Title: The Orchid Weekly
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00099039/00001
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Title: The Orchid Weekly
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Publication Date: July 18, 1958
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Bibliographic ID: UF00099039
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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THE ORCHID WEEKLY 18 July 1958 Vul. 1, No. 8
_ _ - -_ M -- -^- '-- ~- -- - ~ & -
A weekly publication devoted exclusively to orchids and their cul-.ral require.-
ments, designed expressly for the amateur collector, with -secialreference to
the South Florida .,area. Issued by Orchids Unlimitend, 2800 Bird Ave., Coconut
Grovc'33, Florida. Editor: Alex D. Hawkes. Price per copy (current), 25 3-
month subscription (12 issues, dating from current issue); $2 ,-75,, postpaid in the
Continental:.U.S. Foreign subscribers served by air or surface' nmail-I please in-
dicate when ordering-- with postage to be billed. Back issues, are available; pri-
ce-s upon inquiry. 'All contents copyright, 1958, by Alex D. Hawkes. -Mailing ad-
dress: P. 0.. Box 33435, Coconut Grove 33, Florida,

EDITORIAL TWO IMPORtANT CHANGES. With a new publication sutch'as the
present one, certain'changes are inevitable, particularly during the early stages
of isafsiance. With this, our -eighth publishednumber', two of these important al-
terations-are put into effect. One, a change in title of the publication-s- from the
South-flotida Orchid Weekly-- to THE ORCHID WEEKLY. This will cau-ce no
es-ential alteration in our ccntent- most of our articles will still be written es-
pediiHy for readers in the area originally de.s;ignated.in .oiu'r itl.6; but we will al-
;so, 'in this and all future issues, atterilpt tb'bring. in-as many.-pertinent variants
regardingg Gultural conditions which will be of utility to our already nunidmrous
.;readers-outside of the South Florida region. Irinthis way, we feel that we will be
better) able to serve a wider audience of persons who are actively interested in
orchids, their cultural requirements, their botanical status, etc. Secondly,
we have received several requests that we do something about't"ur "too, narrow"
.page-margins. Sinre_.nost nDfyou.whaL-tecneive THE ORCHID WEEKLY evidently
intend to have it'bound'cat th end" f 6ach volume, normalt-inding would, be very
difficultult with.'ti..iend.cr a-gis e' have effected hin thc past: With this issue,
.we have there fori rcri6dieded his sititio', and' h&e tht&-ir:-SEca1.dls .-W.t-approve
.of both the hecv -fidhe 6f the p'iblication, and 'the "n'ew look"' o-f eh e.A.D. H.
*---------------------------------------- - ---- --- ------------- - - --- ---- -- -- --

tal area of approx;imately 8800 square Xiles,, the ,Colopy. of .British .Hon duras is
among the .smallestin the Ameriqas'. .An,.isolated. country, .t is, borer..cd 1by
Mexico on the north, by Guatemala on the south and .west,,- i ba y thf Ia-ribbcan
Sea on the east. The. land areas adjacent; are. richin orchids., yet, acq riding to
the most recent s~urvep,i that of,L. 0. Williams .iA 195.6,; only 97 species ,in-.38 ge-
nera are known from the Colony. ,,From the, nmTbcropf; "new" species W~hich I
added to this list during a recent casual. collecting trip, it scorns vryevident
that, our knowledge of the orchid flora c Britishl.Honduras is highly ip.c.qrnplete,
and through more critical collect.ig., the total should bo-considerably agrinent-
c.d. British Honduras, although r9latively.,sgnall in ,size., is ,a rre.,iarkalp,,y di-
verse land, offering ,a wide variety ofhabitats for orchids ,ad other, pl,1its. The.
capital and principal city, Belize -(pronounced behleez),, i-s situated.a-ttihe mouth
of the Belize or 01._-River-, on flat, mnarshy terrain;-. most of;thc area surround-
ing-it is likewise lowo, with huge s;trqtches of mangrove swamps prcdolmimataing,
except along the rivers, where hardwood and palm jungles occur:,. N.y.:first t-:ip
into "the bush, as all regions outside of .the cities are locally. knowp, tool..-rn'e
to these mang.rovu swamps along, the, ,road,to- 14e-,airport. for1 the capital,:.Stanley
Field, this .1pcatd, some 9 miles from Belize. -.The first Qrchida ,sighted upon
leaving Belizec were gigantic c91,oips _TLaelia (Schomburgkia, tibiciirp;. and the


showy Brassavola nodosa, on some old, bare trees by the roadside; both of them
also occur within the city itself. A walk through the saw-grass only a few feet
from the road brought us into the swamp itself, where we found almost every cne
of the trees supporting a thicket of epiphytes: orchids for the most part (the Lac-
lia and Brassavola were particularly common), ferns, bromeliads, and cactus.
The Brassavola was, during my visit (late August) in full bloom; it -is an especi-
ally fine phase of this variable orchid, with many-flowered racemes of large blos-
soms, the lips of which are far larger than those generally encountered in culti-
vation. With them were tangled masses of Epidendrum rigidum and the tiny Pleu-
rothallis Grobyi. A very spectacular bromoliad, Aechmca bracteata, formed im-
mense thickets in exposed patches of the clay-like soil, also extending up into the
trees as an epiphyte, My driver, Dudy Hope, and I continued on our way into
the forest to beyond the airport, with Laelia tibicinis everywhere in the larger
trees, the old flower-spikes often protruding far beyond the foliage, with the or-
chid plants themselves almost "hidden within it. All at once, the basic vegetation
pattern changed, with pines various tropical trees, and clumps of the charming
fan-palm Acoelorrhaphe pinetorumrn forming the new formation. Occasionalspe-
cimens of Catasetum intcgerrlrriitnu now mostly past flower and hung with giant.
banana-like seed-capsules, were to be seen oh these little palms. Parking the
jeep, we walked into this pine a'ea, passing the low flooded areas known heirc as
"pans, 1" these usually with a rniaginal fringe of fan-palms and a few smallish trees
of varying species. Almost all of these trees boasted of a few epiphytes, inclu-
ding the ubiquitous Laelia and tassavoia, Epidendrurm rigidum, and even an oc-
casional clump of the delightitil pldendrum Boothian.iu.rn In grassy spots, the ve-
ry bright lilac-pink spires of Bittia purptUrea arose frotn the ground, and oi the
edges of wooded areas we found scattaeod cliimps of Ohcidium luridum and -t
setum integerrirritumn Like most members of the genmiB this Gatasettan exhibits
a distinct predilection for decaying wood, and we often encountered it on rotting
stumps or even old fence-posts. My second trip into "the bush" took me to the
vicinity of Big Falls, on the Belize River, some distance from the capitals ,We
drove down the relatively good (by B.H. standards) road, skirting the coastal
mangrove swamps for some miles; here we saw literally hundreds of specimens
of Laelia tibicinis, growing mostly just out of reach of the salt water. As the
mountainous areas of the Cayo District appeared on the horizon, we turned ,off oi
the main road towards a townbearing the delightful name of Boom. Although a
pretty section of country, few orchids or other-'piphytic plants were to be seen.
After a pause for a drink of the local cashew wine at Boom, we continued on to-
wards Bermudian Landing, on the Belize River. The road shortly became gra-
ded coral, and we entered another stretch of jungle, with the pines and fan-palms
gradually disappearing, and hardwood trees and spectacular Royal and Cohune
palms taking their place. Many very showy roadside plants were found here, in-
cluding Heliconias, Cannas, Calatheas, etc. A hand-powered ferry crosses the
river at Bermudian Landing, arid on driving up the steep grade on the far side, I
noted a tree literally loaded with huge clumps of Catasetum integerrimum, many
of them bearing their odd, rather reptilian green and lurid purplish flowers. A
recently cut-over forest area nearby proved most interesting collecting, with ma-
ny types of bromeliads crowding the fallen branches, together with gigantic grassy
masses of Trigonidium Egerteaianum (one of the commonest epiphytic orchids in
the Colony), Maxillaria Friedrichsthalii, a robust phase of Pleurothallis Grobyi,
the showy yellow-flowered Pleurothallis Ghiesbreghtiana, and Epidendrum rigi-

Vol. 1, No-.-8

18 July 1958 THE ORCHID WEEKLY 83
dum. Upon entering another stretch of pine-palm formation, we found ma-
ny specimens of a beautiful epiphytic bromeliad (Catopsis sp.) high up in thb
pines, and scattered tufts of Epidendrum nocturnum on the palm trunks. Here
almost every tree bore its quota of orchids and bromeliads, though they were
for the most part scattered and not particularly numerous. Both the Trigoni-
dium and Maxillaria Friedrichsthalii were frequent in shaded spots, forming
huge graceful clusters mostly on the horizontal branches. An Epidendrum
with extremely large pseudobulbs occurred here, too, but was not in flo1ver; r
it is possibly E. alatum. After passing through scattered villages, we. ar-
rived at a spot where we left the jeep, continuing on foot towards the river and
its falls. This was a region of Cohune palm (Orbignya Cohune) forests, MLnd a
majestic sight they made, with their ponderously graceful leaves sweeping up I
twenty feet and more from the roughened trunk. Each palm-trunk was a iveri-
table aerial garden, hung with aroids (mostly a handsome Philodendron), bro- -
meliads, ferns, epiphytic cacti, and occasional orchids (principally the Cata-
setum noted previously). We crossed many little streams on rickety branch
bridges, traversed far too many mud-holes and crawled through far too many
barbed-wire fences, and finally arrived at the river's edge, at the base of the
falls. These Big Falls were a sad disappointment, since the river was so
high that the "falls" were reduced to a mere series of swirling rapids. Our
newly-acquired Negro boatman piloted our tippy canoe directly into these ra-
pids, but we somehow made the crossing without falling overboard. Clamrnber-
ing up the slick bank, we found small, stunted trees lining the river, these loa-
ded with Epidendrujn rigidum, thousands of fine bromeliads, some hands ome
epiphytic Anthuriums, and a few huge specimens of Oncidium luridum. After
visiting some friends, and having a snack which included a sort of hash nrade
from one of the prized local wild animals, called "Gibnot" (which turned aout
to be a Paca- a sort of overgrown guinea pig!), with our numbers consider-
ably increased, we started back to Belize. It had grown dark, and of course
we had a flat tire in the middle of the pine woods, and found that no tools ofr.
any sort were in the jeep. A cloudburst caught us later on, too, but we did
so nehow manage to get back to the capital, and were soon ready to head off
into "the bush" again- in search of still more orchids and other fabulous kin ds
of plants in this intriguing land of British Honduras.
(To be continued) 1UBILIEE
-.------------------------------------_-- --- A~~i

WHAT TO DO THIS WEEK. If you have a small collection- and so many of
our readers fall into this category- perhaps you find the problem of scale on
your plants to be a problem. It need not be! The common scale which afflicts
many orchids can readily be brought under control-- and kept under control.
In the collection comprising many hundreds or even thousands of orchid spe-
cimens, it is naturally a major undertaking to attend to the control of scale
insects, and rigorous spraying with mechanical equipment is doubtless the
easiest and most efficient method to accomplish this. When a moderate num-
ber of plants is involved, however, a vastly simplified method is available.
Each plant may be attended to as an individual, and the results are most gra-
tifying and long-lasting. An old tooth-brush, well-softened, is probably the
best implement to use, as its bristles will not damage the flesh of the leaf,
pseudobulb, or rhizome of the plant being washed. Several different mixes


are commonly recommended for the washing solution. Probably the most effica-
cious of these, though, is the following one (to be mixed per gallon of water): one
tbsp. detergent (not soap flakes), one tbsp. Chlordane dust, and 1 tbsp. Supercide
or comparable insecticide. These materials should be thoroughly mixed with the
water, and the solution applied to all parts of the plant with the soft brush. This
mixture (and all truly effective ones) is poisonous and caution should be exercised
during its application, and the hands and arms should be carefully scrubbed after
its use! On Cattleyas and many other types of pseudobulbous orchids, the new
growths are enveloped in sheathing bracts which in time become dried and papery.
When washing a plant, to rid it of scale, especial notice should be taken of the por-
tions of the new pseudobulbs which have been covered by these bulb-sheaths, for
they form an ideal hiding place for these noxious insects. Carefully peel off these
sheaths (only after they have become dried, by the way ), but do be cautious that
no injury is done during this process to the little incipient new growth-buds (t.crm-
ed "eyes") to be found at the base of each pseudobulb. Ants very commonly are
carriers of scale, and if ants are noticed in abundance around a given orchid plant,
particular attention should be paid to it for this reason. Ants in orchid pots or bas-
kets can usually be controlled by periodic applications of Chlordane dust or other
comparable materials (these again all are poisonous!) If this does not suffice to
rid a given container of the ant-colony, it may be immersed for an hour or so in a
mixture of about two tablespoons of Chlordane dust, with a quart or. so of water..
...During this wet weather, all sorts of objectionable bugs flourish. :is a result,
particular attention must be paid to new growths, buds, and flowers, all of which
form a favorite food for these annoying pests. Dusting with Chlordane at weekly
intervals of such growths, buds, or flowers is usually most effective, or one may
tie pp-ds of absorbent cotton impregnated with Chlordano-water around the flower-
stalks, or even around the middle or upper parts of the afflicted (or potentially af-
flicted) pots. .. .This time of year in warm areas such as South Florida, many
kinds pf orchids-- particularly Vandas and their allies-- produce flowers which are
decidedly not up to par. Normally fine forms of certain of the Vanda Sanderiana
hybricds, for example, often bear'blossoms with noticeably recurved segments,
a characteristic which is not, of course, desirable. This seems to occur only
during times of high heat and humidity, and heavy rains, and the collector should
not become discouraged because his Vanda-group seedlings, flowering for the ini-
tial time during such a season, do not produce blossoms of the caliber anticipated.
Give them a chance-- and see what sort of floral results are obtained later on! VWe
can assure you that you will be pleased, in most cases, with the eventual results.
..IV.When the rains are heavy (as they are now in this area, and in many other parts
of the country), and plants are being grown out-of-doors, especial caution must be
taken with watering of the entire orchid collection, All too often, the orchid collec-
tor is prone to over-water his plants, frequently with disastrous results! One of
the most important cultural regulations regarding these plants is that, although
copious water is needed in most cases, it must also drain off readily and thorough-
ly. A compost which.retains an excessive amount of moisture will soon become
stale or sour, to the definite detriment of the plant's health. If, for example, your
plants are grown outside (without any protection from the rain), and rain has fallen
heavily on a given day, watering may- during these summer months-- be done
away with entirely for at least two days, under normal conditions, before the next
application..... Ve were recently informed on good authority that a high potash-
content fertilizer (at least when used with regularity in this South Florida area,

Vol. 1, No. 8


at, say bi-weekly intervals) will cause most Vandas and allied orchids to give
notably increased vegetative and floral production. It also, however, causes
the normally rather woody stems tc become even more lignified, with the re-
sult that leaf-drop from the bases of major stems in a given specimen seems
more prominent. We have encountered nothing in the published literature as
yet concerning this problem, and perhaps some of our 0 WV readers can fur-
nish us with some personal experiences in this connection ....

PRONUNCIATION LISTS. (Continued from SFOW 1(7): 72. 11 July 1958.) The
accent should be given on the underscored syllable.
ERIOPSIS (cc-rce-op-siss) GALEANDRA (gah-lee-ahn-drah) -
ERYCINA (ch-ri-si-nah) GALEOLA (gah-lee-oh-lah) Z:
ERYTHRODES (ch-rith-row-deeocz) GASTORCHIS (gass-tor-kiss)
EULOPHIA (yoo-low-fee-ah) GASTROCHILUS (gass-traw-ki-liss) 0
,cEULOPHIDIUM (yoo-low-fi-dee-yum) GEODORUM (jee-oh-doe-rum)
EULOPHIELL,. (yoo-low-fee-ch-lah) GOMESAi (goe-mee-zah)
W=EULOPHIOPSIS (yoo-low-fee-awp-siss) GONGORA (gawn-goe-rah)
0---------------------------------------------------------------------- ----4-- --
1(6): 62. 4 July 1958.)
,^(13) E. CONDYLOCHILUM Lehm. & Krzl. (Epidendrum Dcamii Schltr., _
tessellaturn Batem. ex Ldl., Encyclia tessellata Schltr.)
Pbs. stalked, obliquely spindle-shaped, ovoid or ellipsoid, compressed, S-
3-lvd., to 3" tall, usually yellowish-green. Lvs. glossy, linear-lanceolate,
acute or acuminate, to 1' long and 3/4" wide. Infls. simple or branched, usu-
ally rather many-fld., erect or arching, very variable in length. Fls. not op-
ening well, to 3/4" across, the ss. & ps. greenish-yellow outside, brown with-
in with darker brown streaks, the lip pale yellow with purplish streaks, the col.
reddish-brown above, yellowish beneath. Ss. & ps. fleshy-thickened at apex.
Lip-disc thickened along middle, with a spongy pubescent callus between lat.lbs.
which disintegrates into numerous warty calli on mnidlb. Mostly summer. (I,H)
Mexico to Panama Colombia, and Venezuela.
(14) E. CONOPSEUM R.Br. (Amphiglottis conopsea Small)
Pls. without pbs., forming mats or clusters. Sts. very slender, compressed,
to 8" tall (usually less), 1-3-lvd., with rather large sheaths. Lvs. apical, ri-
gidly leathery, glossy, often purple-flushed, stalkless, to 3 1/2" long. Infls.
sheathed, usually simple, loosely or densely few- to many-fld., mostly erect,
to 6 1/2" tall. FIs. 4ery fragrant, lasting well, to about 1", greyish-green,
usually tinged with purple or pale magenta. Ss. with involute margins. Lip
shallowly 3-lbd. the disc with 2 short fleshy calli at base. Spring-fall. (C,I)
Southeastern United States (north to North Carolina), with a variety (var. MEX-
ICANUM L.O.Wms.) in Mexico.
(To be continued)

ORCHID TERM DEFINITIONS. (Continued from O W 1(7): 77. 11 July 1958.)...
From H.A.D., Coconut Grove, we have some miscellaneous terms:
DIANDROIUS (dye-an-druss) Having two stamens. In the Orchidaceae, only
one very small group, the subtribe Cypripedilinac (which includes four ge-
nera-- Cypripedium, Phragmopediurn, Paphiopedilum, and Selenipedium),

18 July 19 5 8


falls into this category, since all other orchids normally have but a single sta-
men (or anther, as it is usually called when referring to this group),
ATTENUATE (ah-teh-nyou-ate) Becoming slender or very narrow; slenderly
long-tapering. ,As an example, in many of the commonly-cultivated species of
the genus Brassia, the sepals (and sometimes also the petals) are noticeably
attenuate, from which characteristic these orchids derive their common name
of "Spider "Orchids.
GLABROUS (glab-russ) Smooth; devoid of hair or pubescence. Many orchids
possess, on various parts of the plant, flower-spikes, or flowers, a more or
less well-developed amount of hair or fuzz. W,'hen no trace of this hair or fuzz
is present, the plant and/or spike and/or flower is termed glabrous.

QUESTION COLUMN. Our friends are cordially invited to send us their queries,
on all phases of orchidology, for possible inclusion in this regular section of the
O WV. A self-addressed postal card should accompany each question for which a
written reply is desired. The most generally interesting queries will be answer-
ed in this column . Q: I am interested in obtaining a plant of Cattleya Zquinii,
but have been warned that many of the plants sold as this are really hybrids, and
not the true item Can you give me any information on this rare species ? My
reference books are very contradictory about it! H. C., Miami. A: You have
indeed brought up a controversial point, and one about which we -arc.a bit hesitant
to speak, lost we step on some colleague's toes. Insofar as we are able to ascer-
tain, only about four or five specimens of true Cattleya intermedia var. .xquinii
(pronounced, incidentally, ah-kee-nee-cye) are present in collections in the Uni-
ted States, and all of these are in the Miami area, in a single private garden!
Plants purporting to be "true" C. Aquinii (which is botanically referable to\varic-
tal status under C. intermedia) are, in the opinion of available authorities, hybrids
which have a greater or lesser perc entage of derivation from this highly dominant
and most fascinating variant-- with its "three-lips" per flower-- and not the true
extremely rare clone .at all! True Cattleya intermedia var. Aquinii has very hea-
vy-textured flowers usually between 3" and 4" across, with widely spreading sep'als
of a rather blush-lilac hue. The petals are sharply thrust forward at the sides of
the fleshy white column, and are identical to the normal lip in coloration and de-
gree of development; the arrangement of these. segments thus furnishes the flower
a rather odd "closed" appearance. The three petals- one of them the normal lip
of the flower-- are pale lilac, with basal lilac-purple streaks, an irregular median
area of cream-white, and an apical suffusion of considerably darker lilac-purple,
with still deeper intricately branching veins. Usually two to four flowers are pro-
duced per inflores cence. The plants are very robust, and typically bear their ve-
ry unusual and exotic blossoms twice or three times during the year..... Q: WVhen
do Renantandas bloom ? -- S.K., Jacksonville. A: R.cnantandas (the name is pro-
nounced reh-nan-tan-dah) are the products of artificially crossing a member of the
genus Renanthera with one of the genus Vanda. There are now several dozen of
them registered, and they are among the most handsome and spectacular of all of
the "Vanda alliance" of orchids! Most of them, once they have reached maturity,
flower more than once annually- under our ideally warm South Florida conditions,
in fact, they are essentially ever-blooming. Very few of these delightful and very
useful Renantandas have a flowering-season which can be set down without allowing
for tremendous variation..... Q: I have ordered some orchid plants from both In-

Vol. 1, No. 8


dia and Thailand during the past year. The firms accepted my orders, and
cashed my checks, but they refuse to send my plants, although I have written
them on several occasions about it.. Do you have any suggestions ? -- M.B.,
Orlando. A: Several of the Indian and Thai orchid firms now advertising in
American magazines seem guilty of this. We would suggest that you register
a complaint with, respectively, the Indian and the Thai Embassies in Washing-
ton, D.C. They have, in the past, been most cooperative in such matters.
Two thoroughly reputable dealers (and there are others, by the way) are G.
Ghose in Darjeeling, India, and the Bangkrabue Nursery in Bangkok, Thailand.
.....Q: lWhat can you tell me about Cattleya chocoonsis ? I have receritly got-
ten a plant of it. -- V.B.G., Corpus Christi. A: Botanically, this unusual and
seldom-seen Cattleya is known as C. labiata Ldl. var. quadricolor (Ld1.) A.D.
Hawkes, with C. chococnsis a synonym. It is a very distinct variant, Well ty-
pified in Ospina's recent Orquideas Colombianas, from which description we
quote, in part: "Plants caespitose, with long pseudobulbs which are narrower
than (most other unifoliate) Cattlcyas; leaves are also narrower; flowers can
be distinguished by their tendency to remain only partially open, thus taking a
bell-like shape, with the upper side of the petals touching each other alove the
column and the lip. Sepals & petals are light lilac color (varying, to) a most
pure white; lip of a color similar to sepals & petals at least towards the base
and the lateral lobes; front lobe, however, is variable and brightly colored with
a bright purple-red blotch near the tip and bright yellow and magenta voins run-
ning towards the base of the lip; its front margins are deeply undulated and the
sides of the tube are predominantly yellow in color. Typically flowering dur-
ing December and January, the bell-shaped flowers seldom exceed a di-.mctcr
of 4" or so; they are rather strongly fragrant .....

