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Title: Considerations of the Emancipation of Negroes and the Abolition of the Slave-Trade
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Title: Considerations of the Emancipation of Negroes and the Abolition of the Slave-Trade
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Language: English
Creator: West-India Planter
Publisher: J. Johnson and J. Derett
Place of Publication: London
Publication Date: 1788
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Table of Contents
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Full Text









Abolition of the Slave-Trade.

jfy a y fl-Iniza Plant'r.

Priltcd for J. JOIIN SON. St. Paul's Church-Yard ; and
J. DE BRETT. i'ccadilly.



T Publifl this difcourfec not only in com-
pliance with the requeft of a focicty of
chriftians wlhm I think myfelf happy in
every opportunity of obliging, but alfo
because I thought that fome of the argu-
pents on which I have infiled had not
been fufficiently urged by other writers on
the fame fubje&, and at the fime time to
evince my readinefs to join with chriftians
of all denominations in what appears to me
to be right and juft.

With the g eateft fatisfa&tion should I
always go within tch mdtitude, if a regard'to
the tacred right s of truth did not, on fame
occasions, for id it. Happy it is, however,
that there arejfome cafes in which almoft
all who arc truly conscientious, and who
A 2 feel

feel the influence of huniane and chriftian
sentiments, will concwr. May this beget a
perfuarion, that we may be equally con-
fcientious and moved by regard to what
we ,eem to be) the kenuine iijUrris pf
chriftianity, in thofe things on which we
differ; and that though dilcicnt intcreflo
rne )onnexions may, unknown to outifle4
give us different fentimcnts, views, and
pursuits ; the time will come when thlii
undue influence Will ceafe, and we (all b
Wble calmly to trace the true source and
effeas of it. And ap this ia only the infantV
pf our being, it nmay be prefumed, tha
what we obferve and experience here, may
be an ufeful leffop to us in our future pro-

With refpc6t to the melancholy fccne
that is now before us, we mull content our-
Iflvcs with flying, that the ways of God arc
d great deep, and his foot s in the mighty
waters, not to be traced b us, at lcaft at
prcfent, But we are fulficiectly authorized
to add, that though clouds and darknft. atre
I round

round about him, r/ghleohefi and judmnrnt
are ever the habitation of his throne. 1JnlcfS
this maxim be deeply impreffld upon (ur
minds, and made familiar to us by frequent
meditation, we muft, if we reflect at all,
be flaggered with a view of the vices, as
well as the miferies, which it fccms wife
and right in Divine Providence to permit
on this wide theatre of the world.

As we cannot fay what evils are ufeful in
the general plan, or to what height they
may fafely and ufefully rife (this being far
above our compreheion) it cannot be our
duty to imitate theIDivine Being in this
part of his conduct. But as we arc futisfied
that all evil is ultimately ftblkrvicnt to
good, and that it is the intention of Provi-
dence finally to exterminate all evil; in this
mofl delightful employment we may, and
ought, as his own children, to ad like God;
exerting ourselves, by every means in our
power, to rcmowv the prejudices, correct
the errors, cure the vices, and relieve the
diRrcffes, of our fellow creatures. In ex-
b crtions

Vy P R E P A C E,
ertions of this kind, our motivO #Ae pure,
pious, and benevolent. We foolas Ae are
arc confcioul we ought to do, and,-,ith
whatever Jrtcfi it may plefte God to row n
our endeavour, we uall enjoy tbo (slf-
faetion of having endeavoured, and our labour
u-ill not wholly be in ivaiut.

In this view it muft give every good man
an unfpelkablc pleafure to Ice the general
interefl that is now taken in behalf of the
Negro flaves. It makes us think bctaur of
our countrymen, and of mankind. Ill as
fucme think of the world, and of the human
race, there are in it many noble charaCters;
and if it was the objedt of the great feiemc
of Providence, as no doubt it was, to form
fucl characters, the end of all we fee, and
fometimcs complain of, has been com..
pletelv anf.vercd; and if fcancs of dilliculty
and ditrcfs have, in any mcafure, contri-
buted to form fuch chara&ers, as undoubt-
edly they have, we mult conclude that,
flocking as tlchey appear to us, they have
not been introduced into the fyftem in vain.

P R L F A C F. '.i
Looking at the iree, we may think it ill-
fliaped, and difgufting; but considering the
fruit, we muft approve and admire it.

I alfuo consider the exertions that are now
making with us, and which are likely to be
adopted in other chriftian countries, as an
honour to cbrifianity. For no fuch gener-
ous fentimcnts were ever found, andnu fuich
exertions were ever made, by heathens.'
We have jufter ideas of the dignity of
human nature, and of the common rights
of humanity, than heathens ever had. At
the fame time that we juffly think that
every man is a great and exalted being. (. e.
capable of becoming fuch) we confidur all
ditlin~tions among men as temporary, cal-
culated for the ultimate benefit of all; and
confequently that it is for. the interest of the
lowest orders, as well as of the highest, that
fuch a subordination should fubfift. But
with this pcrfuifion all chriftian mailers will
refpca and love their fervants and depen-
dants, and will think it their duty tomake
their fituaaion as early and happy as ppffible;
b 2 confidecjng

vii P R E F A C E.
considering them as Jrthnrs, uant eqalt, in
one, and that the moft importat fhCJtrhile,
they treat tsheMt a inufriur i lmanomtbrjtnd
as thole who will even rank above them
in anolM thBe Am tM y scquibt theJMs es
beitr I this.

Thea,. tao juft, nolle, and olevatug
flUaDtimt peculiar to believers in rc-
YvSldrellgipea and they arc common to
&V beiMnva. We AMl thmn =soag papifts,
w -W ea pretSantai, and among thofe
who are favoured by civil cftablithments
of dhriftianity, as well as thofc that are
frowned upon by them. And thcfc fenti-
ments will always be found among all
chriftians in proportion to thettiention they
give to the great truths of our common
religion I by which I mean the dodtrines of
a God, of a Providence, and .of a future
fhtto. There great truths have the ad-
vtwtage of being level to the meancit .ca-
pacity. A child may underfltad them.
And,'at the fame time all that the wifeft
among us can attain to farther, adds but
a little

P R R F A C : is
Uttle to jdir pradical influence. Let tbhrf
cotdAlrations teach fhe -diffirent feds of
chl iia ns mutual candour, as areletiuuns on
the difference of ranks among men fliould
teach us humility amd moderation.

