Citation
The tropic times

Material Information

Title:
The tropic times
Creator:
United States -- Army. -- Southern Command
United States -- Army. -- Southern Command
Place of Publication:
Quarry Heights Republic of Panama
Quarry Heights, Republic of Panama
Publisher:
United States Southern Command
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Weekly
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 43 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Military bases, American -- Newspapers -- Panama -- Canal Zone ( lcsh )
Armed Forces -- Newspapers -- United States -- Panama ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Canal Zone ( lcsh )
Genre:
newspaper ( marcgt )
newspaper ( sobekcm )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Panama -- Canal Zone

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1, no. 1 (Feb. 5, 1988)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Repeated number, vol. 2, no. 45, for Dec. 11 and Dec. 15, 1989.
Issuing Body:
"Published in conjunction with the Armed Forces Information Program of the Department of Defense, under the supervision of the Director of Public Affairs, U.S. Southern Command."
General Note:
"This authorized unofficial command information publication is for U.S. Armed Forces overseas."
General Note:
Title from caption.
General Note:
Latest issue consulted: Vol. 10, no. 41 (Oct. 24, 1997).

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not protected by copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105
Resource Identifier:
21092434 ( OCLC )
2007240275 ( LCCN )

Related Items

Preceded by:
Southern Command news

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text


Gift of the Panama Can us7


the Tropic Times


Vol. II, No. 27 Quarry Heights, Republic of Panama Aug. 7, 1989



Opposition urges plebiscite on crisis


PANAMA CITY, Panama (UPI)
-- Opposition leaders, citing a
stalemate in talks with the
government on Panama's 3-month-
old political crisis, called Friday for a
national referendum to let voters
decide how to resolve the dispute.
As the negotiations entered a
second day, the government
announced it had closed public and
private schools in three major cities
in the aftermath of the fatal shooting
Thursday of a 24-year-old student
during an anti-government protest at
the University of Panama.
The slaying of Luis Gonzales,
gunned down by an unknown
assailant while marching with several
hundred students in an otherwise
peaceful demonstration, prompted
calls by both opposition and
government leaders for an end to
political violence and a quick
resolution of the crisis triggered by
the annulment of the May 7
presidential elections.
It was clear as the talks recessed
late Friday, however, that the two
sides still were far from a settlement.
"The proposals which we have
presented are diametrically
opposed," said former opposition
presidential candidate Guillermo
Endara during an earlier break in the
negotiations sponsored by the
Organization of American States.
"In view of such fundamental
differences, we believe that we won't
really arrive quickly at an agreement
on these differences," Endara said.


Opposition leaders distributed a
written statement proposing that a
plebiscite be held Aug. 20 under OAS
auspices to allow voters to choose
between proposals put forth by the
government and opposition for
ending the crisis.
At the conclusion of Friday's talks,
negotiations were suspended until
Thursday at the request of the
opposition.
"There is still plenty of time and I
also think it's a good idea when these
discussions come to a dead end and
that both sides take a break," Endara
told reporters.
Panama has been in political
limbo since the government annulled
violence-scarred May 7 presidential
elections amid allegations of
widespread fraud. Panama's
Catholic Church and foreign
political observers said the
opposition won the election by as
much as a 3-1 ratio.
During Thursday's talks, pro-
government former presidential
candidate Carlos Duque introduced
a five-point plan that centered on the
establishment of a provisional
government and the scheduling of a
new round of elections.
The proposal also calls on the U.S.
government to halt its "unilateral
military exercises and provocations,"
to end alleged violations of the
Panama Canal treaties and to lift
economic sanctions against the
government of de facto ruler Gen.
Manuel Antonio Noriega.


The opposition proposal,
introduced during the OAS's third
visit to Panama last month, calls for
a transfer of power to the opposition
on Sept. 1, the ouster of Noriega by
Aue. 23 and the restoration of civil


liberties, including a free press.
The latest round of talks are the
first since a July 16-17 session that
brought together the principal
leaders of the various factions for the
first time.


OPPOSITION SPEAKER - Opposition presidential candidate Guillermo
Endara speaks to reporters. (Photo courtesy of The Associated Press)


Panama closes high schools after student slain


PANAMA CITY, Panama (AP)
--Gen. Manuel Antonio Noriega's
government ordered schools closed
Friday after government plain-
clothesmen fired on demonstrators
at the national university, killing one
student and wounding at least six.
An Education Ministry statement

RP opposition

to hold talks

in S. America

PANAMA CITY, Panama
(Reuter) - Two Panamanian
opposition leaders Saturday went
to Caracas for talks with
Venezuela's president after
another round of inconclusive
meetings with the government to
solve Panama's prolonged
political, crisis.
Ricardo Arias and Guillermo
Ford, vice-presidential candidates
in annulled elections last May,
were to consult with Venezuela's
President Carlos Andres Perez.
They were also scheduled to meet
next week with the presidents of
Peru and Colombia, Arias' wife
said.
Opposition leader Guillermo
Endara said the trip had been
planned and did not reflect what
occurred during the talks
Thursday and Friday when the
opposition insisted on the
removal from power of military
leader Gen. Manuel Antonio
Noriega.


said public and private schools were confrontations among fan- controlled government annulled tn
being closed nationwide "until amanians" of encouraging the elections, claiming fraud.
further notice ... for the safety of students to demonstrate. Noriega runs Panama through hi:
students, to preserve the peace of An estimated 700,000 students command of the Defense Forces
mind of their families and peace were left without classes. About half which include both soldiers ani
throughout the community in of them were in Panama City and the police.
general." port of Colon, located across the Student leaders said in a new
The order did not affect the isthmus at the northern entrance of release that Ecuador's foreign
University of Panama, but it the Panama Canal. minister, Diego Cordovez, "was no
announced earlier it was closing Witnesses, speaking on condition welcome any more" in Panama
down its campus to protest the of anonymity, said plainclothes because of the plebiscite proposal
Thursday night shootings. members of the Defense Forces fired Cordovez heads an OAS mission o
University officials in a statement shotguns at a student protest. diplomats trying to mediate here.
Friday accused Panama's Defense Demonstrators were protesting an In July, the Washington-basei
Forces of acting "brutally against Organization of American States OAS voted to give Cordovez'
unarmed students" and for "the proposal to end Panama's political mission until Sept. 1 to mediate
excessive and indiscriminate use of turmoil by holding a plebiscite Aug. solution.
toxic gases and shotguns." 20. The United States has tried to ous
In a veiled reference to foes of The students and opposition Noriega since he was indicted i
Noriega who have been pressing for parties insist that elections May 7, February 1988 on U.S. dru
his ouster, the Education Ministry which their candidate Guillermo trafficking charges, but trade an.
statement accused "those who have Endara won overwhelmingly, should economic sanctions have failed t
been advocating violence and be declared valid. The Noriega- budge the general.

U.S. conducts security operation at Amador


QUARRY HEIGHTS (USSOUTH-
COM PAO) - U.S. Forces
conducted a reconnaissance and
security operation during the early
hours Friday morning in the area of
the U.S. Army housing section of
Fort Amador, which is a Military
Area of Coordination.
Conducting the defense operation
at night were Company B and the
Anti-Tank platoon of the Fort
Kobbe-based 1st Battalion
(Airborne), 508th Infantry under
U.S. Army South's 193d Infantry
Brigade (Light).
Transported by five UH-60


Blackhawk helicopters from
USARSO's 1st Battalion, 228th
Aviation Regiment, Company B
conducted an air assault at Fort
Amador at about 4 a.m. and rapidly
secured designated U.S. housing.
The Anti-Tank platoon air assaulted
into Fort Amador to establish
blocking positions at the
intersections in the vicinity of the
amador Officers' Club and the Golf
Club.
Combat-equipped soldiers,
accompanied by anti-tank (TOW)
vehicles, conducted the operation
which lasted about five hours. Upon
completionof the security operation


e

s
5


s
n

a
f

d
's
a

st
n
g
d
o


at mid-morning, 1/508th soldiers
were airlifted back to Fort Kobbe.
One of the purposes of this
operation was to refine contingency
operations for the protection of U.S.
lives, property and interests. Like all
other exercises conducted by the U.S.
Forces, this operation was in
compliance with the Panama Canal
Treaty.
Such exercises, in addition to
reassuring U.S. families for their
security, are necessary in order to
reassert U.S. Forces treaty rights in
the wake of repeated violations of
those rights by the Panama Defense
Forces over the past 18 months.


I . - - -- - - - Ts--


S 11-A. .. . ..1 +1 .


f~b


/Zl









Tropic Times
Aug. 7, 1989


U.S. news i



Columbia scheduled for liftoff tomorrow


CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. (UPI)
- With countdown clocks ticking,
the five-man crew of the veteran
shuttle Columbia arrived at the
Kennedy Space Center Saturday for
blastoff Tuesday on a military
mission, the spaceplane's first flight
since the Challenger disaster.
"We're real excited," commander
Brewster Shaw, an Air Force colonel
who flew aboard Columbia in 1983,
told reporters. "We need to get
Columbia flying again and we're
going to have the opportunity to do
that. I love her. I flew her a long time
ago, it's a great machine. It's a really
solid vehicle."
Columbia's launch on the fifth
post-Challenger flight, the third of
1989, is scheduled for between 7:30
a.m. and 11:30 a.m. Tuesday. The
exact time is classified, but sources
have said liftoff is planned for
around 8 a.m.
The goal of the flight, sources say,
is the deployment of an advanced
imaging reconnaissance satellite to
spy on the Soviet Union. A small,
"secondary" payload also is believed
to be mounted in Columbia's cargo
bay.
Columbia's 80-hour countdown
began on time at 12:01 a.m. Saturday
and the ship's all-military crew


arrived at the Kennedy Space Center
about 4 p.m. after a flight from the
Johnson Space Center in Houston.
They were greeted at the shuttle
runway by family members holding
up a banner that read: "Go
Columbia!"
Asked if he had confidence in
Columbia, which has not flown in 43
months, Shaw said: "Absolutely.
You bet I do. If I didn't we wouldn't
climb in it. It will fly well."
Shaw's crewmates are co-pilot
Richard "Dick" Richards, 42; Army
Lt. Col. James Adamson, 43; Air
Force Maj. Mark Brown, 37; and
Navy Cmdr. David Leestma, 40.
As usual with such military space
flights, NASA is keeping most details
about the mission secret at the
request of the Air Force.
All air-to-ground communications
between mission control and the
astronauts will be blacked out
throughout the flight and the landing
date will not be announced until 24
hours after liftoff. The flight is
expected to last about four days, with
landing scheduled for Edwards Air
Force Base, Calif.
Columbia's 43-hour countdown,
which includes about 36 1/2 hours of
built-in "hold time," began on time
Saturday even though work to "close


out" the spaceplane's engine
compartment was not complete.
NASA managers debated delaying
the start of the countdown - and
launch - by 24 hours because of
concern technicians would not be
able to get the engine room ready for
flight before the countdown required
engineers to begin loading fuel
aboard the shuttle to power its
electrical generators.
That procedure, scheduled to
begin shortly after midnight
Saturday, is a hazardous operation
that requires non-essential personnel
to leave the launch pad.
But by early Saturday, NASA
officials were confident the engine
room work would be finished before
or shortly after the start of an eight-
hour hold in the countdown at 4 p.m.
Columbia has only flown once in
the past six years, blasting off just 16
days before Challenger's destruction
Jan. 28, 1986.
Since then, the original space
shuttle has been virtually rebuilt with
some 250 modifications to improve
flight safety and performance,
including the replacement of more
than 2,300 heat-shield tiles with more
efficient insulation blankets.
Columbia's return to flight, then,
marks the end of the Challenger


Over 100,000 phone workers set


Other workers

negotiate future

by United Press International

Two unions representing about
60,000 workers at NYNEX, the
telephone company serving New
York State and most of New
England, and 42,500 Pacific and
Nevada Bell workers began a strike
early Sunday as negotiators failed to
reach an agreement over health care
costs. Talks continued on the fate of
another 100,000 workers elsewhere.
A Communications Workers of
America spokesman said that
bargaining was continuing in an
effort to reach an agreement on the
West Coast. There was no indication
of whether the bargaining teams were
near agreement.
Negotiators in New Jersey agreed
to continue talking into Sunday
morning on a contract covering
another 40,000 workers.
Meanwhile, some 64,000 workers
at BellSouth telephone company,
based in Atlanta, reached a tentative
contract agreement late Saturday.
Although the strike deadlines for
the four "Baby Bell" operating
companies - NYNEX, BellSouth,
BellAtlantic and Pacific Telesis -
were set to take place at about the
same time and health care costs were
generally among the most


contentious issues the negotiations
themselves were conducted
separately.
"We are on strike, as of 11:59
p.m.," said Jan Pierce, vice president
of the local for the Communication
Workers of America, which was
negotiating with NYNEX in New
York.
"The pickets are out. There may be
hundreds of places in New England
where there'll be pickets," said Kara
Mulvey, a spokeswoman for the
International Brotherhood of
Electrical Workers in Boston.
"Negotiations really never
blossomed into full well-rounded
discussions because NYNEX insisted
that employees pick up a portion of
the health care premium," Pierce
said.
"That proved to be the blockbuster
issue," he said.
NYNEX officials insisted the
walk-out would not affect basic
phone service to its customers.
"We hope this strike can be settled
soon," Bob Eastwood, executive
director of labor relations for
PacBell, said in a statement.
"We will continue to meet with the
union to try to work on the
unresolved issues."
The CWA represents about 700
Nevada Bell employees in Nevada
with the rest of the strikers in
California. PacBell serves most of
California and Nevada Bell most of
Nevada.
In New York, no face-to-face talks


took , place. .Saturday between
negotiators from NYNEX, the CWA
or the second union local involved in
discussions, the International
Brotherhood of Electrical Workers,
Pierce said.
Bargaining negotiations in Boston
broke down shortly before noon
Saturday and never resumed again.
CWA represents 40,000 telephone
employees in New York State and
IBEW represents 20,000 in New
England, and the strike is a joint
effort.
"We'll be hitting the bricks
together," Pierce said.
In New Jersey, Bell Atlantic
officials and CWA representatives
agreed to continue negotiating
indefinitely at 11:30 p.m. Saturday,
and were still talking an hour later,
said Larry Plumb, a Bell Atlantic
spokesman.
In Atlanta BellSouth spokesman
Terry Johnson said, "We are very
happy. We reached an agreement in
1986 before the deadline, and we
hoped and expected to reach an
agreement on this one before the
deadline."
Johnson said the company would
release details of the agreement


recovery process, with three fully
operational space shuttles now
available for service.
Four of the first seven post-
Challenger shuttle flights were
booked to carry high-priority
military payloads grounded by the
Challenger accident, and Columbia's
mission is the second in that series.
The identity of the shuttle's
payload is classified but it has been
widely reported to be an advanced
imaging reconnaissance satellite,
possibly identical to a "Lacrosse"
radar station launched from the
shuttle Atlantis in December to spy
on the Soviet Union.
Such spacecraft use radar beams
to take photo-like images regardless
of cloud cover or lighting conditions.
Aviation Week & Space Technology
magazine, however, has reported
that the payload is a photo-
reconnaissance satellite that uses an
optical telescope to take high-
resolution pictures.
In either case, Columbia would
have to be launched on a sharply
northeasterly trajectory to put the
spaceship in an orbit that would
allow its satellite cargo to fly over as
much of the Soviet Union as
possible.


up pickets
Sunday.
Union spokesman Tim Ryles said
he had not seen the agreement.
"If there are differences, they're
not of great magnitude," Ryles said
earlier in the night. "The last minute,
you really want to be sure that you've
done what you intended to do."
Spokesmen from both sides had
predicted all along that negotiators
would come to an agreement.