NOTES, NEWS, AND COMMENTS. An occasional department devoted to cas-
ual ramblings, gleanings from the literature, pertinent (or impertinent) obser-
vations, and a lot of other things about orchids. ... .Mr. Robert M. Scully, of
Jones & Scully, Inc., Miami, has been elected to the Presidency of the Ameri-
can Orchid Society. Long very active in orchid organizations, we know that
Mr. Scully will make a fine officer of this international organization, and.wish
to take this opportunity to extend to him our congratulations. .....Most i'nte'res-
ting to note in the last two issues (June and July) of the American Orchid So'ci-
cty's Bulletin, articles by C.H. Dodson and G.P. Frymire on two species of
the long-ncglected and very wonderful genus Masdevallia (pronounced rnaz-
dee-vah-lee-ah, by the way), narm'cly M.. rosca and M. ephippium. The writer's
are now living in Ecuador, and their delightful.descriptions of their experien-
ces in search of these elusive plants make most interesting reading. Masde-
vallias were formerly extremely popular with collectors, particularly in Eng-
land, and prices in the hundreds of dollars were paid for particularly choice
species and hybrids. We are preparing an article on the members of this ge-
nus suitable for cultivation in warm parts of this country. Most of the Masde-
vallias inhabit high elevations-- hence require "cool" conditions-- but there are
quite a few which will do well in areas such as South Florida..... .Another very
important name-change has occurred! In a recent issue of the Botanical Muse-
um Leaflets of Harvard University, Dr. Richard Evans Schultcs has, after
careful study, decided that the genus we have so long known as Diacrium must
3UIL- r?7

18 July 1958


henceforth be called, Caularthron. Under the present rather arbitrary system
of orchid hybrid registration, we assume that Diacrium will continue to be uti-
lized as a valid horticultural epithet... The 1958 catalogue of the Botanical
Garden WVuerzburg (Germany) has just reached us. Consisting almost entirely
of unusual Phalaenopsis hybrids made by Prof. H. Burgeff, it boasts of a stri-
king color cover, showing P. x Red-Striate Fly, a dead-white flower with intri-
cate vivid orange and scarlet striped lip. Professor Burgcff;'s method of indi-
cating the percentage of parentage in his hybrids is most interesting, though ra-
ther confusing. A new bigencric hybrid is listed, this Esmeranda x Wirccbur-
gensis, a cross between Esmeralda Clarkei and Vanda cocrulca. Since the Es-
meralda parent is now referable to Arachnis Clarkei, this hybrid must be known
as Aranda x Wirceburgensis.. It is, incidentally, the first hybrid to bo regis ter-
ed utilizing this spectacular Himalayan Arachnis.

known, the vast majority of members- both species and hybrids-- of the fas-
cinating genus Cymbidium are largely unsuitable for cultivation in warm areas
such as South and Central Florida, etc. There are, however, quite a few spi-
cies and recently-made hybrids which thrive under our conditions. To date
these mostly small-growing plants are uncommon in this area, hence we are
happy to announce that a good stock of the very pretty Japanese. "Spring Orchid,
3; Cymbidium viresccns, is now available in the Miami area. Typically growing
>4 under one foot in height, it possesses fountains-of narrow, graceful foliage,
and during the spring months a wealth of solitary, short-stalked, very deligh-t-
fully fragrant flowers to almost 2" across, with remarkable lasting qualities..
The sepals and petals are green, often striped with emerald-green, and usu-
ally with some reddish suffusion toward the base at the middle; the recurving
lip is white, mostly with some reddish spots. We welcome the appearance of
this very charming little Cymbidium on the Florida scene, and trust that it will
prove to be th.e. forerunner of other members of this genus suitable for cultiva--
tion in this and comparable areas. Cultural requirements for C. virescens
will shortly appear in this publication.

WHEN'TO IMPORT ORCHID PLANTS. An inquiry from S.B.J., Miami, about
the advisability of importing orchid plants at this season is at. hand. We would
definitely not recommend this at the present timee. South Florida this time of
year (and this applies to much of the rest of the country) is hot and humid. Up-
on the receipt of newly-imported plants, which have been subjected to the rigor-
ous treatment of fumigation, they are found (in almost all cases) to have "sweat'
while in the package. This moisture, coupled with the residual gases from the
fumigation, is typically very injurious to the already-weakened plants. We
find that the percentage of fatalities incurred on orchids imported at this time
of year is almost double that of other times.. Ideally, orchids should be brought
in from foreign sources during the spring and fall months only.. During the win-
ter, chilly or even cold weather may also prove very detrimental.

PRONUNCIATION LISTS, REPRINTS. Several of our readers have -quired
whether we intend to reprint the pronunciation lists of orchid genera ur not.
We do plan this, once the series is completed. The reprint will be offered
separately, at very modest cost.

Vol. 1, No. 8


mens of the spectacular "Trumpet Orchid, Laelia (Schomburgkia) tibicinis
(Schomburgkia is now referable botanically to Laelia), is now in flower-- for
the second time this season on the same spike! The normal, original bloom-
spike opened its buds several months ago, and then this second, accessory
spray of buds appeared from one of the nodes below the old flower-bearing
portion. This characteristic-- which we have not seen mentioned before in
the literature, by the way-- also applies to the allied species L. (S.) Thom-
soniana, from the Cayman Islands, and L. (S.) Humboldtii, from Venezuela.

FLOWERING-SEASONS OF ORCHIDS. A query from P.A., San Francisco,
reads as follows: "Why don't catalogues list the exact months when different
species and hybrids flower It is extremely difficult to state, with any
degree of certainty, precisely when a given orchid (in most instances, any-
way) will produce its blossoms. Many species, for example, have tremen-
dous distributional ranges, and an individual of the species from one area ,
in all probability will vary in blooming-period from an individual from ano--,
ther area. Under cultivation, further, almost everyone gives his plants ;
slightly differing conditions and treatment; this, too, affects their bloom- 1 ca
ing-periods markedly. Most orchid hybrids-- particularly the more corn-
plex ones, with more than a single generation of breeding in their back-
ground-- flower at often erratic intervals, sometimes even more than once Pg
annually. This characteristic is also shared by some species. The compi- r
,ler of a catalogue, therefore, to be on the safe side, typically states a\gen-
cralized flowering- season for a given plant, whether species or hybrid, and
trusts that he will not be too far wrong I

ORCHIDS WITH SALT-RESISTANCE1 A subscriber, W W.B., in Miami
Beach, inquires concerning what orchids will withstand the effects of al-
most constant exposure to a rather high amount of salt spray, from the sea.
Although many orchids will not tolerate such conditions, there is a relative-
ly sizeable group which will thrive under these rather unusual conditions.
We might mention the following orchids: Diacrium bicornutum, Brassavola
nodosa, Laelia (Schomburgkia) tibicinis, L. (S.) Thomsoniana, Epidendrum
ibaguense (see OW 1(Z): 7-8, 2 June 1958.), E. x O'Brienianum, E. cinna-
barinum and most of its hybrids, etc. Needless to say, plants growing under
such conditions should not be watered with salt-water!

variety of the charming, dwarf, equitant (pronounced ek-wi-tant) leaved
Oncidiums, mostly from the West Indies, are now present in American col-
lections. These are the so-called "fan-type" Oncidiums, with more or less
irregular fan-like bundles of fleshy, often saw-edged leaves, and long sprays
of vari-colored, usually very intricate flowers. Commonly-grown species
are Oncidium variegatum, 0. pulchellum, 0. urophyllum, O. triquetrum,
0. tetrapctalum, and 0. Tuerckheimii. Often these plants have notably
elongate, creeping rhizomes, the leaf-clusters being borne on these struc-
tures at intervals. Because of this characteristic, their confinement in a
pot is often rather difficult. Once well-established, with good root-growth,
they may therefore to good advantage be kept on slabs, of tree-fern fiber, to

18 July 1958


which they should be tightly attached with galvanized wire staples or comparable
apparatus. Kept in a bright spot, and watered rather heavily throughout the year,
under these conditions they will thrive and regularly produce their highly spectac-
ular blossoms. Unless they possess adequate active root-systems, however, an
initial period of establishment should be furnished, during which they are potted,
in relatively small, well-drained pots, in a mixture of one-half bark preparation
and one-half smallish tree-fern chunks. Heavy watering should be afforded them,
as well as regular applications of fertilizer (these to be continued when the plants
are transferred to the tree-fern slabs), with a pinch of Uramite a recommended
addition per pot. Transferral to the tree-fern .slabs should ideally be done imme-
diately after flowering, provided the plants have been in the "establishing" pots for
a sufficient length of time- usually only a few months-- to have produced an ade-
quate root-system. These airy little Oncidiums also, incidentally, do very well
in warm climates if attached to various sorts of citrus trees. There seems some
sort of beneficial affinity between the citrus bark and these delicate plants.

RE THE ORCHID WEEKLY. Please feel free to notify us of your wants, for only
through your suggestions and criticisms can we make the 0 W into the-publication
we wish it to be Please also tell your orchid-growing friends about us. With in-
creased circulation we can measurably augment the size and content of each issue,
and also gain the more "professional" appearance-- complete with illustrations--
for which we arc striving.. Sample copies arc available on request, by the way,
if one of your friends would like to see a recent issue. No charge is made.

P. 0. Box 33435
Coconut Grove 33, Florida pun

Return postage guaranteed C).Ili

Mr. Leo Bradley
Bliss Institute

Vol. 1, 8

THE ORCHID WEEKLY 22 August 1958 Vol. l,No. 13

A weekly publication devoted exclusively to orchids and their cultural require-
ments, designed expressly for the amateur collector. Issued by Orchids Un-
limited, 2800 Bird Ave., Coconut Grove 33, Fla. Editor: Alex D. Hawkes.
Price per copy (current), 25s. 3-month subscription (12 issues, dating from
current issue), $2.75, postpaid in the Continental U.S. Other subscribers are
served by air or surface mail-- please specify which when ordering-- with pos-
tage to be billed. Back issues are available; prices upon inquiry. All contents
copyright, 1958, by Alex D. Hawkes. Mailing address: P. 0. Box 33435, Co-
conut Grove 33, Florida, USA.

from 0 W 1(8): 83, 18 July 1958.) My third and final trip into "the bush" of
British Honduras in search of orchids (and, incidentally, almost my final trip
into "the bush" in search of orchids anywhere!) was an expedition of several
days' duration, although when we started cut, plans were to stay out only for
a single day. This trek took us to two major areas, the region of the Humming-
bird Highway, and the Mountain Pine Ridge, which is a government Forest Re-
serve. This trip, under the personal guidance of my erstwhile host, Jackie
A. Vasquez, was conducted in our dubiously faithful jeep, to which a delapida-
ted trailer on two wheels had been casually affixed. Personnel, in addition to
Mr. Vasquez, also included two native collectors from Guinea Grass (a ham-
let towards the northern frontier of the Colony) named Estcban and Ervin Mu-
noz, a youthful collector from Belize, Stephen Heusner, our driver Dudy Hope,
a female cook named Rita, two rather disreputable and consistently raucous
hounds named Chester and Terrible, and a thoroughly insect-bitten American,
named Alex D. Hawkes. All of this motley crew somehow managed to crowd
into the jeep and its trailer, together with all the strange and myriad equipage;
needed for a supposedly brief sojurn in the jungle. We started out at break-
neck speed from Belize, and just before "reaching the city limits (marked by a
well-filled cemetery, most of the inhabitants of which, ILam certain, had pre-
viously gone on similar junkets into "the bush"), the four-wheel drive shaft
fell off the jeep. Getting it welded back into place proved to be a hysterically
funny experieicee which took approximately-two hours; so. that it was totally
dark when once again-we set off into the wilds: This naturally slightly cur--
tailed my photographing the countr-yside. and any plants of, interest which we
might have encountered along the way. To add to the confusion, we picked
up a passenger, a dusky young lady whom.we delivered, in time, to a lumber
camp some thirty-odd milts from. Belize, a trip which, incredibly enough,, we
made without a single puncture or breakdown! We paused at the camp for a
very leisurely tea, then sped on into the moonlight to Roaring Creek, near the
entrance, to the Hummingbird Highway,- a relatively new road leading through
virgin jungle to the coastal community of Stann Creek. Our intrepid guide
Jackie perched on the hood of -the jeep as we drove down:the Highway, hoping
to sight some game with his head-lamp, but except for some wheeling; Night-
jars above the road, we saw nothing of note. The magnificent forest on all.
sides, with the great feathers of the palms rearing against the moon, made
a goose-pimple-inducing sight I will long' remember, and the pot-holed high-
way made calluses on my seat which will be with me a long time, too. We
pitched camp in a-roadside clearing, and passed a rather :completely miser-
able night, plagued by rhosquitos, sand-flies, .and other assorted biting in-,


sects, all of which seemed contemptuously impervious to our fine American
insecticides and repellants. Rain fell in sufficient amounts during the night
to turn our campsite into a red-clay morass of annoying viscosity, so that, as
I blearily greeted the magnificent sunrise, I slid- much like a graceless fig-
ure-skater-- rather than walked from my impromptu tent. My mattress for
the evening had been a Sears Roebuck air-mattress, designed for "big fun in
your home pool, but never for "big fun in a tent on the hard ground"! "It had
had all of the comforting effects of sleeping on a relief map of the Himalayas,
and my entire torso (where one could see it through the mosquito bites., et al.)
was, ere morn, of a particularly fetching corrugated structure. Breakfast
of lukewarm powdered coffee and sodden bread greeted us at this unconscion-
ably early hour (the strictly nocturnal Nightjars were still pirouetting around
the open space in which sulked our sagging tents and lean-tos), but at least it
cleared some of the cobwebs from my mind, and I began to greet the dawn with
glee and anxiety to get into "the bush." We made our ablutions in a muddy
ditch, and then took off into the tall jungle which we had briefly visited the night
before by the wavering light of Jackie's head-lamp, and which he now casually
informed me was a favored haunt .of the deadly Fer-de-lance! It was a fabulous
stretch of forest, with huge hardwood trees towering skyward, laced with pon-
derous twisted lianas, and with an amazingly wide variety of handsome palms
everywhere. Dwarf Geonomas only two to three feet tall bore lacquered ebcny.
berries on incredible inflated vermilion spikes; the spiny-trunked "Give and
Take" palm (Cryosophila sp.) was very common, and mammoth Cohunes (Qr-
bignya Cohune) reared their feather-duster tufts of foliage high into the leafy
canopy overhead. A very handsome ring-trunked fan-palm (possibly Sabal ma-
yarum) was scattered here and there, and a whole series of different kinds of
Bactris and Chamaedoreas littered the forest floor with their yellow and scar-
let fruits. The viciously spiny climbing palms of the genus Desmoncus made
their clutching presence known at almost every step of the way, as we gazed
up at the prodigious clumps of bromeliads and aroids gracing almost every tree.
Orchids here were disappointingly few, because of the density of the jungle, the
umbrage overhead not allowing sufficient light to penetrate for their best devel-
opment. We did encounter a few rather poor specimens of Oncidium luridum,
growing mostly on the reptilian lianas, Epidendrum cochleatum, E. rigidum,
and the odd little. Mac radenia lutescens. It was very evident that high in the tree-
tops a great variety of orchidaceous plants existed, where the supply of light
was more propitious for their growth. This area is literally filled with the
ruins of old Mayan settlements (as is, indeed, the entire Colony of British Hon-
duras), and in one such age-old spot, with moss-encrusted walls all about us,
we found a marvelous colony of two species of the lovely and justly famed "Je-
wel Orchids," Spiranthes acaulis and Erythrodes querceticola. The Spiranthes
possessed large rosettes of tongue-shaped leaves, lying flattened against the
humusy soil, these duLl green with longitudinal silvery stripes; the Erythrodes
bore smallish tortuous stems, set at intervals with lustrous grey-green leaves,
with intricate silvery veins and stripes. Since such ruins are particularly good
haunts for snakes, we poked about with caution, but saw nothing in the way of
unusual reptile fauna except for a few large beady-eyed lizards on the palm
trunks and lianas. Luncheon was served in the grand manner, all of us pick-
ing out handsfull from a couple of battered aluminum pie-tins, since the cook
had neglected to bring any silverware. Our helpers had caught a hairy arma-


Vol. 1, No. 13

22 August 1958. THE OR CHID WEEKLY 133

dillo, having had to .dig it out of its five-foot-deep lair in the ground, with
the very noisy assistance of Chester and Terrible, who were then permit-
ted to maul the, beast to death, for their help. Such uncalled-for cruelty
has always annoyed me very much, so that when the sand-encrusted hunks .
of the armadillo were served-- with the ubiquitous rice which accompanies .
almost every meal in the countfry-- my appetite was a bit the worse for
wear, and I could scarcely gag down the torn bits of meat, which in addi-
tion to having a peculiarly objectionable flavor, were also as tough as the
chitonous armor covering the animal to begin with! After luncheon, we <
drove on down the Hummingbird Highway beyond the large Sibun River to CQ
a new collecting area in the much higher, hilly jungle found there. Palms
are omnipresent in British Honduras, but nowhere during my travels in the
Colony did I see them in. greater abundance or variety than in this specta-
cular region. All of the genera previously encountered were here, plus
such new groups for the trip as Euterpe and Thrinax. Huge Philodendrons
with vivid scarlet fruits and paper-cut-out foliage adorned the larger trees,
and every trunk big enough supported a welter of orchids, bromeliads,
ferns, and other epiphytes. Showy Heliconias formed blotches of startling
color in the shady forest, and a wide variety of members of the Maranta
or Calathea Family (Marantaceae) carpeted the leafy ground, their large
foliage often beautifully variegated. One spot some distance from the
road, on a cliff overhanging a small, rapid-strewn stream, was a veri-
table aroid garden, with a very showy, heavy-leaved, "self-heading" Phi-
lqdendron perched on the trees, and a tremendous variety of both terres-
trial and epiphytic members of the family carpeted the ground, hung in
19ng loops from the bushes, or joined the handsome Philodendron in its
arboreal habitat. On the very edge of the precipice overhanging the creek
grew a -big clump of a very spectacular terrestrial brodnelihd (Pitcaiirnia
sp.),.,.with huge arching fountains of tubular orange-yellow blossom. I
felt I must have it, .so my friend Ervin offered to gather it for me; being
far more sure-footed than I. Just as he reached for the base of the"'cluiump,
he .drew back in horror, for coiled neatly at the base of the bromeflidd was
a very husky Fer-de-lance, ,its cuneate head poised and waiting 'for" his
hand,to come just a little closer- before striking. His immediate c-om'mcnt
was brief and to the point- but .unprintable. The snake, evi'd'ntly disturb-
ed by such reflection on its ancestry, slithered off d6wn to" a ledge some
ten fcct below the lip of the cliff. Our "great white hunter, Jacdklel, there-'
uponshot it, as it re-coiled malevolently there, and the thrashing corps
fell into. the water below, and was swept away. Some hours Iater, after we
had returned, to th. jeep on the highway, I remembered the Pitcairnia which
in our excitement we had completely forgotten to collect. 'Naturally, as is
so. often the cape., we did not again see this species on the.trip. Laden
down with trimmed clumps of the big Philodendron,. plus a wealth o;f' their
fascinating plants, we started.back towards the road fromrn the aroid garden
where- we. had found coiled death. A ponderous tree. H~dfallen across the
trail,, and we paused to inspect its upper branches, 'where one typihilly finds
many unusual (and,often rare) epiphytes, not readily founddlower-dbwn on
the trunks, and hence not generally visible from the gibound. Although the
tree had lain there for some time, and many of the orchidss and bromeliads


had been killed by the excessive, new exposure to the sun, some most inter-
esting things still remained, principally on the smaller branches and twigs.
Here were scattered plants of a Lycaste which I assume was L. aromatica,
the diminutive Polystachya foliosa covered with its spires of inverted, very
small, pale yellow flowers, Stelis rubens, Maxillaria uncata, and M. crassi-
folia. A winding trail led up a gradual slope from near this fallen forest
giant, and though it was growing fairly late, we decided to see what lay up ah-
ead a ways. The path-- apparently made by lumbermen-- soon entered a large
stand of very handsome tree-ferns, some of them towering fifteen and twenty
feet over our heads. A multitude of handsome Geonoma and Chamaedorea palms
grew everywhere, intermingled with several diverse species of melastomes (fa-
mily Melastomaceae), some with incredible russet-brown leaves almost two feet
long and eight inches wide, withdeeply impressed veins and a fantastic fuzzy
cinnamon-red-brown undersurface. Our feet were, by this time, growing tired
of plodding through the muddy sections which appeared on the trail at intervals
of every few yards or so, hence we decided to return to the highway, and take
a brief rest before continuing our wanderings
(To be continued)

GROWING ORCHIDS FROM SEED. Generally speaking, the propagation of or-
chids from seed is at best a rather difficult task. It is not; therefore; particu-
larly recommended for the beginning hobbyist. There are many people, scat-
tered throughout the country, who make a profession of sowing orchid seed. In
the event that you obtain some seed which you wish to grow, it is. strongly sug-
gested that you turn it over to one of these professionals, who have all the ne-
cessary equipment-- which includes such instruments as sterilizing autoclaves,
etc.-- and the knowledge for the undertaking. Their rates are customarily low,
and in most cases (assuming the seed you have furnished is viable and uncon-
taminated), excellent results may be guaranteed. (Names of some of these
professional orchid seed-d-owers may be obtained upon inquiry to the O W.)
Orchid seeds are tremendously fragile structures, possessed of almost no sto-
'red food materials, hence the person attempting to grow these plants from seed
must not only protect the minute seeds from injury and infestation by noxious
pests and fungi--to which they are particularly susceptible-- but must also fur-
nish the germinating proembryos with nutrients that they may continue to grow.
In nature, these food materials are supplied by a specialized type of beneficial
fungus, but when growing orchids under the artificial conditions of the collec-
tion, no such fungi are available, hence a special system (called asymbiotic)
must be utilized. Under the latter system, the orchid seeds are sown on va-
rious sterilized media-- usually agar jelly, which is produced from a sea-
weed- to which certain essential food-materials have been added and which
has been adjusted to a proper degree of acidity. Tubes or flasks, containing
already germinated seedlings-- often of very fine and valuable orchids-- are
now available from many sources at remarkably low prices. These contain
several dozens to several hundred well-established seedlings, generally al-
most ready for transplanting into community pots, and are. high recommended
to the orchidist who wishes to experiment with young seedlings, but does not
care to bother with actually sowing his own seed and waiting the requisite long
period for them to attain sufficient size to be taken from the flask 'stage.


