Citation
The birth of a network

Material Information

Title:
The birth of a network an inside look at CNN en Español
Creator:
Figueroa, Daniel ( Dissertant )
Rivera-Sanchez, Milagros ( Thesis advisor )
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publisher:
University of Florida
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1999
Language:
English
Physical Description:
viii, 134 leaves : ill. ; 29 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Audio editing ( jstor )
Broadcasting ( jstor )
Control rooms ( jstor )
Entertainment ( jstor )
Hispanics ( jstor )
Launches ( jstor )
Lexis ( jstor )
News content ( jstor )
Television programs ( jstor )
Video editing ( jstor )
Dissertations, Academic -- Mass Communication -- UF ( lcsh )
Mass Communication, M.A.M.C ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
Television is a business that depends on advertising dollars for success. As audiences are given more viewing choices, programmers have had to target new audiences for revenue. This has resulted in the targeting of diverse markets and the creation of new television and cable networks to reach those markets. This thesis analyzes the 24-hour Spanish-language cable news network, CNN en Espanol. The purpose of the thesis is to determine what type of research, if any, was necessary to launch CNN en Espanol. The thesis also examines and analyzes how CNN en Espanol was created and how it is operates on a daily basis. The thesis uses a case study approach to gather data about the startup and daily operation of CNN en Espanol. Through participant observation and interviews, the researcher was able to determine what type of research was necessary to create CNN en Espanol. The researcher was also able to examine and provide insight about the startup, launch, and daily operation of the network. The findings indicate that CNN en Espanol was created primarily as a business decision, but research played a primary role in determining the name of the network as well as in deciding how to market the network. The study concludes that there are three key factors that have contributed to CNN en Espanofs success. First are the founders, or managerial staff behind the network. Without their expertise and vision, CNN en Espanol would not exist. The second factor is technology. CNN en Espanol utilized technology to create a digital, nonlinear network. Based on this technology, the founders developed a program schedule that would allow CNN en Espanol to provide 24-hours of news and information programming within a limited business plan. The third element in CNN en Espanol' s success is its editorial and operations staff. The employees of CNN en Espanol made the project work. This thesis shows how these factors contributed to the creation and current operation of CNN en Espanol.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.M.C.)--University of Florida, 1999.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 122-133).
General Note:
Printout.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Daniel Figueroa.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Daniel Figueroa. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
021557354 ( AlephBibNum )
43651468 ( OCLC )
AMP7070 ( NOTIS )

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Full Text











THE BIRTH OF A NETWORK:
AN INSIDE LOOK AT CNN EN ESPAFNOL















By

DANIEL FIGUEROA


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR T IE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ARTS IN MASS COMMUNICATION

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA































This thesis is dedicated to my parents Daniel and Rita whose continued support and
encouragement have allowed me aim high and succeed.














ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


My sincere gratitude is extended to Dr. Milagros Rivera-Sanchez who inspired

this study and encouraged my work when it at times seemed impossible. Dr. Rivera-

Sanchez spent countless hours revising this work and making incredibly insightful

suggestions. I thank her for her honesty, dedication and verve. She has taught me the

meaning of hard work and devotion.

I would also like to thank Dr. F. Leslie Smith whom I met as an undergraduate

student. His encouragement of my academic and professional careers has been

unparalleled. His expertise and teaching have been an invaluable tool on this journey. 1

also extend my gratitude to Dr. John Wright for his advice and encouragement. To Dr.

Wright I also extend my thanks for teaching me how to perform and utilize research.

Also, 1 extend my sincere gratitude to the staff of the graduate division. Jody Hedge and

Margi Hatch always made things work when they seemed impossible. They were always

professional and caring. They are an incredible asset to the graduate division and the

University of Florida. I am grateful to have had the pleasure of working with them.

My sincerest gratitude goes to the staff and management of CNN en Espahol. I

especially thank Christopher Crommett for welcoming this study and offering assistance.

I must also mention the following individuals who granted interviews for the research:

Bob Hesskamp, Debra Morton, Donna Mastrangelo, Caroline Rittenberry, Rolando

Santos and Madeleine Wiener. Each person aided the strength of the study. I personally









thank every person for their warmth and willingness to offer information. I also thank

them for their interest in seeing the project succeed.

I thank my great graduate school friends Jacques, Siva, Radhi and Steve. We

shared many good memories and I thank them for their friendship and encouragement. I

also thank my friend Miguel for always having a kind word.

Finally, I thank my family. I especially thank my parents for their encouragement

of my graduate studies. Their support encouraged me to finish the project. For that, I am

grateful.















TABLE OF CONTENTS
page


ACKNOW LEDGM ENTS ....................................................................... ..................... iii

ABSTRACT .................. ...................................................................... vii

CHAPTERS

1 INTRODUCTION..................................................................... 1

The Television Business .................... ................................................................1
The Trends of Increased Competition...................... ..... ............................2
The Spanish-Language Television Business........................ ......................4
Purpose of the Research............ .... .............................................................6
Reserach Questions ..............................................7
O organization of the Thesis ................................................................................... 7

2 DEFINITION OF CNN EN ESPANOL AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE ............9

What Is CNN en Espafiol? ..............................................................................9
Existing Research and Literature ... ................................................ ..................... 10

3 M ETHODOLOGY.................................................................... ....................... 25

The Benefits of Qualitative Research ................................... ...................25
Case Study.......................... .......................................... 26
Participant Observation................................................ 27
Description of the Interviews....................................................... ....................28
Other Data Used in the Study ...................................................................31

4 DISCUSSION OF THE INTERVIEWS.......................................... ......................34

The Importance of Transcription Quality............................ ....................34
Data Yielded Through the Interviews........................................ ....................35
This Is "CNN........................................................36
Initial R research ................................................................................................ 36
Public Relations and Marketing for CNN en Espafiol .......................................... 37
Defining CNN en Espaiol's Audience .............................................40
Editorial Content of CNN en Espafol ...............................................43



v









Operation of CNN en Espafiol ........................................................................47
Comparing CNN en Espahol to CNN........................................ ......................48
The Day the Network Came Together ....................................... ......................51

5 FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS OF THE RESEARH................... ....................53

Overview of the Findings........... ..... ..........................................................53
Creating the Network ................ .................................................................58
The Person Behind the Network.............................................. ........................ 58
Initial Research and the Development of the Business Plan..................................59
Finding a Location for CNN en Espafol.... ......................................................61
The CNN en Espafiol Facility ................................................ .......................63
A Nonlinear Environment......................................................................66
Staffing the N etwork............................................ .............. .......................... 68
Selling the Network to Advertisers and Cable Operators....................................70
Operation of CNN en Espafiol ............................................... ......................71
Observations of the Researcher............................................................................71
Pre-Launch Operation of CNN en Espafiol....................... ...................... 71
The CNN en Espafiol Program Schedule (Grid)................................................72
The Departments Within CNN en Espafiol......................................................74
A Day in the Life of CNN en Espafiol ..................................... .......................79
Comparing CNN en Espafol to the Other CNN Networks .................................86
Problems Encountered by the Network............................................ ......................91
The Employee Technology M ix ................................................. ......................91
Technological Issues ............... ........................................................94
The Future of the Network........................................................................96

6 CONCLUSIONS....................................................................................................99

Conclusions about CNN en Espafol's Startup and Operation...................................99
Limitations of the Study and Avenues for Future Research ....................................02

APPENDICES

A INTERVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE ................. ...................... 105

B STANDARD ETHICS PROTOCAL.............................................. .....................107

C GLOSSARY OF TERMS............................................................... .....................108

D CNN EN ESPANOL RUNDOWN.................. .............................................. 112

E CNN EN ESPANOL PROGRAM GRID ................................... ...................... 115

REFERENCES .................................................................. ............................122

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ........................................... 134















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Mass Communication

THE BIRTH OF A NETWORK:
AN INSIDE LOOK AT CNN EN ESPAfOL

By

Daniel Figueroa

Decemberl999

Chairman: Dr. Milagros Rivera-Sanchez
Major Department: Mass Communication

Television is a business that depends on advertising dollars for success. As

audiences are given more viewing choices, programmers have had to target new

audiences for revenue. This has resulted in the targeting of diverse markets and the

creation of new television and cable networks to reach those markets.

This thesis analyzes the 24-hour Spanish-language cable news network, CNN en

Espafol. The purpose of the thesis is to determine what type of research, if any, was

necessary to launch CNN en Espafiol. The thesis also examines and analyzes how CNN

en Espafiol was created and how it is operates on a daily basis.

The thesis uses a case study approach to gather data about the startup and daily

operation of CNN en Espafiol. Through participant observation and interviews, the

researcher was able to determine what type of research was necessary to create CNN en

Espafiol. The researcher was also able to examine and provide insight about the startup,









launch, and daily operation of the network. The findings indicate that CNN en Espafol

was created primarily as a business decision, but research played a primary role in

determining the name of the network as well as in deciding how to market the network.

The study concludes that there are three key factors that have contributed to CNN

en Espafiol's success. First are the founders, or managerial staff behind the network.

Without their expertise and vision, CNN en Espafiol would not exist. The second factor

is technology. CNN en Espafiol utilized technology to create a digital, nonlinear network.

Based on this technology, the founders developed a program schedule that would allow

CNN en Espaiol to provide 24-hours of news and information programming within a

limited business plan. The third element in CNN en Espafiol's success is its editorial and

operations staff. The employees of CNN en Espafiol made the project work. This thesis

shows how these factors contributed to the creation and current operation of CNN en

Espafol.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Television is the first truly democratic culture--the first culture available to
everybody and entirely governed by what the people want. (The New
York Times, 1969)

The Television Business


Like any business, the pivotal goal of the communications industry is to turn a

profit. Cable television is no exception. Since its birth, cable television has tried to

compete with traditional over-the-air broadcast networks.

Audience data for cable, local market, and network television are supplied by the

The A.C. Nielsen Company (Wimmer and Dominick, 1997, 291). Nielsen Media

Research, formerly part of the A.C. Nielsen Company, provides estimates of audience

size and composition for commercial advertisers as well as television programmers

(Nielsen Media Research, 1999). Nielsen Media Research estimates that $40 billion is

spent on the buying and selling of national and local advertising every year. This buying

and selling concerns the transactions between advertisers and the television stations or

cable networks which air the advertisers' commercials.

As of March, 1999, Neilsen Media Research estimates that there are 101,212,200

total households in the United States. Of those households, 99,391,780 have televisions.1


I The numbers were obtained from the Nielsen Media Research regional office in Atlanta,
Georgia.









The potential revenue for reaching approximately 100 million homes is enough to

continually create increased competition between cable television operators and

broadcasters.

The Trends of Increased Competition

As television became popular in the mid 1950s, it pushed the dominant medium

of radio from its position as the leader of mass media entertainment (Eastman, 1993,

112). In 1950, network radio advertising accounted for $215 million in total revenue. By

1953, that number had dropped to less than $40 million (Eastman, Head, and Klein, 1989,

376). In just a few years, television, in its "Golden Age," had seized the power of radio

(Nielsen Media Research, 1999).

Television had taken the advertising dollars away from radio. The established

radio networks ABC, NBC, and CBS were able to survive due to the revenues generated

from their co-owned television operations (Eastman, 1993, 399). To compete with the

more alluring offerings of television, radio had to narrow its programming. In essence,

radio was attempting to reach audience niches. These smaller audiences, that would tune

in for a specific type of programming, would allow radio stations to compete and survive

(Eastman, Head, and Klein, 1989, 376).

Today, cable television offers alternatives to the traditional over-the-air broadcast

networks.2 Much like television pushed radio from supremacy as a mass media entity,

cable television continually challenges broadcasters for their viewing audience.


2 ABC, CBS, FOX, and NBC are examples of the current over-the-air broadcast
networks. They do not require wired cable connections to be received in a viewer's
home.









Cable television consists of cable network operators, cable networks, and cable

system operators. The cable network operator is the company or group that operates a

cable network or networks. A cable network is the cable television channel that carries a

specific type of programming. The cable network is very similar to a over-the-air

broadcast network, but it is controlled by the cable network operator. Cable system

operators are responsible for carrying a particular cable network's signal via a cable

television system. It is the cable system operator that delivers cable television to people's

homes. The cable networks that appear on that system are provided by cable network

operators (Eastman, Head, and Klein, 1989, 253-257).

Cable is distinct from over the air television in that it is a multichannel technology

(Eastman, 242). A cable system delivers multiple channels including cable networks and

over-the-air broadcast networks to consumers. Therefore, a cable network operator must

consider other cable networks and over-the-air broadcasters as primary competition, and

economic survival in this environment has become more difficult (Eastman, Head, and

Klein, 251). For this reason, cable networks have begun to search for new target

audiences and audience niches that have not traditionally been seen as revenue sources

(Eastman, 119).

The increases in competition, along with increases in the number of networks,3

has led to the targeting of "untapped" markets, including, but not limited to, Latin

America.




3 The increase in the number of networks is not limited to cable television. There are
also new over-the-air broadcast networks including, The Warner Brothers Network (WB),
the United Paramount Network (UPN), and the PAX TV network.









The Spanish-Language Television Business

The market which is the focus of this study is Latin America and its Spanish-

speaking inhabitants. Latin America includes everything from the Southern tip of

Argentina to the border of the United States and Mexico (Albiniak, 1997, 67). It is a

large region which encompasses the entire continent of South America, Central America

and a majority of the Caribbean Islands. However, the Hispanic audience of Latin

America is not restricted to these countries south of the United States.

In 1978, Time magazine wrote, "Hispanic Americans, now 19 million strong, are

the fastest-growing minority group in the U.S." (1978, 48). The United States Census

Bureau (1999) now estimates that 11% of the United States' population is of Hispanic

origin. That number is expected to reach 25% by the year 2010 (Shaw, 1996, 12), which

would make Hispanics the largest ethnic group in the United States (Lieberman, 1996,

3B). Thus, interest in reaching the Latin American and Hispanic, or more specifically, a

Spanish-speaking audience, has become a pivotal focus of broadcasters and cable

operators.

In 1995, U.S. Hispanics alone spent over $200 billion on goods and services

(Shaw, 12). This figure continues to grow along with the notion that Hispanic consumers

are among the most loyal brand-name buyers (Lieberman, 3B). Miguel Alfaro Jr., a

native Mexican and director of operations and sales of a California Univision4 affiliate,

says of Hispanic consumers:

Latino consumers [are] very, very loyal. Not only that, but we always
bring our family members. It's a cultural thing. We'll frequent businesses

4 Univision is a 24-hour entertainment based Spanish-language cable network.









as long as we're invited to them. If we're treated right, we'll go back even
if we have to travel. And we'll encourage family and friends to go there.
(March, 1999, 13)

In Latin America, cable penetration is hovering at 10% (Albiniak, 67). While this

number seems small, the region contains nearly 90 million television households (Rother,

1997b, 11). Thus, Latin America has almost as many television homes as the United

States. Some estimates indicate that there are potentially 450 million television viewers

in Latin America (Rother, 1997c). A 1995 survey by cable programmers indicated that

Hispanics in the United States requested Spanish news above all other cable services

(Lieberman, 3B). However, this survey did not initiate the trend of programming for

Hispanics in Latin America. It was the prospect of profiting from a region with nearly as

many television households as the United States that became the driving force in the trend

of programming for Hispanic audiences in Latin America.

The low levels of cable penetration in Latin America are due to the physical

requirements of a cable television system. Because cable television requires a terrestrial

cable connection to deliver its signal, it is not as prevalent in Latin America as in the

United States. In the United States, cable system operators have been able to take

advantage of the telephone system by running their cable television lines on existing

telephone poles. Unfortunately, Latin America has a lower telephone density than the

United States and this has slowed the spread of cable.

But South America has taken advantage of other technologies, such as satellites,

since the late 1960s (Ospina, 1994, 24). Ospina (1994) notes that due to the topography

and geography of the continent, there have been developments in one-way downlink

technologies. Thus, there is a large prospect not only for cable networks, but for home









satellite technologies, such as direct broadcast satellites and other television receive-only

(TVRO) services, to deliver the signals of those cable networks to the Latin American

region (Ospina, 24). Because these downlink technologies do not require physical

terrestrial cable lines to deliver a signal, they have allowed cable networks to target

Hispanic audiences in Latin America.

The Hispanic audiences of the United States and Latin America are invaluable to

future growth for advertisers trying to reach a loyal customer base. Pay television in

Latin America alone is expected to generate $2.5 billion annually in advertising and

subscriber fees by the year 2000 (Rother, 1997b, 11). For the cable network operator or

broadcaster, this market is the future.

Purpose of the Research


To date, there is no reserach available which examines how a cable news network

is created. This study investigates how competition has led to the tapping of a specific

market for potential revenue. In particular, this study examines the birth of the Spanish-

language cable news network Cable News Network en Espafol (CNN en Espaiol).

Translated, CNN en Espafiol means "CNN in Spanish."

The goal of this study is to conduct an in-depth examination of what is necessary

to launch a cable news network in order to understand how that network is created and

operated. The study will examine the steps leading to the launch of the network and will

follow the network through its daily operation. In the case of CNN en Espafol, we are

afforded the unique opportunity to not only examine the creation of a network, but also to

examine the trend of targeting a diverse market.









This thesis will examine the steps taken to create CNN en Espaiol, from its

conception to its launch. By conducting an in-depth examination of what is necessary to

put a cable news network on the air, the successes and failures of CNN en Espafiol can

serve as a model for future ventures of this type.

Research Questions

This thesis will go beyond the available literature by examining the steps taken to

create and operate CNN en Espafiol. As noted, the existing research focuses on

audiences, viewing, and programming. This study will address those issues, but as they

pertain to the development of CNN en Espafiol. The questions that will be the focus of

this thesis are:

* What type of research was done to determine the need for CNN en Espafiol?
* What were the necessary steps in creating CNN en Espaiiol?
* How does such a cable news network operate on a daily basis?


Organization of the Thesis

Chapter 2 contains a description of CNN en Espaiol and its existence within the

CNN family of news networks. The chapter also contains a review of literature, which

examines existing studies of Spanish-language television. It focuses on studies that

examine Spanish-language television news and Spanish-language cable networks. This

section also examines CNN en Espafiol's sister network, CNN.

Chapter 3 will focus on the case study and focused interview methodology. This

chapter will define the methodology and define various elements of the case study and

interview. A discussion of the interviews will comprise Chapter 4. Chapter 5 will






8


present the findings and analysis of the case studies and interviews, while Chapter 6 will

consist of conclusions and suggestions for further research.














CHAPTER 2
DEFINITION OF CNN EN ESPANOL AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE


What Is CNN en Espafiol?


CNN en Espafiol is a descendent of the U.S.-based, 24-hour cable news channel

Cable News Network (CNN). Both networks are operated by the North American cable

network operator Turner Broadcasting System (TBS). Both CNN and CNN en Espafiol

offer 24-hour cable news programming, but the networks differ in program content and

operation.

CNN en Espafiol is part of the CNN News Group, which consists of six cable

television networks distributed via satellite (CNN News Group, 1999). The other five

components of the CNN News Group are: CNN, Cable News Network Headline News

(CNN Headline News), Cable News Network International (CNNI), Cable News Network

Financial News (CNNfn) and Cable News Network Sports Illustrated (CNN/SI).

Inclusive to the CNN News Group are two radio networks,1 nine Internet World

Wide Web (WWW) sites, CNN's syndicated news service CNN Newsource, and three

private out-of home networks. These three private networks are not available on

consumer cable systems. CNN's private out-of-home networks are CNN Airport

Network, Accent Health, and CTN College Television Network. These networks are



I The CNN News Group has an English radio news service, CNN Radio, and a Spanish-
language radio news service, "CNN Radio Noticias" (CNN Radio News).
9









targeted at specific audiences and can be seen only in selected locations. CNN Airport

Network is seen in 32 airports within the United States. Accent Health can be seen in the

waiting rooms of doctors' offices, and CTN can be seen on over 270 college and

university campuses. Together, the CNN News Group reaches over 800 million people

throughout the world (CNN News Group, 1999).

CNN en Espaiol is unique because it is the first 24-hour Spanish-language cable

news network launched by the North American-based Turner Broadcasting Company,

Inc.2 However, CNN en Espafiol is not the first all-Spanish news channel launched by a

North American company. The broadcast networks National Broadcasting Company

(NBC) and CBS Corporation (CBS) had both launched 24-hour Spanish-language news

channels prior to CNN en Espaiol's March, 1997 launch. NBC had launched Canal de

Noticias (News Channel) in 1993 (Galetto, 1997b, 2). In 1996, CBS launched CBS

Telenoticias (CBS Television News)3 (Lieberman, 3B). On March 17, 1997, after 5 years

of planning, CNN launched CNN en Espahol (Davalos, 1997).

Existing Research and Literature


There is a significant body of research examining Spanish-language television. A

majority of this research has focused on Spanish-language broadcast television in the

United States. Because CNN en Espaiol is aimed primarily at Latin America, and

because it is a cable network, its study raises different questions.


2 CNN en Espafiol is not the first Spanish-language cable network launched by TBS.
TBS had launched the entertainment-based TNT Latin America in 1991.

3 Telenoticias had been on the air since 1994, but Westinghouse, owner of CBS bought
the channel in 1996. It was renamed CBS Telenoticias.









Research and literature on Spanish-language television has investigated topics

including minority television programming in the United States (Marshall, 1974), the

influence of television on the political transition in Spain (Maxwell, 1995), and the flow

of television programs from the United States to Latin America regions (Caraballo &

Eliut, 1991).

Wes Marshall's book Minority Television Programming: Fiesta (1974) studied

the development and creation of a minority television program in the United States. This

book details the developmental stages of a minority television program and provides

guidelines that others can use to develop minority programming. The book provides

information on all aspects of developing minority programming from the initial program

proposal and budgets to the production and execution of the program. It is an invaluable

tool in understanding minority television programming, but the book focuses on the

development of one particular type of program, as opposed to the station or network that

would carry such a program.

Richard Maxwell's The Spectacle of Democracy: Spanish Television,

Nationalism, and Political Transition (1995) examines social transition and its effect on

television in Spain. The book examines how television in Spain was changed as the

country went through its conversion from dictatorship to democracy. While the book

provides insight into Spanish television and how it was changed by political transition, it

does not focus on a particular broadcast or cable television network. Maxwell's work

deals with how the institution of television in Spain changed as a whole. His work does

not focus on a particular program or a particular network. It should also be noted that









because the focus of Maxwell's work is Spain, it does not examine Hispanics in the

United States or Latin America.

Caraballo and Eliut (1991) examined cable television in Puerto Rico. The focus

of their study was the potential impact of English-language cable television on the

cultural and political attitudes of Puerto Ricans. They examined how the Puerto Rican

media changed as VCRs became readily available to Puerto Ricans and as cable

television was introduced to the island. Although this study deals with cable television, it

is concerned with the effects of English-language cable television on Hispanics. While

helpful in understanding the effects that English-language cable television has had on

Puerto Rican media, it does not examine the creation or operation of a particular network.

The study focuses on the effects of cable television as a whole, rather than how a

particular network operates.

Other work on Hispanics and Hispanic television has included topics such as how

political science is affected by the mass media (Fox, 1993), bilingual minority television

programs (Barrera, 1992), the flow of television programs from the United States to

Latin America (Chen, 1987), Hispanic television and cultural representations in the

United States (Lozano, 1993), the marketing of television programs to Hispanics in the

United States (Soruco, 1985), and how Hispanic characters are portrayed on Spanish-

language television (Tituana, 1988).

Elizabeth Fox's 1993 dissertation International Relations and National Policies of

Latin American Broadcasting explains how the mass media in Latin America experienced

rapid growth to the point of ubiquity. The result of this mass media growth was a change

in how Latin Americans received their news and information and how they spent their









free time. Fox examines "patterns of conflict and accommodation" that resulted from the

rapid growth of mass media in Latin America. She compares the relationships and

spheres of influence of eight Latin American countries and their national broadcasting

policies. By examining eight countries, Fox builds a foundation for understanding the

development of domestic media policies while assessing the strength of influences from

the United States. Fox's study is useful in understanding media policies and potential

media growth for countries in Latin America.

Aida Barrera (1992) examined the making of bilingual minority children's

television programming. Barrera's dissertation, Multiculturalism Before Its Time: The

Making of"Carrascolendas," focuses on the making of"Carrascolendas," a bilingual,

multicultural program which addressed the needs of Mexican-American children as well

as the needs of children from other Hispanic groups. Barrera uses a historical and

autobiographical approach, as she was the creator of the "Carrascolendas" program. The

study examines the design of the program as well as issues in education and public

broadcasting, which were necessary to the development of the minority television

program. This study is valuable in understanding minority programming for children. It

is also useful in understanding how this type of programming represented

multiculturalism. Although the study examines a program aimed at Hispanics, the target

group is Hispanic children in the United States, not adults who would watch news

programming. It should also be taken into account that the "Carrascolendas" program

aired on the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), not a cable network.

Sheuan-Ling Chen's 1987 thesis entitled The Flow of Television Programs from

United States to Latin America: A Comparative Survey of Two Weeks' Television









Schedules in 1973 and 1983 explored a 10-year period to discover developments in the

flow of television programs from the United States to Latin America. Chen compared

two weeks of television schedules from 16 Latin American countries in 1973 and 1983.

Chen found that the amounts of programming emanating from the United States and

flowing to Latin America differed for each country studied. Chen concluded that

government intervention in broadcast policies varies greatly in Latin America, and this

contributed to the variations in amounts of programming which flowed from the United

States to different Latin American countries. This study is useful in gaining an

understanding of how involved Latin American governments are in broadcast policies.

However, the data used to conduct this study are over 10 years old. At the time the latest

data were taken (1983), the amount of U.S. programming available for export was not as

great as it is today. Also, this study does not take into account cable television, which is

currently more readily available, and it only studies television programming, and program

flow.

Elizabeth Lozano (1993) conducted a cultural study of Hispanic television in the

United States. Her dissertation examines "America" as a symbolic and material space

and it examines the growth of the Hispanic population in the United States. Lozano

investigates how this population growth has allowed Hispanics to emerge as a dominant

minority group in the United States. She also examines Hispanic television as an archive

of Hispanic presence and influence in television programs while examining how

television affects Hispanics in the United States. Lozano's work explains how Hispanic

television operates within both the Hispanic and American cultures. It also details how

Hispanic television mixes the cultures, thus redefining them and restructuring cultural









identities and differences. She notes that this mixture has resulted in the emergence of a

combination of Anglo American and Latin American cultures, which constitute a unique

cultural representation.

Gonzalo Rafael Soruco's 1985 dissertation Marketing Television Programs In The

United States: The Case of The Hispanic Audience examines differences in television

viewing habits of Hispanics living in the United States. Soruco examined Hispanic

audiences' choice of Spanish or English programming and how acculturation affects

program choice. Soruco concluded that viewing habits differed from one Hispanic

subgroup to another and this could be due to acculturation. However, the behaviors

exhibited in this study could not be generalized to other Hispanic populations. It is

important to note that the data used in this study were collected in 1983 by Arbitron, Inc.,

which no longer provides television audience data. As with other studies examining

Hispanics in the United States, this study does not examine the operation of a cable news

network, nor does it examine programming that is targeted to Latin America.

Juan Francisco Tituana (1988) examined occupational portrayals of Hispanic

characters in Spanish-language television comedies. Tituana performed a content

analysis of 33 television programs. He found that male characters portrayed higher status

occupations and had greater amounts of on-screen television time than female characters.

Tituana concluded that the Hispanic cultural tradition of males having a higher societal

role was reflected in Spanish-language television comedies.

While the aforementioned works concerns Spanish-language television or

Hispanics, they do not examine cable networks or news programming. The following








studies examine Spanish-language news and Spanish-language cable networks,

respectively.

Sylvana Paternostro's 1993 article "News Caliente: Tabloid TV with a Latin

Accent" examines two Spanish-language tabloid news programs, "Noticias y Mas" (News

and More) and "Ocurri6 Asi" (It Happened This Way). The tabloid programs are

produced by the Univision and Telemundo television networks, respectively. Paternostro

discusses the content of the programs and the criticism received by the programs. This

article provides some insight into the programming of Univision and Telemundo, both

Hispanic networks based in the United States. The article does not examine the networks

themselves, nor does it examine any other news programming produced by the networks.

America Rodriguez (1996) studied the objectivity and ethnicity in Spanish-

language newscasts. Her study focused on the production of Univision's nightly national

newscast, "Noticiero Univision" (Univision Newscast). Rodriguez examined the

newscasts' audience, the journalists within the newscasts, and the presentation of the

news within "Noticiero Univision." Her goal was to analyze the objectives of Univision

as a commercial enterprise as they pertained to the production and objectivity of

"Noticiero Univision" (1996, 59).

Rodriguez concluded that although the production of"Noticiero Univision"

applies many of the same "commercial and professional processes" of U.S.-based

newscasts, it ultimately denationalizes its intended audience (1996, 80-81). It is

important to note that Univision's target audience is U.S. Hispanics, not Latin Americans

living in Latin America (Rodriguez, 1996). Thus, her study finds that "Noticiero








Univision" denationalizes recent Latin American immigrants in the United States and

renationalizes them as U.S. Hispanics (1996, 81).

Rodriguez's study is very important in examining the production and objectivity

within a Spanish-language newscast. However, although she studied Spanish-language

news, Rodriguez was limited by the fact that Univision's primary audience is U.S.

Hispanics. Her study provides invaluable insight into the production of a Spanish-

language newscast and how it compares to U.S. newscasts, but the focus was on the

content and production of a single news program, not on the operation of the network that

provides such a program.

Nicholas Alfred Valenzuela (1985) studied the organizational development of a

non English- language television network in the United States. He used an

organizational environments model to analyze the organizational development of the now

defunct Spanish International Network (SIN).4 The audience Valenzuela studied was

Hispanics living in the United States. In part, Valenzuela also examined news production

and agenda setting for SIN.

The organizational environments model states that the degree of success or

failure of an organization can be judged by comparisons to similar organizations, such as

competitors (Valenzuela, 1985, 66). Valenzuela notes that the structure of organizational

environments allows for a complete and readily accessible method for analyzing mass

media institutions.


4 SIN was not a 24 hour cable news network. The network is now known as Univision.









The organizational environments model also allows for analysis of an institution's

interaction within the societies in which it operates (1985, 67). Valenzuela's study had

two main goals. First, he wanted to test the usefulness of the organizational environments

model. Second, he sought to identify what factors enabled the Spanish-language

television network SIN to be established and to survive in the highly competitive industry

of television broadcasting. Valenzuela's objective was that his study prove useful to

communication researchers studying other mass media institutions, such as broadcasting

companies, cable television organizations, direct broadcast satellite companies, low-

power television stations, etc. (1985, 9).

Valenzuela notes that organizational environments literature is "ultimately

concerned with the issue of effective organizational management" (1985, 68).

Organizational environments theory, thus, examines how a business survives within its

competitive environment. Burgelman (1994) states that organizational environments

theory also examines how businesses strategically withdraw from existing businesses

while redirecting or shedding competencies associated with these former businesses.

Thus, it seems that organizational environments theory could provide an excellent base

for studying CNN en Espaiiol's level of success in future research studies.

Valenzuela's study of organizational environments theory to identify the factors

that led to Spanish International Network's success in the 1980s, comes closest to

examining the operation of a 24-hour cable news network. However, unlike CNN en

Espafiol, SIN's programming was entertainment-based. Because Valenzuela used

organizational environments theory, he examined SIN from a point where the network

was already established. His study does not examine the steps that were necessary to








create Spanish International Network. Valenzuela also notes that his study "is not

concerned with the day to day managerial operations of the organization" (1984, 14).

Because organizational environments theory can judge the success of an

organization by making comparisons to similar organizations, the theory could be used to

assess CNN en Espafol's survival against other cable news networks in Latin America.

Noting that organization environments theory also allows for the analysis of an

institution's interaction within the societies in which the organization operates, the effects

of CNN en Espafiol's presence in Latin America can also be studied. A third factor

which can be examined using the organizational environments theory is how CNN en

Espafiol withdraws from parts of its initial business strategy as the network grows and

takes on new business strategies. The theory would allow for the examination of how the

network redirects parts of its business strategy that it no longer utilizes and how the

network redirects competencies associated with those former business practices.

However, because CNN en Espafiol is still a young organization, this thesis examines its

creation and operation. Both are areas which have yet to be examined.

There is also a body of research on CNN en Espafol's sister network, CNN. It is

important to examine CNN as it is the largest part of the CNN News Group, and it is a

large part of CNN en Espafiol's infrastructure.

CNN is the originator of the 24-hour television news format (Whittemore, 1990).

Its target audience is television viewers in the United States (CNN News Group, 1999).

The network offers a wide range of programming that encompasses business,

entertainment, health, science news, sports, topical in-depth interviews and weather. The








network's most notable trait is its coverage and analysis of live breaking worldwide news

events (CNN News Group, 1999).

Noting that CNN targets U.S. audiences, it is important to note that other parts of

the CNN News Group target the rest of the world. CNN International is CNN's 24-hour

global news network (CNN News Group, 1999). CNNI is seen in over 138 million

households in over 210 countries and territories throughout the world (CNN News Group,

1999). The CNNI signal covers Latin America, and until CNN en Espaiol's launch, it

was the only CNN television news service available in that region. Currently, both CNN

en Espafiol and CNNI are available in Latin America. The difference is that CNNI is an

English-language service while CNN en Espafiol is a Spanish-language service.

There are a variety of textbooks, trade journal and popular literature articles

available about CNN and the various stages of its development. In 1983, the Washington

D.C.- based not-for-profit organization The Media Institute prepared a content analysis

entitled CNN vs. The Networks: Is More News Better News? The content analysis

compared CNN's news programming with that of the three major broadcast networks,

ABC, CBS, and NBC, but did not examine the startup and operation of CNN. Also, it

should be noted that this content analysis was conducted over 15 years ago, and the

practices, programming and editorial policies of each network studied have undergone

changes over that time period.

To explore the startup and operation of CNN, Hank Whittemore's CNN The

Inside Story (1990) provides a first-hand look at how and why CNN was created. The

book takes the story directly from the individuals involved in the creation and initial

operation of the network. The book opens with a quotation of the telephone








conversation that started CNN and continues with direct quotes from those involved

providing an incredibly detailed account of the CNN story (Whittemore, 1990). The book

is an excellent source for understanding the processes which helped put CNN on the air.