Congressman

blows his stack
WASHINGTON (UPI) - A
loud crash from across the room
interrupted remarks by Sen. Arlen
Specter, R-Pa., who wanted a
report from the Pentagon and the
CIA on efforts to locate U.S.
hostages in Lebanon.
Two three-foot stacks of
paperwork tumbled off the desk of
Sen. Rudy Boschwitz, R-Minn.,
causing the commotion.
"It seems like the senator from
Minnesota has lost his stack,"
quipped Sen. Sam Nunn, D-Ga.
Boschwitz, an aide and two
congressional pages scrambled
with outspread arms to contain
the sprawling pile of papers,
binders and booklets.
Boschwitz then withdrew an
amendment he was supporting,
without seeking a vote. The
proposed amendment: to reduce
the number of reports the
Pentagon must provide.


Commander-in-Chief............... Gen. Fred F. Woerner Assistant NCOIC ................ SFC Richard A. Czizik This authorized unofficial command information publication
Director, Public Affairs.......... Col. Ronald T. Sconyers Editorial Staff....................... SSgt. Greg Markley is for U.S. Armed Forces overseas. The Tropic Times is
Executive Editor/NCOIC.......... SMSgt. Harold J. Lee Sgt. Monique Chere published in conjunction with the Armed Forces Information
Managing Editor ........................... Colin Hale Spec. Anthony Craft Program of the Department of Defense, under the supervision of
AIC Randy Lawson the director of Public Affairs, U.S. Southern Command.
Composing Room .................... Rosemary Chong Contents of the Tropic Times are not necessarily the official view
Carolyn Coffey of the U.S. Government, the Department of Defense or the U.S.
t he Tropic Tim es Southern Command. The address is: APO Miami, 34002,
Albrook Post Office. Telephone 285-6612.
Il I _ ~ I1 1


ea


:*
~orr~r8~b







Tropic Times
Aug. 7, 1989 J


U.S. news



Drugs trade structured like companies


WASHINGTON (UPI) - The
first federal report on the corporate
structure of the illegal drug trade
identified 43 major groups operating
in the United States, ranging from
salaried operatives of Colombian
cartels to one-time moonshiners of
the "Dixie Mafia."
Sometimes working in combina-
tion, the drug traffickers have
advanced beyond city streets to the
nation's heartland, bringing heroin
to Iowa, major cocaine operations to
Wyoming and LSD to rural south
Georgia, the report said last week.
Los Angeles street gangs have
extended their reach to Sioux Falls,
S.D., and Baltimore; Haitian crack
dealers have set up shop in Delaware,
and Wichita, Kan., is home for two
separate Dominican cocaine groups,
the report said.
"If you read through this report
you cannot but come to the
conclusion that most of the United
States of America is a high-intensity
drug trafficking area," federal Drug
Policy Director William Bennett said
after receiving a copy of the survey
from Attorney General Dick
Thornburgh at a news conference.
Thornburgh last fall commission-
ed what he dubbed the "Dun and
Bradstreet" report, prepared by the
nation's 93 U.S. attorneys. It
identified 43 "serious" drug
organizations, all now under
"intense" investigation, he said.
In a letter to President Bush,
Thornburgh said the study "painted a
new portrait of organized crime,"
with a new cast of characters
including, most significantly, the
Colombian cocaine cartels, the
Bloods and Crips of Los Angeles,
motorcycle gangs, Asian Triad and
Tong gangs and Jamaican posses.
"New ones are springing up every
day. One of the salient features of this
report is the changing nature of


organized crime in this country. No
longer are we talking about the
traditional organized crime families
only," he said.
Thornburgh said he did not think
the report suggested any changes
were needed in Justice Department
operations but believed it would be
helpful to Bennett, who is scheduled
to present his anti-drug strategy Sept.
5.
In addition to detailing the
growing number of drug groups, the
report also said new alliances have
emerged among organizations.
New York Mafia families now
"have strong ties" to Colombian and
Cuban dealers in the Miami area and
also work with Asian groups and
motorcycle gangs. The Jamaican
posses, with 10,000 members, buy
cocaine from Colombians and
appear to be developing relationships
with Los Angeles gangs, the report
said.
The report also detailed the tactics
employed by the gangs, ranging from
the sophisticated to the traditional to
the terroristic.
The four Colombian drug cartels,
with the best known ones in Medellin
and Cali, exemplify the large,
vertically integrated groups, the
report said. With their leaders
protected by "an onion-like layering"
of power, the cartels are "a veritable
state within a state," owning a twelfth
of Colombia's farmland.
In Florida and California,
employees of Medellin leader Jose
Gonzalo Rodriguez-Gacha receive a
salary, "work regular business hours,
wear suits and ties, and are instructed
to keep a low profile,"the report said.
Employees of the Colombian-
controlled Triple X group in
Framingham, Mass., received
"company benefits," such as regular
vacations.
In other areas, drug dealing has


been added to traditional criminal
pursuits, uch as in the South, where
"Dixie Mafia" families who once
produced moonshine now grow
marijuana or distribute cocaine, the
report said.
Street dealers as young as 10 have
been recruited by the Miami Boys, a


crack dealing street gang that has
spread to Atlanta. In Los Angeles,
where Blood and Crip membership
totals about 25,000, "baby-
gangsters" as young as 9 are regularly
recruited and some gangs include
even younger "tiny gangsters," the
report said.


--^ ' ^'


.-



ll i


SEWER CELEBRATION- Catherine Collett wears aplunger on her head
as she rides her bicycle during the Sewerfest Para in Oberlin, Ohio, last
month. The parade celebrated the completion of a long sewer project in the
town. (AP Laserphoto)


Wildfires could match last year's huge losses


WASHINGTON (UPI) -
Wildfires already have burned 1.38
million acres and the long dry spell in
the West has created the potential
that damage this year could match
1988's huge losses, a top Forest
Service official said.
The government dispatched two
battalions of the 6th Army, freshly
trained to combat wildfires, to the
firelines in Oregon. Allan West,
deputy chief of the Forest Service,
said last week two more battalions

Radon raises
BOSTON (UPI) - Researchers
reported new evidence bolstering the
link between radon gas and an
increased risk for lung cancer - even
among non-smokers.
A study involving 516 non-
smoking Colorado uranium miners
exposed to high levels of radon on the
job found they had about about a
12-fold increased risk of lung cancer,
rare among non-smokers.
"These results confirm that
exposure to radon - in the absence
of cigarette smoking is a potent
carcinogen that should be strictly
controlled," the researchers wrote in
last week's edition of the Journal of
the American Medical Association.
Previous studies have linked radon
to lung cancer, but the new study is
detailed information on subjects'


could be ready for assignment this
weekend.
As West described firefighting
efforts, 66 major uncontained fires
burned in Idaho, Oregon, California,
Washington state and Montana.
Oregon and Idaho had the worst of
the problems, with 43 major fires in
Idaho and 14 in Oregon.
More than 20,000 firefighters are
battling the wildfires in the five
states.
In 1988, 5 million acres - 7,812


square miles - were damaged by
73,000 wildfires, including fires that
covered 1 million areas in
Yellowstone National Forest. West
said 1988's toll was the worst since
1910. More than $500 million was
spent in quelling the fires.
"Long-range weather forecasts
indicate continuing severe fire
weather conditions, leaving this fire
season with the potential to be as
severe as last year," West said at a
news conference.


lung cancer risk, study says


smoking habits, said Richard
Waxweiller, an epidemiologist for
the Centers for Disease Control who
helped conduct the study.
"This further confirms that there
are high relative risks of lung cancer
even obtained among non-smokers
exposed to substantial levels of
radon," Waxweiller said in a
telephone interview.
Waxweiller stressed the levels of
radon the miners in the study were
exposed to were much greater than
that found in most homes. But the
findings indicate the potential risk
involved, he said.
Three million American homes
may have unacceptably high levels of
radon gas in the air, according to the
Environmental Protection Agency.
The odorless, colorless gas is


produced naturally in the Earth and
can seep into buildings through their
basements. The gas produces
radioactive particles - known as
radon daughters - that can cause
lung cancer after long exposure.
The researchers compared the lung
cancer rate of 516 white Colorado
men who never smoked cigarettes,
pipes or cigars but worked in
uranium mines, which are known to
have high levels of radon gas, for an
average of 52 months.
From 1950 through 1984, the
miners had 12 times the lung cancer
rate that would be expected for a
group of men their age.
"We have demonstrated a 12-fold
mortality risk for lung cancer for
non-smoking uranium miners
exposed to radon," they said.


Erratic winds, frequent lightning
storms and forests baked dry by long-
running drought have boosted the
fire potential, West said.
Since Sunday, wildfires in the five
Western states have consumed
220,000 acres, destroyed about 60
structures and forced the evacuation
of hundreds of people.
The government revised its hotly
criticized "let burn" policy this year.
As a result the Forest Service, an
Agriculture Department agency, is
trying to extinguish all wildfires,
including those in wilderness areas.
The Interior Department, which
runs the national parks, has issued
similar orders to its park
superintendents.
So far this year, there have been
39,434 fires that have damaged 1.38
million acres. At the same point last
year, there were 61,197 fires that had
covered 2.37 million acres.
The Forest Service said a battalion
from Fort Riley, Kan., and one from
Fort Carson, Colo., were being given
a 16-hour course on firefighting "and
will probably be deployed within the
week." West said several other
battalions might be available for
duty.
As an example of the conditions
facing firefighters, West said 1,000
lightning fires were reported in a 24-
hour period in the Boise National
Forest recently.


,
t








Tropic Times
Aug. 7, 1989


world roundup



Israel remains steadfast in objectives


JERUSALEM (UPI) - As an
evening deadline approached for
Lebanese extremists to kill a second
American captive, Israel stood firm
last week in its decision against
releasing Sheikh Abdel Karim Obeid
without a swap for hostages held in
Lebanon.
Defense Minister Yitzhak Rabin
said Wednesday Obeid was a key
leader of the pro-Iranian Hezbollah
who could provide valuable
information about the movement's
operations and relations with Iran.
Israel abducted Obeid last week from
his south Lebanese village.
In an Israel Television interview,
Rabin vowed that Obeid "will stay in
our hands" because of his knowledge,
but added that the offer to swap the
radical Moslem clergyman for Israeli
and Western hostages held in
Lebanon remained.
"We join the calls by the United
States, the Soviet Union and the
United Kingdom for a swift release of
all hostages and we stand ready to
release Sheikh Abdel Karim Obeid
and all (Moslem) Shiite prisoners in
exchange for the Israeli prisoners of
war and all the hostages of other
nationalities," Foreign Ministry
spokesman Alon Liel said.
Three Israeli soldiers have been
held captive by Lebanese extremists
since 1986 and the fates of three other
soldiers missing in Lebanon since
1982 are unknown.
In echoing statements repeated by
Israeli leaders since the Obeid
abduction, Liel said Israel attempted


without success to obtain the release
of the Israelis "by peaceful means."
"Our patience has been tested for too
long and our good will was brutally
exploited," he said, reading from a
prepared statement.
Liel declined comment on how
Israel would react if Lebanese
extremists carried out their threat to
kill American Joseph Cicippio. But
Rabin said Israel took into
account when it approved Obeid's
abduction two months ago all
possible consequences of its action,
including the execution of U.S.
hostages.
"In the analysis of the possibilities,
we forsaw all of them including the
one that happened and even graver
ones," Rabin told Israel's parliament
in responding to three no-confidence
measures in response to the Obeid
affair that were easily defeated.
The Organization of the
Oppressed on Earth, a Hezbollah
offshoot, announced Monday it
hanged U.S. Marine Lt. Col. William
Higgins because Israel refused to
release Obeid.
Israel did not inform the United
States of its decision to kidnap Obeid
before the action, but since then the
two allies have been working closely
together on the Lebanese hostage
crisis. Assistant U.S. Secretary of
State John Kelly met with Prime
Minister Yitzhak Shamir Thursday
as part of his orientation tour of
Israel.
Rabin said Obeid's interrogation
revealed new details on the


clergyman's role in the Feb. 17, 1988,
abduction of Higgins. Obeid has
been a central Hezbollah leader since
1983 and was directly involved in
attacks, Rabin said, including a 1985
car bombing in Lebanon that killed
12 Israeli soldiers.
Hezbollah officials have rejected
Israel's swap offer in the Obeid affair.
But in Tehran, the Tehran Times
newspaper reportedly said, "If the


negotiations and contacts are based
on the same principle of honesty,
then the countries with interest in
Lebanon are ready to use their good
offices for the release of the captives."
Iran's official Islamic Republic
News Agency reported the
newspaper comment, which
apparently indicated Iran's
willingness to help negotiate the
hostages' release.


-
GREEK WEDDING OF THE YEAR - A maid of honor places wedding
wreaths on the heads offormer Greek Premier A ndreas Papandreo, 70, and
his bride, Dimitra Liani, 35 during their wedding ceremony last month. It
was the third marriage for both Papandreo and Liani. (AP Laserphoto)


Soviets release first report card on Bush, staff
MOSCOW (UPI) - The Soviets, Shalnyov took a swipe at former (Alexander) Haig's foreign policy of the Reagan administration.
in their first report card on the Bush President Reagan in comparing the experience. Touching on one of the most
administration, say the president new administration's "packed "But he is quick at digesting new sensitive topics for Moscow,
works hard, but is afraid to make a schedule" with the relaxed style of the information, prepares for speeches Shalnyov said Bush's support for the
mistake and predict that Secretary of former American leader, thoroughly and is a splendid orator. space-based Strategic Defense
State James Baker is destined for "Bush is different from Reagan His prestige on Capitol Hill is great Initiative is weaker than the
greatness. who worked from 9 to 5 at most," he -you can hardly find members of enthusiastic backing of Reagan, who
Washington-based Soviet said. Congress with anything bad to say introduced the idea of the "Star


commentator A. Shalnyov, writing
in the evening edition of the official
government newspaper Izvestia, said
the Bush administration "is
operating as a team on which there
are no people with excessive
ambition and everyone is willing to
play for their leader."
Shalnyov said the administration's
"image of energy" is personified by
White House Chief of Staff John
Sununu.
"He is rather heavy for his medium
height but appearances can be
deceptive," Shalnyov said. "Sununu
is like a dymano, brimming with
energy."
"He said Vice President Dan
Quayle is an anomaly who has been
"given the role of ideological
lightning rod" in an administration in
which "pragmatism - is the trait that
more than any other unities the
people closest to President Bush."
"Quayle enjoys a freer hand - or,
to be more exact, greater freedom
speech - than Bush had when he was
vice president under (Ronald)
Regan," he said. "In his speeches,
(Quayle) states opinions that are
much closer to those of the
Republicans' right wing than to the
centrist position of the administra-
tion.
"According to Quayle himself, the
president encourages him to say
things that cannot be said by
Bush himself," he said.