Vol. 1, No. 13


THE GENUS CATTLEYA Part 4. (Cultural Bulletin No. 1) (Continued from
0 W 1(12): 122. 15 August 1958.) The major cultivated species and variants
are discussed further below:
(10g) Cattleya labiata var. Trianaei (tree-ah-nee-eyc) (Colombia) Name is
usually misspelled "Trianae.." Extremely variable, often vegetatively more
robust and larger than the .typical species, the few flowers to 8" across, paFr-.
ticularly variable in the degree of coloration of the lip-midlobe; sepals and d
broader petals varying from pure white or delicate rose-white to rich ame- r,
thyst-purple; lip-tube outside usually same color, as petals, rather narrow, o
the midlobe not expanded as widely as most other variants, often longer than'p
wide, usually rich magenta-crimson, sometimes as pale as the sepals and
petals, the disc broad, usually orange-yellow, often prolonged to lip-base 5
--:. the form of a broad band, sometimes streaked with pale purple, lilac, or
aglhite. Flowers usually from December to February, hence commonly known
N Es the "Christmas Orchid. Commonly called, in horticulture, Cattleya Tri-
t- ,y best-- and produces more abundant flowers-- if grown in a rather bright si-
Stuation, with almost full sun at all times, short of burning of the foliage. It
.'j~is among the most floriferous and satisfactory of the C. labiata variants.
O1h) Cattleya labiata var. Trianaci subvar. Schroederae (shrow-de-ree) (Co-
lombia) Differs from the var. Trianaei in the following respects: Flowers
usually larger, with stronger perfume, the petals broader, the lip-tube broa-
der and the midlobe much larger and frilled marginally, the disc very large
and bright or dull orange, the apical part of the midlobe !either pale or: bright
rose-purple, and the large sepals arid petals usually rather pale lilac. mlo-
wers are produced mostly from March to July. Usually grown as Cattleya
Schroederae. Cultural instructions as for var. Trianaei.
(10i) Cattleya labiata var. Warneri (war-ne-reye) (Brazil) Very close to
typical C. labiata, and often scarcely distinguishable from it, the flowers ap-
pearing, however, at a different season-. F-ls. very fragrant, to .8" across,
highly variable, the ss. and ps. usually pale rose more or less shaded with 0a
darker amethyst-rose. Lip with the tube colored like the s's. and ps.; mid-
lobe not paler on the margins, usually rich magenta-purple, sometimes with '.
darker veins; disc tawny-yellow or orange-yellow streaked With pale lilac or
white. Flowers mostly during June and July. Usually called Cattleya War-
neri in horticulture. Cultural conditions such as typical C. labiata art -re-
quired for best results with this "variant.
(10j) Cattleya labiata var. Warscewiczii-(var-she-vich- e--eye) (Colombia)
Variable, but not sd hAuc-h so as many other phases of the species, the flo-
wers to 1-1" across in rare cases (usually 7-9"), fragrant, very handsome,
the sepals and broader petals usually delicate rose. Lip with the tube most-
ly the same color as thd midlobe, the latter part rather fiddle-shaped, the
apical part broader and more spreading than the basal part, very deeply cleft
at the apex, mostly rich crimson-purple, sometimes mhottled and bordered
with paler crimsdn-purple; "disc' golden-yellow, often with 3 or more paral-
lel red-purple lines that are prolonged to the base of the lip, 'from which shor-
ter lines radiate obliquely on both sides; on each side of the diASc is a large
white or pale yellow blotch. Flowers mostly from July to early September.
This variant is customarily known as Cattleya gigas or Cattleya Warscewic-
zii in horticulture; C. Sanderiana and C. imperialis are other important

2Z August 1958



synonyms. In its native haunts, this handsome, very large-flowered variant
typically grows epiphytically (very rarely as a lithophyte) in full or almost full
exposure to the tropical sun. Such conditions must, naturally, be emulated
under cultivation, for proper production of the flowers.
(11) Cattleya Lawrenceana (law-ren-see-ah-nah) (Guianas, also possibly in S.E.
Venezuela and portions of N.W.Brazil) Rather similar in vegetative appearance
to C. labiata, but the pseudobulbs usually reddish-brown, to 15" long, and not as
distinctly club- or spindle-shaped. Leaf solitary, narrower than that of the other
species. Inflorescences 5-8-flowered, short-stalked, usually stiffly erect, the
large sheath usually brownish-purple. Flowers to 5" across, fragrant, long-
lived, the sepals and petals white, rose, or pale rose-violet, the lip with a very
long, slender tube, the midlobe brilliant rose-purple, often-mottled with pale
brownish, the throat white, this part flaring, deeply bilobed again at the front,
typically not crisped marginally. Flowers during the spring and early summer
months. This very handsome species has always been rare in collections, and
in recent years has virtually disappeared from cultivation. During the past few
months, however, it has once again been gathered in sufficient quantities in Bri-
tish Guiana to permit its being offered by- a few commercial establishments. In
the wild, this fine Cattleya usually.grows on gnarled, rather stunted, often deci-
duous trees along river-courses, hence under cultivation, strong light-expo-
Sure is necessary for best results.
(To be continued)
3 -- -- -- ------- -- ---- --- --------- ---- ------ -- ------ -----
QUESTION COLUMN. Our friends are cordially invited to send us their que-
ries, on all phases of orchidology, for possible inclusion in this regular sec-
tion of the O W. A self-addressed postal card should accompany each ques-
tion for which a written reply is desired. The most generally interesting que-
ries will be answered in this column. ... .Q: I sometimes have trouble getting
Cattleya flowers to open properly as rapidly as I think they should. Do you
have any suggestions ? -- R.W., Phoenix. A: Most Cattleya flowers require,
once their buds have reached maximum development, anywhere from two to
four days to fully expand. Perhaps you are a bit too impatient with them! If
buds still do not open properly, after a period of this length, attention should
be paid to the moisture given the plant, and the humidity in the air around it,
since a very dry atmosphere or inordinately dry conditions at the roots' may
slow down proper expansion. Once the buds do start to crack and open, it some-
times help to blow gently into it. Never use your fingers to attempt to force
open a slow-expanding blossom. You might only succeed in bruising the often
fragile sepals and petals, or even breaking them. . . Q: I have a perfectly de-
lightful cross between Epidendrum radiatum and Cattleya Bowringiana now in
bloom, and am a trifle confused regarding the correct name, since I have seen
it listed as both Epicattleya x Little Plum and as EC. x Frances Dyer. B. V.,
Homestead. A: If you really have this cross, you have neither of the above-
mentioned Epicattleyas, but Epicattleya x radiato-Bowringiana, which was reg-
istered by Veitch in 1898; a synonym is EC. x Sedenii. We contacted the origi-
nal hybridizer of what is commonly known, at least in South Florida, as EC. x
Little Plum, Mrs. Henriette Rudolph, and received the information that the Epi-
dendrum utilized in the cross was not E, radiatum, but rather E. fragrans! The
name EC. x Little Plum was, further, merely a "catalogue name, and the cor-


Vol. 1, No. 13


rect, registered name is thereby Epicattleya x Frances Dyer. Because of
the excessive confusion which exists in most American collections regar-
ding the identity of both Epidendrum radiatum and E. fragrans (as well as
many of the closely-allied species), we sincerely hope that both the origi-
nal Veitch cross and the more recent EC. x Frances Dyer do actually have
the noted Epidendrums in their parentage! . . .Q: During the months of Ju-
ly and August, I find I have virtually nothing in bloom in my collection. As
I like to have .at least a couple of plants flowering at all times, could you
suggest some species or hybrids that flower during this period ? -- E.R.,
Miami. A: A good start might be to inspect the list given elsewhere in this
issue of orchids now in bloom! .....

two months recently (early June to mid-August), we had in flower one of the
prized rarities in our collection, namely, Trichoglottis luzonensis. Since
seedlings of this handsome orchid, as well as a few crosses utilizing it in .
their parentage, will be on the market during this year, perhaps some ran-
dom comments concerning it will not be out of place, as it is very rarely '.c
even mentioned in the literature. Our specimen was received from its native Philippines several years ago, from a private collector in Manila; g2
the species appears to be restricted in its distribution to Luzon's Quezon
Province, being excessively rare even in its native haunts, where it grows
on large forest trees. A medium-size plant (our largest specimen is about
2 1/2' tall), it is more robust in all vegetative parts than most other mnem-
bers of the genus seen in' American collections, namely T. philippinensis,
T. brachiata, and T. rosea. The heavily leathery,- tongue- shaped leaves
reach a length of almost two feet, and are sometimes about two inches wide.
The inflorescences of T. luzonensis are borne from the leaf-axils near the
middle of the stem, and reach lengths of about three feet, with several do-
zens of flowers distributed in a very crowded panicle. Individual blos-
soms measure about 1 1/2" across, and are notably long-lasting, as men-
tioned above. Sepals and petals, which are very heavily fleshy, are a pret-
ty dull yellow hue, rather closely blotched and spotted transversely with
red-brown. The lip is mostly yellow, with a flush or red-brown on the me-
dian part of the bristle-cover'ed midlobe, In the horticultural literature,
this fine Trichoglottis is, .sometimes listed as Stauropsis luzonensis, or as
Vandopsis Kupperiana.

ORCHIDSIN_BLOOM. Quite recently, we paid a visit to Fantastic Gardens,
in South Miami. As usual, many interesting orchids were in blossom, and
since the hot summer months are often notable for the lack of flowering spe-
cies, we made a list of the things we found there. These were: Anoectochi-
lus regalis, Brassavola cordata, B,- cucullata, and B. nodosa, Brassia cau-
data and B, longissimda Broughtonia sanguinea, Bulbophyllum medusae and
B. picturatum-, 'several Cattleya:s, ZEpidendrum brevifolium, E. ciliare, E.
cochloatum, E. prismatocarpurii, E.trialiatum, 'E. tampeine (Bahamas form),
Euktophidium Ledieni, Gongora armeniaca, Leochiltis cochlearis, Lockhartia
Oerstedii, Miltonia Warscewiczii, Notylia pentachne, Odontoglossum Kra-
'meri, Oncidium Aloisii, 0. carthagenense, 0. ensatum, 0. Lanceanum, 0.

ZZ Auglist 1958


leucochilum, 0. lucayanum, 0. pumilum, 0. sp. (Brazil), 0. stenotis, 0.
urophyllum, Phalaenopsis Mannii, Polyrrhiza Lindenii.

ORCHIDS ON CORK-BARK We have an inquiry-from B.G.J4, Orlando, re-
garding the use of cork-bark for orchids. Under certain conditions, many
orchids seem to thrive on these pieces of bark from the cork-oak, which are
naturally porous (and hence retain moisture well, and for a. long period of
time), and last without deteriorating for several years. Best results seem
to be obtained by transferring orchids which have copious active root-sysdems
from their pots directly to the bark-slabs, these being affixed by means of
wires tied tautly across the plants, or by galvanized wire staples driven over
the rhizomes into the bark itself. It is recommended that a small pad of os-
munda be placed under the plant, against the bark, as this still, further aug-
ments the retention of moisture, which is most essential. As is the case in
any such apparatus on which orchids are mounted, it is very necessary that
the plants be-tig-htly affixed against the surface of the bark-- if the. orchid can
wobble about at all, its attachment to the bark will be slowed down apprecia-
bly. These cork-slabs are particularly recommended for orchids coming from
relatively dry area's, or from areas which during at least part of the year are
subjected to protracted dry seasons. Good results have been obtained by gro-
wing the following plants on cork-bark (amoog others, of course): Br'oughtonia
sanguine; many Mexican Epidendrums such as E. nemorale, E. Mariae, and
E. profusum, all of which possess prominent pseudobulbs; certain of the small,
Antillean Oncidibtns with equitant, fleshy leaves, such as 0. variegatum, 0.
urophyllum, 0. tetrapetalum, 0. triquetrum, etd.; and many of the Brassavolas,
such as B. cordataa, B. cucullata, and B. nodosa.

DENDROBIUM HARVEYANUM, This very seldom.sseen Dendrobium is certain-
ly to be ranked among the most magnificent aid unusual of its genus. Fringed
labellums are rather frequent in orchids, but it is a rare occurrence indeed to
encounter the fringes on the petals of the flowers as well, as we do in this fine
plant. In D. Harveyanum, the branching filaments which make up the petal-
fringe are much more greatly developed than those on the lip, giving a most
unique appearance to the blossoms when they are fully expanded. First intro-
duced from Burma by the Livezrpool Horticultural Co., the initial blooms in
England were produced in the collection of one Enoch Harvey, of Aigburth, Li-
verpool, in 1883. Reichenbach described it as a new species the same year,
though at first he considered that it might be a peloric, or freak-- a condition
which we now know not to be the case Allied to Dendrobium capillipes Ldl.,
our species has spindle-shaped, rather angular pseudobulbs to-about twelve
inches tall1 topped with a pair or more of wide leathery leaves, The abbrevi-
ated racemes bear up to eight flowers, each measuring slightly more than two
inches in diameter, These honey-scentedj long-lived blossoms are typically
deep golden-yellow, the flattened lip usually being blotched with orange medi-
ally. It is an extraordinary Dendrobium, and one which certainly offers much
to the hybridist who works with this' popular group of orchids. It is today very
rare in collections, both here and abroad.

Vol. 1, No. 13



this popular species and its Panamanian variant has been received from J. K.,
Sebring, Fla.; this reader would like to know how to differentiate the two
plants. Vegetatively, it is almost impossible to distinguish the species--
which ranges from Mexico to Costa Rica, skips Panama, and occurs again
in Colombia, Venezuela, and possibly Trinidad- from var. autumnalis,
which is confined to the Republic of Panama, insofar as we now know. The
variant is typically somewhat more robust in its pseudobulbs than the typi-
cal species, but certain phases of straight C. Skinneri which have grown in
very bright sunlight are also squat in habit. Flowers of both the species and
its variant are very similar, measuring- in very fine forms-- upwards of
3 1/Z" in diameter, and being borne in racemes of four to twelve; the var.
autumnalis generally has markedly smaller blossoms than the typical phase
Sepals and petals of both vary from glittering rose to true purple (the very W
rare var. alba of the species is pure white, with often a touch of pale yel- t
low or green in the throat), but in the species the lip-disc and throat are -
whitish to white, while in the variant these portions are dark purple. Fur-
ther, straight C. Skinneri normally flowers during the spring and early sumrn
mer months, whereas var. autumnalis-- as its name would indicate-- blos- .
soms mostly in September and October.

FERTILIZE IN WET WEATHER ? Several orchidists, notably some in the
South Florida area, have during the past month or so written or called in to
ask whether a regular program of fertilizing should be carried on during wet,
rainy weather. This is, especially in an area such as ours-- where torren-
tial rains this time of year are commonplace, and where many of our plants
are grown outside without the protective influence of glass or plastic cover-
ings- a rather oft-asked question. Although it is now generally conceded
that orchids for the most part do require regular fertilizing, if they are to
grow to optimum strength, it seems rather pointless to apply fertilizing ma-
terials during a period when such materials are almost instantly sluiced
away through the compost of the plants, and thereby have little opportunity
to exert their beneficial nutritive effects on the plants themselves. A good
heavy rain naturally throws considerably more water-- with greater force--
into a given pot of orchids than does an average watering with a garden hose.
This will, almost automatically, tend to leach out, with great rapidity, the
fertilizing materials which have been applied, whether they were placed on
in a dry state, or in solution in the water. About the only solution to this
problem-- particularly when the rains are as frequent as ours have been in
this Miami region of late-- is to try to fertilize early in the morning on a'
day in which one hopes there will be no rain, or preferably on a day which
one hopes will be followed by several rain-less days. If, by chance, the
weather bureau falls down on the job, and rain does appear on such a sup-
posedly "dry" day, one should try again, for even during these rain-filled
weeks of ours, the orchids still, for the most part, need their regular quo-
ta of additional nutrients, which can only be given them through fertilizers.

COCKROACHES AND THEIR PREVENTION. In many collections of or-
chids, cockroaches and "palmetto bugs" are a distinct problem-- and most
assuredly an annoying one! They seem endowed&-A-ithoo0ne sort of beastly

ZZ August 1958



sixth sense, which permits them to find-- often in highly illogical places-- ev-
en the smallest of flower-spikes or the tiniest of new growths, and always on
highly prized specimens.! They invariably pass by plants of no especial value,
and single out the solitary specimen which is most prized and most rare, for
their chawing activities. Cockroaches and their immediate relatives are pre-
valent in warm areas of this country especially during the summer months,
but at least here in South Florida they are with us throughout the year, in more
or less large numbers. They are particularly common in collections in which
the plants are crowded, and in which large amounts of accessory, ornamental
foliage is present. Several excellent preventive against these noxious insects
are now available on the market, almost all at reasonable prices. We believe
that Chlordane is about the most efficacious, if it is used with regularity, and
at rather frequent intervals over a period of several weeks, so that the entire
cockroach colony will be killed out-- not just the adults, leaving the eggs to
hatch and produce a new generation of destruction. Chlordane may be dusted
dry on the plants, or sprayed on in solution (often with fertilizer); it should
always be remembered, though, that this substance is poisonous to humans
(and to pets), and its use must be accompanied by extreme caution!

SAMPLE COPIES OF THE ORCHID WEEKLY are available for distribution to
interested persons who apply for them, gratis. Please tell your friends about
the only weekly publication in history exclusively devoted to orchids and their
cultural requirements, and let us know about them, so that we may send them
a free sample copy !

P. 0. Box 33435
Coconut Grove 33, Florida

Return postage guaranteed

Printed Matter

Val. 1, No. 113



A weekly publication devoted exclusively to orchids -'nd their cultural require-
ments, designed expressly for the amateur collector. Issued by Orchids Un-
limited, 2800 Bird Ave., Coconut Grove 33, Fla. Editor: Alex D. Hawkes.
Price per copy (current), Z5. 3-month subscription (12 issues, dating from
current issue), $2.75, postpaid in the Continental U.S. Other subscribers are
served by air or surface mail-- please specify which when ordering- with pos-
tage to be billed. Back issues are available; prices upon inquiry. All contents
copyright, 1958, by Alex D. Hawkes. Mailing address: P. 0. Box 33435, Co-
conut Grove 33, Florida, USA.

NOTES ON PHALAENOPSIS EQUESTRIS. In the August issue of the American
Orchid Society's Bulletin, we find an interesting article entitled "White Phalae-
nopsis with Red Lips," by Mr. Herb Hager. One of the principal species dis-
cussed is Phalaenopsis rosea, and since this is a synonymic name, now refe-
rable to P. equestris, we believe some comments concerning it will not be out
of place at this time. Mr. Hager notes that this species is one of the parents
'(with P. x Pua Kea) of the very handsome Phalaenopsis x Sally Lowrey, of whici
the very handsome variant, 'Debutante, is illustrated in the frontispiece of the
periodical mentioned. P. equestris, itself a small-flowered plant, brings to
a large percentage of its progeny vividly-colored lips, hence its increasing im-
portance to breeders working with this fabulous genus of "Moth Orchids. The
nomenclatural history of this species is rather simple, the first name being
given it having been that of Stauroglottis equestris, by Schauer. Phalaenopsis
rosea was a name applied to the same plant by Lindley several years after its
description by Schauer; Reichenbach made the now-accepted combination of
Phalaenopsis equestria-- based on Stauroglottis-- in 1849. Unfortunately, as
is so often the case, the registration authorities are still accepting this syno-
nym, P. rosea, for the establishment of new hybrids, when P. equestris is
the name which should always be used! For example, as recently as April of
this year, the official registry lists of "New Orchid Hybrids" acknowledges
registration of Phalaenopsis x Manila Sunset, by John H. Miller, the paren-
tage being indicated as P. x Rothschildiana'and P. rosea! Evidently one
of the most common species of the genus in its native Philippines, P. eques-
tris was first introduced into European collections by Messrs. Veitch, in the
year 1848, through their collector, Thomas Lobb. In Veitch's "A Manual of
Orchidaceous Plants, it is noted as "abundant in the hot valleys and along
the streams in the neighborhood of Manila, and is spread generally over the
island of Luzon, often associated with Phalaenopsis Aphrodite and P. Schil-
leriana. This -species is a rather small one for the genus, its heavily
leathery leaves usually not exceeding about six inches in length; they are usu-
ally oval in shape, and obtuse and slightly indented at the tip. The mostly
prettily arching flower-spikes attain a length of about a foot, and bear from
five to about fifteen smallish blossoms, which vary considerably in dimen-
sions, and somewhat so in coloration. These inflorescences are occasional-
ly branched, to form a loose panicle; the basal peduncle is pale green, but
the apical, flower-bearing rachisw- which is typically vaguely zigzag and
markedly thickened- is most often dull purplish. This rachis elongates
for some time, and continues to produce the blooms over a rather long pe-
riod of time. Individual flowers of Phalaenopsis equestris gvay. 8iLuc

29 August 1958

Vol. 1, No. 14


from about three-quarters of an inch to more than one and a quarter inch. Flo-
ral hue varies considerably from clone to clone, the most characteristic phase
having white sepal-s and petals, with a dull reddish-purple stain especially in the
central part of the sepils, and often.even a darker one on the petals; other pha-
ses have both sepals and petals a uniform rose-red hue. The three-lobed lip is
typically darker in color than the other segments, most customarily with the in-
curving lateral .lobes .bright rose-purple, often with a few longitudinal dark pur-
ple streaks on the inside, and the short-clawed, ovate, acute midlobe brown at
the base, the apical part vivid rosy-purple. The basal callus is usually bright
yellow with more or less numerous, red dots, while the column is stained or suf-
fused with pale rose-purple. This charming species usually flowers during the
fall and winter months,, often over'a period of many weeks. Phalacnopsis e-
questris (the name, by the way, is pronounced cee-kwss-triss) has to date been
utilized by the breeders on a relatively few occasions, although almost without
exception the resultant progeny have proven to be most attractive and unusually
interesting. With the ever-increasing interest evinced today in Smaller', more
vividly-colored Phalaenopsis flowers, it is anticipated'that this delightful little
plant will .find its position more and more as a parent in carefully planned cross-
es within this genus. TILEE -LI3\
- - -TT1BRA.t 8V-C.V ,
The Orchid Review, in the- regular registry lists of "New Orchid Hybrids, /we
find one new bigeneric cross which delights us to the core! This is W W.G.
Moir's hybrid between Vanda x Frank Scudder and Acampe longifolia (not "lon-
gifolium" as written in the listing), which has been given the mildly hilarious
epithet, of Vancampe x Beans Several years ago Mr. Moir wrote us that he
had succeeded in hybridizing the odd monopodial genus Acampe with Vanda, and
in correspondence we discussed what a suitable epithet for the new hybrid should
be.. Acampanda sounded rather pompous, and a bit like some fuzzy raccoon-like
relative from Tibet,. so the rather obvious Vanc.ampe came up-- even though it
did ring in a sly commercial advertisement ifor a well-known brand of baked beans.
We discussed what the Vancampe should be called, "specifically, and both of us
concurred that this hamee .should follow through with the idea, hence we were tru-
ly delighted to see the official registry of the new hybrid as Vancampe x Beans.
Does it not seem possible that, in time, this obviously most interesting cross
(which we earnestly hope has brown flowers, in keeping with its title!) .may" con-
ceivably become the official City Flower of the City of Boston ?

