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Title: Neotropical primates
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098814/00056
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Title: Neotropical primates a newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCNSSC Primate Specialist Group
Abbreviated Title: Neotrop. primates
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
Conservation International
Center for Applied Biodiversity Science
Publisher: Conservation International
Place of Publication: Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Publication Date: August 2008
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Primates -- Periodicals -- Latin America   ( lcsh )
Primates -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Wildlife conservation -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: review   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Brazil
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Language: English, Portuguese, and Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Mar. 1993)-
Issuing Body: Issued jointly with Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, <Dec. 2004->
General Note: Published in Washington, D.C., Dec. 1999-Apr. 2005 , Arlington, VA, Aug. 2005-
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 13, no. 1 (Apr. 2005).
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098814
Volume ID: VID00056
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28561619
lccn - 96648813
issn - 1413-4705


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Table of Contents
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    Back Matter
        Back Matter 1
        Back Matter 2
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text




Neotropical Primates
A Journal of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist G

Center for Applied Biodiversity Science
Conservation International
2011 Crystal Drive, Suite 500, Arlington, VA 22202, USA

ISSN 1413-4703 Abbreviation: Neotrop. Primates

Erwin Palacios, Conservaci6n Internacional Colombia, Bogota DC, Colombia
Liliana Cortes Ortiz, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
Julio Cesar Bicca-Marques, Pontificia Universidade Cat6lica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brasil
Eckhard Heymann, Deutsches Primatenzentrum, Guttingen, Germany
Jessica Lynch Alfaro, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, USA
LizaVeiga, Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Belem, Brazil

News and Books Reviews
Brenda Sol6rzano, Instituto de Neuroetologfa, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Mexico
Ernesto Rodriguez-Luna, Instituto de Neuroetologia, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Mexico

Founding Editors
Anthony B. Rylands, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science Conservation International, Arlington VA, USA
Ernesto Rodriguez-Luna, Instituto de Neuroetologia, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Mexico
Editorial Board
Hannah M. Buchanan-Smith, University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland, UK
Adelmar E Coimbra-Filho, Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Carolyn M. Crockett, Regional Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
Stephen E Ferrari, Universidade Federal do Sergipe, Aracajf, Brazil
Russell A. Mittermeier, Conservation International, Arlington, VA, USA
Marta D. Mudry, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina
HorAcio Schneider, Universidade Federal do Para, Campus Universitirio de ...... Brazil
Karen B. Strier, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA
Maria Emilia Yamamoto, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Brazil
Primate Specialist Group
Chairman, Russell A. Mittermeier
Deputy Chair, Anthony B. Rylands
Coordinator, Special Section on Great Apes, Liz Williamson
Senior Advisers Neotropics
Mesoamerica, Ernesto Rodriguez Luna
Andean Countries, Erwin Palacios and Eckhard W Heymann
Brazil and the Guianas, M. Cecilia M. Kierulff
Senior Advisers -Africa
West Africa, John E Oates
East Africa, David Mbora
Senior Adviser Madagascar
Jbrg U. Ganzhorn
Senior Advisers -Asia
China, Long Yongcheng
Southeast Asia, Jatna Supriatna and Christian Roos
South Asia, Sally Walker

Layout: Glenda FAbregas, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International, Arlington, VA, USA
Editorial Assistance: John M. Aguiar, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International, Arlington, VA, USA

IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group logo courtesy of Stephen D. Nash, 2002.

Front cover: Aggressive stare of white-fronted capuchin (Cebus albifrons) in upper subtropical forest (2,515 m) in southern Ecuador.

This issue of Neotropical Primates was kindly sponsored by the Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation, 432 Walker Road, Great Falls, Virginia 22066, USA, and
the Los Angeles Zoo, Director John R. Lewis, 5333 Zoo Drive, Los Angeles, California 90027, USA.

Neotropical Primates 15(2), August 2008

We are delighted to announce that the first meetings of Neotropical Primates' new editorial team were held at the 22nd
Congress of the International Primatological Society in Edinburgh in August 2008. All members of the team were able to
attend and Anthony B. Rylands was on hand to offer advice (see photo below). This was a rare opportunity to meet up and
discuss a range of issues related to the journal, including the role and responsibilities of the Editors and Editorial Board,
ways to improve the referee process, revisions to the format, as well as future directions for the publication. A key issue that
emerged during the meetings was, the importance of including information about ongoing field projects, news items and
abstracts of completed theses and dissertations, therefore we strongly encourage authors to summit texts on these topics.
Neotropical Primates has become an extremely valuable resource over the years. Its broad scope, open publication policy,
and accessibility mean that it is uniquely placed to disseminate information about New World Primates.

Sadly, habitat destruction and hunting are increasing threats to primates. Together with the unpredictable impacts of global
climate change, they pose a complex challenge for those concerned with the conservation of primates and the ecosystems
they inhabit. It is important that we remain optimistic and endeavor to be more creative in our conservation actions.
Neotropical Primates aims to contribute to discussions both directly and indirectly linked to primate conservation and thus
to foster the preservation of these unique animals.

Erwin Palacios
Liliana Cortds-Ortiz
Jflio CUsar Bicca-Marques
Eckhard Heymann
Jessica Lynch Alfaro
Liza Veiga

Editorial Team with Anthony B. Rylands. From left: Brenda Solorzano, Erwin Palacios, Liza M. Veiga,
Liliana Cortes-Ortiz, Jessica Lynch Alfaro, Eckhard Heymann, and Jdlio C. Bicca-Marques. Missing Ernesto

Neotropical Primates 15(2), August 2008


Italo M. C. Mourthe1'2, Karen B. Strier3 and Jean P. Boubli4'5

1Dept. of Zoology, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil
2Departamento de Ecologia, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Brazil, email:
3Dept. of A. '. ..:.....i University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA
4Dept. of A. .-'. ..:... '..i University ofAuckland, New Zealand
5 Conservation and Research for Endangered Species of the Zoological Society of San Diego, USA

Seeds are staple foods in the diets of primates with morphological and behavioral specializations for seed predation, but
are considered a less important resource for most other primates. Here we report the first observation of seed predation
by northern muriquis (Brachyteles i.'*.... .-o'... i Twenty-four Mabea fistulifera (Euphorbiaceae) seed eating events were
observed during a systematic study of two groups of northern muriquis in an Atlantic forest fragment in southeastern
Brazil in July 2003, accounting for 2.9% of 836 feeding records during this month. Only unripe seeds were consumed in
all records. The absence of Mabea fistulifera seeds in any of the 102 fecal samples examined suggests that the seeds were
predated. Analyses of 47 fruits of Mabea fistulifera collected in different stages of ripeness in June 2004 indicated that fruits
at earlier stages of ripeness were significantly softer than ones of later stages, implying that fruit hardness made their seeds
unprofitable to these non-specialized seed predator monkeys.

Key Words: Plant-herbivore interaction; seed predation; food choice; fruit hardness.


Las semillas son un alimento esencial en la dieta de los primates con adaptaciones morfol6gicas y comportamentales
para la predaci6n de estas, pero son consideradas un recurso alimentario menos important por la mayoria de otros pri-
mates. Reportamos aquf la primera observaci6n de predaci6n de semillas por muriquis del norte (Brachyteles .' .-.'..
Veinticuatro events de consumo de semillas de Mabeafistulifera (Euphorbiaceae) fueron observados durante un studio
sistemitico de dos grupos de muriquis del norte, en dos fragments de bosque Atlantico del suoriente de Brasil en Julio
de 2003, correspondiendo estos al 2.9% de 836 registros de alimentaci6n durante este mes. Solamente fueron consumidas
semillas inmaduras durante los registros de alimentaci6n. La ausencia de semillas de Mabea fistulifera en cualquiera de
las 102 muestras de deposiciones de B. .'-..... .-.'-.. examinadas sugiere que las semillas fueron predadas. AnAlisis de 47
frutos de Mabeafistulifera colectados en diferente grado de maduraci6n durante Julio de 2004, mostraron que estos son
significativamente mais blandos durante las etapas mais tempranas de maduraci6n, que durante una etapa de maduraci6n
avanzada, implicando que la dureza de los frutos imposibilita el aprovechamiento de las semillas por parte de estos primates
no especializados para tal fin.

Palabras Clave: Interacciones planta-herbivoro; predaci6n de semillas; selecci6n de alimento; dureza de fruto.

Compared to ripe fruit, seeds are valuable resources in terms of their nutritional content and their relative abundance in
space and time (Norconk et al., 1998). Fruits are generally rich in calories, moderate in fiber and low in protein and sec-
ondary compounds (Milton, 1993). Seeds, by contrast, are relatively low in water soluble carbohydrates, highly variable in
protein, and high in fat, fiber and secondary compounds (Kinzey and Norconk, 1993). To protect their seeds from preda-
tion, plants often invest in mechanical defenses such as increasing fruit hardness or toughness (Lucas et al., 2000). Primates
are regarded as seed predators when they destroy the seeds by masticating and digesting them (van Roosmalen et al., 1988;
Gautier-Hion et al., 1993). Occasional seed predators, such as brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella: Peres, 1991) or
gray woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha cana: Peres, 1994) incorporate small proportions of seeds from a few plant spe-
cies into their diets, while other primates, such as Pitheciines (van Roosmalen et al., 1988; Kinzey and Norconk, 1993;

Neotropical Primates 15(2), August 2008
Peres, 1994; Boubli, 1999; Peetz, 2001; Norconk, 2007),
colobines (McKey, 1978), and cercopithecines (Lambert et
al., 2004), make a living from eating seeds, which account
for up to 75% of their feeding time. Primates that include
a wide variety of seeds in their diet have specialized adap-
tations for seed mastication, including robust canines,
procumbent incisors, low relief molars, crenulated enamel,
and strong jaw muscles (Kinzey, 1992). Most atelid mon-
keys, however, exploit ripe fruit pulp instead of seeds, and
ingested seeds are usually defecated intact, which may help
in the seeds' dispersal (Julliot, 1996; Vieira and Izar, 1999;
Stevenson, 2000; Martins, 2006). Furthermore, this group
of primates does not possess any specialized adaptations to
exploit hard fruits routinely in their diet.

The northern muriqui (Brachyteles .':-.... .-'... i is consid-
ered a folivore-frugivore species, with a strong preference
for ripe fruits (Strier, 1991). In addition to leaves and fruit,
the diet of muriquis often includes flowers, as well as less
commonly eaten items such as bark, nectar and seeds. The
nectar of Mabea fistulifera is known to be an important
seasonal resource for both, southern (Torres de Assumpcao,
1981) and northern muriquis (Ferrari and Strier, 1992), as
well as other vertebrates, particularly during periods of fruit
shortage (Vieira et al., 1992; Vieira and Carvalho-Okano,
1996; Passos and Kim, 1999; Olmos and Boulhosa, 2000;
Miranda and de Faria, 2001). The consumption of seeds
of the genus Mabea has been reported in Cebus nigritus,
which occurs sympatrically with both southern (Torres
de Assumpcao, 1981) and northern muriquis (Rimoli,
2001), as well as in other primates such as Cebus capuci-
nus (Oppenheimer, 1982) and Cebus apella (Peres, 1993),
some birds (Leptotila verreauxi and C ,..-.. ". sp.: Vieira
etal., 1992), and several ant species '... . -p and
Pheidole sp.: Peternelli et al., 2004) in other areas. How-
ever, muriquis have not previously been observed to eat the
seeds of this species.

We first observed seed consumption of Mabea fistulifera by
northern muriquis in July 2002, when two seed predation
events were recorded on different days, but fruit ripeness
was not determined. A subsequent predation event was
observed in June 2003, when fruit could be visibly deter-
mined as being in an early stage of ripeness. In this paper we
report systematic records of northern muriquis eating seeds
of Mabea fistulifera, and investigate fruit puncture resistance
as a basis for fruit and seed choice by this species.


The study was conducted at the RPPN Feliciano Miguel
Abdala, hereafter Reserve (previously known as Estagao
Biol6gica de Caratinga; 190 50' S, 410 50' W). The
Reserve is a forest fragment of 957 ha of sub-montane
semideciduous Atlantic forest, most of it in advanced stages
of succession and has been described in detail elsewhere
(Strier and Boubli, 2006). Seed predation on Mabea
fistulifera was systematically recorded in July 2003 during

200 observation hours on two habituated groups, which
were followed from dawn until dusk on alternate days
over 21 days. The study groups, Ja6 and Nadir, included
about 60 and 40 individuals, respectively, utilizing partially
overlapping home ranges in the northern part of the forest
(Ja6 valley; Boubli et al., in prep.). All feeding records
(FRs) in which monkeys were seen eating any food item
were noted following methods employed by Boubli (1999).
Feeding bout focal samples (FBFS) were also conducted
opportunistically as soon as an individual entered and began
feeding in a Mabeafistulifera tree (Strier, 1989; Mourth6,
2006). During FBFS, the times the animal entered and
left the tree were recorded, and the items consumed were
noted. As seed ingestion of Mabea fistulifera occurred
rarely, we calculated the relative importance of seeds as a
proportion of diet by summing the seed eating records and
dividing by the total number of feeding records obtained
during the same study period in July 2003 (N=836). A
total of 102 fecal samples, collected while the groups were
being followed during this period, were later washed and
examined closely for any traces of Mabeafistulifera seeds.

In June 2004, 47 Mabeafistulifera fruit samples at different
stages of ripeness were collected. The length and width
of each fruit and seed was measured to the nearest mm
with a steel caliper. Resistance to puncture was assessed
with a Macro-line [0-20 Kg] Spring Scale Pesola adapted
with pressure accessories (pin 5 mm width). Fruit hard-
ness was sampled in a way that mimics muriqui feeding
behavior (e.g., monkeys were often seen biting the side
of Mabea fistulifera fruits and usually bit a fruit only once
before discarding it or open it). Resistance to puncture
was defined as the maximum pressure applied immediately
prior to fracturing the fruit husk, and was measured by
slowly and continuously submitting the side of a whole
fruit to the penetrometer pin until the husk fractured
(Kinzey and Norconk, 1990). Each fruit was tested only
once because it was destroyed in the process of measur-
ing its resistance. Resistance to puncture was measured in
megapascals (MPa), based on the following formula: MPa
= ((F*G)/area)/1, 000, 000 (A. Marques, pers. comm.), where
F is the force (kg) needed to break the fruit husk; G, is the
gravity acceleration (e.g., 9.80665 m/s2); and area, is the
point of the pin surface (m2). A Pascal is equivalent to
one Newton per square meter, and it is a proper SI unit of
pressure measurement (Lucas et al., 2000). Fruit volume
was calculated as a sphere. Because Mabea fistulifera is a
dehiscent species (disperse their seeds explosively), the pro-
cess of fruit maturation is complex and fruit color or size
alone were not reliable indicators of fruit ripeness. Spe-
cifically, we observed that ripe fruits lost water and this
promotes a small but noticeable size reduction (e.g., really
ripe fruits are smaller than unripe ones). Fruit color also
changed somewhat from reddish-green husks when unripe
to reddish-brown husks when ripe. As muriquis were never
seen eating ripe fruits of Mabea fistulifera, this stage was
not collected or processed in this study and all fruits, and
consequently seeds, consumed and tested in our sample

were considered as unripe. We distinguished two types
of unripe fruits, early and late, based on the presence of a
thin brown coat covering the seeds in the late unripe stage.
During this study period, the first fruits appeared in the
beginning of June, becoming abundant from the end of
June through the middle of July, which corresponds to the
peak dry season at this site (Strier, 1991).


A total of 24 records of predation on Mabeafistulifera seeds
were observed during July 2003, representing 2.9% of
the 836 FRs obtained during this month. In all records,
unripe seeds were consumed by adult individuals. North-
ern muriquis spent on average 4.82.9 min (Mean+SD;
range 1-9 min; N= 5) consuming seeds from Mabea fistu-
lifera trees. No intact seeds of Mabeafistulifera were found
in examinations of any of the 102 fecal samples collected
during the same period. Mabeafistulifera fruits are hard,
dry, spherical dehiscent cocci, containing an average of
3.00.28 (N=47) small seeds (seed length=7.7+0.89 mm;
seed width=5.4+0.42 mm; wet weight per seed=0.120.02
g; N=28 seeds). Whole fruits had an average length of
17.81.49 mm and an average width of 17.0+1.92 mm,
and weighed 2.990.79 g (N=42 fruits). Fruit volume
was significantly greater in the late stage (38.72.15 mm3;
range 34.6-41.2 mm3; N=12) than early stage of ripeness
(35.13.57 mm3; range 29.6-40.2 mm3; N=32; Wilcoxon
rank sum test W=79,p<0.01). Fruits in the late stage were
also significantly harder (6.342.51 MPa; median=7.19
MPa; range 0.40-9.20 MPa; N=12) than fruits in an ear-
lier stage of ripeness (1.861.89 MPa; median= 1.87 MPa;
range 0.32-6.50 MPa; N=33; W=40, p<0.001; Figure 1).


Early unripe

Neotropical Primates 15(2), August 2008


Our results indicate that northern muriquis opened the
coccis of Mabea fistulifera and consumed their seeds at a
relatively early stage of ripeness, presumably because the
fruit husks become increasingly tough as the fruit matures,
increasing the difficulty of processing them and inhibit-
ing seed consumption at late stages of ripeness. Mabea
fistulifera is one of the hardest fruits opened by northern
muriquis at our study site. As northern muriquis lack the
morphological specializations required to deal with hard
fruits, they should be consuming only the early unripe,
and consequently softer, fruits of this species. During this
study, the northern muriquis were seen biting and dis-
carding several unopened fruits of Mabea fistulifera before
finally opening one and ingesting their small seeds, discard-
ing the dry exocarp. Monkeys often took fruit bunches in
their hands and bit several fruits at the same bunch one
by one, breaking fruit husks by the teeth only, although
we could not determine whether they were sampling and
puncturing with their canines or premolars or both. By
means of this behavior, northern muriquis appeared to be
sampling for fruits that could be easily opened to extract
their seeds, all of which were probably at early stages of
ripeness. This behavior suggests that puncture resistance
dictates northern muriqui food choices while consuming
the seeds of this species.

Considering the muriquis' large body size, it is possible
that although they may be capable of breaking the hard
husks of Mabea fistulifera fruits in late stages of ripeness,
they avoided doing so because of the high costs/benefit
ratio of handling time versus energy gain for such small

Late unripe

Figure 1. Resistance to puncturing of earlier (N = 28) and late unripe (N
fistulifera fruits.




&A A


12) Mabea

Neotropical Primates 15(2), August 2008

seeds (Charnov, 1976). Northern muriquis may be capable
of opening late unripe fruits, but it may not be profitable
for them to do so. In a previous study, Martins (2007)
found that the southern muriqui, Brachyteles arachnoides,
selects unripe seeds of fleshy/protected as well as dry fruits
based on the availability of these types in her study area.
Unfortunately, we do not have systematic measures of
Mabea fistulifera seed availability during our study, but
northern muriquis appeared to consume their unripe seeds
during the period when they were most abundant and also
when the majority of fruits were at earlier stages of matu-
rity (from end of June to middle of July). By mid-July, the
husks of the fruits become much harder as the fruits ripen.
Thus, there appears to be a fairly narrow window of time
during which Mabea fistulifera fruits are soft enough for
northern muriquis to break open and ingest their seeds.
Muriqui seed predation could thus be considered as a sea-
sonal phenomenon, similar to that described for Lagothrix
lagotricha cana in the Amazon (Peres, 1994).

In addition to fruit hardness, other characteristics, such
as nutrient content and palatability, could account for the
northern muriquis' selection of early unripe Mabea fistulif-
era fruits. Indeed, because the muriquis' are known to con-
sume nectar from the inflorescences of this species between
late April and May at this site (Ferrari and Strier, 1992;
Mourth&, 2006), they would be familiar with resource, and
primed to exploit it for other items, such as seeds. There
is evidence that the mid-dry season, when they consumed
these seeds, is a period of food shortage at our study site
(Strier, 1991). Mabea fistulifera seeds are very rich in oil
(Vieira et al., 1992), which could provide an important
source of energy when other fruits that are easier to process
are scarce. Indeed, the seasonal inclusion of seeds in the
diets of other primates is thought to compensate for sea-
sonal fruit shortages (Norconk, 2007). Even small seeds
can be valuable sources of protein and lipids, as in the case
of three other Euphorbiaceae species _11 -...... guianen-
sis, Sapium aubletianum and Actinostemon schomburgkii),
which are known to have high lipid and protein levels
(Norconk and Conklin-Brittain, 2004).

Palatability is strongly influenced by the percentage of sec-
ondary compounds stored in plant parts. However, the
concentrations of these toxic metabolites are known to
be lower in the leaves of fast-growing trees (Coley et al.,
1985). Mabeafistulifera is considered to be a pioneer spe-
cies (Olmos and Boulhosa, 2000; Peternelli et al., 2004),
and as such, may be similar to other fast-growing trees
that invest less in the production of chemical defenses and
therefore have few, if any, secondary metabolites stored
in their seeds. Moreover, Norconk and Conklin-Brittain
(2004) found no differences in tannin levels between plant
parts eaten and not eaten by Venezuelan white-faced sakis
(Pithecia pithecia). Monkeys could accept a trade-off for
foods that are high in antifeedants but also high in nutri-
ents (Kinzey and Norconk, 1993; Norconk and Conklin-
Brittain, 2004). Therefore, whatever chemical compounds

may be present in Mabeafistulifera seeds may not be as effi-
cient in deterring a primate that deals on a daily basis with
the detoxification of a great amount of plant secondary
compounds abundant in mature leaves (Kinzey and Nor-
conk, 1990) such as northern muriquis do. The impact of
secondary compounds on herbivores' diets is very difficult
to assess (Janzen, 1978), and analyses of the chemical and
nutritional properties of Mabeafistulifera seeds are needed
to evaluate how they might interact with fruit hardness
and ripeness to influence the stage at which muriquis con-
sume them. For instance, black colobus monkeys (Colobus
satanas) consume high levels of secondary compounds in
seeds, but ignore leaves with similar concentrations of these
chemicals because of the great reward in nutrients they are
able to get on seeds (McKey, 1978).

