Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Some new and accurate observat...

Group Title: Some New and Accurate Observations : Geographical, Natural, and Historical
Title: Some new and accurate observations geographical, natural and historical. Containing a true and impartial account of the situation, product, and natural history of the coast of Guinea
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098989/00001
 Material Information
Title: Some new and accurate observations geographical, natural and historical. Containing a true and impartial account of the situation, product, and natural history of the coast of Guinea
Abbreviated Title: Some New and Accurate Observations : Geographical, Natural, and Historical
Physical Description: 4,62,2p. ; 8⁰.
Language: English
Creator: Houstoun, James b. ca. 1690
Publisher: J. Peele
Place of Publication: London
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098989
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
    Some new and accurate observations
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Full Text

Some New and Accurate
Geographical, Natural and Hiftorical.
Containing a trwo and impartial

Situation, Produt, and Natural Hiflory
Coaft of GUINEA,
As relates to the Improvement
of that Trade, for the Advantage of
Great Britain in general, and the
Royal African Cwnp ~y in particular.

By .7MES 110USTOUN, M. D.
Humbly .Addbh'I to t/r II.iu',r.W/te Ite Court ..'i-ifantf if tih RWyal Aliacan Cumpany oj
Gr',_..a Britain.
printed for J. P E I. E, at Locke's Head in
'Pater-nof/cr- Row. 7 z5. Price I s.

D&I:.Li no a. C vorraw fled md Cracr" prr Read.
jLILI evietod r. everawd. P11 I1.1.u. Tons&..
read r. Tommovisdad Cot"i r. Cetee. Lao &%. Guave. r.
Go*%-** POP 64. L 6. Cat~atk r. Cialigik, PICO 41.
1. M i 6,0Aa r. ) bevt.

4IR, '
Have perufed the
Papers youth left
with me, which
I fincerely think
are very juft and right, and
what you will be inexcufable,
if you do not divulge in the
befl manner you fall think
proper. The Gentlemen are
filling my Room, that I muff
clofe, being with great Truth,
7 our mal// bumble S-rzant,

IaR.. LYNN, Sec.

Some New and Accurate

ON.T H i

Coaft, of Guiinea.
Addresf'd to the
Honourable Afliflants of the
Royal. African Company.

AVING the Honour to
be employcl in this
Honourable Company's
Service in the Station of
Physician to thcir Set-
rlcments on the Ccat
of dfrica, and Chicf Surgeon at Cape
Coafi Cafle,; and having had the Satit-
J.bion (if there is any fuch thing in
this Country) of vificing all your Scr-
tdmcnts on the Coaf, excepting Gam-
B ba6

b.o and Ahgola; I think it my indifpen-
fiblc Duty to, give your Honours a true
and impartial Account of your Settle-
ments, to obviate the Mifreprefentations
given you by felfifh, mean, cringing
Creatures, to ferve only their o~in liccle
mercenary Ends; and to deetec the Bar-
baritics and Villainics of your chief A-
gents Abroad, whom.you are pleaded to
entitle Captain Generals and Chief Go-
vernors. And as there arc Gentlemen of
the flrtrpl Honour and Honefly enga-
ged in this Honourable Company, I flat-
ter myfelf that it will be taken in good
Parr, that I give your Honours a true
and impartial Account, how far your
Settlements may be improved for the
real Advantage of Trade, and what Ob-
firutqions and Hindrances they lie un-
der at this prefent Time.
I arrived at your Settlemnent of Sierra
Leon, I chink it was the beginning of
/uly 172.z, where I was received with
good Manners by your Chief Agent there,
Mr. t'/PhWeI. I fall not trouble your
I linourL,. with the Topography of that
PI'ac, IfCivy you can lind it cliwlwhcre ;

only tell you, that the River of Sierra Leon
forms fcvcral beautiful Iflands, on one of
which lands the Company's Fadtory. a-
bc't Eight Miles from the Mouth of the
Ri r; where there's a fare Harbour cal-
led Frenchman's Bay, with a fine Water-
ing-Place, with the purefl Watcr continu-
ally fringing from the woody Rocks.
About Three Miles dilTant from that
Tiland where your Faaory flands, is a
pleafant and moft fertile Ifland, form-
ed by that fhicme River, called Terfts,
about Eight Miles in Circumference.
This Ifland, I'm perfWiaded, is capable
of producing, with due Cultivation,
every thing produccable under the
Torrid 'Zne. Here fprouts up, with-
out any Cultivation, plcnry of Indigo
Buhies; and I have meafured a Cotton
Tree on this land, in Prelence of Mr.
David Scot, Fadcor, and Mr. Iloskins,
Surgeofi, the Trunk of which mecafurcd
Thirteen Fathoms in Circumference: But
as Cotton Trees incrcafe in Age, Bulk,
and Branches, they dccreafe in Number
of Pods ; for the numerous Pods fic for
Marufadfurc, arc only found on Shrubs.
B 2, Had

1 I e;in a Wiridle-flraw-man,Tmight
lia vc nnJ .a ColicLion of diffcrcnt Plants
here,,"'d .angcd them under theirdifferenc
( l.ilah, to cnter:ain thcFraternity ; but
as my Genius never led me to the Study
of Speculative Botany, farther than a
Princh of Phyfick, I freely own, my
Kno ledgcd in the Vegetable, Animal
and Mineral Kingdoms extends no faAthcr
than what's comprehended under the Ma-
ftrria .1L-. Or if I had had the Honour
to be of :lh Number of the '7rtiuo/i, I
had certfainfy made a great ColkIdion
rf Butrcrflici, of which there arc great
Nurn!'crr.' nid va.il \a4ricry herc; non
ni ,;lIcehg the Cocklc-Shclls, which
vI >) mncrh rtlmblWe our Cowries, which
ri,!g have becn of confiderable Ufe
t.) nie aFrccLvarL!, as current Money on
t!i, Sliavc.Coal. How, far there Col-
KL'li.:r might have contributed r6 the
Ril-' of Africau Srock, I hall nQD'ppre-
clnd to determine; only to beg.irdon
& Neglc of Dcuy has contriltted any
'I hii:g to the Dtrriment of.ihe Com-
p my upon rhat Account: Tbl only Apo-
hI'y I hve tnima-.c for my fclf is, thil

( 5 )
I was credibly informed that your Ho-
nours had appointed a Gentleman to
vifit the Coaft, who had made Botany
his particular Study, who was to make
a particular Colledion of all Herbs,
Aromatick Plants, Butterflies, Cockle-
Shells, &c. which would have contri-
buted to the Advantage of the learned
World, and for ought I know, likewife
to the Advantage of the Company. I
always looked upon my principal Bufi-
nefs and Care, to fee if I could contri-
bute any thing to the Prefervation of
your Servants Health Abroad, and that
the Company was not impofed on
by their Agents purchasing fickly and
disabled Slaves. How far I have fuf-
fcred by exerting my felf on this Ac-
count, will appear by the Sequel; which
I hope your Honours, by your known
Juflice and Generofity, pnd for Advan-
tage to the Company, will redrefs. What
Difpenfary Herbs came under my Cog-
nizance in this Place, are Calamnus Aroma-
ficts, Serpentaria, but much inferior to
the Prgingian; the Roots of which Herbs
I influs'd in Brandy, of which I took a

Drarchm now and then, to support my
drooping Spirits, and gave it as a Cor-
dial to the Sick; fo I can experimental-
ly attefl its being a pleafant Bitter and
good Scomarick, by rcflriding the re-
laxed Fibres of the Stomach. I like-
wife found fome Herbs of the Emolli-
cnt kind, refcmbling our Mallows and
Mar/b-mallows, and the Flower of an
Hecrb much refembling our Camomil,
which I made ufc of for emollient Fo-
mentations and Cataplafms. There is a
.eaf of a Dwarf Tree or Shrub, much
refcmbling our Bay Leaf, made ufc of by
the Natives and our White People In thde
hot Bath with wonderful good Succefi ;
It ii Emollient, Relaxant, and Abforbent,
or I may rather fay Attradive, by fuck-
ing up the obnoxious Particles, when
the Pores arc opened by the hotWater,
luck'd in with che peftilential Air, and
thrown on the Habit of the Body-by
the Force of Circulation.
Ic ns remarkable, that over all this Coaft
there are val Quantities of a Plant cali'd
Morfus 7iab/oli, or Devi's Bite. Hero
arc likewilc prodigious Quantities of