THE GENUS CATTLEYA Part 5. (Cultural Bulletin No. ,.l) (Continued. from
0 W 1(13): 136. 22 August 1958.) The major cultivated species a-d-their vari-
ants are discussed further below:
(12) Cattleya Loddigesii (law-di-jeh-see-eye) (Brazil, Paraguay) .Rather simi-
lar in habit to C. Fbrbesii, often sotnmewhat larger and more robust. Inflorescen-
ces short, 2-6-flowered, with a rather small sheath at basu. Flo&rers rather va-
riable, to 4 1/2" across, waxy, fragrant, long-lived, the sepalt and broader, un-
dulate-margined petals usually blush-white, sometimes flushed' (especially on the
petals) with darker rose. "Lip slightly 3-10bed, the lat-e-ral lobes curving over the
column, mostly colored like sepals and petals; rnidlbbe broad, almost square,


Vol. I,. No. I zi


usually crisped marginally, light to dark rose or lilac-rose, the disc almost
smooth, cream-white or creamy-yellow. Flowers usually during the fall
months, especially in August and September. Very easily grown, this fine
species delights in a rather sunny situation, although not so bright that the
fleshy (rather rigid) foliage becomes burned.
(12a) Cattleya Loddigesii var. Harrisoniana (ha-ri-sow-nee-ah-nah) (Bra-
zil) Differs from the typical species in having mostly-longer, more slen-
der, stem-like pseudobulbs, the leaves not as rigid and usually paler in co-
lor. Flowers more flattened, somewhat larger for the most part, the disc
of the lip corrugated and dark yellow or orange-yellow, the lateral margins
of the midlobe reflexed4 Flowers about the same time a's the typical species.
This variant is usually known in horticultural circles as Cattleya Harrisoni-
ana, C. Harrisoniae, or C. Harrisonii. Cultural requirements as for the
species, This handsome variant is often more common in cultivation than
is straight C. Loddigesii, oddly enough, M
(13) Cattleya luteola (loo-tee-oh-lah) (Brazil: Amazon Region; Peru) A r
pretty dwarf species, with ovoid, slightly compressed pseudobulbs to 4" in .1_
length. Leaf solitary, rather rigidly leathery, to 5" long..and 3/4" wide,
emarginate or obtuse at apex. Inflorescences shorter than the leaf, mostly -;-
Z-6-flowered, with a small sheath. Flowers often not opening fully, to a
maximum of 2" across, waxy, long-lived, delightfully fragrant (or odorless),
pale lemon- or butter-yellow, the margins of the midlobe of the lip usually
white or whitish, the lip-tube often streaked with dull purple or red inside.
Flowers usually in the winter, during November and December for thu most
part; certain phases, however, blossom more than once annually. This ve-
ry small ally of C. labiata requires somewhat more shaded conditions than
do most of its relatives. Growing typically on large forest trees in the hot,
muggy Amazonian forests of Brazil and eastern Peru, it naturally requires
strictly tropical conditions in our collections.
(14) Cattleya maxima (mak-si-mah) (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru) Pseudo-
bulbs usually almost cylindrical, sometimes club-shaped in upper part, 4-
15" long, usually becoming somewhat compressed and furrowed with age.
Leaf solitary, to 10" long, rigidly leathery, rather narrow. Inflorescences
erect or arching, 3-15-flowered, to as much as I' tall. Flowers to 5" ac-
ross (often smaller), fragrant, long-lived, somewhat heavy-textured, the
sepals and petals pale (or rather bright) glossy-rose, the tube, of the lip the
same color, its midlobe spreading, crisped marginally, pale rose or whi-,
tish with a citron-yellow band traversing the entire.length of the tube, on
either side of which are numerous branching purple or rosy-purple lines
running obliquely from it. This very spectacular, multiflorous species usu-
ally flowers during the fall and winter months. Its cultural requirements are
those of the genus, and especially that of C. labiata. In the wild, it often in-
habits stunted, gnarled, deciduous trees, hence is exposed to bright light for
much of the year.
(To be continued)
from 0 W 1(13): 134. 22 August 1958.) After getting our breaths for a lit-
tle while, we once again took off-- the jeep now becoming laden down with a

29 August 1958



motley pile of rare plants that would make even the most jaded of collectors a
pallid chartreuse hue with sheer envy-- down the narrow yet relatively smooth
Hummingbird Highway, in the direction of Stann Creek. Driving along rather
slowly, we kept our eyes open for interesting orchids on the trees, and after a
couple of miles, I finally yelled out for Dudy to stop the jeep-- there was some-
thing on a big, leaning tree just off the road that looked very "different. The
entire hilarious entourage-- people, dogs, and all-- piled helter-skelter out of
the jeep and its over-burdened trailer; a bemused bystander would have thought
we were straight out of some wandering circus or carnival. As is customary
on such precious occasions, all of us (even the usually exhaustingly yelping
hounds, Chester and Terrible) approached the great tree with a solemn silence,
with nine mud-stained faces strained eagerly upward, and nine pairs of blood-
shot eyes staring at the mysterious orchids perched some twenty-five feet or
so from the ground. Naturally, we had neglected to bring the binoculars which
were supposed to be in the jeep in Belize, so it was rather difficult to ascertain
exactly what the robust clumps of green-bulbed plants were from our lowly po-
sition far below them. It is often rather easy to distinguish orchid plants in
the trees far overhead, from some usually indefinable "character" of their
appearance, but every so often something comes along that fits into no such
pat pattern, and then the observer is vague and undecided. I was more than
a little vague, and certainly most undecided, about the plants above us, but I
was extremely desirous to obtain them-- if only to examine them at closer
range. Now the grand problem arose: Who is going to climb the tree ?
We tried poking the plants off with a forked sapling which Jackie had slashed
with his machete but this seemed to be merely tearing the pseudobulbs into
little pieces, and had no effect on dislodging the clumps from their aerial
perch. Since I exhibit-- when more than two feet off terra firma-- all of the
grace and agility of a knock-kneed water buffalo, and Rita had on a skirt, and
the dogs were too busy searching for local fauna, and Dudy was the chauffeur,
and Stephen was too young and skinny, and Esteban was Ervin's father, we all
looked at Ervin, who shrugged his young, broad shoulders, mumbled some-
thing vaguely obscene under his breath, and started clambering up a liana in
the general direction of the tree. He first became thoroughly entangled in a
very spiny Desmoncus palm-vine, and then evidently sat down on a very fer-
tile nest of fire-ants, who had picked that particular overhanging branch for
their abode. Finally, though, after considerable more profanity (much of it
sp8-ken in Maya, which seems to be a language liberally sprinkled with such
idiomatic expressions), the orchids came careening down, bringing with them
into our outstretched arms and open maws a fascinating variety of insect
life, dirt, crushed leaves', bark, and one of Ervin's soft shoes. I had never
before collected Brassia mac-ulata, hence it-still did not register at first what
I held in my simply filthy hands, but finally-- through a very odd, devious
process of elimination of all possibilities-- I decided that that was what the
plants were. The species (a very handsome and spectacular one, inciden-
tally) is recorded from British Honduras, but is apparently very rare in the
Colony. We decided to spend a while in this spot, since the inner forest
beyond our big Brassia tree looked rather inviting. A glance at the sky told
us that we did not have too long to tarry, without shelter (and the canvas co-
verings on both the jeep and the trailer- which were tied on with a mixture
of hope, spit, and tattered twine-- had all of the protective value of a per-


Vol4' 1, No. 14


forated sieve), for the clouds were building up into gigantic bruise-colored
fists all along what of the horizon was visible over the trees. With charac-
teristic casualne-ss, we therefore simply left the jeep open to the elements
(with my precious camera nonchalantly lying on the floor of the front scat), c-
and wandered off by twos and threes into the woods, to see what we could ':4
find of interest. Ervin and I paired off, each carrying a large, dank, fil-
thy burlap bag-- which I find is indispensable to proper collecting of orchids
and other rare plants in the wild. My companion also had his beaten-up,
obviously long-used machete, 'and I sported my favorite pen-knife in my pock-,
et, in case of further attacks by Fer-de-lances, jaguars, tapirs, or large,
grisly spiders-- all of which occur in this region. Our first "find" was no
further than twenty feet from the highway-- another leaning great tree laden
with fleshy-rooted clumps of an epiphytic Sobralia. of dwarf habit (possibly
S. fragrans), and a big-bulbed Lycaste which may have been L. aromatica.
Ervin first noted the fabulous little "Jewel Orchids" which were growing by
the dozens all around our feet, in mossy rock-interstices, on rotten logs,
and in pockets of humus in very shady spots- our friend Erythrodes quer-
ceticola again. We wandered down a vague path-- my companion said it
had probably been made by "Mountain Cows" (tapirs)-- across a rock-stud-
ded crystalline stream which invited us to quench our thirst, and into a ve-
ry wonderful glade set with smallish, extremely straight and tall trees,
mixed with the spectacular fan-palm which I believe may be Sabal maya-
rum. Every tree bore a fascinating variety of scattered epiphytes, and
underneath grew the now bo-ringly common "Jewel Orchids"-- literally by
.the thousands! Maxil.arias, Pleurothallis, Epidendrums, Lycastes, and
several other kinds of orchids were here, and an incredible pendulous, flat-
stemmed epiphytic R hipsalis cactus dangled its translucent-.berried clumps
down as much as two feet from the perpendicular tree-trunks. As I was
assiduously gathering some of these cactus-fruits (realizing that the chances
of getting the very fleshy plants through fumigation alive were slim indeed),
the monsoon arrived! There was no warning, except for a gutteral mut-
ter of thunder far away, and then the solid sheet of white rain cascaded drown.
Ervin immediately, with great presence of mind, I thought, dropped his bur-
lap bag, while I staunchly continued picking my berries. He cut three of the
great fan-leaves from the Sabal palm, and welcomed me into his impromptu
shelter. Regrettably, the area in which we were collecting was slightly lo-
wer than the crystalline stream we had crossed, so that it soon overflowed
and we found ourselves crouched on our haunches in about three inches of
remarkably frigid water. The palm-leaves leaked, too, so finally I became
bored and wandered out from urider the "shelter" and started picking my
berries again. (The reader will doubtless be vastly amused to know that
not a single seed from this epiphytic Rhipsalis germinated, after I sent
them back in in a letter.) Finally, the deluge ceased, and I found my
camera floating casually in the still-open jeep,. as my friends came out
from under their palm-shelter at the side of the highway, not ten feet from
the car. They had forgotten about the camera, and had not wished to get
any wetter, so hadn't bothered to put up the canvas coverings! Oddly enough,
after dumping the water out'of the case, the camera seemed not the worse
for its baptism, and most of the kodachromes taken subsequently (and just

29 August 1958



previously) came out remarkably well, conside-ring. After a few rather indig-
nant comments-- delivered in good old English-- from me, to all and sundry,
we spent a wasted half-hour searching for the accursed hounds, and then star-
ted off again, I still clutched my precious cactus-seeds close to my bosom.
Now we were again in an area characterized by a tremendous variety of hand-
some and spectacular trees and other large plants, all crowding up to the sides
of the narrow highway. Majestic, incredibly graceful tree-ferns dotted every
gulch or low, moist area. A large, vivid pink-flowered liana carpeted the tops
of the taller forest trees; it was a member of the- Bignonia Family (Bignoniaa-:
ceae), we found when we stopped to pick up some big flowers which had fallen
from far above, but I could not give any idea of its generic identity. The om-
nipresent Cecropias were very common here, two species at least seeming to
be represented, with their handsome silvery-grey, hand-shaped leaves form-
ing -a startling contrast against the varied greens of the surrounding jungle.
Here and there was a lovely scarlet-flowered tree which I did not know, the
blossoms borne in sheets on the flattened upper sides of the branches. The
tremendous variety of plants -here was actually so great that it would not real-
ly register in my mind. Everywhere I looked, there were dozens of new and
inordinately exciting new plants-- things I had not seen before, things I had
never seen before! For a person truly and deeply interested in tropical plants,
it was a most exhausting mental experience. As we drove along the high-
way, I continued to think of what the natives call this Colony of British Hondu-
ras-- "The Empty Land." It is, indeed, an empty country, for nowhere else
that I have ever been in the American tropics could one drive for mile after
mile without seeing any living thing, except for occasional birds 'or perhaps
a scuttling, plume-tailed coatimundi. In this once tremendously populous
Cayo District (which boasted of a population of hundreds of thousands at the
time of the Mayas), it is more than a little disconcerting to drive so far--
and never see any people. Even in the furthest reaches of southern Mexi-
co's State of Chiapas, I constantly ran across people, even in the most illo-
gical of localities, far removed from any visible habitation. After driving
on for a while more and doing a bit more rather desultory collecting, we de-
cided to return to our campsite, with its morass of muck and mud, which I
knew would now be deeper and more slippery-- if that were possible. We
stopped at the Sibun River settlement to buy a turkey for dinner, which after
the hairy armadillo business, I thought was a very palate-tickling idea. I
lounged in the jeep (if one can-lounge against a large heavy odoriferous
hound-dawg named -Terrible- or Chester, I could never differentiate them
one from the other-- who had aspirations to be a lap-dog), waiting with im-
patience while Jackie and Dudy haggled with the tall, lanky Negro who appa-
rently had the priceless turkey. My friends returned carrying a package
carefully wrapped in Heliconia leaves, and I thought that it must either be
a disjointed turkey, or else a rather small and doubtless very succulent
one. My heart sank and my gorge vaguely rose as I was informed that they
had not obtained a turkey, but had been very lucky and had gotten a Gibnot!
Another one of those accursed Pacas, which I had had foisted on me at -Big
Falls, and which I still envisioned as hyperthyroid rats! But at that juncture
I would cheerfully (almost gleefully) have eaten either Chester or Terrible,
so I contained myself, and we drove off, through a marvelous grove of fan-


Vol. 1, No. 14


tactic, big-leaved balsa trees whichovecrhung the highway. Not too far from
our soggy camp, we stopped to inspect a huge, recently cut tree which lay just
off the road, but almost hidden by some small bushes, so that we had not no-
ticed it when we had driven by previously. It measured fully a hundred feet
from massive stump to the furthest branch, and we started collecting, wading
knee-deep in the bog into which it had thoughtlessly been felled. In all, in
slightly more than fifteen minutes' collecting, we found more than 30 spe-
cies of epiphytic orchids on this single tree-- and this does not count the li-
terally numberless bromeliads, aroids, ferns, mosses, gesneriads, lichens,
etc., which cloaked every available inch with vegetation! Here were such new
things for the trip as Epidendrum ramosum, E. ionophlebium, E. pygmaeum,
E. bractescens, E. strobiliferum, E. nocturnum; Elleanthus sp.; Maxillaria
uncata, M. Camaridii, M. Friedrichsthalii, M. Houtteana, M. sp., Lycaste
sp. (probably L. aromatica), Jacquiniella leucomelana, Trigonidium Egerto-
nianum, two distinct Sobralia spp., an unusual Scaphyglottis, two Polystach-
ya spp., Oncidium carthagenense (?), a delectable dwarf Stelis imbedded in
sodden moss and in full majestic flower (the whole specimen about 1/2" in
height!), and three Pleurothallis species-- P. Grobyi, P. yucatanensis, and
P. Ghiesbrcghtiana. This is not the total list, either! Several of the speci-
mens collected simply did not "ring a bell" with me, identification-wise, ahid
I am still dubious about what some of them were. I walked down the prone
length of the trunk, and found myself in a serpent's-nest of muscular lianas
of several different kinds of aroids, with their grasping roots still tightly af-
fixed to the bark; the most spectacular of these was a lai-ge, perforated-
leaved Monstera, rather close to M. obliqua. At the severed base of the tree
I paused and looked around me. Many handsome Chamaedorea palms were
-almost at my elbow-- some with magnificent showy fruits in immense vivid
scarlet clusters, others with tiny, lacquered, ebony-black fruits borne on
inflated flesh-colored rachillae. Most of the trees were fully as large as
the giant on whose trunk I was standing, -and virtually every one was cloaked
with ponderous serpentine viney aroids-- Monsteras, Philodendrons, and
the like-- forming almost solid sheets of varied foliage and obscuring the
trunks of their hosts. Jackie and I ate our dinner off folded Heliconia
leaves, lounging in the middle of the Hummingbird Highway. Since it soon
grew dark, we continued to lie on the road after we had finished our Gibnot
and rice, talking about things in general, and planning the next day's acti-
vities-- which I was certain would be as fascinating as this day's had been.
I believe that it is indicative of the rushing traffic on this thoroughfare to
mention that.during our sojurn of approximately two hours-- flat on our backs
on the asphalt- we had tc move only once, .and this was for a Department
of Forestry truck, which of course stopped for a chat. After our Gibnot
had been partially digested, we decided to drive in to Roaring River, to the
bibulous "Midway Club, for a beer or something, and so that I dould in-
scribe the scrabbled notes from which these articles are taken by electric
illumination. Our host at the Club was most compatible: -he chatted in the
oddly clacking Maya tongue with Jackie, gave me a chance to practice my
Spanish, and spoke the local version of.English with his other customers,
and with Chester and Terrible, who of course were along with us-- although
they spent most of the evening creating havoc in the chicken-yard and pig-

Z9 August 1958


pens. Rum, which must be considered to be the national drink of the Colony,
comes in three delicious flavors, and it was here at Roaring River that this fact
first hit me-- with a tremendous impact, I must say! This is because I was
invited, as a guest of the house, to partake of samples of all three types, not
all at once, fortunately, but individually, to better savor their unique flavors
and devastating results. At this time, I am not sure which is worse-- perhaps
one should mix all of them together and just sink into blissful technicolor obli-
vion. The triad of types is: (1) White, (2) Speciali which is cinnabar-brown,
and (3) Green, which is oddly and regrettably flavored with anise and pepper-
mint. After my research into the matter (and this has very little to do with or-
chids, but is mentioned here only as a warning to visitors to the countryy!, I
can vouch for the following salient facts: (1) White B.H. rum tastes like rub-
bing alcohol, (2) Special B. H. rum tastes vaguely like creosote or what ever
it is that they use to cover light poles-- but it gets worse, and seems to some-
how paralyze the vccal cords, and (3) Green BsH. rum is so completely incre-
dible that words fail me! It is also ari-azingly potent, and leaves a peculiar
verdant lichenous growth on one's tongue the next morning-- remarkably like
the greenery which is found on Odontoglossum pots when they are properly cul-
tivated. It is d lively Irish green hue, and is typically retailed in old soda-
pop bottles with the original labels still attached--- btit Pepsi-Cola never tas-
ted like this After this marathon of an introduction into the local imbibing
habits, we drove rather unsteadily back to our camp, and I greeted even my
mountainous air-mattress with genuine affection The new day promised to
bring yet more fascinating, unusual, hysterical, annoying, funny experien-
ces, in this land of British Honduras i.
(To be continued)
--_ t __ _- .*- --- -_ ------ ---- ---- ---- -- ------ ---- k_---- ------ -- -------
QUESTION COLUMN. Our friends are cordially invited to send us their que-
ries, on all phases of orchidology, for possible inclusion in this regular sec-
tion of the O Wi A self-addressed postal card should accompany each ques-
tion for which a written reply is desired. The most generally interesting que-
ries will be answered in this column. ; ;Q: My Epidendrum Schumannianum
I bought from Harry Dunn (in Panama) two years ago has one new growth, and
has not flowered. It merely lives, but does not thrive. -- M.B., Palo Alt6,
Calif. A: This very spectacular "reed-stem" type Epidendrum occurs mostly
in the cool, perpetually damp "cloud forests' of central and northern Panama,
at 3000 to 4500 feet altitude. We have collected this orchid in the-Province of
Cocle, and found it usually growing in densely-foliaged trees, with the four to
six foot stems mostly within the tree's umbrage, only the giant panicled flo-
wer-spikes protruding above them, so that it often appeared that the "host"
tree was in blossom! Unhappily, although this is one of the very finest of all
the Euepidendrums, its successful cultivation. is very seldom accomplished;
although it may grow-- and even flower-- for a few years, after that length
of time a gradual deterioration of the caliber of the specimen customarily sets
in... Reasonably good results have sometimes been obtained by growing the
plants in rather smallish, perfectly-drained pots, in a compost consisting of
equal parts of chopped sphagnum moss, bark preparation, and small chunks
(or chopped) tree-fern fiber. The roots of the plant need to be kept moist at
all times, but if the compost becomes even the slightest bit sodden, rapid


Vol. 1, No. 14


demise of the specimen may occur. It should be kept in a high-humidity
glasshouse, preferably, and needs a' rather shaded situation to thrive. Re-
potting should be done annually, to be positive that no stale conditions exist
in the compost. Even though Epidendrum Schumannianum is a relatively
orchid to keep in good condition, once it is brought into bloom, any special
effort expended seems most worthwhile! ..... Q: Although my first love is
orchids, I am now becoming fascinated by the bromeliads, too. I have been
informed that there is a society devoted to these plants. Could you tell me
how to get in touch with this organization ? -- G.F. J., San Francisco. A:
The Bromeliad Society shot be contacted through Mr. M. B. Foster, 718 -
No. Magnolia Ave., Orlando, Florida. A periodic, informative, attractive- a
ly-done magazine is published by the Society, of great value to all bromel
enthusiasts .... ..Q: Would you please tell me the name of the native Flo- 1
rida "Ghost Orchid" ? It is a leafless plant with big green and white flo- {i '
wers. -- V.K., New York City. A: The aphyllous epiphytic orchid which;
is sometimes called the "Ghost Orchid" or "Frog Orchid" in Florida is n
Polyrrhiza Lindenii, one of the most extraordinary of our indigenous spe-
cies. Two other leafless orchids occur here-- Campylocentrum porrec-
tum and C. pachyrrhizum. We will shortly publish some comprehensive
notes concerning these fantastic plants and their cultural requirements...
. .Q: For the second time now, I have lost a big plant of Oncidium flexu-
osum. It just turned black and died, in a very few weeks. Do you have
any comments about this ? -- B.G., Wichita. A: This very lovely "Gol-
den Shower Orchid, a native of Brazil and Paraguay, is sometimes af-
fected by a particularly virulent bacterial rot, which soon causes the death
of a plant once it is infected. If well-rooted, 0. flexuosum seems to grow
best on slabs of tree-fern fiber, since it does not appreciate damp condi-
tions at the roots for protracted periods of time. If any sort of black or
dark brown spotting appears on either foliage or pseudobulbs, immediate-
ly remove the plant to a drier spot in the collection, and treat it with one
of the new rot-inhibiting chemicals. In this way, it may be possible to
save the specimen. Fortunately, very few orchids are afflicted common-
ly by these noxious bacterial ailments, but once a plant is infected, there
is very little that can be done to save it, except apply the new "wonder
chemicals" and hope! ... .Q: Can you tell me how to distinguish Oncidi-
um microchilum from 0. splendidum, when they are not in flower ? --
A.B., Miami. A.: VWhen these plants are not in bloom, we find. it com-
pletely impossible to differentiate them. Various methods for their dis-
tinguishing have been suggested in the past-- based mostly on the degree
of succulence of the fleshy, rigid foliage-- but we have found that these
are far from infallible, and just plain do not work. When flowering, how-
ever, these Oncidiums are at once distinct. 0. microchilum has myriads
of blossoms seldom more than 3/4" long, mostly glossy brown-purple
barred and blotched with dark or pale yellow, the small lip being white,
dull purple, and brown. 0. splendidum has a dozen or more flowers to
as much as 3" in overall length, the wide sepals and petals bright yellow
heavily blotched with dark reddish-brown, while the very large, mostly
flattened lip is vivid golden- or butter-yellow. ... Q: Can you tell me if
Lycaste Skinneri will grow and flower here in South Florida ? -- L. C.,

Z9 P.Lugust 1958



Miami. A: Lycaste Skinneri is correctly known as L. virginalis. It is pres-
ently recorded from Mexico (State of Chiapas), Guatemala, El Salvador, and
Honduras. In the wild, this very handsome orchid is typically an epiphyte in
moist, shady woods, at medium to rather high elevations, hence specimens ob-
tained from such areas (e.g., most of those from Guatemala) in all probability
will not thrive under the warm conditions of the average South Florida collec-
tion. If plants could be obtained from the few localities in southern Mexico in
which this species occurs, however-- since they are considerably lower in al-
titude-- we see no reason why Lycaste virginalis would not thrive and produce
its extravagantly beautiful blossoms in Miami. This suggestion applies to a ve-
ry large number of orchids, from all parts of the world. If particular care is
taken to obtain specimens from a suitable locale (as, for example, the Lycaste
here discussed), technically "cool-growing" orchids may in many instances be
successfully grown in such warm regions as South Floricfda We feel that 6onsi-
derable research yet remains to be done in this relatively unexplored facet of
orchidology-- a facet which will vastly benefit all of us who collect these most
intriguing and incredible of plants ....