It explains how people were chosen to help start the network, and it explains the role of

each person. The book gives verbal accounts of how individuals worked together,

although not always agreeing, to make CNN a reality. Whittemore also provides details

about innovations that were created at CNN. One such innovation was the idea of the

"live" newsroom showing the buzz of newsroom activity behind the anchor desk while an

anchor is on the air. Before CNN, news programs were broadcast from a studio set that

had no activity behind the anchor desk. Whittemore also give details about the

development of CNN's computer system BASYS and about technical equipment that was

chosen to start the network. Perhaps the most interesting parts of the book are when

Whittemore provides accounts of CNN's control room as the network broke out of a

commercial break to broadcast its first live breaking news event.

This thesis is similar to Whittemore's book. However, there are numerous

differences in examining the startup of CNN and CNN en Espafiol. Because CNN en

Espaiiol is part of the CNN News Group, this study examines how CNN en Espafiol was

created and how it operates within the realm of CNN. Although Whittemore's book

details the startup of the CNN network, this study examines the startup of CNN's first

news venture in a language other than English. It must also be taken into account that

Whittemore examines how CNN pioneered the 24-hour cable news format. This thesis

examines how that format is adapted to a Spanish-speaking audience almost two decades

after CNN revolutionized cable television news.








Don Floumoy's CNN World Report: Ted Turner's International News Coup

(1992) provides an in-depth examination of one particular CNN program, "World

Report." However, the book is not limited in its presentation. Flournoy also gives a

detailed explanation of CNN's growth into a respectable news organization. The book

provides specific examples of news stories broadcast by CNN from and about countries

where media reports are controlled by the government. Flournoy details the origins of the

"World Report" program and the changes it has undergone since its initial broadcast.

"World Report" is a program which consists of news stories submitted from

television organizations around the world. The news stories are sent to CNN's Atlanta

headquarters where they are organized to form the "World Report" program. This is a

program that CNN founder Ted Turner said was not created to make money. It was

created with the purpose of giving people around the world a chance to be heard

(Flournoy, 2). Flournoy explains how contributing nations perceive the program and

CNN as a whole. He details how stories are chosen for the program and also gives

examples of topics and countries which have submitted material.

Flournoy also notes that CNN does not control the editorial content of the "World

Report" stories. Any nation is allowed to submit material and thus, "World Report" has

been accused of being a "propaganda mill" for the world (Flournoy, 93). However,

Flournoy reminds us that the program does not discriminate against a country or a

government. It is simply a program which gives everyone a chance to be heard. It is

important to mention Flournoy's book because it discusses a program that also airs on

CNN en Espafiol. The Spanish title of the program is "El Mundo Informa," which

literally translates into "World Report."








Another book written about CNN and its development as a news organization is

How CNN Fought the War: A View from the Inside by Major General Perry M. Smith

(Retired) (1991). This book examines CNN's coming of age during the Persian Gulf

War. It explores the behind-the-scenes action in the days before the Persian Gulf War,

and it chronicles CNN's operation during the war. Smith provides first-hand accounts of

how CNN utilized military analysts to help give the network an advantage on the

understanding of the subject matter. The book focuses on explaining how CNN operated

editorially during the Gulf War period and how its presence in Iraq turned it into the

world's most respected news organization.

There are other books and studies available examining CNN. Books about the

network include Robert Wiener's Live From Baghdad: Gathering News at Ground Zero

(1992), Don Flournoy's CNN: Making News in a Global Market (1997) and Porter

Bibb's It Ain't as Easy as It Looks: The Story of Ted Turner and CNN (1993).

Other academic research on CNN includes Chun Park's 1994 dissertation entitled

A Comparative Analysis of the Selection Process and Content of Television International

News in the United States and Korea. This study examines factors influencing

international news selection in the U.S. and Korea. Park examined the editorial

procedures and control mechanisms of CNN in an effort to compare them to two Korean

broadcasters. Park conducted a content analysis of CNN's news and the newscasts of

Korea's Seoul Broadcasting System (SBS) and the Korean Broadcasting System (KBS),

and found that CNN is a more globally oriented news network than the Korean networks.

Park also found that CNN is operated on a market driven business model unlike the

Korean broadcasters, which focus on maintaining good government relations.








Sherrie Ann Madia's dissertation The Global News Race: The Branding of CNN

(1998) studies two global news leaders, CNN and the British Broadcasting Corporation

(BBC). The study provides a content analysis of programming, including CNN's "World

Report." Madia examines categories including audio and visual elements, country and

region of news representation, use of graphics or other production elements, narrator

types, gender of narrators and prevalence of the CNN brand.

While there is an abundance of research about Spanish-language television, news

networks and cable news networks, much of this research overlaps in subject matter.

Existing research on cable networks is very similar to the research which exists about

traditional over-the-air broadcasting and television programming. Much of this research

focuses on programming audience measurement and audience effects. To date, there is

no in-depth examination of CNN en Espafiol. This thesis will fill that void by using a

case study approach, thus allowing for a first-hand examination of the startup and

operation of a 24-hour Spanish-language cable news network.

The next chapter contains the methodology of this study. It explains the case

study method and focused interview, which is part of the case study approach. The

chapter also details the types of data collected and how those data were collected.














CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

The design of the study is based on a qualitative case study approach, whereby the

researcher, through participant-observation, gathers data about the operation of CNN en

Espafol. Then, with interviews from key individuals within the network, further data on

the creation of CNN en Espafol will be attained. The present chapter details the types of

data collected, how that data were collected and how the analysis was completed.


The Benefits of Qualitative Research


The review of literature revealed that research has been largely based on

conventional quantitative methods, such as surveys and content analysis. With these

quantitative approaches, the findings have been limited to who watches what television

programming, when those viewers are watching such programming, and what effects the

programming may have on the viewer. Since the aim of this thesis is not to determine

viewing habits or other quantitative attributes, a qualitative approach is most appropriate.

Presently, the strengths of qualitative analysis seem to be the benefits it provides

in the planning process. For example, through measures such as focus groups, an

advertiser can determine what may be effective before committing to a costly national

campaign. Qualitative research examines attributes, characteristics and properties in

communication (Fitch, 1994, 32). The emphasis is on pure description rather than

prediction and measurement. The ability to change hypotheses and research questions









after initial observations and the aspiration to understand what an experience is like leads

to an understanding known as "Verstehen" (Lindlof, 1995, 30). The use of a constant

comparative method or a phenomenological approach are strengths of the qualitative

approach in telecommunication.

Since the qualitative framework seeks to find out how and why things are done,

this approach will be used to examine how CNN en Espafiol was created and how it

operates.


Case Study


This project uses a case study approach as a primary data gathering technique.

The case study method allows research to be descriptive and exploratory. According to

Yin,

The case study allows an investigation to retain the holistic and
meaningful characteristics of real-life events-such as individual life
cycles, organizational and managerial processes, neighborhood change,
international relations, and the maturation of industries. (1994, 3)

This case study examines CNN en Espafiol and explores the various stages that

led to the creation of the cable news network. By gathering data directly from the

individuals involved in the network's creation process, coupled with the researcher's

participant-observation, this study investigates how and why things were done from the

inception of the network to its launching.

Yin writes that evidence for a case study may come from six sources: documents,

archival records, interviews, direct observation, participant-observation and physical

artifacts (1994, 80). All six types of evidence produced data for this study. However,-

two particular types, participant-observation and interviews, largely comprise the data.








Participant Observation

Participant-observation is one of the primary techniques used in this study because

it is a special mode of observation, which allows the researcher to assume diverse roles

within a case study. It also allows for the researcher to participate in the events being

studied (Yin, 87). In this study, the researcher assumes the role of a newscast director or

"line director" within the CNN en Espafiol network. Agar states:

First of all, participant observation means you are actually there, that you
enter the world of the people you're working with rather than bringing
them into your world. In this sense, participant observation is a diagnostic
feature of ethnography. (Agar, 1999, 9)

The researcher began to work at CNN en Espafiol three months before the

network's March 1997 launch. As a newscast director, the researcher was able to observe

and participate in the daily operation of the CNN en Espafol. This allowed the researcher

to understand how and why things are done. Agar states that participant observation

allows the researcher to be directly involved in the community. The researcher can

observe and talk with people while learning from them their views of reality (1996, 163).

Spradley notes that the participant observer appears to be an ordinary participant in an

environment (Spradley, 1980, 54). However, the participant observer approaches a social

situation with two goals: to participate in the activities appropriate to the situation and to

observe the "activities, people, and physical artifacts of the situation" (Spradley, 1980,

54).

The participant observer seeks to become categorically aware of activities that

would ordinarily be blocked out by ordinary participants. Spradley notes that as a



1 The newscast director is responsible for directing a live or taped television program.








researcher, increasing awareness is not an easy task. The researcher must overcome an

inclination towards "selective inattention," or the tuning out of activities in a situation

(Spradley, 1980, 55). A participant observer must have a heightened sense of awareness.

A researcher must accept a broader range of information, as if approaching the social

environment with a "wide-angle lens" (Spradley, 1980, 56).

The participant observer also experiences being an "insider" and "outsider" in a

social situation (Spradley, 1980, 56). As an ordinary participant in a social environment,

one's experiences would be subjective. However, a participant observer simultaneously

views a situation subjectively and from an outside view (Spradley, 1980, 57). This is

necessary to gain an understanding of how participants act in situations while

understanding how those actions affect the social environment (Spradley, 1980, 57)

In participant observation, the researcher must also learn to use himself as a

research instrument (Spradley, 1980, 57). This introspection of daily activities differs

greatly from ordinary participants which overlook many experiences (Spradley, 1980, 57).

A participant observer's ability to thoroughly reflect on the activities within a social

environment will greatly refine the data gathered (Spradley, 1980, 58).

Description of the Interviews

Interviews were used to gather data that was not directly available to the

researcher via participant observation. According to Yin,

Overall, interviews are an essential source of case study evidence because
most case studies are about human affairs. These human affairs should be
reported and interpreted through the eyes of specific interviewees, and
well informed respondents can provide important insights into a situation.
They can also provide shortcuts to the prior history of the situation,
helping you to identify other relevant sources of evidence. (Yin, 85)








The interview creates an "opportunity to step into the mind of another person, to

see and experience the world as they do themselves" (McCracken, 9). This type of first

hand account will be crucial to the understanding of how and why CNN en Espafiol was

created.

Lindlof (1995) states that as a researcher, one can never be sure that what a

respondent says represents the full story. For this reason, the researcher conducted seven

personal interviews of individuals associated with CNN en Espafiol. The interviews were

used to gather information about the startup of CNN en Espafiol and to further expand on

the limited information available about the network. All of the interviews were taped on

two simultaneously running recorders. Each interview was conducted in the office or

home of the interviewee. Those interviewed for this study were

Christopher Crommett, Vice President and News Director, CNN en Espafiol
Bob Hesskamp, Vice President of Operations, CNN International
Donna Mastrangelo, Senior Executive Producer, CNN en Espafiol
Debra Morton, Former Manager of Network and New Business Operations, CNN en
Espafiol
Caroline Rittenberry, Manager of Public Relations, TBS Latin America
Rolando Santos, President, CNN en Espafiol
Madeleine Wiener, Former Vice President of News Marketing, TBS Latin America


These interviewees comprise a variety of positions within the network including

management, public relations, marketing, and editorial and production staff. The goal of

these interviews is to establish an understanding of not only why things were done, but

how they were done at all levels in the development of CNN en Espafol. Each of these

individuals had a specific role in the creation of the network. The following chapter will

explain the role of each interviewee throughout the development of CNN en Espafiol.








The interview type used was the "focused interview" as defined by Merton, Fiskc

& Kendall (1990). In this interview type, the respondent is interviewed for a short time

period; in this case the average time was one hour. The focused interview may remain

open-ended and can even assume a conversational manner (Yin, 85).

A tool used in the formulation of the interview questionnaire was Wes Marshall's

book Minority Television Programming: Fiesta. The text dealt with the development of

a minority program entitled "Fiesta." Although it was written in 1974, "Fiesta" provided

invaluable insight into what was necessary to develop a television program for Hispanics.

"Fiesta" was used as a source for developing the questionnaire as many of the issues

relating to the development of the program "Fiesta" could be applied to the development

of CNN en Espafol. Among the issues discussed in "Fiesta" were the audience, the long-

term results of the programming, staffing and future goals (Marshall, 1).

The questionnaire formulated and used in the interviews appears in Appendix A.

McCracken states the following benefits of using a questionnaire:

The questionnaire allows for care in the scheduling of the prompts necessary to
manufacture distance between the respondent and researcher
The questionnaire establishes channels for the direction and scope of responses
The questionnaire allows the investigator to give all of their attention to the
respondent's testament. (1988, 24-25)


The questionnaire was designed so that questions could easily be adjusted to

accommodate each respondent's area of expertise. The questions were general in nature.

However, it was not feasible to ask each respondent every question as each person

interviewed had a different area of expertise and there were time limitations on the length

of the interviews. This is important to note because each interviewee granted interview








time as part of his or her daily schedule. For these reasons, questions that did not fall into

a particular respondent's area of knowledge were omitted from the interview.

Sometimes, questions were asked and respondents did not provide answers due to their

lack of expertise about a particular subject matter. In addition, due to the nature of the

interview, the respondents sometimes answered future questions within their responses

to other questions. For this reason, it was not practicable to ask each respondent the same

questions in the same order. However, every effort was made to ask each individual

question in the same manner. Another outcome of the interviews was the development of

more questions. As the first interviews were conducted, the respondents sometimes

provided information that required further investigation. This information was

formulated into questions and these questions were added to the questionnaire. The new

questions were asked to the remaining interview subjects who had expertise in those

particular areas.


Other Data Used in the Study


Lindlof (1995) states that interviews allow researchers to "verify, validate, or

comment on data from other sources." For the study, numerous other data sources were

used to develop an accurate history and understanding ofCNN en Espafiol and the Latin

American market. The questionnaire and analysis were developed by examining

numerous trade journals and publications such as Advertising Age, Broadcasting and

Cable, Broadcast Engineering, Cable Business International, Cablefax, Cable and

Satellite Express, Communication International, Daily Variety, Electronic Media, The

Hollywood Reporter, Market Latin America, Media Daily, Mediaweek, Multichannel








News, Network World, PR Newswire, Public Relations Quarterly, Satellite Week and

Television Business International.

Newspaper sources were also used. They included both local and major national

U.S. newspapers, along with Latin American papers. Among the domestic newspapers

were The Atlanta Journal Constitution, The Austin-American Statesman, The Boston

Globe, The Chicago Sun Times, The Hartford Courant, The Los Angeles Times. The

New York Times, The Tampa Tribune, The Sun Sentinel, USA Today and The

Washington Post.

Popular literature, domestic and international wire services were also used. These

sources were valuable in gathering information about events that took place throughout

CNN en Espafiol's development. The articles were examined for information about

Spanish-language television and for specific information about CNN en Espafol and

Turner Broadcasting System. The literature examined includes Business Journal,

Business Horizons, The Economist. Maclean's, Reuters Financial Service, South Florida

Business Journal, TASS, Time, Time Latin America, and U.S. News and World Report.

Latin American newspapers, journals and news services included Cronica

(Mexico), Diaro el Clarin (Argentina), El Excelsior (Mexico), La Jornada (Mexico), El

Nacional (Venezuela), Semana (Colombia), Servicio Universal de Noticias (Universal

News Service), El Tiempo (Colombia), and Vision (Argentina). It was important to look

at these sources as they emanate from the region serviced by CNN en Espafiol. The

articles attained from these sources were translated to English by the researcher for their

use in this study. Using information directly from Latin America allowed for the








development of a coherent and detailed description of how CNN en Espaihol was

developed from the recipients' perspective.

Other information about CNN en Espaiol was obtained from management's

interdepartmental memoranda, while still other documents were provided by those

interviewed in the study. Press releases supplied by CNN en Espaniol's public relations

department were also used as sources. The Internet proved a valuable secondary source

to obtain information about the components of the CNN News Group and to find other

information and articles that were not readily available. On-line services such as Lexis-

Nexis and First Search were also used to find information about Spanish-language

television and CNN.

The aforementioned data were collected before the questionnaire was designed

and before the interviews were conducted. However, every attempt was made to

continually update the information as the study progressed.

The next chapter contains a summary of the interviews. The chapter begins with

an explanation of why the interviews were conducted and then defines the standard ethics

protocol that was used in this study. The chapter then examines the importance of

transcription quality and how this affects data collection and analysis.














CHAPTER 4
DISCUSSION OF THE INTERVIEWS

This chapter examines the seven interviews used in this study and discusses the

data that the interviews yielded. The individuals interviewed are

Christopher Crommett, Vice President and News Director, CNN en Espafiol
Bob Hesskamp, Vice President of Operations, CNN International
Donna Mastrangelo, Senior Executive Producer, CNN en Espafiol
Debra Morton, Former Manager of Network and New Business Operations, CNN en
Espafiol
Caroline Rittenberry, Manager of Public Relations, TBS Latin America
Rolando Santos, President, CNN en Espaiol
Madeleine Wiener, Former Vice President of News Marketing, TBS Latin America


These individuals had a specific role in the startup of CNN en Espafol, and many

continue to have roles in the current operation of the network.

Prior to each interview, the respondents were asked to sign a standard ethics

protocol. The form used was adapted from McCracken's The Lone Interview (1988).

This document informed the respondents of their rights as subjects in the study and of

how their responses would be used in this study. The standard ethics protocol, approved

by the University of Florida Institutional Review Board, appears in Appendix B.

The Importance of Transcription Quality


Poland (1995) states that even when those transcribing attempt to produce

verbatim accounts of an interview, there are four discrepancies which may occur. These









discrepancies are problems with sentence structure, misuse of quotation marks, omissions

of words or phrases, and mistaking words or phrases for others (297).

To ensure the integrity of the research, two audio recordings were made of each

interview. Each recording was produced on a different tape format. During transcription,

if there was any dispute about a word or phrase, the second recording was used to

determine the proper transcription. Also, while conducting the interviews, the researcher

made an effort to note on the questionnaire any particular words that might be

misunderstood in the transcription process. After the transcripts were completed, as a

final method of quality control, the researcher again listened to the interviews while

reading the transcripts. This method proved worthwhile as some omissions and mistaken

words were discovered. These errors were corrected as they were discovered for each

interview.


Data Yielded Through the Interviews


The interviews provided data which helped define and explain various stages of

CNN en Espafiol's planning and development. These data can be separated into the

following categories: research, public relations and marketing, definition of an audience,

editorial content, and operation of the network.

Through the course of the interviews, many terms and words related specifically

to television and more specifically to CNN en Espafiol were used by the respondents.

These words and terms appear in Appendix C.








"This Is CNN"

"Somos CNN en Espafiol" is CNN en Espafiol's on-air identification slogan. It

literally means, "This is CNN." The goal of CNN en Espafiol's creators was to produce a

network that was CNN, but with a Latin American perspective. This would involve years

of planning. Rolando Santos, President of CNN en Espafiol states:

There were probably close to a dozen business plans that were put together
before we finally found the right combination of technology and business,
and the market grew to where we could do this. One of the key reasons we
waited so long to get in the marketplace was the marketplace, cable wise,
had not matured enough for us to be able to launch. A certain number of
cable operators had to exist before you could make it a business. Then you
had to find the right amounts of technology. Our network for example is
probably the most efficient network at CNN in terms of the number of
people working versus the amount of material put out, and that's no
accident. It happened that way because we designed it that way or it
wouldn't have happened. Not that we set out to be the most efficient.
You only have so much money available in the pot, so the people had to be
able do certain things to be able to get a 24-hour network with the
credibility of CNN. In other words, it wasn't just a matter of throwing on
a network. I had to create a network that had lived up to all of the
standards and expectations of a CNN network. And, you had to do it with
a certain amount of money, which was far less than what's available in the
general market. So we had to wait for the market to grow. We had to wait
for the technology to develop to the point where we could use less people
but with the same amount of output, or greater output. Then, all of those
forces had to come together literally and coalesce in order for us to launch
CNN en Espaftol. (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999)

Initial Research

Before embarking on the CNN en Espahol, Turner Broadcasting System

conducted research to determine the viability of a 24-hour Spanish-language news

network. CNN en Espafiol Vice President Christopher Crommett states:

Quite honestly, there was not question that from an editorial standpoint it
made sense to have a network in Spanish. We're talking about an
enormous region, an enormously diverse region with a long history of
censorship and control of information that was hungry for a source that it









could rely on that would not be subject to local, political and increasingly
what we see these days, financial pressure...Editorially, there was no
question that it was justified. Strategically, given the projections for
economic growth in Latin America, it made a lot of sense. What had to
make sense was a business plan. The folks that crunch the numbers did
their research as to what they thought the potential distribution would be,
what they thought the potential advertising revenue would be, and finally
said, "Yes, we think this can be a profitable business within X period of
time." And that was an acceptable wait time. (C. Crommett, personal
communication, October 6, 1999)

Marketing Vice President Madeleine Wiener adds that she feels the network

would have launched with or without research because it was seen as a business

opportunity, and the decision to launch was largely based on TBS Latin America's

experience in the region. She notes:

Like a lot of things that Turner has done, I think there was a gut feel.
There was a gut feel and there was also the experience of executives that
have worked a long time in Latin America that have talked to cable
operators and talked to people--There was really a need for launching
CNN en Espafiol. (M. Wiener, personal communication, October 9, 1999)

Once CNN en Espafiol was approved for launch, the building of the network

could begin. The building process would require the development of CNN en Espafiol's

public relations and marketing, audience definition, editorial content, and daily

operations.

Public Relations and Marketing for CNN en Espafiol

The promotion of a Latin American version of CNN was carried out by the public

relations and marketing departments of TBS Latin America, which are responsible for

promoting and establishing CNN en Espafiol's market presence in Latin America (M.

Wiener, personal communication, October 9, 1999). The public relations department

pushed the slogan "El lider mundial en noticias" ("The World's News Leader") when








selling CNN en Espafiol. However, the most important aspect in the success of the

network was the CNN name. Caroline Rittenberry, Public Relations Manager for TBS

Latin America, notes that the CNN brand was essential to the network's success (C.

Rittenberry, personal communication, October 9, 1999). Madeline Wiener, former Vice

President of News Marketing for TBS Latin America, adds that the network was sold as

CNN. It was not sold as a network that was like CNN, but as a network that was CNN, in

Spanish, with a Latin American perspective (M. Wiener, personal communication,

October 9, 1999).

Because the CNN name is one of the most recognized brand names in the world,l

the public relations and marketing departments were able to start selling the network two

years before the network's launch (C. Rittenberry, personal communication, October 9,

1999). Public Relations Manager Rittenberry (personal communication, October 9, 1999)

notes that the biggest problem was deciding when the network would actually launch

because the existence of the network had been announced so far in advance. Cable

operators and consumers knew that CNN would deliver CNN en Espafiol, but when it

would be delivered could not be answered until a final business plan was approved.

Because no launch date had been officially set in the early stages, the public relations and

marketing departments could not promote the exact arrival time of the network (C.

Rittenberry, personal communication, October 9, 1999).

In the time between the decision to create the network and the approval of the

final business plan, the marketing department conducted research in Latin America to see



I Rolando Santos, President of CNN en Espafiol, notes that the CNN name is as
recognized worldwide as the Coca-Cola brand name.








what type of interest there was in the network (M. Wiener, personal communication,

October 9, 1999). They also conducted research to determine what people were watching

in various time periods and to determine other details, such as what was considered prime

time in different countries (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999).

However, many decisions about the marketing of the network did not rely on

research. Rittenberry (personal communication, October 9, 1999) notes that there is not a

lot of reliable audience research in Latin America, so many decisions were based on

experience. Former Marketing Vice President Madeleine Wiener adds that there are

financial limits when dealing with research (M. Wiener, personal communication,

October 9, 1999). There is only so much research that can be performed due to budget

limitations. She adds that when launching a network, the first priority is to let viewers

and potential subscribers know that the network exists. Then, once the network is

established, more money can be invested into research which focuses on programming

and viewing habits (M. Wiener, personal communication, October 9, 1999).

Prior to launch, the marketing department placed advertisements in trade journals

and cross-promoted CNN en Espafiol on the other Turner networks that were present in

Latin America (C. Rittenberry, personal communication, October 9, 1999).2 Meanwhile,

the public relations (PR) department took CNN en Espafiol's primary anchors, Jorge

Gestoso and Patricia Janiot, to trade shows to sell the new network.3 The PR department


2 These networks include CNN International, TNT (Latin America) and TBS (Latin
America).

' Jorge Gestoso and Patricia Janiot anchored CNN's Spanish-language newscasts which
had previously aired on CNN International.









also invited reporters from Latin America to Atlanta to see CNN and what would

eventually be CNN en Espafiol. The goal of the public relations department was to make

the public and cable operators aware of CNN en Espafiol's pending arrival (C.

Rittenberry, personal communication, October 9, 1999).

The initial promotion of CNN en Espafol after launch was aimed at letting

viewers know that CNN had arrived in their language (C. Rittenberry, personal

communication, October 9, 1999). Public Relations Manager Rittenberry explains that

promotion cannot focus on network's programming until people know that the network

exists. Now that CNN en Espafol has been broadcasting for more than two years,

Rittenberry states that the promotion of the network has moved toward specific program

promotion and to proof of performance promotions (C. Rittenberry, personal

communication, October 9, 1999).4 Donna Mastrangelo, Senior Executive Producer of

CNN en Espaiol, adds that because the network is young, there is still no clear answer as

to what type of promotion is most effective. However, she says that because the initial

phases of network promotion were aimed at establishing the presence of the network and

the CNN brand, the next phase is the promotion of specific programs and of CNN en

Espafiol's on-air talent (D. Mastrangelo, personal communication, October 7, 1999).

Defining CNN en Espafol's Audience

CNN en Espahol was designed so that it would provide up to date, relevant news

and information programming for Latin America (C. Crommett, personal

communication, October 6, 1999). The key issue was relevance.


4 Proof of Performance (P.O.P) is a promotion which highlights a network's coverage of
a single story or group of stories.








Due to Latin America's diversity, defining an audience for CNN en Espafiol was a

challenge. What might be of interest to someone in Mexico might not be interesting to

someone in Argentina (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999). The

network could not rely on research to determine what Latin Americans wanted in

programming because the research conducted in the region to determine this type of data

was not reliable (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999). CNN en

Espaiol had to rely on instinct and prior experience (M. Wiener, personal

communication, October 9, 1999). The network also relied on the knowledge of the staff,

most of which came from Latin America.

A primary factor in defining CNN en Espafiol's audience was that programming

had to initially be aimed at those who could afford cable television or direct satellite

service (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999). In the early stages of

the network, these individuals would be the only ones receiving CNN en Espafol on a 24-

hour a day basis. At the onset, this group consisted of middle to upper class individuals

(C. Rittenberry, personal communication, October 9, 1999). The audience consisted of

decision makers, such as politicians and business owners, who were educated, savvy,

interested in technology and traveled frequently (C. Crommett, personal communication,

October 6, 1999). A majority of this group was bilingual and was already watching CNN

International. This largely drove the design of CNN en Espafiol's program schedule (C.

Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999).5




5 The program schedule (grid) is the 24-hour daily program schedule of a network. The
grid indicates what programming is scheduled to air for each hour of every day.









However, CNN en Espaiol's creators did not limit the reach of the network to just

cable subscribers. CNN en Espafiol maintains broadcast affiliates throughout Latin

America (D. Mastrangelo, personal communication, October 7, 1999). By affiliating with

stations throughout the region, CNN en Espafol could reach a larger audience. Vice

President Christopher Crommett states:

We do get access to all audiences, by any category that you might want to
define, through our broadcast affiliates. We have at least one broadcast
affiliate in every Latin American country. So, we're able to reach
segments of the population that might not be able to afford cable or direct
satellite and can still see our programming in some form or fashion. (C.
Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999)

CNN en Espafiol's affiliates vary throughout Latin America, but consist of local

broadcasters located in various parts of each Latin American country (R. Santos, personal

communication, October 6, 1999). Many of these local affiliates have rights to directly

carry CNN en Espafiol's breaking news coverage (C. Crommett, personal

communication, October 6, 1999). Other affiliates have rights to broadcast CNN en

Espaiol's newscasts as their nightly national newscasts (R. Santos, personal

communication, October 6, 1999).

Crommett adds that CNN en Espafiol has reciprocity agreements with its Latin

American affiliates (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999). These

agreements also allow CNN en Espafiol's affiliates to use CNN en Espaiol material while

CNN en Espafol is allowed to use material from its local affiliates (C. Crommett,

personal communication, October 6, 1999). Senior Executive Producer Donna

Mastrangelo notes that the affiliate-client relationship is key because it allows CNN en








Espahol to have extensive local coverage of stories throughout Latin America (D.

Mastrangelo, personal communication, October 7, 1999).

Editorial Content of CNN en Espafiol

Network President Rolando Santos states, "News, is news, is news." The

information that is presented does not change. What is important to the success of a

network is how that information is presented to its audience (R. Santos, personal

communication, October 6, 1999). Santos adds that it is very difficult for the audience to

identify with the news if it is not given examples with which it can identify. According to

CNN en Espafol Vice President Christopher Crommett, that is the goal of CNN en

Espafiol--to provide news and information that is relevant, while being the sole

international news and information source for Latin America (C. Crommett, personal

communication, October 6, 1999). Crommett adds that CNN en Espafiol is a supplement

to the local news offerings of the region. It is a network that is designed to satisfy the

information and news needs of Latin Americans (C. Crommett, personal communication,

October 6, 1999).

Santos gives an example of how a news story can be made relevant to Latin

Americans:

If we do a cancer story, yes, we may take CNN material that talks about a
cancer story, but we're going to turn around and we're going to find out
how many Latin Americans are affected by this, not just how many people,
because there may be a difference. (R. Santos, personal communication,
October 6, 1999)

The issue of making programming relevant to Latin America affected decisions

about programming and how that programming would be presented on the network (C.

Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999). Making CNN en Espafiol's








offerings pertinent to Latin Americans proved to be a challenge. The first factor was

defining CNN en Espafiol's audience, and how to create programming for that audience

(C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999). CNN en Espafiol's Vice

President, Christopher Crommett, states that defining an audience for a region as large as

Latin America is always a challenge. That challenge lies in the fact that the region

consists of over 20 distinct countries, many of which have different cultures and dialects

of the Spanish language (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999).

Network President Rolando Santos gives an example of how a simple word can have

different meanings throughout the Latin American region. Santos states:

For me, in my part of Mexico, an "apartamento" with an "A" is an
apartment that you live in and a "departamento" with a "D" is a
department in a store, or a department in a business. In the Southern
Cone,6 a "departamento" with a "D" is a place where you live. An
"apartamento" with an "A" does not exist. (R. Santos, personal
communication, October 6, 1999)

This example is typical of the daily challenges that CNN en Espafiol faces. For

this reason, it was important that the network hire a representative mix of people (R.

Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999). By staffing the network with

individuals from throughout Spain and Latin America, the network would be able to

produce programming that would, on some level, appeal to viewers in every Latin

American country (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999). Santos

adds that the hiring process was not aimed at having set numbers of individuals from each





6 The Southern Cone is a region of South America which includes: Argentina, Brazil,
Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay.








country within Latin America. Rather, the goal was to have representation of employees

from the entire region (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999).

In presenting news programming, CNN en Espafol Vice President and News

Director, Christopher Crommett, states that it is also important that the network avoid

covering stories that skew in any one direction (C. Crommett, personal communication,

October 6, 1999). Crommett adds that CNN en Espafiol does not want to favor any

particular country with the stories that it covers. He adds that the easy days, in terms of

editorial judgment, are those in which there is a "huge, obligatory" story that has to be

reported. For this reason, the network makes an effort to report stories that are of interest

to viewers throughout the region. Crommett notes that stories dealing with subjects that

affect every nation in Latin America is important because viewers throughout the region

can relate to similar subjects (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999).

Crommett also adds that CNN en Espaiol keeps its audience interested by focusing on

different subjects throughout the day (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6,

1999). This is evidenced by the program schedule that consists primarily of news, but

includes business, sports, entertainment, and feature programming.7 He states:

I think we've done a credible job of programming for over 20 countries
without alienating anybody, at least not too much. Sure, there's a role for
niche networks and in a sense, we've tried to be all things to all people,
and I think we've achieved it to some extent. If you look at the component
networks of the CNN News Group, and you look at our program grid
you'll see that to some extent we're trying to be all of those components.
For a half-hour at a time in prime time and in the early morning, we
become CNNfn with a clearly Latin American flavor and focus. For
certain parts of the day, we become CNN/SI. We become a sports news


7 The feature programs cover subjects such as the environment, fashion, medicine,
technology and travel.








network for a full half-hour. We become an entertainment network, we
become CNN "Showbiz" if you will,8 again with a Latin American focus
and flavor for half an hour, and it's a program that's played several times
throughout the 24-hour cycle. If you look at our feature and information
programming, they reflect the feature units and some of the weekly
programs that are done on CNN and CNNI. So, we've tried to hit a
balance there where we can be all things to all people. Clearly, there are
programs that are not of interest, and we just hope that people tune it at
another time when there's something on that's of interest to them. (C.
Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999)

Senior Executive Producer, Donna Mastrangelo, adds that the network operates

under the philosophy that if it produces good programming, people will watch (D.

Mastrangelo, personal communication, October 7, 1999). Mastrangelo also notes that if

CNN en Espafiol covers issues that people care about, then viewers will be attracted and

will tune in to the network (D. Mastrangelo, personal communication, October 7, 1999).

Latin America has mature cable markets in Argentina and Mexico, while the cable

markets in Brazil and Chile, both Southern Cone countries, continue to grow (Arenas,

1997). However, it is important to note that CNN en Espaiol focuses particular attention

on information that is of relevance to Argentina and the Southern Cone region.