Were we truly fkn6ble of the ineflimable
vilue.of truly cbhrifion principle, and fole
the influence of them, w11 ohriftlans would
relpo&e one another nsfueh; and, compared
with this -geats article of agreement, make
if0l tccoui-ft i-f thoae" in which they differ.
Whti I was at Paris, a priaft of the Catholic
communion4' diftinguifhed for his piety and
benevolence, as well as a taffe for fceace,
embraced me With tears when he found
that I uniformly avowed myfulf xo be a
chriftian; faying I was the only pcrfon ho
had -met with, pretending to philofaphy,
who did fo. A1 told ihifm that I was indeed.
a chriftian, but fuch as he would call a great
bertlic. He replied, No matter, .you
" are a chriflian." Such magnanimity.as
this, I have no opportunity of thawing,
and might not be capable of, -For .no ,an

x P R E F A C E.
can answer for his; own feelings ant coududt
in new situations. There is a degAec of
abhorrence and contempt, with wdht4 hi
members of great and old eftablithmensfr
like that of tho church of Ronm, are apt
to regard fedariez, which the fi daries do
not feel for them. The rcafon is, that the
members of an eflablifziment know much
lefts of fedtaries than fe6taries do of them.
Thus the Heathens had a much worlt opi-
nion of chriflians, while thdy were (eranrieo,
than the chriftians had of them. They
were confidercd in fo defpicahlo a light by
many, that it was not thought worth while
to make any inquiry into the truth of the
fcandalous reports concerning them. The
shocking picture that is given of Tur/#pins,
Beghards, and other denominations of the,
reformed, before the time of Luther, may.
be lfen in any ccclcfiaitical history.

How my excellent Parifian friend would,
have felt if he had known the full extent of
my prefent herefy I cannot tell. Others,
however, of his communion arc well ap-
3 prized

P R E F A C xi
prized of it, without thinking the worfc of
me, in a moral refpet, on that account. Of
fuch men as thefc chriftianity may juilly
make her boafl. In all, however, we
muft make allowance for human frailties,
from which no men, not even the apofiles,
were exempt.
With refpc& to the fixs mentioned in
this difcourfe, I can only fay that I was far
from wishing to exaggerate any thing ; but
have taken them from fuch accounts as ap-
peared to me to be the moff to be depended
upon; and as the tra&s from which I col-
leded them are in very common circulation,
I have no occasion to quote any of them.
Under humane masters, flaves may, no doubt,
enjoy a certain degree of happinefs; but fill
they are slaves, fubje6t to the wills, and con-
fequently the caprices, of others; and there
is no proper security from the greatest out-
rages, but in the protection of law.

I am happy to hear fince this Difcourfe
was feint to the prefs, that one planter, who
employs a very great number of flaves, has

xli F R E F A C E.
had no occasion to purchase ;ny frith onte
thefe twenty ycars. This may convi'jft us
that a floppa e or the iiporr.timn w'ijld
not 1v a great hprdhbip upon the plrnited n
gencral. ft would only compel them to
lind their own intercft li tre.aing their flaves
well, and in ravouring their propagation.

On the other hand, I muft add that I
have been informed by a perfin who raided
in Jamaici, that it is ufual for the flave:,
after they are purchased, to shudder at the
fight of a fire, or kitchen utensils, imagin-.
ing that they are to bc killed and eaten, till
older slaves convince them that nothing of
that kind is intended. What the poor
creatures muft fuffcr with this idea on their
minds all the voyage, and the terror it muft
imprcfs on the country in general, in which
thousands who are never taken know they
arc liable to it, is not to be climated, and
for which no good treatment of flaves can
compenfate. This is what a brute cannot
be made to fuftfr, and (hews how improper
and unnaturnl this trafficking with the hu-
man eci minuft be.

It'hicb of thoe three, thinkLjl thou, was neigh-
hour to him that fell among the thieves ?
And bejlid, be that .flewed mercy unto
him. Then faid Jrf s uwnto him, Go thou
and do likewi/'.
L u K R x. 36, 37*

My chriflian brethren,
I DO not know whether it be more in the
charader of men, or in that of chri/tianrs
that I (1ill. now take the liberty to addrefs
you. But if you feel as becomes either,
you cannot but rympathizc with the mifer-
able and opprelfcd of the human race, how
remote forever they be from yourfelves in
every other refped. You will consider all
mankind as brethren, pnd neigbbours, inti.
tied to every good office that it may be in
your power to render them. As men, and
as chriftians, obfervant of the infiruftieots
of our great mfaler in my text, we fihoul4
intcreft ourfelves not only for our relations,
and particular friends; not only for our
B countrymen;

2 1 Di/courJf Cn
countrymen; not only for Eluropeans, but
for the dilrcircd iIhahitAlnt: of Allia Africa,
or America ; anl not only for chrifdhlli
but for Jews, Malhnnct.un, and ,fidols.
And as we ought to fetl Ioir our fellow
men, we ought, to the tilinidl extent of our
influence, to exert ourselves to relieve their
Does not, then, the cafe of the African
Negroes, who have long been unjuftly on-
flaved, and have behcen made to fumfer num-
berlefs miiferies, the Icalt of which is mere
fcrvitude, in our Well Indies, deserve our
compaffion, and loudly call for our friendly
interpofition in their favour? And furely
they are not the lefs entitled to it because
their oppreffors are our countrymen, and
because we have derived, or have imagined
that we have derived, benefits from their op-
preflion. Now, then. that it has pleafid
God, who, for rcafons juft and wife, no
doubt (becaufc fuch is his. charactcr) but
often unfearchablec by us, permits the rife
and progress of all the evils that we fee and
lament, has awakened the attention of/many

the Slave Trade.

in our nation to this great and growing
enormity, and to interest great numbers in
Sfavour of the unhappy fufferers; let not us
be the laft, though we cannot have the ho-
nour of being the firft, to join heartily in
the measures that are now taking for their
relief; it being proposed to recommecnd
their cafe to the consideration of parliament
the preCent fellion, and the friends of the
measure thinking that a general application
,from all parts of the country, and especially
from towns of note like this, will tend to
promote it, and almost enfure its fuccefs.
Thoroughly to interest you, and to en-
gage your warmeft zeal in the cafe, no-
thing, my brethren, I am confident, will be
requisite, besides flating the simple fadts;
of the magnitude of which few perfons,
not personally concerned in this traffic of
the human species, and the treatment to
which flaves are fubjed, arc fuflicicntly ap.
prized. Indeed, had the flocking fcenes to
which the attention of the public is now
invited been generally known'before, the
evil could not have grown to its present
B 2 height,