Northern muriquis were also seen feeding but not destroy-
ing seeds from other plant species (e.g., Aspidosperma sp.,
Cabralea canjerana, Carpotroche brasiliensis, Clusia sp.,
Copaifera !,Wdolff.',, Gomidesia crocea, Hymenaea cour-
baril, Mucuna sp., Nectandra rigida, Ocotea sp., Phylloste-
monodaphne geminiflora, Phyllostemonodaphne sp., Rheedia
gardneriana, Symphonia globulifera and Virola oleifera) in
the southern part of the Reserve (Strier, 1991; Rimoli,
2001). For instance, northern muriquis feed heavily on
fruits of Carpotroche brasiliensis when they are available
during the driest months of the year (June-August), and
the seeds are later found intact in their feces or masticated,
indicating that northern muriquis can serve as both seed
dispersers and predators (Strier, 1986). Although we were
able to find seeds of other species as small as 2 mm in our
present analyses of muriqui fecal samples, no intact seeds
of Mabea fistulifera were found, implying that these seeds
were chewed up and digested, consistent with seed preda-
tion practices observed in other primates (Gautier-Hion
et al., 1993). We guess that these small seeds are being
completely destroyed because they are the only reward of
Mabea fistulifera dry fruits. However, it is important to
keep in mind that the low abundance of Mabea fistulifera
seeds in northern muriqui diet could reduce the chances of
finding them in the fecal samples.

Several studies have examined the hardness of foods
ingested by primates relative to their morphological and
behavioral adaptations (Kinzey and Norconk, 1990, 1993;
Peres, 1993; Norconk et al., 1997; Lambert et al., 2004),
but few have evaluated fruit hardness relative to the nutri-
tional content and palatability of other foods available at
the times of year during which seeds are predated (Kinzey
and Norconk, 1993; Norconk and Conklin-Brittain,
2004). More studies of this type are needed to help us
better understand the relationship between primate food
choices and the characteristics of the fruits that they eat.


We thank Fabiano Andrade and Wanderson Silva for their
assistance in the field, Fabiana Couto helped us with fruit

measurements, and Dr. Ari Marques helped us in pressure
calculation. Dr. Liza Veiga and three anonymous reviewers
provided many valuable comments and constructive criti-
cisms on this manuscript. The study was supported by a
grant to JPB from the Zoological Society of San Diego/
Conservation and Research for Endangered Species. All
analysis and graphics of this paper were accomplished
under the free software R 2.7.1 (R Development Core
Team, 2008).


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Ana Maria Aldana
Marta Beltrdn
Johanna Torres-Neira
Pablo R. Stevenson


The spider monkey Ateles hybridus, one of the most threat-
ened primate species in the Neotropics is restricted to
Colombia and Venezuela (Defler, 2004). There are two
sub-species present in Colombia: A. hybridus hybridus and
A. hybridus brunneus (Froehlich et al., 1991 in Defler,
2004). The geographical range of the species includes the
northwest region of the country, along the Magdalena River
from the southern region of La Guajira to the northeast of
the department of Boyaci (Defler, 2004). Populations of
Ateles hybridus still exist in several Colombian departments
(Magdalena, Cesar, Norte de Santander, Arauca, Santander,
Bolivar, Antioquia and Caldas). Due to its limited distri-
bution range, high hunting pressure, low birth rates and
the accelerated transformation of its habitat, the species is
now considered Critically Endangered (CRA3cd) and faces
the highest risk of extinction in Colombia (Pinz6n, 1998;
IUCN, 2008; Defler and Rodriguez, 2003). Few conserva-
tion actions have focused on A. hybridus subspecies. In the
1970's, there was an initiative to create a protected area at
the Serrania San Lucas, where A. hybridus brunneus occurs,
but the plan has not been realized (Defler, 2004).

Studies and conservation programs for Ateles hybridus in
Colombia are scarce (Defler, 2004). There are two pub-
lished studies that include general ecological information
on the populations in the state of Bolivar (Bernstein et al.,
1976; Green, 1978). Additionally, there are reports of the
species from Venezuela (Mondolfi and Eisenberg, 1979
in Defler, 2004). However, there is much less informa-
tion available for A. hybridus than for other spider monkey
species (Defler, 2004). The main aims of the present
study were to estimate the population density of brown
spider monkeys (Ateles hybridus hybridus) at El Paujil Bird
Reserve, Magdalena Valley (Colombia) and to compare
the abundance of the monkeys across forests with different
characteristics in the area. According to Stevenson (2001)
the abundance of primate communities inside protected
Neotropical forests is positively related to fruit production.
For this reason we predicted higher population densities
for forests with abundant fruit production. In addition,
we examined the effect of different levels of logging and
hunting pressure, which are known to impact the popu-
lation density of large Neotropical primates (Peres and

Neotropical Primates 15(2), August 2008
Palacios, 2007). Other projects within the study zone are
being developed, focusing on the behavioral and ecologi-
cal aspects of the species (A. Link pers. comm.), as well as
conservation actions and educational campaigns.


The research was focused on the A. hybridus hybridus popu-
lations existing at El Paujil Bird Reserve (owned by Fun-
daci6n ProAves) located at the Serrania de Las Quinchas
in Santander and Boyaca departments (74 11' W, 5 56'
N: 200 1700 m a.s.1.). The nearest weather station is
located in the municipality of Otanche (74 11' W, 5
40' N: 1070 m a.s.1.), where the median temperature is
27.8C. Precipitation is bimodal showing peaks in April-
May and September-November; the total annual precipita-
tion is 2,070 mm. Relative humidity ranges from 85% to
89% (Balcazar-Vargas et al., 2000). Annual rainfall during
2007 was 3,285 mm (A. Link, pers. comm.)

Forest characterization
Four different forest types were studied: forest with a mod-
erate level of selective logging (logged forest), forest on
flood plains, young secondary forest (secondary forest),
and forest with less logging pressure (undisturbed forest).
Three of these forest types were present inside the reserve:
logged forest, forest on flood plains, and secondary forest.
Undisturbed forest was not found inside the reserve, but
was studied on the property of Mr. Norberto Vargas, 8
km away from the reserve. The logged forest had been
exploited for wood in the past, contrary to the undisturbed
forest, which had been logged for fewer species and to a
lesser extent. The flood plains were not very extensive,
existing only at the bank of the Ermitafio River (< 50 m
wide), and flooding occurred only for a few days during the
rainy seasons; for this reason we did not establish vegeta-
tion plots in this forest type. To determine forest composi-
tion, we completed five 1-ha vegetation plots, taking into
account the proportional area of each forest type found. In
every hectare we marked and identified all trees and lianas
with DBH (Diameter at Breast Height) greater or equal to
5 cm, following the r, rl'....1. .:. used in Stevenson et al.
(2004). The identification of each plant was made with
the aid of binoculars. In the cases where identification
was not possible, we collected botanical samples for later
identification. The vouchers were placed at the Universi-
dad de Los Andes Herbarium (ANDES) and the National
Herbarium (COL). For each 1-ha plot we calculated spe-
cies richness, number of species per stem and the Fisher's
diversity index.

Resource availability
Following the methodology proposed by Stevenson (2004),
we carried out biweekly phenological transects to estimate
fruit production of endozoochorous species. Transects
were placed according to the proportion of each forest type
inside the reserve. The distances covered for each forest
type were: 8.9 km for logged forests, 1 km for secondary

Neotropical Primates 15(2), August 2008

forests and 0.8 km for flood plains. We estimated the crop
as the total number of fruits produced by each tree present
along the transects. To decrease the variance resulting from
visual estimates made by different observers, we quantified
fruit crop as the mean value of log-scale categories (i.e.
1-10, 10-100, 100-1000, and so on: Janson and Chapman,
1999). To obtain the production in terms of biomass for
each individual, we estimated the average weight of each
species, drying and weighing a minimum of 5 fruits. The
total production was estimated as the total production of
all individuals in an area determined from the length and
effective width of the transects, which depends on the size
of the trees (Stevenson, 2004). The undisturbed forest
was not included because is located far from El Paujil Bird
Reserve. However, in order to make comparisons within
forests, we calculated the basal area of the endozoochorous
species for all plots, using only individuals with DBH
greater than 10 cm. In general, the basal area of fruiting
trees is positively correlated with fruit production (Chap-
man et al., 1994; Stevenson et al., 1998).

Population density ofAteles hybridus and other primates
We used linear transects to estimate the population density
of all diurnal primates in each forest type. We collected
information once a month, recording the species, number
of individuals, and perpendicular distance to the transect.
The length of the transects was 6.0 km for the undisturbed
forest, 9.9 km for the logged forest, 2.1 km for the flood
plains and 1.1 km for the secondary forest. Data were ana-
lyzed for each species using the King estimator (Leopold

d = n / 2La

Where n is the number of individuals observed on each
transect, L is the length of the transect, and a is the aver-
age perpendicular distance of the individuals to the trail.
To determine differences in A. hybridus density between
forests we performed a Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test
using Statistix 8.0.


Forest type characterization
The diversity indexes calculated for each vegetation plot are
shown in Table 1. We observed that the diversity indexes

calculated for undisturbed forest were very similar to
indexes calculated for the logged forest, while the diversity
indexes for the secondary forest were notably lower than
for the other forests.

Resource availability
We found relatively low production for the flood plains (38
kg/ha 2.3SD) and secondary forest (286 kg/ha 12.3
SD), while the logged forests showed higher production
(501 kg/ha 9.4SD). The production in the flood plains
was relatively constant through the sampling period, show-
ing variation between the biweekly periods every month
(Fig. la). Fruit production in the secondary forest showed
a peak in April caused by the fructification of a single indi-
vidual of unga ilba. a non-characteristic species of this forest
type (Fig. ib). For the logged forest, production showed a
fructification peak during April-June, which matches with
the first rainy season at the study site (Fig. Ic). We found
significant differences of resource availability among forest
types according to the disturbance level. The comparison
based on the basal area of endozoochorous species (Table
1) suggests that fruit productivity should be higher in the
undisturbed forest than in the logged forest, because it
holds a higher basal area of endozoochorous species.

Population density ofAteles hybridus and other primates
We did not observe Ateles hybridus in secondary forest or
in flood plains during the study (Table 2). In contrast, we
found a high density of spider monkeys in the undisturbed
and logged forests. Density was similar between these two
types of forests (n= 24, F= 0.08, p= 0.77). A similar situa-
tion was found for Alouatta seniculus; the highest density of
howlers were in the logged forest, and they were also pres-
ent in the undisturbed forest, but not in the other forests.
On the other hand, the highest density of Cebus albifrons
was in the secondary forest, where there no other primate
species were observed.


We found differences among forest types in diversity, fruit
production and basal area of endozoochorous species,
which are associated with structural and floristic compo-
sition (Aldana et al. in prep.). According to our predic-
tions, the forest types with high fruit production showed
the highest population densities of Ateles hybridus. How-

Table 1. Diversity indices and basal area of endozoochorous plant species from each 1-ha vegetation plot in 3 different forest types at the
study area (values in parenthesis correspond to plants > or = 10 cm DBH).
Basal Area
Forest type No. Species No. Individuals Spp/Stem Fisher's Alpha Endoochoro ()
Endozoochorous (m2)
Secondary 45 (20) 471 (83) 0.096 (0.241) 12.3 (8.4) 1.1
225 (148) 1070 (499) 0.210 (0.297) 86.8 (71.3) 21.0
194 (141) 1000 (544) 0.194 (0.259) 71.8 (61.8) 19.7
243 (169) 1048 (527) 0.232 (0.321) 99.2 (86.1) 30.7
Undisturbed) 924(446) 0.231 (0.348) 86.9(84.3) 36.3
213 (155) 924 (446) 0.231 (0.348) 86.9 (84.3) 36.3

Neotropical Primates 15(2), August 2008


160 -







Fct Mar Apr May Jim Jul Aug Sop Oct Nov Dec Jan




140 -


100 -



0.m m m. -_ m m
FCb Mar Apr Mq Jun Jul Aug Scp Oct Nov Dc J=n







40 .im.

Fcb Mar Apr May Junm Jul Aug Scp Oct Nov Dcc Jan

Figure 1. Monthly production (kg/ha) of endozoochorous fruits within different forest types
found at El Paujil Bird Reserve, for the period of time sampled: February 2006 -January 2007.
a) Production in the secondary forest. b) Production in the flood plains. c) Production in the
logged forest.

Neotropical Primates 15(2), August 2008
Table 2. Density of A. hybridus and other diurnal primate spe-
cies in different forest types at El Paujil Bird Reserve and nearby
forests. n/a = non/applicable in the cases where the observations
were zero for all months and the standard deviation could not
be calculated.
Forest type Species Ind/km2 Stand. Dev.
Ateles hybridus 29 25
Undisturbed Alouatta seniculus 3 9
Cebus albifrons 34 65
Ateles hybridus 38 43
Logged Alouatta seniculus 10 11
Cebus albifrons 83 114
Ateles hybridus 0 n/a
Secondary Alouatta seniculus 0 n/a
Cebus albifrons 136 278
Ateles hybridus 0 n/a
Flood plains Alouatta seniculus 0 n/a
Cebus albifrons 7 23

ever, there was little difference between density estimates in
the logged and undisturbed forest. This unexpected result
may be caused by several factors. It is possible that natu-
ral resources exploitation, in particular hunting pressure,
could have had a high impact. The logged forest is located
inside El Paujil reserve and currently provides protection
to the primates and their habitat. In contrast, the undis-
turbed forest is outside the reserve, where human activi-
ties are not controlled and, besides the difficulty to access
the area, there is no particular protection for the primates.
Occasionally, during our fieldwork, we detected hunting
sites in the undisturbed forest; hunting may reduce the
population density, as well as the probability of detection
and the foraging preference in the zone. Another pos-
sible explanation is that the logged forest is fragmented,
with reduced forest area available, so the high density in
the reserve may be explained by the effect of population
concentration. Although it is difficult for these primates
to move between fragments, there are some observations of
individuals crossing between two fragments using the high-
est trees above roads (A. Link, pers. comm.). Furthermore,
the group found on this fragment has approximately 24
individuals with 4 females carrying infants (A. Link, pers.
com.); this indicates that the population contains a high
proportion of young individuals, characteristic of grow-
ing populations, and suggests that the conditions in which
these primates are found are adequate to sustain the popu-
lation over the short term. In a preliminary evaluation of
the Ateles hybridus diet at El Paujil, Diaz-Cubillos (2007)
found that the group uses the fragment of logged forest,
preferring areas with high canopy and high plant diversity.
This explains why we did not find these primates inside the
secondary forest or the flood plains, since these areas have
lower canopy and are not very productive or diverse.

Conclusions and recommendations

Even though the undisturbed forest offers a higher quan-
tity and diversity of endozoochorous plant species, the
Ateles hybridus groups of the study area at the Serrania de
Las Quinchas have similarly high population densities in
undisturbed forests and logged forests, because the later are
protected from hunting activities. In areas with past total
deforestation, such as the secondary forests, we did not
find A. hybridus groups. This suggests that, in contrast to
selective logging, clear-cutting forests has long term nega-
tive consequences for this species. This study indicates that
logged forest fragments in El Paujil Bird Reserve are still in
adequate condition to carry healthy populations of primate
species such as A. hybridus, A. seniculus, and C. albifrons.
Accordingly, the results of this study suggest that a popula-
tion of A. hybridus requires relative mature forest with high
canopy levels. We recommend the expansion of the pro-
tected areas where the species can still be found in order to
decrease fragmentation, increase connectivity within frag-
ments, and assure a minimum area where the A. hybridus
populations could have enough space to sustain healthy
populations. We also recommend continued improve-
ment and implementation of educational activities with
children, and the development of activities with adults to
raise awareness at all levels in the local communities. Aims
should include the reduction of hunting activities outside
of protected areas to guarantee the conservation of the spe-
cies in the region.


This research was possible thanks to the grants from Pri-
mate Conservation Inc. and Margot Marsh Biodiversity
Foundation, the financial and logistical support from
Woolly Monkey Foundation, Universidad de Los Andes,
Fundaci6n ProAves Colombia, and Fundaci6n Shambala.
We would like to thank Brent White for all his support and
Tomas Defler for his interest in the conservation of Ateles
hybridus and helpful comments on the project proposal.
Special thanks to Elkin Luis Rodriguez for the data on
census from the undisturbed forests and Oscar Baena for
his help in gathering some phenological data at El Paujil.

Ana Maria Aldana, Marta Beltrin, Johanna Torres-
Neira and Pablo R. Stevenson, Centro de Investiga-
ciones Ecol6gicas La Macarena (CIEM), Departamento de
Ciencias Biol6gicas, Universidad de Los Andes. Cr. 1 No.
18a-10, Bogoti D. C., Colombia.


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lagothricha). Field Studies of Fauna and Flora La Macare-
na, Colombia 14: 21-28.

Neotropical Primates 15(2), August 2008


Marcos de Souza Fialho
Gregdrio Fernandes Gonfalves


A comunidade de primatas da Floresta Atlbntica, um
hotspot para a conservagao biol6gica (Myers et al., 2000), 6
composta por pelo menos 21 taxons e, em certas regi6es, atd
seis esp6cies podem conviver de forma simpitrica. Contudo,
este bioma ji perdeu mais de 93% de sua cobertura florestal
original (Fundagao SOS Mata Atlbntica e INPE, 2002).
Na irea compreendida pela Zona da Mata dos estados de
Alagoas, Pernambuco, Paraiba e Rio Grande do Norte, a
biorregiao Pernambucana (Galindo-Leal e CSmara, 2005)
ou Centro de Endemismo Pernambuco (Silva e Casteleti,
2005), os remanescentes florestais nao chegam a 5% de sua
extensao original, pulverizados em uma matriz de canaviais
(Coimbra-Filho e Camara, 1996; Silva e Casteleti, 2005).

Nesta paisagem altamente fragmentada do Centro de
Endemismo Pernambuco sao encontradas tries species
de primatas, o sagui-de-tufos-brancos Callithrix jacchus
(Linnaeus, 1758), o guariba-de-maos-ruivas Alouatta
belzebul (Linnaeus, 1766) e o macaco-prego-galego Cebus
flavius (Schreber, 1774). Callithrix jacchus 6 uma esp6cie
relativamente comum, ocorrendo tambdm na regiao da
Caatinga. Apesar de A. belzebul apresentar uma populagao
disjunta na Amaz6nia oriental em razoivel estado de
conservagao, a situacao de suas populagoes remanescentes
na FlorestaAtlhntica nordestina 9 critical (Oliveira e Oliveira,
1993). Cebus flavius foi redescoberto em 2006 como
taxon vAlido (Oliveira e Langguth, 2006). Segundo estes
autores, a especie ocorreria na Floresta Atlhntica nordestina
ao norte do rio Sao Francisco. Estudos em andamento
apontam que as populagoes atuais de C. flavius na natureza
nao ultrapassam duas dezenas (Ferreira et al., 2007), o que
sugere uma situacao de altissimavulnerabilidade. A esp6cie
jai listada como Criticamente Ameagada pela IUCN

0 process de fragmentagao florestal pode afetar a
viabilidade de populagoes selvagens de diversos modos,
tais como o incremento da endogamia e a consequente
susceptibilidade a doengas (Frankham et al., 2002). Por
sua vez, os primatas podem responder a fragmentagao
alterando seu padrao de atividades, sua dieta e sua irea de
uso entire outros (Marsh, 2003). Populagoes remanescentes
de primatas mais generalistas, como algumas esp6cies de
Alouatta, Cebus e Callithrix (Crockett, 1998; Chiarello,
2003), sao capazes de suportar o efeito de borda e se
deslocar e/ou se alimentar de recursos do entorno dos
fragments (pastagens e plantios, por exemplo). Assim,
estas populagoes tem maiores probabilidades de sobreviver
ao process de fragmentagao e isolamento e podem
dispersar e colonizar outros fragments. Esta flexibilidade
adaptativa, no entanto, nao represent uma garantia de

Neotropical Primates 15(2), August 2008

sobrevivencia (Marsh, 2003). Perturbagoes antr6picas,
como a caga e o corte seletivo, e fatores estocisticos podemrn
diminuir a probabilidade de sobrevivencia das populagoes
(Cowlishaw e Dunbar, 2000; Chiarello, 2003; Vieira et
al., 2003). Neste estudo sao apresentadas estimativas de
abundancia para as tries esp6cies de primatas ocorrentes emrn
um dos maiores fragments florestais da Floresta Atlhntica


Area de estudo
O estudo foi realizado em um fragmento de Floresta Esta-
cional Semidecidual no municipio de Santa Rita, Paraiba, a
Reserva Particular do Patrim6nio Natural RPPN Gargad
(34o57'25"0, 700'44"S). A RPPN, tambem conhe-
cida como Mata Santana, 6 de propriedade da Japungu
Agroindustrial S/A. 0 fragmento encontra-se incluso na
Reserva da Biosfera da Mata Atlhntica e nas Areas Pri-
oritirias para Conservagao da Biodiversidade, na catego-
ria "Extrema Importincia Biol6gica" (Mata Santa Rita/
Sapd). Ao mesmo tempo, situa-se em drea de Alta Pressao
Antr6pica, de acordo corn a "Avaliacao e Agoes Prioritirias
para a Conservagao da Biodiversidade da Mata Atlhntica
e Campos Sulinos" (MMA, 2000). Praticamente ao nivel
do mar (<80 m), a regiao apresenta clima quente e dmido
(tipo As conforme Kappen), corn temperature mddia annual
pr6xima a 25C (Lima e Heckendorff, 1985). De acordo
corn anAlise do Laborat6rio de Controle da Usina Japungu,
as maiores mddias obtidas do ano sao registradas nos meses
de margo a julho, atingindo 279 mm em junho, enquanto
o period de menor indice pluviom6trico 6 registrado entire
outubro e janeiro, sendo outubro o mes corn menor indice
(mrdia= 30 mm). 0 fragmento florestal estudado possui
uma area de 14.36 km2 coberta corn floresta em diferentes
estigios sucessionais entremeada por areas alagadas e aber-
tas. 0 levantamento foi realizado em uma drea corn cerca
de 9 km2 (Fig. 1). 0 entorno do fragmento 6 ocupado por

Transecfoes Lineares
Para estimar as abundincias das tries esp6cies de prima-
tas foi utilizado o m6todo de Transeco6es Lineares (Peres,
1999; Buckland etal., 2001; Gonzalez-S61is e Guix., 2002;
Cullen e Rudran, 2003), corn auxilio do program DIS-
TANCE 5.0 (Thomas et al, 2003). Para cada esp6cie foi
selecionada a fungao que apresentou o menor valor de AIC
(Criterio de Informacao de Akaike). A abundancia foi esti-
mada pelo cilculo de taxas de encontro, dada pela razao do
ndmero de encontros de grupos por 10 km percorridos.
Entre dezembro de 2006 e junho de 2007 foram percor-
ridos 250 km, distribuidos em quatro transecqoes (trilhas)
pr6-existentes (transeccoes 1, 2, 3 e 4 corn 2.8, 3.4, 4.5 e
4.5 km, respectivamente; total= 15.2 km). As transeccoes
foram percorridas a uma velocidade constant de cerca de
1.5 km/hora corn o auxilio de um mateiro, o qual perman-
ecia a uma distancia minima de 20 m do pesquisador. 0
period de coleta de dados se estendeu das 07:00 as 10:30

e das 14:00 as 17:30. Em cada encontro/avistamento foi
registrada a esp6cie observada, o ndmero de individuos no
grupo e caracterizado o estigio sucessional da floresta em
madura ou em regeneracao corn base na abertura e altura
do dossel e na densidade do sub-bosque. A mensuracao da
distincia perpendicular de avistamento foi realizada corn
auxilio de um telimetro ( .' -'. ,.


