 25.6


The minimum value scored on the ASES was 10 and the

maximum value was 119 for the chronically unemployed group.

The minimum value scored by the employed group was 59 and

the maximum value was 163. A t-value equal to -7.8255 was








obtained with the probability of obtaining that value at

.0001. Therefore, the null hypothesis was rejected. The

employed group scored significantly higher on the ASES than

the chronically unemployed group.

Hypothesis 3: There is no significant relationship be-

tween work values and assertiveness levels among employed

epileptics. Table 6 presents the correlation coefficients

and the probability of obtaining that coefficient. The

Pearson product correlation yielded a correlation coeffi-

cient equal to .5554 with a probability of obtaining that

coefficient of .0001. The correlation is moderately high

and it is significant at the .0001 level. There is a sig-

nificant relationship between assertiveness levels and work

values as measured by the ASES and the WVI for employed

epileptics.


Table 6
Employed Epileptics: Correlations of ASES with WVI


ASES WVI

ASES 1.000 .5554
.0001

WVI .5554 1.000
.0001


Hypothesis 4: There is no significant relationship be-

tween work values and assertiveness levels among chronically

unemployed epileptics. Table 7 presents the correlation co-

efficients and the probability of obtaining that coefficient.

The Pearson product correlation yielded a correlation coef-

ficient equal to .3370 with a probability of obtaining that






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correlation equal to .0006. The correlation is moderate and

it is significant at the .0006 level. Therefore, the null

hypothesis was rejected.


Table 7
Chronically Unemployed Epileptics: Correlation of
ASES with WVI


ASES WVI

ASES 1.0 .3370
.0006

WVI .3370 1.0
.0006


















CHAPTER V
SUMMARY, RESULTS, LIMITATIONS, CONCLUSION, IMPLICATIONS
AND RECOMMENDATIONS


Summary

This research was done to determine if assertiveness

levels and/or work values were significantly different be-

tween chronically unemployed and employed adult epileptics.

The literature has indicated that the assertive individual

is more likely to become employed than the nonassertive in-

dividual and that there is a strong likelihood almost half

of the persons with neurological disabilities, such as epi-

lepsy, are in need of assertion training. Epilepsy may

strike at any age, but it is predominantly a disorder of

youth. At least three fourths of all individuals with this

disorder experienced their first seizure previous to age

twenty. The literature has suggested that the individual who

experiences the early onset of a disability often does not

follow the same maturation process in developing work values

and work roles that the "normal" child may experience.


Results

The results of this research showed

1. There was a significant difference between chronic-

ally unemployed and employed adult epileptics on


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-70-


assertiveness levels as measured by the Adult Self

Expression Scale (ASES). The employed adult epi-

leptic scored significantly higher on the ASES than

the chronically unemployed adult epileptic,

2. There was a significant difference between chronic-

ally unemployed and employed adult epileptics on

work values as measured by the Work Values Inven-

tory (WVI). The employed adult epileptic scored

significantly higher than the chronically unem-

ployed adult epileptic on the WVI.

3. There was significant positive relationship be-

tween assertiveness levels and work values as

measured by the Adult Self Expression Scale and

the Work Values Inventory for employed adult epi-

leptics and chronically unemployed adult epileptics.

Based on the results of this study, null hypotheses 1,

2, 3, and 4 were rejected.


Limitations

There were some limitations in this study that need to

be considered. The selection of subjects was not random.

Rather, the sample was based on the subjects' availability

and willingness to participate in this research. In addi-

tion, the instruments used in this study were self-report

measures. Self-reported responses may be enhanced when

compared to in vivo responses. Thus, one might be cautious

in generalizing to observable behaviors (Gorecki, Dickson,

Anderson & Jones, 1981). Validity appears to be low for the








WVI. Environmental limitations may also exist, in that the

tests were administered in a clinic previous to the partici-

pant's seeing their neurologist.

The average grade completed was unemployed 11.9 and

employed 13.1. Although this is not statistically signifi-

cant it is significant in that the unemployed group was less

than the 12.0 of a high school degree and the employed aver-

age of 13.1 was more than the high school degree. The

higher education level of the employed could make this group

more employable.


Conclusion

Based on the results of this study, assertion training

and values clarification may be a valuable and worthwhile

activity in the rehabilitation process of the chronically

unemployed adult epileptic. The results indicate that em-

ployed adult epileptics are significantly more assertive

than chronically unemployed adult epileptics when the trait

is measured by the self-report Adult Self Expression Scale.

Likewise, the results indicate that employed adult epilep-

tics are significantly higher in work values as measured by

the self-report Work Values Inventory. These findings sug-

gest the higher ones work values and assertiveness level the

more likely it is that the individual will be employed.

Based on this study, there is a need for assertion

training and values clarification with the chronically unem-

ployed adult epileptic. Additional research is needed to

determine the outcome of such training.






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Implications

Numerous studies indicate counselors lack knowledge and

skills in working with the unique problems of the epileptic

client (Jacks & Toubbeh, 1975; Muthard, 1975, and Wright,

Gibbs & Linde, 1962). Yet, a review of the literature shows

little attention being paid to changing this shortcoming.