(7 )
Limes, Oranges, Plantanqs and Bonanaes;
and down where the River opens into the
Scawhcrc the Ships lie in Harbour, there
arc high Lands inhabited by federal
Ernglijimen, feparatec Traders from the
Company where I have feen Citron
Trees in their Gardens, bearing Fruit to
Perfecdion without any Cultivation, on-
ly the Seed put in the Ground without
inoculating, or fo much as tranfplanting
the Tree in its tender Years.
I remember, being on the Ifland offTerfas
one Day, it being then the rainy Scalbn,
I was drove to protect myfclf from the
Violence of Rains which fell in fuch'De-
lugcs, with violent Lightnings and Thun-
der, as if the Heavens and Earth were
coming together, into a Houfc, or I may
rather lay a Hutt, inhabited by an old
Negro Woman, a Slave to our Com-
pany : The poor old Creature was fir-
ring over a Fire, baking Bread; the
Meal was made of the Roots of a Tree
pounded, which flie cali'd ramming in
her Dialca, between two Stones: I
taftcd of the Bread when baked, which
fice call'd Manioco ; it had much of the

Tafte of a roaalcd Poraroe, only dryer1
and livccrcr; but I take the Food to be
wholome and hearty enough, for this
Woman fccm'd to be of a good old Age,
and at the fame time of a hail Confliru-
rion ; but neither ihe, nor any of herc
Species that ever I mec with on the
Coafi, can give an Account of their
Age a nor is there any of the Negroes
that can count above Thirty Six, and
they divide their Time by Moons. This
poor Creature had nothing but this
Bread, or a roaflcd Plantane to live on,
and was vigorous and strong considering
her Age, which I took at leaft to be So-
venty : She's the folc Inhabitant of this
Ifland, and her little Hut is Part of the Re-
mains of the Company's Fadtory Houtl,
which Mr. 'Phmkett told me was firf
I on this Illand ; but thcUnwholcromncfs
of the Air proceeding from the Ifland
not being cleared from Wood, which
caufed a great Mortality amongfl the
Company's Servants, even to the Dan.
gecr of hi-, own Life, and he not having-
Il.and, enough to clear the iflind, .he
wa blibhcd L. remove the Fa.tory tO a

much lefir Ifland, on which it lands
at prclnct,.much better fituared by Na-
ture for Defence ; more clear of all
Wood, but noc by much fo fertile, nor
does it produce ob good Water; hut rhat
Defec may be fupply'd by fetching ic
from thence, being only three Miles di-
I chanced to be talking to Mr.'Plan,
kett, one Day, about the different Pro-
duces that thisCountry, I mean the Grain
Coafl, was capable of producing for the
Advantages of Trade; which gave him
an Occafion to (hew me a Mineral, which
he gather'd in great Quantities from the
Sand of the River, which he then fan-
cied contained Ibma Gold or Silver : It
was a fall Dul of-the chalybiated
Kind; but its Specifick Gravity bearing
a vail Difproporrion from the Specifick
Gravity of Gold or even Silver, I was
persuaded if it contained cither of chofe
noble Minerals, it was but in a very fmall
Proportion. I made what Experiments
on it the Conveniency of the Place cou'd
afford, by fieparating thd Parts in a Cru-
cible in a Blackfmith'&Furnace; in the
C Diffo-

( 10 )
DIlLutrion, the Metallick Part fcpa-
ratcd from the Ore, and refembled Silver
in Colour, but came vaflly f orc of the
Spccifick Gravity of Silver. Mr. luPhm-
kett feant your Honours federal Pounds to
make Experiments on'r, which I'm afraid
came to no bearing fo I only beg leave
to repeat the Mirgilian Expreflion that
Mr. Tfhmientt ihen made ufe of to your
Hlonours, Quid non mortaia petlora cogtt
anur frra fi'es.
There's a fort or a Rattane grows at
S/J.rbro, w which the Country Pcople dye in-
to dillcrenr Calours with the Juice of a
Berry, and work them very artificially in-
to Matts, which they lay on the Floor of
their little Hurrs, and is all the Bedding
iliac even the becctter fort of the Natives
make ufc of; the common Negroes lie
naked on the bareGround. Whcni was
at Sierra Leon, Mr. Thmkentt rcdeem'd, for
the Ufc of the Company, fome free Ne-
gro Women at Sherbro, who were taken
Captives by their Neighbours, and fer
them to work about thefc:Macts, and
making Ibme. Bottoms and Backs V6
Chairs, which he defign'd for a Prefenr,

I1 )
to (hew the Ingenuicy of the Natives, to
a truly Noble Peer, who honours your
Society by being a Member of it; on
which your Honours made a Demand
on him for Fifty Thoufand fuch for the
Ufe of the Company ; whereas, to my
certain Knowledge, it was with the
grcateft Difficulty he cou'd get fo much
Rattane, and as many Hands to manage
rhofc few he fent for a Sample.
Iam fully pcrfwadcd, that your Honours
have chelnterecf of the Company at Hcarr,
and ad only from that Motive; which
makes you lay hold of any Prcje-, rho'
mifreprefented by ignorant Mifcrcanrs,
which feemingly tends to the Advantage
of the Company; this induces me to take
the Freedom to cell your Honours, that
there's not the leaff Probability of find-
ing cither Gold or Silver on the Grain
Coaft: But if there can he any reabfona-
ble Propofals made to your Honours, of
feeling a Manufa6tury of Indigo, I af-
fure you this Country will produce what
Quantity you pleafe; as likewife you
may have Plantations of Cotton and,
indeed, this is the only Part of the
C z, Coaft,

Co('l, including Gambay, fit for fuchl
P'lantations, by rcafon of the ou-
mcroutr fertile Iflands, produced by
the Rivers 'of Gambay and Sierra Lcon.
Theib Iflands are naturally a Defence
ct themfelves, from what Incurfions
the Natives are capable of making
againfL them; and may be cleared of
Wood by a few Hands, even by the
Company's Shipping Slaves, at no Coft;
which at the lame time might fetch a
runfidctable Profit to the Company, from
the great QOuantity of LIiviace fix'd Salr,
with which rhis Wood is fo plentifully
imnprcgnateJ,for the Manufadury ofSoap.
I mull take the Liberry here to re-
fute the utivcrfal, tho' family received,
Opinion, that it's only fome particular
Wood, whofc fix'd Salt is fit for the Ma-
nufaCtury of Soap, dc. But I allure
your Honours, that all Lixiviate fix'd
SaIr, extraced from what Wood or
Plant foevcr, is of the fame Nature and
(jiality, both as to its Medicinal and
Manuiajdury Ults ; fo they only differ
in 'ijantity, not in Quality. Soma
Wood, nrid this in particular, wvhichll1

thcfe Iflands are overgrown with, yields
a much greater Quantity of this Salt
than others, and confequently moft fic
for this Purpofe. I cou'd difcant fome
Hours in demonftrating the Advantages
which accrue from a Manufadlury of
Soap ; but I hear there's fuch a Mann-
factury at London, under the Dircdcion
of a Gentleman of the moft police Lear-
ning, and univcrfal*Knowledge, whofe
Capacity is o exctenfivc, that nothing
can poflibly escape his juft Obfervation.
Your Honours may, perhaps, think
that it is out of my Province to talk
of Trade; but as it is the general Con-
verfarion of the Place, and naturally
falls in with the Notions of any Body
on the Spot ; and lie that's only en-
dow'd with common Rcalbn and Judg-
ment, may be as competent a Judge of
the Trade of this Coaft, as the moft re-
fin'd Merchant ; I hope your Honours
will pardon me, if I cell you, that I
have talk'd with the moft fenfible of
therc feparatc Traders in this Place,
whom your Honours look upon as a
4 ifance to the Company, and have

lihcar the Propolils your Honours
made to unite them as Servants to the
Company: But give me Leave to fay,
th'lrc's no Occafion of Articles with
hlcm, provided you give them a better
Price for what Slaves they make, than
Interlopers, which you propofc in your
Articles ; and take off their Hands
whatever Number they arc able to make,
which will naturally*cad them to be vo-
luntary Agents for the Company only.
And indeed, it's my Opinion, and I
think it demonflrable, that it wou'd.
be infinitely for the Advantage of the
Company, that your own Servants were
under luch Regulation j which I hall
humbly propofb in the Sequel of this
Narration, when it fliall more naturally
fall in with Propofals forRegulations,
for the better Prcflrvation of your Ser-
vants Health Abroad.
But as Mr. Plunkett nor I were no ways
,mpower'd by your Honours to put your
settlement, under any new Regulations,
however advantageous for the Benefit of
your servantss 1to I cou'd only he fcr.
vie.abL- 1,y vilfng the Sick, and

miniflring what Things were nceeffary
for their prclntcDiflcmpers, and furnifh-
ing this, asI did moflof your other Settle-
mcnts, with Medicines, which I brought
from England, at my own Charge; for
indeed I found very few Medicines here,
or clfcwhcrc, on the Coaft; and even
thofc few very much damnified.
After having flay'd fome Time here,
and having been of fome Service to
your poor'perilhing Servants, as ap-
pears by Mr. Phinkett's Cercificarc to
your Honours, I proceeded on my Voy-
age according to my Inflrudions to the
Gold Coaflt: We put out to Sea as ufual,
and the firft Land we made was Cape
Palmas ; there's nothing remarkable a-
long this Conit, till we come to the
Subordinate Fadory of 'Dick's Cove,
only all this Country being one conti-
nued Thicket of Wood, the great Va-
rietcy formed by the Tops 6f the never-
fading Trees, makes the fineft and
moft beautiful Landskip, viewed froni
the fmooth Sea all along the Coaft,
that ever my Eyes beheld. There are
a great many little Towns- all alwngz