Foram registrados 56 avistamentos de primatas na RPPN
Gargad (Tab. 1). A transeccao 2 foi a dnica na qual as tres
esp6cies foram observadas e a dnica corn visualizagao de
A. belzebul. Por outro lado, apenas C. jacchus foi avistado
na transeccao 3 (Fig. 1). Callitrix jacchus foi a esp6cie
mais avistada (62% dos avistamentos), corn uma taxa
de encontro de 10.5 individuos/10 km. A estimativa de
densidade calculada foi de 0.095 grupos/ha ou 9.5 grupos/
km2 (Hazard/Polynomial). Dois tergos dos avistamentos de
C jacchus ocorreram em sitios corn floresta em regeneracao.
Cebus flavius foi responsivel por 20% dos avistamentos.
Vocalizagoes da esp6cie foram ouvidas em outras quatro
oportunidades, mas sem se obter contato visual corn os
animals. Para C. flavius se obteve uma taxa de encontro de

Figura 1. Localizaqgo da RPPN Gargad, Santa Rita, Estado da
Paraiba, Brasil, e das transeccoes percorridas.

3.8 individuos/10 km e uma densidade estimada em 0.02
grupos/ha (Hazard/Cosine). A maioria dos avistamentos
de C. flavius (85%) ocorreu em sitios com floresta
madura. Todavia, grupos foram avistados no entorno da
floresta, forrageando em plantagoes de cana-de-ayicar.
A multiplicacao da densidade de grupos (+IC) pela area
do fragmento (9 km2) e pelo tamanho mddio dos grupos
fornece uma estimativa populacional grosseira de 530 (340
- 831) individuos de C. jacchus e 131 (66 -289) individuos
de C. flavius para a RPPN Gargad. Alouatta belzebul foi
avistado apenas duas vezes, sendo um grupo com quatro
individuos em local com floresta madura e outro com oito
individuos em floresta regenerante. Em outras seis ocasi6es
foram ouvidas vocalizacoes. Outros mamiferos observados
no fragmento incluem Dasypus novemcinctus, Bradypus
variegatus, Cerdocyon thous, Procyon cancrivorus, Sciurus
aestuans, Coendou prehensilis, Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris e
Dasyprocta prymnolopha. Euphractus sexcinctus, Cabassous
unicinctus, Cyclopes didactylus, Tamandua tetradactyla e
Nasua nasua tiveram sua presenga relatada por trabalhadores
ou moradores do entorno, mas nao foram avistados durante
este estudo.


Das tres esp6cies de primatas presents, apenas A. belzebul
apresentou um valor de abundancia baixo quando compa-
rado aos obtidos em fragments de irea similar ao long da
FlorestaAtlhntica (Cullen etal., 2000; Buss, 2001; Sao Ber-
nardo, 2004; Gaspar, 2005). A baixa taxa de encontro e a
pequena frequencia de vocalizagoes de A. belzebul sugerem
que sua populagao remanescente na area seja composta por
apenas alguns individuos. A abundancia de C. jacchus na
RPPN Gargad 6 alta quando comparada com as densidades
ou taxas de encontro observadas para a esp6cie na Caatinga
(Moura, 2007) e para Callithrix spp. na Floresta Atlhntica
(C aurita: Sao Bernardo e Galetti, 2004; Martins, 2005;
C.o. ... Chiarello, 2000), mas se assemelha ao encon-
trado por Mendes Pontes et al. (2005) na Floresta Atlbntica
de Pernambuco. Estudos term sugerido que esp6cies mais
gomivoras, como C. jacchus e C. penicillata, apresentam
Areas de vida pequenas quando comparadas com esp6cies
mais frugivoras, como C. kuhli e C. aurita (Muskin, 1984;
Stevenson e Rylands, 1988; Faria, 1989; Castro, 2003), o
que explicaria estas diferengas de estimativa populacional.

Os resultados obtidos para C. flavius na RPPN Gargad se
assemelham aos observados para Cebus spp. na Floresta
Atlbntica (Pinto et al., 1993, Chiarello, 2000; Cullen et al.

Neotropical Primates 15(2), August 2008

2000; Gonzilez-Solis et al, 2001; Sao Bernardo e Galetti,
2004; Martins, 2005). Considerando a raridade de C. fla-
vius na Paraiba e o fato do sitio de estudo ser um dos maio-
res remanescentes de Floresta Atlantica no estado (Ferreira
et al., 2007), 6 possivel que esta seja uma das maiores popu-
lagoes de C. flavius em toda sua area de distribuigao. Con-
tudo, esta estimativa populacional 6 muito inferior ao que
seria esperado para uma populagao minima viavel com alta
probabilidade de sobrevivencia a long prazo (Franklin,
1980; Shaffer, 1981). Estes resultados confirmam a neces-
sidade urgente de agoes de manejo em nivel populacional e
de paisagem para garantir a conservagao desta esp6cie criti-
camente ameagada.


Este estudo teve o apoio do CNPq e da Usina Japungu
Agroindustrial S/A nas pessoas de Roberto M. da Silva e
Dante Guimaraes, e a colaboracao de Plautino Laroque,
M6nica Montenegro, Diana Levacov, Marcelo Xavier F e
Thiago Silva.

Marcos de Souza Fialho, Centro Nacional de Pesquisa e
Conservagao de Primatas Brasileiros CPB/ICMBio, Pea
Antenor Navarro, 5, Varadouro, Joao Pessoa, PB, e Gre-
g6rio Fernandes Gongalves, Bolsista PIBIC, estudante de
graduacao em Biologia/UFPB.


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Tabela 1. Primatas avistados na RPPN Gargad, Santa Rita, PB, e suas estimativas de abundancia.
Tamanho tndio Taxa de encontro Densidade estimada
Espcie N avistamentos de grupo dp (grupos/10 km) (grupos/km2; IC 95%)
Callithrix jacchus 41 6.2 3.5 1.6 9.5 (6.1 14.9)
Cebus flavius 13 7.3 2.3 0.5 2.0 (1.0- 4.4)
Alouatta belzebul 2 6 0.08

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Marcelo Cardoso de Sousa
Sidnei Sampaio dos Santos
Mariana Coelho Marques Valente


Callicebus coimbrai (guig6) foi descrito por Kobayashi e
Langguth em 1999 com base em exemplares coletados na
zona da mata de Sergipe. Os mesmos autores sugeriram
que a irea de distribuigao geogrifica da esp6cie se restringia
a regiao litordnea do Estado de Sergipe e norte do Estado da
Bahia e apontaram a necessidade de mais estudos para uma
melhor definigao da distribuigao geogrifica e dos habitats
ocupados por C. coimbrai. Desde entao, mais informacoes
foram acrescentadas ao trabalho de Kobayashi e Langguth
(1999), principalmente em relagao a novas dreas de ocor-
rencia e ao estado de conservagao da esp6cie (Sousa, 2000,
2003; van Roosmalen et al., 2002, Printes, 2005, Jerusa-
linsky et al., 2006). Printes (2005) registrou C. coimbrai no
municipio de Lamarao do Passd, Bahia, e ampliou o limited

Neotropical Primates 15(2), August 2008

sul de sua distribuigao geogrifica at6 o Rec6ncavo Baiano.
Apesar do grande potential de ocorrencia em fragments
florestais ao long do litoral norte da Bahia, o levanta-
mento de informagoes subseqiiente e o maior volume de
dados prove, principalmente, do Estado de Sergipe (Jeru-
salinsky et al., 2006).

Callicebus coimbrai 6 listada como "Criticamente Em
Perigo" (Brasil, MMA, 2003; IUCN, 2007) devido, princi-
palmente, a perda e fragmentagao de seu habitat e ao redu-
zido tamanho de suas populagoes em sua restrita area de
distribuigao. As iniciativas de protegao da esp6cie ainda
sao incipientes e suas populagoes encontram-se isoladas e
vulneriveis a agao de cagadores. Para reverter o quadro
atual, Unidades de Conservagao (UCs) privadas e pdblicas
vem sendo propostas e criadas (por exemplo, o Refdgio de
Vida Silvestre Mata do Junco, criado pelo Decreto Esta-
dual no 24.944 de 26/12/2007 e as Reservas Particulares
do Patrim6nio Natural (RPPNs) Bomfim da Cachoeira e
Castelo, no Estado de Sergipe). Neste trabalho registramos
novas areas de ocorrencia de C. coimbrai nos Estados da
Bahia e Sergipe, fornecemos subsidies para a avaliacao do
seu estado de conservagao e descrevemos varia6oes de colo-
raqao da pelagem ao long de sua distribuigao.


Doze fragments florestais em Sergipe e no norte da Bahia
com Areas variando de 300 a 3,000 ha foram selecionados
a partir de consultas a mapas de vegetagao da SUDENE
(escala 1:100,000) de 1974 e imagens TM/Landsat de
2000. Estes fragments foram visitados mensalmente
a partir de janeiro de 2002 para determinar a ocorrencia
de C coimbrai. Aldm desses maiores remanescentes flo-
restais, cerca de 160 pequenos fragments de mata foram
visitados, a maior parte ap6s indicacao obtida em entrevis-
tas esporidicas com moradores da regiao que relatavam a
presenga dos guig6s naquelas pequenas areas. A presenga
da esp6cie foi investigada percorrendo-se transectos com
comprimento mddio de 1,500 m no sentido da borda para
o interior da mata, e utilizando-se a reprodugao de vocal-
izagoes (playback) da esp6cie. Em cada registro visual eram
anotados o ndmero de individuos, seu comportamento e
padrao de coloracao da pelagem, a estrutura e caracteris-
ticas da vegetagao na qual os animals se encontravam e as
coordenadas geogrificas do local.

Resultados e Discussio

Registros visuais e auditivos foram obtidos em 70 fragmen-
tos (31 em Sergipe e 39 no Estado da Bahia; Tabela 1).
Callicebus coimbrai foi observado em fragments de floresta
relativamente bem conservada e em dreas bastante alteradas
de floresta ombr6fila, floresta estacional semidecidua e
caatinga. Constatamos pouca seletividade de habitat por
parte da esp6cie.

Neotropical Primates 15(2), August 2008

Kobayashi e Langguth (1999) indicaram que C coimbrai
estava restrita as florestas atlbnticas costeiras compreen-
didas entire o rio Sao Francisco e o rio Itapicuru e que
ocupavam os estratos mais baixos do dossel das florestas
(Kinzey, 1981). A esp6cie foi registrada nas matas dmidas
litorineas desde o rio Sao Francisco no municipio de
Japoata (36o38'0, 1023'S), Sergipe, at6 o rio Paraguacu
no municipio de Sao Francisco de Paraguacu (1239'S,
38o49'0), Bahia, e nas florestas deciduas do semi-irido
at6 o municipio de Jeremoabo (10o00'S, 38o27'0), Bahia
(Fig. 1). A ocorrencia de C. coimbrai na caatinga pode estar
relacionada a distribuigao geografica original da esp6cie,

Tabela 1. Registros de (

expandida em d6cadas remotas quando as florestas dmidas
e estacionais conectavam-se com as matas secas do interior,
e antes dos desmatamentos que descaracterizaram a veg-
etagao original e permitiram a expansao e predominincia
de elements vegetais xerom6rficos no semi-drido nos dias
atuais (Coimbra-Filho e CSmara, 1996). Embora os estu-
dos sobre a distribuigao geogrifica de C. coimbrai nao este-
jam concluidos (as areas a oeste da BR101 na Bahia ainda
nao foram visitadas), a ampliacao de sua irea de ocorrencia
represent um passo important para a compreensao dos
processes que determinaram o padrao de distribuigao atual
da esp6cie.

coimbrai nos Estados de Sergipe e Bahia.

Localidade Hibitat' Area (ha) Estado2 Coordenadas Refer&ncia3
1-Assentamento Rainha dos Anjos FO 180 BA 12'23'S 38'28'0 PE
2-Projeto Subaumirim FO 260 BA 12'06'S 37'53'0 PE
3-Mata Povoado Jangada FO 60 BA 12O05'S 37'58'0 PE
4-Cachoeira II FO 222 BA 12'21'S 37O55'0 PE
5-Lontra FO 1774 BA 12015'S 37O58'0 PE
6-Sao Jose do Aveno Bacell FO 33 BA 12019'S 38'08'0 PE
7-Fazenda Coqueiro das Aguas FO 110 BA 12'33'S 38'24'0 PE
8-Fazenda Santo Antonio FO 42 BA 12'25'S 38'21'O PE
9-Mata dos Tauas FO 30 BA 12'25'S 38'24'0 PE
10-Altamira I FO/FS 380 BA 11 47'S 37O46'0 PE
11-Altamira de Evandro FO/FS 260 BA 11 46'S 37'47'0 PE
12-Faz Gameleira FO 770 BA 12'09'S 37O58'0 PE
13-Gameleira III FO 550 BA 12'04'S 38'06'0 PE
14-Fazenda Santa Clara FO 80 BA 1226'S 38'32'0 PE
15-Miranga FO 41 BA 12'20'S 38'14'O PE
16-Matas de Sao Miguel FO 84 BA 1222'S 38o27'0 PE
17-Capao entrada Pedrao FO/FS 50 BA 12'08'S 38'37'0 PE
18-Serra Pedrao FO/FS 220 BA 12010'S 38'36'0 PE
19-Fazenda Baixa Funda FO 91 BA 12018'S 38o22'O PE
20-Boa Vista de Opalma FO 54 BA 12'34'S 38'59'0 PE
21-Assentamento Bela Vista/Trindade FO 220 BA 12'29'S 38'46'0 PE
22-Complexo da Serra de Sao Francisco FO 3000 BA 12'39'S 38'49'0 PE
23-Pereira FO 126 BA 12015'S 38'18'O PE
24-Fazenda Calembi FS MS 30 BA 11'21'S 28'10'O PE
25-Reserva Ponder FO 84 BA 11o50'S 37'58'S PE
26-Torre Telebahia FO 180 BA 11'38'S 37O53'0 PE
27-Fazenda Sabao FO 300 SE 11'30'S 37'34'0 SO, JE, PE
28-Assentamento Chico Mendes FO 50 SE 11'30'S 37'33'0 JE, PE
29-Fazenda Esc6ncio FO 250 SE 11'23'S 37'35'0 JE, PE
30-Mata do Crasto FO 900 SE 1122'S 37'25'0 SO, JE, PE
31-Mata de Edvaldo Vereador FO 45 BA 12'25'S 38'23'0 PE
32-Muritiba FO 33 BA 12'25'S 38'22'0 PE
33-Mata Fome FO 110 BA 12'23'S 38'23'0 PE
34-Posto Floresta FO 22 BA 12'23'S 38'26'0 PE
35-Campina FO 950 BA 12'27'S 38'24'0 PE
36-Matas de Conde FO 100 BA 11 46'S 37'44'0 PE
37-Matas Indiaroba FO 30 SE 11 30'S 37'34'0 PE
38-Fazenda Salobro FS 50 SE 110 02'S 37'43'0 JE, PE

56 Neotropical Primates 15(2), August 2008

Localidade Hibitat' Area (ha) Estado2 Coordenadas Referencia3
39-Fazenda Fortaleza FS 20 SE 11l05'S 37O40'0 PE
40-Mata do Convento FO 80 SE 11028'S 37O27'0 PE
41-Mata da Jib6ia FO 50 SE 11027'S 37O43'0 PE
42-Mata do Bugio FS 200 SE 11026'S 37'42'0 JE, PE
43-Mata de Sao Roque FS 10 SE 11'31'S 37'41'O PE, JE
44-Mata do Cruzeiro FO 200 SE 1132'S 37'41'O KL, JE, PE
45-Mata do Pau Torto FO 250 SE 11023'S 37O28'0 JE, PE
46-MataVotorantim FO 160 SE 11'06'S 37O18'0 PE
47-Fazenda Trapsa FO 300 SE 1112'S 37O13'O SO, JE, PE
48-Nova Descoberta FO 40 SE 11'06'S 37O18'O SO, JE, PE
49-Mata do Dira FO 100 SE 10'53'S 37O20'0 SO, JE, PE
50-Mata do Oiteiro FO 70 SE 10'39'S 37'02'0 SO, JE, PE
51-Mata da Aguada FO 40 SE 10'40'S 36o55'0 SO, JE, PE
52-Mata do Junco FO 400 SE 10'32'S 37'02'0 SO, JE, PE
53-Mata da Santana FS/FO 300 SE 10'32'S 36'43'0 KL, SO, JE, PE
54-Mata da Aiumas FO 60 SE 10'25'S 36o55'0 SO, JE, PE
55-Mata Cadoz FO 50 SE 10'23'S 36o38'0 SO, JE, PE
56-Mata da Serra Preta FS MS 100 SE 10'29'S 37O32'0 SO, JE, PE
57-Lagoa do Carneiro CA 6 SE 10o1'2'S 37O28'0 PE
58-Mata do Guia CA 300 SE 10'l4'S 37O29'0 JE, PE
59-Fazenda Venturosa CA 60 SE 100o9'S 37O42'0 PE
60-Jandaira FO 100 BA 11036'S 37O36'0 PE
61-Pedro Alexandre FS MS 20 BA 09'58'S 37O52'0 PE
62-Fazenda Mocambo FS 200 SE 10'49'S 38'05'0 PE
63-Mata da Bolandeira FS 15 SE 10'40'S 36'58'0 PE
64- Mata do Castelo FO 150 SE 1120'S 3727'0O JE, PE
65-Raso do Santo FS 10 BA 10'29'S 38'18'O PE
66-Fazenda Caimb6 FS MS 60 BA 1000'S 38'27'0 PE
67-Fazenda Amescla FS MS 100 BA 09'54'S 38'20'0 PE
68-Fazenda Vaca Brava FS MS 100 BA 10'42'S 38'13'O PE
69-Timb6 FO 10 SE 10'55'S 37O14'O PE
70-Fazenda Mineiro CA 150 BA 10'03'S 38'15'O PE
1FO = Floresta Ombr6fila; FO/FS= Transigao Floresta Ombr6fila/Floresta Semidecidua; FS = Floresta Semidecidua; MS = Mata seca;
CA =Caatinga.
2BA = Bahia; SE = Sergipe
3PE = Presente estudo; SO = Sousa, 2003; JE = Jerusalinsky et al., 2006; KL = Kobayashi e Langguth,1999.