Because CNN en Espafiol is foremost a business, the concentration of subscribers

in the Southern Cone somewhat dictates how the network programs (C. Rittenberry,

personal communication, October 9, 1999). Public Relations Manager, Caroline

Rittenberry, affirms that CNN en Espafol tends to focus on the Southern Cone because

half of the network's subscribers are in Argentina (C. Rittenberry, personal

communication, October 9, 1999). Former Vice President of News Marketing for TBS

Latin America, Madeline Wiener, notes that this is a factor in CNN en Espafol's


8 "Showbiz Today" is CNN's entertainment information program.








programming, but there is not an obvious bias because the network focuses on covering

the most important stories and events that are happening in the world (M. Wiener,

personal communication, October 9, 1999). She adds that the goal of the network is not

to cover a story that occurs in every Latin American country. Rather, the goal is to cover

events that are of interest to everyone, whether those events occur in Latin America or in

some other region (M. Wiener, personal communication, October 9, 1999).

Operation of CNN en Espafiol

In launching as a 24-hour news network, CNN en Espafiol had several advantages

over other Spanish-language news networks. The biggest advantage was that CNN en

Espahol is operated under CNN, an organization whose primary focus is being a 24-hour

news business (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999). Secondly,

CNN en Espaftol is based in the United States. Unlike many news services from Latin

America, CNN en Espafiol does not have the stigma of being controlled by a government

(R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999). The network also did not have to

worry about how its news programming would affect its other programming. Network

Vice President, Christopher Crommett, says that with other 24-hour Spanish-language

networks, such as Univision, a primary issue is how news programming will affect the

network's other scheduled programming (C. Crommett, personal communication,

October 6, 1999). He adds that first and foremost, CNN en Espafiol focuses on coverage

of news and breaking news--in keeping with the tradition established by CNN (C.

Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999). While all other programming on

the CNN en Espafol program schedule is important, the network is primarily a news

network (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999).









Because CNN en Espafiol is a CNN network, its programming has to be of the

same quality as CNN's (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999). The

business plan used to launch CNN en Espaflol required more work to be done in less time

and by fewer individuals (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999).

Perhaps the most important difference between CNN en Espafiol's operation and CNN's

operation was in the area of financing. CNN has much larger budgets than CNN en

Espafiol, but both networks have quality and editorial standards to maintain (R. Santos,

personal communication, October 6, 1999). Due to its limited financial range, CNN en

Espafol could operate like no other CNN network-- It would have to be a unique

operation.

Comparing CNN en Espafol to CNN


The researcher observed that CNN produces news in a traditional manner that

includes heavy staffing whereby employees usually perform only one task as their

primary job duty. A very good example of the differences between CNN and CNN en

Espafiol exists when comparing the control room staff of both networks.

The researcher observed that in CNN's traditional model of live news production,

there are at least nine positions in a control room. These are: Audio Operator, Camera

Operator(s) Electronic Prompter Operator, Director, Graphics Operator, Technical

Director, Producer, Supervising Producer, Videotape Playback Operator, and there is

often a production assistant on-hand. Each person in the CNN control room performs one

specific task. CNN en Espafiol's control room consists of five people. These are the

Audio Operator, Director, Graphics Operator, Producer, and Supervising Producer. Vice








President of Operations for CNN International, Bob Hesskamp, adds that the positions at

CNN en Espafiol are not traditional television jobs. Each individual has to be able to

perform more than one duty (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999).

When planning CNN en Espafiol, the duties of each employee had to be carefully

detailed so that all of the necessary daily work could be completed (D. Morton, personal

communication, October 11, 1999). Debra Morton, former Manager of Network and

New Business Operations for CNN en Espafiol, says that as the network was being

developed, there were many instances where the creators did not know who would

complete specific tasks (D. Morton, personal communication, October 11, 1999). Morton

adds that as the workflow and program grid were developed, new problems were

discovered. This led to some changes in the network's original program schedule

because it would not be possible to produce all of the originally proposed programming

with the limited staff CNN en Espafiol was allotted under the business plan (D. Morton,

personal communication, October 11, 1999).

The researcher observed that the traditional CNN newsroom also differs from

CNN en Espahol in that CNN relies primarily on videotape for editing and video

playback. Bob Hesskamp, Vice President of Operations for CNN International, says that

to make CNN en Espafiol succeed with its small staff, things had to be done differently

(B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999). One particular challenge

was quickening the video editing process because the business plan did not allow for

enough editors to do editing in the traditional way (B. Hesskamp, personal

communication, October 11, 1999). Traditional videotape editing would require two

videotape machines per video editor. The machines would have to be set up so that one









tape machine was a "source" machine and the second tape machine was a "record"

machine. If material that needed to be recorded was on several videotapes, a video editor

would have to have access to each individual videotape in order to edit a finished product

(D. Morton, personal communication, October 11, 1999). This would be too time

consuming to produce material with CNN en Espafol's small staff (B. Hesskamp,

personal communication, October 11, 1999).

To operate under the tight business plan, CNN en Espafiol adopted state of the art

technology and focused on hiring individuals that were willing to learn a new way of

producing news (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999). Vice

President of CNN International, Bob Hesskamp notes:

We knew that with the limited staff we had to do a couple of things. We
had to quicken the edit process because we didn't have enough editors to
do editing in the traditional way. We wanted to find a way to move video
around without requiring people to do it, to make it more efficient and
faster. (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999)

Senior Executive Producer, Donna Mastrangelo adds:

We really have put together the newsroom of the future and we will
continue to place different demands on people. We all have to have
multiple skills and a work ethic. By that I don't mean "Are you able to
work twelve hours?" But, "Is your work ethic devoted to what our ideals
are? And that is, getting it right. (D. Mastrangelo, personal
communication, October 7, 1999)

The technology and employee mix incorporated by CNN en Espahol would allow

each person to perform more than one job duty. It would also reduce the amount of time

necessary to complete projects, and it would allow CNN en Espafiol to continually

produce new material within its limited business plan (B. Hesskamp, personal

communication, October 11, 1999). Details of the technology and employee mix and

challenges faced by CNN en Espafiol appear in Chapter 5.









The Day the Network Came Together


After the launch of the CNN en Espafiol on March 17, 1997, the technology and

employee mix was still being adjusted in an effort to find out how things might be

improved and done more efficiently (D. Morton, personal communication, October 11,

1999). The technology was still relatively new to everyone, and the limitations of the

staff and new equipment had yet to be tested by a breaking news story (R. Santos,

personal communication, October 6, 1999).

Four months before CNN en Espahol became a 24-hour network, Tupac Amaru9

rebels had infiltrated the residence of the Japanese ambassador in Lima, Peru. The Tupac

Amaru rebels' goal was to take hostages to negotiate the release of fellow imprisoned

rebels (Schemo, 1997). This would prove to be the story that made CNN en Espafol an

internationally known news source (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6,

1999).

For several months, the rebels held hostages inside the Japanese embassy as the

world watched attempts to negotiate the release of the hostages. On April 22, 1997,

Peruvian soldiers stormed the ambassador's residence and safely rescued all but one of

the hostages while killing all 14 rebel soldiers (Schemo, 1997). CNN en Espafol

President, Rolando Santos recalls:

Since the night of the hostage rescue in Peru, that was our Gulf War. I
think the best quote I remember from a newspaper headline was "For three
months journalists from all over the world were here to talk about it, but
when the news really happened, it was CNN en Espafol that showed the
world how to do it." I'll never forget that quote because that's exactly
what it was. From that moment on, CNN en Espafiol had established


9 The Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement is a guerrilla movement.









itself. In the newsroom, that was the night that the technology truly gelled.
That was the night that everyone clearly understood that this new
technology allowed us to do things we could never have done if we were
still stuck in videotape. In that moment it all came together for us. It
came together with the audience because we brought the world to them. It
came together inside CNN because for the first time, this network took the
lead in covering a breaking news story for our sister networks. We were
giving them the story as opposed to them taking care of us. Internally, for
the first time, we became a team. (R. Santos, personal communication,
October 6, 1999)

On that April afternoon, just thirty-six days after CNN en Espafiol had launched,

the network proved that it was "El lider mundial en noticias." CNN even simulcast parts

of CNN en Espafiol's continuous coverage of the hostage rescue (R. Santos, personal

communication, October 6, 1999). CNN en Espafiol had taken the lead on a major Latin

American story and in one swift movement had come together as a network and become

Latin America's news leader. This was only the beginning.

The interviews conducted in this study provide first-hand accounts of the creation

and operation of CNN en Espaiol. McCracken states: "Every social scientific study is

improved by a clearer understanding of the beliefs and experience of the actors in

question" (1988, 9). By combining these accounts about the creation and operation of

CNN en Espahol with participant observation, the researcher was afforded the

opportunity to fully understand the creation and operation of the network.

The next chapter explains the findings of the research and further details the

development of CNN en Espafiol. The chapter defines the factors leading to CNN en

Espafiol's launch and goes on to explain the daily operation and future of the network.














CHAPTER 5
FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS OF THE RESEARCH

The findings and analysis of the data collected through the interviews and case

study are presented in this chapter. The chapter begins with an overview of the findings.

The chapter then explains the various stages of CNN en Espafiol's development. The

findings are explicated to portray a chronological representation that spans the initial

planning of CNN en Espafiol to its current operation.

Overview of the Findings


As noble as delivering news to the world is, and as great as it has been, we
have to make money while we're doing this. (Bob Hesskamp, Vice
President of Operations, CNN International)

There are two underlying factors in the creation of CNN en Espafiol (R. Santos,

personal communication, October 6, 1999). The first is that it is a business. Second, the

network serves the philosophy of Ted Turner, founder of Turner Broadcasting System.

According to Santos, it is Turner's belief that it is a right of the people around the world

to have access to balanced information and news, but CNN en Espafiol was created as a

business venture (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999).

In the early 1990s, the Latin American cable market was expanding and, prior to

CNN en Espafiol, competition was already developing in the region (B. Hesskamp,

personal communication, October 11, 1999). Turner Broadcasting System had already

entered the market in 1991 with its launch of TNT Latin America, but the company had








not fully tapped the international news market like it had in the United States through its

CNN and CNN Headline News networks. The executives of Turner Broadcasting knew

that they had to get into the business or risk dropping behind in the race to deliver

international news programming to Latin America (B. Hesskamp, personal

communication, October 11, 1999).

Turner Broadcasting System's willingness to develop a Spanish-language news

service had existed for years. In 1989, CNN was producing two half-hours of Spanish-

language network news for the Telemundo television network.1 These newscasts were

the equivalent of the nightly national newscasts produced by the three U.S. networks,

ABC, CBS, and NBC (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999). By the

early 1990s, the relationship between CNN and Telemundo ended. The department

known as CNN Spanish, which had been producing those newscasts, began producing

Spanish-language newscasts for CNN International (B. Hesskamp, personal

communication, October 11, 1999). Over the next few years, CNN Spanish increased its

amount of daily news programming from two half-hours, to four half-hours, and

eventually six half-hours. These newscasts were produced Monday through Friday and

were broadcast on CNN International (D. Mastrangelo, personal communication, October

7, 1999).

From CNN Spanish's involvement with CNN International grew the possibilities

of developing a 24-hour Spanish-language news channel. The idea of delivering 24-hours



1 Telemundo Group, Inc. is a Spanish-language television network based in Miami,
Florida. The Telemundo network is available in 61 U.S. markets. The network also
syndicates original programming to the international marketplace (Telemundo 51, 1999).









of Spanish-language news was investigated for years, but financial projections did not

support such a venture (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999). For

years CNN Spanish operated at a loss. However, it continued to produce Spanish-

language news because, according to Santos, Ted Turner felt that it was necessary to

provide this service to Latin America.

Rolando Santos, President of CNN en Espaiiol, states that Ted Turner believes

that everyone in the world has a right to receive balanced news and information. He

notes:

The key reason (for the creation of CNN en Espafiol) is that Ted Turner's
philosophy has always been that it is a right of the people around the world
to have balanced information and news at their fingertips. A right, not a
privilege. His idea from the very beginning twenty years ago was to
provide that around the world. So, we're the latest extension of that.
Beyond that, it's a business... Ted operated CNN en Espaiol at a loss for
a whole lot of years. Before it became a 24-hour network, he operated for
five years at a loss, a significant loss. It mattered to him, but it didn't
matter in the sense that it was something that needed to be done. But
eventually, like all projects, I have to make sure that it operates in a
financially sound manner so that it continues not just to move forward, but
grow. (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999)

It was this philosophy that helped create CNN and the CNN News Group, and it

was this philosophy that created programming such as "World Report." Turner's

philosophy allowed CNN to produce its six half-hours of Spanish-language news

programming, but it was not until a potentially profitable plan was approved that CNN

would undertake a 24-hour Spanish-language news network (C. Crommett, personal

communication, October 6, 1999).

Beyond Turner's ideals and the business possibilities of a 24-hour network, there

was also consumer demand for such a product (C. Rittenberry, personal communication,









October 9, 1999). For years, cable operators, and consumers, in Latin America had

wanted a CNN-type news service in Spanish. However, there were economic issues and

there were problems with cable penetration (B. Hesskamp, personal communication,

October 11, 1999).

In 1994, the Latin American market was growing. The economies of South

America were healthy and the cable industry was expanding (Paxman, 1996a). By 1996,

problems which had always maligned the Latin American cable television industry were

coming to light. A key issue was distribution since many cable systems were limited to

thirty channels (Paxman, 1996a). Another issue was ethnic diversity. Unlike the United

States, where programming can be relevant from California to New York, Latin America

is an area consisting of over twenty countries. Each has a distinct culture and

government. The region which had once been considered homogenous for its common

language was now seen as a heterogeneous region, with each region requiring distinct

programming (Paxman, 1996b). This factor would have to be part of CNN en Espafiol's

business plan.

Another issue affecting the growth of the cable business in Latin America was that

those who subscribed to cable television were generally individuals with higher incomes,

as they were the ones who could afford to pay for such a service (C. Crommett, personal

communication, October 6, 1999). So, even if cable was available, not everyone could

afford it. It would not be possible to start a new network with a subscriber base that

consisted only of a small group of elite individuals (B. Hesskamp, personal

communication, October 11, 1999). These factors resulted in a period where a feasible

business plan to support a 24-hour Spanish-language news network could not be









developed. The technology to make such a venture work was not yet available and,

financially, a 24-hour network was not a possibility (R. Santos, personal communication,

October 6, 1999).

By the mid 1990s, Turner Broadcasting System had developed several business

plans for a 24-hour Spanish-language news service, but they were not financially viable

(C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999). Due to fiscal concerns, such

as low cable penetration, delivering 24-hours of Spanish-language news would require a

tight business plan (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999). The plan

could not initially rely on high subscriber rates for profit. To make the project work,

more would have to be done with less (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October

11, 1999). The idea of delivering 24-hours of news went back and forth until the

technology that would make a business plan work became available. This technology

included digital television equipment ranging from computer systems to high-end graphic

and production facilities as well as digital, nonlinear editing systems (B. Hesskamp,

personal communication, October 11, 1999). The technology would have to allow for an

individual to do more work in less time. The high-end equipment would also have to be

capable of consolidating tasks so that CNN en Espafiol's programs could be produced

with smaller numbers of employees (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11,

1999). Eventually, the approved business plan would require the use of state of the art

technology with a staff that could perform more than one task (D. Mastrangelo, personal

communication, October 7, 1999). This was the beginning of CNN en Espafiol.









Creating the Network


Failure was not an option. (Debra Morton, Former Manager of Network
and New Business Operations for CNN en Espafiol)

The Person Behind the Network

To say that the approval of a business plan was all that was necessary to start

CNN en Espafiol is an understatement. Someone was responsible for initiating the

business plan process. That someone was Rolando Santos. It was Santos who presented

the idea of a 24-hour Spanish-language news channel to Ted Turner (D. Mastrangelo,

personal communication, October 7, 1999). Santos was the driving force. He was the

ring leader that envisioned the project and made it a reality.

For years Rolando Santos, now the president of CNN en Espafiol, had lobbied for

the project (D. Morton, personal communication, October 11, 1999). Santos had been

with CNN Spanish since its days of producing news programming for Telemundo (D.

Mastrangelo, personal communication, October 7, 1999). He had worked for a

Telemundo affiliate in Los Angeles before coming to CNN. While there, Santos was

promoted by Telemundo to the position of executive producer of the Telemundo

newscasts produced by CNN. When the Telemundo/CNN relationship ended, CNN

asked Santos to stay on as executive producer for the newscasts that would be produced

for CNN International (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999). Santos

agreed and from this position he was later promoted to managing director. He was then

promoted several more times to the positions of vice president, executive vice president,

and to his current position as president of the network that became CNN en Espafol (R.

Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999).









Initial Research and the Development of the Business Plan

Although research had been conducted to determine the viability of a 24-hour

Spanish-language news network, the decision of whether or not CNN should venture

forth with CNN en Espafol was a business decision (D. Mastrangelo, personal

communication, October 7, 1999). Former Vice President of Marketing for TBS Latin

America, Madeleine Wiener states:

The research specifically for CNN en Espafiol came shortly before the
announcement that we were going to launch, and it was more to figure out
what we were going to call it. But, we had already researched, years
before, habits and things like that.... So the research that we had to do
specifically for the launch was more the name and then just continuing our
usual research that we always do. (M. Wiener, personal communication,
October 9, 1999)

The majority of the research conducted was aimed at determining the necessities

and limitations of a business plan (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6,

1999). This research included market studies to determine distribution and potential

advertising dollars and market studies in key regions such as Mexico and Argentina (C.

Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999). The studies in Mexico and

Argentina were aimed at defining the potential clientele of the network and the

programming that was currently airing in Latin America (C. Crommett, personal

communication, October 6, 1999). Technological research into specific types of

equipment would intensify once a business plan had been approved (B. Hesskamp,

personal communication, October 11 1999).2





2 The technology researched included various brands of computer, editing, graphic and
production equipment as well as software for this equipment.









Focus groups were used to develop a list of potential names for CNN's 24-hour

Spanish-language news channel (M. Wiener, personal communication, October 9, 1999).

From the onset, Ted Turner had said that the name of the channel would be CNN en

Espafiol, but the marketing department felt that research was necessary to make such an

important decision (M. Wiener, personal communication, October 9, 1999).

The focus groups produced a list of names, and the marketing department then

turned to quantitative research to choose a name from that list. The initial list consisted

of names such as CNN Hispano, CNN Latino, CNN Latino America and CNN where the

last "N" in CNN was replaced by the Spanish letter "`." From here, the marketing

department chose to conduct mall and telephone surveys in Argentina and Mexico

because these countries represent two distinct variations of the Spanish language (M.

Wiener, personal communication, October 9, 1999). Although Spanish is the native

language of both, there are distinct differences in accents and dialect (C. Rittenberry,

personal communication, October 9, 1999). The research showed that the name of the

network should be CNN en Espahol (M. Wiener, personal communication, October 9,

1999). Ted Turner's instinct had been correct.

The development of the business plan was aided by the fact that Turner

Broadcasting and CNN had planned to launch a 24-hour sports news and information

channel in the last quarter of 1996 (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11,

1999). This network was CNN Sports Illustrated (CNN/SI), a joint venture between CNN

and Sports Illustrated magazine. CNN/SI was a model for the future of the CNN News

Group's operations (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999). It was a

network designed to accomplish more program output with less personnel. CNN/SI









accomplished this by utilizing state of the art technology that allowed for a smaller, more

efficient staff (D. Morton, personal communication, October 11, 1999).

In theory, it seemed that CNN en Espafiol might be able to follow directly in the

footsteps of CNN/SI. However, because sports programming and news programming

were different, CNN en Espaiol could not follow the CNN/SI model (D. Morton,

personal communication, October 11, 1999). Logistically, editorially and operationally

CNN en Espafiol would require a unique operation.

The business plan did not allow CNN en Espafiol to operate with a staff as large

as that of CNN or CNNI. While CNN has 475 employees in Atlanta and CNNI has 275

in Atlanta, CNN en Espafiol would operate with less than 160 employees worldwide (B.

Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999). Those involved in the

development of CNN en Espafol's business plan knew that the only way to get the

network started was to have each employee performing several tasks (B. Hesskamp,

personal communication, October 11, 1999). CNN en Espafiol's small staff would

require state of the art technology that would allow them to produce the same amount of

work, or more, as other CNN networks all while living up to the standards of the CNN

networks (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999). For CNN en Espafol,

the traditional way of producing news was history (D. Morton, personal communication,

October 11, 1999). CNN en Espafiol was starting from scratch.

Finding a Location For CNN en Espafiol

Our stock and trade is being able to see the world, and in this case the
region, through eyes that can be as objective as possible. (Christopher
Crommett, Vice President and News Director, CNN en Espafiol)









There were many editorial, financial and technical obstacles to overcome in

creating CNN en Espafiol, but one of the biggest issues was finding a location to house

the network. Many thought it should be in an area with a large Hispanic community.

Cities such as Miami, San Antonio and Los Angeles were considered (R. Santos, personal

communication, October 6, 1999). There was even discussion about locating the network

somewhere in Latin America. The problem with locating it in Latin America was finding

a country that was suitable to CNN's operating procedures. Moreover, by locating it in

any particular country in the region, CNN en Espafiol ran the risk of alienating some of its

audience (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999). In the end, the

network stayed in Atlanta with the other CNN networks.

There were two primary reasons for locating CNN en Espafiol in Atlanta. The

first was infrastructure. To operate CNN in a city other than Atlanta would have been

costly and time consuming (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999). CNN

en Espafiol would have had to rent or purchase a building and all of the technology and

resources available in the CNN Center would have to be duplicated in CNN en Espafol's

remote location (D. Morton, personal communication, October 11, 1999).

The CNN Center in Atlanta receives satellite feeds from around the world. It is

where the satellite transmission and reception resources for the CNN News Group are

located (D. Mastrangelo, personal communication, October 7, 1999). All material

originating from CNN's 3800journalists and 34 international news bureaus arrives at

CNN in Atlanta (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999). There are also

numerous editorial, studio, graphic and video resources (C. Crommett, personal

communication, October 6, 1999). Staying in Atlanta allowed CNN en Espafiol easy









access to these resources. Something as simple as getting video to a remote location

would have been cost prohibitive if CNN en Espafiol were in a city other than Atlanta (B.

Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999).

Secondly, being located in the United States allowed CNN en Espafol to be free

from foreign government pressures (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6,

1999). Editorially, being located in the United States allowed CNN en Espafiol to control

its journalistic integrity. In Latin America there is a history of governments controlling

media outlets (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999). By staying in

the United States, CNN en Espaftol did not have to worry about a government shutting

the network down for reporting a story (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6,

1999). For Latin Americans it would be a welcome change to receive uncensored news

and information in their native language.

The CNN en Espafiol Facility

Once it was decided that CNN en Espafiol would be located in Atlanta, the

development of the network's physical plant began. CNN en Espafiol was set to launch

in the first quarter of 1997. The new network was allocated a space on the lobby level of

the CNN Center (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999). Compared to the

other networks housed in the CNN Center, CNN en Espafiol's space was relatively

small.3

Every CNN network has a room known as "Terminal Gear" (B. Hesskamp,

personal communication, October 11, 1999). It is where the mainframe apparatus and


3 Other CNN Networks located in the CNN Center include CNN, CNN Airport Network,
CNN Headline News, CNN Interactive, CNN International and CNN Sports Illustrated.








computer hardware of the network are located. Terminal Gear is an area with seemingly

thousands of cables running in from both the raised floor and suspended ceiling. It is

where engineers fix technical problems. For CNN en Espafiol, Terminal Gear would be

an important aspect in the final design of the physical plant (B. Hesskamp, personal

communication, October 11, 1999).

With the design of the physical facility underway, it was time to decide what

equipment would be used in that facility. The approval of the business plan gave way to

researching available technology. This was done by Bob Hesskamp, Vice President of

Operations for CNN International and Debra Morton, Manager of Network Operations for

CNN en Espafiol. They took the capital allotted and investigated what technology they

could afford to make the business plan work (D. Morton, personal communication,

October 11, 1999).4 Hesskamp and Morton examined equipment such as digital

nonlinear editing systems, video switchers, robotic cameras and software that would be

compatible with that equipment (D. Morton, personal communication, October 11, 1999).

In April of 1996, Hesskamp and Morton traveled to the National Association of

Broadcasters trade show to search for this equipment (B. Hesskamp, personal

communication, October 11, 1999). The facility plan called for two control rooms, so

concessions had to be made on equipment choices (B. Hesskamp, personal

communication, October 11, 1999). Hesskamp and Morton chose lower-end models and

passed on high-end equipment features so that both control rooms could be equally

equipped (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999). Because CNN en



4 The amount of capital funds was not disclosed to the researcher. Turner Broadcasting
System policy does not allow disclosure of such information.








Espafiol was a news channel, the network did not require high-end features like those

found in the post-production facilities of entertainment-based networks. It was to the

benefit of the CNN en Espafiol to have two fully functional control rooms rather than one

high-end control room with features that would not be used on a daily basis (B.

Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999).

By the third quarter of 1996, the design of the plant had undergone numerous

phases (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999). Early plans called for

a mezzanine and an elevator in the newsroom. There were also plans for separate studio

spaces (D. Morton, personal communication, October 11, 1999). Although the business

plan had been approved, adjustments to the budget within the plan were still being made.

By the time the final budgets were approved, time more than money became an issue in

the design of the facility (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999).

Due to time limitations, the plans for the mezzanine and elevator were scrapped. It was

simply not possible to produce the steel to support these architectural features in time to

make a first quarter launch (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999).

The plan for multiple studios was also changed. The facility would now contain one

large studio space (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999).

Terminal Gear became the central point in the design in the facility. Edit bays and

the control rooms were placed in close proximity to the room so that the engineers would

have relatively short cable runs from those rooms to Terminal Gear (B. Hesskamp,

personal communication, October 11, 1999). This was important because by the first

quarter of 1997, the facility was still being built. Placing these rooms close to terminal








gear would allow the engineers to make the rooms functional in less time (B. Hesskamp,

personal communication, Octoberl 1, 1999).

A Nonlinear Environment

The creators of CNN en Espafol conceded that to make the staffing aspects of the

business plan work, CNN en Espafiol would be a digital, nonlinear network that would

rely on digital computer systems, as opposed to analog videotape systems (B. Hesskamp,

personal communication, October 11, 1999). There would be no machine to machine

video editing. Everything had to be done from a computer server. No longer would

video air from a videotape player (D. Morton, personal communication, October 11,

1999). Video editors would have to be able to do more in less time.

To accomplish this, CNN en Espafiol purchased Quantel edit systems that allowed

editing via a video server (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999).

The traditional method of using two tape machines and two videotapes would not be part

of CNN en Espafiol. Editing would now be accomplished with a computer. The

shuttle/jog wheels that were part of the machine-to-machine edit system were replaced

with Quantel drawing tablets and Quantel computer pens. The basic premise was that

once video was inputted into the server, anyone with access to that server could use the

video (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999).

There were numerous advantages to the nonlinear Quantel system. The biggest

was that multiple users could simultaneously access the same material (D. Morton,

personal communication, October 11, 1999). Users did not have to worry about making

copies of videotapes so that others could use them. No longer would tapes have to be run








into a control room at the last minute. The video could simply be played back from the

server (D. Morton, personal communication, October 11, 1999)

However, even with this new technology, videotape could not completely be

forgotten (D. Morton, personal communication. October 11, 1999). CNN en Espafiol had

to find a way to use videotape because video archives were recorded on Sony Beta SP

videotape, and other networks within the CNN News Group used Beta SP tape (D.

Morton, personal communication, October 11, 1999). The problem with Beta SP was

that it was an analog format. There would have to be a way to use the analog tapes with

CNN en Espafiol's digital system. For this, CNN en Espafiol purchased a new hybrid

tape machine that had been developed by Sony (B. Hesskamp, personal communication,

October 11, 1999). The new format was Beta SX. SX was digital, but the SX machines

allowed for playback of both Beta SX digital tapes and Beta SP analog tapes. With one

machine, CNN en Espafiol could use digital and analog tapes. Beta SX allowed CNN en

Espafiol to use any material that was available within the CNN News Group (D. Morton,

personal communication, October 11, 1999).

Knowing that computer systems are not 100% reliable, CNN en Espaiol had

contingency plans. The Beta SX videotape machines were part of that plan. Every edit

bay was equipped with an SX machine (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October

11, 1999). The SX machines were connected to each Quantel edit system to allow for

direct input from an SX or SP tape and to allow for direct output from the Quantel system

to a digital SX tape. If the servers failed, SX tape could be used (D. Morton, personal

communication, October 11, 1999).









Staffing the Network

Finding on-air talent was not difficult for CNN en Espaflol. The network already

had two anchors (Jorge Gestoso and Patricia Janiot) from the six half-hours of news

programming it produced for CNN International (C. Rittenberry, personal

communication, October 9, 1999). Other on-air talent came from networks in Latin

America and Spain as well as from CBS Telenoticias, CNN en Espafiol's main

competitor (D. Mastrangelo, personal communication, October 7, 1999). For on-air

talent, CNN en Espailol was the pinnacle of broadcasting. No other network would allow

them to reach as many countries with the prestige associated with the CNN name.

Hiring editorial staff such as writers, copy editors, and producers at CNN en

Espafol proved to be a challenge (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6,

1999). Although many people wanted to work for CNN, it was hard to convince Latin

Americans to relocate to a city not known for its Hispanic culture (D. Mastrangelo,

personal communication, October 7, 1999). To make things easier, CNN en Espafiol paid

for visas and moving expenses (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999).

The management spoke with local churches and found out which ones performed services

in Spanish. Management also found businesses that spoke Spanish. They set up tax

seminars and worked with a credit union to help new employees finance housing and

transportation (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999). It was a

concentrated effort at making new employees, that were away from home, feel welcome.

In January of 1997, the new staff of CNN en Espafol arrived to Atlanta. They

came from throughout Latin America and Europe. The veteran staff, which had been

producing the CNN International newscasts, began training the new staff on the methods









and equipment that CNN en Espafol would use (C. Crommett, personal communication,

October 6, 1999).

Perhaps the most important aspect in the hiring process was finding people who

were willing to learn new equipment and procedures and could perform more than one

task (D. Mastrangelo, personal communication, October 7, 1999). CNN en Espafiol's

business plan called for a small staff, and that meant that each person would carry a larger

responsibility. CNN en Espafiol had set up training and practice rooms in CNN Center

for employees, and the existing staff had been learning the Quantel systems since October

of 1996 (D. Morton, personal communication, October 11, 1999). When the newest

members of the staff began arriving, they also began training on the Quantel systems. By

March of 1997, every member of the staff had a basic understanding of the system and

everyone knew how to use its basic functions (D. Morton, personal communication,

October 11, 1999).

The staff which comprised CNN en Espafiol was unique. It consisted of editorial

staff, operations (technical) staff and management. The editorial staff was selected from

Latin America and Europe (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999). It was

important that those involved in the editorial processes of the network such as writing,

copyediting and anchoring represent a broad region. They had to be native to Latin

America or Spain. Spanish had to be a first language and they had to be immersed in

their respective cultures (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999). Because

CNN en Espafol was targeting a diverse region, the editorial and on-air staff which

would be producing and presenting information had to be diverse enough to represent the

entire Latin American region (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999).









The majority of the technical staff came from the United States.5 The reason was

that the United States is technologically advanced in the field of television (D. Morton,

personal communication, October 11, 1999). Many of those who came to CNN en

Espafiol had experience in similar television operations. They had computer experience

and they knew how to use variations of the latest television equipment. Although they

had Hispanic backgrounds, Spanish did not have to be their first language (R. Santos,

personal communication, October 6, 1999). Working in a technical position did not

require the first-hand cultural experience necessary to work in an editorial position. With

technical staff, the hiring process was aimed at technical expertise (R. Santos, personal

communication, October 6, 1999).

Selling the Network to Advertisers and Cable Operators

The promotion of CNN en Espahol had been ongoing for several years (M.

Wiener, personal communication, October 9, 1999). Cable operators wanted the service

and so did Hispanic viewers (C. Rittenberry, personal communication, October 9, 1999).

The network was sold on the basis that it was not an imitation or a translation. It was

CNN, but in Spanish with a Latin American perspective (C. Crommett, personal

communication, October 6, 1999). The CNN brand name was key because when people

heard "CNN," they knew they would be getting quality, unbiased, uncensored and

breaking news (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999). It was now a

matter of making the facility, equipment and staff meld to produce the product.





5 It should be noted that the researcher had worked at CNN as well as having previously
worked at other local television stations in the United States.









Operation of CNN en Espafiol

Just because you have the name doesn't necessarily mean you have the
product. You have to live up to the name and then carry that name to the
next level. (Rolando Santos, President of CNN en Espafiol)

On March 17, 1997, at 8:00 p.m. Eastern Standard Time, CNN en Espafiol

launched with four million subscribers. It was the largest cable television launch in Latin

American history (C. Rittenberry, personal communication, October 9, 1999). The initial

planning was over and CNN en Espafiol was a 24-hour Spanish-language cable news

network for Latin America. The challenge now was to keep it running.


Observations of the Researcher


The daily operation of CNN en Espafiol was observed by the researcher through

participant observation. The researcher performed the role of a newscast director for

CNN en Espaiol, thus taking part in the daily operation of the network. By working

within CNN en Espafiol, the researcher was able to gain information on procedures and

decisions that were made within all aspects of the network's creation and daily

operations. The researcher also observed managerial decisions, noting which worked and

which did not. The following are the observations of the researcher.

Pre-Launch Operation of CNN en Espafol

In December of 1996, the network was three months from launch, and

construction was not finished. The drywall of the CNN en Espafiol facility was not

completed, there was no carpeting on the floor, and there was no paint on the walls.

However, CNN en Espafol's Terminal Gear was in place.









In the meantime, CNN Spanish was still producing its newscasts for CNN

International. It would not be until early March, 1997, that the staff of CNN en Espafol

could begin rehearsing in the new CNN en Espafol facility. The network would launch

on March 17th, 1997. When rehearsals did start, workers were still busy painting, laying

tile and bringing in furniture. The engineers were still running cables, connecting

monitors and testing equipment. With construction ongoing, it did not seem like a 24-

hour news network was launching in just a few weeks.