4 A Difourfe on
height, or have cxilled fo long as it has
done. The ft'ccliiigs of very man would
have revUlcd ,t it, and the fcnir of the as-
tion (exprof :l, na it would have been, by
.petitions, and rcinonfiranisrw) would have
operated upon lhe lcgiflature long before
.this time. Better, however, it ii to make
what amends we can for our pal( inatten-
tion, by now opening our eyes to this great
evil, than fuffor It to grow to a till greater
magnitude; which, In the nature of things
will always bc attended with a greater dif-
ficulty of redreds.
Could the prefent late of things have been
fo much as imagined at the commencement
of this traffic, it might have been prevented
with the greateft cafe, as no body would have
been interefled in the continuation of it;
whereas at present many will think thcm-
clves injured by the juft and righteous
measures that it will be necefliry to take in
ihe cafe. But then, if we wait fill longer,
and the trade be permitted to go on, and
extend itrclf farther, more perfuns will be
iitcrcfled in it; they will, of courfe, be

the S/ave /Tra'd.

able to make a grc-ter opposition to the
mealfure; and thus the evil, though greater,
and more juftly complained of, will be more
difficult to remedy than it is now.
I hall proceed then to (fate this calfe as
briefly, and as impartially, as I can, and
anfwer all the moft important objections
that I have heard made to the propofed re-
drefs of the grievance complained of.
Few of you probably imagine, or will
readily believe, that, in order to raifc our
fugar, and other Weftl-India commodities,
perhaps half a million of perfons are an-
nually destroyed, and in a manner peculiarly
shocking to humanity. To die by an earth-
quake, by pcfilcnce, or even by famine,
would be merciful compared with the man-
ner in which many of there poor wretches
often perilh. All the European plantations
taken together are faid to require an annual
fupply of fixty thousand frefh flaves; but
thefe are thofd that remain after fo many
have died in what is called the feafoning,
before they can be brought to bear the la..
bout to which they are made to fubmit' and
B 3 after

6 4 DjIourfe on
after fo many more have been loft during
the voyage, owing to the mode -of their
confinement, and ill ulIage on board, that it
is faid not left than a hundred thoufind are
annually exported from Africa. And, fame
fay, that before this ten are deolroyed for
one that i fi:cured, and tifaly lodged on
board the (hips. Certainly, however, many
periffih, and niany more fufllr very cruelly
before the (hips cain have got their proper
number, and be rc.aly for Ltiling.
You will alk whb are the prlfbns that
arc reduced to thi. wretched fervisuda. I
allfwer, fume criminals, whole offences may
be fuppof:d to defrve it. But thlcfc, from
the nature of things, can only be a few.
Others are prisoners taken in war. Thofe
wars, however, are undertaken for the fake
of making the prifoners, and of difpofing
of them in this manner. But very many
are thofe of their own innocent fubjec6s,
whom the tyrannical princes of the country
violently feize upon, and fell. Great num-
bers alfo are continually kidnapped by any
th\t can furprize and overpower them. And
Thc f

the Slave 7'raJ'. 7
thefc fcanes of horror cxtund above a thou-
find miles within land, for a vail extent of
fca coaft. It is flaid by fome, that crimes
and wars together do not now furnith one
flave in an hundred of thofe that are trant-
ported to America, they being generally fuch
as are kidnapped, or fold by their tyrants.
What thefu pour wretches arc Mnil to
fuffer while they are conducted to luch a
distance, for fuch a purpofc, before they
reach the thips ; what they fuffer in tho
hips, and in their cruel bondage afterwards,
may in fame meafure be imagined by us,
when we consider that thefe men have the
fame feelings with ourfelves, and conceive
themselves to be as unjuftly treated as we
should do, if we were violently fcizwd, con-
veyed away from all our friends, and con-
fined to hard labour all our lives in Africa.
In general, it is faid, that iiV our planta-
tions flaves ate employed to 'many hours
every day, excepting Sundays, ia the service
of their mafiers, that they have b'nly one for
themselves, arid but little for fleep. For re-
miflhcfs in labour they arc kvercly eaten,
B + and

8 A Difcourfe on
and for rebellion (as any attempt to reco-
ver their liberty is called) they are generally
gibetted alive. The shocking ind6eencies
to which the females are fubj@ded daring the
voyage, and afterwards, and the cruel fbfa.
ration of the neAreft relations and friends,
husbands and wives, parents and children,
both when they are put on board the thips,
and at the place of file, would be heard with
horror by all but thofe who are habituated
to this traffic.
This buliners was begun by the Portu.
guefe, but the Engliflh entered into it to
early as the year 155r, though contrary to
the exprefs orders of queen Elizabeth; and
no Europeans whatever ufe their flames with
fo much cruelty as the Englifh. The Spa-
niards have made excellent regulations in
their favour, in confequence of which the
flaves can work out their own freedom;
and the French government has alfo inter-
pofed by a code of laws enacted for this very
purpose. But the leaves belonging to the
Englifli arp almoil wholly left to the mercy
of their masters; and the annual confump-

the S/ldve Tr.ad'. 9
tion of them is itfilf a proof of the moft
cruel ufage. For with good treatment even
i(uvas, will increafe, as the Ifraclites did in
Egypt, and as thefc very negroes duo where
their matters are men of fenfe and humanity.
But for this they have no obligation to our
Confidcring how long this abominable
traffic has fubfifted, furely, my brethren, it
is high time to put an end to it. Hither-
to the nation in general has been but little
apprized of the enormity and extent of this
evil; and thofe who have been interefted in
the continuance and extension of it have
likewife been interested to conceal the hor-
rid circumilances attending it. Confe-
quently, hitherto, the national guilt has
been lefs than it otherwife would have been
in conniving at'it. But now that the eyes
of the nation in general. are in a great mea-
fare opened to it, and in the way of being
fill more fo, the national guilt will cer-
tainly be greater than evur, if an immediate
flop be not put to a fpccies of iniquity
I which