Ameafas e conservafao No entanto, no Raso da Catarina C coimbrai ocorre apenas
Apesar do acr6scimo de informag6es sobre a distribuigao nas formagoes mais imidas e em fragments florestais
de C coimbrai e a constatagao de sua presenga em novas semideciduos situados nas encostas e nos vales de peque-
ireas com tamanhos, estado de conservagao e composigao nos morros nos municipios de Jeremoabo, Antas e Cicero
floristica bastante diferentes, a degradagao de seu habitat e Dantas, as quais estao situadas fora da estagao ecol6gica
a fragmentagao de suas populagCes ainda sao uma ameaga a em ireas limitrofes. Outras UCs de protegao integral
esp6cie. Mesmo que uma parte important de sua irea de em Sergipe como o Parque Nacional da Serra de Itabai-
distribuigao tenha sido indicada pelo Minist&rio de Meio ana, a Reserva Biol6gica de Santa Isabel e o Monumento
Ambiente como prioritiria para a conservagao (Brasil, Natural Grota do Angico nao sao dreas de ocorrencia de
MMA, 2007), as inicas unidades de conservagao de pro- C coimbrai. 0 Refigio de Vida Silvestre Mata do Junco,
tegao integral que poderiam garantir a manutenqao das criado recentemente pelo Decreto Estadual n0 24,944 de
populagoes sao a Estagao Ecol6gica do Raso da Catarina 26/12/2007, foi estabelecido para assegurar a protegao de
na Bahia e o Refigio de Vida Silvestre Mata do Junco em C coimbrai. No entanto, caso nao sejam adotadas ages
Sergipe (Fig. 1). de manejo para a conservagao da esp6cie, a irea pode nao
garantir a sobrevivencia dos guig6s a long prazo, tendo

Neotropical Primates 15(2), August 2008
em vista tratar-se de um fragmento com 400 ha isolado
em uma matriz de pastagens e cana-de-ayicar, sem conexao
com outras areas florestadas. Na regiao litorinea nao existe
nenhuma UC municipal, estadual ou federal que assegure
a protegao das populagoes de C. coimbrai nos dois estados.
Tanto a Area de Protegao Ambiental (APA) do Litoral Sul
de Sergipe quanto a APA do Litoral Norte da Bahia unicas
unidades de conservagao existentes ao long da area de dis-
tribuigao da esp6cie na Mata Atlintica sao ineficientes para

a protegao da esp6cie. Apesar das APAs terem como obje-
tivos basicos proteger a diversidade biol6gica, disciplinary o
process de ocupagao humana na area e assegurar a sustent-
abilidade do uso dos recursos naturais, este tipo de UC per-
mite a ocupagao humana (SNUC, 2000). Durante as pes-
quisas de campo obtivemos evidencias de desmatamentos,
queimadas, corte seletivo e caga nos fragments florestais,
inclusive nas APAs dos dois estados (Figs. 2 e 3).

As agoes de fiscalizagao dos 6rgaos municipals, estaduais e
federais de protegao ao meio ambiente (Instituto Brasileiro
do Meio Ambiente IBAMA, Secretaria de Meio Ambi-
ente e Recursos Hidricos SEMARH, Administradao
Estadual do Meio Ambiente ADEMA) nos dois estados
ainda sao incipientes e incapazes de center o process de
destruigao das matas, e boa parte da populagao humana
6 indiferente as quest6es relacionadas corn a conservagao
dos remanescentes florestais. Atualmente, acoes isola-
das vem contribuindo para a protegao de algumas ireas
de mata e iniciativas voluntirias de associacoes de mora-
dores tem mobilizado comunidades e alguns fazendeiros.
Entretanto, essas acoes ainda carecem de apoio, incentive
e, no caso dos proprietirios rurais, de orientagao para que
oficializem a protegao de seus fragments florestais atraves
da criacao de Reservas Particulares do Patrim6nio Natural
(RPPNs). As RPPNs sao atualmente as UCs que oferecemrn
a melhor condigao de protegao a esp6cie, cinco delas estao
situadas na Bahia Lontra (municipio de Entre Rios),
Panema (municipio de Mata de Sao Joao), Peninha e Sao
Joaquim da Cabonha (municipio de Cachoeira), Cajueiro
(municipio de Esplanada), e duas rec6m criadas no Sergipe

Figura 2. Desmatamento de fragmento de Mata Atlantica
(Municipio de Santa Luzia do Itanhy-SE).

Figura 3. Evidencia de caqa (pele e cranio, a direita, corn marcas
de tiro de arma de fogo). Recolhidos no municipio de Carm6po-

Neotropical Primates 15(2), August 2008
- Bomfim da Cachoeira e Castelo (ambas no municipio
de Santa Luzia do Itanhy). Esse conjunto de RPPNs cobre
uma irea de cerca de 3,000 ha.

As RPPNs sao unidades de conservagao privadas criadas
por iniciativa voluntiria do proprietario e poderao ser um
dos principals instruments para a protegao do guig6 e de
outras esp6cies ameagadas que aindavivem nas matas degra-
dadas, ilhadas e empobrecidas, atrav&s da implantagao de
programs de restauracao dos fragments e do manejo de
metapopulagoes. A reversao desse quadro seri possivel se
agoes de educacao ambiental e campanhas de conscientiza-
gao caminharem lado a lado corn programs de pesquisa e
de protegao efetiva dos fragments. Important e impre-
scindivel tambdm 6 a ampliacao e fortalecimento das agoes
de conservagao voltadas aos maiores blocos florestais do sul
de Sergipe (Mata do Crasto e Fazenda Sabao) e ao long do
rec6ncavo e litoral norte da Bahia. Na Bahia, o conjunto de
remanescentes florestais ao long da serra do Sao Francisco
do Paraguacu (municipios de Santo Amaro, Cachoeira
e Saubara), serra do Timb6 (municipios de Pojuca e Sao
Sebastiao do Passd) e ao redor da RPPN Lontra (municipios
de Entre Rios e Itanagra) abrigam as maiores ireas florestais
entire os rios Paragugu (BA) e Sao Francisco (SE) ao long
da irea de distribuigao de C coimbrai. Essas ireas sao, at6
o moment, as mais importantes para garantir populagoes
viiveis nao s6 de C. coimbrai, mas tambdm de outros rep-
resentantes da fauna ameagados que ainda subsistem no
norte do Estado da Bahia, como o macaco-prego-do-peito-
amarelo (Cebus xanthosternos), o ourigo-preto (Chaetomis
subspinosus), a preguiga-de-coleira (Bradypus torquatus), a
jaguatirica (Leopardus pardalis), e os passaros olho-de-fogo-
rendado (Pyriglena atra), papa-formigas (Herpsilochmus
pectoralis), choquinha-de-rabo-cintado (Myrmotherula uro-
sticta) e o papagaio-chaud (Amazona rhodocorytha).

Variafao dapelagem
As observagCes de C. coimbrai nos fragments florestais ao
long de sua irea de distribuigao e de animals em cativeiro
permitiram a descrigao de variances no padrao de coloraiao
da pelagem da esp6cie, as quais podem ser encontradas em
individuos de um mesmo grupo. Essas diferengas foram
observadas nas populagoes das ireas mais secas e nas matas
fmidas na regiao litordnea e podem ter diversas causes:
alteracao da estrutura de pigmentos melhnicos em reaiao
a fotoprotegao, alimentagao ou diferengas ontogen&ticas.
O primeiro padrao de coloracao foi estabelecido corn base
no hol6tipo coletado e fotografado por Kobayashi e Lang-
guth (1999) na MataAtlhntica do norte de Sergipe. E um
padrao de coloracao bege e ocre relativamente semelhante
ao observado em individuos da caatinga de Sergipe, o qual,
apresenta diferengas discretas nas estrias da face, e muita
semelhanga na coloracao do corpo estriado de bege, preto
e cinza e na mancha branca conspicua da regiao cervical,
possivelmente caracteristica de individuos juvenis. As prin-
cipais diferengas observadas em animals nas matas secas
e nas matas dmidas do litoral foram: (1) a coloracao da
face, bochecha e front totalmente negra ou corn estrias

Neotropical Primates 15(2), August 2008
beges mais ou menos evidentes; (2) a coloracao laranja,
marrom ou marrom-alaranjada da cauda; (3) a regiao cer-
vical branca, bege ou bege-esbranquigada; (4) o corpo bege
estriado de castanho ferrugineo, bege e ocre, bege com
estrias castanhas, cinzas e pretas e bege-brancacentas. Por
outro lado, a coloracao negra das maos e pes foi observada
em todos os individuos. Portanto, consideramos a colora-
ato da pelagem pouco confiivel como carter taxon6mico,
embora ela tenha sido utilizada juntamente com a morfo-
metria do crinio e a dentigao na descrigao dessa especie
por Kobayashi e Langguth (1999). Alem disso, a coloradao
da pelagem foi utilizada para distinguir C coimbrai e C
barbarabrownae, apesar da variacao no padrao de colora-
gao dentro de uma populagao poder ser maior que aquela
observada entire essas duas esp6cies do grupo personatus. A
carencia de esp6cimes depositados em colleges cientificas
compromete a resolucao deste desafio taxon6mico.


A Dra Cecilia Kierulff pelas critics e sugest6es ao
manuscrito e a Andrea Margit, Anthony Rylands, Russell
Mittermeier e Michael Tobias pelo apoio. A Fundagao
Margot Marsh, Universidade Tiradentes e as Empresas JP
pelo apoio financeiro para a realizagao do estudo.

Marcelo Cardoso de Sousa, Universidade Tiradentes,
Av. Murilo Dantas, 300- Aracaju-SE, CEP 49.032-490,
mcsousa@infonet.com.br, Sidnei Sampaio dos Santos, Asso-
ciacao Baiana para a Conservagao dos Recursos Naturais
(ABCRN), Salvador-BA, e Mariana Coelho Marques
Valente, Universidade Cat61lica de Salvador-BA

Referencias Bibliogrificas

Brasil, MMA, 2003. Lista oficialdas especies da fauna brasil-
eira ameafada de extinfdo. Minist&rio do Meio Ambiente
(MMA), Brasilia. Diirio official da uniao Segao 1 101:
Brasil, MMA, 2007. Relatorio de Atualizafdo de Areas Pri-
oritdrias para a Conservacdo, Uso Sustentdvel e Repartiado
de Beneficios da Biodiversidade Brasileira, Ministrtio do
Meio Ambiente (MMA), Brasilia. Portaria n.9 de 23 de
janeiro de 2007.
Coimbra-Filho, A. F. e CGmara, I. de G. 1996. Os limits
originals do Bioma Mata Atldntica na Regido Nordeste do
Brasil. Fundagao Brasileira para a Conservagao da Natu-
reza, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.
Jerusalinsky, L., Oliveira, M. M., Pereira, R. E, Santana,
V., Bastos, P. C. R. and Ferrari, S. F. 2006. Preliminary
evaluation of the conservation status of Callicebus coimb-
rai Kobayashi & Langguth, 1999 in the Brazilian State of
Sergipe. Primate Conservation. 21: 25-32.
IUCN, 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Spe-
cies. Website: http://www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded

on the 23rd of March 2007 ("Acessada em 23 de margo
de 2' "'7 ).
Kinzey, W. G. 1981. The titi monkey, genus Callicebus.
In: Ecology and Behavior of Tropical Primates, Vol. 1, A.
E Coimbra-Filho and R. A. Mittermeier (eds.), pp.241-
277. Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, Rio de Janeiro,
Kobayashi, S. and Langguth, A. L. 1999. A new species of
titi monkey, Callicebus Thomas, from north-eastern Brazil
(Primates, Cebidae). Rev. Bras. deZool. 16: 531-551.
Printes, R. C. 2005. Novos registros sobre a distribuigao
do guig6 da caatinga Callicebus barbarabrownae (Her-
shkovitz, 1990) e novo limited sul de Callicebus coimbrai
(Kobayashi e Langguth, 1999). Em: Programa e Livro
de Resumos: XI Congresso Brasileiro de Primatologia, p.
154. Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia, Porto Alegre,
Sistema Nacional de Unidades de Conservagao (SNUC).
Lei N. 9985 de 18 de julho de 2000. disponivel em:
abr/artigos/snuc.pdfAcessada em: 15 de maio de 2007.
Sousa, M. C. 2000. New localities for Coimbra-Filho's
titi monkey, Callicebus coimbrai, in North-east Brazil.
Neotrop. Primates 8 (4): 151.
Sousa, M. C. 2003. Distribuigao do guig6 (Callicebus
coimbrai) no Estado de Sergipe. Neotrop. Primates 11(2):
van Roosmalen, M. G. M., van Roosmalen, T. and Mitter-
meier, R. A. 2002. A taxonomic review of the titi mon-
keys, genus Callicebus Thomas, 1903, with description
of two new species, Callicebus bernhardi and Callicebus
stephennashi, from Brazilian Amazonia. Neotrop. Primates
10 (Suppl.): 1-52.


Ita de 0. Silva
Adriano B. B. Alvarenga
Vanner Boere

The black-tufted-ear marmoset (Callithrix penicillata)
mainly feeds on plant exudates which can comprise up
to 70% of the diet (Miranda and Faria, 2001). Other
items included in the diet are insects, nectar and flowers,
in different proportions. Stevenson and Rylands (1988)
classify marmosets from the Jacchus-group as exudativore-
insectivores. It is known that marmosets opportunistically
feed on protein sources i.e. prey, and that their small size
allows for a quite diverse diet (Rylands and Faria, 1993).
Insects are the most important source of protein, but
other protein-rich food currently described for this spe-
cies are ants, spiders, lizards, snails, frogs, eggs and bird
hatchlings (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988; Passamani and

Rylands, 2000). In this article, we report two new food
sources, that may be included in the diet of wild marmo-
sets, albeit probably very rarely: mouse and dove. We also
report the ingestion of ants, confirming an animal food
item in the diet of black-tufted-marmosets mentioned in
the literature. Observations on predation by marmosets
were made opportunistically when researchers observed the
social behavior of two marmosets groups at two different
study sites. Both sites, the Estagao Ciencia Sao Jose (ECSJ)
and the Jardim Botdnico de Brasilia (JBB), include many
vegetation types of the Cerrado biome. The observations
were in the cerraddo, a typical forest with medium to high
semi-deciduous trees and xeromorphic vegetation (Ratter
et al., 1997).

Predation on a dove (Columbina talpacoti)
The dove predation was observed in the ECSJ, a field station
of the Catholic University of Goias (160 44' 06" S, 49o 2'
48" W; Goiania, Brazil), close to the suburb of the city, on
15 March 2001. Around 08:00, a group of black-tufted-
ear marmoset moved toward the area around the field labo-
ratory, staying at approximately 3 m height in small trees
(Grevillea robusta). Suddenly, the marmoset group became
very agitated. We succeeded in recording with a digital
camera the moment when an adult male, located approxi-
mately 2 m above ground, captured a dove (C talpacoti),
immediately biting it into the head and starting to eat it
(Figure 1). We did not observe the prey being shared with
any other group member. The marmoset showed piloerec-
tion during the voracious consumption of the dove.

Predation on a mouse (Mus musculus)
The predation on a mouse happened in an area near the
entrance of JBB (150 55' 58" S, 47 51' 02" W; Brasilia,
DF, Brazil). On 20 November 2006, at 08:30 h, we saw

Neotropical Primates 15(2), August 2008
the reproductive female of the group capturing a mouse
while foraging in the forest understory, approximately 1.5
m above ground, and immediately biting of the head of the
mouse (Figure 2). Although other group members, par-
ticularly infants, approached the female with characteristic
submissive vocalizations, the female did not share the prey,
dropping part of the carcass (mostly skin) on the ground.

Predation on ants (Labidus sp.)
The predation of the ants happened along a forest border
of the JBB. On 23 August 2006, beginning at 11:15 we
observed the marmosets descending to the forest under-
story above and ground close to a swarm of army ants,
identified as Labidus (Ecitoninae, Formicidae) by Dr. C.
R. F Brandao (Zoology Museum, Sao Paulo University).
The marmosets caught and quickly ingested ants and did
not seem to be intimidated by the ants' bites. This contin-
ued for approximately 3.5 hours. During this period, the
whole group (15 animals) accompanied the swarm front,
but among them, only two male adults and two juveniles
fed on the ants.

Callithrix penicillata is widely distributed throughout
the Cerrado (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988), one of the
world's hot spots for biodiversity conservation (Myers et
al., 2000). This species, like C. jacchus, is found in urban-
ized areas and has been successfully introduced in several
regions (Cunha et al, 2006; Mendes Pontes and Scares,
2005; Miranda and Faria, 2001; Stevenson and Rylands,
1988; Vilela and Faria, 2004). It is presumed to have a
flexible and opportunistic diet. Most data available on the
diet of the marmosets and tamarins is focused on fruits
and exudates, making it necessary to better describe and
comprehend the role of prey in the behavioral ecology of
Callitrichidae (Nickle & Heymann, 1996; Heymann et al.,

Figure 2. Adult female of Callithrix penicillata biting the head
of a Mus musculus individual previously captured in the forest
Figure 1. Adult male of Callithrix penicillata eating a dove understory at the Jardim Botanico de Brasilia.
(Columbina talpacoti) at the Estagio Ci ncia Sao Jose.

Neotropical Primates 15(2), August 2008
2000). The predation of bird nests, mostly for obtaining
eggs and hatchlings is well described (Marini and Melo,
1998; Mendes Pontes and Scares, 2005), but according to
Stevenson and Rylands (1988), marmosets rarely feed on
birds and hatchlings when in their natural habitat. The
relevant literature has few reports on the predation of adult
birds (Cunha et al., 2006), and the predation of this spe-
cies of dove in particular has not been previously described.
The bird preyed upon is commonly found in urban areas in
Brazil (Sick, 1997). The contact from this bird with mar-
moset groups is presumably common in cities and their sur-
rounding areas. The common mouse is an invasive species
of the Brazilian fauna and is closely connected to human
activity. The mouse predation reported here occurred in
an area with pronounced human influence, and proximity
to garbage cans. Newborn mice are used to complement
the diet of marmosets kept in captivity (Coimbra-Filho, et
al, 1981). However, this is the first description of an adult
mouse predation by a marmoset in a wild environment.

Our observations on predation of the ant genus Labidus
by black-tufted-ear marmoset are in line with recent obser-
vations of Melo Jr and Zara (2007) in the Cerrados and
Atlantic Forest. Rylands and collaborators (1989) and
Melo Jr and Zara (2007) have already described marmo-
sets as predators of ants and insects that are displaced by
the raiding ant swarms. Mendes Pontes and Scares (2005)
also mention the presence of ants in the marmoset's diet.
Although there is a relatively high abundance of this ant
species in the woods of the JBB, predation is not com-
monly observed. While foraging to attain the dove and
the mouse was notably an individual behavior, the ants
and insects flushed by the ants were eaten while the whole
group foraged, as described previously by Passamani and
Rylands (2000). The predation on the mouse and the
dove, although interesting from the point of view of flex-
ibility in feeding habits, also adds a potential epidemio-
logical link between the several diseases that are present in
the region (i.e. zoonotic hemorrhagic fevers, Figueiredo,
2006) and the managing of wild marmosets in preservation
areas with strong human influence. Doves and particularly
mice are important agents for the dissemination of several
pathogens (Pereira et al, 2001; Sick, 1997) that infect both
human and non-human primates.


We are grateful to Rui Chaves Bozza Jr. for the help with
the dove picture. We thank Dr. Carlos Roberto E Brandao
(Zoology Museum, Sao Paulo University) for the ant iden-
tification, Christian Hoffmann for kindly helping with the
English translation, and Prof. Dr. Eckhard W. Heymann
for editorial improvement of the manuscript.

Ita de 0. Silva, Adriano B. B. Alvarenga, and Vanner
Boere, Universidade de Brasilia, Instituto de Biologia,
Departamento de Ciencias Fi,..1..,, i,- CEP 70910-900,
Brasilia, DF, Brazil. Corresponding author: Vanner Boere,
e-mail: .


Coimbra-Filho, A. E, Silva, R. R. and Pissinatti, A. 1981.
Sobre a dieta de Callithrichidae em cativeiro. Rev. Biot.
1: 83-93.
Cunha, A. A., Vieira, M. V. and Grelle, C. E. V. 2006. Pre-
liminary observations on habitat, support use and diet in
two non-native primates in an urban Atlantic forest frag-
ment: The capuchin monkey (Cebus sp.) and the common
marmoset (Callithrixjacchus) in the Tijuca forest, Rio de
Janeiro. Urban Ecosyst. 9: 351-359.
Figueiredo, L. T. M. 2006. Febres hemorragicas por virus
no Brasil. Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop. 39: 203-210.
Heymann, E. W, Knogge, C. and Tirado Herrera, E. R.
2000. Vertebrate predation by sympatric tamarins, Sagui-
nus mystax and Saguinus fuscicollis. Am. J Primatol. 51:
Marini, M. A. and Melo, C. 1998. Predators of quail eggs,
and the evidence of the remains: Implications for nest
predation studies. Condor 100: 395-399.
Melo Jr, T. A. and Zara, F J. 2007. Black-tufted-ear mar-
moset Callithrix penicillata (Primates: Callitrichidae)
following the army ant Labidus praedator (Formicidae:
Ecitoninae) in the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest, Brazil.
Neotrop. Primates 14: 32-33.
Mendes Pontes, A. R. and Scares, M. L. 2005. Sleeping
sites of common marmosets (Callithrixjacchus) in defau-
nated urban forest fragments: a strategy to maximize food
intake. J Zool., Lond. 266: 55-63.
Miranda, G. H. B. and Faria, D. S. 2001. Ecological as-
pects of black-pincelled marmoset (Callithrix penicillata)
in the cerraddo and dense cerraddo of the Brazilian Cen-
tral Plateau. Braz. J Biol. 61: 397-404.
Myers, N., Mittermeier, R. A., Mittermeier, C. G., Fon-
seca, G. A. B. and Kent, J. 2000. Biodiversity hotspots
for conservation priorities. Nature 403: 853-858.
Nickle, D.A. & Heymann, E. W 1996. Predation on Or-
toptera and other orders of insects by tamarin monkeys,
Saguinus mystax mystax and Saguinus fuscicollis nigrifrons
(Primates: Callitrichidae), in north-eastern Peru. J. Zool.
239: 799-819.
Passamani, M. and Rylands, A. B. 2000. Feeding behavior
of Geoffroy's marmoset (Callithrix .., i in an Atlan-
tic Forest fragment of south-eastern Brazil. Primates 41:
Pereira, L. E., Suzuki, A., Coimbra, T. L. M., Souza, R. P.
and Chamelet, E. L. B. 2001, Ilheus arbovirus in wild
birds (Sporophila caerulescens and Molothrus bonariensis).
Rev. Sau. Pub. 35: 119-123.
Ratter, J. A., Ribeiro, J. F and Bridgewater, S. 1997. The
Brazilian Cerrado vegetation and threats to its biodiver-
sity. Ann. Bot. 80: 223-230.
Rylands, A. B., Monteiro Da Cruz, M. A. 0. and Ferrari,
S. E 1989. An association between marmosets and army
ants in Brazil.j. Trop. Ecol. 5:113-116.
Rylands, A. B. and Faria, D. S. 1993. Habitats, feeding
ecology and home range size in the genus Callithrix. In:
Marmosets and tamarins: systematics, behaviour and ecol-

ogy, A.B. Rylands (ed.), pp. 263-271. Oxford University
Press, Oxford.
Sick, H. 1997. Families e esp6cies: ordem Columbiformes.
In: Ornitologia Brasileira, J. E Pacheco (ed.), pp. 341-
350. Nova Fronteira, Rio de Janeiro.
Stevenson, M. F and Rylands, A.B. 1988. The marmosets,
genus Callithrix. In: Ecology and behavior of Neotropical
primates, Mittermeier, R.A., Rylands, A.B., Coimbra-Fil-
ho, A. and Fonseca, G.A.B. (eds.), pp.131-222. WWF,
Vilela, S. L. and Faria, D. S. 2004. Seasonality of the activ-
ity pattern of Callithrix penicillata (Primates, Callitrichi-
dae) in the cerrado (scrub savanna vegetation). Braz. J.
Biol. 64: 363-370.