By the second week of March, 1997, CNN en Espafol's newsroom and studio

space were in useable condition and rehearsals began. The facility was not complete, but

it was at a point where it could go on the air. The facility contained five nonlinear

Quantel edit bays, two control rooms, a master control room, a satellite feeds reception

area, an office, restroom facilities, terminal gear and a newsroom. In the center of the

newsroom was the studio floor.

The CNN en Espafiol Program Schedule (Grid)

The programming on CNN en Espafiol is diverse. It consists primarily of

international news, but also contains programming about business news, entertainment

news, and sports news. There are also feature programs that cover the following topics:

the environment, fashion, medicine, technology, and travel. CNN en Espafiol's feature

programming is oriented so that each program focuses on various aspects of a particular

subject. The network also produces its own version of the CNN program "World

Report."

CNN en Espafiol also produces other programming that airs on weekends. This

programming includes "Los Protagonistas" (The Protagonists), "La Noticia de La









Semana" (The News of the Week), and "Choque de Opiniones" (Opinion Clashes). "Los

Protagonistas" is a weekly recap of interviews produced by CNN en Espafiol. The

program focuses on the biggest news stories of the week and presents the opinions of

various experts about those stories. "La Noticia de La Semana" recaps the major news

stories of the week. "Choque de Opiniones" is very similar to the CNN program

"Crossfire." The program consists of varying hosts who debate with experts and

politicians about various subjects. The debates focus on a topic that has been of

relevance during the week. Table 5.1 lists CNN en Espafiol's programs.


Table 5.1 CNN en Espafiol Programs
Pror IBi T|pe


Adelantos


Feature: Technology


Ahora News Update
Choque de Opiniones Debate (Topics Vary)
Consulta M6dica Feature: Medicine
de Moda Feature: Fashion
Deportes CNN Sports News
Destinos Feature: Travel
Ecologica Feature: Environment
Economia y Finanzas Business News
El Mundo Informa Feature: World Report
Escenario Entertainment News
La Noticia de La Semana Weekly News Recap
Los Protagonistas Weekly News Recap
Noticiero CNN Internacional News
Nuestro Mundo News
Panorama Mundial News
Primera Edici6n News









The program grid is designed so that the top of the hour starts with a thirty minute

news program. At the bottom of the hour there is a ninety second news update called

"Ahora" which means "Now." The bottom half of the hour consists of one of the

aforementioned feature programs. The grid is easily breakable and is often interrupted by

breaking news. If a news story is happening, it takes priority and all other programming

is skipped until the story is no longer breaking. The goal is for CNN en Espafiol to be the

primary source of news and information for Latin America.

The Departments Within CNN en Espafiol

CNN en Espafiol operates with nine unique units, not including management.

They are the assignment desk, business, engineering, entertainment, feature

programming, graphics, news, operations, sports and transadaption. These units all take

part in creating the network's programming. Figure 5.1 shows the different units and

positions within CNN en Espafiol and how they relate to each other. Each unit is

explained below.

The assignment desk is the unit responsible for all incoming information. The

members of the assignment desk, known as assignment editors, spend the majority of

their days reading news wires and making telephone calls to acquire and verify

information. The desk coordinates satellite feeds and books guests that will appear on

CNN en Espafiol's programs.

The business unit is responsible for gathering and presenting CNN en Espafiol's

business news. The staff works in conjunction with the assignment desk to book guests

for its programs. The business unit, which consists of two producers and an anchor,










S-Management---- Program
-Mana t CNN en Espalol I Development
] Operations Staff .....

P Marketing and Public RelatiOns
] Other Departments
I Vice President


SExecution of
S Programming
4 - ---------- . . . .. . . .

Figure 5-1. Flow of Programming for CNN en Espafiol.


produces business segments for newscasts that air throughout the day, and has a nightly

half-hour program.6 The producers find guests, write stories, and build "rundowns" for

their shows. The "rundown" is a detailed list of elements which comprise a show; it



6 The business unit's program, "Economia y Finanzas" airs Monday through Friday.
They do not produce a show on the weekends because the stock exchanges are closed.









contains all graphic, video, and timing information. A CNN en Espafiol rundown can be

seen in Appendix D.

Engineering is responsible for installing new equipment and fixing any equipment

that malfunctions. The engineers have an engineering workshop and office that is located

behind the CNN en Espafiol newsroom space. They are responsible for physically

keeping the technical aspects of the network running. The engineers are in constant

communication with the staff of CNN en Espafiol via a two-way radio.

Feature programming focuses on environment, fashion, medicine, technology and

travel. Each branch of the features unit produces a weekly half-hour program about these

topics. Each show in the features unit has its own producer. The producers write, edit

and line produce their shows if necessary.7

The same version of the feature programs runs for a one-week period. Because

these programs do not require daily updates, they can be produced for air with a Quantel

Editbox. The Quantel Editbox allows the feature producers to bypass the control room

and edit their programs without the help of production staff.8 This frees the control room

for live programming and daily program changes.

CNN en Espafiol also has an entertainment programming unit. This unit is

distinct in that it produces a nightly half-hour show about entertainment news. The

entertainment unit's program, "Escenario," is produced in Atlanta and Los Angeles. In



7 A line-produced show is produced in the control room with the help of the technical
staff.

8 The Quantel Editbox is a nonlinear edit system which allows a single user to record
video and audio material into a video server. The material can then be edited to produce
a program.









Los Angeles, the "Escenario" team consists of an anchor, editor, and reporter. The Los

Angeles team gathers the latest daily news from Hollywood and the world of

entertainment and produces segments for the show. These segments include stories and

anchor links. Anchor links are simply introductions to stories which are pre-recorded by

the show's anchor in Los Angeles. The completed segments are then sent to Atlanta via

satellite. In Atlanta, there is an editor who also edits segments for the show. Once the

show's segments and anchor links have been completed, the Atlanta line producer takes

the show to the control room to be recorded.

The graphics department is responsible for the on-air graphic look of the network.

This includes the look of the newsroom and studio, including set design. The department

consists of six graphic artists. These artists create all visuals which appear in CNN en

Espafiol's programming. These visuals include boxes,9 full screens'0 and opens.11

To have graphics made, the editorial staff submits graphics request to the graphics

department via CNN en Espafiol's newsroom computer system. When a graphics request

is completed, the artist saves the graphic on a computer server. Once the graphic is in the

server, it may be recalled in both of CNN en Espafiol's control rooms. The graphic can

then be used in a program.




9 A "box" is a graphic which appears over an anchors shoulder while the anchor reads a
story on camera.

10 A "full screen" is a graphic which covers the entire space of a television screen. Full
screens include graphics such as maps, charts, and still pictures.

S1 An "open" is a video introduction to a program or program segment. It contains audio
and a visual which usually includes the name of the program. The intent is to let the
viewer know what program they are watching.









The news unit is responsible for the news programming that consumes the

majority of CNN en Espaiol's program grid. The news department consists of twelve

producers, twelve writers, six copy editors and nine primary anchors. The news

department decides the content within a news program. Once that content is chosen, the

producer of a particular show builds a rundown. There are four different teams within the

news department. Each team works a different shift and is responsible for a series of

newscasts that air throughout the day.

The Operations unit consists of the technical staff, who executes the programs

designed by the news department. Operations staff includes six directors, fourteen video

editors, twelve master control operators and five technical assistants. Directors are

responsible for directing the on-air programming, which is designed by the producer.

Directors are aided by technical assistants, who operate graphics machines, audio, and

camera robotics. Editors are responsible for editing all video material that airs on CNN

en Espafiol. The editors also record incoming satellite feeds and use the recorded video

to produce material that appears on the air. Master Control operators are responsible for

getting CNN en Espafiol's programming on the air. They control the outgoing

programming of the network and run the commercials.

The sports department produces sports segments that air in newscasts throughout

the day. The department also produces a nightly half-hour comprehensive sports

program. The sports department consists of three producers, two editors and two anchors.

The sports producers and anchors find guests and write stories for their shows. The

producer decides what material to use, and the editors then edit video to accompany the

stories that will appear in a program.









Transadaption is one of the most important units in CNN en Espafiol. The staff is

responsible for translating or "transadapting" other languages into Spanish. This allows

CNN en Espafiol to use material from around the world, presenting it in Spanish. It also

allows CNN en Espafiol to cover live world events because the transadaption unit can

"transadapt" a live news event as it happens.

A Day in the Life of CNN en Espafol

CNN en Espafiol operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week. It is never

intentionally off the air. There is always a crew on hand. In the overnight hours between

midnight and 4:00 a.m. the staff consists of an assignment editor, video editor and master

control operator. They are replaced as the later shifts arrive.

The daily operation of CNN en Espaiol begins at 2:00 a.m. when the "overnight"

editorial shift arrives. This group will produce and write the first newscast of the day,

"Primera Edici6n" ("First Edition"). "Primera Edici6n" airs live at 5:00 a.m. The show

continues to air on the hour until 11:00 a.m. when the "Nuestro Mundo" ("Our World")

news program begins airing.

At 3:30 a.m., the first shift of video editors arrives. They replace the overnight

video editor that has been on duty since the evening before. The first editor shift edits

any new material that will air on "Primera Edici6n." At 4:30 a.m., the technical crew

arrives. This includes the director, master control operators and technical assistants.

The director and technical assistants work in the control room and studio while

the morning master control operators relieve the overnight master control operator. Upon

arriving to work, the technical assistants set up the studio for the 5:00 a.m. "Primera

Edici6n" while the director speaks with the show's producer to see if there are any special









technical requirements for the first show of the day. The technical assistants and director

then check the set, microphones, cameras, IFBs,12 audio board, video switcher, Clip Play

program,13 Imagestorel4 and Maxine.15 If the technical crew finds that equipment is

malfunctioning, an engineer is called to resolve the problem before the 5:00 a.m.

"Primera Edici6n."

About ten minutes before 5:00 a.m., the producer enters the control room and

prepares to take the show on the air. At this time, the anchor sits on the set and a

technical assistant prepares camera shots. From here, communication between directors

and the members of the production crew is carried on through a party line. Each member

of the technical crew wears a headset, which is connected to the party line. The director

is now responsible for executing the producer's rundown as a live newscast. The director

directs the show while one technical assistant operates audio and robotic cameras and

another technical assistant operates the Imagestore and Maxine graphics machines.

Before the show starts, the director begins recording on a Quantel Newsbox that is

located next to the video switcher in the control room. The Quantel Newsbox is a





12 IFB is an acronym for "Interruptible Fold Back." It allows an anchor or reporter to
hear programming in their ear via an ear piece. The IFB also allows anyone with access
to the IFB system to talk directly into the ear of the person wearing the IFB.

13 Clip Play is a program which allows for direct playback of video from the video server.

14 Imagestore is the model name ofCNN en Espaftol's still store machine. The still store
machine contains a database of graphics that are used in CNN en Espahol's
programming.

15 Maxine is the model name of CNN en Espafiol's character generator.









nonlinear edit system that allows a single user to record audio and video material into a

computer server. This material can then be edited to produce a replayable program.

At 5:30 a.m., a live ninety second update of the hour's top stories is produced.

This update is entitled "Ahora." After "Ahora," Master Control returns to prerecorded

programming.

Because the director recorded the entire 5:00 a.m. show and "Ahora" on a Quantel

Newsbox, there are two scenarios which can now occur. "Primera Edici6n" is scheduled

to air again at 6:00 a.m. If there is no new material for the 6:00 a.m. show, the recorded

newscast can be replayed. This gives the director thirty minutes to edit the show into

playable segments that can be replayed by Master Control. The director will edit the

recorded program into segments called "blocks."l6 Each "block" represents one section

of a newscast. The finished edited product will consist of five segments. The first four

segments are the four blocks that make up a newscast. The fifth segment is the "Ahora."

Appendix D contains a CNN en Espafiol rundown that shows how a newscast is divided

into "blocks."

If there were any errors in the show, they can be re-recorded and inserted into the

prerecorded newscast. If there are updates to the newscast, the director has the option of

recording the updates and inserting them into the existing newscast or redoing the

newscast live again at 6:00 a.m. This decision is made by the director as he is responsible

for the final on-air product. If the director feels that updates cannot be recorded and





16 CNN en Espafiol's newscasts consist of four blocks. The blocks are entitled A, B, C,
and D, respectively.









inserted in time to make the 6:00 a.m. replay, the new portions of the newscast are done

live.

This process continues throughout the day. From 6:00 a.m. until 11:00 a.m., the

newscasts can be live or recorded. If there is new material or breaking news, the

programs are usually live unless the new segments can be recorded and saved before their

scheduled air time. It there are no changes, the latest recorded version of the news

program airs.

At 7:00 a.m. the next editorial shift arrives. This group will produce the "Nuestro

Mundo" newscasts, which begin airing at 11:00 a.m. The technical crew does not

change. At 11:00 a.m., the third news shift and second shift of editors arrives. They will

produce the 4:00 p.m. show, "Noticiero CNN" (CNN Newscast).

The 11:00 a.m. show, "Nuestro Mundo" airs on the hour until 4:00 p.m. The

show utilizes a different anchor and producer than "Primera Edici6n." The "Nuestro

Mundo" producer, anchor and editorial staff will work with the morning technical staff

until 12:30 p.m., when the second shift of technical staff arrives. The second shift of

technical staff replaces the morning crew and works until 9:00 p.m. The routine for the

"Nuestro Mundo" shift is the same as for "Primera Edici6n:" The show airs on the hour

and can be live or prerecorded after 11:00 a.m. Whether "Nuestro Mundo" airs live or

recorded depends on the same factors as whether "Primera Edici6n" airs live or recorded.

At 4:00 p.m., "Noticiero CNN" airs. This newscast utilizes a different anchor and

producer than "Nuestro Mundo."17 "Noticiero CNN" airs again at 4:30 p.m., 5:30 p.m.,



17 "Noticiero CNN" is anchored by Patricia Janiot who along with Jorge Gestoso were
the anchors of the CNN Spanish newscasts formerly produced for CNN International.









6:30 p.m. and 7:00 p.m. The 4:30 and 5:30 p.m. newscasts can either be live or recorded.

The 6:30 p.m. version of"Noticiero CNN" is always a live newscast. The reason being

that by 6:30 p.m., the U.S. stock market has closed and the latest business information

can be reported. The 7:00 p.m. "Noticiero CNN" is usually a replay of the 6:30 p.m.

newscast. As with the other programs, whether the program is live or recorded depends

on whether there are any breaking news stories, updates or mistakes that need to be fixed.

The replay of the "Noticiero CNN" newscasts is controlled by Master Control.

Unlike "Primera Edici6n" and "Nuestro Mundo," where the director records the show and

edits it for replay, "Noticiero CNN" is recorded on Beta SX tape and replayed by Master

Control. The reason for the change is that the same newscasts air back to back at 4:00

and 4:30 p.m. and 6:30 and 7:00 p.m. This schedule does not give the director a thirty

minute window to edit the show for replay.

The third technical shift arrives at 4:30 p.m. They will work until 12:30 a.m.

This group will work with the second technical shift to cover the afternoon through early

evening period because this is the busiest time of the day for CNN en Espafiol. Between

4:30 and 6:30 p.m., any pre-production or pre-recording that can be done is attempted.

Usually, the last two segments of the 8:30 p.m. "Economia y Finanzas" business program

are recorded at this time because the stock markets have already closed. Pre-recording

parts of this program earlier in the day will allow the technical staff more time to set up

for the 9:00 p.m. show, which will be live.

Because the 7:00 p.m. version of"Noticiero CNN" is usually a tape replay of the

6:30 p.m. show, the control room is available for pre-production at 7:00 p.m. When the

control room is available at 7:00 p.m., portions of the 7:30 p.m. sports program can be









prerecorded. This is done because CNN en Espafol is in live programming from 7:30

p.m. until 9:30 p.m. With back-to-back live programming, there is less than a three-

minute window between shows to change sets and move cameras. By pre-recording parts

of programs, the studio and control room can be cleared earlier, allowing more time to set

up the following program.

At 7:30 p.m. "Deportes CNN" ("CNN Sports") airs as a live program. The show

continues live until it reaches a segment which was prerecorded. If there was no time to

pre-record part of the program, the program continues live until 7:57:05 p.m. At this

time, the technical crew has just under three minutes to set up for the 8:00 p.m. newscast.

At 8:00 p.m. the overnight editors and master control operators arrive.

"Panorama Mundial" ("World View") airs live at 8:00 p.m.18 It is the only

newscast that is always entirely live. It is CNN en Espafiol's prime newscast and it is the

only newscast with two anchors. The anchors are Patricia Janiot and Jorge Gestoso. This

is Janiot's last show for the day, and it is Gestoso's first of the evening. At 8:27:05 p.m.,

"Panorama Mundial" ends. The technical crew has just under three minutes to set up the

8:30 p.m. show.

At 8:30 p.m., "Economia y Finanzas" airs as a live program. The show continues

live until it reaches a point that has been prerecorded. If there was no time to pre-record

part of the program earlier in the day, it continues as a live program until 8:57:05 p.m.

At 9:00 p.m., a new version of "Panorama Mundial" airs as a live program.

Unlike the 8:00 p.m. show, the 9:00 p.m. version only utilizes one anchor. "Panorama



18 The news crew and editors which produce "Panorama Mundial" arrive at 2:00 p.m.
They will produce all newscasts from 8:00 p.m. until 1:00 a.m.









Mundial" is scheduled to air again at 10:00 p.m., 11:00 p.m. and 12:00 a.m. The 10:00

p.m. version is usually a replay of the 9:00 p.m. version, and the 12:00 a.m. version is

usually a replay of the 11:00 p.m. version. As with the earlier shows of the day, whether

"Panorama Mundial" airs live or prerecorded depends on breaking news or whether there

are updates or mistakes to be fixed.

Usually at 10:00 p.m., the nightly entertainment program "Escenario" is pre-

recorded. The program is scheduled to air at 12:30 a.m. If the show is not pre-recorded

before its air time, it is produced as a live program. After 1:00 a.m., there is no scheduled

live programming until 5:00 a.m., when the cycle starts again with "Primera Edici6n."

The programming airing from 1:00 a.m. until 5:00 a.m. varies throughout the week. The

various programs that air in the overnight hours can be seen in Appendix E.

News comprises the majority of CNN en Espafiol's programming. The news

programs are twenty-two minutes in length. As noted, CNN en Espafiol's newscasts are

divided into four segments called "blocks." The length of each block depends on the

producer. Each block is separated by a commercial break of varying lengths, and no

show can be over or under twenty-two minutes in length. Including the commercial

breaks, the show should be twenty-seven minutes and five seconds long. The two

minutes and fifty-five seconds after the program are used for commercials, cue-tone

breaks,19 and network identification.





19 A cue-tone is a tone sent out by a network to alert cable operators that they can insert
local commercials at that time. A cue-tone break is a commercial break which is
embedded with a cue-tone signal.









If a news event is happening, the news programs often continue for more than

twenty-two minutes. Because CNN en Espafiol is primarily a news network, the other

programming of the program grid is secondary.

The preceding explanation is a simplified version of CNN en Espafiol's daily

operation. Figures 5-2, 5-3, 5-4 and 5-5 contain a visual explanation of the CNN en

Espafiol daily workflow explained above. It is important to note that things change on a

daily basis depending on the news events of the world. There are also slight differences

in programming for each day of the week. As a general rule, the newscasts that air each

day do not change. The exception is during the weekends when there are no thirty-minute

newscasts from 11:00 a.m. until 4:00 p.m. Between these hours, there is a ninety-second

"Ahora" every half hour. It should also be noted that any programming may be

preempted for other programming or specials at the discretion of the network's senior

executive producer. For a fuller understanding of the program schedule, CNN en

Espafiol's program grid is available in Appendix E.

Comparing CNN en Espafiol to the other CNN Networks

In relation to the other networks of the CNN News Group, CNN en Espaflol is a

small operation. CNN en Espaflol was designed to utilize technology to a point where

less people could do more work. CNN en Espafiol's control room consists of three

technical people (a director and two technical assistants). In comparison, CNN's control

room consists of nine people; CNN en Espafol has consolidated the jobs of nine people

into five. The same principle has been applied to all areas of the network. This is largely

due to the technology, which, by making things easier, allows CNN en Espafiol

employees to accomplish more work in the same amount of time.









CNN en Espafiol Daily Workflow 12:00 a.m. 6:30 a.m.


- On-Air News Program


I Operations Staff


I Editorial Staff


"Primera Primnera


Overnight Editorial Staff Arrives to prepare "Primera Edici6n"
(Anchor, Copyeditor, Producer, Writer)


I "Ahora"


S"Altora" "Ahora"


9 9 9 9 9 9 I---


Figure 5-2. CNN en Espafiol Daily Workflow 12:00 a.m. 6:30 a.m.









CNN en Espafiol Daily Workflow 6:30 a.m. 12:30 p.m. I


M On-Air News Program


D Operations Staff


] Editorial Staff


"Primea Primera "Primera "Primera Nuestro Nuestro
Edici6n" Edici6n" Edici6n" Edici6n" Mundo" Mundo"











Overnight Editorial Staff
(Anchor, Copyeditor, Producer, Writer)

"Nuestro Mundo" Editorial Staff Arrives
(Anchor, Copyeditor, Producer, Writer)


"Notiiero CNN" Editorial StaffArrives
(Anchor, Copyeditor, Producer, Writer)






| "Ahora" I | "Ahora" ] | "Ahora" I |"Ahora" | "Ahora" I | "Ahora" I
Ihra *hra p pr


Figure 5-3. CNN en Espafiol Daily Workflow 6:30 a.m. 12:30 p.m.









CNN en Espafiol Daily Workflow 12:30 p.m. 6:30 p.m.


l On-Air News Program E Operations Staff E Editorial Staff




"Nuestro "Nuestro "Noticier Ahora Ahora
Mundo" Mundo" Mundo" CNN"

1~4a...l.... .... ...









"Nuestro Mundo" Editorial Staff

"Noticiero CNN" Editorial Staff


"Panorama Mundial" Editorial Staff Arrives
(Anchor, Copy Editors, Producer, Writers)

Pre-Production for
other Programs



F "Noticiero "Noticiero
S"Ahora" "Ahora" "Ahora" "Ahora" CNN CNN"
EA h0 o 7r,- I CNN" I CNN"


Figure 5-4. CNN en Espafiol Daily Workflow 12:30 p.m. 6:30 p.m.










CNN en Espafiol Daily Workflow 7:00 p.m. 12:30 a.m.


E On-Air News Program [ Operations Staff | Editorial Staff





"Noticiero "Panorama aa .a "Panorama
CNN" Mundial" Mundial" Mundial" Mundial" Mundial"

Pre-Production for "Deportes CNN"
(7:00 p.m. -7:30 p.m.)

lAftemrnon Operalionsr.-Su.t






"Noticiero CNN"
Editorial Staff

"Panorama Mundial" Editorial Staff






Pre-Production for
"Escenario"


"Deportes "Economi "Deportes "Economia "Deportes
CNN" y Finanzas" CNN" y Finanzas" CNN" "Escenario"

I7:30 80 9:0 1:0 13 123am
P.M.Y s l P a eY


Figure 5-5. CNN en Espafol Daily Workflow 7:00 p.m. 12:30 a.m.









Problems Encountered by the Network


There were many problems encountered in the initial operation of CNN en

Espafol. The majority of the problems related to the two things that would eventually

make CNN en Espahol a success: staff and technology.

The Employee Technology Mix

When CNN en Espafiol began operation, the network's founders discovered that

the staffing model they had developed had several flaws (D. Morton, personal

communication, October 11, 1999). CNN en Espafiol's newsroom computer system and

Quantel digital video editing system were supposed to make it easier to get CNN en

Espaiol's programming on the air. However, management underestimated the amount of

time it would take for employees to operate the technology (D. Morton, personal

communication, October 11, 1999). CNN en Espafiol management discovered these

problems when the network began rehearsing its 24-hour operation in March, 1997 (D.

Morton, personal communication, October 11, 1999). The key factor was that although

the technology consolidated the jobs of several individuals, management failed to realize

how much longer it would take each person to accomplish a task (B. Hesskamp, personal

communication, October 11, 1999).

Because CNN en Espafol was using computer technology, the staff had to be

precise in its input of data. This became most evident with CNN en Espafol's writing

staff (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999). The CNN en Espafiol

newsroom computer system, Newswire, allows writers to insert information such as









graphics, fonts, video, and script commands20 into scripts (D. Morton, personal

communication, October 11, 1999). Once information is embedded into a script, the

automation systems ofCNN en Espaiol's control room can recall that information. This

would allow the writers to control the visuals that would accompany their stories (D.

Morton, personal communication, October 11, 1999). However, management didn't

realize how much longer it would take writers to input the extra information (B.

Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999). With the extra work needed to

include all information on a script, management could not rely on a writer to produce the

same amount of output as before (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11,

1999) As a result, management hired more staff to help take full advantage of the

technology and produce the amount of material necessary for a 24-hour news network.

Although CNN en Espafiol's staff grew as a result of this discovery, the number of

employees added was minimal (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11,

1999).

CNN en Espafiol's management also underestimated the amount of time necessary

for employees to learn how to operate the new equipment (D. Morton, personal

communication, October 11, 1999). Although many would learn quickly, management

soon realized that not everyone was adept in all areas (R. Santos, personal

communication, October 6, 1999). CNN en Espafiol President Rolando Santos notes:

Every time the journalism industry was revolutionized--when it went from
film to videotape--there were a bunch of people that got lost. They
couldn't make the psychological jump to this electronic media. Then we


20 Script commands are cues for a program's line director. The commands guide the
director as to the placement of graphics, fonts and video.




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THE BIRTH OF A NETWORK: AN INSIDE LOOK AT CNN EN ESPANOL By DANIEL FIGUEROA A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN MASS COMMUNICATION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 1999

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f This thesis is dedicated to my parents Daniel and Rita whose continued support and encouragement have allowed me aim high and succeed.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS My sincere gratitude is extended to Dr. Milagros Rivera-Sanchez who inspired this study and encouraged my work when it at times seemed impossible. Dr. RiveraSanchez spent countless hours revising this work and making incredibly insightful suggestions. I thank her for her honesty, dedication and verve. She has taught me the meaning of hard work and devotion. I would also like to thank Dr. F. Leslie Smith whom I met as an undergraduate student. His encouragement of my academic and professional careers has been unparalleled. His expertise and teaching have been an invaluable tool on this journey. I also extend my gratitude to Dr. John Wright for his advice and encouragement. To Dr. Wright I also extend my thanks for teaching me how to perform and utilize research. Also, I extend my sincere gratitude to the staff of the graduate division. Jody Hedge and Margi Hatch always made things work when they seemed impossible. They were always professional and caring. They are an incredible asset to the graduate division and the University of Florida. I am grateful to have had the pleasure of working with them. My sincerest gratitude goes to the staff and management of CNN en Espanol. I especially thank Christopher Crommett for welcoming this study and offering assistance. I must also mention the following individuals who granted interviews for the research: Bob Hesskamp, Debra Morton, Donna Mastrangelo, Caroline Rittenberry, Rolando Santos and Madeleine Wiener. Each person aided the strength of the study. I personally

PAGE 4

thank every person for their warmth and willingness to offer information. I also thank them for their interest in seeing the project succeed. I thank my great graduate school friends Jacques, Siva, Radhi and Steve. We shared many good memories and I thank them for their friendship and encouragement. I also thank my friend Miguel for always having a kind word. Finally, I thank my family. I especially thank my parents for their encouragement of my graduate studies. Their support encouraged me to finish the project. For that, I am grateful.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Hi ABSTRACT vii CHAPTERS 1 INTRODUCTION 1 The Television Business 1 The Trends of Increased Competition 2 The Spanish-Language Television Business 4 Purpose of the Research 6 Reserach Questions 7 Organization of the Thesis 7 2 DEFINTION OF CNN EN ESPANOL AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE 9 What Is CNN en Espanol? 9 Existing Research and Literature 10 3 METHODOLOGY 25 The Benefits of Qualitative Research 25 Case Study 26 Participant Observation 27 Description of the Interviews 28 Other Data Used in the Study 31 4 DISCUSSION OF THE INTERVIEWS 34 The Importance of Transcription Quality 34 Data Yielded Through the Interviews 35 This Is "CNN" 36 Initial Research 36 Public Relations and Marketing for CNN en Espanol 37 Defining CNN en Espanol's Audience 40 Editorial Content of CNN en Espanol 43

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Operation of CNN en Espanol 47 Comparing CNN en Espanol to CNN 48 The Day the Network Came Together 51 5 FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS OF THE RESEARH 53 Overview of the Findings 53 Creating the Network 58 The Person Behind the Network 58 Initial Research and the Development of the Business Plan 59 Finding a Location for CNN en Espanol 61 The CNN en Espanol Facility 63 A Nonlinear Environment 66 Staffing the Network 68 Selling the Network to Advertisers and Cable Operators 70 Operation of CNN en Espanol 71 Observastionsofthe Researcher 71 Pre-Launch Operation of CNN en Espanol 71 The CNN en Espanol Program Schedule (Grid) 72 The Departments Within CNN en Espanol 74 A Day in the Life of CNN en Espanol 79 Comparing CNN en Espanol to the Other CNN Networks 86 Problems Encountered by the Network 91 The Employee Technology Mix 91 Technological Issues 94 The Future of the Network 96 6 CONCLUSIONS 99 Conclusions about CNN en Espanol's Startup and Operation 99 Limitations of the Study and Avenues for Future Research 102 APPENDICES A INTERVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE 105 B STANDARD ETHICS PROTOCAL 107 C GLOSSARY OF TERMS 108 D CNN EN ESPANOL RUNDOWN 112 E CNN EN ESPANOL PROGRAM GRID 115 REFERENCES 122 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 134

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Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Mass Communication THE BIRTH OF A NETWORK: AN INSIDE LOOK AT CNN EN ESPANOL By Daniel Figueroa December 1999 Chairman: Dr. Milagros Rivera-Sanchez Major Department: Mass Communication Television is a business that depends on advertising dollars for success. As audiences are given more viewing choices, programmers have had to target new audiences for revenue. This has resulted in the targeting of diverse markets and the creation of new television and cable networks to reach those markets. This thesis analyzes the 24-hour Spanish-language cable news network, CNN en Espanol. The purpose of the thesis is to determine what type of research, if any, was necessary to launch CNN en Espanol. The thesis also examines and analyzes how CNN en Espanol was created and how it is operates on a daily basis. The thesis uses a case study approach to gather data about the startup and daily operation of CNN en Espanol. Through participant observation and interviews, the researcher was able to determine what type of research was necessary to create CNN en Espanol. The researcher was also able to examine and provide insight about the startup,

PAGE 8

launch, and daily operation of the network. The findings indicate that CNN en Espanol was created primarily as a business decision, but research played a primary role in determining the name of the network as well as in deciding how to market the network. The study concludes that there are three key factors that have contributed to CNN en Espanofs success. First are the founders, or managerial staff behind the network. Without their expertise and vision, CNN en Espanol would not exist. The second factor is technology. CNN en Espanol utilized technology to create a digital, nonlinear network. Based on this technology, the founders developed a program schedule that would allow CNN en Espanol to provide 24-hours of news and information programming within a limited business plan. The third element in CNN en Espanol' s success is its editorial and operations staff. The employees of CNN en Espanol made the project work. This thesis shows how these factors contributed to the creation and current operation of CNN en Espanol.

PAGE 9

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Television is the first truly democratic culture —the first culture available to everybody and entirely governed by what the people want. ( The New York Times , 1969) The Television Business Like any business, the pivotal goal of the communications industry is to turn a profit. Cable television is no exception. Since its birth, cable television has tried to compete with traditional over-the-air broadcast networks. Audience data for cable, local market, and network television are supplied by the The A.C. Nielsen Company (Wimmer and Dominick, 1997, 291). Nielsen Media Research, formerly part of the A.C. Nielsen Company, provides estimates of audience size and composition for commercial advertisers as well as television programmers ( Nielsen Media Research , 1999). Nielsen Media Research estimates that $40 billion is spent on the buying and selling of national and local advertising every year. This buying and selling concerns the transactions between advertisers and the television stations or cable networks which air the advertisers' commercials. As of March, 1999, Neilsen Media Research estimates that there are 101,212,200 total households in the United States. Of those households, 99,391,780 have televisions. 1 1 The numbers were obtained from the Nielsen Media Research regional office in Atlanta, Georgia.

PAGE 10

The potential revenue for reaching approximately 100 million homes is enough to continually create increased competition between cable television operators and broadcasters. The Trends of Increased Competition As television became popular in the mid 1950s, it pushed the dominant medium of radio from its position as the leader of mass media entertainment (Eastman, 1993, 1 12). In 1950, network radio advertising accounted for $215 million in total revenue. By 1953, that number had dropped to less than $40 million (Eastman, Head, and Klein, 1989, 376). In just a few years, television, in its "Golden Age," had seized the power of radio ( Nielsen Media Research , 1999). Television had taken the advertising dollars away from radio. The established radio networks ABC, NBC, and CBS were able to survive due to the revenues generated from their co-owned television operations (Eastman, 1993, 399). To compete with the more alluring offerings of television, radio had to narrow its programming. In essence, radio was attempting to reach audience niches. These smaller audiences, that would tune in for a specific type of programming, would allow radio stations to compete and survive (Eastman, Head, and Klein, 1989, 376). Today, cable television offers alternatives to the traditional over-the-air broadcast networks. 2 Much like television pushed radio from supremacy as a mass media entity, cable television continually challenges broadcasters for their viewing audience. 2 ABC, CBS, FOX, and NBC are examples of the current over-the-air broadcast networks. They do not require wired cable connections to be received in a viewer's home.