P. 0. Box 33435
Coconut Grove 33, Florida

Return postage guaranteed

Printed Matter


Vol, 1, No, 14


A weekly publication devoted exclusively to orchids and their cultural require-
ments, designed expressly for the amateur collector. Issued by Orchids Un-
limited, 2800 Bird Ave., Coconut Grove 33, Fla. Editor: Alex D. Hawkes.
Price per copy (current), 25 3-month subscription (12 issues, dating from
current issue), $2.75, postpaid in the Continental U.S. Other subscribers are
served by air or surface mail-- please specify which when ordering-- with pos-
tage to be. billed. Back issues are available; prices upon inquiry. All contents
copyright, 1958, by Alex D. H'awkes. Mailing address: P. 0. Box 33435, Co-
conut Grove 33, Florida, USA.

from 0 W 1(14): 14'8. 29 August 1958.) We were all awake by 7 a.m., a
rather tardy hour for such carryings-on. There had been, though, those three
different and distinct kinds ;of B.H. rum which we had had to try and approve
of- or disapprove- of. For my part, that morning, I found that I would far
rather have drunk weak tea or plain water from a Fer-de-lance-infested, creek,
rather than again tackle the Green rum. My mouth still had the effluvium of
a strange combination of orchid roots, anise, peppermint, rum, and Gibnot.
To my by now accustomed mental.casualness about how. things are managed in
British Honduras (and for a resident of the hectic United States, this takes a
bit of serious slowing-down), the fact that the jeep had two flat tires and was
out of gas was a very unimportant tragedy. I just sat myo-elf down smack in
the middle of the Hummingbird Highway and started to clean up the plants we
had gathered the day' before. Jackie-- who was also supervising the change
of tires and the replenishment 6 gasoline-- helped trim and pack our precious
orchids, aroids, Heliconias, gesneriads, commelinads, and what have you,
so that they could be more compactly packed into the cartons in which they
were to be shipped back to Miami. We finished long before the tires had
been changed and repaired, and tile gas-tank re-filled, but at last, about
11:15 a.m. i we started off4 Our destination this day was the fabled Moun-
tain Pine Ridge, which as we have noted before., is a national Forest- Re-
serves About 12:30, we arrived once again at Roaring River, where we
paused for gasj and again paused for an annoying period to fix another flat
tire and to search for a lost dog-- in this case3 the errant Terrible, who
ran careening off into the palm groves in search; of bigger and better flora
and/or fauna. The entry-way into the Forect PReserve was closed by a-
rather ominous gate, and we were obliged to sign in, and state our inten-
tions in the Mountain Pine Ridge, which vwe did, before the gate was raised.
The collection of pants within this protected region is strictly illegal, al-
though by obtaining a special permit frpm the agricultural and forestry au-
-thorities in Belize, it is sometimes possible to bring out a limited quan-
tity of orchid plants, for which a type of "bounty" is paid. At the entrance
into the Forest Reserve, we with utter abandon picked up yet another passen-
ger, although both the jeep and its;..trailer were so weighted down that they
virtually dragged on the road-bed Said new addition was a Spaniard who
was transporting a large group of huge, very hefty bags of oranges to the
sawmill community of San Luis, where he-lived. He also had a live chicken,
albeit a rather sad specimen, but one which we were in time due -to find a
very sweet and succulent bird. The addition of the oranges to our already

5 September 1958

Vol. 1, No. 15


frightfully overloaded entourage caused our progress to be slowed down consi-
derably, but courtesy is courtesy here, and the man wished a ride home. Pas-
sing through the entry gate into the Forest Ridge, we meandered up the rutted,
rather muddy road, which soon began to rise from the low areas we had been
traversing for the past couple of hours. Rapidly, the roadside vegetation alter-
ed in appearance, from the lowland forests of Cohune palms to a medium-eleva-
tion palm-and-hardwood forest studded with numerous giant trees, almost all of
which carried a tremendous cargo of epiphytic plants- orchids, aroids, and
bromeliads. These were so high above us that we could only vaguely see them,
and there was scant chance of being able to collect any specimens, short of fel-
ling the trees. Palms, as is usual in British Honduras, were very common and
diverse.in this most interesting and spectacular region. I noted that the Cohune
p4ms (Orbignya Cohune) became less numerous the higher the road went, but to
take their place was a tremendous -variety of other species: Sabal mexicana (?),
which we had seen only as very sporadic specimens before in the lowlands, the
wondrously handsome Sabal mayarum (?) seen on the Hummingbird Highway, a
number of showy Chamaedoreas, and the regrettably common climber, Desmon-
cus sp., with its incredible armament-of sharp, brittle, ebony spines. As we
teetered ponderously up a particularly steep grade, and reached a vaguely level
but very mucky spot, the jeep broke down completely, with a sad, choking sound.
I had had about my fill of break-downs, flat tires, and what have you on this am-
azing expedition-- certainly the most casually-organized trip I have ever parti-
cipated in-- so, in a grand huff, I stalked off down the road, intending to catch
a ride back to Belize either from a passing truck (of which we had seen none for
a very long time) or from the sawmill, which I knew was somewhere up ahead.
Doubtless in retribution for my stuffy action, a mammoth black cloud materia-
lized out of nowhere, and a positive cascade of chilly rain poured down. I ran
off the road, careened into a ditch full of water, mud, and slime, and finally
found refuge under the gigantic, corrugated leaves of a Coccoloba tree. Al-
though the. foliage of this gnarled tree is sometimes two feet long and over a
foot in width, it was amazing how-- no matter in what position I held my im-
promptu umbrella of leaves-- the pounding drops of rain still managed to trick-
le gleefully down my neck and nose. After sulking morosely in my sodden shel-
ter for about fifteen minutes or so, the jeep came lurching by, and I climbed
in once again, greeting all comments with a petulant glare as I tried to wring
out my shirt. The downpour continued without cessation for the rest of the
trip to the Maya village where, oddly enough, Jackie planned to' stop for lunch,
though neither meals nor anything else usually caused my host any concern.
The Mountain Pine Ridge is truly an incredible area, and when we finally ar-
rived within its confines-- it is a sort of plateau, set with hills and smallish
mountains, set off like some sort of odd island from the surrounding terrain--
the vegetation complexes instantly changed, as if they had been cut off with a
gargantuan knife. We had been travelling through endless magnificent mid-
.de-elevation tropical forests, for mile upon mile, but as we reached the pe-
riphery of the Pine Ridge, these at once ceased, and a strange and rather un-
earthly flora took their place. Scattered stands of the native pine (Pinus ca-
ribaea) were here, interspersed with our old fan-palm friend Acoelorrhaphe
pinetorum from the region ne-ar Belize's airport and from the trip to Big Falls.
Superficially, the whole area looked remarkably like a hilly version of South


Vol. 1, No. 15


Florida's piney woods. We stopped for a few minutes, while I dashed like a
vaguely insane crane through the cloudburst and pulled up plant-specimens,
so that I could examine them at my leisure in the dripping interior of the can-
vas-shrouded jeepi Although even the commonest of roadside weeds had had
a vaguely familiar superficial look to me, critical inspection proved that ful-
ly 99% of them were completely new-- and mostly unknown-- to me! The flo-
ra of British Honduras is still very casually known, and I am certain that a
trained botanist spending a sufficient length of time in this Mountain Pine Ridge
would discover an astounding number of new or otherwise interesting plant
species. Bemused by the handful of soaking-wet weeds I held clutched in
my grimy paw, and thinking ponderous thoughts about the mysteries of plant
distribution, I watched the indigo-blue mountains off to our right, as we drove
on through the mud. It is a strange sensation to encounter the fantastic
system of roads which have been laid out in this Forest Reserve, all of them
apparently quite new, and still in remarkably good repair, although they were
not paved and quickly became slippery as glass in the rain. The region of-
fers tremendous -potentials as a tourist attraction, and it seems evident that
both the B.H. government, and more particularly the Department of Forest-
ry has taken this into consideration when constructing this intricate network
of roads on the plateaus We arrived at a triple fork in the road, drove
down the wrong way; backed up kerthrash into a small and newly-formed y.j
lake, and dankly and sedately continued back to the fork. Trying another 3
branch of the road) we reached our destination-- the nebulous Maya village,
which I was- sure by this time had been flooded out by the cloudburst. The 0
hour was slightly after 3 in the afternoon and in deference to our arrival, U)
the rain stopped for a full five minutes, to resume again with increased vi- to
gor. The population of the Colony of British Honduras at th& last cen-
sus (1946) was 59, 220. Of these, the Maya Indians were exceeded in num-
bers only by Negroes and persons of Negro extraction. Largely inhabiting
the higher parts of the count ry, these Mayas were virtually the only people
we saw during our stay in the Mountain Pine Ridge. They are extremely
pleasant and hospitable, and I found them fascinating to be within even though
most of them that I met did not speak either Spanish or English-- only their
own ancient tongue, which sounded to me like two laths being clacked to-
gether in varying tempi. We sat in a spotless, dry, palm-th'atch hut-
filling rapidly with a gathering group of Indians who had come to silently
watch the strange yanqui visitor who was interested in plants-- while the
women of the house prepared our meal. Several of-the Mayas who squat-
ted stolidly on their haunches around us had facial features which might
well have served as models for the sculptures at the ruined city of Xu-
nantunich. Slat-ribbed dogs yapped around our heels, and fat baby pigs
and scrawny chickens rambled through the noisy melee. I was fascina-
-ted by the metronome regularity, of the slap-slap-slap of the women's
hands as they prepared the marvelous green-corn tortillas for our lun-
cheon. The matron of the household personally served us- since we were
honored guests under her roof-- and I was most interested in the heavy,
apparently solid gold earrings and necklace which she wore, all of the
pieces showing the fine technique of age-old craftsmen. In addition to
the delectable, succulent tortillas-- served hot as fire from the smooth-

5 September 1958



stone griddle-- we genuinely reveled in tender venison roast, scrambled eggs
that were the best I have ever eaten, and salsa'picante so hot that I was sure
one of the Guatemalan volcanoes had somehow managed to extend a lava-flow
over to the Mountain Pine Ridge! Good, strong, sweet, hot tea, and a ripe
banana finished off the meal, and I felt all of my tired bones unravel, and my
impatience with the disorganization of the trip flow gently away. It was now
our chauffeur's turn to turn sulky, and he wandered grumpily off into the pine
woods, after expressing his rather candid opinion of my host's abilities. We
left our newfound Maya hosts, and set off in search of him, since Jackie plan-
ned to go considerably further-- preferably to the sawmill at San Luis-- be-
fore nightfall. We spent half an hour or more charging up one road and down
the other, looking for Dudy,. and finally found him trudging through the still-
drizzling woods. While searching for our lost one, we had paused at one of
a group of strange conical hills which dotted this particular part of the pla-
teau, all of them covered with forty- and fifty-foot trees of the odd plant now
sold in super-markets under the perhaps apt name of "Pony- Tail, A species
of Beaucarnea (family Liliaceae), these extraordinary, bulge-based plants ap-
peared to be better suited to life on the moon or on Mars, and gave to the land-
scape a peculiarly unearthly aspect. Upon arriving at Little Vaqueros Creek,
we found the stream to be a raging torrent, pouring over the concrete bridge
in a dismaying fashions We were all growing weary, and it grew late, so I
managed to talk Jackie into putting up for the night in a rattletrap thatch hut
with board sides nearbyA The rain had diminished considerably, and all ag-
reed that by morning the creek would have lowered sufficiently that we could
safely go across. We industriously set up our camp in the hut, and Rita at
once set about preparing our dinner-- the Spaniard's chicken, which had been
mashed rather flat by a rolling can of gasoline during our hectic trip up onto
the plateau. The plateau is fairly high (1000 to 3000 feet elevation),, and be-
cause of the dank overcast, the evening. grew suddenly'very chilly. We all
went to bed as it became dark, since there was no sort of illumination in the
hut. A couple. of hammocks were strung up, but I preferred my lumpy air-
mattress, and curled.up on it near the open hearth in the kitchen, and be-
tween mosquitos and gnats slept soundly till morning. (This section of my
report on the British Honduran collecting expedition has had singularly little
to say about orchids, as I well'realize. I have included it here in theO W
because I felt it might conceivably be of some interest to our readers, but
more especially to illustrate that these "fabulous" treks into the virginal
jungles of the world, in search of the elusive orchid, are often very unpro-
ductive-- orchid-wise-- for days on end! This section of the report.is ra-
ther typical. On a given day, one may encounter literally thou sands of in-
dividual specimens of orchids of wide variety of species. But-- to get to the
particular areas in which said orchids grow, one must spend days of travel,
when-- as on the day recorded in this part of my notes-- not'a single,. soli-
tary orchid plant was seen at close range. It is all part of the fun, though,
and these "orchid-less" days remain in one's mind almost as vividly as do
those days filled with collecting.
(To be continued)

THE GENUS CATTLEYA Part 6. (Cultural Bulletin No. 1) (Continued from
O W 1(14): 143. 29 August 1958.) The discussion of the major cultivated spe-


Vol. 1, N;. 15


cies and variants is here concluded:
(15) Cattleya Skinneri (ski-ne-reye) (Mexico and Br.Honduras to Costa Rica;
Colombia, Venezuela, and Trinidad) Somewhat variable vegetatively, the usu-
ally club-shaped, slightly compressed pseudobulbs mostly less than 1 1/2' in
height. Leaves 2, rather rigidly leathery, to-8" long and 2 1/2" wide. Inflo-
rescences usually erect, to 5 1/2" tall, 4-12-fld., the flowers often not all
open at once, Flowers faintly frigrant in some forms, to 3 1/2" across, glit-
tering rose or true purple, the midlobe of the lip typically darker, the disc
whitish. Petals wider than sepals, usually wavy-margined. Lip slightly 3-
lobed, basal portion form a tube around the column. Flowers mostly during -tf
the spring-early summer. The very rare and desirable pure white fma. alba M
is occasionally seen in choice collections. In the wild, this fine species usu- >'
ally grows on trees (often deciduous during a large part of the dry season) in -;
which it receives considerable bright sun, hence under cultivation, a very J
light position is needed for best results. C. Skinneri does well if grown into j
large "specimen" plants, unlike many of its allies.
(15a) Cattleya Skinneri var. autumnalis (aw-tum-nah-liss) (Panama) Dif-
fers from the typical species in its different flowering-time, the dark purple
throat and disc of the lip, and the generally smaller flowers. Flowering-time
for this commonly-grown variant is mostly September-October. Oddly enough,
although this variety is common in the Republic of Panama, it has not to date
been detected in either adjacent Costa Rica or Colombia, and the true species
is unknown.in Panama! Cultural instructions as for typical C. Skinneri.
(16) Cattleya velutina (veh-lyoo-tee-nah) (Brazil) Rather similar in habit
to C. bicolor, but usually smaller and the pseudobulbs often more thickened
in their upper parts. Inflorescences 4-7-flowered, rather short. Flowers to
almost 4" across (usually much smaller), very glossy and heavy-textured,
highly fragrant, long-lasting, the sepals and petals light orange or yellow-or-
ange more or less densely spotted with dark purple or brownish-purple, the
lip whitish with magenta streaks down the middle, the disc golden-yellow.
All segments mostly very crisped marginally. Flowers mostly during May
to July. A showy species, not overly common in our collections today, which
needs the cultural conditions of C. guttata and other sun-loving bifoliate Cat-
(17) Cattleya violacea (vye-oh-lay-see-ah) (Colombia, Venezuela, Guianas,
and Brazil, in the hot Amazonian basin) Usually grown under its synony-
mous name of C. superba. Pseudobulbs spindle- or club-shaped, usually
flushed with reddish or magenta-red, to 10" tall, very glossy. Leaves 2,
rigidly leathery, often red-flushed, to 6"-long. Flowers mostly 3-7, very
fragrant, opening very flat, rather heavy-textured, long-lived, to 5" ac-
ross, the sepals and petals bright rose-purple (sometimes suffused with
white), the 3-lobe-d lip with the sharply triangular lateral lobes covering the
column, magenta-purple, the roundish midlobe vivid crimson-purple, the
yellow disc with a white, purple-streaked blotch on each side. Flowers
mostly during June to August, sometimes at other periods of the year. This
lovely Cattleya grows in the hot, humid jungles of the tributaries of the Am-
azon, generally on large trees under semi-shaded conditions. It is occa-
sionally very difficult to maintain in good condition under cultivation, but
if treated like the C. labiata alliance, with more shade and no semblance

5 September 1958



of stale or sour conditions at the roots, it will generally thrive for years and
years. In our opinion, it is one of the most striking members of the genus!
(18) Cattleya Walkeriana (wal-ke-ree-ah-nah) (Brazil) An unusual plant,
the spindle-shaped, often reddish, basally-stalked pseudobulbs to 5" long,
borne at some intervals from each other on the stout rhizome. Leaves 1-2,
rigidly leathery, usually red-flushed, to 5" long. Inflorescences short, slen-
der, leafless shoots arising from the rhizome near the pseudobulb-bases, 1-
2-flowered, to 3" tall.. Flowers to 4 1/2' across, fragrant, rather heavy-tex-
tured, opening flat, varying from bright rose-purple to soft pinkish-lilac, the
outside of the lip-tube the same color as the sepals and petals, the midlobe
vivid amethyst- or magenta-purple, streaked with darker purple, the disc
white or pale yellow; midlobe kidney-shaped to roundish, crisped or frilled
marginally. Usually flowers during the late winter or spring months. In the
wild, this handsome Cattleya often grows on semi-deciduous trees in very bril-
liant.sun. Under cultivation, thereforej "it flowers best if given sufficient light
that the bulbs and foliage turn reddish-green in color. Because of the rather
lengthy rhizome, it is sometimes vaguely difficult to. confine in normal-size
pots or baskets.
This concludes the present treatment of the major species and variants
of cultivated members of the g-enus Cattleya. In our next issue, we will take
up a few of the less frequently-seen species of this assemblage., which are
occasionally to be encountered in particularly choice contemporary collec-

tionally-distributed catalogues and magazines which have recently reached
us, we have been surprised to see the pronunciation of the generic name Cat-
tleya given as kat-lay-ah, rather than as kat-lee-yahs The group was na-
med by Lindley for the English horticulturist, William Cattley (whose nomen
is also commemorated in the delicious Cattley Guava), and we are quite cer-
tain that poor Mr, Cattl-ey (not Mr, Cat-lay !) turns over in his grave every
time someone says kat-lay-ah !
-------------------------------- ----------------------------
QUESTION COLUMNi' Our friends are cordially invited to send us their que-
ries, on all phases of orchidologyj for possible inclusion in this regular sec-
tion. of the 0 W A self-addressed postal card should accompany each ques-
tion for which a written reply is desired The most generally interesting que-
ries will be answered in this eolumn.. i .Q: I am a recent subscriber to. your
ORCHID WEEKLY3 and amn anxious to obtain all of the back issues, so that I
may have the whole set bound-at year's ends Cani you tell me the price for
the back issues at present ? -- V4FT., St. Louis. A: We still have a very
few complete sets of Numbers 1 through .1.2 of the 0 W available for sale, al-
though the stock is very limited. These are now priced at 40 each, or a
total of $4.80 for the set, postpaid in the Continenttl U.S..... Q0: Enclosed
are. leaves from two Dendrobiums, and I wonder if you can tell me what is
wrong ? It has been present ever since the plants came through quarantine.
Both plants put out new growths and bloomed, but eventually the new growth
becomes infected as well, I have a similar condition on the foliage of both
Phaius and Cycnoches. -- J.E.Q., St. Petersburg. A: The leaves submit-

Vol. 1, No. 15

5-September 1958- THE ORCHID WEEKLY -157
-------------------- -------------------------------------
ted appear to be infected with some sort of bacterial spot. Newly-imported,
and hence relatively unestablished, plants are often very susceptible to these
ailments, which frequently disappear as the specimens become more accus-
tomed to. their new homes.. Various cultural factors often enter into the de-
velopment of these bacterial infections (about which we actually know very
little at this time), such as improper drainage of the compost, stale com-
post, watering excessively or at the wrong time of day (e.g., towards eve-
ning on a chilly day), or too high humidity lor the particular plant. Both of
the Dendrobiums you have (D. ch'rysotoxum and D. densiflorum) require rea-
sonably dry conditions during certain times of the year; perhaps you are gro-
wing them too wet at the wrong times. Most of the species of Phaius are also
afflicted by this bacterial spotting; Cycnoches is, too, but its foliage is nor-
mally soon-deciduous, and the spotting here may be just the result of the on-
set of its falling. Application of Agromycin at regular intervals would prob-
ably be of some assistance in your problem; see note in 0 W 1(9): 97. 25
July 1958. Unless the spot spreads into the pseudobulbs, there is little dan-
ger of its killing the plants, incidentally; it is, apparently, localized near
the leaf-tips, and there is probably scant possibility of its spreading further.
.....Q: Can you please tell me the correct name of the "Bamboo Orchid,
which I believe is a species of Arundina ? -- W. H.S., Coconut Grove. A:
The correct name is Arundina graminifolia, although it is typically grown
under the synonymous name of A. bambusifolia. Some comprehensive notes
concerning this interesting plant will shortly appear in our pages... .Q: I
have recently flasked a Sophrolaeliocattleya crossed with a Schomburgkia,
and although I realize I am being a bit premature, what will the progeny be
called ? -- W.S.T., Naples, Fla. A: Insofar as we know, this quadrige-
neric hybrid has not been flowered, nor registered; in fact, we are unaware
that it has even been made before, although it seems to offer some intriguing
potentialities! A brief note on this appeared in 0 W 1(9): 95. 25 July 1958.
Your Sophronitis X Laelia X Cattleya X Schomburgkia cross will also
require a name formed by adding the suffix -ara to the cognomen of some
person in the orchid world, either a friend or someone reasonably promi-
nent in orchidological work. ....