Shalnyov said Bush is marked by a
pronounced quality of "wariness"
and used folksy terms to describe the
president's tendency to forestall
action.
"Bush is often motivated by a fear
that the decision he is about to make
will prove catastrophic, will 'cause
bad press response' or will be blocked
by Congress," Shalnyov said. "Hence
he measures and remeasures not
seven times, not 14 times, but 21
times before cutting rope."
Shalnyov showered praise on
Baker, the Texan who was treasury
secretary under Reagan and was
tapped by Bush for the play for the
foreign affairs portfolio.
In an administration filled with
team players, Shalnyov said, Baker
stands out as a towering personality
who is quickly mastering the
intricacies of foreign policy.
"James Baker is among the very
few members of the Bush
administration who, notwithstand-
ing his full loyalty to the president, is
more than ready to paint his name in
huge letters in the history of U.S.
administrations," he said.
Shalnyov said Baker does not have
the same stature as his predecessors,
but may ultimately outshine them.
"Yes, he does not have (Henry)
Kissinger's penetration of the world
and he could benefit from (Zbigniew)
Brzezinski's depth of analysis or


about Baker."
Kissinger was secretary of state
under presidents Richard Nixon and
Gerald Ford. Brzezinski was
President Jimmy Carter's national
security adviser and Haig was
secretary of state in the early months


Wars" missile shield in 1983.
"In Bush's case, sometimes doubt
surfaces about whether it is wise to
develop and deploy the system to its
full extent - doubt of the sort that
was completely alien to Reagan,"
Shalnyov said.


Global AIDS cases increasing


GENEVA (Reuter) - More than
4,700 new cases of AIDS were
officially reported in July with the
main increases in the Americas and
Europe, the World Health
Organization (WHO) said last week.
The total of Acquired Immune
Deficiency Syndrome cases rose to
172,143 in 151 countries compared
with 167,373 in 149 countries at the
end of June.
The additional countries were San
Marino and Brunei, each of which
reported its first case, the WHO said.
Continental totals, including
individual countries reporting most
cases:


AMERICAS
United States
Brazil
Canada
Mexico
Haiti
Dominican Republic
AFRICA
Uganda
Kenya


116,524
98,255
6,857
2,745
2,351
2,041
856
30,244
6,772
5,949


Tanzania
Malawi
Burundi
Zambia
EUROPE
France
Italy
West Germany
Spain
Britain
Switzerland
OCEANIA
Australia
New Zealand
ASIA
Japan
Israel
WORLD TOTAL


4,158
2,586
1,975
1,892
23,459
6,409
4,158
3,497
2,781
2,372
921
1,510
1,355
130
406
97
85
172,143


Remeber

cfassifiedad


mus beinIb








Tropic Times
Aug. 7, 1989 3


hemisphereI



Contras, conservatives against accord


WASHINGTON (Reuter) -
Washington and the right-wing
insurgent army it raised to fight
Nicaragua's government have
launched parallel campaigns to delay
plans to disarm the rebels and march
them into history.
The Contras, from the Spanish
word for counter-revolutionaries,
face demobilization under the terms
of an agreement reached last
February by the presidents of five
Central American countries,
including Nicaragua.
The accord provided for
disbanding the 12,000-strong Contra
army and removing it from
Hbnduran base camps in exchange
for political reforms in Nicaragua
and free elections there next
February.
As Central American presidents
prepared for a follow-up summit this
week to discuss how and when to
implement the demobilization
accord, both Washington and the
Contraswere trying to convince the
region that the insurgents must keep
their weapons at least until the
Nicaraguan elections.
According to Latin American
diplomats, President Bush
telephoned Presidents Jose Azcona
of Honduras and Oscar Arias of
Costa Rica last week to tell them he
feels that demobilizing the Contras
before the elections would be a
mistake.
The presidential telephone calls
coincided with a Central American


tour by Contra commanders who
had a similar message for Arias,
Azcona, Guatemala's Vinicio Cerezo
and El Salvador's Alfredo Cristiani.
The fifth president to attend the
forthcoming summit, scheduled, for
Saturday to Monday in Honduras, is
Nicaragua's Daniel Ortega,
considered the source of all evil in
Central America by the Contras and
many of their backers in
Washington.
The Contras argue that only they
and their guns can pressure Ortega
into sticking to his reform promises.
Once the insurgent army is
disbanded, the argument goes,
Nicaragua's leaders can do as they
please.
Some analysts critical of the U.S.
administration suspect that the
delaying campaign by the Americans
and their insurgent proteges will be
followed later by efforts to discredit
the Nicaraguan ballot and thus
persuade congress to continue
funding theContras.
Congress, which is dominated by
Democrats, cut off all military aid in
February 1988. Under a bipartisan
agreement last April, limited non-
military assistance continues until
Nov. 30.
During a Central American tour in
June, Vice President Dan Quayle
predicted the elections would be a
"sham," the term then-president
Reagan used in 1984 to disqualify the
ballot that made Ortega president
and gave his ruling *Sandinista


National Liberation Front (FSLN)
two-thirds of the popular vote.
A month after the Quayle attack
on the Sandinistas, Bush took up the
theme by declaring that "what is
evident is a renewed attempt to
prevent free and fair elections."
Such assertions are based on the
contention that a newly-formed
Supreme Electoral Council is stacked
in favor of the Sandinistas, a charge
not universally shared in Latin
America.
U.S. statements and actions on
Nicaragua, analysts say, reflect a
continuing debate inside the Bush
administration and in Congress on
how to handle the Contras, an issue
at the core of the worst foreign policy
scandal in eight years of Reagan
presidency.
In the so-called Iran-Contra affair,
senior government aides were
discovered having diverted profits
from secret arms sales to Iran to
continue financing the Contras in
violation of a congressional ban.
The young Bush administration
has shifted from Reagan's emphasis
on military solutions and unilateral
action in Central America to support
for regional initiatives.
And six months into Bush's term,
the heroic labels his predecessor
pinned on the Contras seem distant
history.
Reagan called the rebels "the
moral equal of our founding fathers,"
likened them to the French resistance
against.the Germans in World WarII


and at one point drew a parallel
between Winston Churchill's need
for support against Nazi Germany
and the rebels' need for U.S. arms
and aid.
In an apparent turnabout at the
United Nations last week, the U.S.
joined in a Security Council
resolution calling for the
demobilization of the Contras under
the Central American peace plan. It
was the first such resolution.
Since the security council last
considered Central America in 1985,
the U.S. had blocked debates and
resolutions on the region.
"There are apparent contradic-
tions in American policy on the
COntras," said a Latin diplomat at the
U.N. recently. "Washington rarely
speaks with one voice, least of all on
the touchy subject of Central
America."


Menem government makes good start on inflation


BUENOS AIRES, Argentina
(Reuter) - Only three weeks after
taking office Argentina's Peronist
government has succeed in braking
hyperinflation but economists said
last week that they doubt the
economic plan will achieve lasting
stability.
"We are reasonably optimistic at
this point but the government has yet
to show its plans for some vital areas
of the economy," said Juan Luis
Bour, chief economist at the Latin
American Economic Research
Foundation.


Though July's cost of living would
rise to a one-month record 200
percent, as forecast by the Peronists
when they took office July 8, private
surveys showed that in the last two
weeks of the month prices rose only
30 percent.
The figures show the government's
price stabilization program, widely
criticized as the weakest point of the
July 9 economic plan, had got off to a
successful if somewhat shaky start,
economists said.
The government believes that by
reining in hyperinflation it has


bought time to carry out reforms
without which previous Argentine
stabilization plans failed.
"When we took power we had a
one-minute horizon, later on it
expanded to a day and now we think
in terms of months," Economic
Management Secretary Eduardo
Curia said.
Bour said the Peronist approach to
curing what President Carlos Menem
has termed the worst crisis in
Argentine history had been more
realistic than previous administra-
tions.


Leftistpresident shocks Bolivian economy


LA PAZ, Bolivia (Reuter) - The
election to the presidency of
moderate leftist Jaime Paz Zamora
has sent shock-waves through
Bolivia's fragile economy.
Paz Zamora, a 50-year-old former
revolutionary turned social
democrat, was to be voted president
Friday in a congressional run-off and
take office Sunday.
Bolivians lined up to withdraw
their savings last week, bought
dollars on the black market and
stocked up on food, fearing
economic turmoil like that under a
previous government he served in.
Paz Zamora was vice-president in
the leftist government of Hernan
Siles Zuazo from 1982-85 when
South America's poorest nation
came to the brink of economic
anarchy and inflation hit 24,000
percent. Dollar deposits were frozen
in 1982 and repaid in local currency,
along with other restrictions.
As lines formed outside savings
and loans institutions, clerks put up
signs limiting withdrawals to $500 a


day.
With the demand for hard
currency, the dollar soared from 2.69
to 3.50 bolivianos on the black
market, and then dropped back to
2.90 by Thursday evening.
Bankers reported a run of at least
$70 million in deposits since the
inconclusive May 7 general elections
in which none of the three main
candidates gained an outright
majority, forcing a second-round
vote in Congress.
Third in the May vote, Paz
Zamora assured himself of the
presidency with the unlikely backing
of former military dictator Hugo
Banzer, who was narrowly defeated
by ruling party candidate Gonzalo
Sanchez de Lozada, the architect of
Bolivia's economic stabilization since
1985.
As planning minister in the
outgoing administration of 81-year-
old Victor Paz Estenssoro, Sanchez
Lozada established a free-market
economy and curbed inflation to less
than 2.5 percent in the first half of
this year through tight monetary and


fiscal policies.
"Uncertainty has affected the
financial system, but we have
sufficient reserves to face this
temporary panic," Jaime Gutierrez,
vice-president f the association of
banks, told journalists.
He said speculation would fizzle
out once Paz Zamora took power
leading a coalition government with
Banzer's rightist party, Accion
Democratic Nacionalista.
Paz Zamora has promised there
would be no "traumatic" changes in
economic policy.
He said his government would
honor its obligations on Bolivia's $4
billion foreign debt as long as
payments did not strangle the
country's development.
The three-month presidential
deadlock brought investment to a
complete halt and fueled fears of
political instability in this coup-
prone nation.
Paz Estenssoro will be the first
elected president in 25 years to finish
his term in a country that has had 180
military coups in its 125-year history.


"The Peronists made a clear
diagnosis. They identified the root
causes of inflation and have made
interesting proposals to reform the
economy. But we still don't know
much about what they will do in
areas like social spending and the
external sector," he said.
The economists credited the fall in
the inflation rate to the wave of
optimism generated by Menem's
advent and to a price pact between
the government and leading
businessmen signed July 17.
A U.N. agency economist, who
asked not to be identified, said that
even if the government achieved its
goal of lowering inflation to 20
percent in August and five percent in
September, other measures would be
needed to attain stability until the
long-term reforms bear fruits.
The government has placed a
heavy bet on its plans to streamline a
state un up a deficit of more than 15
percent of GDP, according to private
that accounts for over 50 percent of
estimates.
"Peronism's future will be
precarious if the reform of the state
does not take place because no
economic program would survive the
consequences," Public Works and
Services Minister Roberto Dromi
said in a recent interview.
Menem has pledged to suspend
subsidies, slash public spending and
sell off an array of debt-ridden state-
owned companies, including parts of
the telephone and railway services
and other businesses nationalized by
party founder Juan Peron over 40
years ago.
The Peronist government
inherited a virtually bankrupt state
from former President Raul
Alfonsin's Radical administration.








6 Tropic Times
Aug. 7, 1989


I military news


U.S. Army to help stem flow of drugs


WASHINGTON (Reuter) -
Washington plans to send in the
army to help drug-busters dam the
flood of cocaine into the United
States from South America.
The new military role will be one
element of a national drug strategy to
be announced Sept. 5 by the chief of
the U.S. anti-drug effort, William
Bennett.
Troops will not actually fight drug
runners from Peru, Bolivia and


Colombia. But the military will
bolster a law enforcement effort that
has proved to be ineffective against a
well-equipped and financed enemy.
"I think we are dealing with a
situation that cries out for the
expertise that the special forces and
military have," Sherman Funk, State
Department inspector-general, told
Congress recently.
Military officers will train law
enforcement officials, who have


limited experience in operating under
the rugged conditions of guerrilla-
infested tropical forests and Andean
highlands.
The armed forces will also provide
radar, communications and
transport support.
Bush administration officials have
proposed that military advisers as
well as law enforcement officials be
made available to help the armed
forces of Andean nations.


-z -.;~- --;*g - oo

-mm - ---FW
.46--


DISABLED SOVIET SUB - A Soviet Alpha class submarine, which was reported in distress off the coast of
Norway last month, steams back under its own power to the Soviet submarine base in Murmansk. It was the third
Soviet submarine mishap off Norway in as many months. (AP Laserphoto)


Since former President Ronald
Reagan first launched the drug war in
the early 1980s, drug cartels have
gone unchecked, deluging the United
States with low-priced cocaine and
seeking to open new markets in
Europe.
Production of coca, the key raw
material for cocaine, as increased
yearly in Peru and Bolivia. Coca
farmers and traffickers have ganged
up with guerrillas to keep law
enforcement officials out of the areas
where coca is grown and processed.
In Peru, the world's largest
producer of coca, the government
has lost control of major growing
regions such as the Upper Huallaga
Valley.
Funk said anti-narcotics activities
in that area would probably not be
successful until the Peruvian
government regained a reasonable
amount of control.
Officials said military advisers could
play an important role in improving
the capacity of Peruvian security
forces. Military radar could also play
a significant role in shutting down
traffic into and out of the valley.
While officials and policy experts
see military aid as a key to
intensifying the drug war, they also
believe it must be underpinned by a
strong political commitment both at
home and abroad.
That commitment must oversha-
dow Latin America's suspicion of
Washington and the Defense
Department's reluctance to use its
resources in the drug war, they said.


Rebels losing Kabul friends with rocket attacks


KABUL, Afghanistan (Reuter) --
The rebel rockets that pound Kabul
from surrounding hills appear to be a
self-defeating weapon in the Afghan
battle for hearts and minds in a
decade-long conflict.
And five months after Soviet
troops withdrew to let the
government and mujahideen rebels
fight it out among themselves, many
Afghans simply want it all to end.
Mohammad Rahim, who sells
potatoes and onions in a Kabul
market, said: "When Soviet troops
were here, the Afghan people did not
like the government. But now they
have gone it is not necessary to fight
the war any more."
Rahim was sitting 30 yards away
from the spot where a rocket struck
the central market and bus station
July 22, killing 45 men, women and
children.
"I am angry against those who give
weapons to these people to kill the
innocent," he said. "(President) Bush


sends these rockets to kill people."
A memorial stone and flowers
mark the spot where the rocket fell,
every day drawing groups of people
who pray for the dead and give
money for he victims' families.
Nearly a month of rocket attacks
on the city have killed more than 100
civilians. At least 24 people died in
just two days.
President Najibullah's Soviet-
backed government is meanwhile
bombarding Kabul with a publicity
campaign to persuade people it is
doing its utmost to bring peace.
Najibullah, confident after
military successes against the
Moslem guerrillas, appears almost
nightly on TV pounding home the
theme of national reconciliation.
One well-informed diplomat said
he did not believe either side
commanded popular support.
"If you ask the average Afghan he
is indifferent to both sides," he said.
"There is general frustration and
unhappiness at the stalemate. The


Higgins: 'Don't feel sorry for me'


BARTLETa, Tenn. (UPI) -
Marine Lt. Colonel William Higgins
and his wife discussed the possibility
of being taken hostage but asked his
family to reserve sympathy if he was
kidnapped, Higgins' sister said.
Linda Miller of Bartlett, a
Memphis suburb, said in an
interview published last week in The
Commercial Appeal that her brother
- reportedly killed Monday by his
pro-Iranian captors in Lebanon -
wanted his family to be proud of him.
"He and his wife talked about the
dangers of being taken hostage,"


Miller said. "He said, 'If something
happens, don't feel sorry for me. Be
proud of me. I'm doing my duty. I'm
fighting for my country."
Higgins, 44, was kidnapped 17
months ago while serving with
United Nations forces in Lebanon.
His wife, Robin, also is in the
Marine Corps and is stationed in
Washington, D.C.
Miller described her brother,
known in the family as Richard, as a
"110 percent military person" and a
hard worker.


average Afghan wants peace."
Peter Tomsen, special U.S. envoy
to the guerrillas, told Congress last
week he did not believe reports that
Afghans were becoming more
tolerant of the Kabul government
and mistrustful of the mujahideen.
U.S. officials pledged recently to
continue supplying the guerrillas
with arms. They are funnelled to the
fighters through Pakistan, where
many guerrilla leaders are based.
But Kabul University academics,
traditionally strongly anti-
government, say the rockets harm
mujahideen standing in the capital,
although they add that the
government is equally prepared to
bombard guerrilla-held areas in the
countryside. Some blame the
government for failing to protect the
city.
"I think the people are turning


against the mujahideen because of
the rockets," said a university
lecturer who is thinking of leaving the
country. "I myself hate the people
who launch the rockets, whoever
they are." Speaking on the eve of
talks between the United States and
the Soviet Union over Afghanistan,
he said: "I do not consider this a war
between Afghans. This is a war
between the two superpowers. If they
came to an agreement it could be
ended." Assistant Secretary of State
John Kelly and Soviet ambassador-
at-large Nikolai Kozyrov meet today
in Stockholm for two days of talks.
Afghan Foreign Minister Abdul
Wakil said Friday cutting off arms
supplies was not enough and the two
sides should seek a political solution
to 10 years of war in which more than
one million people have been killed
and five million made refugees.