( 6)
Coaft, built on the Sands by the nu-
merous Negroes flocking from the In-
land Countries, and building their lit-
tice Hurts by the Sea-fide, for the Con-
voniency of trading with the Coafling
Ships ; fuch as Jaque Lahoe, f7aque a
.7aque, Affine, Great and Little Baffam,
with many others; fo that I allure your
Honours, if we had had a Power to Slave
our Ship, we cou'd have put more Slaves
on board, besides Teeth and Gold, in
one Month's Time, in that Coafling
Voyage, than your Governor and Mer-
chants were able to do in Five Months
at Cape Coa4t. I remember we put in at
Cape Three Points, the only Watering-
Place on that Coaft ; there flands Frede-
ricksburg Fort, which formerly belonged
to the present King of Truffa, now in
PoTefflion of one John Cormn, a very
great Caboccer of that Cquntry ; for he
has almost all that Country at his Com-
mand: Hearing from his Domcfticks thac
came on board, on EmbalTy from him,
with Ihs Gold-headed Cane, as a iadgIW
of thera aiefled Power, to demand -6f
us I9inc little titlfhii Aifir for watering
there ;

( '7 )
there ; iliat he was a great Lover of the
Erqb/'b, but a mortal Enemy to the
'Da ,h. My Curiocity led me afliore to
vifit King Conny in his Caflic, who re-
cciv'd me very kindly, with the ufoil
Ceremonies of cheir Country Mufick,
Drums and Horns, and ask'd me what
Wines I plecas'J to drink ? He had Irvc-
ral forts of luraopeai Wines ; but I chofc
rather to drink, what 1 knew was more
agreeable to him, Brandy ; which he,
to compliment' me, caulfcd to be made
into Punch. When he turn'd a little
warm'd wirh Liquor, he thewwd me a
'dtcbm.an's Skull, and ask'd me if I
wou'd pledge him in a Bumper of Punch,
to the Damnation of the 0ntchl, from
that Skull I humou'd the Jel, but
begg'd he would qocufIc me, the Draught
being too latge for me. Jf we had been
cmpower'd to trade with him on Ac-
count of the Company, I ou' have pLtc-
chafed from nhim a confi4cable Num-
ber of Si4yes, with what .Quantiry I
plJafed of Rice, the only, Produt of
vlt Country, 'for tho Soilfems agreea-
ble fQr nothing clfc j and ice's from hence
D that

( i8 )
that mofl part of the Gold Coafl is fur.
nifl'd with that Grain. Here's a fine
River char goes a great many Miles inco
the Inland Country, and finely shaded
on each fide by lofty Trees.
I fliall pafs by the VDutch Settlements
here, without taking the leaft Notice of
them, as not being worth your Honours
while, seeing you can have an Account of
them cllcwhcrc ; only when we come to
Trade, I hall remark what Diradvantages
wo lie under by them: As we came along
the Coall, we called in at'Dick's Cove for
Wood, where your Honours have a
pretty little compalcd Fort; but I'm
forry to tell you, we found nothing in it
but one poor Gentleman, a Writer, who
was chief Fator, Writer, and every
thing ; and two or three Creatures called
Soldiers, juft ready to expire for want of
the common Neccffaries of Life. Here
you may fee fome Hundreds of Negroes
of the Female Kind, fifting the Sand
puflhed down by the Rapidity of the
River that comes from the Inland Coun-
r1us, and opens into the Sea, for Gold
Dul ; and they eficnm'd it a good Day's

Work, if they found to th& Value of a
Craucrazw Head, which is about Two
Pence Half-penny. The Chief, as they
called him, told me, by the Dillurbances
of the Natives amongft themfelvcs, their
Trade had been entirely interrupted for
fome time; but even when Trade was o-
pen, that they had but a very fmall Par-
cel of Goods to carry on any Trade worth
talking of; and even thofe few Goods
they were afraid to-difpore of, rho' in a
fair way of Trade, being overawed with
with the Dread of the Derpotick Power
of the General, who only wanted a han-
die to muld them in what Sums he
thought fir, to fatiate his own avaricious
Defires; and indeed this poor Man had
lately met with an Inflance of it, the
General having lately mulded him of
Two Months Salary and Subflance, for
only going to Secendee without his Leave,
to fcc an Acquaintance who was dying,
and earneftly begg'd to fee him: But I'm
pcrfwaded, that if we cou'd have furniflfd
this Man with Goods, free of the Ty-
rannical Power of the Governor, he was
able to have furniflh'd us a considerable
D z Num-

( 20 )
Number of slavcs to a good Advantage
for the Company. We likewife called
in at Srcondee, where we found your
Fort much in the fame Condition, with
one poor Gcncleman in'r, whole Life
was a Burthen to him; for your General
had brought him more in Debc to the
Company, than ever he could poflibly
extricate himklf from, and flop'd his
Allowance for the Difcharge of it ; fo
that he was even reduced to Starving in
n flrtid Cmounry. This Country all
rnund is very mountainous, all covered
with lofty Trees, yet forms fomc Val-
lies as picriful and pleafant as any in
ihe World ; which produce Oranges,
1 emons, Limes, Pines, and, in fhorr,
all manner of Aromacick Fruits. I ne-
ver ha.d an Opportunity of seeing your
I inours Fort at Commendo, but I have
hlid a very particular Defcriptioa of
it; by its Situation, Strength and Big-
nels we are able to dcrholi(h our An-
tiq-nnift, the Dutch Fort hard by it,
if ever we fhou'd have a Rupture with
the:ii, It

( 21 )
I'm now arrived at your Honours
principal Fort of Cabo Corfo Cafjle. I
hall not now trouble your Honours
with a Defcription of it, only fay, that
by its Situation, Strength, and commo-
dious Apartments, it is capable of lodg-
ing a Garrifon able to defend themselves
againfl whatever Force, whether Euro-
pean or Natives, that Country is able
to muflcr up against them, and to keep
their own Ships fafe in the Harbour un-
der their own Cannon. Here your Ho-
nours have a large Field of Gardening
Ground, at left Ten Miles in Circum-
ference, capable, with due Cultivation, of
producing any thing produccabic under
the Torrid Zone. The Ground is moun-
tainous, and forms fine, plcalant, and
fertile Vallics, which produce all forts
of Fruit Trees,fuch as Cinnamon, Citron,
Tamarond, Cocoa, Papay, Palm, Lemon,
Orange, Lime and Guavan, &rc. beftides
great Variety of Pot-Herbs and Roots.
I hall not trouble your Honours with a
Defcription of there Trees, feeing you
can have it elfewhcre, and I hall have
occasion to talk of the Virtues of fome

of them, especially the Palm Tree, when
I account for the Difcafes fo fatal to
your Scrvants Abroad, from whence they
have their Sources. I muft remark, that
cho Cinnamon here is of the Baftard kind,
for want of Inoculation and due Culti-
vation in its render Years ; but I never,
in all my Travels, faw finer and larger
Lemons and Oranges: I have extracted
their cfential Oil as fine as any in the
World. There might be raised here Plan-
ctjons of Sugar Canes, which grow with-
out any Cultivation, and plenty of Cor-
ton Shrubs, fertile in Pods; and I am
pcrfuaded the Aladera Vine would thrive
better on thofl Hills than in its native
Soil, for the Mold is in every rcfpc&t
the lame, only superior in Fertility. I
nccd not tell your Honours, that down
from Cape 7hree fPoints to Acra, all the
Inland circumjacent Countries produce
coifidcrablc Quanitties of Gold, which
th1 cunning and laborious, though ig-
nraJnit Negroes pick up from the Ic:at-
:' \ nn ot ihc rliw Mines, anid from
,e i,nJ, watillhcl lown by lthi' Rapidity