1o A Dyiouife on
which calls fo loud for the vengeance of
It may be faid that the particulars I have
recited arc only the abuses of this traffic, and
not necefftrily attendait upon it, and that
thofe only arc to be blamed who are con-
cerned in them. But this is a carlc in which
all that is worth retaining of the thing itself
is the abufe of it. For can you believe
that the proper criminals of a part of the
African coat, or of the whole country of
Africa, or indeed of the world (thofe whofe
crimes could, by any equitable confiruCtion,
be deemed worthy of fo severe a puniflh-
ment) supply our -iflands with fixty thou-
fand slaves annually, besides more than an
equal number, that perith in various ways be-
fore they can be brought to a (late of fettled
ufefil fervitude. Small, indeed, would be
the (lock, and little would it he worth the
while of the planters toencourage this traffic,
if it procured them only the criminals of
Africa, fuch as it would be for the interest of
that country to have banihied from it.. And

the S/lave Trah. I I
all the reft arc innocent men, women, and
children, unjuflly deprived of their liberty,
and condemned to the moil cruel bondage,
to gratify the avarice of their bruti(h princes,
and of our traders and planters. But no lefs
guilty are we ourfelvcs, who, in order to
have our fugars, and other Weft-India
commodities, a little cheaper (though this
will be found to be a miftakc) connive at,
and encourage, thefe iniquitous proceedings.
It is not, therefore, the abuje of a trade, but
the trade itf/f, that muft be abolished, "if
any good be done in the cafe.
It is in vain for the country in general, or
ourfelves as a part of it, to pretend inno-
cence, and leave all the guilt upon thofc
who are immediately concerned in this
traffic. For while it is not prohibited
by public authority, it will of courfe be
continued; and you muff be fenfible that
it cannot be continued without the (hock-
ing abufes I have mentioned. The trade
itself, and the abufe of it, are fo connected,
that to authorize the one is to authorize the
pther alfo. And it is an univeritl maxim,that

12 A Dfcourfe on
he who makes himself refpohfible for any
measure whatever, is refponfible for all that
he believes will he the aflu alconfequences
of that meatfur, whether, AfriAly fpeaking,
they be the necefeiry conf(quences of Ioet
All the diftrefs, therefore, that Is occa-
fioned in the country of Africa by the abufe
of power, and the frequent wars in order to
procure flaves; all the itjuflice continually
exercifed by private individuals to trapan
others for that purpofos all the barbarities
exercitfd towards the poor wretches fo fe-
cured, in forcing them on board the flips,
in keeping them there, and in their fervitude
afterwards; nay all the vices in which the
flaves are indulged*, all the cruelties exer-
cifed by them, in their attempts to recover
their liberty, and the greater cruelties with
which fuch attempts are always punished,
will be laid to the account of the people of
this country in general, fo long as, knowing
See a note in the cccIcant fermon preached before the
roclrty ror the propagation of the gorpel in foreign part) by
the prcremt Bilhop of London, p. t finally edition.

the ,Slave Tradl. \ 3
tus lobe te a1inal flati of things, we fi4E&r
it to proceed. Both the guiltof the oppref-
fors, and the mifery of ,the oppreffed, will
be equally laid at our door.
This guilt will lie the heavicft, no
doubt, upon ministers of fate, and all thofe
who have the grcatcfI influence in public
meal'ures but a due proportion of it will
be imputed to all thofe who do not exert
whatever influence they may have to pre-
vent it; which includes all whp do not pe-
tition and remon(Irate on the fubjecl. For
fu much is what every man may do. This
is the leaft we can dc to wath our hands, an4
affert our inriuctccc.
Some will further fay, that there is no7
thing criminal in j.rvitud it/fI that it has
been the. practice of all nations, and all ages;
that it was unqueftionably allowed. in the
Old Tecfament, and that, though frequent
mention is made of flaves, chrillians and
others, in the New Teftament, thcrc is not
even there any cenfure of the pradice.
Admitting this, both natural and revealed
religion inculcate an humane and equitable

14 d Dij/ourfi on
treatment of all that come under our power.
We arc fill under obligation to do to others
as we would that they shouldd do to us, in the
fame circumldances. And this rule of uni-
verfal jufticc and equity is shamefully vio-
lated in our prefint pradice. Befldes, nei-
ther reafon nor the scriptures will authorifc
us to deprive of liberty, thofe whole own
crimes, orat lea fthofe of their anceflors, have
not forfeited it) and this will go but a very
little way to vindicate the (hocking tranf-
aftions that have been recited.
Moreover, we fee reafon enough to infer
that federal customs were permitted in the
early ages of mankind, fuch as polygamy,
and divorces, which are no longer lawful;
and though there is not in the New Tefta-
ment any exprefs authority for the emanci-
pation of flaves, we may cafily fee the rea-
fon of it, as well as that the fpirit of chrif-
tianity leads to it. To have preached li-
berty to all captives, and freedom to all
flaves, in the age of the apoftles would
have been deemed rebellion against the go-
vernment then cftablifhcd. We fee how-

the Slave Trade. 1 5
ever, that the fentiments of chriflianity,
where they have fpread, have actually ope-
rated to the emancipation of flaves in a very
great part of the weflern world, which
once abounded with them; and thofe that
yet remain in the eaftern parts of Europe,
there is reafon to think will obtain the
lbme favour, and by the fitme means, in due
time. T1ius Chrift may be faid, iq a
literal fenfe, to have preached liberty to the
captives, by his religion leading to the
emancipation of flaves.
Chriftianity teaches us to consider all
mankind as brethren, equally the fuhjeds of
God's moral government here, and alike
heirs of immortality hereafter. Now,
whether it can be proved that thefe princi-
ples necellarily lead to the emancipation of
flaves or not (any more than they lead to
take away all inequalities among men, thofe
of rich and poor, mafters and fervants, &c.)
yet they will certainly lead us to give every
individual of the human race equal, at left
fullicient, advantages for improving his na-
ture, and preparing for a future (late.

16 A Difrourft on
In this moOl important rcfpjil the poor and
the rich, the after and thu fcrvant, may
be equal. But alas I not i>b the flIve in the
W lcfl-IPdies. It is the intcrci uto the maf-
ters, at Icaft they too generally imagine it
to be their, interest, to treat thuir flaves (un-
checked by any law) in thu fame manner
as they would mere brutes; fo that they
ure deprived of every advantage of their ra-
tioaul rtiaur, mid arc rendered incapable of
dceiving any banc&t fom chrillianity i from
which, indeed, too many of the mailers vo-
luntarily deprive thcmiflves *.