Europe to develop smart warhead


WASHINGTON (Reuter) - A
consortium of U.S., West
German, French and British firms
has been awarded a $479 million
contract to develop a "smart"
warhead for NATO's Multiple-
Launch Rocket System, the
Pentagon said last week.
The planned terminal-guidance
warhead, designed to seek and
destroy enemy armor, will be
developed by Martin Marietta
Corp., Diehl Gmb and Co. of
West Germany, Thomson CSF of
France and Thorn EMI
Electronics Ltd. of Britain.
The multiple-launch rocket
system can launch several of the


same kind of battlefield rockets
simultaneously or a mixture of
different types of rockets with
either conventional or nuclear
warheads.
Under the terminal-guidance
plan, the warhead on each rocket
would carry three separate
explosives which would be
deployed during the missile's flight
and would then use special radar
to independently seek and hit
targets.
The development work by the
Orlando, Fla.-based MDTT Inc.
consortium is expected to be
completed by October 1992, the
Defense Department said.








Tropic Times ,
Aug. 7, 1989 /


sports



Judge blames Liverpool tragedy onpolice


LONDON (Reuter) - Police were
to blame for Britain's worst soccer
stadium disaster when 95 Liverpool
fans were crushed to death last April,


a senior judge reported last week.
Lord Justice Taylor, chairman of
an inquiry into the tragedy, also
criticized the Sheffield Wednesday


Soccer fans in the standing room-only section of Hillsborough Stadium in
Sheffield, England are crushed against a steel mesh fence during a British
soccer cup semifinal match last April. A senior British judge has ruled police
were responsible for the tragedy which took 95 lives when a mad rush of last
minute arrivals swarmed into the area. (AP Laserphoto)


club whose Hillsborough ground was
used for the Football Association
cup semifinal between Liverpool and
Nottingham Forest.
"The main reason for the disaster
was the failure of police control," he
said in an interim report issued two
weeks before the start of the new
soccer season.
South Yorkshire Chief Constable
Peter Wright immediately offered to
resign and Chief Superintendent
David Duckenfield, the officer who
was in charge at Hillsborough, was
suspended on full pay.
South Yorkshire Police said a
report was being sent to the director
of public prosecutions about
Duckenfield's "alleged untruths"
during the inquiry.
The crush at Hillsborough started
when fans were forced up against
fencing as latecomers surged into the
stadium from the back.
Taylor dismissed as unrealistic the
police case that the blame should lie
with fans arriving late and drunk and
with the club's failure to monitor
what was happening inside the
ground.
He listed 43 safety measures,
including a radical reassessment of
how many fans should be allowed to
stand on stadium terraces, and


stipulated that more than half these
precautions must be enforced before
the season begins.
Taylor said of senior officers:
"Neither their handling of the
problems on the day nor their
account of it in evidence showed the
qualities of leadership expected of
their rank."
He said no attempt had been made
to steer fans away from already
crowded sections of the stadium,- no
maximum capacity had been set and
crowd density was not monitored
effectively.
The judge said: "The presence of
an unruly minority who had drunk
too much aggravated the problem.
So did the club's confused and
inadequate signs and ticketing."
He said equipment must be
provided at each ground to cut
through fences in an emergency and
the senior police officer at the ground
should have sole discretion to delay
the kickoff.
Taylor's interim report did not
deal with two controversial issues -
whether seats should replace
standing room in stadiums, and the
implications for crowd control of a
proposed soccer membership card
scheme.


LA Rams thump 49ers 16-13 in overtime


TOKYO (AP) --Mike Lansford's
29-yard field goal as time expired in
overtime gave the Los Angeles Rams
a dramatic 16-13 NFL preseason
victory over the San Francisco 49ers
on Sunday, delighting a spirited
crowd of curious Japanese football
fans.
The kick, Lansford's third field
goal of the game, climaxed a chaotic
ending after the 49ers blocked three
field goal tries, two by rookie tight
end Wesley Walls. But the final two
were nullified by offsides penalties
and Lansford's third kick in three
plays finally went through.
The kick made 49ers rookie head
coach George Seifert a loser in his
first game replacing Bill Walsh, who
coached the 49ers to three Super
Bowl victories in 10 years, including
last season.
Robert Delpino rushed three times
for 24 yards in the Rams' game-
winning 51-yard scoring drive, which
followed a 24-yard punt return by
Thomas Henley in only the second
NFL game on Asian soil and the first
in 13 years.
Gaston Green rushed 28 times for
116 yards for the Rams and was
named the American Bowl MVP.
A sellout Tokyo Dome crowd of
43,000 fans, taking shelter from
typhoon rains pelting the city,
enthusiastically watched the two
teams'preseason opener along with a
nationwide TV audience in both

Tyson, King
BEVERLY HILLS, Calif. (AP) -
Heavyweight champion Mike Tyson
would like to fight Michael Dokes in
either September or October,
promoter Don King said Thursday
night.
If that matchup can't be lined up,
Tyson's next choices for opponents
would be Buster Douglas or Razor
Ruddick.
The Las Vegas Hilton has the right
of first refusal for Tyson's next fight,


Japan and the U.S. Tickets ranged
from $35 to $211 and scalpers were
getting twice that outside the Dome.
The mostly young crowd greeted
the opening kickoff with an excited
roar and applauded every good play,
and a few bad ones, as they munched
on such un-traditional football fare
as fried octopus and sushi.
They loudly cheered every pass
completed by the 49ers' Joe
Montana, widely known here for his
"magic pass" that won the Super
Bowl last January. They shouted
their approval for a broken-field
scramble of 41 yards by Montana's
backup, Steve Young, and a 47-yard
bomb from the Rams' Mark
Herrmann to Mike Williams. They
laughed at fumbles and dropped
passes and "oohed" at big-screen
replays.
Egged on by cheerleaders, they
even did a noisy version of the wave,
another popular American export.
Then Robert Delpino capped a 93-
yard drive by pounding into the left
side of the end zone to tie the game at
13 with 8:18 left in the fourth period.
Most fans appeared to be
following the game studiously when
they weren't out snapping up NFL
T-shirts ($19), towels, hats and
backpacks.
"It's very action-packed and
tactical," said Shigetoshi Ozaki, 52, a
trading company employee. "It
seems to reflect the American

want Dokes n
King said.
Tyson said little, other than that
he'd like. to fight in September,
November and January.
Tyson and King also announced a
seven-figure promotional deal with
an automobile company.
Tyson still has three fights
remaining on a $26.5 million
contract with HBO.
He is then scheduled for a pay-per-
view fight, which could be against


character because it's so specialized
and strategical."
Even Montana, an 11th-year
veteran, was impressed.
"Whether they have a knowledge
of football or not, they sure enjoy it,"
"This is 'kokko-ii' (cool),"
enthused Yoshitake Fumada, a 17-
year-old high school senior wearing a
Rams jersey and cap. "Lots of power
and the uniforms look cool."
Terry Greer recovered a second-
quarter fumble in the end zone after
Terrence Flagler's 13-yard run and
Mike Cofer kicked field goals of 33
and 39 yards to give the 49ers a 13-6
halftime lead.
Los Angeles' Mike Lansford
matched each of Cofer's first-half
field goals with kicks of 32 and 25
yards.
Both teams' first units came out
midway through the second period,
and the stars familiar to the Japanese
played solidly. Montana completed 8
of 13 passes for 81 yards, Super Bowl
MVP Jerry Rice caught two passes
for 23 yards, Roger Craig carried four
times for 25 yards and Rams' starting
quarterback Jim Everett was 5 for 9
for 69 yards and an interception.
The Rams' goal-line defense
stopped San Francisco at the 1-yard
line when Frank Stams recovered
Flagler's fumble with 2:41 left in the
third quarter.

zot Holyfield
George Foreman, King said. That
fight, which King called the "Rip Van
Winkle fight," would probably be
overseas, possibly in Tokyo,
Indonesia or even Beijing.
Commenting on the possibility of
a fight between Tyson and unbeaten
Evander Holyfield, King said:
"Holyfield has amateur promoters.
They're not ready for this fight. The
fight has to built up and there is a risk
to build him up."


he said: :
The only other NFL game in Asia
was in Tokyo in 1976 when St. Louis
beat San Diego 20-10. Japanese
sponsors hope the success of this
event will translate into an annual
game.

Baseball Standings


AMERICAN
East Drvision
W L Pct. GB
Baltimore 56 52 .519 -
Cleveland 54 55 .495 2 1/2
Boston 53 54 .495 2 1/2
Toronto 54 56 .491 3
Milwaukee 53 56 .486 3 1/2
New York 52 58 .473 5
Detroit 38 70 .352 18
West Division
W L Pct. GB
California 66 43 .606 -
Oakiand 66 44 .600 1/2
Kansas City 59 50 .541 7
Texas 58 50 .537 7 1/2
Minnesota 55 55 .500 11 1/2
Seattle 52 57 .477 14
Chicago 47 63 .427 19 1/2
NATIONAL
East Division
W L Pct. GB
Chicago 63 47 .573 -
Montreal 63 47 .573 -
St. Louis 56 50 .528 5
New York 57 51 .528 5
Pittsburgh 46 63 .422 16 1/2
Phiiadelphia 44 65 .404 18 1/2
West Division
W L Pct. 6B
San Francisco 64 46 .582 -
Houston 61 49 .555 3
San Diego 55 55 .500 9
Los Angeles 52 59 .468 12 1/2
Cincinnati 51 58 .468 12 1/2
Atlanta 44 66 .400 20







STropic Times
Aug. 7, 1989


/ Progress slow at Central American summit


-'i


and the other on Salvadoran finished documents. There is a group
guerrillas, of elements from which we hope to
The ministers were dealing with draw a concrete result probably
technical aspects and the presidents tomorrow," Honduran Foreign
.4h id Mii Cl Lnni-.7 Cnntrernq


with political onesI, lne saiu.
"It's very premature to talk about


I.insterI arios u opez jj . treraLLI s
said.


TELA, Honduras (Reuter) -
Central American presidents
prepared for discussions Sunday
after making slow progress in
Saturday's first session towards an
agreement on demobilizing
Nicaraguan Contra rebels.
"We are discussing it. We are
getting closer," Nicaraguan
President Daniel Ortega said when
asked what progress the five
presidents had made on a
demobilization plan.
"The important thing is for the
presidents to support a plan and to
agree on a timetable," he said.
The other presidents did not speak
to the media as they left for a private
dinner.
The main task facing the
presidents at the three-day summit in
the Honduran seaside resort of Tela
is to agree on a plan to disband some
12,000 U.S.-backed Contras fighting
Nicaragua's Sandinista government.
The Central American foreign
ministers, who met separately to
work on the technical aspects of a
Contra demobilization plan,
emerged pessimistic from their first
session.
"Nothing has been resolved,"
Costa Rican Foreign Minister
Rodrigo Madrigal Nieto told
reporters.
The ministers were continuing a
meeting suspended in Guatemala this
week after El Salvador called for a
separate plan to disband leftist
Salvadoran guerrillas.
A Costa Rican source said the
foreign ministers were discussing two
plans, one on Contra demobilization


Bolivian congress electsPazZamora aspresident


LA PAZ, Bolivia (UPI) --
Congress early Saturday elected
former Marxist revolutionary Jaime
- Paz Zamora as president in an
alliance between Bolivia's left and the
\ forces of a former military dictator.
Congress elected Paz Zamora, 97-
59, despite his finishing third in the
,. general election. Congress was called
upon to chose the president because
none of the nine candidates received
a majority in the May 7 vote.
Christian Democrat Luis Ossio
anjines was chosen vice president,
receiving 96 votes in the 156-member
congress.
The congressional vote came well
after midnight and followed 14 hours
of heated debate.
The leader of the Leftist
Revolutionary Movement-New
Majority party was to be inaugurated


Sunday in the presence of at least five
South American presidents and 35
foreign delegations.
The outcome in congress was
considered assured when former
military strongman Hugo Banzer
withdrew from the race Wednesday
and threw his support to Paz
Zamora.
Banzer made the move apparently
as political revenge because
governing party candidate Gonzalo
Sanchez de Lozada refused to enter
into a political pact.
Paz Zamora's expected election
touched off a panic of bank
withdrawals reported to have
reached $100 million. It also touched
off a rise in the dollar against the
boliviano, with traders apparently
remembering the government of
President Hernan Siles Zuazo, who


Paz Zamora served from 1982-1985
as vice president.
The Zuazo-Paz Zamora ad-
ministration was cut short by public
outrage over hyper-inflation and
social chaos. Annual inflation
reached 24,000 percent in 1985
before a severe economic austerity
program was put into place by
President Victor Paz Estenssoro,
who is Paz Zamora's uncle.
Paz Zamora moved to quell fears
over his economic policies, saying he
would guarantee economic stability
and that there would be no abrupt
changes in policy.
"We want to give confidence and
security to Bolivians," he said.
Paz Zamora was a clandestine
leader during Banzer's military
government from 1971-1978,
advocating a Marxist "armed


struggle." He was arrested in
February 1974 and imprisoned but
escaped in June of the same year.
Despite his revolutionary
background, Paz Zamora emerged in
the 1980s as a Social Democrat, a
moderate socialist along the lines of
the European Socialist parties who
accept many capitalist economic
ideas and reject the Marxist model
used by the Soviet Union.
U.S. Ambassador Robert Gelbard
visited Paz Zamora prior to his
election and said later he assured the
candidate of U.S. cooperation in all
areas.
The United States has been
working with Bolivia in its efforts to
eradicate fields of coca leafs, used to
make cocaine. Bolivia is the world's
second largest producer of coca,
trailing only Peru.


et center


by United Press International

Hostage hope dims
BEIRUT, Lebanon -- The pro-
Iranian Hezbollah movement
Saturday dampened hopes for the
release of Western hostages in
Lebanon by demanding Israel
release a kidnapped Moslem
leader as a pre-condition for talks
on a prisoner exchange involving
three Israeli soldiers. Israel has
proposed swapping Sheikh Abdul
Karim Obeid for the three soldiers
and 16 Westerners held by
Moslem extremists.