"Efforts to help the client with epilepsy have basically re-

mained in the medical treatment domain, yet the consequences

faced by the client with epilepsy more often occur in so-

ciety" (Hopkins & Scambler, 1977, p. 43).

The Epilepsy Foundation of America (1979) stated that

one of the major problems the epileptic population faces in

society is unemployment. During the past ten years, unem-

ployment among persons with epilepsy has reached 25-30

percent. A survey conducted by Jacks and Toubbeh (1975) in-

dicated that a major need in the rehabilitation of the epi-

leptic is further exploration of why employment is the major

problem for this population and how counselors can become

more effective in solving that problem.

This study investigated work values and assertiveness

in employed and chronically unemployed adult epileptics. A

review of the literature showed that the assertive indivi-

dual is more likely to become employed than the nonassertive

individual. During the job interview, for example, people

should be assertive enough to communicate their desire to

have the job and their ability to perform whatever tasks are

involved at the job. The literature also indicated that the






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early onset of a disability such as epilepsy may influence

the formation of work values. The child who is born with,

or experiences the early onset of a disability often does

not follow the same maturation process in developing work

values that the "normal" child may experience. This is

especially significant with a disorder such as epilepsy,

since 75 percent of these individuals experience the onset

of their disorder previous to age twenty.

This investigation has important implications for the

rehabilitation counselor working with the chronically

unemployed adult epileptic. The results of this study

showed that employed adult epileptics are significantly

higher in assertiveness levels and work values than the

chronically unemployed adult epileptics. This suggests that

by increasing assertiveness levels and/or work values in the

chronically unemployed adult epileptics they would be more

likely to become employed. For rehabilitation counselors

working with the chronically unemployed adult epileptic the

implications are that by teaching assertiveness and/or uti-

lizing work values clarification they could experience a

greater degree of success in placing these individuals in

gainful employment. Since a positive relationship exists

between assertion and work values, providing one of those

services may increase both levels and decrease duplication

of services. This way counselors would provide one inter-

vention rather than two. This could save time and money,

which would be beneficial for the counselor and the client.






-74-

Additional research is needed to determine if the in-

crease in work values and/or assertiveness has an effect

upon the individuals gaining employment. Based on this

study, assertion training and values modification are needed

in the rehabilitation process of the chronically unemployed

adult epileptic.


Recommendations

The following are suggested recommendations for further

research.

1. Teach assertiveness training to a group of chronic-

ally unemployed epileptics to determine if they

become employed. Also to see if by raising asser-

tiveness levels work values are increased.

2. Utilize values clarification with the chronically

unemployed epileptic to see if they become employed

as a result. Also to see if by raising work values

assertiveness levels are increased.

3. Additional studies of family, age of onset, degree

of control, type of medication, etc. to see what

effects these variables may have on work values and

assertiveness levels.

4. A longitudinal study in which the WVI and the ASES

would be administered to a group of pediatric epi-

leptics followed up, after a period of years, in

which the same population would be retested to de-

termine what changes may have occurred as a result

of living with their disability.




















APPENDIX A

AGENCY

Shands Teaching Hospital, Gainesville, Florida


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APPENDIX B

INFORMED CONSENT FORM

This information is for research purposes only. Your

participation is entirely voluntary. All information that

you give is strictly confidential. The entire process will

take approximately 45 minutes. Thank you for participating.

You will be given two(2) questionnaires to fill out.

The orange questionnaire is designed to provide information

about the way you express yourself. The white one is de-

signed to provide information on your feelings toward work.

There will be no monetary compensation. Please read

the following statement and sign at the bottom.


I have read and I understand the procedure described
above. I agree to participate in the procedure and
I have received a copy of this description.


Subject Date


Jean Davis Gray
Principal Investigator


Witness Date


Epilepsy Services Program
Fed. Neurology
Box J-296 JHMHC, Gainesville
Address City

Florida
State Date


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BIOGRAPHICAL DATA


Jean Davis Gray was born in Ocala, Florida on August

18, 1948. She lived in Ocala until age three when she moved

to Gainesville, Florida. Upon graduation from Gainesville

High School in 1966, she attended Santa Fe Community College

and completed her Associate of Arts degree. She received a

Bachelor of Arts degree in special education in June, 1970

from the University of Florida. She taught for four years

in the public school system and one year at a private school

prior to returning to the University of Florida to continue

her education. Jean completed completed her master's degree

in rehabilitation counseling in June, 1979. Upon graduation

she began working as the coordinator for Epilepsy Services,

District III, State of Florida. Jean continued working in

that position while pursuing a Doctor of Philosophy degree

which she completed in December, 1982.


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I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.



Paul Fitzerald, Chairman
Professor of Counselor
Education


I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.



RoDEt Myrick'
Professor of Counselor
Education


I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.



ames Joihner
Associate Pr fessor of
Rehabilitation Counseling


This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of
the Department of Counselor Education in the College of
Education and to the Graduate Council, and was accepted as
partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.


December, 1982
Dean for Graduate Studies
and Research
















































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