That it wouldd be for the advantage ofmatlers and flavei,
if den attention were given to their irntviaion, cannot bhe
doubted. Let the reader iudgc of chip from the fallowing
note to the Billiop of London's fernMon, quoted hfore, p. 29.
" Thtr fucNh rel 'mnd gvnernl convrfiaon of the negroes, as is
" here propofcd, is no romantic pruiacl, hut a thing prrfe61ly
" praii blc ; anmd that it would Nc highly beneficial both to
*" he lHves and their prcpriTtorn c vid.lie from the progreCf
" atradyrmade in thbi work by the Moraninn miifiionrica. In
/ the Danif ifland4s of St. Thnomar, St. CroixK, and St. jnlin,
t they have profclyted near 6,oco negroes. They have ifo a
" congiegtdon of fr vrrl iliouiands in the illand of Anligus.
** Thi t Id has been confirmed to me, very lately, by a clergy.
'* un Who has lived mny years in liat island ; and I have
" brertn alred by a gentleman ofcredit, who law them ME pub-
tl wrthl 'p, that their dcipotamehct rwU U lmaikably feriouw,

tie Slave Trade. qf
Of fhme masters better things may no
doubt with truth be faid; but in ge.
neral, I believe it is true of thb flaves
in the poffefTron of the Englilb, that
they have no opportunity of hearing any'
thing more of chriflianity than they would
have had in the heart of Africa. This
certainly fliould not be permitted by
any government which profeffes to take
upon itfulf the cflablifhment of the chrif-..
tian religion. For furely it will not be
maintained, that the objett of thefe cfla-
blifhmncnts is the mere emolument of the
clergy, and not the inftruaion of the 'ub-
jeQs in the principles of chrillianity. This
is the proffed end of the fyftem, and the

attentive, devout, and edifying. And they lib Ireatly fur-
pat. all the other fliven in fTbriety, diligence, quictnefs, fide.
" lity, and ohcdience, that the planters are ihxious to have
" their negroes put under the direliane of the tiffidnorieu,
" whom they greatly encourage. In the French Wilands alfo,
" the converrin oif the ntgrues by the Romiih prietl and
Smifionarrtc ii univerful. The conretiuence is, that the
" Fiench dAv s are nimuch more deecnt, honest, regular, and
" orderly, thin tiole of the Lng!inh. If fichl be the efefa
" evel ofi rrmo.saai fyllen0 of faith, what might not be expe&.
" cd from die djdtrinea of the church of England, inculcated
"* with equal zeial
C provision

iS A Dfcourfje on
provision that is made fur the clergy is orrly
a means to that end *.
But whether government direcIly; inter-
fere in this bufincks or not, it ought to r.-
move every impediment in the way of reli-
gious inl1rudion, and put it in the power
of every clafs of men to profit by the doc-
trines and precepts of chriftianity, if they
pleafe. If we be chriftians ourselves, it
will be our endeavour to make others fo ;
and there can be no greater evidence of a
man being no chritlan himlrlf, than his
indifference about extending the blcflings
of chriftianity to others, and especially
thofe whom providence has committed to
his care, his children, his servants, and his
dependants in general.
But without considering men as made for
immortality, and capable of the great blef-
fings they may derive from chriiliaity, there
is fomething in the principles of human
nature, that declares against iUrvitude, and
(hews it to be an improper fate for man,
As the Weft India islands are, I believe, wi:ihin the dio-
ceef nf London, Ihould unt the bishops of that fee have Citen
piiatii.ulr auciitiun to thee poor loul. under their care.
5 though

the Slave Trade. t9
thlrugh not for Irute beafjs. Thrfe are ca-
pIblc of being happy in a Rate of fecrvitude,
fomc of them more fo than in a Rate of li-
berty. The reafoa is that they have little
reflexion on the paft, or anticipation of the
future. But man has the power of re-
flexion in an eminent degree; and it is this
that makes him milrabhle in a late of fer-
vitude. Through agony of mind, great
numbers of Negroes put art end to their
own lives, both before they embark, when
they are on thip board, and during fervi-
tude afterwards. And how wretched mut(E
be many others, who have not the refola-
tion to .ome to that horrid extremity.
What tho planters call the Jeafining of the
faves, depends as much upon the mind as
upon the body. While the thoughts of
their country, their relations, and friends,
are frefh in their minds, and a fenfe of
their abjet condition (arifing from a com-
parifon of it with their former Rate) pecu-
liarly pungent, their health will be pre-
carious, and their lives uncertain. And
they will be incapable of any degree of
C 2 happiness

20 A DfoIIrfte on
happinefs in a fate of fervitude, till their
feelings are blunted, and they are reduced
to a condition nearly approaching that of
the brutes. By a continual attention to'
fome one thing they become expert in it,
but they will be incapable of embracing
many other objeas.
Some Europeans, finding Negro flaves
in this wretched degraded condition, to
which th cinfllves have reduced them, have
hnd the iTlhrance, and the folly, to pro-
nounce them to be a fecics of men
greatly inferior to themselves. But were
Europeans treated in the fame manner a fuf-
ficient length of time, it is demonftrable
that the moft intelligent of them all would
be no better. Thofe who fee Negroes in
their native country, or in circumstances of
better treatment among ourfclves, are fatif-
fled that they are by no means inferior to
Europeans in point of understanding.
According to the observations of a late
ingenious traveller, the ancient Egyptians,
fo famed for their wifdom, were the very
fame people wiLh the prefcnt Negroes.

the Slave Tradle. ,tZ
Them is therefore something in the na-
ture and conflitution of man that renders
him an improper fubjeft of fervitude. He
was made for a better condition, being na-
turally qualified to enjoy and adorn it ; and
it is acting contrary to nature, to degrade
his condition below the flandard of his
Besides, the matter of a flave is in a etu.
action as improper for his nature as the flave
himself. They are both materially injured
by the relation. Such a power as that
which a master exercifes over a flave necefr
farily tends to make him haughty, cruel,
and capricious, unfit for tho faciety of hia
equals, which is the happieti (late of man.
Perfons who are bred in the Weft Indies.
and have long been in the habit of being
ferved by flaves, are eafily diflinguithed from
other men of the fame nation. They are
not themselves aware how much their na-
tures are debated, and how offensive their
behaviour often is to others. We should
by all means then, if we have any idea of
the dignity fbhutnan nature, and if we have
C 3 at

a4 A Difcourfe on
at heart the real intcreft of themaftter, as
well as that of the lave, put art end to this
unnatural and improper ditlindionr among
thofe who are partakers of the: fame common
There are.fome who fiy that the Negroes
are no lefs flaves in their own country than
in the Weft Indies, aid that, in many ro-
[peds, their condition is bettered by the
removal. Admitting this (which however
is far from behi true) what right .has any
ma1i to judge for another, and even to better
his condition by force ? But the worft cir-
cuimniince in the condition of the Negroes
at home is that which has been occafioned
by this traffic, which makes it the intereft
of the powerful to opprefs the weak. Re-
pnove this incentive to tyranny and avarice,
andt there can be no doubt but the Negroes
in Africa will be as well treated as the fub-
jects of other arbitrary governments, in
which the poor are left liable to he mo-
letted, and in which it is the interest of
the sovereign to protea and befriend his
flbjeLCs, as a father his family. Befides