Xyomara Carretero-Pinzdn
Thomas R. Defier
Stephen F Ferrari

Black-capped capuchins (Cebus apella) are known to feed
on a wide variety of vertebrate prey, including lizards,
frogs, birds, bats, marsupials, rodents, and squirrels (Izawa,
1978, 1990; Terborgh, 1983; Galetti, 1990; Rimoli, 2001;
Resende et al., 2003; Defler, 2004), although to date, there
is only one report involving another primate, an infant titi,
Callicebus moloch (Sampaio & Ferrari, 2005). Here we
describe the behavior of a group of black-capped capuchins
feeding on an adult female owl monkey (Aotus brumbacki)
in a fragment of gallery forest in the Colombian Llanos.
This appeared to be the scavenging of a carcass, rather than
a predation event, but the observation nevertheless empha-
sizes the potential of the capuchins for the exploitation of
prey this size.

The event was recorded during the long-term monitoring
(September 2005 to January 2007) of a group of 43 squir-
rel monkeys, Saimiri sciureus alb.g'ua (Carretero-Pinz6n,
2008) on the Arrayanes Farm (33'30"N, 7335'40"W)
near San Martin in the Colombian Llanos, department of
Meta (Fig. 1). The group occupied a matrix of small frag-
ments of gallery forest of up to 21 ha, including those on
the neighboring Santa Rosa Farm, that are interconnected
by fences. We collected quantitative behavioral data in
scan samples (one minute scans at five minute intervals),
and whenever an association was formed with the local
group of Cebus apella [during 28.3% of monitoring time
(1,113 hours of total observation time)]. We also collected
data on the members of this group (1 adult male, 1 adult
female, 2 juveniles, and 1 infant) using the same sampling
schedule. During the event reported here we abandoned
this schedule and the capuchins were monitored continu-
ously for the first half hour and then at five-minute inter-

Neotropical Primates 15(2), August 2008

vals, until the carcass was abandoned.
On the morning of January the 12th, 2006, when the
squirrel monkeys and capuchins were foraging together
in a mixed troop at approximately 08:35, the adult male
C. apella apparently found a dead female owl monkey
(Aotus brumbacki) in a tree hole. The assumption that the
capuchin found the owl monkey rather than captured it
alive is based on the lack of visible or audible evidence of
hunting activity or prey capture. On finding the carcass,
the adult male became visibly excited, and emitted feed-
ing vocalizations, that were answered in kind by the four
other group members, who then approached to a distance
of 3-5 m from the tree-hole, from where they observed the
male. The male pulled the owl monkey's legs out of the
hole and began biting, tearing and eating the flesh of one
of the legs. The male was the only individual to feed on the
carcass during the first eight minutes, but then he moved
to a neighboring tree to rest and looked on as the other
group members moved in to feed. The adult female and
the infant fed on the second leg; then one of the juveniles
pulled the carcass out of the hole as far as its neck, bit off
the right radius and hand, and ran to the neighboring tree
to consume these parts. The four individuals each spent
some 8-10 minutes feeding on different parts of the carcass.
Tolerance and sharing appears to be typical of vertebrate
predation in the capuchins (e.g. Perry and Rose, 1994;
Resende et al., 2003), at least where relatively large-bodied
prey is concerned (Izawa, 1978). After approximately 20
minutes, the adult male returned to feed on the carcass in
close proximity with the infant, while vocalizing aggres-
sively towards the female, who responded submissively
and moved to a neighboring tree. The infant eventually
joined the female to be groomed, and one juvenile rested
nearby while the other foraged for arthropods. All five
group members ingested parts of the owl monkey's limbs,
tail or dorsal musculature, but, while one of the juveniles
probed the abdomen with its hand, none of the capuchins
appeared to feed on the intestines or internal organs. Curi-
ously, Resende et al. (2003) recorded the opposite pattern
in the predation of a rat by C apella, where the soft parts
were consumed and the musculature ignored. In the pres-

Figure 1. Location of the study area, showing the main fragments
of gallery forest on the Arrayanes (16 ha) and Santa Rosa (21 ha)
farms in the Colombian Llanos.

Neotropical Primates 15(2), August 2008
ent case, the freshness of the carcass was possibly a factor -
the time of death was not known, but presumably preceded
the scavenging by at least a few hours. After approximately
one hour of intermittent feeding and resting, the capuchins
abandoned the carcass as vultures began to arrive at the
scene. The remains of the owl monkey's body the skel-
eton and some fragments of skin were found at the same
location two days later. The capuchins moved through this
area in the interim, but they did not approach the carcass.

Capuchins are highly resourceful and opportunistic pri-
mates, able to exploit a wide variety of foods, so in this
sense, the events observed here were well within the behav-
ioral potential of the species. As it appears that the body of
the owl monkey was scavenged, rather than captured alive,
it still remains unclear whether capuchins would normally,
if ever, prey on adult primates the size of Aotus, which have
a body weight of approximately 1 kg. The only record of a
capuchin predation of another primate involved an infant
titi (Sampaio and Ferrari, 2005), and predation of ter-
restrial mammals by capuchins has involved either small-
bodied rodents or the infants of larger-bodied species, such
as coatis and opossums (Newcomer and De Farcy, 1985;
Rose and Perry, 1994; Resende et al., 2003; Fragaszy et
al., 2004). In this context, it is interesting to note that
Saimiri, which associates systematically with Cebus during
foraging at many sites including the present one is
actually slightly smaller than both Aotus and Callicebus.
Even so, there appear to be no reports of capuchins actively
pursuing or preying on squirrel monkeys, even juveniles.
In addition to other factors, in the specific case of Saimiri,
the potential benefits of predation may be more than out-
weighed by those of the foraging association (Terborgh,
1983; Boinski, 1996).


We are grateful to the Sanchez-Rey and Novoa families,
owners of the Santa Rosa and Arrayanes farms, for their
hospitality and logistic support. We also thank Germin
Espinosa and Yolima Gonzilez for their support in the
field, and Dr Akisato Nishimura, professors Martha Bueno
and Carolina G6mez for their contributions, Liz Tyson for
her review of the text and an anonymous reviewer for their

Xyomara Carretero-Pinz6n, Maestria en Ciencias Biol6-
gicas, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogoti, Colombia,
e-mail: , xcarretero@gmail.com,
Thomas R. Defler, Departamento de Biologia, Univer-
sidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogoti, Colombia, e -mail:
, thomasdefler@hotmail.com,
and Stephen F. Ferrari, Departamento de Biologia, Uni-
versidade Federal de Sergipe, Sao Crist6vao, Brazil, e-mail:


Boinski, S. 1996. Vocal coordination of troop movement
in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedii and S. sciureus)
and white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus). In: Adap-
tive Radiations of Neotropical Primates, M. A. Norconk,
A. L. Rosenberger and P. A. Garber (eds.), pp. 251-269.
Plenum Press, New York.
Defler, T. R. 2004. Primates of Colombia. Conservaci6n In-
ternacional, Bogoti.
Fragszy, D. M., Visalberghi, E. and Fedigan, L. M. 2004.
The Complete Capuchin: the Biology of Genus Cebus. Cam-
bridge University Press. Cambridge.
Galetti, M. 1990. Predation on the squirrel, Sciurus aestu-
ans, by capuchin monkeys, Cebus apella. Mammalia 54:
Izawa, K. 1978. Frog-eating behavior of wild black-capped
capuchin (Cebus apella). Primates 19: 633-642.
Izawa, K. 1990. Rat predation by wild capuchins (Cebus
apella). Field Stud. New World Monkeys, La Macarena,
Colombia 3: 19-24.
Newcomer, M. W. and De Farcy, D. 1985. White-faced
capuchin (Cebus capucinus) predation on a nestling coati
(Nasua narica). J Mammal. 66: 185- 186.
Perry, S. and Rose, L. 1994. Begging and transfer of coati
meat by white-faced capuchin monkeys, Cebus capucinus.
Primates 35: 409- 415.
Resende, B. D.; Greco, V. L. G.; Ottoni, E. B. & P. Izar.
2003. Some observations on the predation of small mam-
mals by tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Neotrop.
Primates 11(2): 103- 104.
Rimoli, J. 2001. Ecologia de um Grupo de Macacos-prego
(Cebus apella nigritus, Goldfuss, 1809; Primates, Ce-
bidae) na Estagao Biol6gica de Caratinga (MG): Impli-
ca6oes para a Conservagao de Fragmentos de Floresta
Atlhntica. Ph.D thesis, Universidade Federal do Pard.
Sampaio, D. T. and Ferrari, S. F 2005. Predation of an
infant titi monkey (Callicebus moloch) by tufted capu-
chins (Cebus apella). Folia Primatol. 76:113- 115.
Terborgh, J. 1983. Five New World Primates. Princeton
University Press, Princeton.


Nestor Roncancio Duque
William Rojas Vinasco
Jaime Vicente Estevez Vardn


Por motivos hist6ricos, geogrificos y ecol6gicos, la mayoria
de la poblaci6n humana en Colombia esti concentrada en
la region Andina y en la planicie Caribe. En consecuencia,
estas regions son las mias afectadas por la transformaci6n

de los ecosistemas naturales; las cordilleras y los valles inte-
randinos han sido altamente transformados y algunas regio-
nes estin virtualmente deforestadas (Kattan, 1998). Asi el
pals ha perdido la tercera parte de los bosques himedos
por debajo de 1,000 msnm, 98.5% de los bosques secos y
subhdmedos y 63% de los bosques andinos (Etter, 1998),
todos ellos caracterizados por altos niveles de riqueza y
endemismo de species. Probablemente la ganaderia ocupa
mais del 80% de estas Areas.

La p&rdida de habitat y la degradaci6n ambiental son en
gran media los factors mais importantes por las cuales los
primates estan amenazados en Colombia. Actualmente los
primates son el orden de mamiferos mais amenazado del
pals con 21 de sus 45 taxones dentro de las categories de
amenaza de la IUCN-Uni6n Internacional para la Conser-
vaci6n de la Naturaleza (Rodriguez-Mahecha et al. [ed.],
2006). Para la region oriental del departamento de Caldas,
de las cinco (probablemente seis) species con distribuci6n
original, S. leucopus en una de las dnicas que aun persiste
y se registra comdnmente. Saguinus leucopus es end6mico
de Colombia, se encuentra incluido en el Apendice I del
CITES y bajo los criterios de IUCN se le consider como
una especie En peligro de extinci6n (EN) (Morales et al.,
2008); se consider en grave peligro de desparecer debido
a su baja variabilidad gen&tica (Leguizam6n et al., 2006)
y durante el X Congreso de la Sociedad Internacional de
Primatologia en Jap6n 1990, se le declare como especie de
prioridad international. Su vulnerabilidad obedece a su
limitada distribuci6n (la mas reducida para cualquier espe-
cie de Saguinus), a que se encuentra en una zona con alta
actividad de colonizaci6n y, es ademis frecuentemente ven-
dida como mascota (Defler, 2003, 2004). Esta especie solo
se encuentra protegida en Colombia por el Parque Nacio-
nal Natural Selva de Florencia, sin embargo la importancia
de esta drea protegida para la conservaci6n de S. leucopus
es limitada porque solo una pequefa e intervenida propor-
ci6n de su Area coincide con los limits de distribuci6n alti-
tudinal de la especie.

Se encuentra muy poca informaci6n acerca de la biologia
de este primate en toda su Area de distribuci6n y poco o
nada acerca de c6mo esta especie ha sobrevivido a la trans-
formaci6n, fragmentaci6n y aislamiento de los bosques
y c6mo ha respondido a tales cambios (Vargas y Solano,
1996; Cuartas, 2001; Poveda y Sinchez- Palomino, 2004;
Santamaria et al., 2007). Igualmente, existe muy poca
informaci6n acerca del estado de las poblaciones de S.
leucopus en el departamento de Caldas (Vargas y Solano,
1996; Santamaria et al., 2007). Dadas las condiciones de
transformaci6n del paisaje y teniendo en cuenta que antes
de tomar decisions de manejo sobre estas poblaciones es
muy important establecer parametros poblacionales como
la densidad poblacional y la estructura y composici6n de
grupos de la especie en los diferentes tipos de habitat adn
disponibles, presentamos valores de densidad poblacional
y tamafo de grupo de este primate bajo las condiciones
predominantes de transformaci6n de paisaje en el oriented
del departamento de Caldas.

Neotropical Primates 15(2), August 2008

Materiales y metodos

Area de studio
El area de studio esti en el municipio de Samand, departa-
mento de Caldas, vertiente oriental de la Cordillera Central
(531'00" N, 74o58'00" W) (Fig. 1). El Area abarca un
rango altitudinal entire los 510 y 1,010 msnm. El paisaje
corresponde a un mosaico de potreros, bosques de galeria,
rastrojos y algunos bosques secundarios en diferentes esta-
dos de sucesi6n, dominados principalmente por Guadua
(Guadua '.. .-'." ') y species de las families Melasto-
mataceae, Euphorbiaceae y Moraceae (Rojas et al., 2008).
Adicionalmente se encuentran unos pocos cultivos de cana
panelera y maiz. El Area de studio comprende terrenos
con un grado de pendiente muy alto, lo cual ha evitado que
algunas areas sean usadas para actividades agropecuarias y
se conserve parte de su cobertura vegetal. Por otro lado,
en esta zona la prictica de actividades agricolas se hace por
medio de rotaci6n de parcelas, permitiendo en las usadas,
el crecimiento de rastrojo por periods de seis a siete afos,
generindose asi un paisaje con una numerosos parches de
bosques secundarios, rastrojos y bosques de galeria, media-
namente conectados entire si.

Estimacidn de densidad poblacional y tamano de grupos
Los censos para estimar la densidad de S. leucopus fueron
llevados a cabo mediante el m6todo de muestreo a distancia
con transectos lineales (Peres, 1999; Buckland et al., 2001).
Se hicieron ocho transectos con una longitud total de 6.4
km (longitud promedio de 0.8 km), en bosques de galeriay
parches de bosque conectados entire si. En cada transecto se
llevaron a cabo en promedio 13 recorridos, para acumular
de esta forma un esfuerzo de muestreo total de 84.5 km.
Solamente incluimos los registros visuales de la especie (los
animals fueron ubicados por observaci6n direct o al escu-
char sus vocalizaciones). Cada transecto fue recorrido silen-
ciosamente a una velocidad promedio de 0.47 km/hora; los
censos fueron realizados por dos observadores independien-
tes, llevando a cabo cada observador dos censos por dia en
dos diferentes transectos. Los censos se llevaron a cabo a
partir de las 7:30 en un transecto y las 9:30 en otro; dos
transectos recorridos simultineamente estaban localizados
a una distancia minima de 1,500 m. El recorrido de los
transectos y la hora en que este se efectuaba se distribuye-
ron proporcionalmente entire los observadores, para elimi-
nar posibles sesgos asociados a un mismo observador reco-
rriendo repetidamente un mismo transecto y/o hacidndolo
a una misma hora. Los datos para estimar las densidades de
Saguinus leucopus fueron analizados con el program DIS-
TANCE 5.0 (Buckland et al., 2001). Dado el tamafo y la
alta dispersion espacial de los individuos de un mismo grupo
de S. leucopus, y la consecuente dificultad para hacer conteos
confiables, lo cual puede ocasionar una subestimaci6n de las
densidades (Defler & Pintor, 1985; Pruetz & Leasor, 2002),
se realizaron seguimientos a various grupos de la zona fuera
del period de censos para obtener estimaciones confiables
de su tamafo promedio. Este studio fue realizado entire los
meses de septiembre y noviembre de 2005.

Neotropical Primates 15(2), August 2008


Figura 1. Localizaci6n del area de studio (en negro), vereda La Primavera, corregimiento de Florencia,
municipio de Samand. Departamento de Caldas, Colombia.

Se lograron 39 registros visuales de S. leucopus. El modelo
Uniforme con series de expansion Coseno arroj6 el valor
mis bajo del criterio de informaci6n de Akaike (AIC) y
mejor ajuste de las distribuciones observada y esperada de
distancias perpendiculares (X2=3.8 gl=7, p=0.8). El tamafno
promedio de grupo se estim6 a partir de los conteos de 11
grupos y fue de 5.36 individuos por grupo (IC95% = 3.37
- 7.35). El tamafo de los grupos vari6 entire dos y 13 indi-
viduos. Se estim6 una densidad poblacional de S. leucopus
de 149 individuos/km2 (IC95% = 78-284) y 27 grupos/
km2 (IC95% =15-50), con un coeficiente de variaci6n del
31.9 %. La varianza de la densidad poblacional estuvo
compuesta por la probabilidad de detecci6n en un 10.8%,
por la tasa de encuentro en un 53.7% y por el tamafo de
grupo en un 35.5%.


Densidad poblacional
La densidad de S. leucopus en esta localidad es la mais alta

estimada para la especie. Bernstein et al. (1976) calcul6
entire 1 4 individuos/km2 en el sur del departamento de
Bolivar, norte de la distribuci6n de la especie. Posterior-
mente Green (1978) estim6 15 individuos/km2. En el
departamento de Caldas, Calle (citada por Santamaria et
al. 2007) estim6 una densidad poblacional entire 80-100
individuos/km2 en un pequefo bosque, probablemente
resultado de la presencia de remanentes de bosque despuds
de una active destrucci6n ocasionada por el gran ndmero
de colonos presents en la region. En el Area de influencia
del embalse Amani, municipios de Victoria y Norcasia, con
una cobertura vegetal de bosques mixtos y rastrojos y un
area de 1,260 ha, se estim6 una densidad de 44.4 indivi-
duos/km2 (Santamaria et al., 2007).

La alta densidad encontrada en el present studio para
S. leucopus, podria deberse a una concentraci6n de la
poblaci6n como respuesta a la destrucci6n del habitat
que originalmente ocupaba (Defler, 1981). La region ha
sufrido un intense process de colonizaci6n y actualmente
a perdido un 90% de su cobertura vegetal natural

(CORPOCALDAS -QUINAXI, 2004). De esta manera
S. leucopus se encuentra confinada principalmente en
bosques de galeria y en algunos bosques secundarios en
diferentes estados de sucesi6n. Los fragments de bosque
actdan como refugios de la especie, luego de haber sido
reducida su irea de distribuci6n, obligando a la poblaci6n a
concentrarse en un pequefio espacio. La anterior situaci6n
ha generado una reducci6n de tamatio de la poblaci6n
original del animal y ha impuesto presiones de aislamiento
fisico y bi6tico (Kattan, 1998).

Algunos autores han sugerido que las species de Saguinus
se ven favorecidas por los bosques secundarios y rastrojos
generando el aumento de sus poblaciones (Snowdon y
Soini, 1988; Defler, 2003; 2004). Probablemente S. leu-
copus tolere cierto nivel de perturbaci6n de habitat, debido
a su tamafio, el cual le permit desplazarse por vegetaci6n
con una morfologia poco robusta, como la que ofrecen los
rastrojos y bosques secundarios es estos paisajes. Tambikn
esta especie puede desplazarse a traves de cercas vivas y de
alambre (obs. pers.). Estas caracteristicas podrian haber
atenuado los efectos del aislamiento entire los parches de
bosque permitikndole a la especie un irea mas amplia de
actividad donde encontrar alimento y una mayor interac-
ci6n de los grupos en la poblaci6n. No obstante, el mayor
aporte de la tasa de encuentro a la varianza de la densidad
poblacional, sugiere que S. leucopus puede preferir ciertos
tipos de habitats y esti haciendo un uso diferencial de ellos.
Por otra parte, es possible que la extinci6n local de otros
primates y otras species, mais vulnerable por sus mayores
requerimientos ecol6gicos y susceptibilidad a presiones,
como la caceria, hayan favorecido la prevalencia de S. leu-
copus al reducirse para 5sta la competencia (fen6meno de
compensaci6n de densidad) (Peres & Dolman 2000).