U.S. crime jumps
WASHINGTON -- Crime
across the nation jumped 3


percent last year -- rising to more
than five offenses for every 100
U.S. residents -- with murder and
rapes increasing more than cases
of arson and theft, the FBI said
Sunday. In its annual "Crime in
the United States" report, the FBI
not only compared figures to 1987
but also showed the number of
crimes known to law enforcement
authorities was 17 percent higher
than five years ago.

Blackout empties bars

SEASIDE HEIGHTS, N.J.--A
power blackout emptied bars on
the boardwalk and touched off
three hours of fighting, window-
breaking and other pandemonium
among a throng of up to 20,000


people in the shore resort early
Saturday, police said. Hoards of
partners streamed from the taverns
onto the boardwalk around 1:30
a.m. after the power went out
because of a fire in a substation,
police said.

Cops smash protests

CAPE TOWN, South Africa --
Police fired tear gas to disperse
mourners at a funeral for two
guerrillas of the outlawed African
National Congress Saturday, and
broke up a birthday party for the
country's oldest political prisoner
in a tense day of protests. Dozens
of police carrying automatic
weapons and tear gas canisters
strapped to their belts guarded the


service for the two activists.


Hiroshima marks 44th
HIROSHIMA, Japan - White
doves of peace were released into
the hot summer sky and tens of
thousands of people bowed their
heads in prayer near a bombed-
out memorial Sunday as
Hiroshima marked the 44th
anniversary of the atomic bomb
attack that led to the end of World
War II. A crowd of 50,000
gathered in the downtown Peace
Memorial Park to join millions
more throughout Japan in
observing a minute of silence at
8:15 a.m., the moment a U.S. B-29
warplane dropped an atom bomb
on the port city Aug. 6, 1945.


Ortega said the presidents reacted
positively to a proposal from the
Salvadoran guerrilla movement, the
Farabundo Marti National
Liberation Front (FMLN), to open a
dialogue with the right-wing
government of Alfredo Cristiani.
In a letter, they asked Ortega to
present to the summit, Salvadoran
guerrilla commanders said they were
ready to open a dialogue with the
government on the basis of talks they
held in Mexico last week with
opposition parties.
Cristiani said his government had
been open to dialogue with the
guerrillas since it took office in June.
The U.S. administration has
resisted moves to demobilize the
Contras before next February's
Nicaraguan elections, saying they
must be kept intact to pressure the
Sandinista government to hold a free
and fair poll. Contra leaders also
oppose early disbandment.
The Sandinistas want them
disbanded within three months.
The Sandinistas appeared to find
support for their position from Costa
Rican President Oscar Arias, the
Nobel Peace Prize- winning architect
of a 1987 Central American peace
plan.
Arias said Contra demobilization
should be gradual. "But
demobilization could never be
conditional on Nicaraguan
elections," he said.
Ortega said he was prepared to
talk to the Contras to make
arrangements for their
demobilization.


B ' -





NO JOKER - Carol Prima, an animal keeper at the National Zoo in
Washington, stands in the zoo's bat cave as one of its inhabitantsflies by. It
has been suggested that human beings and bats might be distant cousins
sharing the same primeval ancestor. (AP Laserphoto)


99-/v-~s-f~


0'




Full Text

PAGE 1

G-ifi qf th e Pan a ra Car: q usels" the Tropic Times Vol. II, No. 27 Quarry Heights, Republic of Panama Aug. 7, 1989 Opposition urges plebiscite on crisis PANAMA CITY, Panama (UPI) Opposition leaders distributed a The opposition proposal, liberties, including a free press. -Opposition leaders, citing a written statement proposing that a introduced during the OAS's third The latest round of talks are the stalemate in talks with the plebiscite be held Aug. 20 under OAS visit to Panama last month, calls for first since a July 16-17 session that government on Panama's 3-monthauspices to allow voters to choose a transfer of power to the opposition brought together the principal old political crisis, called Friday for a between proposals put forth by the on Sept. 1, the ouster of Noriega by leaders of the various factions for the national referendum to let voters government and opposition for Au2. 23 and the restoration of civil first time. decide how to resolve the dispute. ending the crisis. As the negotiations entered a At the conclusion of Friday's talks, second day, the government negotiations were suspended until announced it had closed public and Thursday at the request of the private schools in three major cities opposition. in the aftermath of the fatal shooting "There is still plenty of time and I Thursday of a 24-year-old student also think it's a good idea when these ddring an anti-government protest at discussions come to a dead end and the University of Panama. that both sides take a break," Endara The slaying of Luis Gonzales, told reporters. gunned down by an unknown Panama has been in political assailant while marching with several limbo since the government annulled hundred students in an otherwise violence-scarred May 7 presidential peaceful demonstration, prompted elections amid allegations of calls by both opposition and widespread fraud. Panama's government leaders for an end to Catholic Church and foreign political violence and a quick political observers said the resolution of the crisis triggered by opposition won the election by as the annulment of the May 7 much as a 3-1 ratio. presidential elections. During Thursday's talks, proIt was clear as the talks recessed government former presidential late Friday, however, that the two candidate Carlos Duque introduced sides still were far from a settlement. a five-point plan that centered on the "The proposals which we have establishment of a provisional presented are diametrically government and the scheduling of a opposed," said former opposition new round of elections. presidential candidate Guillermo The proposal also calls on the U.S. Endara during an earlier break in the government to halt its "unilateral negotiations sponsored by the military exercises and provocations," Organization of American States. to end alleged violations of the "In view of such fundamental Panama Canal treaties and to lift differences, we believe that we won't economic sanctions against the really arrive quickly at an agreement government of de facto ruler Gen. OPPOSITION SPEAKER -Opposition presidential candidate Guilermo on these differences," Endara said. Manuel Antonio Noriega. Endara speaks to reporters. (Photo courtesy of The Associated Press) Panama closes high schools after student slain PANAMA CITY, Panama (AP) said public and private schools were confrontations among Pancontrolled government annulled the --Gen. Manuel Antonio Noriega's being closed nationwide "until amanians" of encouraging the elections, claiming fraud. government ordered schools closed further notice .for the safety of students to demonstrate. Noriega runs Panama through his Friday after government plainstudents, to preserve the peace of An estimated 700,000 students command of the Defense Forces, clothesmen fired on demonstrators mind of their families and peace were left without classes. About half which include both soldiers and at the national university, killing one throughout the community in of them were in Panama City and the police. student and wounding at least six. general." port of Colon, located across the Student leaders said in a news An Education Ministry statement The order did not affect the isthmus at the northern entrance of release tiat Ecuador's foreign University of Panama, but it the Panama Canal. minister, Diego Cordovez, "was not announced earlier it was closing Witnesses, speaking on condition welcome any more" in Panama anouce ealiritws lsigbeaseosteplbsctipoosl oppo down its campus to protest the of anonymity, said plainclothes because of the plebiscite proposal. 1 al11 Thursday night shootings. members of the Defense Forces fired Cordovez heads an OAS mission of o ol d University officials in a statement shotguns at a student protest. diplomats trying to mediate here. Friday accused Panama's Defense Demonstrators were protesting an In July, the Washington-based in S. A m erica Forces of acting "brutally against Organization of American States OAS voted to give Cordovez's unarmed students" and for "the proposal to end Panama's political mission until Sept. 1 to mediate a PANAMA CITY, Panama excessive and indiscriminate use of turmoil by holding a plebiscite Aug. solution. (Reuter) -Two Panamanian toxic gases and shotguns." 20. The United States has tried to oust opposition leaders Saturday went In a veiled reference to foes of The students and opposition Noriega since he was indicted in to Caracas for talks with Noriega who have been pressing for parties insist that elections May 7, February 1988 on U.S. drug Venezuela's president after his ouster, the Education Ministry which their candidate Guillermo trafficking charges, but trade and another round of inconclusive statement accused "those who have Endara won overwhelmingly, should economic sanctions have failed to meetings with the government to been advocating violence and be declared valid. The Noriegabudge the general. solve Panama's prolonged a political crisis. U.S. conducts security operation or Ricardo Arias and Guillermo Ford, vice-presidentialcandidates QUARRY HEIGHTS (USSOUTHBlackhawk heicopters from at mid-morning, 1/508th soldiers c annulled elections last May, COM PAO) -U.S. Forces USARSO's st Battalion, 228th were airlifted back to Fort Kobbe. were to consult with Venezuela's conducted a reconnaissance and Aviation Regiment, Company B One of the purposes of this President Carlos Andres Perez. security operation during the early conducted an air assault at Fort operation was to refine contingency They were also scheduled to meet hours Friday morning in the area of Amador at about 4 a.m. and rapidly operations for the protection of U.S. next week with the presidents of the U.S. Army housing section of secured designated U.S. housing. lives, property and interests. Like all Peru and Colombia, Arias' wife Fort Amador, which is a Military The Anti-Tank platoon air assaulted other exercises conducted by the U.S. said t Area of Coordination. into Fort Amador to establish Forces, this operation was in Opposition leader Guillermo .blocking positions at the compliance with the Panama Canal Endara said the trip had been Conducting the defense operation intersections in the vicinity of the Treaty. planned and did not reflect what at night were Company B and the amador Officers' Club and the Golf Such exercises, in addition to occurred during the talks Anti-Tank platoon of the Fort Club. reassuring U.S. families for their Thursday and Friday when the Kobbe-based Ist Battalion Combat-equipped soldiers, security, are necessary in order to opposition insisted on the (Airborne), 508th Infantry under accompanied by anti-tank (TOW) reassert U.S. Forces treaty rights in removal from power of military U.S. Army South's 193d Infantry vehicles, conducted the operation the wake of repeated violations of leader Gen. Manuel Antonio Brigade (Light). which lasted about five hours. Upon those rights by the Panama Defense Noriega. Transported by five UH-60 completionof the security operation Forces over the past 18 months.

PAGE 2

2 Tropic Times Aug. 7, 1989 1U.S. newsI Columbia scheduled for liftoff tomorrow CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. (UPI) arrived at the Kennedy Space Center out" the spaceplane's engine recovery process, with three fully -With countdown clocks ticking, about 4 p.m. after a flight from the compartment was not complete. operational space shuttles now the five-man crew of the veteran Johnson Space Center in Houston. NASA managers debated delaying available for service. shuttle Columbia arrived at the They were greeted at the shuttle the start of the countdown -and Four of the first seven postKennedy Space Center Saturday for runway by family members holding launch -by 24 hours because of Challenger shuttle flights were blastoff Tuesday on a military up a banner that read: "Go concern technicians would not be booked to carry high-priority mission, the spaceplane's first flight Columbia!" able to get the engine room ready for military payloads grounded by the since the Challenger disaster. Asked if he had confidence in flight before the countdown required Challenger accident, and Columbia's "We're real excited," commander Columbia, which has not flown in 43 engineers to begin loading fuel mission is the second in that series. Brewster Shaw, an Air Force colonel months, Shaw said: "Absolutely. aboard the shuttle to power its The identity of the shuttle's who flew aboard Columbia in 1983, You bet I do. If I didn't we wouldn't electrical generators. payload is classified but it has been told reporters. "We need to get climb in it. It will fly well." That procedure, scheduled to widely reported to be an advanced Columbia flying again and we're Shaw's crewmates are co-pilot begin shortly after midnight imaging reconnaissance satellite, going to have the opportunity to do Richard "Dick" Richards, 42; Army Saturday, is a hazardous operation possibly identical to a "Lacrosse" that. I love her. I flew her a long time Lt. Col. James Adamson, 43; Air that requires non-essential personnel radar station launched from the ago, it's a great machine. It's a really Force Maj. Mark Brown, 37; and to leave the launch pad. shuttle Atlantis in December to spy solid vehicle." Navy Cmdr. David Leestma, 40. But by early Saturday, NASA on the Soviet Union. Columbia's launch on the fifth As usual with such military space officials were confident the engine post-Challenger flight, the third of flights, NASA is keeping most details room work would be finished before t c ske caft use r eams 1989, is scheduled for between 7:30 about the mission secret at the or shortly after the start of an eightto take photo-like images regardless a.m. and 11:30 a.m. Tuesday. The request of the Air Force. hour hold in the countdown at 4 p.m. of cloud cover or lighting conditions. exact time is classified, but sources All air-to-ground communications Columbia has only flown once in Aviation Week & Space Technology have said liftoff is planned for between mission control and the the past six years, blasting off just 16 magazine, however, has reported around 8 a.m. astronauts will be blacked out days before Challenger's destruction that the payload is a photoThe goal of the flight, sources say, throughout the flight and the landing Jan. 28, 1986. optical telescope to take highis the deployment of an advanced date will not be announced until 24 Since then, the original space imaging reconnaissance satellite to hours after liftoff. The flight is shuttle has been virtually rebuilt with resolution pictures. spy on the Soviet Union. A small, expected to last about four days, with some 250 modifications to improve In either case, Columbia would "secondary" payload also is believed landing scheduled for Edwards Air flight safety and performance, have to be launched on a sharply to be mounted in Columbia's cargo Force Base, Calif. including the replacement of more northeasterly trajectory to put the bay. Columbia's 43-hour countdown, than 2,300 heat-shield tiles with more spaceship in an orbit that would Columbia's 80-hour countdown 'which includes about 36 1/ 2 hours of efficient insulation blankets. allow its satellite cargo to fly over as began on time at 12:01 a.m. Saturday' built-in "hold time," began on time Columbia's return to flight, then, much of the Soviet Union as and the ship's all-military crew Saturday even though work to "close marks the end of the Challenger possible. Over 100,000 phone workers set up pickets contentious issues the negotiations took place. Saturday between Sunday. h 1 themselves were conducted negotiators from NYNEX, the CWA Union spokesman Tim Ryles said O other workers separately. or the second union local involved in he had not seen the agreement. "We are on strike, as of 11:59 discussions, the International "If there are differences, they're negotiate future p.m.," said Jan Pierce, vice president Brotherhood of Electrical Workers, not of great magnitude," Ryles said of the local for the Communication Pierce said. earlier in the night. "The last minute, Workers of America, which was Bargaining negotiations in Boston you really want to be sure that you've by United Press International negotiating with NYNEX in New broke down shortly before noon done what you intended to do." York. Saturday and never resumed again. Spokesmen from both sides had Two unions representing about "The pickets are out. There may be CWA represents 40,000 telephone predicted all along that negotiators 60,000 workers at NYNEX, the hundreds of places Thre d employees in New York State and would come to an agreement. telephone company serving New where there'll be pickets," said Kara IBEW represents 20,000 in New York State and most of New Mulvey, a spokeswoman for the England, and the strike is a joint England, and 42,500 Pacific and International Brotherhood of effort. Congress an Nevada Bell workers began a strike Electrical Workers in Boston. "We'll be hitting the bricks early Sunday as negotiators failed to together," Pierce said. blows his stack reach an agreement over health care "Negotiations really never In New Jersey, Bell Atlantic costs. Talks continued on the fate of blossomed into full well-rounded officials and CWA representatives WASHINGTON (UPI) -A another 100,000 workers elsewhere. discussions because NYNEX insisted agreed to continue negotiating loud crash from across the room A Communications Workers of that employees pick up a portion of indefinitely at 11:30 p.m. Saturday, interruptedremarks by Sen. Arlen America spokesman said that the health care premium," Pierce and were still talking an hour later, Specter, R-Pa., who wanted a araiing as ontinug sai an said. said Larry Plumb, a Bell Atlantic report from the Pentagon and the bargaining was continuing in an CIA on efforts to locate U.S. effort to reach an agreement on the "That proved to be the blockbuster spokesman. hostages in Lebanon West Coast. There was no indication issue," he said. In Atlanta BellSouth spokesman T wo three-foot stacks of of whether the bargaining teams were NYNEX officials insisted the Terry Johnson said, "We are very pTwo street sk of near agreement. walk-out would not affect basic happy. We reached an agreement in paperwork tumbled offt deskof Negotiators in New Jersey agreed phone service to its customers. 1986 before the deadline, and we csn Rhd chmwt Ri. to ontnuetalingint Suday We opethi stikecanbe etted hoped and expected to reach an causing the commotion. to continue talking into Sunday "We hope this strike can be settled agreement on this one before the "It seems like the senator from morning on a contract covering soon," Bob Eastwood, executive deadline." Minnesota has lost his stack," another 40,000 workers. director of labor relations for Johnson said the company would quipped Sen. Sam Nunn, D-Ga. Meanwhile, some 64,000 workers PacBell, said in a statement. release details of the agreement Boschwitz, an aide and two at BellSouth telephone company, "We will continue to meet with the congressional pages scrambled based in Atlanta, reached a tentative union to try to work on the with outspread arms to contain contract agreement late Saturday. unresolved issues." the sprawling pile of papers, Although the strike deadlines for The CWA represents about 700 binders and booklets. the four "Baby Bell" operating Nevada Bell employees in Nevada Boschwtz then withdrew an companies -NYNEX, BellSouth, with the rest of the strikers in amendment he was supporting, BellAtlantic and Pacific Telesis -California. PacBell serves most of without seeking a vote. The were set to take place at about the California and Nevada Bell most of proposed amendment: to reduce same time and health care costs were Nevada. Pe gnmsr po rtdt. generally among the most In New York, no face-to-face talks Pentagon must provide. Commander-in-Chief .Gen. Fred F. Woerner Assistant NCOIC .SFC Richard A. Czizik This authorized unofficial command information publication Director, Public Affairs. Col. Ronald T. Sconyers Editorial Staff. SSgt. Greg Markley is for U.S. Armed Forces overseas. The Tropic Times is Executive Editor/NCOIC .SMSgt. Harold J. Lee Sgt. Monique Chere published in conjunction with the Armed Forces Information Managing Fditor ..Colin Hale Spec. Anthony Craft Program of the Department of Defense, under the supervision of AIC Randy Lawson the director of Public Affairs, U.S. Southern Command. Composing Room ....Rosemary Chong Contents of the Tropic Times are not necessarily the official view Carolyn Coffey of the U.S. Government, the Department of Defense or the U.S. S Tropic Tim es Southern Command. The address is: APO Miami, 34002, Albrook Post Office. Telephone 285-6612.