HOUSIEANUM versus D. PULCHELLUM. Here again we have an instance
of an invalid, homonymic name being accepted both horticulturally and by
the official registration body for. new orchid hybrids- namely Dendrobium
Dalhousieanum, an epithet which is almost always misspelled, as..well, as
"Dalhousianum. This name was applied to the tall-growing, large-flow-
ered species from the Himalayas, Burma, and Malay Peninsula, by Wallich
in a publication by Paxton in 1844. Unfortunately, however, an earlier name,
Dendrobium pulchellum, was bestowed on the same orchid many years pri-
or, first in 1814, and then again in 1832, by Roxburgh, hence this earlier-
published epithet must be utilized in place of D. Dalhousieanum. (See 0 W
1(2): 7-8. 2 June 1958, for additional explanation of this regulation.) In
the list of "New Orchid Hybrids" for July 1958, published in The Orchid Re-
view, a new hybrid named Dendrobiunm x Maje.stic is registered by Mr. W.

.RgD -- AC"46

158 THE ORCHID WEEKLY Vol. 1, No. 1-5

W.G. Moir, the parentage. being indicated as D. x Caesar and D. Dalhousi-
anurn (sic!); it is urged that this parentage be corrected by the registration
authorities, although of late they seem increasingly casual about the accura-
,cy of such matters!

W 1(12): 125. 15 August 1958.)
(22) E. ELLIPTICUM Ldl. (Epidendrum crassifolium Hk.)
Similar'in habit to E. elongatum Jacq. but with obtuse ivs. and larger pur-
ple-violet fls. about 1" across, the lozenge-shaped thickening on the lip-disc
golden-yellow. Ss. and ps. strongly spreading. Spring-summer. (I, H) West
Indies; Brazil.
(23) E. ELONGATUM Jacq.
Rather similar in habit to E. arachnoglossurn Rchb.f., but the sts. shorter
and more slender, to about 1 1/2' tall, leafy throughout, the ivs. about 3" in
length, rigidly leathery. Infls. long-stalked, few- to many-fld. Fls. about
3/4" across, light scarlet-red, the lip-callus often yellow or orange-yellow.
Ssi &: pss lanceolate, acutish. Lip 3-lbd.., all of the lbss fringed or laccra-
ted; with a short lozenge-shaped thickening on the disc Spring-summer. (I,
H) West Indies to Brazil.
(24) E. ENDRESII Rchb.f4
One of the most charming sp. in the genus. StsI tightly clustered, erect
rigid, to 10" tall leafy throughout, the If.-sheaths warty. Lvs, elliptic, ob-
tuse, about 1 1/2" long,very rigid, fleshyl Infls, erecti loosely 4-10-fld.,
about 3-5" tall. Fls. about 1" across, fragrant or not, the ssi and psa flush-
ed with pale rose-red outside, white inside, the lip white with a roscQred cen-
ter and a dark or rather pale violet-purple blotch on the disc, the col.-apex
and anther violet-purple. Lip 4-lbd., larger than the other segms. Winter.
(I) Costa Rica; Panama.
(25) E. ERUBESCENS Ldl. (Encyclia erubescens Schltr.)
Pbs. mostly spindle-shaped, rather thick, to about 3" tall. Lvs. usually
paired, leathery, to 4" long, ligulate, obtuse. Infls. erect, loosely many-
fld.., usually branched, to almost 2' tall. Fis. very fragrant, to about 1 1/2"
across, long-lived, variable in color, but-usually reddish-yellow, the lip most-
ly darker, the lip with very broad midlb; Spring-early summer. (I) Mexico:
In the mountains of Oaxaca.
(26) E. FRAGRANS .Sw.
An extremely variable sp. Pbs. usually ellipsoidal, yellowish- or dark-
green, to 3" tall and more. Lf. solitary, -igulate to almost oval, obtuse or
acutish, to 4" long and more. Infls. short-stalked, loose-ly 2-8-fld., to 5"
long. Fls.. inverted, very fragrant (often rather objectionably so), to about
1 1/2" across, usually yellowish- or greenish-white, the lip white or cream-
white, with more or less prominent violet or dull purple radiating streaks from
the base. Ss. & ps. acute to acuminate at tips. Lip broadly cochleaeto, acute
to acuminate at tip. This sp. is often confused with E. ionophlebium R'chb.f.
and E. radiatum Ldl., but is amply distinct-from both of them, when critical-
ly inspected; the sharp-pointed sepals, petals, and lip in E. fratrans are es-
pecially characteristic. Winter-spring. (I, H) Mexico and the West Indies to
Ecuador, Peru, and Brazil.

5 September 1958 THE ORCHID WEEKLY 159
ORCHIDS FOR FRAGRANCE. We have an inquiry from B.T., Orlando, re-
lative to orchids suitable for growing for the fragrance of their flowers.
This is, strangely enough, a facet of orchid cultivation concerning which
very little seems to have been published, and yet it is a fascinating part a
of the collection of these plants. Many lay persons are completely una-
ware that any orchids have any semblance of scent whatever, but those of
us who are avid collectors know that this is definitely not the case-- a veryt'pq
larg'- percentage of all orchidaceous flowers do, at some time or other, tY
give off perfumes or odors of varying degrees. --Som.e orchid-odors are
exotically delectable, others are a bit on the "common, garden-variety"
side, and yet others are perfectly and awfully foetid! It might be well
to mention a couple of species falling into the last-named category, since
they are not generally recommended to the faint-hearted orchidist! Many
species of Bulbophyllum fall into this category, their varying-hued blos-
some being pollinated by carrion flies; the most famous of these is the im-
mense Bornean B. *Beccariij which is reputed to give off all the perfume of
"a herd of very dead elephants, and which has been known to render, un-
conscious careless persons sniffing -it in an enclosed space. Most mem-
ber of-the terrestrial genus Ophrys-- native in southern Europe and Asia
Minor- also smell pretty bad, and there are species in other scattered ge-
nera which are not really suggested for smelling purposes. Most Cattle-
yas give off a sweetish odoe at various times of day-- especially during the
warmer hours -- bUt it is in certain groups related to that genus that we find
some of the highly odoriferous orchids Certainly the most noteworthy of
these is Brassavola nodosa, the so-called "Lady of the Night, whose de-
lightful blooms may be detected after dark for a considerable distance. The
two Rhyncholaelias (usually called Brassavolas), R. Digbyana and R. glau-
ca, also give off a very heady nocturnal fragrance, of a deliciously spicy
characters Almost all members of the huge Angraecum alliance-- espe-
cially those with white or green flowers-- exude strong scents after night
falls; such true Angraecums as A. sesquipedale. and A. eburnegum also are
detectable, scent-wise, during the daytime, too, and the modest and very
floriferous "Pangolin Orchid, A. distichum, makes one think of Ni&rcissus
whenever one comes within ten feet of it. Miscellaneous fragrances are
to be encountered in a multitude of other orchidaceous plants. For exar?1-
ple, we have the strange, pungent "dirty-broom-straw" effluvium of Epi-
dendrum anceps, the overpowering sickly-sweetishness of E. radiatum and
E. fragrans, the incredible "candy-store" fragrance of most Stanhopeas,
and the peculiar odor of Oncidium ornithorhynchum (a rare character in
this genus of largely scentless blossoms), so attractive to many persons,
so completely repulsive to others, etc. The list is almost endless, and
from time to time we will publish further notes on this fascinating topic.
Our readers are cordially invited to cend in their contributions, by the
way. And have you ever smelled Dendrochilum (Platyclinis) glumaceum ?
Just exactly like a hay-stack, with subtle overtones of fresh caramel--
truly a most unexpected and exotic combination, which leaves one's nos-
trils vibrating for some time after exposure.


CATTLEYA x DOMINIANA. In the early days of the registration of orchid hy-
brids, it was-- as it is to a certain degree still today-- common practice to
name new crosses for their originators. Thus we have many orchid hybrids
named for Seden, for Veitch, and for Dominy. We now have an inquiry regar-
ding Cattleya x Dominiana, a very old cross first recorded in the literature in
1859; it must not be confused with the later Laeliocattleya x Dominiana, a
cross between Laelia purpurata and Cattleya Dowiana (correctly C. labiata var.
Dowiana), which is of course an entirely distinct thing. Cattleya x Dominiana
is indicated as a cross between C. maxima and C. intermedia, and apparent-
ly it has recently been re-made, after being lost to growers for some decades.
The only description of it available to us is printed in Veitch's "A Manual of
Orchidaceous Plants, and is as follows: "Sepals and petals pale rosy lilac,
the latter undulate; side lobes of lip whitish; intermediate lobe with crisped
margin, pale amethyst-purple with deep purple veins, and with a pale citron-
yellow disc traversed longitudinally by a purple line. It would appear to be
a singularly attractive Cattleya, one which should appeal to many contemporary
collectors who have become intrigued by the smaller, "different" hybrids in
this assemblage.

P. 0. Box 33435
Coconut Grove 33, Florida-
Return postage guaranteed
Return postage guaranteed

Printed Matter


Vol. 1, No---15


A weekly publication devoted exclusively to orchids and their cultural require-
ments, designed expressly for the amateur collector, Issued'by Orchids Un-
limited, 2800 Bird Ave.., Coconut Grove 33, Fla. Editor: Alex D. Hawkes.
Price per copy (current), 25. 3-month subscription (12 issues, dating from
current issue), $2.75, postpaid in the Continental U.S. Other subscribers are
served by air or surface mail- please specify which when ordering-- with pos-
tage to be billed. Back issues are for the most part available, although stock
is very limited; prices upon inquiry. All contents copyright, 1958, by Alex D.
Hawkes. Mailing address: P. O0 Box 33435, Coconut Grove 33, Florida, USA.

from O W 1(15): 154. 5 September 1958.) Next day, which was Friday, the
6th of September, we aroused our broken carcasses from our diverse beds, to
greet the chilly, cloudy dawn. The sanitary facilities for the campsite were
housed in a little building off in a gulley, an edifice handsomely thatched with
the fan-leaves of the-Acoelorrhaphe palm, the walls made of its pretty, imbri-
cated trunks. The less said about the interior, the better. A large and highly
indignant chameleon relative fell with a dull thunk on my head as I left the
structure; I performed my morning ablutions in the shallows of Little Va-
queros Creek, which had lowered so much during the night that only a thin
sheet of rather muddy water sluiced across the bridge we were to traverse
later on. Since for.a novelty; it was not raining (although it threatened to
do so, imminently), I took time before breakfast to wander around a bit, and
see some of the plants I had vaguely observed through the drizzle of the pre-
vious night The charming Acoelorrhaphe palm was very common here, for-
ming large dense thickets, especially in the washes and small valleys which
cut through the plateau. Not too far away from our hut stood a trio of fan-
palms, which I.thought at first were a Thrinax, but as I neared them, I rea-
lized with delight that I was seeing for the first time living specimens of one
of the world's truly rare palms- the endemic Schippia concolor, a mono-
typic genus known from only a very few localities in British Honduras! It
is actually a rather nondescript palm, with its spindly trunks topped by an
often tatterdemalion crown of faii-like leaves None of these Schippias were
in fruit, but later on I found a,couple that were) and the rather large clus-
ters of round, fleshy, dull-yellow fruits are of sufficient beauty that the palm
possibly offers some use as a pretty sp-ecimen for tropical garden plantings.
So often, these excessively rare plants-- concerning which one has heard
much for years and years-- turn out, when finally discovered in the wild,
to be singularly uninspiring. The Schippia was just such a case, and yet I
felt a distinct thrilling sensation when I first stood beneath this odd small-
ish palm, and first laid my hand against one of the roughened trunks. Ar-
ound these rare trees, I found several other plants which intrigued me, in-
cluding a most remarkably attractive vine of the Malpighia family with pe-
culiar, paired, vertically-set, vivid pink bracts surrounding the flower,-
which was small and dull dark green. We packed up our gear (and what
a hilarious sight this would have been to a bemused onlooker!), and about
two hours later-- we had.to go catch the accursed hounds, Chester -and Ter-
rible, who decided to chase "ibig game" just as we started to leave-- we took
off with a grand rush across the'bridge over the creek and on towards the

Vol. 1, N-D. 16

11Z September 1958

162 THE ORCHID WEEKLY Vol. 1, No. -16
sawmill, where our Spanish companion promised us a much-needed breakfast.
A short distance further on, we screamed to a halt on the slick clay road, be-
cause Jackie announced that he had seen a deer! The population of the jeep and
its trailer piled out in an avalanche of humans and canines, and the stalking of
the deer began. After half an hour of madly rushing from cluster of fan-palm to
cluster of fan-palm, I became bored with the whole affair, and started walking on
down the road, to see what grew by the roadside. The Schippia palms were a
bit more numerous here, but I could still find none of them bearing their fruits,
which I wished to gather and take back home for trial especially in our South
Florida gardens. Almost the only other interesting plant I found, at first any-
way, was a very handsome plaited-leaved iris relative with one-inch, very
showy, pale blue, intricate blossoms. I dug up quite a few of the deep-buried
corms with my trustworthy pen-knife, but they were sunken so far down in the
packed quartz sand that it was very difficult to disinter them without breakage.
This pretty plant, which may be a Nemastylis, is now in cultivation here in Mi-
ami. The jeep came bumbling down the road after a while-- without the ne-
bulous deer-- and I got in and we continued to the shores of the Rio Privacion,
which means "Privation River,!' arid which rather lucidly summed up certain
aspects of this entire expedition into "the bush. Within sight of the river,
a rather small but vigorous stream with white rapids hurling over weed-car-
peted rocks, I yelled for a halt, to see what the orchids were that I -had espied
on a rotted, jagged tree-trunk just off the road. Falling down from the brink
of the road, I picked myself up and finally reached the tree, which, when I
touched it, fell on my head with a jagged sound. The orchids were strange
to me, I thought-- I am certain my learned brow grew furrowed with the in-
tellectual machinations-- but then I recognized that at least part of the tight
cluster of pseudobulbs I had before me was the usually lowland Catasetum in-
tegerrimurn, but then the spray of two-and-a-half inch, oddly Cattleya-like
blossoms met my inspection, and I found that I :was seeing alive for the first
time the handsome and very rare Galeandra Baueri! This plant, whose dis-
tribution extends from Mexico to northern South America, is an extremely
uncommon orchid in our collections today, although it is-- to my mind-- one
of the most delightful species I have ever seen. (Some detailed comments re-
garding this Galeandra will shortly appear in the 0 W.) Superficially, its ve-
getative appearance was remarkably like that of the Catasetum, but the Gale-
andra bore apical flower-spikes, instead of basal, and its pseudobulb-tips
were not spiny, as were those of the Catasetum. The two species grew so
closely intermingled that it was almost impossible to entangle them, without
breaking the rhizomes of one or both species3 so I just'stripped off the whole
mat (I was not particularly interested in keeping the Catasetum, having gotten
a sufficient number of robust specimens in the lowland Cohune forests) and
took it back to the jcep, where even the non-orchid-enthusiasts expressed in-
terest in the pretty, showy-flowered Galeandra. Although it is technically
illegal to collect plants of any type within the confines of the Mountain Pine
Ridge, a special permit is available from the authorities in Belize-which a4--
lows one to take out a limited number of plants, on which a bounty is paid.
Jackie assured rne' that he had such a permit, so I felt scant compunctions ab-
out gathering a, few such oddities as the Galeandra. Crossing a whole ser-
ies of scudding, still rain-swollen streams, we at last reached the Rio On, a


locale in which I wa's vastly interested, since it was here that we V posed to see flowering specimens of one of the finest of indigenous orchids,
Cattleya Bowringianas which I had never encountered in the wild. .x-ccr-
ing to Veitch's "A Manual of Orchidaceous Plants, this very fine C. Skin-
neri relative was "introduced by us in 1884, from British Honduras1 .. .where;
our correspondent informs us, it is found on the cliffs by the side of a rc-pid
stream flowing over a succession of waterfalls, and where the atmosphere
is always highly charged with moisture owing to the rapid evaporation ir.,m C
the stream during the dry season, and the excessive rain-fall at other times
of the year," This note perfectly described the Rio On gorge, into which ourxf,
jeep now drove, and I grew very excited at the prospect of seeing- "in t', C-4,
flesh"-- this spectacular Cattleya, which extremely few botanists havt EV
countered in its native haunts. The river here forms a complex series"' tc.
large, deep, crystal-clear pools in the rocks, with natural sluiceways :- .0
tending from one to the other; gigantic tumbled boulders are scattcrce
erywhere through this watery expanse, which must be about two hundred'or
more yards across at this particular point. Above this spot, the rivjr ar-
rows considerably, and below the "Bathing Pools"-- as this sector is knd.wn--
it falls, in a marvelous series of foaming cascades, down a jagged, v, ry
slippery cliff into a deep chasm. On the pine- and palm-topped ridges sur-
rounding the pools stand the mossy ruins of several ancient Mayan buil-
dings. It is one of the loveliest and most fascinating spots I have ever
sited, and I believe offers a tremendous potential for tourists journeyin
to the Colony, provided some sort of hostelry or other, accommodations
wer.e. available. To gain access to the pool-area itself, which is ut
a hundred feet below the parking area, one has to clamber or slither down
a clay trail, which-- because of the rains- was as slick as glass, .n-
siderably dirtier. A few large clumps of Aechmea bracteata (which I ha-.
seen in thd mangrove swamps near Belize) hung their parro.t-colored in-
florescences from the pine trees here, and some gnarled oaks were ,i.t'--
ted a couple of specimens of Ponera striata and our old lowland friend 'Ti-
gonidium Egertonianurn, so I felt that at last we were getting .into a tc .1
orchid district again. We waded across a couple of small streams--
tributaries of the river- which flowed as clear as crystal through banks
of glittering quartz sand; large rounded boulders often perched nearby,
set with a marvelous flora of several Philodendron species, a handsome
cordate-leaved, leathery Anthurium with great columns of vivid Chinesc
red .fruits, and occasional clumps of Cataseturn integerrim, um, growing
as a lithophyte or semi-terrestrial. I chanced to look up one of the stream-
beds, and espied a vivid blotch of magenta amidst the grasses. Jackie and
I walked up to. see if it was what we thought it would be, and it was-- a vu-
ry fine clump of Cattleya Bowringian'a, set with twelve large heads of 3':
flowers! And the oddest thing Was that it grew directly in the quartz san
right at the side of the rivulet! Its rampant roots inched like albino worms
through the sand in all directions, and seldom have I seen such strong
and robust growths on this species, which I never thought would be found
growing as a terrestrial! We found hundreds of plants of it scattered all
about us, some growing back in-the grasses and bushes from the sides
the streams, some perched on the boulders, and a very few on trees. I
have seen a.wide variety of Cattleyas in the wild, and except for some bi-

12 September. 1958

164 THE ORCHID WEEKLY Vol, 1,.. No.-.1-6-

foliates-- such as C. guttata, its fma. Prinzii, C. bicolor, etc.-- in Brazil,
I have very very seldom encountered these orchids growing anywhere except
as true epiphytes on trees, of varying dimensions. It is indeed a most aber-
rant habitat for a Cattleya, but the plants obviously .thrive under it! Although
dozens of them were in flower at the time of our visit, even upon critical in-
spection, I could detect no notably fine or poor variants among them; indeed,
the similarity which pervaded the entire vast assemblage of plants was, in my
experience, a rather unique condition, since even in smaller populations of,
say, C. Skinneri var. autumnalis in Panama, certain specimens bore flowers
markedly superior to those of their neighbors. An albino phase of Cattleya
Bowringiana reputedly grows in British Honduras- and in the .Maya village
where we had luncheon, three specimens were pointed out to me as being a
"pure white, but I had my distinct doubts, since they were not in flower at
the time. A white f rm of this orchid would.certainly be a most desirable
item, but I know of no specimens of it authentically in cultivation at this time.
Further, it seems not to be generally mentioned in the literature, and I can
find no hybrids which have been registered with C. Bowringiana fma. alba,
at all. Our grand motley entourage picked its way across the deceptively
slippery rocks around the huge, crystalline pools through which the river
made its way towards the precipice and its cascades. Alternately scramb-
ling and falling down the tumbled boulders.at the edge of the gorge, we made
our way some distance down into it, along the side of a glorious waterfall
that shot out from the cliff-rim and fell at least sixty feet in a torrent of
foam. In a moss-banked cul-de-sac we were faced with a suddenly upthrust
cliff about eighty feet high, carpeted with straggly bushes and trees, and sup-
porting one of the most extraordinary orchid gardens I have ever seen in the
wild! The Cattleya was here, in flamboyant abundance, interspersed amidst
the rocks with dozens of immense specimens of Sobralia macrantha, all in
full ravishing blossom! These tall, bamboo-like terrestrials each bore one
or more Cattleya-like, rich magenta blossoms, fully six to eight inches in
diameter, and of a texture almost, comparable to flabby sponge. Growing
with them were clumps of a large-bulbed Epidendrum (not in flower, 4but
possibly a form of E. alatum), a lovely "red-hot-poker" species of Pit*
cairnia, and dozens of specimens of a Tillandsia with large, inflated in-
florescences, the bracts of which were vivid canary-yellow, subtly flushed
with orange and cinnabar-red. A mixture of several kinds of scandent Phi-
lodendrons and the big red-berried one we had seen back at the stream add-
ed to the colorful scene, as did the -scarlet powder-puffs of a species of Cal-
liandra, which formed large thickets near the top of the cliff-side. A smal-
lish Pithecolobium (?)-g-rew scattered in the interstices of the shoulders, a
gracefully twisted tree- like a Japanese bonzai-- with heavy, glossy, pin-
nate foliage and dozens of incredible, elongate, spirally-twisted Chinese--
red pods, hung with ebony seeds. Orchid collectors had all too obvious-
ly been at work in this area, and it was disheartening to see hundreds and
hundreds of great pseudobulbs of Cattleya Bowring-iana- many of them still
holding their now-fading heads of glorious -flowers- broken and crushed all
over the rocks, where they had been torn away from parent plants. Although
the Cattleyas were producing a wealth of selfed seed-capsules in this gorge,


it was all too evident that with such destructive collecting-- when the remai-
ning specimens are merely left in horrible mutilated condition by the care
less workers-- will soon result in the ruination of the splendid displays of
these orchids here. Scrambling back up the mossy rocks, we again reach-
ed the flat area near the pools, above the waterfalls. A hillock covered with
dense vegetation attracted my attention, and I discovered that its rock surfa-
ces were a solid sheet of epiphytic growths-- mostly orchids, mixed with a
-fabulous variety of ferns aroids, bromeliads, mosses, and lichens. Here
were specimens of the coconut-scented Maxillaria tenuifolia composed of
hundreds upon hundreds of bulbs; huge grassy mats of Trigonidium Egerto>-
nianum; some of the tallest plants of Epidendrum nocturnum I have ever
seen anywhere; and a hodgepodge of Pleurothallis, Maxillaria uncata, Ly-
caste aromatica (?); Cattleya Bowringiana (far smaller than those found in
sunny spots, incidentally), seedling Sobralias, plus several other species.
On some Schipp.ia palms nearby, I found another clump of the delightful Ga-
leandra Baueri I had located earlier, again growing intermingled with Ca-
tasetum integerrimuml Since it had grown breathlessly hot-- presaging
another cloudburst1 now s-ilhouetting the Maya ruins off across the gorge
into which the Rio On fell-- I decided on a quick swim in one of the more
secluded pools, I had not been given the opportunity to bathe at all since
leaving B.elize on this excessively casual expedition, and I fear that my
personal effluvium was growing almost as strong as that given off by Ches-
ter and TerribleJ The other members of the party were off attending to
their collecting so I stripped and plunged into one of the fish-filled pools,
and then sat perched on a rock in the sun and drippily admired the magni-
ficence of the orchid-hung scenery all about me.
(To be continued)

THE GENUS CATTLEYA Part 7. (Cultural Bulletin No. 1) (Continued from
O VW .1(15). 156. 5 September 1958.) In certain particularly choice con-
temporary orchid collections, in addition to those Cattleyas already noted,
we find a few other, markedly rarer species. These will now be taken up,
in somewhat shorter detail than utilized in the previous sections of this se-
rial. Three of these are natural hybrids, this condition being a rather
common one in this aggregation of orchids.
(19) Cattleya Brownii (brow-nee-eye) (Brazil) Rather approximating C.
Loddigesii and its var, Harrisoniana in all parts, differing in lip-charac-
ters, usually slightly more robust vegetatively, the flowers to 3 1/2" ac-
ross, fragrant, heavy-textured, the sepals and petals rather dark rose
purple. Lip with whitish lateral lobes which are usually flushed with rosy-
mauve, the midlobe vivid rosy-purple, with a yellowish-white, slightly rou-
ghened disc. This rare species, from the interior of Brazil, usually flo-
wers during November and December. It requires cultural conditions sim-
ilar to those afforded C. Loddigesii.
(20) Cattleya x dolosa (do-low-sah) (Brazil) A natural hybrid betwuen C.
Walkeriana and C. Loddigesii var. Harrisoniana, it vegetatively rather si-
mulates the former species, the pseudobulbs not as swollen, to .6" tall, the
leaves usually paired, rigid, to 5" long. Inflorescences borne from th<
apex of the pseudobulb (not as in C. Walkeriana), usually 1-flowered. Flo-

12 September 1958



wers to 5" across, fragrant, heavy-textured, the sepals and petals dark rose
or magenta-rose, the lip dark rose basally, light rose at the tip, the disc yel-
low, the margins often veined with very dark violet-purple. An extremely rare
natural hybrid, C. x dolosa customarily flowers during May and June Condi-
tions as for C. Walkeriana should be afforded this plant.
(21) Cattleya clongata (co-lon- gah-tah) (Brazil, mostly in the North) An im-
portant synonym for this rare and highly spectacular species is C. Alexandrac.
It is basically similar in habit to C. bicolor, the slender pseudobulbs attaining
heights of slightly more than two feet. Inflorescences 2-10-flowered, the stalk
to an extraordinary length of two feet! Flowers to 3" across, variable in color,
heavy-textured, fragrant, long-lived, the sepals and petals varying from cop-
per-brown to bright green or purplish-brown, spotted (or not) with dark purple-
brown, the lip usually completely rich magenta or red-magenta, midlobe mar-
gined with paler color. Blossoms are usually produced during the spring or
early summer months. Cultural conditions as for C. guttata, C. bicolor, etc.
(22) Cattleya x guatemalensis (gwa-teh-mah-len- siss) (Guatemala, and perhaps
elsewhere in Central America) Natural hybrid between Cattleya aurantiaca and
C. Skinneri, occasionally grown as an Epicattleya. Vegetatively most like the
second parent, the flowers rather numerous, to 2" across, fragrant, variable
in color, but usually orange-yellow more or less flushed with bright iridescent
rose the lip tubular, often marked in the throat with brownish-purple streaks,
the midlobe not expanding widely, sharp-pointed. This lovely plant typically
flowers during February and March. It should be grown under conditions such
as those afforded the parent species.
(23) Cattleya x Hardyana (har-dee-ah-nah) (Colombia) A natural hybrid be-
tween two of the variants of C. labiata, var. Warscewiczii and var. Dowiana
subvar. aurea, hence technically referable to status under the species itself,
although it is distinct horticulturally. Vegetatively much like the first-named
parent. Flowers 1-4, to 8" across, very fragrant, the sepals and petals dark
rose-purple, the petals very large and beautifully wavy-margined and crisped.
Lip to 3" across, very crisped and frilled marginally, brilliant velvety magen-
ta-crimson, the throat and upper part veined with golden-yellow; a large vivid
yellow "eye" is present on each side of the throat-entrance, and is margined
with particularly brilliant magenta-crimson. Usually flowering during the fall
months, this handsome hybrid requires conditions such as those recommen-
ded by C. labiata var. Warscewiczii.
(24) Cattleya porphyroglossa (por-fi-ro-glaw-sah) (Brazil, mostly in the North)
Allied to and resembling C. granulosa, the pseudobulbs to more than 2' tall.
Flowers 7-8, to 3" across, very fragrant, heavy-textured, long-lasting, the
sepals and petals varying from yellowish-brown to greenish (rarely clear yel-
low), especially the petals rather undulate. Lip 3-lobed, the lateral lobes
whitish flushed with magenta, the midlobe shortly and narrowly clawed, bril-
liant magenta-purple, toothed marginally, furnished with radiating crested
veins. This rare and spectacular species usually flowers during the summer
months. Culture as for C. guttata, C. bicolor, etc.
(25) Cattleya Schilleriana (shi-leh-ree-ah-nah) (Brazil) Similar in habit to
C. Aclandiae, the pseudobulbs to 5" tall, the paired leaves often dark purpl-
ish-green, rigid, to 5" long. Inflorescences 1-2-flowered, very short. Flo-
wers to 4 1/2" across, heavily waxy, fragrant, long-lived, the sepals and

Vol. 1, No. 10


petals dark green or brownish-green, densely blotched with dark brown or
purple-brown, sometimes reddish-mahogany without spots. Lip light red-
dish-purple, the midlobe darker with very dark magenta veins, the disc yel-
low, with a thin yellow stripe extending from it to the lip-apex. This pretty
and very rare Cattloya usually flowers from July to October. Cultural in- -Zc
structions as for C. Aclandiac.

QUESTION COLUMN. Our friends are cordially invited to send us their que--.
ries, on all phases of orchidology, for possible inclusion in this regular seec-
tion of'the 0 W A self-addressed postal card should accompany each ques- 2 c
tion for which a written reply is desired. The most generally interesting que-40C
ries will be answered in this column..... Q: Can you give mc growing instruc-
tions for Maxillaria uncata ? I can't find anything in Sanders' book about it, or
anywhere else, for that matter! -- C.M.F., Homestead, Fla. A: This char-
ming dwarf Maxillaria is so rare, that it has seldom even been mentioned in
the readily available horticultural literature, hence this explains your diffi-
culty in finding any information concerning it. It is an easily grown little or-
chid, and with its odd succulent, tufted foliage, is most attractive -ven when
not set with the tubular, white, brown-striped blossoms. We find. that it does
best if kept in small, perfectly-drained pots, filled with a mixture of about
equal parts of chopped sphagnum moss, chopped tree-fe.rn fiber, and bark
preparation, in smallish pieces. It should be grown in a well-shaded spot,
as the plants are very prone to injury through sunburning. Moisture should
be furnished at all times, although care must bc taken that the compost never
becomes sodden, or the health of the plant will suffer. It benefits by regular
applications of rather weak fertilizing solution . ...: I recently obtained a
specimen of Acineta densa. Can you tell me how it should be grown ? -- A. C.,
Richmond. A: This species is referable to Acineta chrysantha, a very vari-
able and spectacular epiphyte native in Costa Rica and Panama. All members
of the genus, because of their basally-produced, sharply pendulous inflorus-
cences, must be grown in baskets or on vertical rafts. Baskets seem the
more suitable because in them sufficient constant moisture-- which is very
essential-- may be maintained better than on the rapidly-draining rafts or
tree-fern slabs. A compost such as that noted above for Maxillaria uncata
is satisfactory, particularly with a top-surfacing of fresh sphagnum -noss.
Many experts recommend that broken crock be interspersed with the com-
post, to assure the perfect aeration which- is so essential t1o these plants.
Tropical in origin, for the most part, they require high temperatures and a
constantly moist, humid atmosphere; no resting-period should be given, as
they grow throughout the year. Semi-shade is advisable, since the rather
heavy foliage is very prone to damage from sunburn..... Q: I have an On-
cidium Powellii which has not bloomed, even though the growth has been good
for two years. Recently the outer foliage has shown brownish streaks. Could
this be from too much nitrogen ? The plant has no direct sun, but is in a
good light. The heat never goes higher than 800 F. (summer). -- S.C., Ok-
lahoma City. A: Without seeing a piece of a leaf,- with the '"brownish streaks,"
we would be hesitant about diagnosing the cause of the condition. It could be
a number of things-- from a virus infection, to improper growing or comn-
post condition. This very spectacular Panamanian Oncidium is a tropical


1Z September 1958


species, inhabiting lowland areas, and perhaps if you give your plant more co:
sisfently high temperatures, better success will be had. A solution to this mat-.
ter of non-flowering orchids is often as simple as this: rupot the plant, remov-
ing all (or as much as possible) of the old compost from the roots. The shock
occasioned by this, in many instances will cause the plant to "take a new lease
on life, and flowering will occur. Like most inembers of its genus, Oncidiunm
Powellii is excessively intolerant of the slightest bit of stale compost, hence thi.
may be the root of the difficulty you are having. Normally, it is a very flori-
forous species, certainly one of the most handsome in the entire genus. ....

THE GENUS ARUNDINA. This is a small genus-- possibly consisting of only
single highly variable entity-- widespread in the region extending from southe-'r
China and the Himalayas, throughout Malaysia, Indonesia, and adjacent areas to
certain of the islands of the Pacific. Tall-growing terrestrial plants, rather :re-
miniscent of a slender Sobralia in general appearance, A-rundinas are popular
with collectors, particularly in the tropics, where they are often used as state-
ly ornamentals in the out-door garden. The generic name is pronounced ah-
run-dec-nah; the group is, oddly enough, a member of the Thunia subtribe (see
O WV 1(9): 99-100. 25' July 1958 for comments on the genus Thunia). CULTURE:
Grown out-of-doors, Arundinas are of singularly easy cultivation; if kept confi-
ned in pots in a greenhouse, flowers are not always produced with the ease oth
erwise attained. Since, as individuals, the plants are often not particularly freeo-
flowering, it is recommended that they be grown in some quantity, preferably in
specially-prepared outdoor beds (provided, of course, that climatic conditions
are sufficiently equable to permit this). Because perfect drainage is essential-
the bed should be dug out to a depth of about eight inches, and a one- or two-inch
'layer of broken crock or brick placed in it. The remainder of the bed may be
filled with a mixture consisting of the following ingredients: rich loam, chopped
osmunda or shredded tree-fern fiber (or chunks of tree-fern), crushed leaves.
and dried manure. The plants should not have their bases buried in the compost,
and if they are top-heavy, should be supported by sticks and ties. A sunny spot,
with liberal applications of water and fertilizer while the plants are in active
growth, plus temperatures as warm as possible, suit these handsome orchids
well. If grown in pots under glass, the above-noted compost should prove sat.-
isfactory, and when the warm summer months arrive, the plants should be set
outside, to induce more profuse flowering. A rather sunny situation is ne'ede.
for optimum results. Arundina graminifolia (gra-mi-ni-foe-lee-ah) is the only
species of the genus in cultivation at this 'time; it may also be the only species
which should be considered valid. Important synonyms are Arundina bambusi-
folia, A. densa, and A. speciosa. The plant extends from southern China and
the Himalayas throughout Malaysia, ;Indonesia, and adjacent areas to Tahiti; i':
is a naturalized escape in both Hawaii and Panama. Stems reach heights of
more than 8' tall in robust specimens; they arc slender and normnally-- at least
in well-grown specimens-- leafy throughout. The grass-like leaves attain a
maximum -length of about a foot, and seldom exceed 1 1/2" in -width. The in-
florescences are terminal, prominently bracted, and gradually elongate t.
produce single or paired flowers-- these usually lasting about three days each-
over a rather long period of time, often upwards of five or six months. Indi-


Vol. I ND. io',


vidual flowers measure about 2 1/2" long (rarely longer), and rather sim-
ulate those of a smallish Cattleya, but with the lateral sepals close togeth-
er behind the lip. The sepals and petals vary from white to pale rosy-mn auve,
and are of a handsome glittering texture. The; lip-- which is tubular basally--
is usually vivid rose-purple at the crisped apex, with the throat somewhat pa-
ler, and veined with purple; the disc sports a bright or dull yellow suffusion.
There is a pure white variant-- fma. alba-- which is most attractive, but
is excessively rare in cultivation. This Arundina flowers throughout the year,
and is, when well-grown, is almost ever-blooming. It often produces adven-
titious keikis, which may be removed after they have formed a couple of roots,
and potted upi to increase the stock. It is, all in all, a very handsome orchid,
one which should be far better known and appreciated by collectors.
-- -- ----k- _- ---------------- -- R-- J-- - >-- -- >r -- -- -- k---- -- kk------ --
COMING NEXT WEEK In our next issue-- volume l Noi 17-- we will be-
gin the publication of a new, regular department in the 0 Wi to be entitled
"Diary of an Orchidist." We believe that you-- our readers-- will find this
new section to be of interest and value.

LOCKHARTIA, A CULTURAL GIMMICK. Hi-re is something which we have
never seen mentioned in orchid literature before-- a cultural angle in connec-
tion with the lovely "Braided Orchids," genus Lockhartia. Old, fully-matu-
red leafy stems may be severed at or near their bases, and laid flat on damp
sphagnum moss-- or a mixture of sphagnum, chopped osmunda (or tree-fern
fiber), and bark preparation-- being pinned down tightly against this medium
(but not covered) with smallish galvanized wire staples. Vvithin a couple of
months, tiny roots will usually commence to appear, these followed shortly
by offsets, or keikis! These keikis should be allowed to remain on the parent
plant until they are about an inch tall, then carefully removed with a razor
blade or sharp knife, and potted as individuals.

today, it is possible to purchase, at reasonable prices, cut pieces of tree
fern trunks which are called "totem poles." In varying dimensions, per i -
the commonest size commonly available is a square post measuring abo
by 3", in heights of two to four feet. These are now enjoying consider 1':I
popularity with orchidists, and some comments concerning their use ar1 f
perhaps of interest at this time. Many orchids have a more or loss cl ,i-gk
bring or viney habit, and we find that these "totem poles"-- which m-n 1
tain their good qualities for upwards of five or six years, without appJci-
able deterioration-- form almost perfect apparatuses to which to attach '
such plants. Most such orchids (some examples are several of the little
equitant-leaved Antillean Oncidiums- 0. variegatum, etc., Vanda teores,
V. x Miss Joaquim, Luisia teretifolia, Angraecum Eichlerianum, etc.)
should be planted in pots, in various sorts of mixtures, with the basal roots
buried in the compost. But their eiDngate usually freely-rooting stems
need some sort of support, which they receive in nature from the tree-trunk
or branch on which they occur. By pinning the rhizome, or the stem itself,
to the tree-fern "totem pole, using galvanized wire staples, the plant soon

12 September 1958



attaches itself and grows with far more gratifying vigor than it would if mere-
ly allowed to dangle free, or if placed on a sterile wooden trellis, which offers
scant moisture-retaining qualities. The poles of tree-fern may be readily cut
into suitable lengths, by using a common saw.

ORCHID TERM DEFINITIONS, (Continued from O W 1(8): 86. 18 July 1958.)
Several miscellaneous terms are taken up this time, these suggested by O.G.,
CHARTACEOUS (char-tay-see-us) Thin, hard, and stiff; with the texture of
writing paper. Certain orchids have chartaceous leaves, e.g., certain of
the robust, pseudobulbous Epidendrums, such as E. alatum.
CORIACEOUS (ko-ree-ay-see-us) Leathery in texture. A great many orchids
have coriaceous leaves, or floral parts, e.g., the coriaceous foliage of Cat-
tleya labiata, or the coriaceous blossoms of many Vandas.
DICHOTOMOUS (dye-ko-toe-muss) Regularly divided by pairs from top to bot-
tom. Lockhartias, the lovely "Braided Orchids, have the foliage arranged

P. 0. Box 33435
Coconut Grove 33, Florida

Return postage guaranteed

Printed Matter


Vol. 1, No. 16

THE ORCHID W.VEEKLY 19 September 1958 Vol. 1, No. 17

A weekly publication devoted exclusively to orchids and their cultural require-
ments, designed expressly for the amateur collector. Issued by Orchids Un-
limited, 2800 Bird Ave., Coconut Grove 33, Fla. Editor: Alex D. Hawkes.
Price per copy (current), 25. 3-month subscription (12 issues, dating from
current issue), $2.75, postpaid in the Continental U.S. Other subsc-ribers are
served by air or surface mail-- please specify which when ordering-- with pos-
tage to bebilled. Back issues are for the most part available, although stock
is very limited; prices upon inquiry. All contents, copyright, 1958, by Alex
D. Hawkes. Mailing address: P. 0. Box 3-3435, Coconut Grove 33, Fla., USA.
sion) (Continued from O W 1(16): 165. 12 September 1958.) The new de-
luge hit just as I put my clothes back on my freshly-scrubbed (with quartz
sand, which may not have the soothing effect of Ivory soap, but works al-
most as well in a pinch!) anatomy and headed back to the jeep. Crossing one
of the little stream tributaries of the Rio On, I slipped on a mossy rock and
fell with a monumental splash into the water, which closed gently over my
head- and my camera! It now seems entirely possible to me that the rela-
tively inferior quality of the color slides I took while in British Honduras
may be blamed, in part, to this baptismal dunking, and to the previous soa-
king when the camera had been left in the open jeep during the rain on the
Hummingbird Highway. Jackie, Dudy, and the Spaniard (who was still
with us, though he was becoming increasingly anxious to get home before
his oranges rotted through old age), appeared shortly thereafter, and an-
nounced that we were going on to the nebulous sawmill at San Luis-- for
breakfast. I had really forgotten all about eating, having chewed on a few
vaguely rotted Schippia fruits which I had finally found, but they had tasted
like old socks, with an admixture of nylon thread, and had done little to
help my stomach's groanings. By now, the rain was coming down in a so-
lid grey, chill, dank sheet; the canvas partly covering the jeep leaked a
bit more profusely than usual; and we had to turn back after a few minutes
to pick up the hounds and Rita, all of whom-we had forgotten. .The others
in the party were to stay where they were- and collect; no arrangement
for food for them, at all, as was rather typical Since the graded clay
roads had become tho!ocaghly sodden and were very slippery, and Jackie
drove like a man possessed, we almost didn't make it to San Luis-- the
edge of one precipitous cliff came to within about three inches of our
front wheels, as we careened around a blind corner. If I had been drie-r
and less famished, I thinly I would have gotten out again and walked dis-
mally--- ever the martyr-- through the rain. The sawmill turned out to
be a very large establishment, and a very neat and busy one,. with dozens
of people scurrying around, and ro-r., of attractive frame houses set in
the midst of mount' of sawdust. Our Spanish host proudly showed us
his cut-flower arrangements of Cattleyas and Sobralias, and then put us-
at a well-stocked table; for food! Our farewell to this charming gentle-
man was almost tear-provoking, and we all had to promise to come back
soon and spend more time -ith him nnd his pretty wife and adorable brood
of children. Setting out again, we found that the rain had stopped, and
the sky was bright blu. and hung with cream-puff clouds. We drove to


the large, rapid-strewn Rio Guacamayo, which is cn the edge of the Mountain
Pine Ridge, and effectively cuts off the pine forests of the plateau from the en-
croaching high jungle beyond it. We crossed through the shallows of the river-
where a truck filled with people had been washed to destruction the week bu-
fore, I was nonchalantly told-- and on into the massive rain-forest for about
half-mile, seeing nothing new of note except some prodigious clumps, high up
in the trees, of an Oncidium much like 0. sphacclatum. The basic flora here
was much like that we had found on the Hummingbird Highway (although this re-
gion is very incompletely known by the botanists), so we decided to return to thu
Rio On, pick up the workers and the orchids, and head on back toward Belize.
All of this sounded rather pat and simple, and I should have known better than
to believe things would go that smoothly! Between the Guacamayo and the saw-
mill, Jackie stopped to allow me to inspect the huge colony of Sobralia macran-
tha just off the--road. Here these very large orchids- which we had seen in the
Cattleya area- grew as true terrestrials, in deep, evidently perpetually moist
mucky soil, in high grasses, under the rather sparse pines. The leafy sterns
towered well above my head, and I am just a shade under six feet tall! Single
flowers sometimes measured as much-as eight inches in diameter, and I felt
it to be indeed unfortunate that these very spectacular blossoms typically last
less than a single day. We almost went over another cliff just at the entr-
ance-to the Rio On gorge, but Jackie finally wrestled the jeep back on the road
and-- bathed in a noxious clammy sweat- we arrived back at the parking area,
just in time for the first drops of a new rainstorm to patter down about us.
'The helpers were more than a little disgruntled that nothing in the way of food
-had been brought them, but they grudgingly started carrying up the plants from
the river-gorge below, and stowing them in a tangled heap in the jeep-trailer.
The sharp crack of breaking Cattleya bulbs sounded so often that I left the spot,
and walked--- slid on my rump, rather- back down into the gorge, to see
what I could find up the other direction along the river. Leaping like some
splendidly awkward gazelle from slick rock to slick rock, alternating by bone-
shaking falls when I missed my footing, I reached a gigantic flattened rock,
like a gargantuan table, over which the river flowed in glittering sheets of
spume. I spotted some of the characteristic blotches -of purple-rose on a lit-
tle tree-shrouded cliff up ahead, and as I grew nearer-- sure enough, there
were more dozens and dozens of flowering clumps of Cattleya Bowringiana,-
these as yet untouched by the ravishing collectors. A glorious series of wa-
terfalls cascaded down this cliff, in a series of fans, and the whole effect was
that of a very expert and frightfully expensive landscaping design! By now
the rain was falling with great vigor, and I was soaked to the skin, so decided
to go back, and see whether my cohorts were ready for the trek home. They-
had been arguing, and little had been done, -so I saw disconsolately in the sod-
den jeep, with Chester (or Terrible) muddy-paw ed in my lap, until finally
we were ready to leave. The hour approached 4 p.m., and Jackie assured
me that we would be sitting down to dinner in Belize by 7:30 at the latest. I
finally arrived back in the capital at midnight, and I haven't the vaguest no-
tion when the rest of them straggled in-- I was too annoyed and too exhaus-
ted to care! We of course had to stop for a lethargic spot of tea at the Ma-
ya village, and Jackie announced that he was going to take a nap. This eter-
nal procrastination and never knowing what the devil was happening finally

19 September 1958 THE ORCHID WEEKLY 173

became just a little too much, and I asked-- in stentorian, stern tones-- that
we stop all of this fooling around, and get on home! My outburst was suc-
cessful, and we shortly left our friends, the Mayas, standing in the rain and
waving to us, The trip down out of the heights of the Mountain Pine .i:lqe
was largely conducted in a strained, irritable silence, except for a couple
of sessions of hurling epithets at each other. Even Chester and Terrible
were subdued, and didn't even go scampering out of the jeep every time we
stopped to tie the canvas coverings back on-- which was every five hundred
yards, as regularly as you please. Darkness came on early, because of-
the overcast sky and the continuing rain. We were travelling along the hor-
ribly muddy, rutted road not too far from the entry-gate to the Forest Pre-
serve when the jeep ran over what appeared to be a log in the ruts. But this
log immediately started swirling off into the woods with that fantastic move-
ment that a large snake has, and we halted with a screech and great commo-
tioni It turned out to be a smallish boa constrictor, completely unhurt, ap-
parently, by having been run over-- we figured he had just been mashed
down into the ooze of the road-bed by the wheels-- so Jackie ordered one of
his crew to capture its Somebody did (it was not me!), and once again we
continued joltingly on our way, with the f',ul-tempered reptile-- which could S .
inflict a wound much like that of a large dog, if it wished to do so-- being
held by the neck by Stephen, who unfortunately sat on the trailer-attach-
ment, precisely behind my heads This resulted in the boa's tail or other ;
nether portions periodically grasping my own neck or head in a grasp which
was designed to evoke memories of old Bela Lugosi movies! Since no on.e 0
else would have anything to do with the snake-- Jackie was sound asleep.
further mashing down the shattered Cattleyas in the trailer-- we decided to
stop and do something with our new passenger. The only available contai-
ner was a cracker-tin, so we emptied the stale crackers carefully into a
covered pail, and rammed the poor boa inside, hastily covering the top back
up. We punched some holes in the cover, so he could breathe, and again
resumed our journey. Jackie roused himself considerately to "sign us out"
through the gate of the Forest Preserve, and then on down the highroad to-
ward Belize we sped, at record-breaking speeds. We stopped for a flat
tire near Roaring River, and unloaded all of the plants in the trailer whenn
we got there, leaving them under a thatch-shelter where we had cached-
the collections from the Hummingbird Highway region. I was gruffly in-
formed that we had not time to stop for anything to.. cat or drink, so again
we started off. Two flat tires at once stopped the jeep for good, sever-
al miles further on-- right out in the middle of nowhere, with not a light
nor a house nor a car--in sight. All of us piled out, to start fixing the ac-
cursed wheels again-- and Jackie nonchalantly lay down on a sheet of'can-
vas by the side of the road and refused to help. Everybody else refused to
do anything, too, so-there we sat, while mine host slumbered blissfully
away under the now-sparkling stars. Stephen had removed the snake from
its canister, and held it by the back of the neck, its muscular body twisted
like some sort of ponderous bracelet around his arm. After a few minutes,
I took my little valise out of the trailer, wiped as much of 'the mud off of
it as I could, and bravely stood out in the middle of the highway, to try
to hitch a ride back to the city. It should have been an amusing, eveni a


hilarious experience. But, regrettably, my normal patience had-- during the-
past few days- worn very thin, and I was completely fed up with the casual at-
titude of mine host, as were all of us who had been associated with him on this
incredibly disorganized trip. As I stood with affected aplomb in the precise
center of this principal highway of the Colony of British Honduras, I felt once
again the vacuous emptiness which characterizes this "Empty Land." At one
-ti4ne, my bravado failed, and I almost went back and went to sleep by the road-
side myself. At last, along...came a lumbering lumber-truck from the saw-
mill at San Luis, and the humanitarian riding with the driver-- who turned out
to be- one of the managers of the mill, and who knew Jackie and his vagaries
well-- picked me up, and gave me a ride right into the center of Belize. I have
seldom been so happy to see a bed, as when I at last tumbled into mine at the
Prince Albert Hotel A good night's sleep helped a great deal, but when I in-
spected my legs and ankles, I found the myriad bites which I had acquired had
become wondrously infected, and I feared that blood poisoning might be set-
ting in, since both legs throbbed steadily and painfully. And so it was that,
later in the day on that self-same Saturday, I found myself on a Miami-bound
TAN airliner, with the coastline of British Honduras pulling away underneath
the clouds. I had planned on staying in the Colony several additional weeks,
but with my poor messy legs and the obvious impossibility of doing any fur-
ther collecting with Vasquez, I thought it best to depart- perhaps to return
at some future date, to see more of this marvelous and-. varied, unique and
under-developed country. I now know that that future date will not be overly
long in coming. And I look forward tremen-dously to again seeing all of the
sights and plants and people I saw initially-- and many more, in addition!
EPILOGUE: For those of-my readers who would like to know what happened
to all of the plants- orchids, aroids, bromeliads, etc. -- which were gath-
ered on this trip, I would like to state that all of them were, regrettably, left
in the care of mine host. After my return to Miami, I received a letter that
the shipment would be made when the plants had been obtained from Roauing
River. Since over a year has now passed, I must only assume that the spe-
cimens are still under the thatch-covering, just off the road, in the town of
Roaring River .... .

QUESTION COLUMN. Our friends are cordially invited to send us their que-
ries, on all phases of orchidology, for possible inclusion in this regular sec-
tion of the 0 VW A self-addressed postal card should accompany each ques-
tion for whiich a written reply is desired. The most generally interesting que-
ries will be answered in this column ..... .Q: I have a Dendrobium thyrsiflo-
rum. It was a nice plant, but it kept going back regardless of what I did-- lost
all ot its leaves and the pseudobulbs shrivelled very badly. I cut it up and was
goibig to throw it away, but my inner soul told me to put it in a jar of water.
That was foqr months ago. Tonight I was .looking at it, and each part of it had
an inch-long growth with small roots starting on it. I will leave it in the algae
water until I hear from you..-- E.B.S., Menlo Park, Calif. A; You evident-
ly did exactly the right thing, in putting the pieces of pseudobulbs into the wa-
ter; it is known that many of the Dendrobiums can be propagated in this man-
ner- and seems increasingly evident that almost all of them can! From your


vlal. 1, Nc, 17


mention of "algae water, I assume that you did not change the water very
often. If you had changed it, I doubt that you would have gotten such good
sprouting. Now that the offsets (or keikis) are about an inch long and have
some little roots, they may soon be taken out of the water and potted, indi-
vidually. I would suggest putting each one into a. very small pot (1 1/2-2"
at most), filled about half-full of drainage, the remainder with a mixture
of equal parts of chopped sphagnum moss, chopped tree-fern fiber, and
dust-free bark preparation. Keep the little plants reasonably moist (but
not wet), and in a rather shaded spot until they really take hold; they nor-
mally should be kept in these little pots for at least several months .....
Q: Sometime ago I received a few plants of an Epidendrum under the name
of E. inaguense. I have two other Epidendrums which resemble the plant a
great deal. One is labelled E. gracile, the other E. diurnum. Anything
you can do help us straighten this matter out (using the enclosed specimen)
will be greatly appreciated. -- O.M.K. Honolulu. A: The specimen sub-
mitted is Epidendrum gracile, a native of the Bahamas. Although I have
not seen the type specimen of E. inaguense, I strongly suspect that it is
referable to synonymy under this species. E. diurnum is native in Vene
zuela, and possibly elsewhere; it is a completely different, yellow-flow-
ered species, vegetatively rather like a smallish E. atropurpureum .....
Q: Am not having much luck with my Selenipedium caudatum, which is pot-
ted in bark. Is this wrong ? Should it be grown warm or cold ? -- E.B.S.,
Menlo Park, Calif. A: This plant is correctly known as Phragmopedilum .-
caudatum; despite what is stated in most of the available books and references ,
manuals, no true species of Selenipodium have ever been in cultivation in -
this country. Ranging from Mexico to Panama, and well into South Ame-
rica, this fabulously handsome orchid is, in its native haunts, normally
an epiphyte, growing in the upper branches of large forest trees. I would
suspect that you should transfer your plant, from the straight bark prepa-
ration, into a mixture of equal parts of chopped sphagnum moss, chopped
tree-fern fiber, and bark. Because it bears no pseudobulbs or other sort
of moisture-storing structures, it must be kept moist (but never suddenly
wet) at all times. It is a strictly tropical plant, delighting in high tempe-
ratures, and as much humidity as can conveniently be afforded it. Once
the plant is well-rooted and growing freely, move it into a reasonably bright
place-- gradually, to avoid burning of the rather succulent foliage. Unless
particularly well-grown, this Cypripedium ally often does not blossom reg-
ularly every year.... .Q: I have bought at different times Bletia bulbs here,
some being called "Hardy, others other names. I lost those I left outside
a couple of years ago, grew a couple in the house last year, but only achie-
ved two 3-4 ft. narrow stems. Those outside are more leafy, but only ab-
out 10" high, so I don't know how to proceed. When do they bloom ? -
M.C., Seattle. A: It seems very probable that you are dealing with two
(or more) entirely distinct kinds of orchids. The plant usually sold as the
"Hardy Bletia" is actually Bletilla striata, a native of China and Japan; the
true Bletias are all American in origin, and but seldom encountered in our
collections, although they are for the most part very handsome orchids, of
easy cultural requirements. Yoir 10" plant is probably Bletilla, a species
which is essentially hardy, even in regions such as Seattle. The plants are

19 S(..!.PtcmbL;.r 10/58


176 THE ORCHID WEEKLY Vol. 1, No. 17

most successful in big pots (about 8" or 9" size), perfectly-drained, in a com-
post consisting of rich garden soil, loam, rotted oak or other hardwood leaves,
and gritty white sand, with some manure added rather liberally. Often the plants
will not blossom until they become pot-bound, hence they should be disturbed on-
ly when absolutely essential. They need to be kept moist while actively, growing,
but upon yellowing and withering of the annually-deciduous foliage, water should
be withheld until the new shoots begin to appear in the spring. They also do well
in out-of-door beds, to be treated much in the manner of garden bulbs-- tulips,
narcissus, etc., although they should not be dug up during the winter. Some
comments on the genus Bletia will be found elsewhere in this issue of the 0 V1 ...

NOTES ON THE GENUS BLETIA. This is a genus of an estimated 50 species,
all natives of the Americas, ranging from Florida and Mexico (where the cen-
ter of development occurs) to Brazil. Relatively infrequent in collections to-
day, Bletia (pronounced blee-tee-ah) contains a remarkable number of showy
and handsome terrestrial (rarely semi-epiphytic or lithophytic) species, which
should be better known by orchidists. With several folded leaves arising from
a typically underground pseudobulb-like corm, the infloresccnces are usually
produced from the side or apical part of the current year's corm, and bear a
few to rather numerous often showy flowers successively over a long period of
time They vary in color from rose-purple to greenish or white, and in many
cases do not expand fully, although they are still very pretty. CULTURE: Ble-
tias are, for the most part, readily grown, even by the novice. They thrive in
pots in the greenhouse or lath-house, or in specially-prepared outside beds (as
suggested for Arundina- see OW 1(16): 168. 12 Sept. 1958.), provided that
the climate is sufficiently moderate to allow this. In pots, these handsome
terrestrials thrive. in a compost of about equal parts of rich loam, leaf-mould,
gritty white sand, and shredded or chopped osmunda or tree-fern fiber, with
some manure or other fertilizing ingredient added. The pots need to be per-
fectly-drained for best results, and while the plants are in active growth they
require quantities of moisture, humidity, and warmth. Upon maturation of the
new corms (or "pseudobulbs, as they are usually called), water should be
completely stopped until the racomes of flowers have started to open, when
moisture may be recommended, gradually and still in moderation. Most of
the Bletias will stand almost total sun-exposure, and indeed, seem to profit
if kept in a sunny spot. They should be regularly fertilized for geod produc-
tion of growths and flowers. Repotting should be done annually, as these or-
chids are heavy feeders, and soon exhaust the compost in -which they are kept.
Intermediate to warm temperatures should be afforded them. Only about
three species of Bletia are currently present in our collections, and oa these
only one is at all frequent. This is BLETIA PURPUREA (poor-poo-ree-ah),
often grown under the synonyms of B. tuberosa or B. verecunda; the most
widespread in the genus, it ranges from Florida and Mexico throughout all
of the West Indies and Central America into northern South America. Its
description: Corms compressed from above, about 1 1/2" in maximum di-
am. Lvs. few, stalked basally, folded, rather narrow, to 3' in length, usu-
ally less.than 2" wide. Infis. to 5' tall (usually much shorter), with a sim-
ple or branching rac. at apical part, few- to many-fld., the fIs. mostly op-


ening successively over a period of a month or more. Fis. to about 2" ac-
ross (usually considerably smaller), varying in color from pink to rose-pur-
ple (very rarely pure white), not opening fully, the lip usually darker in co-
lor, with 5-7 yellow keels on the disc. Usually blossoms during, spring and
early summer months. BLETIA FLORIDA (flo-ri-dah), usually grown as
B. Shepherdii, is a native of Cuba and Jamaica; it is today found in a few
especially comprehensive collections of orchids. Corms often rather egg-
shaped, often flattened-globose, to 1 1/2" in diam., sometimes borne on
ground-surface. Lvs. few, to 2' long and 4" wide, folded. Infls. erect
or slightly arching, with an elongate, many-fld. rac. in upper third, the
fls. opening successively over a period of several months. FIs. to about
1 1/2" across, showy, very long-lasting for the genus, opening well, the
ss, and ps.. rich rose-purple, the lip slightly darker, with 5 irregular white
crests down the disc. Usually blossoms during spring and summer months.
BLETIA CATENULATA (ka-teh-nyu-lah-tah) is a rare but extremely hand-
some species from Peru and Brazil; it has recently been introduced into a
few collections in this country, notably in South Florida. Corms to 4" in
diam., flattened from above, furrowed with age. Lvs. long-stalked, 4-6,
to 2' long, about 4" wide at most, folded. Infls. to 3' tall, rather loosely
3-8-fld. Fls. about 2" across, showy, opening widely, the ss. and ps.
rose-magenta, the lip dark rose-magenta, the margins crisped and wavy,
often paler, the crest usually whitish. Blossoms during spring and sum-
mer; this is the finest member of the genus currently in cultivation.

BOOK REVIEW: Orchids of Peru, by Charles Schweinfurth. 1958. Chi-
cago Natural History Museum, Chicago, Ill. 260 pp. map & 45 figs. Stiff
paper covers. $4.00, postpaid (if ordered with future numbers, prior to
31 Dec. 1958) -- We now have the first (of a probable four) part of Mr.
Schweinfurth's long-awaited study, dealing with the myriad members of
the Orchidaceac to be found in Peru. It forms an adjunct to J. Francis
Macbride's Flora of Peru. These fascicles dealing with the orchids in-
clude 119 genera, comprising about 1, 122 species and varieties; of.these,
26 genera, and 629 species and varieties arc taken up in this first number.
Following an introductory chapter, discussing particularly the history of
orchid collecting in Peru, Mr. Schweinfurth gives a very detailed "Key to
Genera of Peruvian Orchids." He then commences the very comprehen-
sive discussion of the component genera and species; well-organized keys
to the species are furnished at the beginning of each generic discussion.
Phragmipedium is the first genus taken up, and the-last is Lepanthes. ge
nera of horticultural importance treated here include Vanilla, Elleanthus,
Sobralia-, Stelis, Cryptophoranthus, anl. Masdevallia. Mr. Schweinftrth's
admirably detailed text, and the attractive line drawings, combine to make
Orchids of Peru an admirable reference volume, which should be in the
library of all orchid. enthusiasts.

DIARY OF AN ORCHIDIST. A new department devoted to casual ramb-
lings in the orchid collection, and in the orchid library ... Saturday,
Sept. 13 The big baskets .of Cattleya Bowringiana are really at their

19 September 1958



most spectacular just now; they started opening their masses of buds about two
weeks ago. Strange how seldom one sees any particular variance in this spe-
cies; all of the hundreds and hundreds of specimens I saw in British Honduras
were essentially identical in flower-shape and color. Yet there are such re-
corded variations as var. triumphans (with abnormally wide petals), var. cDe-
rulea (flushed with an odd slatey-bluc shade), and the nebulous var. alba, which
I have yet to see! Must repot all of the plants after they finish flowering; they
have gone untended far too long, and are beginning to show-- by the slightly few-
er flower-cliusters-- the results of the stale osmunda at their roots. Dividing
them is quite a chore, too! You practically have to use a saw, to cut through
the tremendous, tangled clumps of roots and rhizomes. I'm going to put them
back into osmunda again, too; they seem to do far better in this, than in any
other type of compost I've tried, or have seen tried elsewhere .... .Sunday, Sept.
14 -- Managed to get a few more of the Cattlcyas divided and repotted today, but
it was so hot that I couldn't do as much as I would have liked. The more I se
the results obtained by growing Cattleyas-- and certain other orchids-- here in
the Miami area in straight, very tightly-packed osmunda, the better I like thnem!
Comparing root-development, growths, and flowering production between osmun-
da-grown plants and plants in other media, strongly point this out- those in the
osmunda'are far and away better and more vigorous in all aspects.... .Monday,
Sept. 15 -- Paid a quick visit to the Wilsons at Fantastic Gardens today, and as
always found many inter-sting things to see and exclaim over. The huge speci-
men' of Brassavola cordata which got such a strange rating at a recent AOS Aw-
ards meeting, is now going by, but it is still a splendid sight to see-- certainly
the finest plant of this species I have ever seen anywhere! A great wealth of
Brazilian Miltonias were found, too, including two especially fine forms of the
seldom-nseen natural hybrid, M. x Bluntii, one of thoremn the very scarce var. ro-
sea, the other an unnamed variant of considerable possibilities. It is unfortu-
nate that these glorious orchids are not more generally cultivated, thriving as
they do even in technically unsuitable areas (for Miltonias) such as here in South
Florida. I find them exceptionally easy to grow here, and with the large group
of recently-registered Hawaiian hybrids now available, a wide variety of them
are suitable for areas with warm climates such as ours..... Tuesday, Sept. 16-
Discovered today that my plants'of Oncidium parviflorum are getting along very
nicely, and should soon start putting up their big spikes of flowers. And I al-
most lost them, too, because I had let the compost get a little stale-- which is
apparently quickly fatal to this charming Panamanian species, still so seldom
seen in our collections. I have them now in a mixture of sifted bark, and me-
dium tree-fern chunks, and the new growths are gratifyingly large and plump.
This is one of the few Oncidiums of the 0. sphacelatum group which I know of
that does not appreciate too much direct light, doing far'better in a relatively
shaded spot . ..Wednesday, Sept. 17 -- Ond of the incredible "Window Or-
chids, Cryptophoranthus atropurpureus, from Jamaica, is now in bloom. To
appreciate it, I fear that one must really be a bit "off, for it is assuredly am-
ong the most ridiculous of all orchids! The blossoms look for all the world like
a..diminutive lobster-claw, of dull reddish-purple hue, opening only for a slit
about three rpmlimeters long, along the sides of the curving-triangular sepals.
I suspect that its chances for winning an F. C.C. are rather slim. ... Thurs-
day, Sept. 18 Our best Vanda x Nellie M-orley is flowering again, this the
fourth spike produced thus far during 1958-- and the poor thing needs repot-


Vol. 1, N.D. 17


ting very badly, too! By now, I must have seen several hundred plants of
this Vanda in flower, both here and elsewhere (including Hawaii), and yet
it never becomes tiresome. For one thing, it seems that every individu-
al specimen is completely distinctive from all of its fellows, even if they
come from the same seed-pod. A friend of mine in the South Miami area
has a huge bed of them planted in his yard They are just coming into flo-
wer now, and in a year or so, I imagine it will be a truly fabulous specta-
cle-- and one of great interest, since all of the plants have come from the
same seed-pod; it will be curious to see what, if any, variation exists in
so large a block of plants ... .Friday, Septi 19 -- Disappointed again this
year! Like everybody else, I guess, I try-- year after year-- to make suc-
cessful hybrids between the five species of Trichoglottis I have, and Vandas.
T. brachiata and Ti philippinensis (which I believe to be completely distinct,
specifically, by the way- more on this later on) have been in bloom for sev-
eral weeks nowl and no matter how I do it-- cross a Vanda on a Trichoglot-
tis, or vice versa-- the incipient seed-capsule falls off with a dull thud af-
ter a couple of weis# or even sooner! Most disheartening, but a few such
hybrids have been made successfully, so I continue my thankless labors,
hoping each time I try that luck will be with me this time. I did manage to
get a couple of rather unusual Trichoglottis crosses last year, but the re-
sults this time have been absolutely nil! ..... W
----------------- ---- -- --.-.. ....---.-. ---------- <
A COMMENT FROM HAWAII. Our good friend, Mr. Oscar M. Kirsch,
well-known Honolulu commercial grower, has written some pertinent notes r
in reference to an entry entitled "Raising Rare Orchid Species From Seed, "
which appeared in 0 WV 1(10): 109. 1 Aug. 1958. "I wholeheartedly agree
with the desirability of raising rare species from seed. The inherent dan-
ger which should not be overlooked is that the entire progeny may, in this
way, be the offspring of a rather poor example of any given species, since e
the very rarity would make comparisons impossible. As an example I would
like to point out to you the Hawaiian Macadamia Nut industry. All trees in
the Islands were the descendants of a handful of nuts undoubtedly gathered
from one individual tree. Through many years of selection from succeed-
ing generations of seedlings, a few named varieties were developed. As-
suming that better source material might be found in the wilds, Dr. John
Beaumont spent an entire year in the Australian bush collecting descriptions
and material from a wide range of different Macadamias. The work is car-
ried on by his successors at the University of Hawaii Experiment Station,
It may result in some startling findings. We also try to propagate orchid
species difficult to obtain, by seed, but we take the longer way around, by
trying to get at least two or three dozen plants (of a given species) into bloom,
and then select a few of the outstanding ones to serve as parents. The rest
of them are disposed of as best we can. "

ARE ALL OF THE ORCHIDS KNOWN ? We have a query from T.B.K., Sin-
gapore, who asks, "Is it to be assumed that all of the orchids in the world
are now described ? Provocative inquiry, this! The answer, initially, is
a most emphatic "No!" Scarcely a week passes that the mail does not bring

19 September 1958


180 THE ORCHID W/'EEKLY Vol. 1, No. 17

to our desk at least a single periodical, or a reprint from a periodical, conitai-
ning an article describing one or more ct-chids never before detected by the sci-
entists., This applies to the entire world-- and to-almost every genus making
up the Orchidaqceae! Even new kinds of Cattleyas continue to be found-in Bra-
zil, and it is a rare occurrence that any even moderately large collection of dri-
ed herbarium material of orchids made anywhere in the tropics does not bring
tc light at least one-novel species. No, although the number of described spe-
cies of orchids is already almost astronomical, the family is. still growing, and
it promises to be a very long time before we can safely state that all of the or-
chids in existence are known and established botanically.

P. 0. Box 33435
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