of the River. Before I arrived at Cape
Coaf/, by feeing Picces of folid Gold,
juli as it was dug from the Earth, I was
fully persuaded that there were real gold
Mines of the richeft fort in this Cotun-
try; but I fufpended my Judgment from
any farther Enquiry, 'till my Arrival at
Cape Coafi, where I heard your Honours
had fint from England, a certain Num-
ber of Miners, with two Genrlemen
Overfecrs, who,had made the Mineral
Kingdom their particular Study and
Practice. I found, at my Arrival, moft
of them dead, and thofe alive were now
and then a digging of little Holes or
Pits in the Ground by the Sea fide, and
farchinng thar Earth for Gold ; which
appeared to mc to be rather a Buvlefquc
than any real Enquiry : But I was told
afterwards, that they durft not venture
the Miners out of the reach of cthec Ca-
file Guns, left the Negroes, who certainly
took them for Conjurers, should make
Incurfions on them, to the Hazard of
their Lives. But how unaccountable is
it to think, chat the Mines, which we
have good reafon to believe are only in

th Inland Countries,liould extend their
Veins or Branches to the Sca, which, if
once found, an expert Artift could as
carlhy trace them to their Source or main
Body, as an expert Anatomift could
trace a Branch of the Calyack, or any
other Artery or Vein, to its original
Source and Trunk, the Aorta; nor do
I believe there's any one Mine all over
A/irM, found out even to the Negroes,
tho'we have very good Reafons to believe
there are fuch, and very rich of their
Kind, from the Pieces of Mountain Gold
dug from the Ifattcr'd Veins, which we
purchase from the Natives, though they
cunningly and indufirioufly conceal from
us how they come by it; nor indeed
do I tee any Profped we have of ever
discovering them, through the inaccefli-
ble Way to the Inland Countries, which
mull be puflhed through a Thicktet of
Wood. The Scarcity of Provifioas for
Sublillance, and the Rcfiftane chat nc-
cdfarlly mull be made by the Natives
arc kcglfons of the Inipoflibiliry of tt
I'rojcd of dilcoveringt andpofliling tl~r
Manes which at the fame Time I iam

pcrfwadcd do really exift, if we knew
how to get at them; but I do really be.
lieve, at a very modclf Computation,
there is above 40000 Ounces of Gold per
Ann. communibus annis, over the Gold
Coafl, pick up by the Natives, the
Produat of the Inland Countries, and
difpofkd of to different Hands, and car-
ried to dilTerent Parts of Europe; besides
z. or 3o0oo Ounces more brought to
the Coaft from Brazil,by thePortugueze,
to purchase Slaves, and carried from
thence by European Hands into diffcren
Parts of Europe, viz. EDgland, Holland
and France. I have likewife vificed
your Forts of Annamaboe, Ifinnaeba, Tan-
tumnqurry, and Aefra; and indeed they *
more relembic haunted Hqufqs cban
garrifon'd Forts, having one Ghoft a-
bove Stairs, and perhaps a or 3 at moit
below, fpinning out a Life that is a real
Burden to them, in a mldcfable Con-
dition, upder the Tyranny of, Def otick
Power, lodged in villanous, Hando; fa
that Trade, tho' never fbo bisk in the
Country, muft be entirely filed, thro'
the Inability of a poor Rlatvad Gentle-
E man,

man, who mull likcwife bear the blame
of the want of Trade, to exculpate the
Dcfigns of his Superiors.
Your Honours can be no Strangers
to this Ufage; but I hall take the Li-
berry to refrefl your Memories, in de-
tecting the Villanies in the Manage-
ment of your Chief Agent, or Gover-
nor, as they are pleased to call him, at
your Settlement at l/'7rdah, where I am
now arrived, in an open, pleasant, plen-
tiful fine champaign Country, as any
this Globe can produce. We have a
continual Verdure on a levecl Ground, at
the Diftlnso of every half Mile, finely
beautified with a Grove of lofty Trees,
which forms a fine Shade, where you
may view the Country federal Miles
round you, without fo much as one
Hillock to intercept the lovely Profpedt.
Nature has made this Country vie, if
not exceed, for Plcafure and Plenty, ab-
tra4ing from the Embcllithments of
Art, any. in Europe. The Soil is cx-
traordinsa fertile, producing four Crops
yearly, viz. Two of Corn, fmall and
great ; one of Seans, refcmbling the

( 27 )
French Beans; and one of Potacocs.
And the laborious Negroes don't leave
one Bit of Ground uncultivated, but
make their yearly Demand ; for as foon as
Mother Earth has yielded up one Crop,
they commit another to her Nurture.
Here are plenty of all manner of Car-
tic, Fowl of all forts, tame and wild,
and Fiflu in Perfection; in florr, every
thing necefTary for the Support of hu-
mane Life, nay, even to feed Luxury.
This Country produces nothing fir for
Exportation but Slaves, from whence
there are incredible Numbers carried off
Yearly ; the contiguous Countries pro-
ducing only a few Teeth, fo thar all a-
long the Coaft, where your Honours
have any Cancern, from GCambay to this
Place, I compute there are' carried off
by di(tfrent Hands, above 30000 Slaves
yearly, and of that Number more than
one Half are carried from hence. How
many of chat Number are purchafcd by
your Honburs Agent here, for cp Be.
nefir of the Company, you arerompe-
tent Judges; but I muff beg leave to
acquaint your Honours of the Manner,
E i which

( 28 )
which I take to be my indifpenfibie
Daty, in difcharging the Truft of a
faithful Servant to the Company, by
laying opet to the World the Villanies
committed by one of your Chief Agents,
to the Difgrace of the DireCtors his
Mafters, and incire Ruin of the Com-
Mr. B -I w-'-n having about Two
Hundred and Eighty Slaves, which were
the Reful of a much greater Number
fold to the 'Porttrart, and having your
Hlonours Ship the //,yd./i, Capt. Levett
Commander, wnfting to be flav'd by
himn; he fcnr thc Ship, and put Mr.
Mali-n, your chief Merchant, on board
of her, to be flaved to the Windward
and mual needs put thofc Two Hundred
and Eighty Slaves on board to take the
Air ; for indeed they wanted it much,
fir they were to meagre, and old, and
lame, they cou'd fcarcely land upright.
I told him my Opinion was, he had ber.
rIr hoep them Slaves in Che Trunk till
T:tpr. Lnfttt's Return, which was orde-
eid 1i three Months Time; for tIey
,,trc more tC for an 1ofpitrtl lhai a

( 29N)
Voyage, meerly to take the Air, for fo
it appeared j for the Inconvcnicncies of
flowing Negroes on board was the
Caufe of a much greater Mortality
than otherwife wou'd have happened, to
the great Lofs and Detriment of the
Company. I exerted my felf on this,
as on other Occafions, for the Honour
and Intercfl of the Company, and fuf-
fcr'd the utcmoat Miftry by tyrannical
Villany on that Account; which I now
lay open to your Honours, and can at-
teR every Fat ; and only appeal for
your Judgment, whether or not it was
my Bufincfs to look into Slaves that I
was to atteft were merchantable, when
at the fame Time I was convinced they
were not worth One Shilling per Head,
tho' undoubtedly they were flated at a
goodRate,tis merchantable Slaves to your
Honours Account I and Mr. B-ldw--n
only wanted to have them die out of
his CuRfody, that there might be no
farther Enquiry made about thdit ; for
a dead Slave was better in his Pocket
than a living one. Hd then fwore he wou'd
be revcng'd on me, and told me he

( 30)
wou'd make a Devil of the Docdor, with
ihe ceft of his Billnmgfgatc Phraics; buc
never cou'd meet with any thing for Pre-
tence to frcve for a handle to Punifh-
ment; till at laft, one Day, he rcfolv'd
to break thro' all the Laws of Reafon
and Humanity, to get rid of the Do6tor,
the only Check he met with in commit-
ting his avaricious Villanics; he called
me, and without afligning any Reafon,
offered to bear me, which I had not bcen
much ufcd to formerly; but I had Cb much
ufe of my Reafon, he being my lupe.
rior Officer, not to ad6 otherwifc than
defenfively. He then called rhe Soldiers
of the rorr, and confined me to a Dun-
geon for Thirty Three Days, where I
was supported by an Ounce of Bifsket
warming with Vermine, and fome Wa-
ter once in Twenty Four Hours, hand-
ed in by a Black-Boy. I every Day
expcded to expire, cat up alive by 'in-
numerable Vermine; but his Patience
being quite worn our by my living be-
yond his Expctation, for the Dcfign
at firfl was certainly to niurther me af-
tce thar manner, that I shouldd nor come