PAGE 3

Tropic Times Aug. 7, 1989 U.S. news Drugs trade structured like companies WASHINGTON (UPI) -The organized crime in this country. No been added to traditional criminal crack dealing street gang that has first federal report on the corporate longer are we talking about the pursuits, uch as in the South, where spread to Atlanta. In Los Angeles, structure of the illegal drug trade traditional organized crime families "Dixie Mafia" families who once where Blood and Crip membership identified 43 major groups operating only," he said. produced moonshine now grow totals about 25,000, "babyin the United States, ranging from Thornburgh said he did not think marijuana or distribute cocaine, the gangsters" as young as 9 are regularly salaried operatives of Colombian the report suggested any changes report said. recruited and some gangs include cartels to one-time moonshiners of were needed in Justice Department Street dealers as young as 10 have even younger "tiny gangsters," the the "Dixie Mafia." operations but believed it would be been recruited by the Miami Boys, a report said. Sometimes working in combinahelpful to Bennett, who is scheduled tion, the drug traffickers have to present his anti-drug strategy Sept. advanced beyond city streets to the 5. nation's heartland, bringing heroin In addition to detailing the to Iowa, major cocaine operations to growing number of drug groups, the Wyoming and LSD to rural south report also said new alliances have Georgia, the report said last week. emerged among organizations. Los Angeles street gangs have New York Mafia familes now extended their reach to Sioux Falls, "have strong ties" to Colombian and S.D., and Baltimore; Haitian crack Cuban dealers in the Miami area and dealers have set up shop in Delaware, also work with Asian groups and and Wichita, Kan., is home for two motorcycle gangs. The Jamaican separate Dominican cocaine groups, posses, with 10,000 members, buy the report said. cocaine from Colombians and "If you read through this report appear to be developing relationships you cannot but come to the with Los Angeles gangs, the report conclusion that most of the United said. States of America is a high-intensity The report also detailed the tactics drug trafficking area," federal Drug employed by the gangs, ranging from Policy Director William Bennett said the sophisticated to the traditional to after receiving a copy of the survey the terroristic. from Attorney General Dick The four Colombian drug cartels, Thornburgh at a news conference. with the best known ones in Medellin Thornburgh last fall commissionand Cali, exemplify the large, ed what he dubbed the "Dun and vertically integrated groups, the Bradstreet" report, prepared by the report said. With their leaders nation's 93 U.S. attorneys. It protectedby"anonion-likelayering" identified 43 "serious" drug of power, the cartels are "a veritable organizations, all now under statewithinastate,"owningatwelfth "intense" investigation, he said. of Colombia's farmland. In a letter to President Bush, In Florida and California, Thornburgh said the study "painted a employees of Medellin leader Jose new portrait of organized crime," Gonzalo Rodriguez-Gacha receive a with a new cast of characters salary, "work regular business hours, including, most significantly, the wear suits and ties, and are instructed Colombian cocaine cartels, the to keep a low profile," the report said. Bloods and Crips of Los Angeles, Employees of the Colombianmotorcycle gangs, Asian Triad and controlled Triple X group in SEWER CELEBRATION -Catherine Collett wearsaplunger on her head Tong gangs and Jamaican posses. Framingham, Mass., received as she rides her bicycle during the Sewerfest Para in Oberlin, Ohio, last "New ones are springing up every "company benefits," such as regular month. The parade celebrated the completion of a long sewer project in the day. One of the salient features of this vacations. town. (AP Laserphoto) report is the changing nature of In other areas, drug dealing has Wildfires could match last year's huge losses WASHINGTON (UPI) -could be ready for assignment this square miles -were damaged by Erratic winds, frequent lightning Wildfires already have burned 1.38 weekend. 73,000 wildfires, including fires that storms and forests baked dry by longmillion acres and the long dry spell in As West described firefighting covered I million acreas in running drought have boosted the the West has created the potential efforts, 66 major uncontained fires Yellowstone National Forest. West fire potential, West said. that damage this year could match burned in Idaho, Oregon, California, said 1988's toll was the worst since Since Sunday, wildfires in the five 1988's huge losses, a top Forest Washington state and Montana. 1910. More than $500 million was Western states have consumed Service official said. Oregon and Idaho had the worst of spent in quelling the fires. 220,000 acres, destroyed about 60 The government dispatched two the problems, with 43 major fires in "Long-range weather forecasts structures and forced the evacuation battalions of the 6th Army, freshly Idaho and 14 in Oregon. indicate continuing severe fire of hundreds of people. trained to combat wildfires, to the More than 20,000 firefighters are weather conditions, leaving this fire The government revised its hotly firelines in Oregon. Allan West, battling the wildfires in the five season with the potential to be as criticized "let burn" policy this year. deputy chief of the Forest Service, states. severe as last year," West said at a As a result the Forest Service, an said last week two more battalions In 1988, 5 million acres -7,812 news conference. Agriculture Department agency, is trying to extinguish all wildfires, Radon raises lung cancer risk, study says including those in wilderness areas. BOSTON (UPI) -Researchers smoking habits, said Richard produced naturally in the Earth and runs the national parks, has issued reported new evidence bolstering the Waxweiller, an epidemiologist for can seep into buildings through their similar orders to its park link between radon gas and an the Centers for Disease Control who basements. The gas produces superintendents. increased risk for lung cancer -even helped conduct the study. radioactive particles -known as So far this year, there have been among non-smokers. "This further confirms that there radon daughters -that can cause 39,434 fires that have damaged 1.38 A study involving 516 nonare high relative risks of lung cancer lung cancer after long exposure. million acres. At the same point last smoking Colorado uranium miners even obtained among non-smokers The researchers compared the lung year, there were 61,197 fires that had exposed to high levels of radon on the exposed to substantial levels of cancer rate of 516 white Colorado covered 2.37 million acres. job found they had about about a radon," Waxweiller said in a men who never smoked cigarettes, The Forest Service said a battalion 12-fold increased risk of lung cancer, telephone interview. pipes or cigars but worked in from Fort Riley, Kan., and one from rare among non-smokers. Waxweiller stressed the levels of uranium mines, which are known to Fort Carson, Colo., were being given "These results confirm that radon the miners in the study were have high levels of radon gas, for an a 16-hour course on firefighting "and exposure to radon -in the absence exposed to were much greater than average of 52 months. will probably be deployed within the of cigarette smoking is a potent that found in most homes. But the From 1950 through 1984, the week." West said several other carcinogen that should be strictly findings indicate the potential risk miners had 12 times the lung cancer battalions might be available for controlled," the researchers wrote in involved, he said. rate that would be expected for a duty. last week's edition of the Journal of Three million American homes group of men their age. As an example of the conditions the American Medical Association. may have unacceptably high levels of "We have demonstrated a 12-fold facing firefighters, West said 1,000 Previous studies have linked radon radon gas in the air, according to the mortality risk for lung cancer for lightning fires were reported in a 24to lung cancer, but the new study is Environmental Protection Agency. non-smoking uranium miners hour period in the Boise National detailed information on subjects' The odorless, colorless gas is exposed to radon," they said. Forest recently.

PAGE 4

4 Tropic Times Aug. 7, 1989 world roundup Israel remains steadfast in objectives JERUSALEM (UPI) -As an without success to obtain the release clergyman's role in the Feb. 17, 1988, negotiations and contacts are based evening deadline approached for of the Israelis "by peaceful means." abduction of Higgins. Obeid has on the same principle of honesty, Lebanese extremists to kill a second "Our patience has been tested for too been a central Hezbollah leader since then the countries with interest in American captive, Israel stood firm long and our good will was brutally 1983 and was directly involved in Lebanon are ready to use their good last week in its decision against exploited," he said, reading from a attacks, Rabin said, including a 1985 offices for the release of the captives." releasing Sheikh Abdel Karim Obeid prepared statement. car bombing in Lebanon that killed Iran's official Islamic Republic without a swap for hostages held in Liel declined comment on how 12 Israeli soldiers. News Agency reported the Lebanon. Israel would react if Lebanese Hezbollah officials have rejected newspaper comment, which Defense Minister Yitzhak Rabin extremists carried out their threat to Israel's swap offer in the Obeid affair. app a rent 1 y in d i c a ted I ran 's said Wednesday Obeid was a key kill American Joseph Cicippio. But But in Tehran, the Tehran Times willingness to help negotiate the leader of the pro-Iranian Hezbollah Rabin said Israel took into newspaper reportedly said, "If the hostages' release. who could provide valuable account when it approved Obeid's information about the movement's abduction two months ago all operations and relations with Iran. possible consequences of its action, Israel abducted Obeid last week from including the execution of U.S. his south Lebanese village. hostages. In an Israel Television interview, "In the analysis of the possibilities, Rabin vowed that Obeid "will stay in we forsaw all of them including the our hands" because of his knowledge, one that happened and even graver but added that the offer to swap the ones," Rabin told Israel's parliament radical Moslem clergyman for Israeli in responding to three no-confidence and Western hostages held in measures in response to the Obeid Lebanon remained. affair that were easily defeated. "We join the calls by the United The Organization of the States, the Soviet Union and the Oppressed on Earth, a Hezbollah United Kingdom for a swift release of offshoot, announced Monday it all hostages and we stand ready to hanged U.S. Marine Lt. Col. William release Sheikh Abdel Karim Obeid Higgins because Israel refused to and all (Moslem) Shiite prisoners in release Obeid. exchange for the Israeli prisoners of Israel did not inform the United war and all the hostages of other States of its decision to kidnap Obeid nationalities," Foreign Ministry before the action, but since then the spokesman Alon Liel said. two allies have been working closely Three Israeli soldiers have been together on the Lebanese hostage held captive by Lebanese extremists crisis. Assistant U.S. Secretary of since 1986 and the fates of three other State John Kelly met with Prime soldiers missing in Lebanon since Minister Yitzhak Shamir Thursday 1982 are unknown. as part of his orientation tour of GREEK WEDDING OF TEYEAR -A maid of honor places wedding In echoing statements repeated by Israel. wreaths on the heads offormer Greek Premier A ndreas Papandreo, 70, and Israeli leaders since the Obeid Rabin said Obeid's interrogation his bride, Dimitra Liani, 35 during their wedding ceremony last month. It abduction, Liel said Israel attempted revealed new details on the was the third marriage for both Papandreo and Lian. (AP Laserphoto) Soviets release first report card on Bush, staff MOSCOW (UPI) -The Soviets, Shalnyov took a swipe at former (Alexander) Haig's foreign policy of the Reagan administration. in their first report card on the Bush President Reagan in comparing the experience. Touching on one of the most administration, say the president new administration's "packed "But he is quick at digesting new sensitive topics for Moscow, works hard, but is afraid to make a schedule" with the relaxed style of the information, prepares for speeches Shalnyov said Bush's support for the mistake and predict that Secretary of former American leader. thoroughly and is a splendid orator. space-based Strategic Defense State James Baker is destined for "Bush is different from Reagan His prestige on Capitol Hill is great Initiative is weaker than the greatness. who worked from 9 to 5 at most," h' -you can hardly find members of enthusiastic backing of Reagan, who Washington-based Soviet said. Congress with anything bad to say introduced the idea of the "Star commentator A. Shalnyov, writing Shalnyov about Baker." Wars" missile shield in 1983. in the evening edition of the officialsaid Bush is marked by a Kissinger was secretary of state "In Bush's case, sometimes doubt i o pronounced quality of "wariness" under presidents Richard Nixon and surfaces about whether it is wise to government newspaper Izvestia, said and used folksy terms to describe the Gerald Ford. Brzezinski was develop and deploy the system to its thet Bus ademnhi t is president's tendency to forestall President Jimmy Carter's national full extent -doubt of the sort that operating as a team on which there acin are no people with excessive action. security adviser and Haig was was completely alien to Reagan," ambition and everyone is willing to "Bush is often motivated by a fear secretary of state in the early months Shalnyov said. play for their leader." that the decision he is about to make Shalnyov said the administration's will prove catastrophic, will 'cause Global A ID S cases increasing "image of energy" is personified by bad press response or will be blocked White House Chief of Staff John by Congress," Shalnyov said. "Hence GENEVA (Reuter) -More than Tanzania 4,158 Sununu. he measures and remeasures not 4,700 new cases of AIDS were Malawi 2,586 "He is rather heavy for his medium seven times, not 14 times, but 21 officially reported in July with the Burundi 1,975 height but appearances can be times before cutting rope." main increases in the Americas and Zambia 1,892 deceptive," Shalnyov said. "Sununu Shalnyov showered praise on Europe, the World Health EUROPE 23,459 is like a dymano, brimming with Baker, the Texan who was treasury Organization (WHO) said last week. France 6,409 energy." secretary under Reagan and was The total of Acquired Immune Italy 4,158 "He said Vice President Dan tapped by Bush for the play for the Deficiency Syndrome cases rose to West Germany 3,497 Quayle is an anomaly who has been foreign affairs portfolio. 172,143 in 151 countries compared Spain 2,781 "given the role of ideological In an administration filled with with 167,373 in 149 countries at the Britain 2,372 lightning rod" in an administration in team players, Shalnyov said, Baker end of June. Switzerland 921 which "pragmatism -is the trait that stands out as a towering personality The additional countries were San OCEANIA 1,510 more than any other unities the who is quickly mastering the Marino and Brunei, each of which Australia 1,355 people closest to President Bush." intricacies of foreign policy. reported its first case, the WHO said. New Zealand 130 "Quayle enjoys a freer hand -or, "James Baker is among the very Continental totals, including ASIA 406 to be more exact, greater freedom few members of the Bush individual countries reporting most Japan 97 speech -than Bush had when he was administration who, notwithstandcases: Israel 85 vice president under (Ronald) ing his full loyalty to the president, is Regan," he said. "In his speeches, more than ready to paint his name in AMERICAS 116,524 WORLD TOTAL 172,143 (Quayle) states opinions that are huge letters in the history of U.S. United States 98,255 much closer to those of the administrations," he said. Brazil 6,857 e Republicans' right wing than to the Shalnyov said Baker does not have Canada 2,745 centrist position of the administrathe same stature as his predecessors, Mexico 2,351 El I tion. but may ultimately outshine them. Haiti 2,041 "According to Quayle himself, the "Yes, he does not have (Henry) Dominican Republic 856 president encourages him to say Kissinger's penetration of the world AFRICA 30,244 things that cannot be said by and he could benefit from (Zbigniew) Uganda 6,772 Bush himself," he said. Brzezinski's depth of analysis or Kenya 5,949