PAGE 11

Cable television consists of cable network operators, cable networks, and cable system operators. The cable network operator is the company or group that operates a cable network or networks. A cable network is the cable television channel that carries a specific type of programming. The cable network is very similar to a over-the-air broadcast network, but it is controlled by the cable network operator. Cable system operators are responsible for carrying a particular cable network's signal via a cable television system. It is the cable system operator that delivers cable television to people's homes. The cable networks that appear on that system are provided by cable network operators (Eastman, Head, and Klein, 1989, 253-257). Cable is distinct from over the air television in that it is a multichannel technology (Eastman, 242). A cable system delivers multiple channels including cable networks and over-the-air broadcast networks to consumers. Therefore, a cable network operator must consider other cable networks and over-the-air broadcasters as primary competition, and economic survival in this environment has become more difficult (Eastman, Head, and Klein, 25 1 ). For this reason, cable networks have begun to search for new target audiences and audience niches that have not traditionally been seen as revenue sources (Eastman, 119). The increases in competition, along with increases in the number of networks, 3 has led to the targeting of "untapped" markets, including, but not limited to, Latin America. 3 The increase in the number of networks is not limited to cable television. There are also new over-the-air broadcast networks including, The Warner Brothers Network (WB), the United Paramount Network (UPN), and the PAX TV network.

PAGE 12

The Spanish-Language Television Business The market which is the focus of this study is Latin America and its Spanishspeaking inhabitants. Latin America includes everything from the Southern tip of Argentina to the border of the United States and Mexico (Albiniak, 1997, 67). It is a large region which encompasses the entire continent of South America, Central America and a majority of the Caribbean Islands. However, the Hispanic audience of Latin America is not restricted to these countries south of the United States. In 1978, Time magazine wrote, "Hispanic Americans, now 19 million strong, are the fastest-growing minority group in the U.S." (1978, 48). The United States Census Bureau (1999) now estimates that 1 1% of the United States' population is of Hispanic origin. That number is expected to reach 25% by the year 2010 (Shaw, 1996, 12), which would make Hispanics the largest ethnic group in the United States (Lieberman, 1996, 3B). Thus, interest in reaching the Latin American and Hispanic, or more specifically, a Spanish-speaking audience, has become a pivotal focus of broadcasters and cable operators. In 1995, U.S. Hispanics alone spent over $200 billion on goods and services (Shaw, 12). This figure continues to grow along with the notion that Hispanic consumers are among the most loyal brand-name buyers (Lieberman, 3B). Miguel Alfaro Jr., a native Mexican and director of operations and sales of a California Univision 4 affiliate, says of Hispanic consumers: Latino consumers [are] very, very loyal. Not only that, but we always bring our family members. It's a cultural thing. We'll frequent businesses 4 Univision is a 24-hour entertainment based Spanish-language cable network.

PAGE 13

as long as we're invited to them. If we're treated right, we'll go back even if we have to travel. And we'll encourage family and friends to go there. (March, 1999, 13) In Latin America, cable penetration is hovering at 10% (Albiniak, 67). While this number seems small, the region contains nearly 90 million television households (Rother, 1997b, 11). Thus, Latin America has almost as many television homes as the United States. Some estimates indicate that there are potentially 450 million television viewers in Latin America (Rother, 1 997c). A 1 995 survey by cable programmers indicated that Hispanics in the United States requested Spanish news above all other cable services (Lieberman, 3B). However, this survey did not initiate the trend of programming for Hispanics in Latin America. It was the prospect of profiting from a region with nearly as many television households as the United States that became the driving force in the trend of programming for Hispanic audiences in Latin America. The low levels of cable penetration in Latin America are due to the physical requirements of a cable television system. Because cable television requires a terrestrial cable connection to deliver its signal, it is not as prevalent in Latin America as in the United States. In the United States, cable system operators have been able to take advantage of the telephone system by running their cable television lines on existing telephone poles. Unfortunately, Latin America has a lower telephone density than the United States and this has slowed the spread of cable. But South America has taken advantage of other technologies, such as satellites, since the late 1960s (Ospina, 1994, 24). Ospina (1994) notes that due to the topography and geography of the continent, there have been developments in one-way downlink technologies. Thus, there is a large prospect not only for cable networks, but for home

PAGE 14

satellite technologies, such as direct broadcast satellites and other television receive-only (TVRO) services, to deliver the signals of those cable networks to the Latin American region (Ospina, 24). Because these downlink technologies do not require physical terrestrial cable lines to deliver a signal, they have allowed cable networks to target Hispanic audiences in Latin America. The Hispanic audiences of the United States and Latin America are invaluable to future growth for advertisers trying to reach a loyal customer base. Pay television in Latin America alone is expected to generate $2.5 billion annually in advertising and subscriber fees by the year 2000 (Rother, 1997b, 1 1). For the cable network operator or broadcaster, this market is the future. Purpose of the Research To date, there is no reserach available which examines how a cable news network is created. This study investigates how competition has led to the tapping of a specific market for potential revenue. In particular, this study examines the birth of the Spanishlanguage cable news network Cable News Network en Espanol (CNN en Espanol). Translated, CNN en Espanol means "CNN in Spanish." The goal of this study is to conduct an in-depth examination of what is necessary to launch a cable news network in order to understand how that network is created and operated. The study will examine the steps leading to the launch of the network and will follow the network through its daily operation. In the case of CNN en Espanol, we are afforded the unique opportunity to not only examine the creation of a network, but also to examine the trend of targeting a diverse market.

PAGE 15

This thesis will examine the steps taken to create CNN en Espanol, from its conception to its launch. By conducting an in-depth examination of what is necessary to put a cable news network on the air, the successes and failures of CNN en Espanol can serve as a model for future ventures of this type. Research Questions This thesis will go beyond the available literature by examining the steps taken to create and operate CNN en Espanol. As noted, the existing research focuses on audiences, viewing, and programming. This study will address those issues, but as they pertain to the development of CNN en Espanol. The questions that will be the focus of this thesis are: • What type of research was done to determine the need for CNN en Espanol? • What were the necessary steps in creating CNN en Espanol? • How does such a cable news network operate on a daily basis? Organization of the Thesis Chapter 2 contains a description of CNN en Espanol and its existence within the CNN family of news networks. The chapter also contains a review of literature, which examines existing studies of Spanish-language television. It focuses on studies that examine Spanish-language television news and Spanish-language cable networks. This section also examines CNN en Espanol's sister network, CNN. Chapter 3 will focus on the case study and focused interview methodology. This chapter will define the methodology and define various elements of the case study and interview. A discussion of the interviews will comprise Chapter 4. Chapter 5 will

PAGE 16

present the findings and analysis of the case studies and interviews, while Chapter 6 will consist of conclusions and suggestions for further research.

PAGE 17

CHAPTER 2 DEFINITION OF CNN EN ESPANOL AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE What Is CNN en Espanol? CNN en Espanol is a descendent of the U.S. -based, 24-hour cable news channel Cable News Network (CNN). Both networks are operated by the North American cable network operator Turner Broadcasting System (TBS). Both CNN and CNN en Espanol offer 24-hour cable news programming, but the networks differ in program content and operation. CNN en Espanol is part of the CNN News Group, which consists of six cable television networks distributed via satellite ( CNN News Group , 1 999). The other five components of the CNN News Group are: CNN, Cable News Network Headline News (CNN Headline News), Cable News Network International (CNNI), Cable News Network Financial News (CNNfn) and Cable News Network Sports Illustrated (CNN/SI). Inclusive to the CNN News Group are two radio networks, 1 nine Internet World Wide Web (WWW) sites, CNN's syndicated news service CNN Newsource, and three private out-of home networks. These three private networks are not available on consumer cable systems. CNN's private out-of-home networks are CNN Airport Network, Accent Health, and CTN College Television Network. These networks are 1 The CNN News Group has an English radio news service, CNN Radio, and a Spanishlanguage radio news service, "CNN Radio Noticias" (CNN Radio News).

PAGE 18

10 targeted at specific audiences and can be seen only in selected locations. CNN Airport Network is seen in 32 airports within the United States. Accent Health can be seen in the waiting rooms of doctors' offices, and CTN can be seen on over 270 college and university campuses. Together, the CNN News Group reaches over 800 million people throughout the world ( CNN News Group . 1999). CNN en Espanol is unique because it is the first 24-hour Spanish-language cable news network launched by the North American-based Turner Broadcasting Company, Inc. 2 However, CNN en Espanol is not the first all-Spanish news channel launched by a North American company. The broadcast networks National Broadcasting Company (NBC) and CBS Corporation (CBS) had both launched 24-hour Spanish-language news channels prior to CNN en Espanol's March, 1997 launch. NBC had launched Canal de Noticias (News Channel) in 1993 (Galetto, 1997b, 2). In 1996, CBS launched CBS Telenoticias (CBS Television News) 3 (Lieberman, 3B). On March 17, 1997, after 5 years of planning, CNN launched CNN en Espanol (Davalos, 1997). Existing Research and Literature There is a significant body of research examining Spanish-language television. A majority of this research has focused on Spanish-language broadcast television in the United States. Because CNN en Espanol is aimed primarily at Latin America, and because it is a cable network, its study raises different questions. 2 CNN en Espanol is not the first Spanish-language cable network launched by TBS. TBS had launched the entertainment-based TNT Latin America in 1991. 3 Telenoticias had been on the air since 1994, but Westinghouse, owner of CBS bought the channel in 1996. It was renamed CBS Telenoticias.

PAGE 19

11 Research and literature on Spanish-language television has investigated topics including minority television programming in the United States (Marshall, 1 974), the influence of television on the political transition in Spain (Maxwell, 1995), and the flow of television programs from the United States to Latin America regions (Caraballo & Eliut, 1991). Wes Marshall's book Minority Television Programming: Fiesta (1974) studied the development and creation of a minority television program in the United States. This book details the developmental stages of a minority television program and provides guidelines that others can use to develop minority programming. The book provides information on all aspects of developing minority programming from the initial program proposal and budgets to the production and execution of the program. It is an invaluable tool in understanding minority television programming, but the book focuses on the development of one particular type of program, as opposed to the station or network that would carry such a program. Richard Maxwell's The Spectacle of Democracy: Spanish Television, Nationalism, and Political Transition (1995) examines social transition and its effect on television in Spain. The book examines how television in Spain was changed as the country went through its conversion from dictatorship to democracy. While the book provides insight into Spanish television and how it was changed by political transition, it does not focus on a particular broadcast or cable television network. Maxwell's work deals with how the institution of television in Spain changed as a whole. His work does not focus on a particular program or a particular network. It should also be noted that

PAGE 20

12 because the focus of Maxwell's work is Spain, it does not examine Hispanics in the United States or Latin America. Caraballo and Eliut (1991) examined cable television in Puerto Rico. The focus of their study was the potential impact of English-language cable television on the cultural and political attitudes of Puerto Ricans. They examined how the Puerto Rican media changed as VCRs became readily available to Puerto Ricans and as cable television was introduced to the island. Although this study deals with cable television, it is concerned with the effects of English-language cable television on Hispanics. While helpful in understanding the effects that English-language cable television has had on Puerto Rican media, it does not examine the creation or operation of a particular network. The study focuses on the effects of cable television as a whole, rather than how a particular network operates. Other work on Hispanics and Hispanic television has included topics such as how political science is affected by the mass media (Fox, 1993), bilingual minority television programs (Barrera, 1992), the flow of television programs from the United States to Latin America (Chen, 1987), Hispanic television and cultural representations in the United States (Lozano, 1993), the marketing of television programs to Hispanics in the United States (Soruco, 1985), and how Hispanic characters are portrayed on Spanishlanguage television (Tituana, 1988). Elizabeth Fox's 1993 dissertation International Relations and National Policies of Latin American Broadcasting explains how the mass media in Latin America experienced rapid growth to the point of ubiquity. The result of this mass media growth was a change in how Latin Americans received their news and information and how they spent their

PAGE 21

13 free time. Fox examines "patterns of conflict and accommodation" that resulted from the rapid growth of mass media in Latin America. She compares the relationships and spheres of influence of eight Latin American countries and their national broadcasting policies. By examining eight countries, Fox builds a foundation for understanding the development of domestic media policies while assessing the strength of influences from the United States. Fox's study is useful in understanding media policies and potential media growth for countries in Latin America. Aida Barrera (1992) examined the making of bilingual minority children's television programming. Barrera' s dissertation, Multiculturalism Before Its Time: The Making of "Carrascolendas ," focuses on the making of "Carrascolendas," a bilingual, multicultural program which addressed the needs of Mexican-American children as well as the needs of children from other Hispanic groups. Barrera uses a historical and autobiographical approach, as she was the creator of the "Carrascolendas" program. The study examines the design of the program as well as issues in education and public broadcasting, which were necessary to the development of the minority television program. This study is valuable in understanding minority programming for children. It is also useful in understanding how this type of programming represented multiculturalism. Although the study examines a program aimed at Hispanics, the target group is Hispanic children in the United States, not adults who would watch news programming. It should also be taken into account that the "Carrascolendas" program aired on the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), not a cable network. Sheuan-Ling Chen's 1987 thesis entitled The Flow of Television Programs from United States to Latin America: A Comparative Survey of Two Weeks' Television

PAGE 22

14 Schedules in 1973 and 1983 explored a 10-year period to discover developments in the flow of television programs from the United States to Latin America. Chen compared two weeks of television schedules from 16 Latin American countries in 1973 and 1983. Chen found that the amounts of programming emanating from the United States and flowing to Latin America differed for each country studied. Chen concluded that government intervention in broadcast policies varies greatly in Latin America, and this contributed to the variations in amounts of programming which flowed from the United States to different Latin American countries. This study is useful in gaining an understanding of how involved Latin American governments are in broadcast policies. However, the data used to conduct this study are over 10 years old. At the time the latest data were taken (1983), the amount of U.S. programming available for export was not as great as it is today. Also, this study does not take into account cable television, which is currently more readily available, and it only studies television programming, and program flow. Elizabeth Lozano (1993) conducted a cultural study of Hispanic television in the United States. Her dissertation examines "America" as a symbolic and material space and it examines the growth of the Hispanic population in the United States. Lozano investigates how this population growth has allowed Hispanics to emerge as a dominant minority group in the United States. She also examines Hispanic television as an archive of Hispanic presence and influence in television programs while examining how television affects Hispanics in the United States. Lozano's work explains how Hispanic television operates within both the Hispanic and American cultures. It also details how Hispanic television mixes the cultures, thus redefining them and restructuring cultural

PAGE 23

15 identities and differences. She notes that this mixture has resulted in the emergence of a combination of Anglo American and Latin American cultures, which constitute a unique cultural representation. Gonzalo Rafael Soruco's 1985 dissertation Marketing Television Profirams In The United States: The Case of The Hispanic Audience examines differences in television viewing habits of Hispanics living in the United States. Soruco examined Hispanic audiences' choice of Spanish or English programming and how acculturation affects program choice. Soruco concluded that viewing habits differed from one Hispanic subgroup to another and this could be due to acculturation. However, the behaviors exhibited in this study could not be generalized to other Hispanic populations. It is important to note that the data used in this study were collected in 1983 by Arbitron, Inc., which no longer provides television audience data. As with other studies examining Hispanics in the United States, this study does not examine the operation of a cable news network, nor does it examine programming that is targeted to Latin America. Juan Francisco Tituana (1988) examined occupational portrayals of Hispanic characters in Spanish-language television comedies. Tituana performed a content analysis of 33 television programs. He found that male characters portrayed higher status occupations and had greater amounts of on-screen television time than female characters. Tituana concluded that the Hispanic cultural tradition of males having a higher societal role was reflected in Spanish-language television comedies. While the aforementioned works concerns Spanish-language television or Hispanics, they do not examine cable networks or news programming. The following

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16 studies examine Spanish-language news and Spanish-language cable networks, respectively. Sylvana Paternostro's 1993 article "News Caliente: Tabloid TV with a Latin Accent" examines two Spanish-language tabloid news programs, "Noticias y Mas" (News and More) and "Ocurrio Asi" (It Happened This Way). The tabloid programs are produced by the Univision and Telemundo television networks, respectively. Paternostro discusses the content of the programs and the criticism received by the programs. This article provides some insight into the programming of Univision and Telemundo, both Hispanic networks based in the United States. The article does not examine the networks themselves, nor does it examine any other news programming produced by the networks. America Rodriguez (1996) studied the objectivity and ethnicity in Spanishlanguage newscasts. Her study focused on the production of Univision's nightly national newscast, "Noticiero Univision" (Univision Newscast). Rodriguez examined the newscasts' audience, the journalists within the newscasts, and the presentation of the news within "Noticiero Univision." Her goal was to analyze the objectives of Univision as a commercial enterprise as they pertained to the production and objectivity of "Noticiero Univision" (1996, 59). Rodriguez concluded that although the production of "Noticiero Univision" applies many of the same "commercial and professional processes" of U.S. -based newscasts, it ultimately denationalizes its intended audience (1996, 80-81). It is important to note that Univision's target audience is U.S. Hispanics, not Latin Americans living in Latin America (Rodriguez, 1996). Thus, her study finds that "Noticiero

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17 Univision" denationalizes recent Latin American immigrants in the United States and renationalizes them as U.S. Hispanics (1996, 81). Rodriguez's study is very important in examining the production and objectivity within a Spanish-language newscast. However, although she studied Spanish-language news, Rodriguez was limited by the fact that Univision's primary audience is U.S. Hispanics. Her study provides invaluable insight into the production of a Spanishlanguage newscast and how it compares to U.S. newscasts, but the focus was on the content and production of a single news program, not on the operation of the network that provides such a program. Nicholas Alfred Valenzuela (1985) studied the organizational development of a non Englishlanguage television network in the United States. He used an organizational environments model to analyze the organizational development of the now defunct Spanish International Network (SIN). 4 The audience Valenzuela studied was Hispanics living in the United States. In part, Valenzuela also examined news production and agenda setting for SIN. The organizational environments model states that the degree of success or failure of an organization can be judged by comparisons to similar organizations, such as competitors (Valenzuela, 1985, 66). Valenzuela notes that the structure of organizational environments allows for a complete and readily accessible method for analyzing mass media institutions. 4 SIN was not a 24 hour cable news network. The network is now known as Univision.

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18 The organizational environments model also allows for analysis of an institution's interaction within the societies in which it operates (1985, 67). Valenzuela's study had two main goals. First, he wanted to test the usefulness of the organizational environments model. Second, he sought to identify what factors enabled the Spanish-language television network SIN to be established and to survive in the highly competitive industry of television broadcasting. Valenzuela's objective was that his study prove useful to communication researchers studying other mass media institutions, such as broadcasting companies, cable television organizations, direct broadcast satellite companies, lowpower television stations, etc. (1985, 9). Valenzuela notes that organizational environments literature is "ultimately concerned with the issue of effective organizational management" (1985, 68). Organizational environments theory, thus, examines how a business survives within its competitive environment. Burgelman (1994) states that organizational environments theory also examines how businesses strategically withdraw from existing businesses while redirecting or shedding competencies associated with these former businesses. Thus, it seems that organizational environments theory could provide an excellent base for studying CNN en Espanol's level of success in future research studies. Valenzuela's study of organizational environments theory to identify the factors that led to Spanish International Network's success in the 1980s, comes closest to examining the operation of a 24-hour cable news network. However, unlike CNN en Espanol, SIN's programming was entertainment-based. Because Valenzuela used organizational environments theory, he examined SIN from a point where the network was already established. His study does not examine the steps that were necessary to

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19 create Spanish International Network. Valenzuela also notes that his study "is not concerned with the day to day managerial operations of the organization" (1984, 14). Because organizational environments theory can judge the success of an organization by making comparisons to similar organizations, the theory could be used to assess CNN en Espanol's survival against other cable news networks in Latin America. Noting that organization environments theory also allows for the analysis of an institution's interaction within the societies in which the organization operates, the effects of CNN en Espanol's presence in Latin America can also be studied. A third factor which can be examined using the organizational environments theory is how CNN en Espanol withdraws from parts of its initial business strategy as the network grows and takes on new business strategies. The theory would allow for the examination of how the network redirects parts of its business strategy that it no longer utilizes and how the network redirects competencies associated with those former business practices. However, because CNN en Espanol is still a young organization, this thesis examines its creation and operation. Both are areas which have yet to be examined. There is also a body of research on CNN en Espanol's sister network, CNN. It is important to examine CNN as it is the largest part of the CNN News Group, and it is a large part of CNN en Espanol's infrastructure. CNN is the originator of the 24-hour television news format (Whittemore, 1990). Its target audience is television viewers in the United States ( CNN News Group . 1 999). The network offers a wide range of programming that encompasses business, entertainment, health, science news, sports, topical in-depth interviews and weather. The

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20 network's most notable trait is its coverage and analysis of live breaking worldwide news events ( CNN News Group . 1999). Noting that CNN targets U.S. audiences, it is important to note that other parts of the CNN News Group target the rest of the world. CNN International is CNN's 24-hour global news network ( CNN News Group . 1999). CNNI is seen in over 138 million households in over 210 countries and territories throughout the world ( CNN News Group . 1999). The CNNI signal covers Latin America, and until CNN en Espanol's launch, it was the only CNN television news service available in that region. Currently, both CNN en Espanol and CNNI are available in Latin America. The difference is that CNNI is an English-language service while CNN en Espanol is a Spanish-language service. There are a variety of textbooks, trade journal and popular literature articles available about CNN and the various stages of its development. In 1983, the Washington D.C.based not-for-profit organization The Media Institute prepared a content analysis entitled CNN vs. The Networks: Is More News Better News? The content analysis compared CNN's news programming with that of the three major broadcast networks, ABC, CBS, and NBC, but did not examine the startup and operation of CNN. Also, it should be noted that this content analysis was conducted over 15 years ago, and the practices, programming and editorial policies of each network studied have undergone changes over that time period. To explore the startup and operation of CNN, Hank Whittemore's CNN The Inside Story (1990) provides a first-hand look at how and why CNN was created. The book takes the story directly from the individuals involved in the creation and initial operation of the network. The book opens with a quotation of the telephone

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21 conversation that started CNN and continues with direct quotes from those involved providing an incredibly detailed account of the CNN story (Whittemore, 1990). The book is an excellent source for understanding the processes which helped put CNN on the air. It explains how people were chosen to help start the network, and it explains the role of each person. The book gives verbal accounts of how individuals worked together, although not always agreeing, to make CNN a reality. Whittemore also provides details about innovations that were created at CNN. One such innovation was the idea of the "live" newsroom showing the buzz of newsroom activity behind the anchor desk while an anchor is on the air. Before CNN, news programs were broadcast from a studio set that had no activity behind the anchor desk. Whittemore also give details about the development of CNN's computer system BASYS and about technical equipment that was chosen to start the network. Perhaps the most interesting parts of the book are when Whittemore provides accounts of CNN's control room as the network broke out of a commercial break to broadcast its first live breaking news event. This thesis is similar to Whittemore's book. However, there are numerous differences in examining the startup of CNN and CNN en Espanol. Because CNN en Espanol is part of the CNN News Group, this study examines how CNN en Espanol was created and how it operates within the realm of CNN. Although Whittemore's book details the startup of the CNN network, this study examines the startup of CNN's first news venture in a language other than English. It must also be taken into account that Whittemore examines how CNN pioneered the 24-hour cable news format. This thesis examines how that format is adapted to a Spanish-speaking audience almost two decades after CNN revolutionized cable television news.

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22 Don Flournoy's CNN World Report: Ted Turner's International News Coup (1992) provides an in-depth examination of one particular CNN program, "World Report." However, the book is not limited in its presentation. Flournoy also gives a detailed explanation of CNN's growth into a respectable news organization. The book provides specific examples of news stories broadcast by CNN from and about countries where media reports are controlled by the government. Flournoy details the origins of the "World Report" program and the changes it has undergone since its initial broadcast. "World Report" is a program which consists of news stories submitted from television organizations around the world. The news stories are sent to CNN's Atlanta headquarters where they are organized to form the "World Report" program. This is a program that CNN founder Ted Turner said was not created to make money. It was created with the purpose of giving people around the world a chance to be heard (Flournoy, 2). Flournoy explains how contributing nations perceive the program and CNN as a whole. He details how stories are chosen for the program and also gives examples of topics and countries which have submitted material. Flournoy also notes that CNN does not control the editorial content of the "World Report" stories. Any nation is allowed to submit material and thus, "World Report" has been accused of being a "propaganda mill" for the world (Flournoy, 93). However, Flournoy reminds us that the program does not discriminate against a country or a government. It is simply a program which gives everyone a chance to be heard. It is important to mention Flournoy's book because it discusses a program that also airs on CNN en Espanol. The Spanish title of the program is "El Mundo Informa," which literally translates into "World Report."

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23 Another book written about CNN and its development as a news organization is How CNN Fought the War : A View from the Inside by Major General Perry M. Smith (Retired) (1991). This book examines CNN's coming of age during the Persian Gulf War. It explores the behind-the-scenes action in the days before the Persian Gulf War, and it chronicles CNN's operation during the war. Smith provides first-hand accounts of how CNN utilized military analysts to help give the network an advantage on the understanding of the subject matter. The book focuses on explaining how CNN operated editorially during the Gulf War period and how its presence in Iraq turned it into the world's most respected news organization. There are other books and studies available examining CNN. Books about the network include Robert Wiener's Live From Baghdad: Gathering News at Ground Zero (1992), Don Flournoy's CNN: Making News in a Global Market (1997) and Porter Bibb ' s It Ain't as E asy as It Looks: The Story of Ted Turner and CNN (1993). Other academic research on CNN includes Chun Park's 1994 dissertation entitled A Comparat ive Anal y sis of the Selection Process and Content of Television International News in the United States and Korea This study examines factors influencing international news selection in the U.S. and Korea. Park examined the editorial procedures and control mechanisms of CNN in an effort to compare them to two Korean broadcasters. Park conducted a content analysis of CNN's news and the newscasts of Korea's Seoul Broadcasting System (SBS) and the Korean Broadcasting System (KBS), and found that CNN is a more globally oriented news network than the Korean networks. Park also found that CNN is operated on a market driven business model unlike the Korean broadcasters, which focus on maintaining good government relations.

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24 Sherrie Ann Madia's dissertation The Global News Race: The Branding of CNN (1998) studies two global news leaders, CNN and the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). The study provides a content analysis of programming, including CNN's "World Report." Madia examines categories including audio and visual elements, country and region of news representation, use of graphics or other production elements, narrator types, gender of narrators and prevalence of the CNN brand. While there is an abundance of research about Spanish-language television, news networks and cable news networks, much of this research overlaps in subject matter. Existing research on cable networks is very similar to the research which exists about traditional over-the-air broadcasting and television programming. Much of this research focuses on programming , audience measurement and audience effects. To date, there is no in-depth examination of CNN en Espanol. This thesis will fill that void by using a case study approach, thus allowing for a first-hand examination of the startup and operation of a 24-hour Spanish-language cable news network. The next chapter contains the methodology of this study. It explains the case study method and focused interview, which is part of the case study approach. The chapter also details the types of data collected and how those data were collected.

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CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY The design of the study is based on a qualitative case study approach, whereby the researcher, through participant-observation, gathers data about the operation of CNN en Espanol. Then, with interviews from key individuals within the network, further data on the creation of CNN en Espanol will be attained. The present chapter details the types of data collected, how that data were collected and how the analysis was completed. The Benefits of Qualitative Research The review of literature revealed that research has been largely based on conventional quantitative methods, such as surveys and content analysis. With these quantitative approaches, the findings have been limited to who watches what television programming, when those viewers are watching such programming, and what effects the programming may have on the viewer. Since the aim of this thesis is not to determine viewing habits or other quantitative attributes, a qualitative approach is most appropriate. Presently, the strengths of qualitative analysis seem to be the benefits it provides in the planning process. For example, through measures such as focus groups, an advertiser can determine what may be effective before committing to a costly national campaign. Qualitative research examines attributes, characteristics and properties in communication (Fitch, 1994, 32). The emphasis is on pure description rather than prediction and measurement. The ability to change hypotheses and research questions 25

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26 after initial observations and the aspiration to understand what an experience is like leads to an understanding known as "Verstehen" (Lindlof, 1995, 30). The use of a constant comparative method or a phenomenological approach are strengths of the qualitative approach in telecommunication. Since the qualitative framework seeks to find out how and why things are done, this approach will be used to examine how CNN en Espanol was created and how it operates. Case Study This project uses a case study approach as a primary data gathering technique. The case study method allows research to be descriptive and exploratory. According to Yin, The case study allows an investigation to retain the holistic and meaningful characteristics of real-life events — such as individual life cycles, organizational and managerial processes, neighborhood change, international relations, and the maturation of industries. (1994, 3) This case study examines CNN en Espanol and explores the various stages that led to the creation of the cable news network. By gathering data directly from the individuals involved in the network's creation process, coupled with the researcher's participant-observation, this study investigates how and why things were done from the inception of the network to its launching. Yin writes that evidence for a case study may come from six sources: documents, archival records, interviews, direct observation, participant-observation and physical artifacts (1 994, 80). All six types of evidence produced data for this study. However, two particular types, participant-observation and interviews, largely comprise the data.

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27 Participant Observation Participant-observation is one of the primary techniques used in this study because it is a special mode of observation, which allows the researcher to assume diverse roles within a case study. It also allows for the researcher to participate in the events being studied (Yin, 87). In this study, the researcher assumes the role of a newscast director or "line director" within the CNN en Espahol network. ' Agar states: First of all, participant observation means you are actually there, that you enter the world of the people you're working with rather than bringing them into your world. In this sense, participant observation is a diagnostic feature of ethnography. (Agar, 1999,9) The researcher began to work at CNN en Espanol three months before the network's March 1997 launch. As a newscast director, the researcher was able to observe and participate in the daily operation of the CNN en Espanol. This allowed the researcher to understand how and why things are done. Agar states that participant observation allows the researcher to be directly involved in the community. The researcher can observe and talk with people while learning from them their views of reality (1996, 163). Spradley notes that the participant observer appears to be an ordinary participant in an environment (Spradley, 1980, 54). However, the participant observer approaches a social situation with two goals: to participate in the activities appropriate to the situation and to observe the "activities, people, and physical artifacts of the situation" (Spradley, 1980, 54). The participant observer seeks to become categorically aware of activities that would ordinarily be blocked out by ordinary participants. Spradley notes that as a The newscast director is responsible for directing a live or taped television program.

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28 researcher, increasing awareness is not an easy task. The researcher must overcome an inclination towards "selective inattention," or the tuning out of activities in a situation (Spradley, 1980, 55). A participant observer must have a heightened sense of awareness. A researcher must accept a broader range of information, as if approaching the social environment with a "wide-angle lens" (Spradley, 1980, 56). The participant observer also experiences being an "insider" and "outsider" in a social situation (Spradley, 1980, 56). As an ordinary participant in a social environment, one's experiences would be subjective. However, a participant observer simultaneously views a situation subjectively and from an outside view (Spradley, 1980, 57). This is necessary to gain an understanding of how participants act in situations while understanding how those actions affect the social environment (Spradley, 1980, 57) In participant observation, the researcher must also learn to use himself as a research instrument (Spradley, 1980, 57). This introspection of daily activities differs greatly from ordinary participants which overlook many experiences (Spradley, 1980, 57). A participant observer's ability to thoroughly reflect on the activities within a social environment will greatly refine the data gathered (Spradley, 1980, 58). Description of the Interviews Interviews were used to gather data that was not directly available to the researcher via participant observation. According to Yin, Overall, interviews are an essential source of case study evidence because most case studies are about human affairs. These human affairs should be reported and interpreted through the eyes of specific interviewees, and well informed respondents can provide important insights into a situation. They can also provide shortcuts to the prior history of the situation, helping you to identify other relevant sources of evidence. (Yin, 85)

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29 The interview creates an "opportunity to step into the mind of another person, to see and experience the world as they do themselves" (McCracken, 9). This type of first hand account will be crucial to the understanding of how and why CNN en Espanol was created. Lindlof (1995) states that as a researcher, one can never be sure that what a respondent says represents the full story. For this reason, the researcher conducted seven personal interviews of individuals associated with CNN en Espanol. The interviews were used to gather information about the startup of CNN en Espanol and to further expand on the limited information available about the network. All of the interviews were taped on two simultaneously running recorders. Each interview was conducted in the office or home of the interviewee. Those interviewed for this study were • Christopher Crommett, Vice President and News Director, CNN en Espanol • Bob Hesskamp, Vice President of Operations, CNN International • Donna Mastrangelo, Senior Executive Producer, CNN en Espanol • Debra Morton, Former Manager of Network and New Business Operations, CNN en Espanol • Caroline Rittenberry, Manager of Public Relations, TBS Latin America • Rolando Santos, President, CNN en Espanol • Madeleine Wiener, Former Vice President of News Marketing, TBS Latin America These interviewees comprise a variety of positions within the network including management, public relations, marketing, and editorial and production staff. The goal of these interviews is to establish an understanding of not only why things were done, but how they were done at all levels in the development of CNN en Espanol. Each of these individuals had a specific role in the creation of the network. The following chapter will explain the role of each interviewee throughout the development of CNN en Espanol.