( 31 )
Home to cell Tales, he ordered moon
Board the Chandos Galley, which was to
carry 5oo Slaves to Yamaica. I was en-
tered as Surgeon to the Ship j and [
exerted my felf honeflly, as I ought to
do, even in that Station, by reviewing
the Slaves, and rejeding rhofe that were
nor merchantable, and entered a Pro-
tcft againfl Fifty Four old, lame, de-
crepid Invalids, not worth a Farching,
and fveral Children which he flared in
the Company's Books for Women,, thac
were not Ten Years of Age. But that
prevailed nothing, for he obliged the
Commander, as he did others, to fign
a 13ill of Loading for the whole Num-
ber, as merchantable Slaves; and gave
an Order to the Commander of the
Clveland, an interloping Ship, to pick
out what Slaves they had agreed for
from the whole Cargo; which the Inter-
lopers in general brag of in the Jfefi
Indies, and with very good Rcafon, to
the Dilhonour and great Decriment of
the Company. I aqm credibly informed,
that this ,Gentleman has given your HoU
nours a falfc Imprcflion of me, by wri-

( 32 )
uin you falkf and fcandalous Lies : I
hope I (hall have an Opportunity of dir-
appointing, his villanous Defign, of
murdering my Character at Home, as
he designed my Body Abroad; and flew
your Honours, and all the World, which
of us Two have been the moft faithful
Servant to the Company ; and I hope
your Honours will do us both Juflice,
to prevent my appealing to the Law of
Nature, and as a true Subject of Britain
to the Laws of the Land, for Redrefs of
Grievances which encroach on your Ho-
nour, the Company's Intereft, and my
Freedom, as a Subject of a free Country,
endeavouring tq, rob me of my Life,
my Effects, my All, my Character. I
can't omit telling you, that he has not
only ruined the Trade here at prefcnr,
but left it irretrievable for the future,
to ferve his own mercenary Ends,.'by
buying a large Quantity of Cowries for
his own Ufc from Interlopem And fel-
ling-the Company's Cowries izkpe Tor-
tuguefe: which put the SlayerTrade in-
tircly into the HanJs of the. Portuiguefr
and lowered the Price of Cowries, which

( 33 )
were always formerly current Moneyp c
Five Ackes of Gold for a grapd Cubele In
Boogcs, but are now reduced to Three
Ackcs. TheMyftery is plain every grand
CubelTein Cowries put Two Ackes in his
Pocketr, and the Accompis ballanccd in
the Company's Books, to the urrce Ru-
in and Deflrudkion of Trade in general,
and the Company'sintcrell in particular.
But I am weary of selling thlef and e-
numerable other Vilianics, of which
your Honouifs mull foon fee the Ef-
Now your Honours may perhaps cx-
pc& thac I'm to enctrtain you with a
Defcription of the natural Genius, po-
litical and religious Governmcnt and Cu-
floms of the Natives ; I fliall only fay
in one Word, chac their natural Temper
is barbaroufly cruel, fefifih, and deceit-
ful, and their Government equally bar-
barous and uncivil; and conliquently,
the Men of grcatcfl Eminency amongft
them, arc thofe that are moft capable of
being the greatest Ro ues; Vice, being
leC without any Check on if,becomes a
Virtue. As for their Cuftoms, they cx-
F a6tIy

(34+ )
adIly resemble their Fellow Creatures
aid Narivc-, the Moukeys: And as
for their VcL4gion, they only take their
own uncitiliz'd Method of becoming a
Bubble to the different Fancies of the
Bubblers; faonme worlipping Rocks, o-
thers Snakes, Spiders, r&c. according to
the different Humours of the E1tiche-
Men : And you may find on the Slave
Coafl (where the Country is prodigiously
populous) Kings with federal Thoufands
of Wives, and very Man a Proportion-
able Number, according to his Abilities;
nor forgetting a great Number of Maiden
Wives fcc apart for the lNftich-Men.
I ought likewise to give your Honours
an Account of the Animal Kingdom on
the Coaft: I can only tell you, that I
found a very great Scarcity of the came
eatable Kind on molf Parts of the Grain
and Gold Coaft but thar want was fup-
plied by the Plenty of Fifh all along the
Coaft, and the Curioficy facisficd with the
eightt of vaft Variety of the wild Kind,
fuch as Elephants, Buff'clers, Tygers,
floors, Icvcral fobrts of Harts, H E s
i'oicupincs, fcdge-Hogs, ibmc amphi.

( 35 )
bious -Animals, Ifch as the Aligator apd
Sea-Horfe. We have likcwice an Animal,
which the Gold Coati Mgei-s call A-
rampo, and the Slave Coaft Negroes,
Chiphi, or Man-Eacter ; which I take to
be a diminutive but more voracious
Species of a Tygcr. It is certain, when
we throw our our dead Slaves on the
Fields, this animal l carries off and de-
vours them immediately. There is an
infinite Variety, of Monkeys along the
Coaft, and great Plenty and various
Kinds of Lizards; and I have caught
federal Camelions here. I hall not dwell
on a Defeription of there Animals, ha-
ving cold your Honours, that I hall
bring nothing of the Vegetable, Ani-
mal, and Min al Kingdoms under your
Cognizance, but what may cither be
fit for the UfI or Subfiflance of your
Settlements on this Coaft, or prove to
the Advantage of the Company for Ex-
portation ; and only take notice of them
as they fal in with this Narration, wit?-.
out any regard to rhjirdticd OQder. But
I iullft not complain too much even of
the Grain and Gold Coafl for want of
F 2, Edibles,

( 36 )
E.ibles, only of the, Mifmoanagemeat,
for'want of due Regulations and Difci.
plinc, which' lv hall talk of anon ; for
we have oars, Hogs, Harts, Hares,
Doves, Hens1 wild and came Ducks, came
of the MAofcovia Kind, and the wild leifor
than ours, Pheafants or Guwa Hens,
Aifh of federal Kiids, fuch as Mullets,
Cod, but different from Ernnpean Cod,
Ploifc, Floundrs; Lobflers, Crabs,
Prauns, Shrimpp, 1d above all, a Fill
called the King's Ffli, wiio, maary others
that I have no Namp for. And at thnm.
bay and Arra, there is plenty of Mut-
ton and lcef. I might haye brought
undvr the Rdible Kind, Rars and Mice,
which to my Knowlecdge, one of your
FaCtors was obliged to car, for want of
NcccTatrics of Life; and']l myflf wou'd
have been glad of fuich a Morficl when
expiring in a Dungeon, in rhc nidft of
Plenty, when at the famc Time I had
Money enough to purchafe whatever
T wanted; for at Y'hydah we have not
only all Manner of NeccfTlrics for the
SuIpport of HIumane Life, but cvctto
iAd Luxuiry, for we have cvcry Thing

(37 )
hlre that is to be had any where elfe on
this Coaft, and federal additional Things
to be had no where c(fc. Wqhaye Bulls,
Cows, Sheep, Goats, Hotfes, Mules,
Dogs and Cats, with plenty of came
and wild Foul of all forts, with great
plenty of delicious Filb. We have not
only all manner of the Edible Kind, but
alfo great Variety for Pleafure, the
Crown Bird, tho' fcarce, is fomretimes
found here, with moft beautiful Green
Birds, with innumerable others; but my
Genius not being curious enough this
way, all the Rarities I have pick'd up
are a Sea Horfe's Head, and fome Flies of
the Cantharides Kind, exactly refembling
the Spanmh Fly; but I hope your Ho-
nours will not make a Demand of
Bufhicls fbll fbe the Ulk of the Company,
for I only dcfign them as a Prefcnc for
VDon Saltero Curiof, at Chee',t, as the
mof1: ingenious and leaicd Man in his
Way that I have the Honour to be
known to. And as he is a public En-
courager of Lcarning, I Ohink it's the
XDury of every Pcrfon to promote his
antercft to ith utmoft of his Power, for

( 38 )
the common Benefic of Mankind. In-
deed, I moft heartily regret the Lofs of
a Camelion, which I kept alive for
fame Months, which afforded me Mar-
ter of Speculation in my melancholy
Hours, by evidently demonflrating to
me the Sympathy between the Soul and
the Body j for, according to the diffe-
rent Paflions you raised in the Mind,
the Body changed immediately into dif-
ferent Colours: When it was perfcdly
pleas'd, it was of a beautiful light Green,
and the wholc8ody, Tail and all, appeared
transparent ; when dilplcas'd or very
angry, of a dark brown dowdy Co-
lour, and the Body and Tail perfectly
Opake; and according to the interme-
diate Pafliors from the one Extreme to the
thIcr, fo were the intermediate Colours
formed beautiful to Admiration; but
this Animal affords Subjel-Mattcr for
:i 1ublimc Specolarion, which mufl be
done by a Perfon.frcc from the prcfling
N:cclities of Life.
I cant mifts raking Noice here of tho
vulgar Error, of believing that the T'ethl
.icC only go: of Elephants. that are kil-
led ;

( 39)
led; I have all the reason in the World
,to believe that they caft their Teeth,
from the great Quantities of that Com-
modity exported Yearly, whick vaffly
exceed the Propoxtion of the Number
of Elephants to be found on the Coeft,
or even in the Inland Countries; and as
a Proof, the Quantities of that Commo-
dity cncreali Yearly but I have nojuft
Calculation of the yearly Export. Imul:
likewife cell you, that we have plenty
of Silk Cotton Trees here ; they are
hugely big, and produce Plenty of Pods;
buc I am credibly informed by an inge-
nious Mechanick at London, that this
Coccon can't be manufaurt'd; which I
naturally conclude, proceeds only from
the Trees being over-grown, as I re-
marked ot the big Eotton Tree of the
commonKind at Sierra Leon; and if there
was a Plantation of Shrubs of this Kind,
which produce Pods, they would be as
fic for Manufaeture as any in the World.
I can'c well leave this place, with-
out taking tbme Notice ,of the God
of Fllydab, the Snake ; of which we
have two forts here, the Feciche-Snake

(40 )
and Rattle Snake s the former Species,
which is what they worship, is about a
Fathom in Length, and about the Thick-
nefs of a Man's Wrift, and finely varie-
gated with different Colours, white,
yellow, And brown. This Creature is
incirely diverted of the venomous Na-
ture of a Serpent, and is altogether in-
nocent and harmlefs : I have fund them
in Bed when I waked, where they had
been for fomc Time, without doing the
left Harm, farther than raising our Re-
ludtancy, by looking at them. Indeed
the Ratle Snake, which is fmaller and
black all over, is of a more venomous
Nature, and much more active in its
progreflive Motion.
Now I (hall fay no more of the Geo-
graphical and Nbtural Hiftory of this
Coat, only beg leave to make fomc few
Obfervations of the general Hiflory of
Trade, how far it may be improved for
the Advantage of Britain in general, and
the Royal African Company in particular,
which muti neccffarily obviate the Diffi-
culties they lie under at prelenr, and fet
their Affairs in a more clear Light.

'Tis a known Maxim in Policy, that
the Richnefs or Poverty of a Trading
Nation depends intirely upon its being
more or lefs populous, lb that 'the Num-
ber of Hands in that Nation arc ltf
much [landing Riches in it; and confk-
quently, that Trade which leaf depopu-
lates the Country, and is carried on by
its own Manufadures and ProduLcsj
muff indifputably be the moft advanta-
geous to the Nation, cfpecially when
moft, if nor All the Returns are made in
ready Specie. How far this will answer
with the African Trade, your Honours,
who are a Society of the politeft Gen.
tlemen and (inefl Merchants, perhaps,
in the known WorlJ, arc the beft Judges.
I only humbly: bg leave to fubmic to
your Judgment fome Matters of Fa&,
which by travelling the Coaft, are confi-
flent with my proper Knowledge, and
perhaps unknown to your Honours,
You fee, Gentlemen, lby rgy former
Calculation, and metrhinks I cin demon-
firate its Juflncts, there are {oooo Oun-
ces of Gold, the Produc of0 the Coun-
try, and 30000 Ounces brought ro rho
G Coaft

Coas from Brrazi by the aoritugize,
which is comunfwimris amis, 70000 Oun-
ces of QO6d per Anmm ; this with the
Produ& df 30000 Slaves, besides' rhofi
that hi carried from Angoln, which I
have noc as yet brought under Compa-
ration, reckoning thofe fold to the Spa-
waords and "Portiguczce, as well as chofe
to the Englf/h, Frenck'and 'Dutch Plan-
rntions, your Flonours will find them,
one with another, even Children in-
cluded, conic out at 30 o. Sterling per
Head, which amounts to 9000001. Ster-
ling; which, which ihe 70:;oo Ounces of
Gold, come to itr mo' /. Stecrling.
This is befidesWax, Teeth, Majombo,
Palm Oil, d6c. which I have not brought
under Computation. Nowt, I fay, let us
:cckon 6000oo Slaves more' carried from
Angola and the Bite, which I can't cx-
uftly compute, being an entire Stranger
to thofr Places, but I cake the Compu-
tation toje models enough and within
Bounds, which, at the former Rate a-
mounts to xSo0,xo 1. and the wholc Pro-
du& of the Trade of this Coafl amounts
to i 9Qc'.N0 / Scvrling per Armum, be-

didcs Wax, Teeth,* Majombo, Paim-
Oil, &c. which indeed I cannot bring
under Computation, which are carried
off the Coaft by the Engl//h, French, and
'Dutch, and imported into Europe. In-
decrd, we mutt allow a confiderable
Draw-back on the Slave Trade j for the
Number of Slaves carried off the Coaft
by the 'Portugtsze, which they purchase
directly from the Negrots with their To-
bacco and Stinckabus Rum, and our
Cowries, to chcteeat Detriment of our
European Trade in general, and your
Honours Interc(f in particular r which
has been incirely owing to the Mifina-
nagement .of your Honours late Chief
Agent, Mr. B- v o--n, to fitiate his
own mercenary and avaricious Ends, by
felling them your Honours Cowries at
a low Rate, for ready Gold, as I lfiatcd
pag. 31.
Now what a glorious and advanta-
gious Trade this is, every Efurvean So-
ciecy, as will as private interloting Tra-
ders, muft be fecfible of, as it is rhi
Hinge on which all the Tride of this
Globe moves on ; for put a Scop to thc
G ' pcop ig

( 4+ )
pcopling the Euro can Plantations A,
broad, wh ich could be done from no a-
ther Country but this, without depopu-
laring Europe; I fay, put a flop to the
S ivATradc, and all the others ceafe
P Courfe. Pray who digs the rich Mines
of Teru and Brazil, &rc? Nay, who
fweetens the Ladies Tea, and the gene-
rous Bowl; and who reaps the Profit of
all ? Therefore, let every true Brifto
umannimoufly join to concern Mcafqres,
how to cct:nr chis adyantagious Trade
in England f and I wifli it cou'd be car-
ricd on by the Royal African Company,
vwho hicherto have been gcatecr Lofecr
than Gainers by it; a Trade fo-grccdily
gral'p'd at by the laborious 'Dutch,
which they purchased by the Property of
Brazil, in lieu of it. Tis only incum-
bcen.on mc, as an Obfervacor, to lay be-
fore your Honours that occurred to
l.me as Hindrances to rhe Compaidy's In-
rertl, in rcEpe2d to other European Na-
rions, and in particular, by the Enii4h
L.'trlopers ; for as to other Nations,
the ith'barc the only formidabhi An-
t.i;onfls we have ro deal wici. This

(+5 )
'Dutch Guinea Company is an united
Branch of their India Company, of
which the States General bear the grea-
teft'Share, cxclufive of all Interloping
Traders of their own Nation, besides a
Tax of .to per Cent.on all the Portugueze
-Ships trading to this Coaf, which they
had granted them as an Article, in cx-
changing Jtazil with the 'Portugueze, in
lieu of this Trade ; which they firitly
demand, and keep a Man of War a
cruising always on the Coaft, to put
their Orders in Execution, as well a-
gainft the'Portugueze, as the Interloping
Ships of their own Nation. So it plain-
ly appears to your Honours, what great
Advantages that Company have over
ours ; and, indeed, as I has only the
InccrefL of Britain at Heart, I cou'd
and do wilb from my very Heart, that
his moft gracious Majdfty, who Honours
your Society by being your Governor,
wou'd take into his Confideration in
Council; and, by Confcnc of Parlia-
ment, guant your Company a Condi-
tional, exclufive Charter : For it is un-
reafonable cq cxpc6t or demand fuch a

(46 )
one as your Company had formerly,
whilft under the Diredion of the Duke
of Tork, in King Charles the Second's
Reign; the fad Effcts of which plainly
appeat'd' by the numerous Complaints
of his Majefty's Subjedts of his Planta-
tions beyond Seas ; which, if carried
any higher, muft have tended to their
utter Ruin and Extirpation. Nor is it
to be fuppofed, that even now, if the
Company had an unlimited, exclufive
Charter, that their Agents wou'd furnifhl
his Majecfy's Plantations with Slaves at
30 of 40 per Head of rhat Country
Money whereas, in a few Days they
can wafr them over to the Spanijb Ame-
rican Coaft, where they fetch 300 Pieces
of Eight per Head, including the King
of Spain's Taxes, and other Duties,
which makes them come out at above
6o0/. Sterling ; a Price that won'c ani'er
with our American Plantations : But if
his Majefly's Subjedcs were to compute
their Yearly Demand of Negroes that
are abflurcly necefary for their Service,
which might be cafily done ; and at the
lame time his Maj:fty wou'd be ,leated

to grant the .loyal African Company,
cither fingly, or united with the Soth
Sea, Company, a Charter conditionally,
ro be obliged to furnifl his Majefty's
Plantations with their Quota of Slaves,
demanded at 30 1. of the Country Money
per Head, including Children above
Eight or Ten Years of Age; which
might anfwcr both the Ends of the Plan-
ters of our American Plantations, and
enable the Company to carry on a
Trade, not only exclufive of all Engfij
Interlopers, but to enhance the Trade
foley to thcmfelves, exclusive of all o-
ther Nations, and to fetch into.England,
from the Manufadures and Commodi-
ties of our own Country, above a Mil-
libn of Money Sterling Yearly in ready
Species ; which is entirely flifled at pre-
fent, through the Inability of the Com-
pany's firuggling with lfuch Diflicultics,
as the great Charge of the Company's
maintaining their Settlements Abroad,
whilfl Inteulopers come to take the Bread
out of their Mouth; and even aliflled
in to doing by their own Agents, to
forvc their own mercenary Ends; whilfl

thus weakening one another, che ',tch,
never forgetful of their own Interefl,
affifted by other Nations, come in to
carry off the Profit from both Such a
limited Charter as this, where there is
nor one Obijction left against it, put
in the Hands of any Society, empow-
cring them to raife a sufficient Sum of
Money to carry on that Trade, wou'd
not only enable us to furnifl our Quota
ofSlaves,viz. 800oo perdlnn. to th cSpani
yards, as flipulated by the Afliento Con-
rrad, and to make good formerDeficien-
cics; but naturally bring the Slave Trade
entirely into our Hands, exclufivc of
all other Nations; fo confequently reap
che Fruits of the American Mineso which
they only give themfelvcs the Trouble
to dig, but in Hopes of (fch a glorious
and advantageous Trade to England.
Let us in the mean time consider of
Methods to fupport your Honours' Set-
clements Abroad ; which, in fome little
time, if not fpecdily prevented, are in
danger of falling into theHands of Fo-
reigners, to the Deftrud-ion of the Bri-
tiff Trade, and entire Ruin and Extir-

nation of his Majefly's AImrican Pilai-
tations. How far your prt%.ier Trade an-
livers cheExpence, is nor my Ifi:cefi, as
a Servant, to determine; bur, 'hinks,
it puts me in mind of an Obi :rtio
made by one of your own Socicc3, ol '.
Shop-keeper's renting a Shop for z oi.
when he dealt only for 5o pt r nn.
Buteven in this Cali, there is fill a Re-
rmedy left ; for if your Honours were to
divell your Servants of the Honourable
Titles of Captain-General and Chief
Governors, and invest Three or more
Fa&tors with equal Power; whiL-h, which
the Chief Surgeon, were to compofe the
Council s and each Settlement indepen-
dent one ofiaotlher, and support none
but hore that will anfivwcr the Charge ;
yourHonours would find, thac tho' they
were Villains, whofe Inclinations led
them to cheat their Maflters, yet their own
Inrcreft would lb jar one with anork er
that they wau'd be neccirlrily obliged to
do their Malfers Juflice Wh.,1i* now
the Defpotick Powc:r of the Go'vernor,
even tho' lodged in vilianous Hands,
mull go unconwrould, without any Check
H cc

( 0 o)
or Curb, of which I here produce a late
Inflance; and that none thou'd be pro-
moted to be Fadors, bur thore that have
fcrv'd as Writers, with a due Obfervance
of their Seniority. This OEconomy,
with a firidt Friendfhip and Corrcfpon-
dcncc kept amongft your Honours Scr-
vahts thro' all your Secclements along
the Coafl ; which, muft be effe6tuatced
by keeping a certain Number of fall
Vefils, Six or Eight, always a cruifing
on the Coaft, with proper Goods for pick-
ing up what Slaves and other Commodi-
ties are to be purchased, and depoficed at
any of your Settclments, till your large
annual Ships which fetch your Goods
from England, which ought always to
fwccp the Coatl from chemoft Windward
of your Settlements, call for them, and
leave intheir room a new Cargo of Goods,
which your Fadors of that Settlement are
to difpofe of to the belt Advantage, as
accountable to your Honours in purcha-
fing more Slaves and other Commoditiesj'
and grant a Power to the Commanders
of your Ships to make what Slaves they
can in Coafling, allowing a handsome

Commiflion to your FaCtors and Com.
manders for what Slaves, &c. they pur-
chare for tho Ufe of the Company ; for
there is nothing more certain, that if
they don't live fairly, they maul live
foully; t is wou'd cngngc People of real
Merit into your Honours Service, and
to be hearty and honeft whilft -n your
Service, seeing their own Intereft depends
entirely upon their Mafters': Whereas,
by the prefenc Eftablifhmcnt, the private
Intereft of your Governors, prompted
by Ambition, Avarice and Defpotick
Power, makes all your Inferior Servants
fink under Oppreclinn, and with for Tyburn
in Exchange for their prefent Condicion.
Now niethinks I fee all the Su-
perior Servants of each of your Ho-
nours Settlements eating at the fame
Table, supported at tihe Company's
Charge, laying down and ananimoufly
concerting Mcalhres for the Intereft of
their Maters, whofe Brcad they arc pre-
fkntly hearing ; whili your little Coafl-
ing Veffels bring AlTurancces that your
other Setclements are doing the fame,
and only want chicr Affiltance how to
H z pro.

promote your Intcrcll- farther, whilfl
your annual Ships arrive with a frclh
Supply of Goods, and proper European
Nefccfarics for the Ufe of your Serle-
mcncs,, which wou'd make your Forts
thieommon Rcpoficorics and Mzrkets
of the CoaIl, ,nd turn the Channel of
this g!rious and advantageous Trade
entirely into the Hands of the Engijfj
But how wildly this differs from the pre-
fcnt gtanagemenr, is only known to
rhofe who have been on the Spot, to
If'c and feel it.
Now it is only lefc incumbent on me,
as my proper Bufincfs, to give your Ho-
nours fome Account of the Difcatfs fo
fatal to your Servants Abroad, witl
their CCaufcs and Remedies; and'humbly
to fabmir ome few -Propofals for Lth
better Prefervation of your Servants
Health Abroad. It appears by my Jour-
nal, (which I tliall not prefume to titou
ble your Honours with a Detail oq fre;
but am willing to fubmit it, by your
Honours Orders, to the Examination of
any of tilhe rarernity,) that T-o third
Parns a!ni more of the DitdFq~s fo facal

( 53 )
to your Servants are Diarchmas and Dy-
fenterics, either as the Difeafc itfclf, or
Symptomatical of a Fever, which fweep
off the Patients without Mercy which
proceeds entirely from their drinking
Palm Wine or'Potoe, and casting Bread
called Canker. This Palm Wine is
the Juice of the Palm Tree, garher'd by
boring a Hole in the Tree, and putting
a Pipe in it, which drops Gutt by Gutt
from the Tree into a Veffel or Pitcher
fic to receive it ; and when frefh drawn
juft from the Tree, by its fubrle penetra.
ting Particles, is a moft powerful Diure-
tick, and paffes in a Moment's time, and
at the fame time inebriates, and is agree-
able enough to the'Taftc; but ifitrfands
any Time, especially when confined
from the open Air, nay, in Twenty four
Hours I have known ir to turn fo acrid
and corrofive to dilTolve Iron, by making
a visible Imprellion on it; fo if it chances
to meet with any Obftrudion or Retard-
ment in the Stomach, or any other Vcf-
fels of the animal OEconomy, it under.
goes a Fermentation, and produces moflt
difmal l(fteas, not in the Power of any