Me Slive Trade 23
p.'.'ti.uaJivrry is a very different thing from
dvmWfic. In the former'fenfe all the Turks
hmay he faid to be flaves ; but they arC not
fuch flaves as the- Negroes in. our Weft-
Indies. They have valuable rights, which
the sovereign himfelf holds facredi and drcs
not invade. But what is it that the-nfllaved
Negro can call his own ?
The prodigious wadle cf flaves is itfelf,
as I have obfcrved, a proof of their wretched
condition, that they are deprived of all the
comforts of domeflic life, and treated no bet-
ter than horfes, and other cattle, are with us.
Let not then the good finfe of Engliih-
men fuffer their humanity to be. restrained
from exerting itfclf by mere words. Let
pcrfons call things by what names they
pleafe, but let abujfij of every kind be cor-
reded, let impartial juj/icL be adminiflered,
and let mercy be fhewn to all that need it;
and the a period will be put to this groffeft
of all abufcs, perhaps the greatest, and moil
crying evil under the fun.
Some may fay that the prefcnt condition
of the Negroes is the fulfilment of an an-
C 4 cienit

24 A Djfeourfe on
cicnt prophecy, in which Ham is declared to
be the fervant of Shem and of Japhet. But
it is with moft probability thought that
this ancient prophecy relates only to the
fubjugation of the Canaanites, who were
defended from Ham, or at mnof to that of
the Tyrians and Carthaginians, who had in
a great measure the fame origin. However,
admitting that this cafe is in part the
fulfilment of that prophecy, that will not
eiculpatle u in our treatment of the Negroes.
It was the intention of the Almighty that
jofeph should be fold into Egypt, and alfo
that our Saviour should be crucified; but
the guilt of Jofepl's brethren, and that of
the Scribes and Pharifees, was not the lefs
for that circumstance. Besides, the fcrip,
tures have been abundantly fulfilled in the
cal of the fubjedtion of th.t deftc-;udants of
Ham. And as God nppointb no evil for its
own fiae, but with a view to a greater
good, fo it has pleaded his wife providence
to provide remedies for all evils, which
operate in their proper time. It may, there-
fore, be hoped, that the fervitude of the

/tc Slave trade. 1
Negroes is drawing near t6 its completion;
and perhaps their future condition may be
as happy as their present is Calamitous. It
is not ifaid that the poltcrity of Ham f(hall
ahlwas be flaves. When the happy time
Thall come that the vdfJfa/)ll lie (dIn wtb
the lamb, when the world lmiall be a fcene
of tiniverfal peace (which the cure word of
prophecy certifics to um, and the preiC:ni
Ifate of things makes highly probable) it
may be prefhmed that fervitude alfo will be
at an end, and the dillinttion of inajler an4
flave exift no more.
Some tly that if we abandon the flave
trade we give' up a valuable force of na-
tio:nal proft, and yield it to our rivals.
Shonid this be the care, fill a chriftian na-
tion should not hesitate to do what is right
in itfelf. A trade fo circunu;tanced as this
may juffly be termed wicke!, and unlawful,
fach as no adviniage can ju ify. Alfo,
with nations as with individuals, "inefly is
u/hi atelv tIe be@f policy.
I apprehend, however, that we fihal be
tar from being lofers by cearing to trade

;6 A D.pfourf' on
with Africa for men, The thiPe RPqgl. for
the fake of the fimc commodities for hiclch
they commit fuch horrid outragcs, opn ne
another, would certainly do any thing elfe
to procure them; and the country i. fruit-.
ful of products which might be of moro
value to us than all the slaves we bring from
thence. In a country of that vail extent, jf
we favoured the civilization of it, as by oui
intercourfe we might do, inflead of con-
tributing to keep it in that (late of favage
barbarity in which it is at prefcnt, the
inhabitants, having already a fondnefs for
many of our commodities, would foon ar-
rive at a Rate in which they would want
more of them. If we orily ;ive them an
idea of a better condition than they at
present enjoy, they will foon find ithe means
of obtaining it. If the Negroes arc lazy at
home (though they who aflcrt this can with.
little decency maintain that their condition
is bettered by flavery) it is because they
have no motive to exert themselves. Their
wants are few, and eafily fuipplied. But
people inhabiting climates as hoc as theirs

the Slave Trade.

are laborious and civilized, giving and re.
ceiving the greatest benefits by their commer-
cial intercourfe with various other nations.
There can be no doubt, therefore, but that,
were this barbarous flave trade aboliflted,
and the civilization of Africa promoted,
for one bale of any kind of goods that
we now fend to it, we iliould fpon fend
many, apd in a much greater variety; fo
that the manufacturers of this country in
general would find a great benefit, from
a changotof the fyftern, and not one of them
would be a lofer.
Some will fay bow fliall we get fugar,
and the other products of the Weft-India.
iflands, now railed by slaves, if fiavery be
aboliflcd. I anfwer, our firfi care fliould
be to do j'flice, and jfow mercy, let what
will become of the fupcrfluities, or even
the neceffaries, of life. But I would alk,
how did we do before we had brought
ourfelves into this unnatural situation ? There
was then no want of fugar, or of fome fub-
flitute for it, though the ufc of this luxury
was not then fo common. Let every thing
for .