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30 The interview type used was the "focused interview" as defined by Merton, Fiske & Kendall (1990). In this interview type, the respondent is interviewed for a short time period; in this case the average time was one hour. The focused interview may remain open-ended and can even assume a conversational manner (Yin, 85). A tool used in the formulation of the interview questionnaire was Wes Marshall's book Minority Television Programming: Fiesta . The text dealt with the development of a minority program entitled "Fiesta." Although it was written in 1974, "Fiesta" provided invaluable insight into what was necessary to develop a television program for Hispanics. "Fiesta" was used as a source for developing the questionnaire as many of the issues relating to the development of the program "Fiesta" could be applied to the development of CNN en Espanol. Among the issues discussed in "Fiesta" were the audience, the longterm results of the programming, staffing and future goals (Marshall, 1). The questionnaire formulated and used in the interviews appears in Appendix A. McCracken states the following benefits of using a questionnaire: • The questionnaire allows for care in the scheduling of the prompts necessary to manufacture distance between the respondent and researcher • The questionnaire establishes channels for the direction and scope of responses • The questionnaire allows the investigator to give all of their attention to the respondent's testament. (1988, 24-25) The questionnaire was designed so that questions could easily be adjusted to accommodate each respondent's area of expertise. The questions were general in nature. However, it was not feasible to ask each respondent every question as each person interviewed had a different area of expertise and there were time limitations on the length of the interviews. This is important to note because each interviewee granted interview

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31 time as part of his or her daily schedule. For these reasons, questions that did not fall into a particular respondent's area of knowledge were omitted from the interview. Sometimes, questions were asked and respondents did not provide answers due to their lack of expertise about a particular subject matter. In addition, due to the nature of the interview, the respondents sometimes answered future questions within their responses to other questions. For this reason, it was not practicable to ask each respondent the same questions in the same order. However, every effort was made to ask each individual question in the same manner. Another outcome of the interviews was the development of more questions. As the first interviews were conducted, the respondents sometimes provided information that required further investigation. This information was formulated into questions and these questions were added to the questionnaire. The new questions were asked to the remaining interview subjects who had expertise in those particular areas. Other Data Used in the Study Lindlof (1995) states that interviews allow researchers to "verify, validate, or comment on data from other sources." For the study, numerous other data sources were used to develop an accurate history and understanding of CNN en Espanol and the Latin American market. The questionnaire and analysis were developed by examining numerous trade journals and publications such as Advertising Age . Broadcasting and Cable , Broadcast Engineering . Cable Business International . Cablefax . Cable and Satellite Express . Communication International . Daily Variety . Electronic Media . The Hollywood Reporter . Market Latin America . Media Daily . Mediaweek . Multichannel

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32 News , Network World . PR Newswire . Public Relations Quarterly . Satellite Week and Television Business International . Newspaper sources were also used. They included both local and major national U.S. newspapers, along with Latin American papers. Among the domestic newspapers were The Atlanta Journal Constitution . The AustinAmerican Statesman . The Boston Globe, The Chicago Sun Times . The Hartford Courant . The Los Angeles Times . The New York Times . The Tampa Tribune . The Sun Sentinel . USA Today and The Washington Post . Popular literature, domestic and international wire services were also used. These sources were valuable in gathering information about events that took place throughout CNN en Espanol' s development. The articles were examined for information about Spanish-language television and for specific information about CNN en Espanol and Turner Broadcasting System. The literature examined includes Business Journal . Business Horizons . The Economist . Maclean's . Reuters Financial Service . South Florida Business Journal , TASS. Time. Time Latin America , and U.S. News and World Rep ort. Latin American newspapers, journals and news services included Cronica (Mexico), Diaro el Clarin (Argentina), El Excelsior (Mexico), La Jornada (Mexico), El Nacional (Venezuela), Semana (Colombia), Servicio Universal de Noticias (Universal News Service), El Tiempo (Colombia), and Vision (Argentina). It was important to look at these sources as they emanate from the region serviced by CNN en Espanol. The articles attained from these sources were translated to English by the researcher for their use in this study. Using information directly from Latin America allowed for the

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33 development of a coherent and detailed description of how CNN en Espanol was developed from the recipients' perspective. Other information about CNN en Espanol was obtained from management's interdepartmental memoranda, while still other documents were provided by those interviewed in the study. Press releases supplied by CNN en Espanol 's public relations department were also used as sources. The Internet proved a valuable secondary source to obtain information about the components of the CNN News Group and to find other information and articles that were not readily available. On-line services such as LexisNexis and First Search were also used to find information about Spanish-language television and CNN. The aforementioned data were collected before the questionnaire was designed and before the interviews were conducted. However, every attempt was made to continually update the information as the study progressed. The next chapter contains a summary of the interviews. The chapter begins with an explanation of why the interviews were conducted and then defines the standard ethics protocol that was used in this study. The chapter then examines the importance of transcription quality and how this affects data collection and analysis.

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CHAPTER 4 DISCUSSION OF THE INTERVIEWS This chapter examines the seven interviews used in this study and discusses the data that the interviews yielded. The individuals interviewed are • Christopher Crommett, Vice President and News Director, CNN en Espanol • Bob Hesskamp, Vice President of Operations, CNN International • Donna Mastrangelo, Senior Executive Producer, CNN en Espanol • Debra Morton, Former Manager of Network and New Business Operations, CNN en Espanol • Caroline Rittenberry, Manager of Public Relations, TBS Latin America • Rolando Santos, President, CNN en Espanol • Madeleine Wiener, Former Vice President of News Marketing, TBS Latin America These individuals had a specific role in the startup of CNN en Espanol, and many continue to have roles in the current operation of the network. Prior to each interview, the respondents were asked to sign a standard ethics protocol. The form used was adapted from McCracken's The Long Interview (1988). This document informed the respondents of their rights as subjects in the study and of how their responses would be used in this study. The standard ethics protocol, approved by the University of Florida Institutional Review Board, appears in Appendix B. The Importance of Transcription Quality Poland (1995) states that even when those transcribing attempt to produce verbatim accounts of an interview, there are four discrepancies which may occur. These 34

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35 discrepancies are problems with sentence structure, misuse of quotation marks, omissions of words or phrases, and mistaking words or phrases for others (297). To ensure the integrity of the research, two audio recordings were made of each interview. Each recording was produced on a different tape format. During transcription, if there was any dispute about a word or phrase, the second recording was used to determine the proper transcription. Also, while conducting the interviews, the researcher made an effort to note on the questionnaire any particular words that might be misunderstood in the transcription process. After the transcripts were completed, as a final method of quality control, the researcher again listened to the interviews while reading the transcripts. This method proved worthwhile as some omissions and mistaken words were discovered. These errors were corrected as they were discovered for each interview. Data Yielded Through the Interviews The interviews provided data which helped define and explain various stages of CNN en Espanol's planning and development. These data can be separated into the following categories: research, public relations and marketing, definition of an audience, editorial content, and operation of the network. Through the course of the interviews, many terms and words related specifically to television and more specifically to CNN en Espanol were used by the respondents. These words and terms appear in Appendix C.

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36 "This Is CNN" "Somos CNN en Espanol" is CNN en Espanol's on-air identification slogan. It literally means, "This is CNN." The goal of CNN en Espanol's creators was to produce a network that was CNN, but with a Latin American perspective. This would involve years of planning. Rolando Santos, President of CNN en Espanol states: There were probably close to a dozen business plans that were put together before we finally found the right combination of technology and business, and the market grew to where we could do this. One of the key reasons we waited so long to get in the marketplace was the marketplace, cable wise, had not matured enough for us to be able to launch. A certain number of cable operators had to exist before you could make it a business. Then you had to find the right amounts of technology. Our network for example is probably the most efficient network at CNN in terms of the number of people working versus the amount of material put out, and that's no accident. It happened that way because we designed it that way or it wouldn't have happened. Not that we set out to be the most efficient. You only have so much money available in the pot, so the people had to be able do certain things to be able to get a 24-hour network with the credibility of CNN. In other words, it wasn't just a matter of throwing on a network. I had to create a network that had lived up to all of the standards and expectations of a CNN network. And, you had to do it with a certain amount of money, which was far less than what's available in the general market. So we had to wait for the market to grow. We had to wait for the technology to develop to the point where we could use less people but with the same amount of output, or greater output. Then, all of those forces had to come together literally and coalesce in order for us to launch CNN en Espanol. (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1 999) Initial Research Before embarking on the CNN en Espanol, Turner Broadcasting System conducted research to determine the viability of a 24-hour Spanish-language news network. CNN en Espanol Vice President Christopher Crommett states: Quite honestly, there was not question that from an editorial standpoint it made sense to have a network in Spanish. We're talking about an enormous region, an enormously diverse region with a long history of censorship and control of information that was hungry for a source that it

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37 could rely on that would not be subject to local, political and increasingly what we see these days, financial pressure. . .Editorially, there was no question that it was justified. Strategically, given the projections for economic growth in Latin America, it made a lot of sense. What had to make sense was a business plan. The folks that crunch the numbers did their research as to what they thought the potential distribution would be, what they thought the potential advertising revenue would be, and finally said, "Yes, we think this can be a profitable business within X period of time." And that was an acceptable wait time. (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999) Marketing Vice President Madeleine Wiener adds that she feels the network would have launched with or without research because it was seen as a business opportunity, and the decision to launch was largely based on TBS Latin America's experience in the region. She notes: Like a lot of things that Turner has done, I think there was a gut feel. There was a gut feel and there was also the experience of executives that have worked a long time in Latin America that have talked to cable operators and talked to people-There was really a need for launching CNN en Espanol. (M. Wiener, personal communication, October 9, 1 999) Once CNN en Espanol was approved for launch, the building of the network could begin. The building process would require the development of CNN en Espanol' s public relations and marketing, audience definition, editorial content, and daily operations. Public Relations and Marketing for CNN en Espanol The promotion of a Latin American version of CNN was carried out by the public relations and marketing departments of TBS Latin America, which are responsible for promoting and establishing CNN en Espanol's market presence in Latin America (M. Wiener, personal communication, October 9, 1999). The public relations department pushed the slogan "El lider mundial en noticias" ("The World's News Leader") when

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38 selling CNN en Espanol. However, the most important aspect in the success of the network was the CNN name. Caroline Rittenberry, Public Relations Manager for TBS Latin America, notes that the CNN brand was essential to the network's success (C. Rittenberry, personal communication, October 9, 1 999). Madeline Wiener, former Vice President of News Marketing for TBS Latin America, adds that the network was sold as CNN. It was not sold as a network that was like CNN, but as a network that was CNN, in Spanish, with a Latin American perspective (M. Wiener, personal communication, October 9, 1999). Because the CNN name is one of the most recognized brand names in the world, 1 the public relations and marketing departments were able to start selling the network two years before the network's launch (C. Rittenberry, personal communication, October 9, 1999). Public Relations Manager Rittenberry (personal communication, October 9, 1999) notes that the biggest problem was deciding when the network would actually launch because the existence of the network had been announced so far in advance. Cable operators and consumers knew that CNN would deliver CNN en Espanol, but when it would be delivered could not be answered until a final business plan was approved. Because no launch date had been officially set in the early stages, the public relations and marketing departments could not promote the exact arrival time of the network (C. Rittenberry, personal communication, October 9, 1 999). In the time between the decision to create the network and the approval of the final business plan, the marketing department conducted research in Latin America to see 1 Rolando Santos, President of CNN en Espanol, notes that the CNN name is as recognized worldwide as the Coca-Cola brand name.

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39 what type of interest there was in the network (M. Wiener, personal communication, October 9, 1999). They also conducted research to determine what people were watching in various time periods and to determine other details, such as what was considered prime time in different countries (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999). However, many decisions about the marketing of the network did not rely on research. Rittenberry (personal communication, October 9, 1999) notes that there is not a lot of reliable audience research in Latin America, so many decisions were based on experience. Former Marketing Vice President Madeleine Wiener adds that there are financial limits when dealing with research (M. Wiener, personal communication, October 9, 1999). There is only so much research that can be performed due to budget limitations. She adds that when launching a network, the first priority is to let viewers and potential subscribers know that the network exists. Then, once the network is established, more money can be invested into research which focuses on programming and viewing habits (M. Wiener, personal communication, October 9, 1999). Prior to launch, the marketing department placed advertisements in trade journals and cross-promoted CNN en Espanol on the other Turner networks that were present in Latin America (C. Rittenberry, personal communication, October 9, 1999). 2 Meanwhile, the public relations (PR) department took CNN en Espanol's primary anchors, Jorge Gestoso and Patricia Janiot, to trade shows to sell the new network. 3 The PR department 2 These networks include CNN International, TNT (Latin America) and TBS (Latin America). 3 Jorge Gestoso and Patricia Janiot anchored CNN's Spanish-language newscasts which had previously aired on CNN International.

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40 also invited reporters from Latin America to Atlanta to see CNN and what would eventually be CNN en Espanol. The goal of the public relations department was to make the public and cable operators aware of CNN en Espanol's pending arrival (C. Rittenberry, personal communication, October 9, 1999). The initial promotion of CNN en Espanol after launch was aimed at letting viewers know that CNN had arrived in their language (C. Rittenberry, personal communication, October 9, 1999). Public Relations Manager Rittenberry explains that promotion cannot focus on network's programming until people know that the network exists. Now that CNN en Espanol has been broadcasting for more than two years, Rittenberry states that the promotion of the network has moved toward specific program promotion and to proof of performance promotions (C. Rittenberry, personal communication, October 9, 1999). 4 Donna Mastrangelo, Senior Executive Producer of CNN en Espanol, adds that because the network is young, there is still no clear answer as to what type of promotion is most effective. However, she says that because the initial phases of network promotion were aimed at establishing the presence of the network and the CNN brand, the next phase is the promotion of specific programs and of CNN en Espanol's on-air talent (D. Mastrangelo, personal communication, October 7, 1999). Defining CNN en Espanol's Audience CNN en Espanol was designed so that it would provide up to date, relevant news and information programming for Latin America (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999). The key issue was relevance. 4 Proof of Performance (P.O.P) is a promotion which highlights a network's coverage of a single story or group of stories.

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41 Due to Latin America's diversity, defining an audience for CNN en Espanol was a challenge. What might be of interest to someone in Mexico might not be interesting to someone in Argentina (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999). The network could not rely on research to determine what Latin Americans wanted in programming because the research conducted in the region to determine this type of data was not reliable (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999). CNN en Espanol had to rely on instinct and prior experience (M. Wiener, personal communication, October 9, 1999). The network also relied on the knowledge of the staff, most of which came from Latin America. A primary factor in defining CNN en Espanol's audience was that programming had to initially be aimed at those who could afford cable television or direct satellite service (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999). In the early stages of the network, these individuals would be the only ones receiving CNN en Espanol on a 24hour a day basis. At the onset, this group consisted of middle to upper class individuals (C. Rittenberry, personal communication, October 9, 1999). The audience consisted of decision makers, such as politicians and business owners, who were educated, savvy, interested in technology and traveled frequently (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999). A majority of this group was bilingual and was already watching CNN International. This largely drove the design of CNN en Espanol's program schedule (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999). 5 5 The program schedule (grid) is the 24-hour daily program schedule of a network. The grid indicates what programming is scheduled to air for each hour of every day.

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42 However, CNN en Espanol's creators did not limit the reach of the network to just cable subscribers. CNN en Espanol maintains broadcast affiliates throughout Latin America (D. Mastrangelo, personal communication, October 7, 1999). By affiliating with stations throughout the region, CNN en Espanol could reach a larger audience. Vice President Christopher Crommett states: We do get access to all audiences, by any category that you might want to define, through our broadcast affiliates. We have at least one broadcast affiliate in every Latin American country. So, we're able to reach segments of the population that might not be able to afford cable or direct satellite and can still see our programming in some form or fashion. (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1 999) CNN en Espanol's affiliates vary throughout Latin America, but consist of local broadcasters located in various parts of each Latin American country (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999). Many of these local affiliates have rights to directly carry CNN en Espanol's breaking news coverage (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999). Other affiliates have rights to broadcast CNN en Espanol's newscasts as their nightly national newscasts (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999). Crommett adds that CNN en Espanol has reciprocity agreements with its Latin American affiliates (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999). These agreements also allow CNN en Espanol's affiliates to use CNN en Espanol material while CNN en Espanol is allowed to use material from its local affiliates (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999). Senior Executive Producer Donna Mastrangelo notes that the affiliate-client relationship is key because it allows CNN en

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43 Espanol to have extensive local coverage of stories throughout Latin America (D. Mastrangelo, personal communication, October 7, 1999). Editorial Content of CNN en Espanol Network President Rolando Santos states, "News, is news, is news." The information that is presented does not change. What is important to the success of a network is how that information is presented to its audience (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999). Santos adds that it is very difficult for the audience to identify with the news if it is not given examples with which it can identify. According to CNN en Espanol Vice President Christopher Crommett, that is the goal of CNN en Espanol-to provide news and information that is relevant, while being the sole international news and information source for Latin America (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999). Crommett adds that CNN en Espanol is a supplement to the local news offerings of the region. It is a network that is designed to satisfy the information and news needs of Latin Americans (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999). Santos gives an example of how a news story can be made relevant to Latin Americans: If we do a cancer story, yes, we may take CNN material that talks about a cancer story, but we're going to turn around and we're going to find out how many Latin Americans are affected by this, not just how many people, because there may be a difference. (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999) The issue of making programming relevant to Latin America affected decisions about programming and how that programming would be presented on the network (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999). Making CNN en Espanol's

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44 offerings pertinent to Latin Americans proved to be a challenge. The first factor was defining CNN en Espaflol's audience, and how to create programming for that audience (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999). CNN en Espaflol's Vice President, Christopher Crommett, states that defining an audience for a region as large as Latin America is always a challenge. That challenge lies in the fact that the region consists of over 20 distinct countries, many of which have different cultures and dialects of the Spanish language (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999). Network President Rolando Santos gives an example of how a simple word can have different meanings throughout the Latin American region. Santos states: For me, in my part of Mexico, an "apartamento" with an "A" is an apartment that you live in and a "departamento" with a "D" is a department in a store, or a department in a business. In the Southern Cone, 6 a "departamento" with a "D" is a place where you live. An "apartamento" with an "A" does not exist. (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1 999) This example is typical of the daily challenges that CNN en Espanol faces. For this reason, it was important that the network hire a representative mix of people (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999). By staffing the network with individuals from throughout Spain and Latin America, the network would be able to produce programming that would, on some level, appeal to viewers in every Latin American country (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999). Santos adds that the hiring process was not aimed at having set numbers of individuals from each 6 The Southern Cone is a region of South America which includes: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay.

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45 country within Latin America. Rather, the goal was to have representation of employees from the entire region (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999). In presenting news programming, CNN en Espanol Vice President and News Director, Christopher Crommett, states that it is also important that the network avoid covering stories that skew in any one direction (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1 999). Crommett adds that CNN en Espanol does not want to favor any particular country with the stories that it covers. He adds that the easy days, in terms of editorial judgment, are those in which there is a "huge, obligatory" story that has to be reported. For this reason, the network makes an effort to report stories that are of interest to viewers throughout the region. Crommett notes that stories dealing with subjects that affect every nation in Latin America is important because viewers throughout the region can relate to similar subjects (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999). Crommett also adds that CNN en Espanol keeps its audience interested by focusing on different subjects throughout the day (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999). This is evidenced by the program schedule that consists primarily of news, but includes business, sports, entertainment, and feature programming. 7 He states: I think we've done a credible job of programming for over 20 countries without alienating anybody, at least not too much. Sure, there's a role for niche networks and in a sense, we've tried to be all things to all people, and I think we've achieved it to some extent. If you look at the component networks of the CNN News Group, and you look at our program grid you'll see that to some extent we're trying to be all of those components. For a half-hour at a time in prime time and in the early morning, we become CNNfn with a clearly Latin American flavor and focus. For certain parts of the day, we become CNN/SI. We become a sports news 7 The feature programs cover subjects such as the environment, fashion, medicine, technology and travel.

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46 network for a full half-hour. We become an entertainment network, we become CNN "Showbiz" if you will, 8 again with a Latin American focus and flavor for half an hour, and it's a program that's played several times throughout the 24-hour cycle. If you look at our feature and information programming, they reflect the feature units and some of the weekly programs that are done on CNN and CNNI. So, we've tried to hit a balance there where we can be all things to all people. Clearly, there are programs that are not of interest, and we just hope that people tune it at another time when there's something on that's of interest to them. (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999) Senior Executive Producer, Donna Mastrangelo, adds that the network operates under the philosophy that if it produces good programming, people will watch (D. Mastrangelo, personal communication, October 7, 1999). Mastrangelo also notes that if CNN en Espanol covers issues that people care about, then viewers will be attracted and will tune in to the network (D. Mastrangelo, personal communication, October 7, 1999). Latin America has mature cable markets in Argentina and Mexico, while the cable markets in Brazil and Chile, both Southern Cone countries, continue to grow (Arenas, 1 997). However, it is important to note that CNN en Espanol focuses particular attention on information that is of relevance to Argentina and the Southern Cone region. Because CNN en Espanol is foremost a business, the concentration of subscribers in the Southern Cone somewhat dictates how the network programs (C. Rittenberry, personal communication, October 9, 1999). Public Relations Manager, Caroline Rittenberry, affirms that CNN en Espanol tends to focus on the Southern Cone because half of the network's subscribers are in Argentina (C. Rittenberry, personal communication, October 9, 1999). Former Vice President of News Marketing for TBS Latin America, Madeline Wiener, notes that this is a factor in CNN en Espanol' s "Showbiz Today" is CNN's entertainment information program.

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47 programming, but there is not an obvious bias because the network focuses on covering the most important stories and events that are happening in the world (M. Wiener, personal communication, October 9, 1999). She adds that the goal of the network is not to cover a story that occurs in every Latin American country. Rather, the goal is to cover events that are of interest to everyone, whether those events occur in Latin America or in some other region (M. Wiener, personal communication, October 9, 1 999). Operation of CNN en Espaflol In launching as a 24-hour news network, CNN en Espanol had several advantages over other Spanish-language news networks. The biggest advantage was that CNN en Espanol is operated underO CNN, an organization whose primary focus is being a 24-hour news business (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999). Secondly, CNN en Espanol is based in the United States. Unlike many news services from Latin America, CNN en Espanol does not have the stigma of being controlled by a government (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999). The network also did not have to worry about how its news programming would affect its other programming. Network Vice President, Christopher Crommett, says that with other 24-hour Spanish-language networks, such as Univision, a primary issue is how news programming will affect the network's other scheduled programming (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1 999). He adds that first and foremost, CNN en Espanol focuses on coverage of news and breaking news~in keeping with the tradition established by CNN (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999). While all other programming on the CNN en Espanol program schedule is important, the network is primarily a news network (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999).

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48 Because CNN en Espanol is a CNN network, its programming has to be of the same quality as CNN's (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999). The business plan used to launch CNN en Espanol required more work to be done in less time and by fewer individuals (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999). Perhaps the most important difference between CNN en Espanol' s operation and CNN's operation was in the area of financing. CNN has much larger budgets than CNN en Espanol, but both networks have quality and editorial standards to maintain (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999). Due to its limited financial range, CNN en Espanol could operate like no other CNN network-It would have to be a unique operation. Comparing CNN en Espanol to CNN The researcher observed that CNN produces news in a traditional manner that includes heavy staffing whereby employees usually perform only one task as their primary job duty. A very good example of the differences between CNN and CNN en Espanol exists when comparing the control room staff of both networks. The researcher observed that in CNN's traditional model of live news production, there are at least nine positions in a control room. These are: Audio Operator, Camera Operator(s) Electronic Prompter Operator, Director, Graphics Operator, Technical Director, Producer, Supervising Producer, Videotape Playback Operator, and there is often a production assistant on-hand. Each person in the CNN control room performs one specific task. CNN en Espanol's control room consists of five people. These are the Audio Operator, Director, Graphics Operator, Producer, and Supervising Producer. Vice

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49 President of Operations for CNN International, Bob Hesskamp, adds that the positions at CNN en Espanol are not traditional television jobs. Each individual has to be able to perform more than one duty (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11,1 999). When planning CNN en Espanol, the duties of each employee had to be carefully detailed so that all of the necessary daily work could be completed (D. Morton, personal communication, October 11, 1999). Debra Morton, former Manager of Network and New Business Operations for CNN en Espanol, says that as the network was being developed, there were many instances where the creators did not know who would complete specific tasks (D. Morton, personal communication, October 11,1 999). Morton adds that as the workflow and program grid were developed, new problems were discovered. This led to some changes in the network's original program schedule because it would not be possible to produce all of the originally proposed programming with the limited staff CNN en Espanol was allotted under the business plan (D. Morton, personal communication, October 11,1 999). The researcher observed that the traditional CNN newsroom also differs from CNN en Espanol in that CNN relies primarily on videotape for editing and video playback. Bob Hesskamp, Vice President of Operations for CNN International, says that to make CNN en Espanol succeed with its small staff, things had to be done differently (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999). One particular challenge was quickening the video editing process because the business plan did not allow for enough editors to do editing in the traditional way (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999). Traditional videotape editing would require two videotape machines per video editor. The machines would have to be set up so that one

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50 tape machine was a "source" machine and the second tape machine was a "record" machine. If material that needed to be recorded was on several videotapes, a video editor would have to have access to each individual videotape in order to edit a finished product (D. Morton, personal communication, October 11, 1999). This would be too time consuming to produce material with CNN en Espanol's small staff (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999). To operate under the tight business plan, CNN en Espanol adopted state of the art technology and focused on hiring individuals that were willing to learn a new way of producing news (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999). Vice President of CNN International, Bob Hesskamp notes: We knew that with the limited staff we had to do a couple of things. We had to quicken the edit process because we didn't have enough editors to do editing in the traditional way. We wanted to find a way to move video around without requiring people to do it, to make it more efficient and faster. (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999) Senior Executive Producer, Donna Mastrangelo adds: We really have put together the newsroom of the future and we will continue to place different demands on people. We all have to have multiple skills and a work ethic. By that I don't mean "Are you able to work twelve hours?" But, "Is your work ethic devoted to what our ideals are? " And that is, getting it right. (D. Mastrangelo, personal communication, October 7, 1 999) The technology and employee mix incorporated by CNN en Espanol would allow each person to perform more than one job duty. It would also reduce the amount of time necessary to complete projOects, and it would allow CNN en Espanol to continually produce new material within its limited business plan (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999). Details of the technology and employee mix and challenges faced by CNN en Espanol appear in Chapter 5.

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51 The Day the Network Came Together After the launch of the CNN en Espanol on March 17, 1997, the technology and employee mix was still being adjusted in an effort to find out how things might be improved and done more efficiently (D. Morton, personal communication, October 1 1 , 1999). The technology was still relatively new to everyone, and the limitations of the staff and new equipment had yet to be tested by a breaking news story (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1 999). Four months before CNN en Espanol became a 24-hour network, Tupac Amaru 9 rebels had infiltrated the residence of the Japanese ambassador in Lima, Peru. The Tupac Amaru rebels' goal was to take hostages to negotiate the release of fellow imprisoned rebels (Schemo, 1 997). This would prove to be the story that made CNN en Espanol an internationally known news source (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999). For several months, the rebels held hostages inside the Japanese embassy as the world watched attempts to negotiate the release of the hostages. On April 22, 1997, Peruvian soldiers stormed the ambassador's residence and safely rescued all but one of the hostages while killing all 14 rebel soldiers (Schemo, 1997). CNN en Espanol President, Rolando Santos recalls: Since the night of the hostage rescue in Peru, that was our Gulf War. I think the best quote I remember from a newspaper headline was "For three months journalists from all over the world were here to talk about it, but when the news really happened, it was CNN en Espanol that showed the world how to do it." I'll never forget that quote because that's exactly what it was. From that moment on, CNN en Espanol had established 9 The Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement is a guerrilla movement.

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52 itself. In the newsroom, that was the night that the technology truly gelled. That was the night that everyone clearly understood that this new technology allowed us to do things we could never have done if we were still stuck in videotape. In that moment it all came together for us. It came together with the audience because we brought the world to them. It came together inside CNN because for the first time, this network took the lead in covering a breaking news story for our sister networks. We were giving them the story as opposed to them taking care of us. Internally, for the first time, we became a team. (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999) On that April afternoon, just thirty-six days after CNN en Espanol had launched, the network proved that it was "El lider mundial en noticias." CNN even simulcast parts of CNN en Espanol's continuous coverage of the hostage rescue (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999). CNN en Espanol had taken the lead on a major Latin American story and in one swift movement had come together as a network and become Latin America's news leader. This was only the beginning. The interviews conducted in this study provide first-hand accounts of the creation and operation of CNN en Espanol. McCracken states: "Every social scientific study is improved by a clearer understanding of the beliefs and experience of the actors in question" (1988, 9). By combining these accounts about the creation and operation of CNN en Espanol with participant observation, the researcher was afforded the opportunity to fully understand the creation and operation of the network. The next chapter explains the findings of the research and further details the development of CNN en Espanol. The chapter defines the factors leading to CNN en Espanol's launch and goes on to explain the daily operation and future of the network.

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CHAPTER 5 FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS OF THE RESEARCH The findings and analysis of the data collected through the interviews and case study are presented in this chapter. The chapter begins with an overview of the findings. The chapter then explains the various stages of CNN en Espanol's development. The findings are explicated to portray a chronological representation that spans the initial planning of CNN en Espanol to its current operation. Overview of the Findings As noble as delivering news to the world is, and as great as it has been, we have to make money while we're doing this. (Bob Hesskamp, Vice President of Operations, CNN International) There are two underlying factors in the creation of CNN en Espanol (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999). The first is that it is a business. Second, the network serves the philosophy of Ted Turner, founder of Turner Broadcasting System. According to Santos, it is Turner's belief that it is a right of the people around the world to have access to balanced information and news, but CNN en Espanol was created as a business venture (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999). In the early 1 990s, the Latin American cable market was expanding and, prior to CNN en Espanol, competition was already developing in the region (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 1 1, 1999). Turner Broadcasting System had already entered the market in 1991 with its launch of TNT Latin America, but the company had 53

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54 not fully tapped the international news market like it had in the United States through its CNN and CNN Headline News networks. The executives of Turner Broadcasting knew that they had to get into the business or risk dropping behind in the race to deliver international news programming to Latin America (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999). Turner Broadcasting System's willingness to develop a Spanish-language news service had existed for years. In 1 989, CNN was producing two half-hours of Spanishlanguage network news for the Telemundo television network. l These newscasts were the equivalent of the nightly national newscasts produced by the three U.S. networks, ABC, CBS, and NBC (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999). By the early 1990s, the relationship between CNN and Telemundo ended. The department known as CNN Spanish, which had been producing those newscasts, began producing Spanish-language newscasts for CNN International (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999). Over the next few years, CNN Spanish increased its amount of daily news programming from two half-hours, to four half-hours, and eventually six half-hours. These newscasts were produced Monday through Friday and were broadcast on CNN International (D. Mastrangelo, personal communication, October 7, 1999). From CNN Spanish's involvement with CNN International grew the possibilities of developing a 24-hour Spanish-language news channel. The idea of delivering 24-hours 1 Telemundo Group, Inc. is a Spanish-language television network based in Miami, Florida. The Telemundo network is available in 61 U.S. markets. The network also syndicates original programming to the international marketplace ( Telemundo 51 . 1999).

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55 of Spanish-language news was investigated for years, but financial projections did not support such a venture (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999). For years CNN Spanish operated at a loss. However, it continued to produce Spanishlanguage news because, according to Santos, Ted Turner felt that it was necessary to provide this service to Latin America. Rolando Santos, President of CNN en Espanol, states that Ted Turner believes that everyone in the world has a right to receive balanced news and information. He notes: The key reason (for the creation of CNN en Espanol) is that Ted Turner's philosophy has always been that it is a right of the people around the world to have balanced information and news at their fingertips. A right, not a privilege. His idea from the very beginning twenty years ago was to provide that around the world. So, we're the latest extension of that. Beyond that, it's a business. . . Ted operated CNN en Espanol at a loss for a whole lot of years. Before it became a 24-hour network, he operated for five years at a loss, a significant loss. It mattered to him, but it didn't matter in the sense that it was something that needed to be done. But eventually, like all projects, I have to make sure that it operates in a financially sound manner so that it continues not just to move forward, but grow. (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999) It was this philosophy that helped create CNN and the CNN News Group, and it was this philosophy that created programming such as "World Report." Turner's philosophy allowed CNN to produce its six half-hours of Spanish-language news programming, but it was not until a potentially profitable plan was approved that CNN would undertake a 24-hour Spanish-language news network (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999). Beyond Turner's ideals and the business possibilities of a 24-hour network, there was also consumer demand for such a product (C. Rittenberry, personal communication,

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56 October 9, 1999). For years, cable operators, and consumers, in Latin America had wanted a CNN-type news service in Spanish. However, there were economic issues and there were problems with cable penetration (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999). In 1994, the Latin American market was growing. The economies of South America were healthy and the cable industry was expanding (Paxman, 1996a). By 1996, problems which had always maligned the Latin American cable television industry were coming to light. A key issue was distribution since many cable systems were limited to thirty channels (Paxman, 1996a). Another issue was ethnic diversity. Unlike the United States, where programming can be relevant from California to New York, Latin America is an area consisting of over twenty countries. Each has a distinct culture and government. The region which had once been considered homogenous for its common language was now seen as a heterogeneous region, with each region requiring distinct programming (Paxman, 1996b). This factor would have to be part of CNN en Espanol's business plan. Another issue affecting the growth of the cable business in Latin America was that those who subscribed to cable television were generally individuals with higher incomes, as they were the ones who could afford to pay for such a service (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999). So, even if cable was available, not everyone could afford it. It would not be possible to start a new network with a subscriber base that consisted only of a small group of elite individuals (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 1 1, 1999). These factors resulted in a period where a feasible business plan to support a 24-hour Spanish-language news network could not be

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57 developed. The technology to make such a venture work was not yet available and, financially, a 24-hour network was not a possibility (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999). By the mid 1990s, Turner Broadcasting System had developed several business plans for a 24-hour Spanish-language news service, but they were not financially viable (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999). Due to fiscal concerns, such as low cable penetration, delivering 24-hours of Spanish-language news would require a tight business plan (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999). The plan could not initially rely on high subscriber rates for profit. To make the project work, more would have to be done with less (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999). The idea of delivering 24-hours of news went back and forth until the technology that would make a business plan work became available. This technology included digital television equipment ranging from computer systems to high-end graphic and production facilities as well as digital, nonlinear editing systems (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999). The technology would have to allow for an individual to do more work in less time. The high-end equipment would also have to be capable of consolidating tasks so that CNN en Espanol's programs could be produced with smaller numbers of employees (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999). Eventually, the approved business plan would require the use of state of the art technology with a staff that could perform more than one task (D. Mastrangelo, personal communication, October 7, 1999). This was the beginning of CNN en Espanol.

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58 Creating the Network Failure was not an option. (Debra Morton, Former Manager of Network and New Business Operations for CNN en Espanol) The Person Behind the Network To say that the approval of a business plan was all that was necessary to start CNN en Espanol is an understatement. Someone was responsible for initiating the business plan process. That someone was Rolando Santos. It was Santos who presented the idea of a 24-hour Spanish-language news channel to Ted Turner (D. Mastrangelo, personal communication, October 7, 1999). Santos was the driving force. He was the ring leader that envisioned the project and made it a reality. For years Rolando Santos, now the president of CNN en Espanol, had lobbied for the project (D. Morton, personal communication, October 11, 1999). Santos had been with CNN Spanish since its days of producing news programming for Telemundo (D. Mastrangelo, personal communication, October 7, 1999). He had worked for a Telemundo affiliate in Los Angeles before coming to CNN. While there, Santos was promoted by Telemundo to the position of executive producer of the Telemundo newscasts produced by CNN. When the Telemundo/CNN relationship ended, CNN asked Santos to stay on as executive producer for the newscasts that would be produced for CNN International (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1 999). Santos agreed and from this position he was later promoted to managing director. He was then promoted several more times to the positions of vice president, executive vice president, and to his current position as president of the network that became CNN en Espanol (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1 999).