Medicines to remedy ; for the Matter
turns fo acrid, that it firil brings away
all that's in the Inteflines, with the very
Mucus that lines their Coats, which is
its State whilft a Diarrhlea ; then the
Matter turns more and more acrid, be-
ing deprived of the Mixture of the Juices
of the Stomach and Intcftines, curs the
fmaller Vcffels, and even sometimes the
larger, arnd brings away the very Coats
of the InteRincs piecemeal, which is its
dismal agonizing State of a Dyecntcry,
not in the Power of any Medicine to re-
medy ; for I have try'd all forts even
in its Infancy, Purgatives, Aflringents,
Opiates, all of the inme cfl'd waffled off
that Moment they're taken,by the corro-
five Humour, which ar the fame time in-
fe&ecd the whole Mafs of Bloo&d; I have
likcwifc made ufe of Abrorbents and
EmollientGlyfters, but all to the fame
purpose; no Remedy left but by prevent-
ing its Caufes in others. What I have
faid of the Effeds of Palm Wine may
juflly be afcribed to Pococ, only with
this difference, that the Particles of this
Liquor being groffer, and confcqucntly

more una6ive, makes it lefs Diuretick,
and more flatulent ; fo chat it feldom or
never mifTes Obflruiions and Rctard-
ments in irs Palfage; which fwells them
up prodigioully, and produces by its
Fermentation all the different Gradations
of the former difmal Effed's. This Li-
quor is only an Infufion of Water, with
the common Grain call'd Alilhto or Mil-
let: They take the greater fort of on the
Gold Coaft, and the finally Grain called
Maiz on the Slave Coafl; this they in-
fufe in common Water, without preparing
the Grain for the Infufion, and allow it
to fleep for fome Days i then pour off
the Infufion, which as yet has undergone
no Fermentation for want of Yeaftj but
fo loon as confined from the open Air, as
in Bottles, or even in the Stomach, it un-
dergoes a mofl violent Fermentation, by
expanding itself, to the inevitable De-
ftrualion of the Bottles, or even the ani.
mal Fabrick, by producing the former dif-
malEffe6ts: And as Cankeeis nothing but
Bread made of this Grain, jammed or
grinded between two Scones, with Palm
Wine or Potoc, which ferves inficad of

( 56)
Yeaft, accounting for the Effec&s of the
one, fufliciently demonfirates the bad
Effecs of che other.
There is but one other Difeare epi-
demically fatal to your Servants, which
they call the Seafoning, known to all
Europeans that come under the Torrid
Zone, which is nothing but a Fever,
caus'd by the Change of the Climate;
but to account for this Difeafe, with
all its different Symptoms and Effects,
wou'd be to give an exa& Analytical
Description of the different Qualities of
the Air, and Effets they produce on
humane Bodies; an Effay rcferved for
my more cafy and leilfure Hours, more
fic to entertain the Fraternity, than to
inflru& your Honours in whac is en-
tirely foreign from our Subjec. Yet I
cannot omit telling you one firange
Quality of the Air: When there blows an
Eafterly Wind here, I have feen it open
the clofe Seams of an Efcrucore, fo that
you might thrift a Crown-Piece into ir,
and bend the Covers of the Books, juft
as if they were laid over the Fire, or
cxpos'd to dithe darting Rays of the Sun

( 57 )
at Noon ; and at the limc Time you
feel a fcnfible Alteration of the Aqi-
mal Fabrick, which feels more of a
Chillncfs of the Air than over-hot ;
which if any one is reduced low by
Sicknefs, cuts them off without Mercy;
and foon after the Wind changes,
rhb Efcrutore, Books, &-c. are reduced
or their own Accord, to their former
The only two Difeafes epidemical in
this Country, that fall under your Ho-
nours Cognizance, as the only proper
Phyficians to remedy them, are Tyran.
nical Oppreflion, and Want of NccclTa.
ides of Life. I (hall give your Honours
an Inflance of the one, and lay down
a Method for preventing the othcr.
When I arrived at II/Pydah, I found a
poor unlucky young Man, one Francis
Marjhal, a Writer in your Honours Ser-
vice, jufkcxpiring, funk under the Load
of barbarous Oppreflion; he told me,
which was attefted by all on the Spor,
that Governor B-/ldv-n caused him ro
Te fiript naked, and whipc at the Tree,
after a moft inhumane and barbarous
I Manner -

( 58 )
Manner ; as afterwards I have feen
him treat federal of the Soldiers, and
confine Bailie the Carpenker to a Dun-
geon, with his Hands and Legs in
Double Irons for above a Month's
Time. And that I may repay Mr.
B-ld.w-n in his own Style ; I fay,
" .Whether it was Mr. B-Idw-?ns Ig-
" norance, or malicious Cruelty, we
" know not; but verily believe federal
" of your Honours Servants perifhed,
Sceither through one or boch j nor did"
" it lie in our Power to make him do
" lefs, except we had been invested
" with a Power equal to his ; for
" tho' he was particularly recommend.
" dcd, nay took Oach, not to trade on
" his own private Account, we never
" cou'd prevail on him to obey and ob-
" ferve ic in any one Point." 'Tis
certain, that poor Marfhal did die
in a very miferable Condition, quite
funk in Spirit; but whether of the Go-
vernor or Do5tor I fall not determine,
but submit it entirely to the Determina-
tion of your Honours, as appears per
Journal; but f with our Governor has
n1ot left his at ffylabh. The

( 59)
The Want of NcccffTaries of Life does
not fo much proceed from the Scarcity
of the Country, or Want of a competent
Allowance from your Honours for Main-
tenance, as ir is the EffTc of Defpo:ick
Power; which, when it chances ro be
lodged in villanous Hands, inevitably
produces Mifcry; which emblematically
represents, with the utmofl Abhor-nce
and Reluadancy to humane Nature, the
Subjces of a fine fertile Country groan.
ing under the uarmoft Mifery, to feed
the avaricious Ambition of an Ablblute
Monarch; nor do I believe the latter
has more Power from Heaven, chin the
former has from your Honours, in fo
doing ; and as humane Policy will na-
turally take Care of the one, fb I hope
your Honours will redify the other, af-
cer the following Regulations.

I. That all the Officers, even include.
ing the Writers, hall car at the fame
Table, handfbmely furnifhcd at the
Company's Expence, which might be
*done for leTs Charge than their S;ibfill-
ence Money comes to ; whlicre.s at pre-
I t tent

fent every one, I mean Factors and
Writers, eacs, or I may rather fay, flarves
by himfilf.
I. That there be another Table
maintained at the Company's Charge,
for the Tradeirmen and Soldiers, with
the inferior Officer, Scrieant, or Cor-
Foral, to fee they obfervc due Difci-
plinc and Order.
Ill. That there be a Steward, a Man
well known to the Country, fet apart
for furnihing this Table, with whole-
fome Provifions: That he may have
fufficient Stores always breeding up,
as he fall anilver to the Members of
the Council.
IV. That there be an Infirmary for the
Sick, with proper Servants for attend-
ing them ; which is wanting in all your
Settlcmenrs, except Cape Coafi.
V. That there be fulficient Stores of
European Flower or Bisket, Wine, and
other Europern Liquors, for the.Supply
of chofe that are well, as well as fick ;
and that they be firicly prohibited
thofe never-failing Deflroyers, the cat;
ing of Cantie, and drinking of Palm
Wine, or Potoe. VI. That

VI. Tha there be a Piece of Gar-
dening Ground I c apart for a Narfery
of Greens and Roots, &6c. for their

Now, Gentlemen, I have given you
a true and impartial Account of what
Obfervacions occurred to me from my
firft Arrival on the Coaft of Africa to
my Departure from thence; and I hope
your Honours and the World will have
the Goodnefs to excufe the naked Drefs
they appear in, when I affure your Ho-
nours, from the Bottom of my Soul,
that I had only the Intereft of my Coun.
try in general, and the Royal African
Company's in particular, at Hearr, when
I difplay what a glorious and advanta.
geous Trade this is, and the Hinge on
which all the Trade of this Globe turns,
and how it might be cencer'd in Eng-
land, to the great Honour and Advan-
rage of the Nation, with proper Mca-
fures to remove what Obftrutions and
Hinderances it lies under at prefent;
and at the fame Time that I do my
Country Service, I free my CharadCtr,
fa Ifly

falfly attacked, only to cloak Villany;
and, according to the old Proverb, Lay
the Saddle upou the right Horfe And
I can only aflure your Honours of their
Veracity, for an Excufe of Inelegancy,
which I take for a full Difcharge of the
Duty I owve my Country, as a Subjc&
of Great Britain, and a faithful Servant
to the Royal African Company.

T HE RE is preparing for the Prefs,
An Account of the Management of
the 'Direltors of the Royal African Com-
pany of Great-Britain. Humbly ad-
drefs'd to His moft Gracious Majefty
the KING, their Governour.

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