:8 a .bDfrowrfe oj
for the ufe of man be raised by mam who
lhall be paid the full price of their 4lbour,
end let thofe who cannot pay that price go
without it, as they do with rcfpe& to other
Besides, it is dcrnonftrable that we may
have fugar, and every other commodity that
we now raife by means of flaves, even cheaper
Without slaves; either by encouraging the
culture of them in Africa, and other fuitable
climatues@, and purchasing them there with
bur own proper commodities (without the
expence of settling and defending plantations
of our own) or even by the labour of free-
mnr in thofe plantations. Abolith slavery,
and the labour now performed by flaves will
not be considered as disgraceful.
It is faid that the Quakers, who from the
pureft principles of humanity and chrifti-

Mr. Olborne, who was employed in the nelocation of
the late peace, ~tl"urcd mc, that fugar might be raifcd in Africa,
by the labour of rre negroes, and be Ibid in London, at one-
half the price that we now give for it; but that it would he
neceffary to fecure the ravour of the chiefs by presents from
government. He had had a plantation of hi own in that
country, on which hc employed, as nearly as I can remember,
three hundred negros.
i anity

tht Shave trade. 29
vanity manumitted their flares, found, even
toi their furprize, that they gained more by
their service as 'freemen, when they paid
them wages, than they did by them as flaves,
when they gave them no wages at all; the
Negroes laboured fo much more chear-,
fully, and did fo much more work, when
freemen than when flaves,
At all events, let fervitude be aboliflied,
and 1ave it to the ingenuity and induffry
of ofr countrymen to find a fubftitute for
it. When things are brought into a com-
plex and unnatural late, it is not eafy to
revert to that which is proper and natural:
but in time It will be done. And perhaps
the immediate emancipation of all flaves
would be an improper, becaufl in faft no
humane measure. Thofe who have been
long flames would not know how' to make
a proper ufe of freedom. But if a flop was
put to the farther importation of flaes, it
would immediately become the interest of
the matters to make the molf of their prteanc
itock, and consequently to treat their leaves
with more humanity; fo that in time their

30 A Difourfe at
condition would be the fame with that of
the all/eins in the Feudal times of this
country and by degrees approach to that
of firecenm, Or freedom might be placed
within the reach of the more induftrious of
the slaves, as it is with the Spaniards and
French; and the man who (hall have worked
limffelf free would know how to make a
proper ufe of his freedom, and would be
prepared to make a valuable member of
fUciety. However, to take the moft prudent
nicmfures in the cafe mnift be left' to the
wifdom of parliament. Ours is to exprefs
our good wiflics in the caufe, and by our
zeal to excite them to do what they hall
deem the moft proper.
What is proposed to be done by England
is already done in Virginia, Delaware, and
Rhode llnd, and is likely to take place in
all the States of America*. It will be an
One of thC North American provinces, an they then were
(I think it was New-York) rome time before the commence-
ment of the American war, pifed a lawagaint the importation
orflaves, but on account ofrthe opposition made to it by faome
itcrthants in England it was not confirmed in the Privy Coun-
cil of ihis country. Shall we fay that die government which
will hav riw dos oot defirvo to htavcfdjtas

the SlaveTrade. 31
honour to dhis country, and the moft glori-
omu event in the present reign, if the ex-
ample should be followed here. It will be
honourable to every person in proportion to
the (hare he (hall have in bringing it about.
But in this we mill all give place to the
Quakers, who were the firil to (hew them-
felves friends to the rights of humanity;
and what is more, who were the firft to'
decline any advantage which they, in com-
mon with others, might have derived fror
this inhuman traffic with our own species.
With Englithmen I may be allowed to
argue from that /owe of/librty by which they
profecl to he lAtsted. For purely we nre
not rfch felfifl beings, as to wi(h to engrofs
every thing valuable. If we have any fenti-
ments of benevolence, or fenfe of common
equity, we (hall with to fee every thing
extended to others that we covet for our-
felves. As we Englifhmen, then, would leaf
brook the condition of the Negroes in our
plantations, we ought to have the moft
compaffion for them, and, remote as-they
are from us in situation and condition, we

3 4A Dfourfe os'
ft.puldco~afide them as brethren kind' righ
btwt.;, .nd, therefore exert durfalverto the
ug)i. ,r' ; ,i vr iUcf,
StU,'JiaU~ l aru S*lt no Jlet renowned fler
their getfi6,y Att o r their love o" liberty.
Our chatrittci, fr every duferibtble human
want, are Jfr more numcroufi tha- those of,
any other nLtion in the world. They have
often l'en extended to flrangers as well as
to native. Lt the lame principle operate
on this occalon, than which none can morn
loudly cilj fur it. If tholfe be the inolf
proper objcLt! of generosity who fland in
the noaft need of it (and according to my
text we should consider ourfelves as neigb-
bknrs to all thofe to whom we have an
opportunity of acting a neighbourly or
friendly part) none can land to us in that
relation more nearly than the wretched Ne-
groos, no part of the human race suffering
more, or more unjuftly; or who have it lefs
ig their power to help themfalves. As their
complaints cannot even be heard by thote
who hay the power to relieve them,and they
are, iidccd, utterly ignorant of the cxiftcncc

Skhe S4ka 7Ta,,l 33
of say futch power on earth, we should make
their complaints, and urge their pleas for
them. As it is in our power to give therm
this affitlance, we are in duty bound to do
it. For .it is an universal truth, that the
obligation to do a good office ever accom-
panics the power of doing it. Where God
gives the one, he rrquirce the other.
I think yfielf peculiarly happy that, in
,recommending the relief of the diftrcflcd
African flaves, I can join.-heartily with
every denomination of chriftians in the
country, the catholics, the members of the
eflablijlhment, and diffenters of all denomi-
nations. This is not the caufe of unita.
rianifi, of arianifm, or of trinitarianifin,
.but limply that of humanity, and our com-
mon chriflianity ; and as 1 have frequently,
and with peculiar pleafure, obfcrved, all the
articles on which we differ are trifling com-
pared to thofe with refpedt to which all
chriftians are, and ever have been, agreed.
We all believe in the obligation of 'the
moral duties of life; we all believe in the
divine million of Chrift, in a righteous
D providence

34 Z Dfcourft on
providence of God here, and in a fate of
rewards and punishments hereafter3 and
thefe are the only things that are of real
efficacy in religion. Other things, indeed,
have their value, and great value; but it is
of a kind far inferior to this. They may
recommend our religion to thofe who arc
not much difpofed to receive it, and they
,may lead us to contemplate it with more
fatisfa&ion ourfelvcs, as more agreeable to
to rcalbn, and the Icriptures (and no real
friend of revelation can with to fee there
things at variance) but any fpecics of chrilfi-
anity, really believed, and acted upon, will
make men fober, benevolent, and pious;
good friends, and good neighbours, kind and
ufcful in all the relations of life, entirely re-
figned to the will of God, and difpofcd to co-
,operate in all that he hall recommend to us.
Had the infinitely superior importance
of thefe great articles of chriftian faith,
which immediately rcfpe&, and effeiually
fecure, the great obje& of chriatianity
(which brings life and immortality to light,
4pd which was given to blefi mankind