Tamafio de grupo

El tamafio de grupo encontrado en este studio (5.36 DS:
3.38 n=11 grupos) no difiere de los reportados para la
especie en studios realizados en paisajes similares (Vargas
y Solano, 1996; Cuartas, 2001; Poveda y S&nchez- Palo-
mino, 2004; Santamaria et al., 2007). Sin embargo es
necesario adelantar studios en ireas inalteradas para poder
evaluar la influencia de las condiciones actuales, sobre
el tamafio, estructura y composici6n de los grupos. No
obstante, otras species del genero en Colombia presentan
tamafios de grupo similares (Lindsay, 1980; Savage, 1989;
De la Torre et al., 1995; Defler, 2003, 2004; Palacios et al.,
2004). Por otro lado, se observaron grupos que podrian
considerarse numerosos; con tamafios superiores a ocho
individuos, en su mayoria adults. Sin embargo, un mayor
ndmero de individuos por grupo en este studio no es una
condici6n generalizada de la poblaci6n, pero puede indicar
incipientes alteraciones en la estructura social, product del
aislamiento y de baja disponibilidad de habitat, que impide
la migraci6n de individuos a otras dreas y la formaci6n de
nuevos grupos (Estrada y Coates-Estrada, 1996). Ninguno
de los 11 grupos utilizados para calcular el tamafio prome-

Neotropical Primates 15(2), August 2008
dio de grupo incluia individuos juveniles o infantiles, no
obstante de los 96 registros obtenidos entire observaciones
hechas durante los censos y ad libitum (Altmann, 1974), se
registraron tres individuos inmaduros, dos juveniles y un
infante. Estos resultados sugieren una alteraci6n en la activ-
idad reproductive de la poblaci6n, posiblemente debido a
la saturaci6n de su capacidad de carga dada la alta concen-
traci6n de individuos en el poco habitat disponible.


A la Corporaci6n Aut6noma Regional de Caldas
CORPOCALDAS, especialmente a Oscar Ospina, y
a la Universidad de Caldas por el apoyo financiero. A la
fundaci6n Eduquemos, especialmente a Andrns Felipe
Betancourt por la colaboraci6n en multiples aspects
que hicieron possible la ejecuci6n del studio. A la familiar
Mahecha y a Nestor Bustos por brindarnos su casa y tan
agradable compantia durante las labores de campo. A Ana
Maria Roncancio por la elaboraci6n del mapa y al professor
Thomas R. Defler por las sugerencias para la elaboraci6n
del manuscrito.

N6stor Roncancio Duque, Universidad de Caldas. Mae-
stria en Ciencias Biologia. Universidad Nacional de
Colombia, e-mail: , William Rojas,
Universidad de Caldas, e-mail: ,
Jaime Vicente Est6vez Var6n, Universidad de Caldas,


Altmann, J. 1974. Observational study of behavior: sam-
pling methods. Behavior. 49: 227-265.
Bernstein, I. S., Balcaen, P., Dresdale, L., Gouzoules, H.,
Kavanagh, M., Patterson, T. y Newman Warner, P.,
1976. Differential effects of forest degradation on pri-
mate population. Primates 17: 401- 411.
Buckland, S., Anderson, D., Burnham, K., Laake, J.,
Borchers, D. y Thomas, L. 2001. Introduction to the dis-
tance sampling: estimating abundance of biological popula-
tions. Oxford University press, Oxford y New York.
CORPOCALDAS QUINAXI. 2004. Convenio C043-
2004 CORPOCALDAS QUINAXI para la construc-
ci6n participativa de los escenarios prospectivos del plan
de ordenamiento ambiental de la cuenca hidrogrnfica
del rio la Miel. Manuscrito no publicado. Manizales,
Cuartas, C. A. 2001. Distribuci6n Parcial del Titi Gris
(Saguinus leucopus, Callitrichidae) en el Departamen-
to de Antioquia, Colombia. Neotrop. Primates. 9 (3):
De la Torre, S., Campos, E y De Vries, T. 1995. Home
range and birth seasonality of Saguinus .. g:ilc'!.
in Ecuatorian Amazonia. Am. J. Primatol 37 (1): 39-56
Defler, T. 1981. The density ofAlouatta seniculus in the East-
ern Llanos of Colombia. Primates. 22 (.4):564-569.

Neotropical Primates 15(2), August 2008

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sect in a forest of known primate density. Int. J Pritmatol
6(3) : 243-259.
Defler, T. R. 2003. Primates de Colombia. Serie de Guias
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Tropicales de Colombia 4. Conservaci6n Internacional,
Estrada, A. y Coates-Estrada, R. 1996. Tropical rain forest
fragmentation and wild populations of primates at Los
Tuxtlas, Mexico. Int. J Primatol. 17 (5): 759-781.
Etter, A. 1998. Clasificaci6n general de los ecosistemas
de Colombia. En: Informe national sobre el estado de la
biodiversidad. Tomo 1: Diversidad bioldgica, M. Chivez y
N. Arango (eds.), pp. 176-185. Institute Alexander Von
Humboldt, Santa F6 de Bogoti.
Frankham R., Ballou J. y Briscoe, D. 2002. Introduction to
Conservation Genetics. Cambrige University press, Nueva
Green, K. 1978. Primate censuring in northern Colombia:
a comparison of two techniques. Primates 19: 537-550.
Hershkovitz, P. 1977. Living new word monkeys (Platyr-
rhini). Vol 1. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Kattan, G. 1998. Transformaci6n de paisajes y fragment-
aci6n de habitat. En: Informe Nacional sobre el estado de la
Biodiversidad. Tomo 2: Causas de perdida de biodiversidad,
M. Chaivez y N. Arango (eds.), pp.76-82. Institute Alex-
ander Von Humboldt, Santa F6 de Bogoti.
Leguizam6n, N., Ruiz, M., Castillo, M. 2006. Aplica-
ciones de los anAlisis genetico poblacionales a partir de
genotipos multilocus y metodologias basadas en models
Bayesianos para la conservaci6n de la especie Saguinus
leucopus. En: Conservacidn Ex Situ, Investigacidn para
el manejo en cautiverio y conservacidn de la fauna silvestre,
N. Leguizam6n, (ed.), pp.17-28. Departamento T6cnico
Administrative del Medio Ambiente. Alcaldia Mayor de
Bogoti, Bogoti.
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tamarin. Saguinus oedipus i. ...i Dodo: Journal of the
Jersey '.-' Preservation Trust 17: 27-51
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nus leucopus, en: IUCN 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of
Threatened Species. . Consultada
el 5 de diciembre de 2008.
Palacios, E., Rodriguez, A. y Castillo, C. 2004. Preliminary
observations on the Mottled-faced tamarin (Saguinus in-
ustus) on the lower Rio Caqueti, Colombian Amazonia.
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Peres, C. A. 1999. General guidelines for standardizing
line-transect surveys of tropical forest primates. Neotrop.
Primates 7(1): 1-16
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in neotropical primate communities: evidence from 56
hunted and nonhunted Amazonian forests of varying
productivity. Oecologia 122: 175-189.
Poveda, K. y S&nchez- Palomino, P. 2004. Habitat use by
the white-footed tamarin, Saguinus leucopus: a comparison

between a Forest-dwelling group and an urban group In
Mariquita, Colombia. Neotrop. Primates 12 (1): 6-9
Rodriguez-Mahecha, J. V., Alberico, A., Trujillo, F. y Jor-
genson, J. 2006. Libro Rojo de los Mamiferos de Colombia.
Serie Libros Rojos de Especies Amenazadas de Colombia.
Conservaci6n Internacional Colombia y Ministerio de
Ambiente. Vivienda y Desarrollo Territorial, Bogoti.
Rojas W., J. Estevez-V. y Roncancio N. 2008. Estructura y
composici6n floristica de remanentes de bosque himedo
tropical en el oriented de caldas, Colombia. Bol. Cient. U.
de Caldas 12: 24-37.
Santamaria, M., Devenis, C., Franco, A. M., S&nchez, J.
D., Mendoza, H., Pedraza, C., Forero, E Medina, S.
2007. Densidad y ecologia bisica del titi gris Saguinus
leucopus en el area de influencia del Embalse Amani, Nor-
casia, Caldas. Manuscrito no publicado, Instituto Alex-
ander Von Humboldt ISAGEN, Bogoti.
Savage, A. 1989. The ecology, biology, and conservation
of the cotton-top tamarin in Colombia. Invited address,
British Ecological Society, London.
Snowdon, C. T. y. Soini, P. 1988. The tamarins, genus
Saguinus. En: Ecology and behavior of neotropical primates,
Vol. 2, R. A. Mittermeier, A. B. Rylands, A. Coimbra-
Filho y G.A.B. Fonseca (eds.), pp.223-298. WWF-US.,
Washington, D.C.
Vargas, T. N. y Solano, C. L. 1996. Evaluaci6n del estado
de dos poblaciones de Saguinus leucopus para determinar
dreas potenciales de conservaci6n en un sector del Valle
del Magdalena Medio, Colombia. Neotrop. Primates 4(1):


Guilherme Reis Monfdo
Valquiria Selhorst
Jose Alexandre Rodrigues Soares-filho

Em sua revisao sobre o genero Callicebus Thomas, 1903,
Roosmalen et al. (2002) descrevem a esp6cie Callicebus
bernhardi e indicam que sua distribuigao nos estados do
Amazonas e Rond6nia, Brasil, 6 limitada ao interfidvio dos
rios Madeira ao norte, Ji-Parand a oeste e Aripuana-Roo-
sevelt a leste. Ferrari et al. (1996) observaram um zogue-
zogue cinzento na margem ocidental do rio Ji-Parand em
Pimenta Bueno, Rond6nia, que nao apresentava o padrao
de coloraqao marrom de C brunneus. Roosmalen et al.
(2002) afirmam que se esse individuo pertencesse a C
bernhardi, a distribuigao desta esp6cie seria expandida para
oeste em toda a parte superior do rio Ji-Parand. Neste
trabalho confirmamos a presenga de C bernhardi nos
municipios de Pimenta Bueno e Cacoal na porgao leste do
rio Ji-Parand como sugerido por Roosmalen et al. (2002)
e expandimos sua distribuigao para o municipio de Alto
Alegre dos Parecis. Individuos foram avistados em 16 de

fevereiro de 2008 na propriedade Santa Rita, ampliando
sua airea de ocorrencia 90 km para oeste (Figura 1). Alto
Alegre dos Parecis fica na Chapada dos Parecis (450 m
a.n.n.m.) na porgao sudoeste de Rond6nia (IBGE, 2008).
Sua vegetagao original encontra-se altamente fragmentada
por projetos agropecuairios.

Figura 1. Distribuiygo geogrifica de ( bernhardi pro-
posta por Roosmalen et al. (2002) e localizaygo dos avistamen-
tos citados neste estudo: Alto Alegre dos Parecis (1207'41"S,
61o51'02"O), Pimenta Bueno (1136'30"S, 61o09'49"O) e
Cacoal (1124'13"S, 61o27'47"O).

Guilherme Reis Monsao, Valquiria Selhorst e Jos6
Alexandre Rodrigues Soares Filho, Faculdade de Cien-
cias Biomedicas de Cacoal/FACIMED, Pimenta Bueno,
Rond6nia, Brasil. Tel. (069) 3451.8092, e-mail: herme.bio@hotmail.com>.


Ferrari, S. F., Iwanaga, S. e Silva, J. L. da. 1996. Platyr-
rhines in Pimenta Bueno, Rond6nia, Brazil. Neotrop. Pri-
mates 4: 151-153.
IBGE. 2008. Diagn6stico situacional de Alto Alegre dos
Parecis. Institute Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica
(IBGE), Brasil. Website: http://www.ibge.gov.br/cidade-
sat/default.php. Acessada em 10 de margo de 2008.
Roosmalen, M. G. M., Roosmalen, T. e Mittermeier, R.
A. 2002. A taxonomic review of the titi monkeys, genus
Callicebus Thomas, 1903, with the description of two
new species, Callicebus bernhardi and Callicebus stephen-
nashi, from Brazilian Amazonia. Neotrop. Primates 10
(suppl.): 1-52.


In 2002, the American Society of Mammalogists estab-

Neotropical Primates 15(2), August 2008

lished 2 conservation awards to recognize outstand-
ing contributions to the conservation of mammals and
their habitats. The Aldo Leopold Award is awarded to a
well-established individual who has made a lasting scien-
tific contribution to the conservation of mammals and
their habitats. The William T. Hornaday Award is awarded
to a current undergraduate or graduate student who has
made a significant scientific contribution as a student to
the conservation of mammals and their habitats. Nomi-
nees should have contributed substantially to the conser-
vation of the conservation of 1 or more mammalian spe-
cies, subspecies, or populations."Contribution" is inter-
preted as: (1) scientific research or political activism that
has resulted in the reservation of an imperiled species; (2)
development of protective management recommendations;
(3) acquisition of new knowledge regarding the conserva-
tion status or causes for declines of mammalian species
or populations; (4) the protection of significant mam-
malian habitat; or (5) promotion of the conservation of
mammals through public education. For more informa-
tion contact Richard Thorington ThoringtonR@SI.EDU


Actualmente la organizaci6n Neotropical Primate Con-
servation esta llevando a cabo un proyecto para la conser-
vaci6n del mono choro cola amarilla (Oreonaxflavicauda)
en el bosque de niebla al noreste de Perd. El proyecto abarca
investigaci6n acerca de la especie, reforestaci6n, educaci6n
ambiental, participaci6n comunitiria y desarrollo sustent-
able. Dada la magnitude del proyecto, se convoca a los inter-
esados en participar en el proyecto para que se pongan en
contact con Sam Shanee al correo electr6nico: samsha-
nee@gmail.com o a trav5s de la pigina web www.neopri-

Sam Shanee


La Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia, em conjunto com
la Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz organizam o curso
Metodos em Primatologia de Campo, nos dias 31 de Janeiro
- 09 de Fevereiro na Reserva Ecol6gica Michelin, Ituberi,
Bahia. Prefer&ncia sera dada a estudantes de P6s-graduaiao
con envolvimento e interesse em Primatologia. Poderao
concorrer graduados em Biologia, Medicina Veterinaria
e correlatas querendo proseguir estudos com Primatas.
Alunos dos l1timos semestres de graduacao con trabalho
ou interesse em Primatas tambdm serao considerados. Mas
informacao http://cursoprimatas.blogspot.com. Inscrigoes

Neotropical Primates 15(2), August 2008


Se invita a todos los interesados a participar en el curso en
Etologia y Bienestar en Animales Silvestres, el cual se llevardi
a cabo del 24 al 27 de marzo del present afio en la ciudad
de Lima, Perd. El curso esti dirigido principalmente a
estudiantes de pre-grado, egresados, tecnicos, cuidadores y
profesionales relacionados con el studio de la etologia y
el bienestar animal en centros de conservaci6n ex situ. El
curso constari de una parte te6rica y un taller prictico
de capacidad limitada; se han puesto a disposici6n cierto
nimero de becas. Para mayores informes contactar a Celia
M. Diaz Gonziles: celiadiaz vet@yahoo.com o escribir a


A febre amarela 6 uma doenga infecciosa causada por um
virus que 6 transmitido por mosquitos. Existem dois
tipos: a febre amarela urbana, erradicada do Brasil por
volta da d6cada de 1960, e a febre amarela silvestre. Os
vetores agentss responsaiveis pela transmissao) da forma
silvestre sao mosquitos dos generos Haemagogus e Sabethes,
enquanto a forma urbana pode ser transmitida pelo Aedes
aegypti, o mesmo vetor da dengue.

A febre amarela silvestre ji provocou a morte de algumas
pessoas e de muitos bugios em uma extensa drea do Rio
Grande do Sul desde o final de 2008. No entanto, ao
contririo da maioria das pessoas, os bugios sao extrema-
mente sensiveis a doenga, morrendo em poucos dias ap6s
contrai-la. Esses macacos ji estao ameagados de extingao
no Estado devido a destruigao de seu habitat natural (as
florestas), a caga e ao comercio illegal de mascotes. Infeliz-
mente, os bugios tambdm estao sendo vitimas da doenga
e da falta de informacao da populagao. Inimeros rela-
tos indicam que habitantes das regi6es de ocorrencia do
bugio-preto e do bugio-ruivo estao matando os animals,
principalmente por envenenamento, por medo do avango
da doenga. Aldm de tornar mais critic o estado de con-
servagao desses animals, essa attitude 6 extremamente preju-
dicial para o pr6prio home. A morte de bugios por febre
amarela alerta os 6rgaos de sadde locais sobre a circulagao
do virus na regiao, os quais promovem campanhas de vaci-
nacao da populagao humana, como se tem observado em
quase 200 municipios do Estado. 0 Minist&rio da Sadde
consider esses macacos importantes "sentinelas" da circu-
lacao do virus. Portanto, os bugios sao nossos "ANJOS DA
GUARDA"! Se eles forem mortos pelo home, descobr-
iremos que a febre amarela chegou a determinada regiao
apenas quando as pessoas contrairem a doenga. E talvez jai
seja tarde para algumas (ou muitas)...

Aldm de NAO transmitirem a doenga para o home,
os bugios NAO sao os responsiveis pelo ripido avango
da doenga no Estado. Eles sao as principals vitimas. As
mudangas climiticas e a degradagao ambiental provocadas
pelo home sao as principals responsiveis pelo recent
aparecimento de indmeras doengas infecciosas no Estado.
Especialistas acreditam que o avango da doenga tem sido
facilitado pelo deslocamento de pessoas infectadas ou pela
dispersao dos mosquitos ou outro hospedeiro ainda descon-
hecido. Pergunto: "Voce mataria o seu anjo da guarda"

Dr. Jdlio Cesar Bicca-Marques
Professor Titular
Grupo de Pesquisa em Primatologia
Faculdade de Biociencias/PUCRS


South American Primates: Comparative Perspectives in the
Study of Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation (Developments
in P .-..'..i Progress and Prospects), edited by P. A.
Garber, A. Estrada, J. C. Bicca-Marques, E. Heymann
and K. B. Strier. 2008. Springer. 447pp. ISBN: 978-
0387787046. The focus of each chapter is to examine
the nature and range of primate responses to changes in
their ecological and social environments, and to use data
on South American monkeys to address critical theoretical
questions in the study of primate behavior, ecology, and
conservation. Contents: 1. Advancing the study of south
American primates P. A. Garber & A. Estrada; 2. The
diversity of the new world primates (Platyrrhini), an
annotated taxonomy A. B. Rylands & R. A. Mittermeier;
3. Paleogeography of the South Atlantic: a route for primates
and rodents into the new world? E B. de Oliveira, E. C.
Molina and G. Marroig; 4. Platyrrhine ecophylogenetics
in space and time A. L. Rosenberger, M. E Tejedor, S. B.
Cooke and S. Pekar

SpiderMonkeys: TheBiology, Behavior ;E .'i i. 'f-'-. Genus
Ateles, edited by Christina J. Campbell. 2008. Cambridge
University Press. 352pp. ISBN: 978-0521867504. Spider
monkeys are traditionally very difficult to study in the
wild, but there has been an expansion in research being
carried out on this genus in the past decade. This book is an
assimilation of both published and previously unpublished
research on spider monkeys, it is a comprehensive source of
information for academic researchers and graduate students
interested in primatology, evolutionary anthropology and
behavioral ecology and covers topics such as taxonomy,
diet, sexuality and reproduction, and conservation.

The Biology of Traditions: Models and Evidence, edited by
D. M. Fragaszy and S. Perry. Cambridge University Press.
476pp. ISBN: 978-0521087308. This book explores
socially-maintained behavioral traditions in animals other
than humans. Uniquely, it treats traditions as biological
phenomena amenable to comparative evaluation in
the same way as other biological phenomena. It is also
concerned with how widely shared features of social life
and learning abilities can lead to traditions in many species.
It differs from other books in its emphasis on explicit
evaluation of alternative theories and methods, and in the
breadth of species covered. It will be essential reading for
students and researchers in behaviour, anthropology and
psychology. Contents: 1. Towards a biology of traditions
- D. M. Fragaszy and S. Perry; 2. What the models say
about social learning K. N. Laland and J. R. Kendal;
3. Relative brain size and the distribution of innovation
and social learning across the nonhuman primates S. M.
Reader; 4. Social learning about food in birds L. Lefebvre
& J. Bouchard; 5. The cue reliability approach to social
transmission: designing tests for adaptive traditions G.
Dewar; 6. Traditional foraging behaviors ofbrown and black
rats B. G. Galef Jr.; 7. Food for thought. Social learning
about food feeding capuchin monkeys E. Visalberghi
and E. Addessi; 8. Traditions in mammalian and avian
vocal communication V. M. Janik and P. J. B. Slater; 9.
Like mother, like calf: the ontogeny of foraging traditions
in wild Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphins J. Mann and
B. Sageant; 10. Biological and ecological foundations of
primate behavioral tradition M.A. Huffman & S. Hirata;
11. Local traditions in orangutans and chimpanzees:
social learning and social tolerance C. P. Van Schaik; 12.
Developmental perspectives on great ape traditions A. E.
Russon; 13. Do brown capuchins socially learn foraging
skills? S. Boinski, R. P. Quatrone, K. Sughrue, L. Selvaggi,
M. Henry, C. M. Stickler and L. M. Rose; 14. Traditions
inn wild white-faced capuchin monkeys S. Perry, M.
Panger, L. M. Rose, M. Baker, J. Gros-Louis, K. Jack, K.
C. Mackinnon, J. Manson, L. Fedigan and K. Pyle; 15.
Conclusions and research agendas S. Perry.