PAGE 5

Tropic Times Aug. 7, 1989 5 hemisphere Contras, conservatives against accord WASHINGTON (Reuter) -tour by Contra commanders who National Liberation Front (FSLN) and at one point drew a parallel Washington and the right-wing had a similar message for Arias, two-thirds of the popular vote. between Winston Churchill's need insurgent army it raised to fight Azcona, Guatemala's Vinicio Cerezo A month after the Quayle attack for support against Nazi Germany Nicaragua's government have and El Salvador's Alfredo Cristiani. on the Sandinistas, Bush took up the and the rebels' need for U.S. arms launched parallel campaigns to delay The fifth president to attend the theme by declaring that "what is and aid. plans to disarm the rebels and march forthcoming summit, scheduled, for evident is a renewed attempt to In an apparent turnabout at the them into history. Saturday to Monday in Honduras, is prevent free and fair elections." United Nations last week, the U.S. The Contras, from the Spanish Nicaragua's Daniel Ortega, Such assertions are based on the joined in a Security Council word for counter-revolutionaries, considered the source of all evil in contention that a newly-formed r e sol u t io n c all in g fo r the face demobilization under the terms Central America by the Contras and Supreme Electoral Council is stacked demobilization of the Contras under of an agreement reached last many of their backers in in favor of the Sandinistas, a charge the Central American peace plan. It February by the presidents of five Washington. not universally shared in Latin was the first such resolution. Central American countries, The Contras argue that only they America. Since the security council last including Nicaragua. and their guns can pressure Ortega U.S. statements and actions on considered Central America in 1985, The accord provided for into sticking to his reform promises. Nicaragua, analysts say, reflect a the U.S. had blocked debates and disbanding the 12,000-strong Contra Once the insurgent army is continuing debate inside the Bush resolutions on the region. army and removing it from disbanded, the argument goes, administration and in Congress on "There are apparent contradicHbnduran base camps in exchange Nicaragua's leaders can do as they how to handle the Contras, an issue tions in American policy on the for political reforms in Nicaragua please. at the core of the worst foreign policy Cntras," said a Latin diplomat at the and free elections there next Some analysts critical of the U.S. scandal in eight years of Reagan U.N. recently. "Washington rarely February. administration suspect that the presidency. speaks with one voice, least of all on As Central American presidents delaying campaign by the Americans In the so-called Iran-Contra affair, the touchy subject of Central prepared for a follow-up summit this and their insurgent proteges will be senior government aides were America." week to discuss how and when to followed later by efforts to discredit discovered having diverted profits implement the demobilization the Nicaraguan ballot and thus from secret arms sales to Iran to accord, both Washington and the persuade congress to continue continue financing the Contras in Contras were trying to convince the funding theContras. violation of a congressional ban. region that the insurgents must keep Congress, which is dominated by The young Bush administration their weapons at least until the Democrats, cut off all military aid in has shifted from Reagan's emphasis Nicaraguan elections. February 1988. Under a bipartisan on military solutions and unilateral According to Latin American agreement last April, limited nonaction in Central America to support d i plo m at s, P r e si d e n t B u sh military assistance continues until for regional initiatives. telephoned Presidents Jose Azcona Nov. 30. And six months into Bush's term, of Honduras and Oscar Arias of During a Central American tour in the heroic labels his predecessor Costa Rica last week to tell them he June, Vice President Dan Quayle pinned on the Contras seem distant feels that demobilizing the Contras predicted the elections would be a history. before the elections would be a "sham," the term then-president Reagan called the rebels "the mistake. Reagan used in 1984 to disqualify the moral equal of our founding fathers," The presidential telephone calls ballot that made Ortega president likened them to the French resistance coincided with a Central American and gave his ruling Sandinista against the Germans in World War II Menem government makes good start on inflation BUENOS AIRES, Argentina Though July's cost of living would bought time to carry out reforms "The Peronists made a clear (Reuter) -Only three weeks after rise to a one-month record 200 without which previous Argentine diagnosis. They identified the root taking office Argentina's Peronist percent, as forecast by the Peronists stabilization plans failed. causes of inflation and have made government has succeded in braking when they took office July 8, private "When we took power we had a interesting proposals to reform the hyperinflation but economists said surveys showed that in the last two one-minute horizon, later on it economy. But we still don't know last week that they doubt the weeks of the month prices rose only expanded to a day and now we think much about what they will do in economic plan will achieve lasting 30 percent. in terms of months," Economic areas like social spending and the stability. The figures show the government's Management Secretary Eduardo external sector," he said. "We are reasonably optimistic at price stabilization program, widely Curia said. The economists credited the fall in this point but the government has yet criticized as the weakest point of the Bour said the Peronist approach to the inflation rate to the wave of to show its plans for some vital areas July 9 economic plan, had got off to a curing what President Carlos Menem optimism generated by Menem's of the economy," said Juan Luis succesful if somewhat shaky start, has termed the worst crisis in advent and to a price pact between Bour, chief economist at the Latin economists said. Argentine history had been more the government and leading American Economic Research The government believes that by realistic than previous administrabusinessmen signed July 17. Foundation. reining in hyperinflation it has tions. A U.N. agency economist, who asked not to be identified, said that Le president shocksBolvian economy even if the government achieved its goal of lowering inflation to 20 LA PAZ, Bolivia (Reuter) -The day. fiscal policies. percent in August and five percent in election to the presidency of With the demand for hard "Uncertainty has affected the September, other measures would be moderate leftist Jaime Paz Zamora currency, the dollar soared from 2.69 financial system, but we have needed to attain stability until the has sent shock-waves through to 3.50 bolivianos on the black sufficient reserves to face this long-term reforms bear fruits. Bolivia's fragile economy. market, and then dropped back to temporary panic," Jaime Gutierrez, The government has placed a Paz Zamora, a 50-year-old former 2.90 by Thursday evening. vice-president f the association of heavy bet on its plans to streamline a revolutionary turned social Bankers reported a run of at least banks, told journalists, state un up a deficit of more than 15 democrat, was to be voted president $70 million in deposits since the He said speculation would fizzle percent of GDP, according to private Friday in a congressional run-off and inconclusive May 7 general elections out once Paz Zamora took power that accounts for over 50 percent of take office Sunday. in which none of the three main leading a coalition government with estimates. candidates gained an outright Banzer's rightist party, Accion "Peronism's future will be Bolivians lined up to withdraw majority, forcing a second-round Democratica Nacionalista. precarious if the reform of the state their savings last week, bought vote in Congress. Paz Zamora has promised there does not take place because no dollars on the black market and Third in the May vote, Paz would be no "traumatic" changes in economic program would survive the stocked up on food, fearing Zamora assured himself of the economic policy. consequences," Public Works and economic turmoil like that under a presidency with the unlikely backing He said his government would Services Minister Roberto Dromi previous government he served in. of former military dictator Hugo honor its obligations on Bolivia's $4 said in a recent interview. Paz Zamora was vice-president in Banzer, who was narrowly defeated billion foreign debt as long as Menem has pledged to suspend the leftist government of Hernan by ruling party candidate Gonzalo payments did not strangle the subsidies, slash public spending and Siles Zuazo from 1982-85 when Sanchez de Lozada, the architect of country's development. sell off an array of debt-ridden stateSouth America's poorest nation Bolivia's economic stabilization since The three-month presidential owned companies, including parts of came to the brink of economic 1985. deadlock brought investment to a the telephone and railway services anarchy and inflation hit 24,000 As planning minister in the complete halt and fueled fears of and other businesses nationalized by percent. Dollar deposits were frozen outgoing administration of 81-yearpolitical instability in this coupparty founder Juan Peron over 40 in 1982 and repaid in local currency, old Victor Paz Estenssoro, Sanchez prone nation. years ago. along with other restrictions. Lozada established a free-market Paz Estenssoro will be the first The P e r o n is t g o v e r n me nt As lines formed outside savings economy and curbed inflation to less elected president in 25 years to finish inherited a virtually bankrupt state and loans institutions, clerks put up than 2.5 percent in the first half of his term in acountry that has had 180 from former President Raul signs limiting withdrawals to $500 a this year through tight monetary and military coups in its 125-year history. Alfonsin's Radical administration.

PAGE 6

6 Tropic Times Aug. 7, 1989 military news U.S. Army to help stem flow of drugs WASHINGTON (Reuter) -Colombia. But the military will limited experience in operatingunder Since former President Ronald Washington plans to send in the bolster a law enforcement effort that the rugged conditions of guerrillaReagan first launched the drug war in army to help drug-busters dam the has proved to be ineffective against a infested tropical forests and Andean the early 1980s, drug cartels have flood of cocaine into the United well-equipped and financed enemy. highlands. gone unchecked, deluging the United States from South America. "I think we are dealing with a The armed forces will also provide States with low-priced cocaine and The new military role will be one situation that cries out for the radar, communications and seeking to open new markets in element of a national drug strategy to expertise that the special forces and transport support. Europe. be announced Sept. 5 by the chief of military have," Sherman Funk, State Bush administration officials have Production of coca, the key raw the U.S. anti-drug effort, William Department inspector-general, told proposed that military advisers as material for cocaine, as increased Bennett. Congress recently. well as law enforcement officials be yearly in Peru and Bolivia. Coca Troops will not actually fight drug Military officers will train law made available to help the armed farmers and traffickers have ganged runners from Peru, Bolivia and enforcement officials, who have forces of Andean nations. up with guerrillas to keep law enforcement officials out of the areas where coca is grown and processed. In Peru, the world's largest producer of coca, the government has lost control of major growing regions such as the Upper Huallaga Valley. Funk said anti-narcotics activities in that area would probably not be successful until the Peruvian government regained a reasonable amount of control. Officials said military advisers could play an important role in improving the capacity of Peruvian security forces. Military radar could also play a significant role in shutting down traffic into and out of the-valley. While officials and policy experts see military aid as a key to 0* intensifying the drug war, they also believe it must be underpinned by a strong political commitment both at home and abroad. That commitment must overshaDISABLED SOVIET SUB -A Soviet Alpha class submarine, which was reported in distress off the coast of dow Latin America's suspicion of Norway last month, steams back under its own power to the Soviet submarine base in Murmansk. It was the third Washington and the Defense Soviet submarine mishap off Norway in as many months. (AP Laserphoto) Department's reluctance to use its I resources in the drug war, they said. Rebels losing Kabul friends with rocket attacks KABUL, Afghanistan (Reuter) -sends these rockets to kill people." average Afghan wants peace." against the mujahideen because of The rebel rockets that pound Kabul A memorial stone and flowers Peter Tomsen, special U.S. envoy the rockets," said a university from surrounding hills appear to be a mark the spot where the rocket fell, to the guerrillas, told Congress last lecturer who is thinking of leaving the self-defeating weapon in the Afghan every day drawing groups of people week he did not believe reports that country. "I myself hate the people battle for hearts and minds in a who pray for the dead and give Afghans were becoming more who launch the rockets, whoever decade-long conflict. money for he victims'families. tolerant of the Kabul government they are." Speaking on the eve of And five months after Soviet Nearly a month of rocket attacks and mistrustful of the mujahideen. talks between the United States and troops withdrew to let the on the city have killed more than 100 U.S. officials pledged recently to the Soviet Union over Afghanistan, government and mujahideen rebels civilians. At least 24 people died in continue supplying the guerrillas he said: "I do not consider this a war fight it out among themselves, many just two days. with arms. They are funnelled to the between Afghans. This is a war Afghans simply want it all to end. President Najibullah's Sovietfighters through Pakistan, where between the two superpowers. If they backed government is meanwhile many guerrilla leaders are based. came to an agreement it could be Mohammad Rahim, who sells bombarding Kabul with a publicity But Kabul University academics, ended." Assistant Secretary of State potatoes and onions in a Kabul campaign to persuade people it is t r ad it i o n ally s t r o n g 1y anti -John Kelly and Soviet ambassadormarket, said: "When Soviet troops doing its utmost to bring peace. government, say the rockets harm at-large Nikolai Kozyrov meet today were here, the Afghan people did not Najibullah, confident after mujahideen standing in the capital, in Stockholm for two days of talks. like the government. But now they military successes against the although they add that the Afghan Foreign Minister Abdul have gone it is not necessary to fight Moslem guerrillas, appears almost government is equally prepared to Wakil said Friday cutting off arms the war any more." nightly on TV pounding home the bombard guerrilla-held areas in the supplies was not enough and the two Rahim was sitting 30 yards away theme of national reconciliation. countryside. Some blame the sides should seek a political solution from the spot where a rocket struck One well-informed diplomat said government for failing to protect the to 10 years of war in which more than the central market and bus station he did not believe either side city. one million people have been killed July 22, killing 45 men, women and commanded popular support. "I think the people are turning and five million made refugees. children. "If you ask the average Afghan he "I am angry against those who give is indifferent to both sides," he said. Europe to develop sm art warhead weapons to these people to kill the "There is general frustration and innocent," he said. "(President) Bush unhappiness at the stalemate. The WASHINGTON (Reuter) -A same kind of battlefield rockets / consortium of U.S., West simultaneously or a mixture of H iggins: 'D on't feel sorry for m e German,French and Britishfirms different types of rockets with has been awarded a $479 million either conventional or nuclear BARTLETa, Tenn. (UPI) -Miller said. "He said, 'If something contract to develop a "smart" warheads. Marine Lt. Colonel William Higgins happens, don't feel sorry for me. Be warhead for NATO's MultipleUnder the terminal-guidance and his wife discussed the possibility proud of me. I'm doing my duty. I'm Launch Rocket System, the plan, the warhead on each rocket of being taken hostage but asked his fighting for my country." Pentagon said last week. would carry three separate family to reserve sympathy if he was Higgins, 44, was kidnapped 17 The planned terminal-guidance explosives which would be kidnapped, Higgins' sister said. months ago while serving with warhead, designed to seek and deployed during the missile's flight Linda Miller of Bartlett, a United Nations forces in Lebanon. destroy enemy armor, will be and would then use special radar Memphis suburb, said in an interview published last week in The His wife, Robin, also is in the developed by Martin Marietta to independently seek and hit Cmerial p alhdat herk bthe Marine Corps and is stationed in Corp., Diehl Gmb and Co. of targets. Commercial Appeal that her brother Washingon, D.C. West Germany, Thomson CSF of The development work by the -reportedly killed Monday by his g .France and Thorn EMI Orlando, Fla.-based MDTT Inc. pro-Iranian captors in Lebanon -Miller described her brother, Electronics Ltd. of Britain. consortium is expected to be wanted his family to be proud of him. known in the family as Richard, as a The multiple-launch rocket completed by October 1992, the "He and his wife talked about the "110 percent military person" and a system can launch several of the Defense Department said. dangers of being taken hostage," hard worker.