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59 Initial Research and the Development of the Business Plan Although research had been conducted to determine the viability of a 24-hour Spanish-language news network, the decision of whether or not CNN should venture forth with CNN en Espanol was a business decision (D. Mastrangelo, personal communication, October 7, 1999). Former Vice President of Marketing for TBS Latin America, Madeleine Wiener states: The research specifically for CNN en Espanol came shortly before the announcement that we were going to launch, and it was more to figure out what we were going to call it. But, we had already researched, years before, habits and things like that. ... So the research that we had to do specifically for the launch was more the name and then just continuing our usual research that we always do. (M. Wiener, personal communication, October 9, 1999) The majority of the research conducted was aimed at determining the necessities and limitations of a business plan (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999). This research included market studies to determine distribution and potential advertising dollars and market studies in key regions such as Mexico and Argentina (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999). The studies in Mexico and Argentina were aimed at defining the potential clientele of the network and the programming that was currently airing in Latin America (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1 999). Technological research into specific types of equipment would intensify once a business plan had been approved (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 1 1 1999). 2 2 The technology researched included various brands of computer, editing, graphic and production equipment as well as software for this equipment.

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60 Focus groups were used to develop a list of potential names for CNN's 24-hour Spanish-language news channel (M. Wiener, personal communication, October 9, 1999). From the onset, Ted Turner had said that the name of the channel would be CNN en Espanol, but the marketing department felt that research was necessary to make such an important decision (M. Wiener, personal communication, October 9, 1999). The focus groups produced a list of names, and the marketing department then turned to quantitative research to choose a name from that list. The initial list consisted of names such as CNN Hispano, CNN Latino, CNN Latino America and CNN where the last "N" in CNN was replaced by the Spanish letter "N." From here, the marketing department chose to conduct mall and telephone surveys in Argentina and Mexico because these countries represent two distinct variations of the Spanish language (M. Wiener, personal communication, October 9, 1999). Although Spanish is the native language of both, there are distinct differences in accents and dialect (C. Rittenberry, personal communication, October 9, 1999). The research showed that the name of the network should be CNN en Espanol (M. Wiener, personal communication, October 9, 1999). Ted Turner's instinct had been correct. The development of the business plan was aided by the fact that Turner Broadcasting and CNN had planned to launch a 24-hour sports news and information channel in the last quarter of 1996 (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999). This network was CNN Sports Illustrated (CNN/SI), a joint venture between CNN and Sports Illustrated magazine. CNN/SI was a model for the future of the CNN News Group's operations (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999). It was a network designed to accomplish more program output with less personnel. CNN/SI

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61 accomplished this by utilizing state of the art technology that allowed for a smaller, more efficient staff (D. Morton, personal communication, October 11, 1999). In theory, it seemed that CNN en Espanol might be able to follow directly in the footsteps of CNN/SI. However, because sports programming and news programming were different, CNN en Espanol could not follow the CNN/SI model (D. Morton, personal communication, October 11, 1999). Logistically, editorially and operationally CNN en Espanol would require a unique operation. The business plan did not allow CNN en Espanol to operate with a staff as large as that of CNN or CNNI. While CNN has 475 employees in Atlanta and CNNI has 275 in Atlanta, CNN en Espanol would operate with less than 160 employees worldwide (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999). Those involved in the development of CNN en Espanol' s business plan knew that the only way to get the network started was to have each employee performing several tasks (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999). CNN en Espanol' s small staff would require state of the art technology that would allow them to produce the same amount of work, or more, as other CNN networks all while living up to the standards of the CNN networks (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999). For CNN en Espanol, the traditional way of producing news was history (D. Morton, personal communication, October 11, 1999). CNN en Espanol was starting from scratch. Finding a Location For CNN en Espanol Our stock and trade is being able to see the world, and in this case the region, through eyes that can be as objective as possible. (Christopher Crommett, Vice President and News Director, CNN en Espanol)

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62 There were many editorial, financial and technical obstacles to overcome in creating CNN en Espanol, but one of the biggest issues was finding a location to house the network. Many thought it should be in an area with a large Hispanic community. Cities such as Miami, San Antonio and Los Angeles were considered (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999). There was even discussion about locating the network somewhere in Latin America. The problem with locating it in Latin America was finding a country that was suitable to CNN's operating procedures. Moreover, by locating it in any particular country in the region, CNN en Espanol ran the risk of alienating some of its audience (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999). In the end, the network stayed in Atlanta with the other CNN networks. There were two primary reasons for locating CNN en Espanol in Atlanta. The first was infrastructure. To operate CNN in a city other than Atlanta would have been costly and time consuming (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999). CNN en Espanol would have had to rent or purchase a building and all of the technology and resources available in the CNN Center would have to be duplicated in CNN en Espanol' s remote location (D. Morton, personal communication, October 11, 1999). The CNN Center in Atlanta receives satellite feeds from around the world. It is where the satellite transmission and reception resources for the CNN News Group are located (D. Mastrangelo, personal communication, October 7, 1999). All material originating from CNN's 3800 journalists and 34 international news bureaus arrives at CNN in Atlanta (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999). There are also numerous editorial, studio, graphic and video resources (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999). Staying in Atlanta allowed CNN en Espanol easy

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63 access to these resources. Something as simple as getting video to a remote location would have been cost prohibitive if CNN en Espafiol were in a city other than Atlanta (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999). Secondly, being located in the United States allowed CNN en Espanol to be free from foreign government pressures (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999). Editorially, being located in the United States allowed CNN en Espanol to control its journalistic integrity. In Latin America there is a history of governments controlling media outlets (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999). By staying in the United States, CNN en Espanol did not have to worry about a government shutting the network down for reporting a story (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999). For Latin Americans it would be a welcome change to receive uncensored news and information in their native language. The CNN en Espanol Facility Once it was decided that CNN en Espanol would be located in Atlanta, the development of the network's physical plant began. CNN en Espanol was set to launch in the first quarter of 1 997. The new network was allocated a space on the lobby level of the CNN Center (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1 999). Compared to the other networks housed in the CNN Center, CNN en Espanol 's space was relatively small. 3 Every CNN network has a room known as "Terminal Gear" (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999). It is where the mainframe apparatus and 3 Other CNN Networks located in the CNN Center include CNN, CNN Airport Network, CNN Headline News, CNN Interactive, CNN International and CNN Sports Illustrated.

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64 computer hardware of the network are located. Terminal Gear is an area with seemingly thousands of cables running in from both the raised floor and suspended ceiling. It is where engineers fix technical problems. For CNN en Espanol, Terminal Gear would be an important aspect in the final design of the physical plant (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11,1 999). With the design of the physical facility underway, it was time to decide what equipment would be used in that facility. The approval of the business plan gave way to researching available technology. This was done by Bob Hesskamp, Vice President of Operations for CNN International and Debra Morton, Manager of Network Operations for CNN en Espanol. They took the capital allotted and investigated what technology they could afford to make the business plan work (D. Morton, personal communication, October 11, 1999). 4 Hesskamp and Morton examined equipment such as digital nonlinear editing systems, video switchers, robotic cameras and software that would be compatible with that equipment (D. Morton, personal communication, October 1 1, 1999). In April of 1996, Hesskamp and Morton traveled to the National Association of Broadcasters trade show to search for this equipment (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 1 1, 1999). The facility plan called for two control rooms, so concessions had to be made on equipment choices (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999). Hesskamp and Morton chose lower-end models and passed on high-end equipment features so that both control rooms could be equally equipped (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11,1 999). Because CNN en 4 The amount of capital funds was not disclosed to the researcher. Turner Broadcasting System policy does not allow disclosure of such information.

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65 Espanol was a news channel, the network did not require high-end features like those found in the post-production facilities of entertainment-based networks. It was to the benefit of the CNN en Espanol to have two fully functional control rooms rather than one high-end control room with features that would not be used on a daily basis (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999). By the third quarter of 1996, the design of the plant had undergone numerous phases (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999). Early plans called for a mezzanine and an elevator in the newsroom. There were also plans for separate studio spaces (D. Morton, personal communication, October 11, 1999). Although the business plan had been approved, adjustments to the budget within the plan were still being made. By the time the final budgets were approved, time more than money became an issue in the design of the facility (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 1 1, 1999). Due to time limitations, the plans for the mezzanine and elevator were scrapped. It was simply not possible to produce the steel to support these architectural features in time to make a first quarter launch (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999). The plan for multiple studios was also changed. The facility would now contain one large studio space (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999). Terminal Gear became the central point in the design in the facility. Edit bays and the control rooms were placed in close proximity to the room so that the engineers would have relatively short cable runs from those rooms to Terminal Gear (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 1 1, 1999). This was important because by the first quarter of 1 997, the facility was still being built. Placing these rooms close to terminal

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66 gear would allow the engineers to make the rooms functional in less time (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 1 1, 1999). A Nonlinear Environment The creators of CNN en Espanol conceded that to make the staffing aspects of the business plan work, CNN en Espanol would be a digital, nonlinear network that would rely on digital computer systems, as opposed to analog videotape systems (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999). There would be no machine to machine video editing. Everything had to be done from a computer server. No longer would video air from a videotape player (D. Morton, personal communication, October 11, 1999). Video editors would have to be able to do more in less time. To accomplish this, CNN en Espanol purchased Quantel edit systems that allowed editing via a video server (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999). The traditional method of using two tape machines and two videotapes would not be part of CNN en Espanol. Editing would now be accomplished with a computer. The shuttle/jog wheels that were part of the machine-to-machine edit system were replaced with Quantel drawing tablets and Quantel computer pens. The basic premise was that once video was inputted into the server, anyone with access to that server could use the video (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11,1 999). There were numerous advantages to the nonlinear Quantel system. The biggest was that multiple users could simultaneously access the same material (D. Morton, personal communication, October 1 1, 1999). Users did not have to worry about making copies of videotapes so that others could use them. No longer would tapes have to be run

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67 into a control room at the last minute. The video could simply be played back from the server (D. Morton, personal communication, October 11, 1999) However, even with this new technology, videotape could not completely be forgotten (D. Morton, personal communication, October 11, 1999). CNN en Espanol had to find a way to use videotape because video archives were recorded on Sony Beta SP videotape, and other networks within the CNN News Group used Beta SP tape (D. Morton, personal communication, October 11, 1999). The problem with Beta SP was that it was an analog format. There would have to be a way to use the analog tapes with CNN en Espanol's digital system. For this, CNN en Espanol purchased a new hybrid tape machine that had been developed by Sony (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999). The new format was Beta SX. SX was digital, but the SX machines allowed for playback of both Beta SX digital tapes and Beta SP analog tapes. With one machine, CNN en Espanol could use digital and analog tapes. Beta SX allowed CNN en Espanol to use any material that was available within the CNN News Group (D. Morton, personal communication, October 11,1 999). Knowing that computer systems are not 100% reliable, CNN en Espanol had contingency plans. The Beta SX videotape machines were part of that plan. Every edit bay was equipped with an SX machine (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999). The SX machines were connected to each Quantel edit system to allow for direct input from an SX or SP tape and to allow for direct output from the Quantel system to a digital SX tape. If the servers failed, SX tape could be used (D. Morton, personal communication, October 1 1, 1999).

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68 Staffing the Network Finding on-air talent was not difficult for CNN en Espanol. The network already had two anchors (Jorge Gestoso and Patricia Janiot) from the six half-hours of news programming it produced for CNN International (C. Rittenberry, personal communication, October 9, 1 999). Other on-air talent came from networks in Latin America and Spain as well as from CBS Telenoticias, CNN en Espanol's main competitor (D. Mastrangelo, personal communication, October 7, 1999). For on-air talent, CNN en Espanol was the pinnacle of broadcasting. No other network would allow them to reach as many countries with the prestige associated with the CNN name. Hiring editorial staff such as writers, copy editors, and producers at CNN en Espanol proved to be a challenge (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999). Although many people wanted to work for CNN, it was hard to convince Latin Americans to relocate to a city not known for its Hispanic culture (D. Mastrangelo, personal communication, October 7, 1999). To make things easier, CNN en Espanol paid for visas and moving expenses (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999). The management spoke with local churches and found out which ones performed services in Spanish. Management also found businesses that spoke Spanish. They set up tax seminars and worked with a credit union to help new employees finance housing and transportation (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999). It was a concentrated effort at making new employees, that were away from home, feel welcome. In January of 1997, the new staff of CNN en Espanol arrived to Atlanta. They came from throughout Latin America and Europe. The veteran staff, which had been producing the CNN International newscasts, began training the new staff on the methods

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69 and equipment that CNN en Espanol would use (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999). Perhaps the most important aspect in the hiring process was finding people who were willing to learn new equipment and procedures and could perform more than one task (D. Mastrangelo, personal communication, October 7, 1999). CNN en Espanol's business plan called for a small staff, and that meant that each person would carry a larger responsibility. CNN en Espanol had set up training and practice rooms in CNN Center for employees, and the existing staff had been learning the Quantel systems since October of 1996 (D. Morton, personal communication, October 11, 1999). When the newest members of the staff began arriving, they also began training on the Quantel systems. By March of 1997, every member of the staff had a basic understanding of the system and everyone knew how to use its basic functions (D. Morton, personal communication, October 11,1999). The staff which comprised CNN en Espanol was unique. It consisted of editorial staff, operations (technical) staff and management. The editorial staff was selected from Latin America and Europe (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1 999). It was important that those involved in the editorial processes of the network such as writing, copyediting and anchoring represent a broad region. They had to be native to Latin America or Spain. Spanish had to be a first language and they had to be immersed in their respective cultures (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1 999). Because CNN en Espanol was targeting a diverse region, the editorial and on-air staff which would be producing and presenting information had to be diverse enough to represent the entire Latin American region (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1 999).

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70 The majority of the technical staff came from the United States. 5 The reason was that the United States is technologically advanced in the field of television (D. Morton, personal communication, October 1 1, 1999). Many of those who came to CNN en Espanol had experience in similar television operations. They had computer experience and they knew how to use variations of the latest television equipment. Although they had Hispanic backgrounds, Spanish did not have to be their first language (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999). Working in a technical position did not require the first-hand cultural experience necessary to work in an editorial position. With technical staff, the hiring process was aimed at technical expertise (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999). Selling the Network to Advertisers and Cable Operators The promotion of CNN en Espanol had been ongoing for several years (M. Wiener, personal communication, October 9, 1999). Cable operators wanted the service and so did Hispanic viewers (C. Rittenberry, personal communication, October 9, 1999). The network was sold on the basis that it was not an imitation or a translation. It was CNN, but in Spanish with a Latin American perspective (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999). The CNN brand name was key because when people heard "CNN," they knew they would be getting quality, unbiased, uncensored and breaking news (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999). It was now a matter of making the facility, equipment and staff meld to produce the product. 5 It should be noted that the researcher had worked at CNN as well as having previously worked at other local television stations in the United States.

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71 Operation of CNN en Espanol Just because you have the name doesn't necessarily mean you have the product. You have to live up to the name and then carry that name to the next level. (Rolando Santos, President of CNN en Espanol) On March 17, 1997, at 8:00 p.m. Eastern Standard Time, CNN en Espanol launched with four million subscribers. It was the largest cable television launch in Latin American history (C. Rittenberry, personal communication, October 9, 1999). The initial planning was over and CNN en Espanol was a 24-hour Spanish-language cable news network for Latin America. The challenge now was to keep it running. Observations of the Researcher The daily operation of CNN en Espanol was observed by the researcher through participant observation. The researcher performed the role of a newscast director for CNN en Espanol, thus taking part in the daily operation of the network. By working within CNN en Espanol, the researcher was able to gain information on procedures and decisions that were made within all aspects of the network's creation and daily operations. The researcher also observed managerial decisions, noting which worked and which did not. The following are the observations of the researcher. Pre-Launch Operation of CNN en Espanol In December of 1996, the network was three months from launch, and construction was not finished. The dry wall of the CNN en Espanol facility was not completed, there was no carpeting on the floor, and there was no paint on the walls. However, CNN en Espanol's Terminal Gear was in place.

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72 In the meantime, CNN Spanish was still producing its newscasts for CNN International. It would not be until early March, 1997, that the staff of CNN en Espanol could begin rehearsing in the new CNN en Espanol facility. The network would launch on March 17 l , 1997. When rehearsals did start, workers were still busy painting, laying tile and bringing in furniture. The engineers were still running cables, connecting monitors and testing equipment. With construction ongoing, it did not seem like a 24hour news network was launching in just a few weeks. By the second week of March, 1997, CNN en Espanol' s newsroom and studio space were in useable condition and rehearsals began. The facility was not complete, but it was at a point where it could go on the air. The facility contained five nonlinear Quantel edit bays, two control rooms, a master control room, a satellite feeds reception area, an office, restroom facilities, terminal gear and a newsroom. In the center of the newsroom was the studio floor. The CNN en Espanol Program Schedule (Grid) The programming on CNN en Espanol is diverse. It consists primarily of international news, but also contains programming about business news, entertainment news, and sports news. There are also feature programs that cover the following topics: the environment, fashion, medicine, technology, and travel. CNN en Espanol 's feature programming is oriented so that each program focuses on various aspects of a particular subject. The network also produces its own version of the CNN program "World Report." CNN en Espanol also produces other programming that airs on weekends. This programming includes "Los Protagonistas" (The Protagonists), "La Noticia de La

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73 Semana" (The News of the Week), and "Choque de Opiniones" (Opinion Clashes). "Los Protagonistas" is a weekly recap of interviews produced by CNN en Espanol. The program focuses on the biggest news stories of the week and presents the opinions of various experts about those stories. "La Noticia de La Semana" recaps the major news stories of the week. "Choque de Opiniones" is very similar to the CNN program "Crossfire." The program consists of varying hosts who debate with experts and politicians about various subjects. The debates focus on a topic that has been of relevance during the week. Table 5.1 lists CNN en Espanol's programs. Table 5.1 CNN en Espanol Programs Program

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74 The program grid is designed so that the top of the hour starts with a thirty minute news program. At the bottom of the hour there is a ninety second news update called "Ahora" which means "Now." The bottom half of the hour consists of one of the aforementioned feature programs. The grid is easily breakable and is often interrupted by breaking news. If a news story is happening, it takes priority and all other programming is skipped until the story is no longer breaking. The goal is for CNN en Espanol to be the primary source of news and information for Latin America. The Departments Within CNN en Espanol CNN en Espanol operates with nine unique units, not including management. They are the assignment desk, business, engineering, entertainment, feature programming, graphics, news, operations, sports and transadaption. These units all take part in creating the network's programming. Figure 5.1 shows the different units and positions within CNN en Espanol and how they relate to each other. Each unit is explained below. The assignment desk is the unit responsible for all incoming information. The members of the assignment desk, known as assignment editors, spend the majority of their days reading news wires and making telephone calls to acquire and verify information. The desk coordinates satellite feeds and books guests that will appear on CNN en Espanol' s programs. The business unit is responsible for gathering and presenting CNN en Espanol' s business news. The staff works in conjunction with the assignment desk to book guests for its programs. The business unit, which consists of two producers and an anchor,

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75 I I Management [v ) Operations Staff [71 Editorial Staff j | Other Departments CNN en Espafiol Program Development j TBS Latin America'-.. Marketing and Public Relations Vice President | News Director I I News Operations Manager I I Senior Executive Producer Engineering Manager of Network and \ New Business Operations i r ~~T Executive Producers Assignment Desk Li Senior Producers Newscast Producers il_.X_.ri_.-L_ Business Features Sports Transadaption I I i H Entertainment News Operations Supervisor Senior Director Video Editors Anchors Graphics Copy Editors Videographers y Master Control Operators Technical Assistants Execution of Programming Figure 5-1. Flow of Programming for CNN en Espafiol. produces business segments for newscasts that air throughout the day, and has a nightly half-hour program. 6 The producers find guests, write stories, and build "rundowns" for their shows. The "rundown" is a detailed list of elements which comprise a show; it 6 The business unit's program, "Economia y Finanzas" airs Monday through Friday. They do not produce a show on the weekends because the stock exchanges are closed.

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76 contains all graphic, video, and timing information. A CNN en Espanol rundown can be seen in Appendix D. Engineering is responsible for installing new equipment and fixing any equipment that malfunctions. The engineers have an engineering workshop and office that is located behind the CNN en Espanol newsroom space. They are responsible for physically keeping the technical aspects of the network running. The engineers are in constant communication with the staff of CNN en Espanol via a two-way radio. Feature programming focuses on environment, fashion, medicine, technology and travel. Each branch of the features unit produces a weekly half-hour program about these topics. Each show in the features unit has its own producer. The producers write, edit and line produce their shows if necessary. 7 The same version of the feature programs runs for a oneweek period. Because these programs do not require daily updates, they can be produced for air with a Quantel Editbox. The Quantel Editbox allows the feature producers to bypass the control room and edit their programs without the help of production staff. 8 This frees the control room for live programming and daily program changes. CNN en Espanol also has an entertainment programming unit. This unit is distinct in that it produces a nightly half-hour show about entertainment news. The entertainment unit's program, "Escenario," is produced in Atlanta and Los Angeles. In 7 A line-produced show is produced in the control room with the help of the technical staff. 8 The Quantel Editbox is a nonlinear edit system which allows a single user to record video and audio material into a video server. The material can then be edited to produce a program.

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77 Los Angeles, the "Escenario" team consists of an anchor, editor, and reporter. The Los Angeles team gathers the latest daily news from Hollywood and the world of entertainment and produces segments for the show. These segments include stories and anchor links. Anchor links are simply introductions to stories which are pre-recorded by the show's anchor in Los Angeles. The completed segments are then sent to Atlanta via satellite. In Atlanta, there is an editor who also edits segments for the show. Once the show's segments and anchor links have been completed, the Atlanta line producer takes the show to the control room to be recorded. The graphics department is responsible for the on-air graphic look of the network. This includes the look of the newsroom and studio, including set design. The department consists of six graphic artists. These artists create all visuals which appear in CNN en Espanol's programming. These visuals include boxes, 9 full screens 10 and opens. 1 • To have graphics made, the editorial staff submits graphics request to the graphics department via CNN en Espanol's newsroom computer system. When a graphics request is completed, the artist saves the graphic on a computer server. Once the graphic is in the server, it may be recalled in both of CNN en Espanol's control rooms. The graphic can then be used in a program. 9 A "box" is a graphic which appears over an anchors shoulder while the anchor reads a story on camera. 10 A "full screen" is a graphic which covers the entire space of a television screen. Full screens include graphics such as maps, charts, and still pictures. 1 ' An "open" is a video introduction to a program or program segment. It contains audio and a visual which usually includes the name of the program. The intent is to let the viewer know what program they are watching.

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78 The news unit is responsible for the news programming that consumes the majority of CNN en Espanol's program grid. The news department consists of twelve producers, twelve writers, six copy editors and nine primary anchors. The news department decides the content within a news program. Once that content is chosen, the producer of a particular show builds a rundown. There are four different teams within the news department. Each team works a different shift and is responsible for a series of newscasts that air throughout the day. The Operations unit consists of the technical staff, who executes the programs designed by the news department. Operations staff includes six directors, fourteen video editors, twelve master control operators and five technical assistants. Directors are responsible for directing the on-air programming, which is designed by the producer. Directors are aided by technical assistants, who operate graphics machines, audio, and camera robotics. Editors are responsible for editing all video material that airs on CNN en Espanol. The editors also record incoming satellite feeds and use the recorded video to produce material that appears on the air. Master Control operators are responsible for getting CNN en Espanol's programming on the air. They control the outgoing programming of the network and run the commercials. The sports department produces sports segments that air in newscasts throughout the day. The department also produces a nightly half-hour comprehensive sports program. The sports department consists of three producers, two editors and two anchors. The sports producers and anchors find guests and write stories for their shows. The producer decides what material to use, and the editors then edit video to accompany the stories that will appear in a program.

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79 Transadaption is one of the most important units in CNN en Espanol. The staff is responsible for translating or "transadapting" other languages into Spanish. This allows CNN en Espanol to use material from around the world, presenting it in Spanish. It also allows CNN en Espanol to cover live world events because the transadaption unit can "transadapt" a live news event as it happens. A Day in the Life of CNN en Espanol CNN en Espanol operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week. It is never intentionally off the air. There is always a crew on hand. In the overnight hours between midnight and 4:00 a.m. the staff consists of an assignment editor, video editor and master control operator. They are replaced as the later shifts arrive. The daily operation of CNN en Espanol begins at 2:00 a.m. when the "overnight" editorial shift arrives. This group will produce and write the first newscast of the day, "Primera Edicion" ("First Edition"). "Primera Edicion" airs live at 5:00 a.m. The show continues to air on the hour until 1 1 :00 a.m. when the "Nuestro Mundo" ("Our World") news program begins airing. At 3:30 a.m., the first shift of video editors arrives. They replace the overnight video editor that has been on duty since the evening before. The first editor shift edits any new material that will air on "Primera Edicion." At 4:30 a.m., the technical crew arrives. This includes the director, master control operators and technical assistants. The director and technical assistants work in the control room and studio while the morning master control operators relieve the overnight master control operator. Upon arriving to work, the technical assistants set up the studio for the 5:00 a.m. "Primera Edicion" while the director speaks with the show's producer to see if there are any special

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80 technical requirements for the first show of the day. The technical assistants and director then check the set, microphones, cameras, IFBs, 12 audio board, video switcher, Clip Play program, 13 Imagestore 14 and Maxine. 15 If the technical crew finds that equipment is malfunctioning, an engineer is called to resolve the problem before the 5:00 a.m. "Primera Edicion." About ten minutes before 5:00 a.m., the producer enters the control room and prepares to take the show on the air. At this time, the anchor sits on the set and a technical assistant prepares camera shots. From here, communication between directors and the members of the production crew is carried on through a party line. Each member of the technical crew wears a headset, which is connected to the party line. The director is now responsible for executing the producer's rundown as a live newscast. The director directs the show while one technical assistant operates audio and robotic cameras and another technical assistant operates the Imagestore and Maxine graphics machines. Before the show starts, the director begins recording on a Quantel Newsbox that is located next to the video switcher in the control room. The Quantel Newsbox is a 12 IFB is an acronym for "Interruptible Fold Back." It allows an anchor or reporter to hear programming in their ear via an ear piece. The IFB also allows anyone with access to the IFB system to talk directly into the ear of the person wearing the IFB. 13 Clip Play is a program which allows for direct playback of video from the video server. 14 Imagestore is the model name of CNN en Espanol's still store machine. The still store machine contains a database of graphics that are used in CNN en Espanol's programming. 15 Maxine is the model name of CNN en Espanol's character generator.

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81 nonlinear edit system that allows a single user to record audio and video material into a computer server. This material can then be edited to produce a replayable program. At 5:30 a.m., a live ninety second update of the hour's top stories is produced. This update is entitled "Ahora." After "Ahora," Master Control returns to prerecorded programming. Because the director recorded the entire 5:00 a.m. show and "Ahora" on a Quantel Newsbox, there are two scenarios which can now occur. "Primera Edition" is scheduled to air again at 6:00 a.m. If there is no new material for the 6:00 a.m. show, the recorded newscast can be replayed. This gives the director thirty minutes to edit the show into playable segments that can be replayed by Master Control. The director will edit the recorded program into segments called "blocks." 16 Each "block" represents one section of a newscast. The finished edited product will consist of five segments. The first four segments are the four blocks that make up a newscast. The fifth segment is the "Ahora." Appendix D contains a CNN en Espanol rundown that shows how a newscast is divided into "blocks." If there were any errors in the show, they can be re -recorded and inserted into the prerecorded newscast. If there are updates to the newscast, the director has the option of recording the updates and inserting them into the existing newscast or redoing the newscast live again at 6:00 a.m. This decision is made by the director as he is responsible for the final on-air product. If the director feels that updates cannot be recorded and 16 CNN en Espanol's newscasts consist of four blocks. The blocks are entitled A, B, C, and D, respectively.

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82 inserted in time to make the 6:00 a.m. replay, the new portions of the newscast are done live. This process continues throughout the day. From 6:00 a.m. until 1 1 :00 a.m., the newscasts can be live or recorded. If there is new material or breaking news, the programs are usually live unless the new segments can be recorded and saved before their scheduled air time. It there are no changes, the latest recorded version of the news program airs. At 7:00 a.m. the next editorial shift arrives. This group will produce the "Nuestro Mundo" newscasts, which begin airing at 1 1 :00 a.m. The technical crew does not change. At 1 1 :00 a.m., the third news shift and second shift of editors arrives. They will produce the 4:00 p.m. show, "Noticiero CNN" (CNN Newscast). The 1 1 :00 a.m. show, "Nuestro Mundo" airs on the hour until 4:00 p.m. The show utilizes a different anchor and producer than "Primera Edicion." The "Nuestro Mundo" producer, anchor and editorial staff will work with the morning technical staff until 12:30 p.m., when the second shift of technical staff arrives. The second shift of technical staff replaces the morning crew and works until 9:00 p.m. The routine for the "Nuestro Mundo" shift is the same as for "Primera Edicion:" The show airs on the hour and can be live or prerecorded after 1 1 :00 a.m. Whether "Nuestro Mundo" airs live or recorded depends on the same factors as whether "Primera Edicion" airs live or recorded. At 4:00 p.m., "Noticiero CNN" airs. This newscast utilizes a different anchor and producer than "Nuestro Mundo." 17 "Noticiero CNN" airs again at 4:30 p.m., 5:30 p.m., 17 "Noticiero CNN" is anchored by Patricia Janiot who along with Jorge Gestoso were the anchors of the CNN Spanish newscasts formerly produced for CNN International.

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83 6:30 p.m. and 7:00 p.m. The 4:30 and 5:30 p.m. newscasts can either be live or recorded. The 6:30 p.m. version of "Noticiero CNN" is always a live newscast. The reason being that by 6:30 p.m., the U.S. stock market has closed and the latest business information can be reported. The 7:00 p.m. "Noticiero CNN" is usually a replay of the 6:30 p.m. newscast. As with the other programs, whether the program is live or recorded depends on whether there are any breaking news stories, updates or mistakes that need to be fixed. The replay of the "Noticiero CNN" newscasts is controlled by Master Control. Unlike "Primera Edition" and "Nuestro Mundo," where the director records the show and edits it for replay, "Noticiero CNN" is recorded on Beta SX tape and replayed by Master Control. The reason for the change is that the same newscasts air back to back at 4:00 and 4:30 p.m. and 6:30 and 7:00 p.m. This schedule does not give the director a thirty minute window to edit the show for replay. The third technical shift arrives at 4:30 p.m. They will work until 12:30 a.m. This group will work with the second technical shift to cover the afternoon through early evening period because this is the busiest time of the day for CNN en Espanol. Between 4:30 and 6:30 p.m., any pre-production or pre-recording that can be done is attempted. Usually, the last two segments of the 8:30 p.m. "Economia y Finanzas" business program are recorded at this time because the stock markets have already closed. Pre-recording parts of this program earlier in the day will allow the technical staff more time to set up for the 9:00 p.m. show, which will be live. Because the 7:00 p.m. version of "Noticiero CNN" is usually a tape replay of the 6:30 p.m. show, the control room is available for pre-production at 7:00 p.m. When the control room is available at 7:00 p.m., portions of the 7:30 p.m. sports program can be

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84 prerecorded. This is done because CNN en Espanol is in live programming from 7:30 p.m. until 9:30 p.m. With back-to-back live programming, there is less than a threeminute window between shows to change sets and move cameras. By pre-recording parts of programs, the studio and control room can be cleared earlier, allowing more time to set up the following program. At 7:30 p.m. "Deportes CNN" ("CNN Sports") airs as a live program. The show continues live until it reaches a segment which was prerecorded. If there was no time to pre-record part of the program, the program continues live until 7:57:05 p.m. At this time, the technical crew has just under three minutes to set up for the 8:00 p.m. newscast. At 8:00 p.m. the overnight editors and master control operators arrive. "Panorama Mundial" ("World View") airs live at 8:00 p.m. 18 It is the only newscast that is always entirely live. It is CNN en Espanol' s prime newscast and it is the only newscast with two anchors. The anchors are Patricia Janiot and Jorge Gestoso. This is Janiot's last show for the day, and it is Gestoso's first of the evening. At 8:27:05 p.m., "Panorama Mundial" ends. The technical crew has just under three minutes to set up the 8:30 p.m. show. At 8:30 p.m., "Economia y Finanzas" airs as a live program. The show continues live until it reaches a point that has been prerecorded. If there was no time to pre-record part of the program earlier in the day, it continues as a live program until 8:57:05 p.m. At 9:00 p.m., a new version of "Panorama Mundial" airs as a live program. Unlike the 8:00 p.m. show, the 9:00 p.m. version only utilizes one anchor. "Panorama 18 The news crew and editors which produce "Panorama Mundial" arrive at 2:00 p.m. They will produce all newscasts from 8:00 p.m. until 1:00 a.m.

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85 Mundial" is scheduled to air again at 10:00 p.m., 1 1 :00 p.m. and 12:00 a.m. The 10:00 p.m. version is usually a replay of the 9:00 p.m. version, and the 12:00 a.m. version is usually a replay of the 1 1 :00 p.m. version. As with the earlier shows of the day, whether "Panorama Mundial" airs live or prerecorded depends on breaking news or whether there are updates or mistakes to be fixed. Usually at 10:00 p.m., the nightly entertainment program "Escenario" is prerecorded. The program is scheduled to air at 12:30 a.m. If the show is not pre-recorded before its air time, it is produced as a live program. After 1 :00 a.m., there is no scheduled live programming until 5:00 a.m., when the cycle starts again with "Primera Edition." The programming airing from 1 :00 a.m. until 5:00 a.m. varies throughout the week. The various programs that air in the overnight hours can be seen in Appendix E. News comprises the majority of CNN en Espanol's programming. The news programs are twenty-two minutes in length. As noted, CNN en Espanol's newscasts are divided into four segments called "blocks." The length of each block depends on the producer. Each block is separated by a commercial break of varying lengths, and no show can be over or under twenty-two minutes in length. Including the commercial breaks, the show should be twenty-seven minutes and five seconds long. The two minutes and fifty-five seconds after the program are used for commercials, cue-tone breaks, 19 and network identification. 19 A cue-tone is a tone sent out by a network to alert cable operators that they can insert local commercials at that time. A cue-tone break is a commercial break which is embedded with a cue-tone signal.

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86 If a news event is happening, the news programs often continue for more than twenty-two minutes. Because CNN en Espanol is primarily a news network, the other programming of the program grid is secondary. The preceding explanation is a simplified version of CNN en Espanol's daily operation. Figures 5-2, 5-3, 5-4 and 5-5 contain a visual explanation of the CNN en Espanol daily workflow explained above. It is important to note that things change on a daily basis depending on the news events of the world. There are also slight differences in programming for each day of the week. As a general rule, the newscasts that air each day do not change. The exception is during the weekends when there are no thirty-minute newscasts from 1 1 :00 a.m. until 4:00 p.m. Between these hours, there is a ninety-second "Ahora" every half hour. It should also be noted that any programming may be preempted for other programming or specials at the discretion of the network's senior executive producer. For a fuller understanding of the program schedule, CNN en Espanol's program grid is available in Appendix E. Comparing CNN en Espanol to the other CNN Networks In relation to the other networks of the CNN News Group, CNN en Espanol is a small operation. CNN en Espanol was designed to utilize technology to a point where less people could do more work. CNN en Espanol's control room consists of three technical people (a director and two technical assistants). In comparison, CNN's control room consists of nine people; CNN en Espanol has consolidated the jobs of nine people into five. The same principle has been applied to all areas of the network. This is largely due to the technology, which, by making things easier, allows CNN en Espanol employees to accomplish more work in the same amount of time.

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87 CNN en Espanol Daily Workflow 12:00 a.m. 6:30 a.m. | J On-Air News Program Q Operations Staff Q Editorial Staff "Primera Edicion" "Primera Edicion" [Overnight Master Control Operator |Overnight Video Editor Overnight Editorial Staff Arrives to prepare "Primera Edicion" (Anchor, Copyeditor, Producer, Writer) A.M. Video Editors Arrive A.M. Operations Staff Arrives (Director, Technical Assistants, Master Control Operators) "Ahora" "Ahora" | "Ahora" 5:30 6:30 Figure 5-2. CNN en Espanol Daily Workflow 12:00 a.m. 6:30 a.m.

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88 CNN en Espanol Daily Workflow 6:30 a.m. 12:30 p.m. I I On-Air News Program j_j Operations Staff j~^J Editorial Staff "Primera Edicion" "Primera Edicion"

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89 CNN en Espafiol Daily Workflow 12:30 p.m. 6:30 p.m. II On-Air News Program [ 1 Operations Staff Editorial Staff "Nuestro Mundo" "Nuestro Mundo"

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90 CNN en Espanol Daily Workflow 7:00 p.m. 12:30 a.m. | 1 On-Air News Program j J Operations Staff j \ Editorial Staff Pre-Production for "Deportes CNN' (7:00 p.m. -7:30 p.m.) |Afternoon Operations Staff | |Evening Operations Staff |Evening Video Editor "Noticiero CNN" Editorial Staff "Panorama Mundial" Editorial Staff |Overnight Master Control Operator Arrives Overnight Video Editor Arrives Pre-Production for "Escenario" "Deportes CNN"

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91 Problems Encountered by the Network There were many problems encountered in the initial operation of CNN en Espanol. The majority of the problems related to the two things that would eventually make CNN en Espanol a success: staff and technology. The Employee Technology Mix When CNN en Espanol began operation, the network's founders discovered that the staffing model they had developed had several flaws (D. Morton, personal communication, October 11, 1999). CNN en Espanol's newsroom computer system and Quantel digital video editing system were supposed to make it easier to get CNN en Espanol's programming on the air. However, management underestimated the amount of time it would take for employees to operate the technology (D. Morton, personal communication, October 11, 1999). CNN en Espanol management discovered these problems when the network began rehearsing its 24-hour operation in March, 1997 (D. Morton, personal communication, October 11, 1999). The key factor was that although the technology consolidated the jobs of several individuals, management failed to realize how much longer it would take each person to accomplish a task (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999). Because CNN en Espanol was using computer technology, the staff had to be precise in its input of data. This became most evident with CNN en Espanol's writing staff (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999). The CNN en Espanol newsroom computer system, Newswire, allows writers to insert information such as

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92 graphics, fonts, video, and script commands 20 into scripts (D. Morton, personal communication, October 11, 1999). Once information is embedded into a script, the automation systems of CNN en Espanol's control room can recall that information. This would allow the writers to control the visuals that would accompany their stories (D. Morton, personal communication, October 11, 1999). However, management didn't realize how much longer it would take writers to input the extra information (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999). With the extra work needed to include all information on a script, management could not rely on a writer to produce the same amount of output as before (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999) As a result, management hired more staff to help take full advantage of the technology and produce the amount of material necessary for a 24-hour news network. Although CNN en Espanol's staff grew as a result of this discovery, the number of employees added was minimal (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999). CNN en Espanol's management also underestimated the amount of time necessary for employees to learn how to operate the new equipment (D. Morton, personal communication, October 11,1 999). Although many would learn quickly, management soon realized that not everyone was adept in all areas (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999). CNN en Espanol President Rolando Santos notes: Every time the journalism industry was revolutionized— when it went from film to videotape— there were a bunch of people that got lost. They couldn't make the psychological jump to this electronic media. Then we 20 Script commands are cues for a program's line director. The commands guide the director as to the placement of graphics, fonts and video.

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93 lost another bunch of people when it went from using typewriters to computers. Then we lost another group here when we were going from tape machine editing to nonlinear editing. (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1 999) Another dilemma was encountered while CNN en Espanol's transadaption unit was being created. Initial plans called for the transadaption unit to be flexible in its daily activities. It was expected that CNN en Espanol translators would translate live events and pre-recorded programs and that they also be able to edit video and write (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999). As CNN International Vice President of Operations Bob Hesskamp notes, this would not be possible: To get the kind of translators we needed in here to be able to really translate the President giving a speech, to translate legislative leaders speaking, the level of expertise you need for that, you couldn't hire the people to dovetail into other areas as much as we wanted to. There were translators, and some of them were translators and that's it. You couldn't find the writer/translators, the translator/editors, the do-it-all person. (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11,1 999) Finally, there were problems with the amounts of time the operations staff was scheduled to work. The researcher observed that initially the CNN en Espanol workflow had each operations employee scheduled for a nine-hour workday. This was based on each employee taking a one-hour break. It was soon discovered that employees were not getting a one-hour break, and many of the operations staff were not getting breaks at all. The researcher observed that for some of CNN en Espanol's directors, nine-hour days had become twelve or fourteen-hour days. Three months into CNN en Espanol's operation, management redesigned the operations staff schedules so that each employee was scheduled to work eight hours a day (D. Morton, personal communication, October 1 1 , 1999).

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94 Technological Issues CNN en Espanol used technology that had never been used to produce programming for a 24-hour news network (D. Morton, personal communication, October 11, 1999). The only operation similar in scope to CNN en Espanol was CNN Sports Illustrated (B. Hesskamp, personal communication, October 11, 1999). With the new technology came difficulties. The biggest source of technological problems for CNN en Espanol was the Quantel nonlinear editing system. Before the system was installed into CNN en Espanol's 24-hour news environment, the network's staff had only used the Quantel systems for practice (D. Morton, personal communication, October 11, 1999). Quantel had not been tested in a 24-hour environment. When rehearsals for CNN en Espanol's 24-hour operation began, the staff discovered that the Quantel system did not operate as quickly as anticipated (D. Morton, personal communication, October 11, 1999). Video editors could edit material faster, but transferring finished material from an edit bay to CNN en Espanol's control room was a real time process (D. Morton, personal communication, October 11, 1999). The assumption that material could be moved quickly between edit bays and the control room was incorrect (D. Morton, personal communication, October 11, 1999). There were additional problems with the Quantel system. Often times, edited material would simply not arrive in the control room's video server (D. Morton, personal communication, October 11, 1999). At other times, the Quantel systems would shut down and have to be reset by the CNN en Espanol's engineers. The researcher observed that with each Quantel system failure came the danger of CNN en Espanol's on-air video server

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95 malfunctioning. If the on-air video server known as Air-Main malfunctioned, CNN en Espanol would not be able to play video. The network would have to revert to videotape. Although CNN en Espanol had contingency plans for this type of equipment failure, tape playback was not seen as a viable long-term option (D. Morton, personal communication, October 11, 1999). After the first few months of CNN en Espanol's operation, it was discovered that many of the Quantel problems were the result of operator error (D. Morton, personal communication, October 11, 1999). Former Manager of Network Operations Debra Morton states: I think we had a lot of operator error in the beginning because Quantel is computer based so you have to be precise. That was a hard thing for them to get used to But, we noticeably had a lot less problems when the operators got themselves more comfortable with it. Which leads me to believe that all of those things in the very beginning, maybe half of them or more were operator error. (D. Morton, personal communication, October 11, 1999) On the night of March 17 th , 1997, CNN en Espanol's entire Quantel system crashed just a few hours before the network's 8:00 p.m. launch (D. Morton, personal communication, October 11, 1999). CNN en Espanol's engineers made a frantic effort to recover the system. As the system was resuscitated, CNN en Espanol's video editors backed up all material on videotape (D. Morton, personal communication, October 11, 1999). By 8:00 p.m., the system was working but CNN en Espanol launched with it's first newscast running partially from a pre-recorded videotape. This would not be the last major equipment failure in CNN en Espanol's history. Many more would come, but with each situation, CNN en Espanol's staff would learn a new lesson in the operation of a 24-hour Spanish-language news network.

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96 The Future of the Network I watch our competition and I know it and I can see changes that they make to come after us. We will continue to grow though. (Donna Mastrangelo, Senior Executive Producer, CNN en Espanol) The initial goal of CNN en Espanol was to let people know that the network had arrived to Latin America, and that it presented its programming in the language of the region (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1 999). It was a network with all of the attributes of CNN and CNN International, but it was specifically produced for the people of Latin America. After its first year of operation, it ranked only behind CNN International in credibility (M. Wiener, personal communication, October 9, 1999). In its second year, CNN en Espanol is the most credible and most watched news network in Latin America. It is a network that is now recognized across different genders, ages and socioeconomic groups (M. Wiener, personal communication, October 9, 1999). 21 Since CNN en Espanol' s launch, cable penetration in Latin America has increased, making cable television more affordable (C. Rittenberry, personal communication, October 9, 1999). This has allowed CNN en Espanol to reach lower socioeconomic levels (C. Rittenberry, personal communication, October 9, 1999). With more viewers able to access its programming, CNN en Espanol has become a mass appeal network (M. Wiener, personal communication, October 9, 1999). By October, 1999, CNN en Espanol could be seen in eight million Latin American cable households and 350,000 cable households in the United States (C. Crommett, 21 These were the findings of the 1998 "Los Medios y Mercados de Lafinoamerica" (LMML) research study. LMML is the biggest study done in Latin America to measure

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97 personal communication, October 6, 1999). Network Vice President, Christopher Crommett, explains that defining the actual number of viewers is not easy because CNN en Espanol does not rely on ratings data in Latin America. Thus, audience tune-in cannot be measured (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999). However, Crommett adds that the network's marketing department estimates that theoretically, there are at least 32 million people that can watch CNN en Espanol via cable (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999). Yet CNN en Espanol does not exist in a bubble. There is competition from other pan-regional news networks such as Mexico's Televisa and CBS Telenoticias. There is also competition at the local level. To stay ahead, CNN en Espanol cannot lull in its success, it must continue to grow. This growth includes regionalization, which has already begun. CNN en Espanol' s regionalization began with its involvement in a project known as "Reforma" (D. Morton, personal communication, October 11, 1999). The "Reforma" project is a joint venture between CNN en Espanol and the Mexican newspaper "Reforma." Together, they produce a weekly thirty minute business program called "Reforma: Negocios Mexico" ("Reforma: Mexican Business"). This program airs on CNN en Espanol, but is aimed directly at Mexican audiences (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999). In January, 1999 CNN en Espanol launched a joint venture with the Spanish cable system operator Sogecable (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999). The attributes such as awareness, trial, viewership, credibility and favorite network. The study is published by Audits and Surveys Worldwide, a New York based marketing firm.

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98 project was a 24-hour Spanish-language news channel for Spain called CNN Plus (CNN+). The channel would contain news segments with information about the economy, sports, weather and other topics. CNN+ would be independent, but overseen by CNN en Espanol to ensure the journalistic integrity of the CNN name (R. Santos, personal communication, October 6, 1999). In March of 1999, CNN en Espanol split its outgoing pan-regional program feed. Now, Mexico would receive a different program feed than the rest of the region. The initial plan called for the Mexico feed to contain the same programming, but different commercial content. The future will allow for regional programming customized for Mexico. This is only the beginning of CNN en Espanol's regionalization. The following chapter contains conclusions about the startup and operation of CNN en Espanol. The chapter also details the limitations of the study and suggests avenues for future research.

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CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS This thesis analyzed the creation and operation of a 24-hour Spanish-language cable television news network using a case study and focused interview approach. The purpose of the research was to determine what type of research, if any, was necessary to launch CNN en Espanol. The thesis also sought to examine and analyze how CNN en Espanol was created and how it is operates on a daily basis. The interviews of seven key individuals within the organization allowed the researcher to gain a descriptive understanding of the creation and operation of CNN en Espanol directly from those involved in those processes. In addition, by utilizing participant observation, the researcher was able to gain first-hand knowledge about CNN en Espanol while participating in its daily operation. This chapter contains the conclusions and limitations of the study and avenues for future research. Conclusions About CNN en Espanol's Startup and Operation The decision to start CNN en Espanol was a business decision. Turner Broadcasting System utilized existing market research from the company's previous experience in Latin America, but the decision to create CNN en Espanol was primarily based on instinct and prior experience. This business decision was rooted in Turner Broadcasting System's desire to establish a cable news network in Latin America before competition pushed TBS out of the market. After the initial decision to create the 99

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100 network was made, the majority of the research conducted focused on matters such as the name of the network and how to market the network. This type of research was a focus of the initial planning stages. CNN en Espanol has become a network unto itself. It is not a paltry version or translation of CNN or CNN International. CNN en Espanol has broadcast affiliates and reciprocity agreements within every country in Latin America. These broadcast affiliates have various carriage agreements with CNN en Espanol, some allowing an affiliate to carry up to four hours of CNN en Espanol' s programming per day (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999). This arrangement allows CNN en Espanol to be watched even by those who do not have access to cable television or direct satellite technology. CNN en Espanol operates 24-hours a day, living up the standards of the CNN News Group. It is a network that attempts to provide programming for everyone. It is a distinct member of the CNN News Group, but CNN en Espanol' s programming covers various topics with a focus on international news. Throughout its program grid, CNN en Espanol delivers information about business, entertainment, environmental issues, fashion, medicine, sports, technology, travel and most importantly global news; all with a Latin American perspective. The goal of CNN en Espanol is to provide programming that, at some point, is of interest to everyone. CNN en Espanol has achieved its goal of being recognized and respected in Latin America, and it accomplished this with a small, versatile staff. According to the 1998 Los Medios y Mercados de Latinoamerica (The Means and Markets of Latin America)

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101 market study, CNN en Espanol has become the most respected news organization in Latin America. Thus, CNN en Espanol has become a model of efficiency and success. When the network launched in March of 1997, it had four million subscribers. As of October, 1999, it has over eight million cable subscribers (C. Crommett, personal communication, October 6, 1999). In two years, the network doubled its subscriber base while increasing its number of potential viewers to over 32 million in Latin America alone. There are three key factors that have contributed to CNN en Espanol' s success. First are the founders, or managerial staff behind the network. Without their expertise and vision, CNN en Espanol would not exist. The interviews provided in this study give a detailed and unique perspective of seven key figures involved in the process of building CNN en Espanol. These individuals were committed to the project. When faced with obstacles such as budget cuts and equipment failures, they did not give up. They faced the challenges of creating the network and accomplished what often seemed impossible. The second factor is technology. CNN en Espanol utilized technology to create a digital, nonlinear network. Based on this technology, the founders developed a program grid that would allow CNN en Espanol to provide 24-hours of news and information programming within a tight business plan. From that grid, the network's founders structured the workflow so that everything that needed to be accomplished would be accomplished, all within the means of the business plan. The third element in CNN en Espanol' s success is its editorial and operations staff. The employees of CNN en Espanol made the project work. The initial group, which worked toward launching the network, was special because it had the desire to see the project succeed. This group learned to utilize the technology to produce the

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102 programming; it made the equipment meet the needs of the network.. In essence, this group of pioneers wrote the book on how to use the technology to operate a 24-hour Spanish-language news channel. As the findings indicate, CNN en Espanol was not an overnight success. There was much hard work involved in the development of the network, and many mistakes were made. Things were overlooked, and changes had to be made after the launch of the network. But CNN en Espanol did not let those obstacles affect the quality of the product it was producing. The network continued operating and the staff worked around workflow issues and equipment failures. Limitations of The Study and Avenues for Future Research This study provides a general overview of the creation and operation of CNN en Espanol. The findings of the study may be used to understand the intricacies of establishing a venture of this type. But, as this thesis discussed, setting up a Spanishlanguage news network required an open attitude and a willingness to make changes. This means that the approach taken by the founders of CNN en Espanol may not be one that can be copied or followed by others. Because CNN en Espanol consists of numerous departments working together, the study does not focus on the specific operation of any particular department. This limits the amount of detail the study was able to provide. There are potentially dozens of other studies within CNN en Espanofs operation. Each department can be studied individually, as can the various aspects within those departments. The technology used by CNN en Espanol can also be studied as can the applications of that technology.

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103 While the study was being conducted, CNN en Espanol was growing. In the two years the study covers, CNN en Espanol began its growth through regionalization. Because the goal of the study was to examine startup and operation, the growth of the network during the following years could not be examined in detail. This is another avenue for future research. The study is also limited in that if provides no financial data about startup costs, nor does it provide data about operational costs. Although interviews were granted for the research, they were not conducted with the assumption that they would yield sensitive financial information. It is Turner Broadcasting System's policy not to release such fiscal data. Had this information been available, the analysis and findings would have been of even greater use to others researching this topic. The previous paragraphs indicate that there are numerous opportunities for research within CNN en Espanol's operation. Perhaps a future study of CNN en Espanol can apply the organizational environments model utilized by Valenzuela (1985) in his study of SIN. This study of CNN en Espanol does not apply that model because the goal was to examine and explain the startup and operation, not how the network operates in its business environment. Now that CNN en Espanol has been on the air for over two years, Valenzuela' s use of the organizational environments model could provide understanding of CNN en Espanol's position in the marketplace and how it survives in that marketplace. As was the case with the creators of CNN en Espanol, there is no previous research on this subject. There are no books on how to start a Spanish-language news channel, much less a 24-hour global Spanish-language news channel. For anyone

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104 interested in examining the startup and operation of a 24-hour Spanish-language cable news network, this study is simply a building block.

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APPENDIX A INTERVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE What is your name? What is your title? What is your job duty? What does your job entail? How did you become part of CNN en Espanol? How long have you been with CNN en Espanol? What is CNN en Espanol? How involved were you in the creation of CNN en Espanol? Who created CNN en Espanol? Why was CNN en Espanol created? Why is CNN en Espanol in Atlanta? What type of research was done to determine the need for CNN en Espanol? Who did that research? How much research was conducted before embarking on the CNN en Espanol project? What types of timing considerations were taken into account in regards to research? Once the basics were assessed, what time frame was given to interpret research results for integration into the production of the network? What type of planning was necessary to create CNN en Espanol? What types of timing considerations were taken into account in regards to operations? Were any assumptions made about the operation of the network while planning the network? Were any of those assumptions wrong? How familiar are you with the promotion of the network? What type of promotion was done prior to CNN en Espanol' s launch? Was there any cross promotion? Was all of the promotion effective, or did some methods prove less effective? Who was promotion targeted to? Currently, who is promotion targeted to? Are promotional efforts concentrated more into any particular region? What type of promotion is done now that the network has been on the air for over an year? How important is promotion and what role does in play in CNN en Espanol 's success? Where did you look for people to staff CNN en Espanol? 105

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106 Being located in Atlanta, what considerations had to be taken into account when dealing with staff hiring? Are all of the staff bilingual? What type of considerations were made when staffing CNN en Espanol? What type of production staff is necessary to operate CNN en Espanol? What type of news/editorial staff is necessary to operate CNN en Espanol? How large is the CNN en Espanol staff? What type of staff/person was necessary to make this network work? Where to you consider CNN en Espanol to be in relation to the other CNN networks? How do you think the other CNN networks view CNN en Espanol? Where do you consider CNN en Espanol to be in relation to Telenoticias, ECO or any other competition? Do you feel that local broadcasters located in Latin American countries which now receive CNN en Espanol see the network as competition? How would you define CNN en Espanol' s audience? Considering that Latin America consists of over 20 countries, many of which have distinct cultures, was it difficult to define and audience for CNN en Espanol? Does CNN en Espanol's research differ from the traditional U.S. broadcasting approach which surveys audience preferences and then creates programming based on what the research indicates an audience is interested in? It has been said that a single program or program series cannot reach a mass audience. What are your thoughts on that? What is the CNN en Espanol programming strategy to reach Latin America, an area that consists of so may different countries? How important is the network's presence in Cuba? What assumptions about the viewing audience, if any, were made while planning CNN en Espanol? Were any of those assumptions wrong? How was CNN en Espanol sold to potential advertisers and cable operators? How important is the CNN name? How important was it in starting the network? Are there any future plans for expansion?

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APPENDIX B STANDARD ETHICS PROTOCOL Hello, my name is Daniel Figueroa. I am a graduate student at the University of Florida and the researcher for this thesis project. This thesis is being sponsored by the Department of Telecommunication at the University of Florida's College of Journalism and Communications. Thank you very much for your willingness to participate in this research project. Your participation in this interview serves the purpose of providing background and operational information about CNN en Espaflol. This interview will be recorded so that it may be transcribed verbatim. As a participant, your name and any answers given in this interview may be used in the research project. Your answers will be used to formulate an analysis for this thesis project. Because your name and direct quotations may be used, there is no confidentiality or anonymity associated with your participation in this study. There are no risks or benefits associated with your participation. You will not be compensated for your participation in this interview. Before we start the interview, I would like to reassure you that as a participant in this project you have several very definite rights. • First, your participation in this interview is entirely voluntary. • You are free to refuse to answer any question at any time. • You are free to withdraw from the interview at any time. The results of this research will be available in December upon request. If you have any questions about this research project, you may contact me at: 4773 Baker Plantation Drive Acworth, GA 30101 (770) 529-7666 Should you have any questions about your rights as a research participant in this study, you may contact: The University of Florida Institutional Review Board Office Box 122250, University of Florida Gainesville, FL 3261 1-2250 (352) 392-0433 Agreement: I have read the procedures described above. I voluntarily agree to participate in the procedure and have received a copy of this description. Participant: Date: Principal Investigator: Date: 107

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APPENDIX C GLOSSARY OF TERMS Assignment Desk The unit responsible for getting and verifying information, booking satellite time and booking guests for CNN en Espaflol. Assignment Editor A person that works on the assignment desk. Associate Producer (AP) An assistant to the line producer. The AP assists the line producer in looking at video and copy and will assist the line producer in other ways as necessary. A-Control The primary control room of CNN en Espaflol. Most of CNN en Espaflol 's live programming is conducted from A-Control. B-Control The secondary, redundant control room. B-Control is a backup room used for pre and post production while A-Control is in use. Beta SX A digital hybrid tape format from Sony. Beta SX tape machines record digitally on SX tape but have the capability to play both SX and Beta SP tapes. Boxes An over-the-shoulder graphic which appears over an anchor's shoulder while he/she reads copy on camera. Camera Robotics The robotics which allow for remote operation of CNN en Espafiol's cameras. Character Generator A device resembling a computer keyboard that creates text and graphics that can be used in a television program. Chyron Chyron is a company that produces graphics equipment such as still stores and character generators. Control Room The room from which a live program is put "on the air." The control room contains the equipment necessary for cameras, audio, graphics, etc. It is where the producer and director work during a show. CNNCable News Network. A 24-hour global news channel targeted at U.S. Households. CNN Airport Network CNN's live, satellite delivered television service which is seen in 32 U.S. airports. CNN International (CNNI) Cable News Network International. A 24-hour global news channel which airs throughout the world. CNN Financial News (CNNfn) Cable News Network Financial News. CNN's financial news channel. CNN Plus (CNN+) Also called "Canal Plus," it is CNN en Espafiol's regional news channel which is transmitted in Spain. CNN Sports Illustrated (CNN/SI) Cable News Network Sports Illustrated. CNN's 24-hour sports news and information network. Director The person responsible for the on-air execution of a program. 108

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109 "Deportes CNN" "CNN Sports," CNN en Espanol's nightly comprehensive sports program. Digital Multi-Effects (DME) A Sony brand name for a device which allows for real-time manipulation of video via a video switcher. Digital Video Switcher The device which allows different video signals to be combined and sent "to air" from a control room. "Economia y Finanzas" "Economy and Finances," CNN en Espanol's nightly business program. Edit Bay A room where video and audio editing is done. The Edit Bay contains the equipment necessary to perform such editing. Editbox A Quantel nonlinear editing system. Quantel is a brand, and the Editbox is a model used by CNN en Espanol. Enfoque CNN en Espanol's generic title for their variety of "feature" programs. Fonts Textual graphics which appear on-screen during a program. Full Screen An on-air graphic which contains information. A full screen covers the entire television screen. IFB Interruptible Fold Back. An IFB system allows an anchor or reporter to hear programming in their ear via an ear piece. It also allows anyone with access to the IFB line to speak directly into the ear of anyone using an IFB. "Imagenes y Sonidos" "Sights and Sounds," Promotional spots which showcase images and sound from various regions throughout CNN en Espanol's coverage area. Imagestore Imagestore is the model name for a Chyron brand still store. Library Management System (LMS) A Sony video playback system used to run commercials. Line Director -See Director. Line Producer See Producer. Maxine Maxine is the model name of a character generator made by Chyron. Master Control The control room from which CNN en Espanol's programming is sent out to the satellite. Master Control Operator (MCO) A person that works in Master Control. The MCO is responsible for the outgoing signal of the network. Media Central A centralized system of video servers used by CNN and CNNI. Mercosur A common market of South America composed of economic integration between Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. Newsbox A Quantel nonlinear editing system. Quantel is a brand, and the Newsbox is a model used by CNN en Espanol. Nonlinear In reference to editing, it refers to editing which does not require the traditional tape to tape edit procedure. Video is edited and played back via a video server. Newswire 2000 CNN en Espanol's newsroom computer system. This system is used to read wires, send interoffice e-mails, write scripts and create rundowns. Open Also known as the "show open," it is a combination of audio and video which tells the viewer what program they are watching.

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110 "Panorama Mundial" "World View" CNN en Espanol's prime-time global events newscast. Producer The person responsible for the content of a new program. The producer is responsible for deciding what stories will air in a particular show and in what order those stories will be presented. Program Grid A grid which contains an hour by hour account of CNN en Espanol's programming Quantel A British company that produces nonlinear editing systems. RTS The intercom system used by CNN en Espanol. It allows for communication between the control rooms, Master Control, the newsroom, the anchors, IFB lines and telephone lines. Rundown A detailed list of the elements which comprise a newscast. Still Store A still store is a generic term for a machine which can capture and recall still images. Subs An abbreviation for "subscribers." Southern Cone An area of South America which includes Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay. Switchers Also called video switchers, these devices allow different video signals to be combined and sent "to air" from a control room. Technical Assistant (TA) The TA is a control room employee. TAs work as graphics operators, audio operators, and camera robotics operators. Technical Director (TD) A TD takes directions from the director and is the person that actually "punches" the buttons on the video switcher. Telenovela A Spanish world for "soap opera." TelePrompTer TelePrompTer is a brand name. The word has become commonplace to describe any system, computer-based or manual, which allows a script to be projected onto a video monitor that is mounted in from of camera. By projecting the text in front of the camera lens, it allows an anchor to read scripts while looking directly into the camera Terminal Gear The room in which all of CNN en Espanol's mainframe equipment is located. Triage A computer program which allows incoming video to be sent directly to a particular edit bay via the video server. Transadaption CNN en Espanol's translation unit. The transadaption unit translates live events or taped items into Spanish so that they may air no CNN en Espanol. Video Journalist (VJ) CNN's version of the Technical Assistant. "World Report" A program which airs on both CNN and CNN en Espanol. It consists of news reports from news organizations around the world.

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APPENDIX D CNN EN ESPANOL RUNDOWN

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16. JOT.. 1999 CNN EN Espanol ANCHOR Producer DAIET Sched. on-air 20:00:00' Sched. Dur. 00:27:05 Sched. of f-air 20:27:05 Act. on-air.. Pred. of f-air. 20:25:50' ProducerExt. : Over /Under '-00:01:15 Countdown. 00:00:00 PAGE SLUG ANCH. WRT. TYPE STAT. READ SOC ACTL EST PANORAMA OPEN TITULARES . . . jPJ ECU A ACUERDO. IMDIA/CACHEMIR KOSOVO EVIDKNC 4 A2 5 A26 A3 j 7 A3I A4 |' 9 A410 AS BUMP IN ECUADOR STRIKE MUHOZ COMREX WHITBECK PKG RODRIGUEZ PKG PERU BUSQUEDA OTRO LIDER SENDERO be OK TK VO !EFF VC EFT VC OC BX DK TK COMREX 1>K OC/BX DK PJ DNH EST JG DPD |tK PKG OC BX UK OC/BX/VO DK 00:0 ' 0:16 00:0 ' 0:26' 00:12 00:12 0:01: 15 00:30:00:30' 0:01:27 00:05 00:05B0:©1:5T 00:41 20:02:02 [Oil 22 | 01 :22 20:02:4a 00:3l' ' 0:04:05 01:55 01 :55 20:04:36 00:16' ' 0:06:31 I 01: 15' 01: 15 20: 06: 47 00:26 0:08:02 'DNH OC/BX 12 A613 A 7 FRAYSSIHET PKG TEASE BARAK US VISIT CBINA/US DELES INTERNET BREAK 1 BUMP IN :DNH \JG PJ TO "pic 01:01 01:0120:08:44 J2-SHOT TK VO brr vo EFF FS BREAK 17 Bi "l8Bl19 B2 20 B3 21 B4 22 B5 JG DNH OC/BX PAREJA PKG YUGO DEMOS CHINA YUGO EMBASSY REPARATIONS IRAN DEMO TK PKG DK *EFF VO DK DNH jjG JDNH PJ JDNH OC/BX/VO DK 00:3 00:15 00:15 0:09:45 00: 10 00: 10 20: 10:00 iol:00!01 : 00 20:10:00: *"oo : 05 ooT osTcf : TiToo 00:20 0:11:05 02 : 00 '02:00 20 : 11:25; 00:30* 20:13:25 00: 30 00: 30 0:13:55) JG

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132 Turner, T. (1997, October 20). Como nos ve el mundo? [How does the world see us?]. Semana , 71-74. Turner Broadcasting System, Inc.'s networks in Latin America score top marks in pan-regional study. (1999, January 28). Net Diario , 12. Turner CNN consorcio [Turner CNN consortium]. (1997, May 3). Servicio Universal de Noticias . [On-line]. Available from Lexis. Turner, Galaxy deal. (1996, July 18). Cable and Satellite Express . 15. [On-line]. Available from Lexis. Turner to launch 24-hour all-news channel. (1995, November 20). Reuters Financial Service . [On-line]. Available from Lexis. U.S. Census Bureau . (1999, March 4). [On-line]. Available at: http://www.census.gov/ftp/pub/population/www/ Valenzuela, N. (1985). Orfianizational evolution of a Spanish-language television network: An environmental approach. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Stanford University, Stanford, California. Wentz, L. (1996, April 8). Print wants share of Latin pie. Advertising Age . [Online]. Available from Lexis. Whitaker, J. (1998, November 1). CNN: Charting a new frontier for news gathering. Broadcast Engineering . Whittemore, H. (1990). CNN: The inside story . Boston: Little Brown. Who is news. (1997, March 3). Electronic Media . 35. [On-line]. Available from Lexis. Wimmer, R. and Dominick, J. (1997). Mass media research: An introduction . Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Wittering, S., & Sherry, V. (1996, April). Ready and cable: Prospects for telephony in Latin America. Communication International 23, 43. [On-line]. Available from Lexis. Wolcott, H. (1994). Transforming qualitative data: Description, analysis and interpretation . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

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133 Wool, A. (1993, August 9). Measuring the Hispanic buy: New research tools give advertisers better methods of seeing how well they reach Spanish-speaking consumers. Mediaweek, 3 , 16. [On-line]. Available from Lexis. Yin, R. K. (1994). Case study research: Design and method (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Daniel Figueroa was raised the United States, spending most of his childhood in the state of Florida. He attained a Bachelor of Science degree from the University of Florida in 1993. In 1995, he joined the College of Journalism and Communications graduate program and graduated with a Master of Arts in Mass Communication in December, 1999. 134

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I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a thesis for the degree of Master of Arts in Mass Communication. r Milagros Rivera^Sanchez, Chair Associate Professor of Journalism and Communications I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a thesis for the degree of Master of Arts in Mass Communication. c=>f-tijeJli AyZUK F. Leslie Smith Professor of Journalism and Communications I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a thesis for the degree of Master of Arts in Mass Communication. ^V f .\»i vj ^ John W. Wright Professor of Journalism and Communications This thesis was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the College of Journalism and Communications and to the Graduate School and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Mass Communication. December, 1999 ., *^~~ r ~ f ~^~~A >^y-^^-^ Dean, College at Journalism and Communications Dean, Graduate School

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, ... r UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 3 1262 08553 1068