Agostini, I., Holzmann, I., and Di Bitetti, M. S. 2008.
Infant hybrids in a newly formed mixed-species group
of howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans and Al-
ouatta caraya) in northeastern Argentina. Primates. 49(4):
Amendola Pimenta, M., Rico-Gray, V. and Pinero Dalmau,
D. 2008. Habitat disturbance and genetic variability of
populations of black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) in
Campeche, Mexico: implications for conservation. Am. J
Primatol. 70(Suppl 1): 31-32
Anemone, R., Dirks, W., Moore, W., Van Regenmorter, J.,
Marshall, J., Felder, I. and DeMeester, E. 2008. GIS and
primate biostratigraphy in the early Eocene of southwest-
ern Wyoming. Am. J Phys. Anthropol. (Suppl 46): 60

Neotropical Primates 15(2), August 2008
Aquino, R., Terrones, W., Cornejo, F and Heymann, E. W.
2008. Geographic distribution and possible taxonomic
distinction of Callicebus torquatus populations in Peru-
vian Amazonia. Am. J Primatol. 70(12): 1181-1186
Araripe, J., Tagliaro, C. H., Rego, P. S., Sampaio, I., Fer-
rari, S. E and Schneider, H. 2008. Molecular phylogenet-
ics of large-bodied tamarins, Saguinus spp. Zool. Scripta.
37(5): 461-467.
Arroyo- Rodriguez, V., Mandujano, S. and Benitez-Mal-
vido, J. 2008. Landscape attributes affecting patch occu-
pancy by howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata mexicana) at
Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. Am. J Primatol. 70(1): 69-77
Asensio, N., Korstjens, A. H., Schaffner, C. M. and Aureli,
E 2008. Intragroup aggression, fission-fusion dynamics
and feeding competition in spider monkeys. Behaviour.
145(7): 983-1001
Asensio, N., Korstjens, A. H. and Aureli, E 2008. Ranging
costs in wild monkeys. Folia Primatol. 79(5): 310
Beard, K. C. 2008. The oldest North American primate
and mammalian biogeography during the Paleocene-Eo-
cene Thermal Maximum. Proceed. Nat. Academy Sciences.
USA. 105(10): 3815-3818
Bezerra, B. M; Souto A. 2008. Structure and usage of the
vocal repertorie of Callithrix jacchus. Int. J. Primatol.
29(3): 671-701
Bicca-Marques, J. C., Prates, H. M., de Aguiar, F R. C.
and Jones, C. B. 2008. Survey of Alouatta caraya, the
black and gold howler monkey, and Alouatta guariba
clamitans, the brown howler monkey, in a contact zone,
State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: evidence of hybridiza-
tion. Primates. 49(4): 246-252
Bonilla-Sanchez, Y. M., Serio-Silva, J. C., Pozo-Montuy,
G. and Bynum, N. 2008. Demography of Alouattapigra
in threatened habitat in south-eastern Mexico. Am. J.
Prim. (Suppll): 52
Boubli, J. P., da Silva, M. N. E, Amado, M. V., Hrbek, T.,
Puntual, F B. and Farias, I. P. 2008. A taxonomic reas-
sessment of Cacajao melanocephalus, with the description
of two new species. Int. J Prim. 29(3): 723-741
Boubli, J. P. and Tokuda, M. 2008. Socioecology of black
uakari monkeys, Cacajao hosomi, in Pico da Neblina Na-
tional Park, Brazil: The role of the peculiar spatial-tempo-
ral distribution of resources in the Neblina forest. Prim.
Report. 75: 3-10
Boyle, S. A. 2008. Human impacts on primate conserva-
tion in central Amazonia. Trop. Cons. Science. 1(1): 6-17
Bravo, S. P. 2008. Seed dispersal and ingestion of insect-in-
fested seeds by black howler monkeys in flooded forest of
the Parand River, Argentina. Biotropica. 40(4): 471-476
Bustos, C. A., Corkum, L. D., Slater, K. Y. and Mennill,
D. J. 2008. Acoustic characteristics of the vocalizations of
mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in the frag-
mented low-land forests of Honduras. Am. J Primatol.
(Suppl 1): 68
Carrillo-Bilbao, G. A., Bravo, J. J., Martin, S. and Huynen,
M. C. 2008. A preliminary study of the primate commu-
nity in the protected area of Oglan Alto, Araujo-Pastaza,
Ecuador. Folia Primatol. 79(5): 318-319

Neotropical Primates 15(2), August 2008

Cornejo, F M., Aquino, R. and Jimenez, C. 2008. Notes
on the natural history, distribution and conservation
status of the Andean night monkeys, Aotus miconax.
Prim. Cons. 23: 1-4
Crofoot, M. C., Gilby, I. C., Wikelski, M. C. and Kays,
R. W. Interaction location outweighs the competitive ad-
vantage of numerical superiority in Cebus capucinus in-
tergroup contests. Proceed. Nat. Academy Sciences. USA.
105(2): 577-581
Decanini, D. P and Macedo, R. H. 2008. Sociality in Cal-
lithrix penicillata: Intragroup male profile. Int. J. Prima-
tol. 29(2): 433-447
Decanini, D. P. and Mecddo, R. H. 2008. Sociality in Cal-
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de Freitas, C. H., Setz, E. Z. E, Araujo, A. R. B. and Gobbi,
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Dunn, J. C., Azkarate, J. C. and Vea Baro, J. J. 2008. The
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Fagundes, V., Paes, M. E, Chaves, P. B., Mendes, S. L., Pos-
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Fedigan, L. M., Carnegie, S. D. and Jack, K. M. 2008.
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Fernandez-Duque, E., Di Fiore, A. and Carrillo-Bilbao, G.
2008. Behavior, ecology and demography of Aotus vocif-
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29(2): 421-431
Ferrari, S. F, Veiga, L. M. and Urbani, B. 2008. Geophagy
in New World monkeys (Platyrhini): ecological and geo-
graphic patterns. Folia Primatol. 79(5): 402-415
Fabian, K. K. M. C., Spohr, K. A. H., Malanski, L. S.,
Svoboda, W. K., Shiozawa, M. M., Hilst, C. L. S., Aguiar,
L. M., Ludwing, G., Passos, E C., Navarro, I. T., Balarin,
M. R. S. and Lisboa, J. A. N. 2008. Hematologic values
of free-ranging Cebus cay and Cebus nigritus in southern
Brazil. Int. J. Primatol. 29(5): 1374-1382
Fortes, V. B. and Bicca-Marques, J. C. 2008. Abnormal
pelage color in an isolated population of Alouatta guar-
iba clamitans, in south Brazil. Int. J. Primatol. 29(3):

Gibson, K. N., Vick, L. G., Palma, A. C. and del Rocio
Carrasco, E M. 2008. Intra-community infanticide and
forced copulation in spider monkeys: a multi-site com-
parision between Cocha Cashu, Peru and Punta Laguna,
Mexico. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. Supply 46: 103
Gros-Louis, J. J., Perry, S. E., Fichtel, C., Wikberg, E.,
Giljenson, H., Wofsy, S. and Fuentes, A. 2008. Vocal
repertorie of Cebus capucinus: acoustic structure, context
and usage. Int. J. Primatol. 29(3): 641-670
Hirano, Z. M. B., Correa, I. C. and Oliveira, D. A. G.
2008. Contexts of rubbing behavior in Alouatta guariba
clamitans: a scent-marking role?. Am. J. Primatol. 70(6):
Jack, K. M., Lenz, B.B., Healan, E., Rudman, S., Schoof,
V. A. M. and Fedigan, L. 2008. The effects of observer
presence on the behavior of Cebus capucinus in Costa
Rica. Am. J. Primatol. 70(5): 490-494
Jasso, C. and Estrada, A. 2008. Tropical rain forest frag-
mentation and social interactions in young howler mon-
keys (Alouatta palliata). Am. J. Primatol. 70(Suppl 1):
Juarez, C. P., Berg, W. J. and Fernandez-Duque, E. 2008.
An evaluation of the potential long-term effects of radio-
collars on the reproduction and demography of owl mon-
keys (Aotus azarai) in Formosa, Argentina. Am. J. Prima-
tol. 70(Suppl 1): 49
Kauffman, L. and Boinski, S. 2008. Do primates see eco-
turists as potential predators?. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol.
Supp146: 128
Lapenta, M. J., Procopio-de-Oliveira, P., Kierulff, M. C.
M. and Motta, J. C. 2008. Frugivory abd seed disper-
sal of golden lion tamarins (Leonthopitecus rosalia) in a
forest fragment in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil. Brazil. J.
Biol. 68(2): 241-249
Lapenta, M. J. and Procopio-de-Oliveira, P. 2008. Some
aspects of seed dispersal effectiveness of golden lion tama-
rins (Leontopithecus rosalia) in Brazilian Atlantic Forest.
Trop. Cons. Science. 1(2): 122-139
Ludwing, G., Aguiar, L. M., Svoboda, W. K., Hilst, C. L.
S., Navarro, I. T., Vitule, J. R. S. and Passos, F C. 2008.
Comparison of the diet of Alouatta caraya, between a ri-
parian island and mainland on the upper Parana river,
southern Brazil. Rev. Brasil. Zool. 25(3): 419-426
Lynch Alfaro, J. 2008. Scream-embrace displays in wild
black-horned capuchin monkeys. Am. J. Primatol. 70(6):
Maia da Silva, F, Naiff, R. D., Marcili, A., Gordo, M.,
D'Affonseca Neto, J. A., Naiff, M. E, Franco, A. M. R.,
Campaner, M., Valente, V., Valente, S. A., Camargo, E.
P., Teixeira, M. M. G. and Miles, M. A. 2008. Infection
rates and genotypes of Trypanosoma rangeli and T cruzi
infecting free-ranging Saguinus bicolor, a critically endan-
gered primate of the Amazon Rainforest. Acta Tropica.
107(2): 168-173
Maldonado, A. and Bearder, S. 2008. Assessing the impact
of hunting on harvest-sensitive primates within protected
areas and indigenous lands in Colombian Amazon. Folia
Primatol. 79(5): 357-358

Milton, K., Lozier, J. D. and Lacey, E. A. 2008. Genetic
structure of an isolated population of mantled howler
monkeys (Alouatta palliata) on Barro Colorado Island,
Panama. Cons. Gen. 1-12
Munoz, D., Estrada, A. and del Valle, Y. G. 2008. Survey
and conservation of a relict population of spider monkeys
(Ateles '... .o. I in the Sumidero Canyon, Mexico. Trop.
Cons. Science. 1(2): 151-162
Nascimento, F. F., Bonvicino, C. R., Oliveira, M. M., Sch-
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genetics studies of Alouatta belzebul from the Amazonian
and Atlantic forests. Am. J Primatol. 70(5): 423-431
Oliverira, V. B., Linares, A. M., Correa, G. L. C. and
Chiarello, A. G. 2008. Predation on the black capuchin
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familiaris, in the Parque Estadual Serra do Brigadeiro,
Brazil. Rev. Brasil. Zool. 25(2): 376-378
Ortiz-Martinez, T., Rico-Gray, V. and Martinez, M. E.
2008. Predicted and verified distributions of Ateles geof-
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49(3): 186-194
Parr, N., Campos, E, Childers, A., Fedigan, L. and Jack,
K. 2008. Dry season ranging behavior and intergroup
relations in white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) at
Sanra Rosa National Park, Costa Rica. Am. J Primatol.
70(Suppl 1): 53
Perea-Rodriguez, J. P., Milano, A. M., Fernandez-Duque,
E. and Osherov, B. E. 2008. Gastrointesnital parasites of
owl monkeys (Aotus azarai) living in edge and non-edge
territories in a gallery forest in northern Argentina. Am .
J Primatol. 70(Suppl 1): 53
Perry, S. E., Mufiz, L., Manson, J. H., Gros-Louis, J. and
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Pozo-Montuy, G., Serio-Silva, J. C. and Bonilla-STnchez,
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Pozo-Montuy, G., Serio-Silva, JC., Bonilla-STnchez, Y. M.,
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(Alouatta pigra) in Balancan, Mexico. Am. J Primatol.
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Prates, H. M. and Bicca-Marques, J. C. 2008. Age-sex
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in Alouatta caraya in an orchard forest. Int. J Primatol.
29(3): 703-715
Ryan, S. J., Starks, P. T., Milton, K. and Getz, W. M. 2008.
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Savage, A., Thomas, L., Leighty, K., Soto, L., Causado,
J. and Medina, E 2008. The development of a census
technique for cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) in
Colombia. Am. J Primatol. 70(Suppl 1): 23

Neotropical Primates 15(2), August 2008
Schaffner, C. M. and Aureli, F 2008. The implications
of fission-fusion dynamics for social interactions in wild
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Y. 2008. Black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) popula-
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1): 48
Shanee, N., Shanee, S. and Maldonado, A. M. 2008. Pre-
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bamba, Peru. Folia Primatol. 79(5): 381-381
Sousa, M. B. C. and Pontes, M. C. 2008. Diurnal temporal
variation in affiliative behaviors of common marmosets
(Callithrix jacchus) males living in natural conditions.
Rev. Brasil. Zoociencias. 10(1): 7-12
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of ateline extinction and forest fragmentation on plant
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Trejo-Macias, G., Estrada, A. and Mosqueda, C. M. A.
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Seed dispersal by white-faced capuchins and implications
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Van Belle, S. and Estrada, A. 2008. Group size and compo-
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black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra). Am. J Primatol.
70(6): 613-619
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Acta. Ethol. 11(2): 95-99

Neotropical Primates 15(2), August 2008


Selected abstracts from the XXII Congress of the Inter-
national Primatological Society. Edinburgh, Scotland,
August 3-8, 2008.
Addessi, E., Spagnoletti, N., and Visalberghi E. Wild
bearded capuchin monkeys (Cebus libidinosus) select
functional hammer tools.
Anderson, J. R., Hattori, Y., Kuwahata, H., Kuroshima,
H., Vick, S., Fujita and K., Gaze between new world
monkeys and humans.
Aradjo, Jr. A. C., Didonet, J. J., Aradjo, C. S., Saletti, P. G.,
Borges, T. R. J. and Pessoa, V. E Colour vision discrimi-
nation in the black howler monkey (Alouatta caraya).
Arruda, M. F, Alencar, A. I., Sousa, M. B. C. and Araujo,
A. Mating systems and female-female competition in the
common marmoset, Callithrixjacchus.
Arruda, M. F, Cutrim, E H. R. and Ribeiro, M. D. P. Ac-
tivity pattern of wild Callithrixjacchus along infant and
juvenile periods.
Aureli, E and Schaffner, C. M. Outcome of approaches in
wild spider monkeys.
Bales, K. L., Jarcho M. R., Mason W. A. and Mendoza,
S. P. Intranasal vasopressin administration modulates
pair-bonding in monogamous titi monkeys (Callicebus
Barnes, J. L. and Santos, L. R. Spontaneus helping behav-
ior in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella)?
Barnett, A. A., Bezerra, B. M., MacLarnon, A. and Ross, C.
Hard-fruits and black waters: the conservation ecology of
golden-backed uacari, Cacajao an extreme diet
and habitat specialist.
Behie, A. M., Pavelka, M. S. M. and Chapman, C. A.
Variation in fecal cortisol levels in a wild vlack howler
population in southern Belize.
Benitez, M. E., Anestis, S. E, Santos, L. R.and Bribiescas,
R. G. Non-invasive salivary collection techniques in cap-
tive brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).
Bergstrom, M. L. and Fedigan, L. M. Maternal kin bias
among female white-faced capuchins.
Bettridge, C. M., Dunbar, R. I. M. and Lehmann, J. Time
and predation as constraints on primate biogeography.
Bezanson, M. and Raichlen, D. A. Bringing the lab into
the field: kinematics during quadrupedal walking in
Cebus capucinus.
Bezerra, B. M., Barnett, A., Silva, Jr. S. J., Souto, A. S. and
Jones, G. Sounding out species: holes in our distribution-
al knowledge of Amazonian primates, and the potential
for call playback as a survey technique.
Bicca-Marques, J. C., Muhle, C. B., Prates, H. M., 01-
iveira, S. G. and Calegaro-Marques, C. Habitat deterio-
ration and unexpected trophic niche broadening: a case
study on egg-eating by black-and-gold howler monkeys
(Alouatta caraya).
Blair, M. and Melnick, D. The effect of habitat fragmen-
tation on population genetic structure in the Central
American squirrel monkey (Saimiri oerstedii).

Boubli, J. P. and De Lima, M. G. Challenges of assessing
conservation status of Neotropical primates of genus
Bowell, V. A., Rumble, R. J. and Buchanan-Smith, H. M.
Reducing the stress of capture through the use of positive
reinforcement training and positive human interactions
in common marmoset (Callithrixjacchus).
Boyle, S. A., Smith, A. T. and Spironello, W. Forest frag-
mentation in central Amazonia and its consequences for
the brown bearded saki, Chiropotes satanas chiripotes.
Bridgett, C. R. and Pavelka, M. S. M. Effects of folivory
versus frugivory on ranging in black howlers.
Brown, C., Gordon, M., Becker, M. and Alipour, F The
case for biomechanical lateralization of the squirrel
monkey larynx.
Brunce, J. A. and Isbell, L. A. Does colour vision explain
variation in foraging behavior for wild titi monkeys (Cal-
licebus brunneus).
Bueno, R. and Galetti, M. Status of primate populations
in protected areas of south east Sao Paulo Atlantic forest,
Burkart, J. M., Foglia, M. and Strasser, A. Trade-offs be-
tween social learning and innovativeness in common
marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)?
Carnegie, S. D., Fedigan, L. M. and Ziegler, T. E. Predic-
tors of allomaternal care in Cebus capucinus.
Carretero Pinz6n, X., Defler, T. R. and Ruiz Garcia, M.
Fence-rows as biological corridors: an important tool for
primate conservation in Colombian Llanos.
Castelo-Branco, R., Leitao, M., Serra, B., Pessoa, D. M.
A. and Sousa, M. B. C. Response to children's toys in
common marmosets (Callithrixjacchus).
Chabrawi, S., Ajuz, R. C., Pessoa, V. F and Araujo, M. E
Color discrimination on detecting food target of Alouatta
caraya (Primates, Atelidae).
Chowdhury, S., Fernandez-Duque, E. and Rudran, R. In-
fluence of group structure on life histories of female red
howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus).
Coelho, C. G., Ramos-da-Silva, E. D. and Ottoni, E. B.
Opportunities for social learning of nut-cracking behav-
ior by two populations of capuchin monkeys: semi-free
raning (Cebus sp.) and wild Cerrado populations (Cebus
Coles, R. C., Talebi, M. G. and Lee, P. C. Fission-fusion
sociality in southern muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoids) in
the continuous atlantic forest of Brazil.
Cornejo, F M. Aspects of the ecology and behavior of je
yellow tailed woolly monkeys Oreonaxflavicauda.
Cortes-Ortiz, L. Phylogeography of Mesoamerican howler
Crescimbene, L., Mancini, A., Addessi, E. and Visalberghi,
E. Symbolic use on tokens in capuchin monkeys (Cebus
Cronin, K. A., Snowdon, C. T. and Silk, J. B. Performance
of cottontop tamarins (Saguinus Oedipus) on a food do-
nation task: a comparison with chimpanzees (Pan troglo-
dytes) and common marmosets (Callithrixjacchus).

Culot, L., Mufioz Lazo, E J., Huynen, M. C. and Hey-
mann, E. W. Primary seed dispersal by tamarins into a
secondary forest.
Da Cunha, R. and Byrne, R. The screech complex of calls
of immature black howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya).
Dacier, A., De Luna, G., Fernandez-Duque, E. and Di
Fiore, A. Estimating population density of tit monkeys
(Callicebus discolor) through playback calls.
De Marco, A., Petit, 0. and Visalberghi, E. Facial displays
in two capuchin species: Cebus capucinus and Cebus
Defler, T. R. and Bueno, M. L. Species or subspecies: the
relationship of two Colombian Lagothrix taxa.
DeLuycker, A. M. Dynamics of the social pair bond in the
Rio Mayo titi monkey (Callicebus oenanthe) in northern
Di Fiore, A. Molecular assessment of dispersal patterns in
sympatric woolly and spider monkeys.
Dindo, M. and Whiten, A. Copying fidelity in capuchin
monkeys (Cebus apella).
Dunn, J., Cristobal-Azkarate, J. and Vea, J.B. Changes in
foraging behavior of mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta
palliata) in response to food availability and their effect
on physiological health.
Emile, N., Goncalves, I. and Barros, M. Object versus
picture recognition of a snake predator by captive black
tufted-ear marmosets.
Eraso, T. M., Vignolo, A., Norscia, I. and Palagi, E. Adult
play in a family group of captive common marmosets
(Callithrix jacchus).
Falotico, T. and Ottoni, E. B. Aimed stone-throwing by fe-
males during courtship in wild capuchin monkeys (Cebus
Farmer, H., Leaver, L. A. and Plowman, A. B. Comparisons
of behavioral patterns and vocalizations in pair-housed
and family-housed captive howler monkeys (Alouatta
Feistner, A. and Rabeson, P. Participatory ecological moni-
toring of biodiversity: implicating villages in primate
Fernandez-Duque, E. and Juarez, C. Ecological demo-
graphic and behavioral aspects of natal dispersal in mo-
nogamous owl monkeys (Aotus azarai) of the argentinan
Ferreira, R. G. and Jerusalinsky, L. Three stones for three
seeds: selective tool use in capuchins.
Ferris, C., Meyer, J. and Harder, J. Gender differences in
common prefrontal function and chemistry in response
to ECSTASY: females are selectively vulnerable.
Fogaca, M. D. E and Izar, P. I. Selection of sleeping sites by
Cebus nigritus in Brazilian Atlantic forest.
Freitas, C., Spironello, W. and Venticinque, E. Logs and
long-term survival: the impact of selective timber extrac-
tion on central Amazonia primate communities.
Garber, P. A. and Porter, L. M. Exudate production and the
ecology of exudates feeding in Saguinus and Callimico.
Gibson, K. N. Male mating tactics in spider monkeys:
sneaking to compete.

Neotropical Primates 15(2), August 2008
Ginther, A. J. Social strategies of fathers and adult son al-
loparents in cooperatively breeding cottontop tamarins
(Saguinus oedipus oedipus).
Gonzalez-Martinez, J. and Kessler, M. Surgical sterilization
as a means of population control for free-ranging intro-
duced primate population in southwestern Puerto Rico.
Gordo, M., Calleia, E 0., Rohe, E, Leite, J. E, Vascon-
celos, S. A., Cardoso, G. L., Anjos, M. P., Venticinque,
E. M., Farias, I. P., Hrbek, T. and Ferrari, S. F When
small is dangerous: the conservation ecology of a natural-
ly range-restricted primate, Saguinus bicolor, the Manaus
Gros-Louis, J. The function of white-faced capuchin vo-
calizations differs from the signaler's and recipient's
Guedes, D. and Young, R. Bibliometric analysis of Brazil-
ian primatology from 1976 to 2006.
Guidorizzi, C. E., Kierulff, M. C. and Alvarez, M. R.
Density, birth seasonality and infant mortality in golden-
headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas) inhab-
iting a semi-deciduous forest fragment in Bahia, Brazil.
Gunhold, T., Pesendorfer, M. B., Range, E, Schiel, N.,
Souto, A. and Huber, L. Conformity of habit? Experi-
ments with multiple groups of captive and free-living
common marmoset (Callithrixjacchus).
Hankerson, S. J. and Dietz, J. M. Comparison of home
range calculation methods: golden lion tamarins as a case
Hattori, Y., Kuroshima, H. and Fujita, K. Cognitive back-
ground of reciprocal altruism in tufted capuchin mon-
keys (Cebus apella).
Heymann, E. W., Huck, M. and Loettker, P. Kinship and
infant care in a cooperatively breeding tamarin, Saguinus
Hiramatsu, C., Melin, A. D., Aureli, E, Schaffner, C. M.,
Vorobyev, M. and Kawamura, S. Effectiveness of chro-
matic and achromatic signals in fruit foraging of wild
spider monkeys (Ateles ... ... '
Izar, P., Presotto, A. and Fogaca, M. D. Goal-directed
movements of black capuchin monkeys, Cebus nigritus,
in Atlantic forest.
Jack, K. M. and Fedigan, L. M. Explaining female dispersal
in a female-philopatric species (Cebus capucinus).
Kaneko, T. and Tomonaga, M. Utility of habituation-dis-
habituation procedure for cognitive studies of new world
monkeys: verification of looking time sensitivity and ex-
ploration of behavioral measures.
Kaplan, G., Rogers, L. J., Chen, H. C. and Berger, Y. Ageing
and vocal communication in common marmosets.
Kawamura, S., Matsumoto, Y., Ozawa, N., Hiwatashi,
T., Okabe, Y., Tsutsui, T., Hiramatsu, C., Melin, A. D.,
Innan, H., Schaffner, C. M., Aureli, F and Fedigan, L.
M. Mutations creating novel spectral types of atelid L/M
opsin alleles and the natural selection acting to maintain
allelic polymorphism of L/M opsin genes in wild popula-
tions of new world monkeys.

Neotropical Primates 15(2), August 2008
King, Z., Sheller, C. and Jack, K. M. The effects of infant
births on male-female relationships in white-faced capu-
chins (Cebus capucinus).
Kyes, R. C., Iskandar, E., Onibala, J. 0., Chalise, M. K.,
Li, J. H., Feeroz, M. M., Aggimarangsee, N., Kakule, P.
and Serio Silva, J. C. Global partnerships in primate con-
servation biology: field training and outreach education.
Lakshminarayanan, V. R. and Santos, L. R. Framing effects
and the endowment effect in capuchins.
Lawrence, J. M. Using playback experiments to investigate
pair bond function in brown titi monkeys (Callicebus
Link, A., Aldana, A. M., de Luna, A.G., Morales-Jimenez,
A. L. and Stevenson, P. R. Effects of habitat degrada-
tion on the behavioral ecology and grouping patterns of
brown spider monkeys (Ateles hybridus) at Serrania de las
Quinchas, Colombia.
Liu, Q., Fragaszy, D., Bril, D., Dietrich, G. and Hirata,
S. Capuchin monkeys and chimpanzees crack nuts skill-
fully: biomechanical analyses.
Lynch Alfaro, J. W. and Alfaro, M. E. Biological and cul-
tural evolution in capuchin monkeys: mapping behav-
ioural traditions onto a Cebus molecular phylogeny.
Maldonado, A. M. and Bearder, S. K. Assessing the impact
of hunting on harvest-sensitive primates within protected
areas and indigenous lands in the southern Colombian
Matthews, L. J. Field experiments of an extractive process-
ing task in wild white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus
McCabe, G. M. and Joachim, L. The 21st century male: a
case of unexpected care-giving in an alpha male capuchin
(Cebus capucinus).
Melin, A. D., Fedigan, L. M., Kawamura, S. and Hiramat-
su, C. Fig foraging by white-faced capuchin monkeys in
Costa Rica: considering polymorphic color vision.
Mendes, A. L. B., Barbalho, J. C., Ferreira, R. G. and
Araujo, J. E Understanding of apparatus for cognitive
test by common marmoset.
Mendes, S. and Strier, K. Implications of female dis-
persal of managing the northern muriqui (Brachyteles

Mendes, S. L., Cunha, A. A., Dias, L. G., Melo, E R., Strier,
K. B. and Talebi, M. Challenges facing the conservation
of the muriquis in the Brazilian Atlantic forest.
Menzel, C. R. and Fragaszy, D. M. Monkeys get the point:
capuchins use lasers to select and rank distant rewards.
Montague, M. J. The effects of colour vision on decoy
predator recognition among wild squirrel monkeys (Sai-
miri sciureus).
Morales-Jimenez, A. L. The silvery brown tamarin (Saguinus
leucopus) conservation program: two years of experience.
Morimoto, Y. and Fujita, K. Capuchin monkeys (Cebus
apella) regulate their own behaviour according to the
conspecific's emotional expression.
Morris, N., Richardson, A., Bezerra, B. M., Schwitzer,
C. and Jones, G. Behavioural and vocal repertoires of

captive grey-ledged night monkeys Aotus lemurinus
Moura, A. and Lee, P. Wild capuchins show sex differenc-
es in tool use: energetic costs, sexual selection or social
Muniz, L., Perry, S., Manson, J. H., Gross-Louis, J., Gilk-
enson, H. and Vigilanr, L. Close kin availability within
wild groups of white-faced capuchins.
Nishimura, A. Hierarchy in woolly monkeys, Lagothrix lag-
otricha, at La Macarena, Colombia.
Novy, M. B., Mundy, N. I. and Caine, N. G. Trichromatic
and dichromatic marmosets (Callithrix ...:r... I may
differ in food inspection strategies.
O'Malley, R. C. and Fedigan, L. M. Social conventions
in Cebus and Pan: 'Hand-sniffing' and the 'groomming
hand-clasp' compared.
Ottoni, E. B., Mannu M. Diversity of stone tool use by
wild capuchin monkeys (Cebus libidinosus) in Serra Da
Capivara, Brazil.
Pan, J., Fragaszy, D., Pickering, T. and Kennedy, E. H.
Learning to make detours: the micro-development of
skilled navigation in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).
Pavelka, M. S. M. and Behie, A. M. Reduction and recov-
ery of a black howler population in response to a major
Perez Flores, J. S. Behavior management programs: a tool
to increase animal welfare levels of new world monkeys
in captivity.
Perez-Ruiz, A. L. and Mondragon-Ceballos, R. Allogroom-
ing in free-ranging spider monkeys (Ateles ... ... '
Perry, S. E. Measures of social learning in wild capuchin
Phillips, K. A. and Sherwood, C. C. Cortical development
in brown capuchin monkeys: a structural MRI study.
Porter, L. M. and Garber, P. A. Limited dispersal and coop-
erative breeding in Callimico goeldii.
Poti, P. and Saporiti, M. Tufted capuchins can use configu-
rations of nearby landmarks to find food.
Presotto, A. and Izar, P. Weather conditions affect travel-
ing patterns of black capped capuchins (Cebus nigritus)
in atlantic forest.
Priscila, C., Goncalver, I., Emile, N., Ziller, F., Barros, M.
and Tomaz, C. Similar defense-related behaviors in cap-
tive marmosets confronted with different types of poten-
tial predators.
Rapaport, L. Food sharing, coforaging and scaffolding in
wild golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia).
Rebecchini, L., Schaffner, C. M., Auleri, E, Vick, L. and
Ramos-Fernandez, G. The impact of hurricane Emily on
the activity budget, diet and subgroup composition of
wild spider monkeys (Ateles ., ..'. yucatanensis).
Resende, B. and Fragaszy, D. M. Development ofnut-crack-
ing behavior in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella)
and comparison with chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).
Rodrigues, M. A. Nepotistic back-scratching: patterns of
grooming among captive female spider monkeys.
Rodriguez Luna, E., Cortes Ortiz, L., Shedden A. and
Sol6rzano Garcia B. Critical review of the CAMP and

PHVA workshops as instruments for Neotropical pri-
mate conservation.
Rogers, L. J. and Gordon, D. J. Hand preference, reactivity
and social behavior in Callithrixjacchus.
Rohe, F, da Silva-Jr, J. and Spironello, W. The diversity
of central amazonian primates and its newest addition, a
new tamarin, provisionally of genus Saguinus.
Rudolf von Rohr, C. The goeldi's monkey (Callimico goeldi)
a callitrichid that breaks ranks.
Rylands, A. B., Williamson, L., Hoffmann, M. and Savage,
A. The IUCN rel list assessment for primates-2008:
overviews of the results for Madagascar, Africa, Asia and
Santorelli, C. J., Schaffner, C. M. and Aureli, F Variation
in fur rubbing in two populations of wild spider monkeys
(Ateles .. rr '
Savage, A., Thomas, L., Leighty, K., Soto, L., Causado, J.
and Medina, F Developing new techniques to estimate
the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus) population in
Schino, G., Di Giuseppe, F and Visalberghi, E. Grooming
reciprocation in Cebus apella.
Schulte, M. H. C. Evolutionary approaches to understand-
ing human-primate interactions: ecotourism and white-
faced capuchin monkeys in Costa Rica.
Shedden, A. and Rodriguez-Luna, E. Flor de Catemaco:
intensive use and howler monkey (Alouattapalliata) hab-
itat maintainment.
Siani, J. M. and Dietz, J. M. Using acoustic playback exper-
iments to assess infant-caregiver communication in wild
golden lion tamarins at Poco Das Antas reserve, Brazil.
Slater, K. Y., Schaffner, C. M. and Aureli, F Relationship
quality among wild male spider monkeys (Ateles, .. .r
Smith, T. E., McCallister, J. M. and Elwood, R. Behav-
ioural and physiological reactivity to novelty across the
Callitrichid primate family.
Solorzano-Garcia, B. and Rodriguez-Luna, E. Changes in
the conservation status of the primate populations and
their habitat in a transect of Los Tuxtlas, biosphere re-
serve, Mexico.
Sousa, M. B. C. and Pontes, M. C. Hormonal and behav-
ioral profile of breeding and non breeding common mar-
moset (Callithrixjacchus) free-ranging males.
Spagnoletti, N., Izar, P. and Visalberghi, E. Effects of food
availability on tool use of wild bearded capuchin monkey
(Cebus libidinosus).
Spehar, S., Mathewson, P. and Di Fiore, A. The male spider
monkey loud call: a means of mate attraction and mate
Spironello, W., Gordo, M., Noronha, M., Boyle, S., de
Freitas, C., Bezerra, B. and Barnett, A. Priorities applica-
tions and monitoring: learning from the Amazon primate
research experience.
Steffens, T. S. and Pavelka, M. S. M. Determining the habi-
tat features associated with the distribution of the black
howler monkey within Belize, Central America.

Neotropical Primates 15(2), August 2008

Stewart, L. E., Kaplan, G. and Rogers, L. J. Food calls of
common marmosets, Callithrixjacchus.
Stojan Dolar, M. and Heymann, E. W. Comparison of vig-
ilance behavior in stationary and locomoting moustached
tamarins (Saguinus mystax) in Peruvian Amazonia.
Strier, K. B. and Mendes, S. L. The muriqui project of Car-
atinga: research and conservation over 26 years.
Svensson, M. S. and Bearder, S. K. Improving manage-
ment of nocturnal primates: Assessing the distribution
and abundance of owl monkeys (Aotus zonalis) in Alto
Chagres, Panami.
Takimoto, A., Kuroshima, H. and Fujita, K. Are tufted
capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) sensitive to unequal
food share? An experimental analysis of food-choice for
Talebi M.G., Lee P.C. Nutritional ecology of southern
muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides) inhabiting the last
remnant of continuous Brazilian Atlantic forest.
Tardif, S., Paulik, M., Bertram, R. and Power, M. Maternal
obesity studies in marmoset: collaborations among repro-
duction, nutrition, and obesity researchers.
Taubert, J. and Burke, D. A face recognition task: how
spider monkeys (Ateles .. ..r I and humans match com-
posite stimuli.
Taylor, A. B., Vinyard, C. J. and White, L. E. Do Periph-
eral feeding specializations extend to the central nervous
system in new world monkeys?
Teixeira, S. D, Tavares, A., Almeida, R., Tavares, M. C.,
Martins, R., Goldolfi, L. and Pratesi, R. Possible presence
of sensitivity to gluten celiacc disease) among captive pri-
mates of the subfamily Callitrichinae.
Tiddi, B., Polizzi di Sorrentino, E., Aureli, E, Janson,
C. and Schino, G. Interchange between grooming and
tolerance among wild tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus
apella): combining experiments and observations.
Truppa, V., Ciolfi, F, Spinozzi, G. and De Lillo, C. The
role of similarity between global and local orientation
in visual perception in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus
Turnock, S. E. and Slater, K. Y. The effect of environmental
enrichment on the locomotive feeding and social behav-
ior of spider monkeys (Ateles ...,, )0 in the Zoologico
Nacional, Honduras.
Valderrama, X., Robinson, J., Cane, M., Giannini, A. and
Melnick, D. Enso-influenced demographic and genetic
changes in wedge-capped capuchins.
Van Wolkenten, M., Brosnan, S. F. and de Waal, F. B. Re-
sponse to inequity in effort and reward in Brown capu-
chin monkeys (Cebus apella).
Verderane, M. and Izar, P. Female social relationships of
wild tool-user capuchin monkeys (Cebus libidinosus).
Vinyard, C. J., Wall, C. E., Williams, S. H., de Oliveira
Melo, L. C., Valenca-Montenegro, M. M., Valle, Y. B.
M., Monteiro da Cruz, M. A. 0., Lucas, P. W., Taylos,
A. B. and Hylander, W. L. Evolutionary morphology of
tree-gouging in marmosets.

Neotropical Primates 15(2), August 2008

Visalberghi, E. and Spagnoletti, N. Factors affecting suc-
cess in the use of hammers and anvils to crack open nuts
in wild bearded capuchins.
Waga, I. C., Tomaz, C. and Tavares M. C. H. Spatial and
non-spatial relational memory in capuchin monkeys
(Cebus apella).
Welker, B. J. Howler monkey leaf choice: protein-to-fiber
ratio revisited.
Wheeler, B. C. False alarm: do tufted capuchin monkeys
(Cebus apella) use anti-predator calls to usurp resources
from conspecifics?
Youlatos, D. and Gasc, J. P. Gait and kinematics of arboreal
quadrupedal walk of free-ranging red howlers (Alouatta
seniculus) in French Guiana.
Young, R. J., Froes, A. P., Torquetti, C. G., Teixeira, B. and
Talamoni, S. A. Factors influencing the distribution of
urban marmosets.
Ziegler, T. E. and Snowdon, C. T. Chemical communica-
tion maintains the cooperative breeding social system in
two platyrrhine species, Callithrix jacchus and Saguinus

IV Congress Mexicano de Primatologia. 24-26 de Junio,
Villahermosa, Tabasco. La Asociaci6n Mexicana de Prima-
tologia A.C. y la Universidad Juarez Aut6noma de Tabasco
convocan. Para mayor informaci6n visit: http://www.

The 32nd Meeting of the American Society of Prima-
tologists. September 18-21, Bahia Resort Hotel, San
Diego, California, USA. Tentative deadline for abstracts is
currently March, 2009. For further information check the
web site: www.asp.org/asp2009/index.htm


The 23"d congress of the International Primatological
Society. September 12-18, Kyoto University, Japan. The
theme of the conference will be 'Quest for Coexistence
with Nonhuman Primates.' In line with IPS policy, the
committee welcomes suggestions for symposia on any of
the disciplines of primatology. The Symposium submis-
sion deadline is October 15th, 2009. The presentation sub-
mission deadline is January 15', 2010. For more informa-
tion go to www.ips2010.jp/.


The 11th meeting of the German Society of Primatology.
February 24-26, University of Veterinary Medicine, Han-
nover, Germany. For more information visit the web site:

The XIX meeting of the Italian Primatological Society.
April 1-3, Asti, Italy. The topic of the meeting will be
"The primates 200 years after the birth of Darwin, His-
tory, Evolution, Eri- .1. ._,- and Conservation". For more
information go to: www-l.unipv.it/webbio/api/api.htm

The 3"d Congress of the European Federation for Pri-
matology. August 12-15, Irchel campus of the University
of Zilrich, Switzerland. The EFP is a federation of all na-
tional primatological societies and groups in Europe. The
biennial meetings strive to bring together primatologists
and biological anthropologists from all over Europe to en-
courage interdisciplinary and international exchanges. The
registration and abstract submission deadline is April 15th,
2009. For more information visit the web site: www.aim.

Marmosets and Tamarins Pocket Identification Guide
Mail and Fax Order Form

Marmosets and Tamarins Pocket Identification Guide by Anthony B. Rylands, Russell A.
Mittermeier, Adelmar F. Coimbra-Filho, Eckhard W. Heymann, Stella de la Torre, Jose de Sousa
e Silva Jr., M. Cecilia Martins Kierulff, Mauricio de A. Noronha and Fabio Rohe.
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The journal/newsletter aims to provide a basis for conservation
information relating to the primates of the Neotropics. We
welcome texts on any aspect of primate conservation, including
articles, thesis abstracts, news items, recent events, recent
publications, primatological society information and suchlike.

Please send all English and Spanish contributions to: Erwin
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copies should be supplied for all figures (illustrations and maps)
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included. Please avoid abbreviations and acronyms without the
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Articles. Each issue of Neotropical Primates will include up to three
full articles, limited to the following topics: Taxonomy, Systematics,
Genetics (when relevant for systematics and conservation), Bioge-
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typewritten, double-spaced with no less than 12 cpi font (preferably
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exceed 25 pages in length (including references). Please include an
abstract in the same language as the rest of the text (English, Span-
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to six, except in cases where they are fundamental for the text (as
in species descriptions, for example). Full articles will be sent out
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Short articles. These manuscripts are usually reviewed only by
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particularly information on geographical distributions, locality re-
cords, and protected areas and the primates that occur in them. Text
should be typewritten, double-spaced with no less than 12 cpi (pref-
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References. Examples of house style may be found throughout
this journal. In-text citations should be first ordered chronologically
and then in alphabetical order. For example, "...(Fritz, 1970; Al-
bert, 1980, 2004; Oates, 1981; Roberts, 2000; Smith, 2000; Albert
etal., 2001)..."
In the list of references, the title of the article, name of the
journal, and editorial should be written in the same language
as they were published. All conjunctions and prepositions (i.e.,
"and", "In") should be written in the same language as rest of the
manuscript (i.e., "y" or "e", "En" or "Em"). This also applies for
other text in references (such as "PhD thesis", "accessed" see
below). Please refer to these examples when listing references:

Journal article
Stallings, J. D. and Mittermeier, R. A. 1983. The black-tailed
marmoset (Callithrix argentata melanura) recorded from Paraguay.
Am.]. Primatol. 4: 159-163.

Chapter in book
Brockelman, W Y. and Ali, R. 1987. Methods of surveying and
sampling forest primate populations. In: Primate Conservation in
the Tropical Rain Forest, C. W Marsh and R. A. Mittermeier (eds.),
pp.23-62. Alan R. Liss, New York.

Napier, P. H. 1976. Catalogue of Primates in the British Museum
(Natural History). Part 1: Families Callitrichidae and Cebidae.
British Museum (Natural History), London.

Wallace, R. B. 1998. The behavioral ecology of black spider
monkeys in north-eastern Bolivia. Doctoral thesis, University of
Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.

Muckenhirn, N. A., Mortensen, B. K., Vessey, S., Fraser, C. E.
0. and Singh, B. 1975. Report on a primate survey in Guyana.
Unpublished report, Pan American Health Organization,
Washington, DC.

UNESCO. 2005. UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Programme.
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organisation
(UNESCO), Paris. Website: http://www.unesco.org/mab/index.
htm. Accessed 25 April 2005. ("Acessada em 25 de abril de 2005"
and "Consultado el 25 de abril de 2005" for articles in Portuguese
and Spanish respectively).

For references in Portuguese and Spanish:
"and" changes to "e" and "y" for articles in Portuguese and Spanish

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