)he Slave Trade. 35
iN turning them from their ini'uitde) the
rrlialifhment of other articles, which have
little or no relation to this great objcft,
would not have been to eagerly contended
for. It would have been thought sufficient
to enforce the belief of fuch things as really
diffinguith chriflians from other men ; and
that with refpce to things of le69 moment,
all chriftians might be permitted to think
and af as they pleaded, provided they gave
no disturbance to their neighbours. Upon
this reasonable plan, truth would have its
proper advantage over error s whereas at
prefent, whatever errors may happen to be
cilablithed, being supported by power, their
reign (as in the days of popifl darknefs and
fuperftition) will be greatly prolonged. But
it is, no doubt, for the beft, that truth
should have an opportunity of triumphing,
as we may be confident it will, in circum-
diances the moft unfavourable to its pro-
pagation. In similar circumstances was
chriftianity itfelfat its firfl promulgation.
Let us, then, think no more than may be
nccflary of the things on which we differ,
D 2 which

36 A Difcourfe ot\
which tends to.create diflike, and as mnuch
as poffible on thofl with rcdpe& to which
we are agreed, which may promote motual
candour, lov,j and adfIdioh.
It ferns to be the intention of Divind
Providence, that every thing should be
brought to perfection by degree. If we
have any faith 'in history and prophecy, the
lafl age of the world 'is to be infinitely
preferable to any thing that we have yet
experienced i and certainly the prefent
flute of things is preferable to any that
is paft. By means of chriftianity chiefly
th .great governor of the world is gradually
bringing on a flace of uaiverfal peace and
happiness, which muff, as I have obfcrved,
imply'the abolition of flaivry, sa well as of
tvcry other evil. But G(id wtrks by injlra-
'n:t's ; and IhS inlfiruments in things that
rtlpct inmnkind, are chiefly men.
L. t us then confidcr uurfelves as being
iw ,/.:,'s t~etcrr wtith GkV, in bridging
z3,vut an improved fltic of things, in bert
t.ri4g the condition st ibdr fpecia&, tind
cx- hiding ihe jut rights of humanity to all

i h Slaie Trade. 37
ciur ritio thus recommending tho gofpcl
wumJi we all profefs, tkat gofpel which is
LAckulated to bring peace upon earth, and
good will to men, and which, when it fliall
be univerfilly received and obeyed, will
make all mankind righteous and happy.
Thus it will make even this work a real
paradise, and fit us for a lnate of greater
glory and hIppia fsl in another.



A LMIGHTY, and ever-blefled God,
who haft of one blood made all nations of
men, to dell upon the face of all the earth,
and haft determined the times before appointed,
and the bounds of their habitation ; who art
equally the God, and the father, of all the
families of the earth, and who art the refuge
of the oppreffed; extend thy compaflion, we
befecch thee,, to all thine offspring, and our
brethren, of mankind.
Do thou, in 'wtt'fe hand are the hearts of
all men, and ,who turnefl them, ai the rivers of
water, which way fever thou pleajeft, awaken
in the minds of all who are at cafe, a due
feeling for the miserable; that thofe who
have the power to do it,, may looJf all the
bands of nwickednefs, undfall heavy burdens,
let the oppr.jed go free, and break every un-
juflyoke; and may the great blcflings which,
by thy favour, we enjoy, be equally shared
by all the human race.
More cfpecially, may thofe of our species
who, in any part of the world, are outwardly
in the condition of brute beafds, but who
are often inwardly more afflided than brute
bealts are capable of being, be reflored to
the common rights of humanity; and by
the Mbeflings of civilization, and equitable
government, may they be prepared to receive
the superior advantages of chriflianity, in
the knowledge uf thy truth, and the prof-

[ 39 ]
pr'l of a happy immortality, as revealed to
iimtikind by thy fon Jefus Chrift ; that by
mouan of the glad tidings of the gofpcl, they
may be turned from darkrnft to light, rcceiv-
ing the forgivenefs of fins. and an inheritance
among them that are fanctiied. Thus may the
kingdom of thy fon be extended, and fill the
whole earth.
To prepare the way for thofe glorious
times, when the gofpel fall be universally
received; remove from it thofe corruptions
and abuses, which fill, alas too generally,
and too clofely, adhere to it, to as greatly
to obfiruct its progrefs. But, above all, may
thofe who profefs it, be careful to adorn it
by a Luitable life and conversation, that
other, ferinq their good work;, may gloriyf
t6a tbeir /athlr 4 bhetven. And may it
not be our condemnation, a condemnation
greater than that of Sodom and Gomorrah,
of Tyre and Sidon, in the day of judgment,
that light is come into the wvor/d, but that wec
have loved darkne/q rather than light, because
our deeds were evil.
May we flew the value we have for the
bleffings of chriftianity, by our exertions
hoth to free it from every thing that debates
it, and to impart it, thu. purified from
balfe alloy, to others; being the inflruments
in thy hIlud of diffiifing truth, virtue, and
happiness through the world.
Bic's our native country. May we con-
tinue to (hare thy favour, in the enjoyment

1 40 3
of our liberties, civil and religions; and ill
cunfequence of making a lhitable improve-
ment of our many advantages, may we be
that bappy people bwho/f G(; is the' Lord. If
any individuals of our Iacion, from an in-
ordinate love of gain, have been guilty of
injuftice and opprellion, above tholi of other
nations, may the gcneroGty of others bo
routed to greater exertions, in order to put
a flop to it; and, as far as poffible, may re-
paration be made for pall wrongs, by ouar
fup rior regard to equity and humanity in
future timr.
Bleft thy rervant our fovereign eflahli
his throne n rigteouflehfs, and make his
reign a blefiig to the laiefl poecrity. May
it be dilftinguiahed by every thing that can
render a reign truly illufirious, and memo-
rable ; by the extension of science, of arts,
manufactures, and commerce, as the force
of national profperity, but fill more by the
greater purity of chriftian faith, by removing
every impediment in the way of a farther
reformation, and extending the bleflings of
civilization and true religion to the moft
distant parts of the earth.
Hear us, gracious CGod, we intreat thee,
in thcei our requells, as far as hall be
agreeable to thy infinite wifdom and good-
ne's. We alk it as the difciples of thy fon
Jetfis Chrift, through whom, to thee, 0
Father, the only living and true Gad, be
afcribed evcrlJfling pradif;. Amen.

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