PAGE 7

Tropic Times Aug. 7, 19891 sports Judge blames Liverpool tragedy on police LONDON (Reuter) -Police were a senior judge reported last week. club whose Hillsborough ground was stipulated that more than half these to blame for Britain's worst soccer Lord Justice Taylor, chairman of used for the Football Association precautions must be enforced before stadium disaster when 95 Liverpool an inquiry into the tragedy, also cup semifinal between Liverpool and the season begins. fans were crushed to death last April, criticized the Sheffield Wednesday Nottingham Forest. Taylor said of senior officers: "The main reason for the disaster "Neither their handling of the was the failure of police control," he problems on the day nor their said in an interim report issued two account of it in evidence showed the weeks before the start of the new qualities of leadership expected of ,_ F soccer season. their rank." South Yorkshire Chief Constable tHe said no attempt had been made Peter Wright immediately offered to to steer fans away from already resign and Chief Superintendent crowded sections of the stadium, no David Duckenfield, the officer who maximum capacity had been set and was in charge at Hillsborough, was crowd density was not monitored suspended on full pay. effectively. South Yorkshire Police said a report was being sent to the director The judge said: "The presence of of public prosecutions about an unruly minority who had drunk Duckenfield's "alleged untruths" too much aggravated the problem. So did the club's confused and during the inquiry. adequate sins and ticketing The crush at Hillsborough started q g g when fans were forced up against He said equipment must be fencing as latecomers surged into the provided at each ground to cut stadium from the back. through fences in an emergency and Taylor dismissed as unrealistic the the senior police officer at the ground police case that the blame should lie should have sole discretion to delay with fans arriving late and drunk and the kickoff. with the club's failure to monitor Taylor's interim report did not what was happening inside the deal with two controversial issues Soccer fans in the standing room-only section of Hillsborough Stadium in ground. whether seats should replace Sheffield, England are crushed against a steel mesh fence during a British He listed 43 safety measures, standing room in stadiums, and the soccer cup semifinal match last April. A senior British judge has ruled police including a radical reassessment of implications for crowd control of a were responsible for the tragedy which took 95 lives when a mad rush of last how many fans should be allowed to proposed soccer membership card minute arrivals swarmed into the area. (AP Laserphoto) stand on stadium terraces, and scheme LA Rams thump 49ers 16-13 in overtime TOKYO (AP) --Mike Lansford's Japan and the U.S. Tickets ranged character because it's so specialized he said 29-yard field goal as time expired in from $35 to $211 and scalpers were and strategical." The only other NFL game in Asia overtime gave the Los Angeles Rams getting twice that outside the Dome. Even Montana, an 11th-year beatiSa in 1972when St. Louis a dramatic 16-13 NFL preseason The mostly young crowd greeted veteran w as impressed a n ho the s asafts victory over the San Francisco 49ers the opening kickoff with an excited veea, was impressed. sponsors hope the success of this ionrSuny dehetnFaing kka spirthed roan exditelaudedeverygoo d play "Whether they have a knowledge event will translate into an annual on Sunday, delighting a spirited roar and applauded every good play, ffobl rnt hysr no t" sm crowd of curious Japanese football and a few bad ones, as they munched of football or not, they sure enjoy it," game. fans. on such un-traditional football fare "This is 'kokko-ii' (cool)," The kick, Lansford's third field as fried octopus and sushi. enthused Yoshitake Fumada, a 17Baseball Standings goal of the game, climaxed a chaotic They loudly cheered every pass year-old high school senior wearing a ending after the 49ers blocked three completed by the 49ers' Joe Rams jersey and cap. "Lots of power field goal tries, two by rookie tight Montana, widely known here for his and the uniforms look cool." A M E RICAN end Wesley Walls. But the final two "magic pass" that won the Super Terry Greer recovered a secondwere nullified by offsides penalties Bowl last January. They shouted quarter fumble in the end zone after East DLvi si On and Lansford's third kick in three their approval for a broken-field Terrence Flagler's 13-yard run and W L Pct. GB plays finally went through. scramble of 41 yards by Montana's Mike Cofer kicked field goals of 33 Baltimore 56 52 .519 The kick made 49ers rookie head backup, Steve Young, and a 47-yard and 39 yards to give the 49ers a 13-6 Cleveland 54 55 .495 2 1/2 coach George Seifert a loser in his bomb from the Rams' Mark halftime lead. Boston 53 54 .495 2 1/2 first game replacing Bill Walsh, who Herrmann to Mike Williams. They Los Angeles' Mike Lansford Toronto 54 56 .491 3 coached the 49ers to three Super laughed at fumbles and dropped matched each of Cofer's first-half Milwaukee 3 56 .486 3 1/2 Bowl victories in 10 years, including passes and "oohed" at big-screen field goals with kicks of 32 and 25 New York 52 6B .473 5 last season. replays. y as tit 8 71 5 Robert Delpino rushed three times Egged on by cheerleaders, they yards. Detroit 38 70 5 1 for 24 yards in the Rams' gameeven did a noisy version of the wave, Both teams' first units came out West Division winning 5 1-yard scoring drive, which another popular American export. midway through the second period, W L Pct. GB followed a 24-yard punt return by Then Robert Delpino capped a 93and the stars familiar to the Japanese California 66 43 .60b Thomas Henley in only the second yard drive by pounding into the left played solidly. Montana completed 8 aklano 66 44 .tO 112 NFL game on Asian soil and the first side of the end zone to tie the game at of 13 passes for 81 yards, Super Bowl Kansas City 59 50 .541 7 in 13 years. 13 with 8:18 left in the fourth period. MVP Jerry Rice caught two passes Texas 58 50 .537 7 1 Gaston Green rushed 28 times for Most fans appeared to be for 23 yards, Roger Craig carred four Minnesota 55 55 .500 11 1/ 116 yards for the Rams and was following the game studiously when times for 25 yards and Rams'starting Seattle 52 57 .477 14 named the American Bowl MVP. they weren't out snapping up NFL quarterback Jim Everett was 5 for 9 Ceal 47 .4771 1 A sellout Tokyo Dome crowd of T-shirts ($19), towels, hats and for 69 yards and an interception. Cicago 47 6.427 43,000 fans, taking shelter from backpacks. The Rams' goal-line defense NATIONAL typhoon rains pelting the city, "It's very action-packed and stopped San Francisco at the 1-yard enthusiastically watched the two tactical," said Shigetoshi Ozaki, 52, a line when Frank Stains recovered cast Dvision teams'preseason opener along with a trading company employee. "It Flagler's fumble with 2:41 left in the W L Pct. GB nationwide TV audience in both seems to reflect the American third quarter. Chicago b3 47 .57 leMontreal b3 47 .577 Tyson, King want Dokes not Holyfield New Lork 5751 BEVERLY HILLS, Calif. (AP) -King said. George Foreman, King said. That Pittsburgh 46 63 .422 16 1/2 Heavyweight champion Mike Tyson Tyson said little, other than that fight, which King called the "Rip Van Phi i adelphi a 44 65 .404 18 1/2 would like to fight Michael Dokes in he'd like, to fight in September, Winkle fight," would probably be est Division either September or October, November and January. overseas, possibly in Tokyo, 14 L Pct. GB promoter Don King said Thursday Tyson and King also announced a Indonesia or even Beijing. night. seven-figure promotional deal with Commenting on the possibility of San Francisco 64 46 .582 If that matchup can't be lined up, an automobile company. a fight between Tyson and unbeaten Houston 61 49 .555 3 Tyson's next choices for opponents Tyson still has three fights Evander Holyfield, King said: San Diego 55 55 .500 9 would be Buster Douglas or Razor remaining on a $26.5 million "Holyfield has amateur promoters. Los Angeles 52 59 .468 12 1/2 Ruddick. contract with HBO. They're not ready for this fight. The Cincinnati 51 58 .468 12 1/2 The Las Vegas Hilton has the right He is then scheduled for a pay-perfight has to built up and there is a risk Atl anta 44 66 .400 20 of first refusal for Tyson's next fight, view fight, which could be against to build him up."

PAGE 8

> Tropic Times Aug. 7,1989 Progress slow at Central American summit TELA, Honduras (Reuter) -and the other on Salvadoran finished documents. There is a group Ortega said the presidents reacted Central American presidents guerrillas. of elements from which we hope to positively to a proposal from the prepared for discussions Sunday The ministers were dealing with draw a concrete result probably Salvadoran guerrilla movement, the after making slow progress in technical aspects and the presidents tomorrow," Honduran Foreign Farabundo Marti National Saturday's first session towards an with political ones, he said. Minister Carlos Lopez Contreras Liberation Front (FMLN), to open a agreement on demobilizing "It's very premature to talk about said. dialogue with the right-wing Nicaraguan Contra rebels. government of Alfredo Cristiani. "We are discussing it. We are In a letter, they asked Ortega to getting closer," Nicaraguan present to the summit, Salvadoran President Daniel Ortega said when guerrilla commanders said they were asked what progress the five ready to open a dialogue with the presidents had made on a government on the basis of talks they demobilization plan. held in Mexico last week with "The important thing is for the opposition parties. presidents to support a plan and to Cristiani said his government had agree on a timetable," he said. been open to dialogue with the The other presidents did not speak guerrillas since it took office in June. to the media as they left for a private Te s. initain has dinner. The U.S. administration has The main task facing the resisted moves to demobilize the presidents at the three-day summit in Contras before next February's the Honduran seaside resort of Tela Nicaraguan elections, saying they is to agree on a plan to disband some must be kept intact to pressure the 12,000 U.S.-backed Contras fighting Sandinista government to hold a free Nicaragua's Sandinista government. and fair poll. Contra leaders also The Central American foreign oppose early disbandment. ministers, who met separately to The Sandinistas want them work on the technical aspects of a disbanded within three months. Contra demobilization plan, The Sandinistas appeared to find emerged pessimistic from their first support for their position from Costa session. Rican President Oscar Arias, the "Nothing has been resolved," Nobel Peace Prizewinning architect Costa Rican Foreign Minister of a 1987 Central American peace Rodrigo Madrigal Nieto told plan. reporters. Arias said Contra demobilization The ministers were continuing a should be gradual. "But meeting suspended in Guatemala this demobilization could never be week after El Salvador called for a conditional on Nicaraguan separate plan to disband leftist athNainlZo. elections," he said. Salvadoran guerrillas. NO JOKER -Carol Prima, an animal keeper at the National Zoo in Ortega said he was prepared to A Costa Rican source said the Washington, standsinthezoo'sbatcaveasoneofitsinhabitantsfiesby.It talk to the Contr.as to make foreign ministers were discussing two has been suggested that human beings and bats might be distant cousins arrangements for their plans, one on Contra demobilization sharing the same primeval ancestor. (AP Laserphoto) demobilization. Bolivian congress electsPazZamora president LA PAZ, Bolivia (UPI) -Sunday in the presence ofat leastfive Paz Zamora served from 1982-1985 struggle." He was arrested in Congress early Saturday elected South American presidents and 35 as vice president. February 1974 and imprisoned but former Marxist revolutionary Jaime foreign delegations. The Zuazo-Paz Zamora adescaped in June of the same year. Paz Zamora as president in an The outcome in congress was ministration was cut short by public Despite his revolutionary alliance between Bolivia's left and the considered assured when former outrage over hyper-inflation and background, Paz Zamora emerged in forces of a former military dictator. military strongman Hugo Banzer social chaos. Annual inflation the 1980s as a Social Democrat, a Congress elected Paz Zamora, 97withdrew from the race Wednesday reached 24,000 percent in 1985 moderate socialist along the lines of 59, despite his finishing third in the and threw his support to Paz before a severe economic austerity the European Socialist parties who general election. Congress was called Zamora. program was put into place by accept many capitalist economic upon to chose the president because Banzer made the move apparently President Victor Paz Estenssoro, ideas and reject the Marxist model none of the nine candidates received as political revenge because who is Paz Zamora's uncle. used by the Soviet Union. a majority in the May 7 vote. governing party candidate Gonzalo Paz Zamora moved to quell fears U.S. Ambassador Robert Gelbard Christian Democrat Luis Ossio Sanchez de Lozada refused to enter over his economic policies, saying he visited Paz Zamora prior to his njines was chosen vice president, into a political pact. would guarantee economic stability election and said later he assured the receiving 96 votes in the 156-member Paz Zamora's expected election and that there would be no abrupt candidate of U.S. cooperation in all congress. touched off a panic of bank changes in policy. areas. The congressional vote came well withdrawals reported to have "We want to give confidence and The United States has been after midnight and followed 14 hours reached $100 million. It also touched security to Bolivians," he said. working with Bolivia in its efforts to of heated debate. off a rise in the dollar against the Paz Zamora was a clandestine eradicate fields of coca leafs, used to The leader of the Leftist boliviano, with traders apparently leader during Banzer's military make cocaine. Bolivia is the world's Revolutionary Movement-New remembering the government of government from 1971-1978, second largest producer of coca, Majority party was to be inaugurated President Hernan Siles Zuazo, who advocating a Marxist "armed trailing only Peru. by United Press International percent last year -rising to more people in the shore resort early service for the two activists. than five offenses for every 100 Saturday, police said. Hoards of Hostage hope dims U.s. residents-with murder and partiers streamed from thetaverns Hiroshima marks 44th BEIRUT, Lebanon -The prorapes increasing more than cases onto the boardwalk around 1:30 Iranian Hezbollah movement of arson and theft, the FBI said am. after the power went out HIROSHIMA, Japan -White Saturday dampened hopes for the Sunday. In its annual "Crime in because of a fire in a substation, doves of peace were released into h the United States"report, the FBI police said. the hot summer sky and tens of release of Western hostages in t niy Staed res th F9I thousands of people bowed their Lebanon by demanding Israel not only compared figures to 1987thuad pe release a kidnapped Moslem but also showed the number of Cops smash protests heads in prayer near a bombedleader asa pre-condition for talks crimes known to law enforcement out memorial Sunday as on a prisoner exchange involving authorities was 17 percent higher CAPE TOWN, South Africa -Hiroshima marked the 44th three Israeli soldiers. Israel -has than five years ago. Police fired tear gas to disperse anniversary of the atomic bomb proposed swapping Sheikh Abdul mourners at a funeral for two attack that led to the end of World Karim Obeid for the three soldiers Blackout empties bars guerrillas of the outlawed African War II. A crowd of 50,000 and 16 Westerners held by National Congress Saturday, and gathered in the downtown Peace Moslem extremists. SEASIDE HEIGHTS, N.J. --A broke up a birthday party for the Memorial Park to join millions power blackout emptied bars on country's oldest political prisoner more throughout Japan in U.S. crime jumps the boardwalk and touched off in a tense day of protests. Dozens observing a minute of silence at three hours of fighting, windowof police carrying automatic 8:15 a.m., the moment a U.S. B-29 WASHINGTON -Crime breaking and other pandemonium weapons and tear gas canisters warplane dropped an atom bomb across the nation jumped 3 among a throng of up to 20,000 strapped to their belts guarded the on the port city Aug. 6, 1945.


xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID EVXHMBTRH_LRVV2Y INGEST_TIME 2011-04-29T18:24:25Z PACKAGE UF00098947_00040
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES