Front Cover
 Back Matter
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Title: Neotropical primates
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098814/00046
 Material Information
Title: Neotropical primates a newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCNSSC Primate Specialist Group
Abbreviated Title: Neotrop. primates
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
Conservation International
Center for Applied Biodiversity Science
Publisher: Conservation International
Place of Publication: Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Publication Date: August 2004
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Primates -- Periodicals -- Latin America   ( lcsh )
Primates -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Wildlife conservation -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: review   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Brazil
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Language: English, Portuguese, and Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Mar. 1993)-
Issuing Body: Issued jointly with Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, <Dec. 2004->
General Note: Published in Washington, D.C., Dec. 1999-Apr. 2005 , Arlington, VA, Aug. 2005-
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 13, no. 1 (Apr. 2005).
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098814
Volume ID: VID00046
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28561619
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issn - 1413-4705


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Table of Contents
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    Back Matter
        Back Matter
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text
I!'N 1413-4703



A Journal of the Neotropical Section of the
IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group



AnThony B. R/lands
Ernesto Rodriguez-Luna
Assistant Editors
John M. Aguiar
Liliana Corts-'rtiz
PSG Chairman
Russell A. Mittermeier
PSG Deputy Chairman
Anthon/ B. Rylands




Neotropical Primates
A Journal of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group

Center for Applied Biodiversity Science
Conservation International
1919 M St. NW, Suite 600, Washington, DC 20036, USA

ISSN 1413-4703 Abbreviation: Neotrop. Primates

Anthony B. Rylands, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International, 1...... DC
Ernesto .iI._. -T .... UniversidadVeracruzana, Xalapa, Mexico

Assistant Editors
John M. Aguiar, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International-, -.1 ...... DC
Liliana Cortes-Ortiz, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Mexico

Editorial Board
Hannah M. Buchanan-Smith, University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland, UK
Adelmar E Coimbra-Filho, Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Liliana Cortes-Ortiz, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Mexico
Carolyn M. Crockett, Regional Primate Research Center, University of i ...... Seattle, WA, USA
Stephen E Ferrari, Universidade Federal do Para, Belem, Brazil
Eckhard W. Heymann, Deutsches Primatenzentrum, C ,,1...... Germany
Russell A. Mittermeier, Conservation International, i ...... DC
Marta D. Mudry, Universidad de ..,. .1..
Horacio Schneider, Universidade Federal do Para, Belem, Brazil
Karen B. Strier, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA
Maria Emilia Yamamoto, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Brazil

Primate Specialist Group
Chairman Russell A. Mittermeier
Deputy Chair Anthony B. Rylands
Co-Vice Chairs for the Neotropical Region Anthony B. Rylands & Ernesto - .
Vice Chair for Asia Ardith A. Eudey
Vice Chair for Africa Thomas M. Butynski
Vice Chair for Madagascar Jorg U. Ganzhorn

Design and Layout: Glenda PE I ... and Kim Meek, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science,
Conservation International, i ...... DC

Editorial Assistance:
Mariella Superina, University of New Orleans, Department of- I i Sciences, New Orleans, LA

IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group logo courtesy of Stephen D. Nash, 2002.

Front Cover:
A white-footed saki, Pithecia albicans, from the Brazilian Amazon. Photo by Russ Mittermeier.

This issue of Neotropical Primates was kindly sponsored by the Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation, 432 Walker Road, Great Falls, Virginia 22066,
USA, the Houston Zoological Gardens Conservation Program, General Manager F.I .... 1513 North MacGregor, Houston, Texas 77030, USA,
and the Los Angeles Zoo, Director John R. Lewis, 5333 Zoo Drive, Los Angeles, California 90027, USA.

I ~=MAn

SI ,L'I ,r I t I i1
SI. L D 1,1 Ii

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004


Marcelo Oliveira Teles de Menezes

Palms of the genus Phoenix are not native to South Ameri-
ca, but they are planted worldwide as ornamentals. Phoenix
palms have pinnate leaves with spines in the petiole, and a
dense crown with up to 200 leaves; they may reach a height
of over 20 m (Lorenzi and Souza, 1996). Here I report on
the use of Phoenix palms for resting and as a sleeping site by
a group of marmosets, ( .-'. jacchus, on the campus of
the federal university in the city of Fortaleza, Ceari.



As arboreal mammals, primates typically sleep in trees
(Anderson, 1998), although there are exceptions such as
Trachypithecus leucocephalus that use caves (Huang et al.,
2003). Primates often sleep in the forks of branches or
holes in the trunk (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988), on the
surface of leaves (Heymann, 1995; Zhang, 1995; Bitetti
et al., 2000) or even in nests they build themselves (Jones
et al., 1996).

The structural characteristics of a tree and its surround-
ings are important when primates choose an arboreal
sleeping site. Miranda and Faria (2001) concluded that for
C .- penicillata, the most important aspects are
height, the extent of branching, foliage cover, and proxim-
ity to food sources. During a study on Saguinus midas, Day
and Elwood (1999) verified that in 25% of all observa-
tions, the tamarins preferred sleeping sites that were clos-
est to their most recent food source. Liu and Zhao (2004)
noticed a preference of Rhinopithecus bieti for trees with a
greater total height and branches growing higher on the
trunk, as opposed to trees with a larger crown diameter
and branches growing out nearer to the ground. Bitetti
et al. (2000) noted that the trees chosen by Cebus j,,''//,
were always higher than the canopy and bore a large crown.
What is less clear is which factors determine the choice of
sleeping sites. Anderson (1998) and Bitetti et al. (2000)
mentioned several factors that may influence the choice of
sleeping sites, such as safety from predators, security from
falls, physical comfort, hygiene, avoiding parasites and co-
hesion of the group.

Little is known about the use of palm trees as sleeping sites
by Neotropical primates. Recent studies have reported that
Cebus ,c//,t uses Jessenia (Spironello, 2001; Zhang, 1995)
and Syagrus (Bitetti et al., 2000) to sleep in, while Jessenia
is also mentioned as providing sleeping sites for Saguinus
mystax and S. fuscicollis (Heymann, 1995). Understanding
why palm trees are chosen as sleeping sites may illuminate
factors that influence the choice of sleeping trees overall.
As monocotyledons, palm trees have distinctive character-
istics, such as a lack of branching from the main trunk and
a generally even girth along the trunk. According to Zhang
(1995), the use of palm trees by primates may be considered
a strategy for avoiding predators: the single trunk poses a
challenge to wild cats and snakes, and the dense leaves at
the crown are a natural alarm system, rustling at any touch
and alerting the monkeys if a predator intrudes.

This study took place at the Campus do Pici of the Univer-
sidade Federal do Ceara in Fortaleza, Ceara, in northeast-
ern Brazil. Five free-ranging individuals made up the study
group: two adults, two juveniles and an infant. The group
inhabited a highly fragmented area under intense urban in-
terference, with a number of planted trees and much traffic
of vehicles and pedestrians. Observations ad libitum were
made from 26 July to 24 September, 2004.


On seven occasions I was able to observe the group leav-
ing the same Phoenix palm, one by one, between 0524 and
0545 hrs. On two occasions, the group slept in the palm
tree for two consecutive nights. On various other occa-
sions, I observed the group climbing, resting or leaving that
tree and four other Phoenix palms during the day. All five
Phoenix were in an isolated forest patch of 0.48 ha.

The palm tree most often used for sleeping (Fig. 1) was the
immediate neighbor of two Enterolobium contortisiliquum

Figure 1. Phoenix sp. used as a sleeping site.

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

(Leguminosae), one of which was the first tree of the day
to be visited, where the marmosets gouged and fed on the
exuded gum. In the same fragment I found 14 individu-
als of Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae), four Anacardium
occidentale (Anacardiaceae), one Psidium guajava (Myrta-
ceae), a further three E. contortisiliquum (Leguminosae),
and a total of 20 Phoenix date palms. The trunk of the
primary sleeping-palm was 45 cm in diameter (DBH); the
tree's height was approximately 14 m, and its leaves aver-
aged 4.15 m in length.

The marmosets slept amongst the leaf bases, which were
smooth and wider than the petiole; with a width of -15 cm,
they are large enough to accommodate a marmoset without
great postural demands-one of the factors mentioned by
Anderson (1998) as important in the choice of the sleeping
site. The animals accessed the leaf bases in two ways: 1) by
jumping from a neighboring tree to a palm leaf, reaching
the leaf base by its central rib or rachis (an option only pos-
sible when the crown of the neighboring tree was of a simi-
lar height to the palm's own crown); and 2) jumping from
the crown of a neighboring tree to the trunk of the palm,
and climbing up to the crown using their claws. In the latter
case, the crown height of the neighboring tree was usually
lower than that of the palm. There are spines (Fig. 2) along
the lower third of the petiole, close to the leaf base, where
the marmosets slept. These spines tended to be longer the
further they were from the base of the leaf.


The height of the palm trees, together with their lack of
branches, protects the marmosets not only from natural
predators, but humans as well. Although it is no longer legal
in Brazil to transport them or keep them as pets, traffic in
these animals for the pet trade was once widespread. Their
perch on the leaf bases helps to keep the marmosets secure
from raptors; the dense crown of leaves screens them from

Figure 2. Petiole of a dead leaf of Phoenix sp., showing its spines.

view, and the many spines would serve as a pointed deter-
rent. A notable aspect, easily seen in Figure 1, is the complete
lack of contact with the surrounding vegetation. Any preda-
tor entering could only jump onto the leaves or climb up the
trunk. The large leaves may also protect the marmosets from
rain, although this was not observed during the period of the
study. Heymann (1995) points out that Jessenia palms offer
protection from the rain for Saguinus. It is impossible to see
the animals from the ground without the aid of binoculars,
unless the marmoset is stretching its neck to look out.

Bitetti et al. (2000) concluded that their study group of
Cebus j.c//.t did not choose sleeping sites by chance; rather,
they preferred high trees with wide crowns, suggesting safety
from predators was a deciding concern. That preference was
also reflected in the frequent use of those trees. This would
appear to contradict the idea that rotation of sleeping sites
is to elude predators and parasites (see Stevenson and Ry-
lands, 1981), although the key factor in this case may be
the small number of appropriate sites, with the few available
being of superior quality.


The marmosets' preference for sleeping in the Phoenix palm
fits well with the factors mentioned by Bitetti et al. (2000),
Miranda and Faria (2001) and Liu and Zhao (2004): the fa-
vored tree was higher than the canopy formed by Mangifera
indica and Anacardium occidentale, was close to the food
source (E. contortisiliquum), and possessed dense foliage
and an unbranched trunk. The use of these Phoenix palms
in this urban setting would seem to support the hypothesis
of predator avoidance, besides evidently being comfortable
(Anderson, 1998).

Acknowledgments: To Victor Pereira Torres, for support in
carrying out this work; to Wilson Roberto Spironello, James
R. Anderson and Eckhard W. Heymann for help with the
literature; to George Machado Tabatinga Filho for help in
measuring tree heights; to Paulo Cascon for reviewing this
article, and Marcia Regina Pereira de Oliveira for assistance
with translation.

Marcelo Oliveira Teles de Menezes, Departamento de Bio-
logia, Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Campus do
Pici, Centro de Ciencias, Bloco 906, Pici, Fortaleza 60451-
970, Ceara, Brazil. E-mail: .


Anderson, J. R. 1998. Sleep, sleeping sites and sleep-related
activities: Awakening to their significance. Am. J. Prima-
tol. 46: 63-75.
Bitetti, M. S., Vidal, E. M. L., Baldovino, M. C. and Ben-
esovsky, V. 2000. Sleeping site preferences in tufted capu-
chin monkeys (Cebus, jlc//. nigritus). Am. J. Primatol. 50:
Day, R. T. and Elwood, R. W. 1999. Sleeping site selection
by the golden-handed tamarin Saguinus midas midas: The

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

role of predation risk, proximity to feeding sites, and ter-
ritorial defence. F-'..'.. 105(12): 1035-1051.
Heymann, E. W. 1995. Sleeping habits of tamarins, Sagui-
nus mystax and Saguinus fuscicollis (Mammalia, Primates,
Callitrichidae), in northeastern Peru. J. Zool., Lond. 237:
Huang, C., Wei, E, Li, W., Li, Y. and Sun, R. 2003. Sleep-
ing cave selection, activity pattern and time budget of
white-headed langurs. Int. J. Primatol. 24(4): 813-824.
Jones, C., Jones, C. A., Jones Jr., J. K. and Wilson, D. E.
1996. Pan troglodytes. Mammalian Species 529: 1-9.
Liu, Z. H. and Zhao, Q. K. 2004. Sleeping sites of Rhi-
nopithecus bieti at Mt. Fuhe, Yunnan. Primates 45(4):
Lorenzi, H. and Souza, H. M. 1996. Palmeiras no Brasil:
Nativas e Exdticas. Nova Odessa, Sao Paulo.
Miranda, G. H. B. and Faria, D. S. 2001. Ecological aspects
of black-pincelled marmoset (C .-' penicillata) in the
cerraddo and dense cerrado of the Brazilian central plateau.
Brazil. J. Biol. 61(3): 397-404.
Spironello, W. R. 2001. The brown capuchin monkey
(Cebus ../d1i): Ecology and home range requirements in
central Amazonia. In: Lessons from Amazonia: The Ecol-
ogy and Conservation of a Fragmented Forest, R. 0. Bier-
regaard Jr., C. Gascon, T. E. Lovejoy and R. Mesquita
(eds.), pp.271-283. Yale University Press, New Haven,
Stevenson, M. F and Rylands, A. B. 1988. The genus Cal-
lithrix. In: Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical Primates,
Vol. 2, R. A. Mittermeier, A. B. Rylands, A. F Coimbra-
Filho and G. A. B. da Fonseca (eds.), pp.131-222. World
Wildlife Fund US, Washington, DC.
Zhang, S. Y. 1995. Sleeping habits of brown capuchin mon-
keys (Cebus .Ic/v) in French Guiana. Am. J. Primatol. 36:


Juan Manuel Campos, Ivon Benitez
Dennis A. Meritt Jr.

The owl monkey, Aotus azarai, has been described from
various parts of northern Argentina and Paraguay (see Stall-
ings, 1984, 1985; Fernandez-Duque et al., 2001). One of
the earliest reports is found in Kerr (1950), in a descrip-
tion of a pioneering exploration of the Chaco from 1889 to
1891 along the Rio Pilcomayo. The most recent review de-
tailing this primate's distribution in northern Argentina and
Paraguay is provided by Neris et al. (2002). In the northern
Paraguayan Chaco, they describe low canopy scrub forest
and high canopy forest as suitable Aotus habitat. They de-
scribe its activities in Paraguay as mainly crepuscular, al-
though sometimes active on cloudy or overcast days.

During fieldwork on the Chacoan peccary, Catagonus
wagneri, in the Chaco Central in the austral spring of
2003, an opportunity presented itself to investigate two

locations in the extreme north and west of the country.
One of these was the Defensores del Chaco National Park
and its unusual land formation, Cerro Leon. These are the
only places one may find rocks of any type in the entire
Chaco region. The observation reported here provides an
additional location for Aotus azarai in Paraguay, verifying
that it is capable of survival and reproduction in a xero-
phytic habitat.

Defensores del Chaco and Cerro Leon are located from
19o45' to 2045'S, and 59o30' to 6110'W in the Depart-
ment of Alto Paraguay and a small portion of Boquer6n. Av-
erage annual rainfall is from 500 to 800 mm, and tempera-
ture ranges from 0-42C. The park has a xerophytic fauna
and flora, locally referred to as seca-literally dried up, arid
and barren. At the time of our visit the region had been suf-
fering from an extended period of extreme drought.

While visiting Cerro Leon during late October of 2003, we
observed an adult pair of Aotus azarai with a very young
infant in a candelabra tree cactus (Cereus sp.), near a foot
trail leading to the summit of the highest ridge. The day
was cloudless, with bright sun and an ambient tempera-
ture of about 40C. The adults were alert but not obvi-
ously alarmed; the infant was clinging to an adult's neck
and upper back. It was movement by the adults that clued
us to their presence. There were no vocalizations, and we
saw no aggressive behavior, such as the typical rapid and
jerky movement of the head and upper body. We observed
the pair and their offspring closely for more than twenty
minutes, after which time-and perhaps in response to
our attempts to take photographs-the trio moved rapidly
out of the tree cactus, into the adjacent shrubby vegetation
and out of sight. Given the steepness of the hillside and
the density of the thorny vegetation, it was not possible to
follow them.

The environment in which this family group of Aotus
was found is a stunted, thorny, dry forest region with no
large trees or emergent vegetation, except for occasional
Palo Borracho trees (Chorisia insignis) in the infrequent
and somewhat more humid lowland areas. The "soil" at
Cerro Leon is largely broken rocks of various sizes, making
human movement and climbing noisy and extremely dif-
ficult. The large amount of rock present at this site is un-
characteristic of the Chaco-a flat, plain-like habitat that
is without stone or rocks of any type. All stone and rock
used there for road building or construction is either im-
ported or brought from the eastern and southern part of
the country. Chaquenos tell the folk story of the Chaco
being a great inland sea whose bottom was devoid of rock
or stone. Plant growth is precarious; rainfall is limited and
subject to rapid runoff, and there is little natural shade.
Overall the vegetation rarely exceeds 3 m, with the excep-
tion of the occasional tree cactus (Cereus sp.) or Palo Bor-
racho tree.

Given these circumstances, we were unable to determine
whether or not these owl monkeys were demonstrating

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

cathemeral activity. However, given the nature of the habi-
tat, and the obviously restricted food resources, one could
logically conclude that such activity was likely in order to
ensure survival. A careful survey of the habitat revealed a
number of small tree holes, cactus tangles, and other suitable
retreats of sufficient size to accommodate an adult Aotus or
a small family group. Those which we investigated did not
contain any owl monkeys or other mammals, nor did they
show any signs of recent use, such as food remnants, waste,
hair, or rub marks.

This is the furthest north that we have observed Aotus in
the Chaco, although Handen et al. (1994) documented
the presence of owl monkeys in a location identified as
Area II in the northernmost department, the Chaco. Mul-
tiple observations of a pair with and without offspring be-
tween 1989 and 1997 have been made in a farming area
outside of the Mennonite colony of Neuland in the Chaco
Central (D. Meritt Jr., unpublished observation: it is un-
clear if they were of the same pair, their offspring or un-
related animals). The habitat is considerably different in
that location, as are the potential food resources. Neuland
is part of the Mennonite colony located near Filadelphia
in the Chaco Central. It is typical Chaco, without rocks
and with dense thorny shrubs and an abundance of trees.
The region is several hundred kilometers south and west
of Defensores del Chaco and Cerro Leon, and consider-
ably wetter.

Redford and Eisenberg (1992) report the presence of
infant Aotus in the Paraguayan Chaco in August, Sep-
tember, and October. This corresponds with the present
observation and those mentioned above in Neuland (D.
Meritt Jr., unpublished). A number of authors have previ-
ously reported the presence of Aotus in large tree cacti,
including Rathbun and Gache (1980), Stallings (1984,
1985), Stallings and Mittermeier (1983) and Stallings et
al. (1989).

At the time of year when this observation was made, there
were no fruits or seeds present in or on the vegetation and
no flowers to be seen. There were a number of small lizards
and infrequent small birds, but no large flying insects. A
search for Aotus droppings to try to determine possible food
sources was unsuccessful.

Acknowledgments: The authors are grateful for permission
to carry out scientific studies in Paraguay through the cour-
tesy and authority of the Ministro, Secretaria del Medio
Ambiente. Partial support for this work was provided by the
Chacoan Peccary Species Survival Plan (SSP) of the Ameri-
can Zoo & Aquarium Association (AZA) through funds
provided by M. Scott for "Proyecto Tagua".

Juan Manuel Campos, DVM and Ivon Benitez, Proyecto
Tagua Toledo, Chaco, Paraguay, and Dennis A. Meritt Jr.,
Department of Biological Science, DePaul University, 2325
North Clifton Avenue, Chicago, IL 60614, USA. E-mail:


Fernandez-Duque, E., Rotundo, M. and Sloan, C. 2001.
Density and population structure of owl monkeys in the
Argentinean Chaco. Am. J. Primatol. 53: 99-108.
Handen, C. E., Unger, J. and Meritt, D. 1994. Current
status of the tagua (Catagonus wagneri) in Paraguay. Zool.
Garten N. F. 64(6): 329-337.
Kerr, J. G. 1950. A Naturalist in the Gran Chaco. Syndics of
Cambridge University Press, Boston.
Neris, N., Colman, F, Ovelar, E., Sukigara, N. and Ishii, N.
2002. Kato's Data Book on Larger Mammals of Paraguay-
Distribution, Population Trends, and Utilization. Secretaria
de Ambiente, Madame Lynch 3.500 C/Primer Presidente,
Asunci6n, Paraguay.
Rathbun, G. B. and Gache, M. 1980. Ecological survey of
the night monkey, Aotus trivirgatus, in Formosa Province,
Argentina. Primates 21: 211-219.
Redford, K. H. and Eisenberg, J. F 1992. Mammals of the
Neotropics: The Southern Cone. Volume 2. Chile, Argentina,
Uruguay, Paraguay. The University of Chicago Press, Chi-
Stallings, J. R. 1984. Status and conservation of Paraguayan
primates. Master's thesis, University of Florida, Gainesville.
Stallings, J. R. 1985. Distribution and status of primates in
Paraguay. Primate Conserv. (6): 51-58.
Stallings, J. R. and Mittermeier, R. A. 1983. The black-tailed
marmoset, C .-'. argentata melanura, recorded from
Paraguay. Am. J. Primatol. 4: 159-163.
Stallings, J. R., West, L., Hahn, W. and Gamarra, I. 1989.
Primates and their relation to habitat in the Paraguayan
Chaco. In: Advances in Neotropical M .. K. H.
Redford and J. F Eisenberg (eds.), pp. 425-442. Sandhill
Crane Press, Gainesville, Florida.


Maria Cecilia Martins L. rr Gabriel Rodrigues dos Santos
Gustavo Canale, Carlos Eduardo Guidorizzi
Camila Cassano


The buff-headed or yellow-breasted capuchin monkey (Cebus
xanthosternos) is endemic to a restricted region of the Atlantic
Forest of eastern Brazil, one of the richest and most threat-
ened ecosystems in the world (SOS Mata Atlantica et al.,
1998; Myers et al., 2000). Due mostly to habitat destruction
and hunting, this once-abundant species is rapidly declining
in number, and is one of the 25 most endangered primates
in the world (Mittermeier and Konstant, 2000; Konstant et
al., 2002; Mittermeier et al., in prep.). In 2002 we began a
survey of the remaining yellow-breasted capuchin monkey
populations throughout its original distribution, in order to
establish the conservation status of the species and to iden-
tify the threats to its survival.

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

Local people in all remaining forested areas in the original
distribution of the species (as indicated by Oliver and Santos,
1991) were interviewed to determine if C. xanthosternoswas
still present in the area. Because these monkeys occur in
low densities and are very difficult to see or hear, confir-
mation of their presence was difficult. We first tried to at-
tract the capuchins with playback calls, using recordings of
their vocalizations, but the groups did not answer. The large
number of forests to be surveyed rendered the use of linear
transect methods unfeasible. The presence of human ob-
servers may also frighten capuchins, since they are hunted.
In order to confirm the presence of C. xanthosternos in the
forests we decided to use camera-traps.

Camera-traps have been used successfully in numerous
studies of large mammals. They provide information on
species richness, activity patterns, abundance, and popula-
tion density (Karanth and Nichols, 1998). The technique,
however, is normally used in studies of terrestrial animals.
Here we describe the use of camera-traps to collect informa-
tion on arboreal primates.

Materials and Methods

We set up CamTrakker camera-traps ( camtrakker.com>) in forests where two or more interviews
of local farmers or hunters had suggested the presence of ca-
puchins. The cameras were fixed with elastic cords on trees
directly in front of a platform on a second tree, mount-
ed about 2 m above the ground and baited with bananas
(Fig. 1). Each camera-trap has an infrared sensor aimed at
the platform; when the sensor detects a moving heat source,
it triggers the camera, and thus captures images of whatever
species climbs the platform to eat the bananas. We used
chains and padlocks to secure the cameras to the trees to
deter theft.

We visited the platforms every week to replace the bananas
and change the film in each camera. The cameras were set
to shoot only during the day, with a delay time of 90 sec-
onds to prevent multiple photographs of the same individu-

Figure 1. Camera-trapping arrangement: platform baited with
bananas, and the CamTrakker camera mounted three meters

als. The main aim of our survey was to register the capuchin
monkeys; the number of cameras and the time they were
left in the field varied according to the ease of access to the
forest and its size.


We installed camera-traps in 13 different forests and used
three to eight cameras in each, depending on the size of the
fragment (approximately 1:400 camera/ha). C. xanthoster-
noswas successfully phototrapped in all of the 13 areas. The
time necessary to achieve photos of the monkeys varied
from one week to three months.

The technique also proved efficient in recording the pres-
ence of four other primate species in the region (Table 1),
besides other mammals normally difficult to detect such
as Eira barbara, Nasua nasua, and Sciurus aestuans. When
the cameras were set to operate both day and night, they
also caught Procyon cancrivorus, Rhipidomys mastacalis, Mi-
coureus demerarae, Marmosops incanus and Didelphis aurita
eating the bananas on the platform.


Camera-traps have been used to record a large number of
mammal species, especially those which are furtive and
inconspicuous. They can also be used in ecological stud-
ies to estimate relative abundance and population density
(Karanth and Nichols, 1998; Trolle and K&ry, 2003). In
these cases, the location and the sampling duration need
to be standardized. This was not, however, the objective of
our study, which was merely to confirm the presence and
identity of the animals.

In some areas, and for certain primate species, it is possible to
play a tape of their calls (playback) along trails to attract the
groups and/or to stimulate a reply (Diego et al., 1993; Kier-
ulff, 1993; Mendes, 1993; Pinto, 1994). However, the buff-
headed capuchins failed to respond to recordings of their
calls even in areas where they were known to occur.

The use of bait can alter group home ranges and also bias
sampling due to the attraction of determined species. By
using bananas for bait, we expected to attract frugivorous

Table 1. Primates registered with camera-traps, Bahia, Brazil.
Ce xantoto Buff-headed capuchin; macaco-
Golden-headed lion tamarin; mico-
Leontopithecus chrysomelas leo da ara dourada
Callitrix ublii Wied's black-tufted-ear marmoset;
Callithrix kuhlii
Callitrix icillaa Black-tufted-ear marmoset; mico-
Callithrix penicillata estrela
Callithrix Geoffroy's tufted-ear marmoset;
Ca__ithri_ ' sagui-de-cara-branca

58 Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

Figure 2. Buff-headed capuchin monkeys, Cebus xanthosternos, caught by a camera-trap on a platform baited with bananas.

and omnivorous species, a prediction confirmed by our re-
cords of C. xanthosternos, the golden-headed lion tamarin
(Leontopithecus chrysomelas), and the marmosets (Callithrix).
More folivorous species such as howler monkeys (Alouatta)
and titi monkeys (Callicebus) were not caught by the camera-
traps. Although these latter two were present in some of the
areas we surveyed, they were apparently not attracted to the
platforms and the bananas. Both Alouatta and ( .... ,,,
the upper canopy more consistently than the primates listed
in Table 1, and since the platforms were only 2 m above the
ground, the howlers and titi monkeys may not have had the
opportunity to find the fruit and be photographed.

As they were photographed feeding in small groups, the
images allowed us to identify minimum numbers of in-
dividuals (Fig. 2). Photographing dependent infants and
juveniles helps to determine demography and reproduc-
tive seasonality. Camera-traps also provided additional in-
formation, such as the interactions between C. kuhlii and
L. chrysomelas caught feeding at the same time. Associations
between these species have been reported by Rylands (1989)
and Raboy (2002) in the region of Una in Bahia.

When the goal is only to verify the occurrence of a spe-
cies in a given area, the use of camera-traps is efficient and
relatively inexpensive when compared to playback and
linear transect techniques, which are more time-consum-
ing and require more trained researchers to walk the trails.
Although the cameras themselves are quite expensive, it
takes little time to prepare the platforms and few people
to monitor the cameras, bait the platforms and change the
film. They proved to be vital for the success of our survey
of C. xanthosternos and other primates that are otherwise
so elusive.

Acknowledgments: For their financial support of this proj-
ect, we acknowledge PROBIO/MMA, FNMA/MMA, the

Disney Wildlife Conservation Fund, the Margot Marsh
Biodiversity Foundation, the European zoos involved in the
breeding programme (EEP) of C. xanthosternos (Apenheul,
The Netherlands; Chester and Colchester, UK; Mulhouse,
the Friends of Mulhouse Zoo, and La Vallke des Singes,
France; and Zurich, Switzerland), Conservation des Es-
peces et des Populations Animales (CEPA), France, and the
Zoologische Gesellschaft fur Arten- und Populationsschutz
(ZGAP), Germany. For their assistance and additional sup-
port, we also thank IBAMA, IESB, UESC, Conservation
International Brazil and the members of the International
Committee for Management and Conservation of C. xan-
thosternos and C. robustus. I also acknowledge most especial-
ly the inspiration of Dr. James Sanderson, who introduced
us to the "art of camera-trapping" and gave us our first
cameras to test. We are grateful to Gabriel Pacheco for the
drawing of the platform; to Waldney Pereira Martins, Edsel
Amorim Moraes Jr., FAbio Falcao, Priscila Suscke Gouveia,
and Cassiano Gatto for their support during the fieldwork;
and Renato S. B&rnils and James Sanderson for their com-
ments on the final text.

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Santos2, Gustavo Canale2, Carlos Eduardo Guidorizzi2, and
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Avenida Getilio Vargas, 1300, 7o. Andar, Savassi, Belo Hor-
izonte 30112-021, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 21nstituto de Estu-
dos S6cio Ambientais no Sul da Bahia (IESB), Rua Major
Homem Del Rey 147, Cidade Nova, Ilhdus 45650-000,
Bahia, Brazil, and 3Programa de P6s-Graduacao em Zoolo-
gia, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC), Rodovia
Ilhdus-Itabuna Km 16, Ilhdus 45662-000, Bahia, Brazil.


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Eudey, A. A., Butynski, T. M., Ganzhorn, J. U., Kormos,
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e estado de conservagao do mico-ledo-da-cara-dourada,
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Luciana Ines Oklander, Miguel Marino
Gabriel Eduardo Zunino, Daniel Corach


Techniques of molecular genetics are increasingly used to
study various aspects of the social systems of human and
wild non-human primates (Altmann et al., 1996; Gag-
neux et al., 1999; Nievergelt et al., 2000; Paabo, 2003;
Di Fiore, 2003). In the past, studies of primate molecu-
lar genetics were limited by the availability of blood or
tissue samples for DNA extraction. Today, samples such as
hair and feces, obtainable through non-invasive methods,
are preferred for genetic analysis. This strategy avoids the
capture of the animals, minimizing any undesirable impact on
their behaviour as well as preventing injuries and infectious
diseases either to the animal or the sample collector (Consta-
ble et al., 2001; Sibal and Samson, 2001). As a result, it is be-
coming safer and easier to obtain information on kinship, sex
ratio, effective population size and gene flow in undisturbed
populations of arboreal and threatened species.

Although a number of recent studies have used non-invasive
sampling to examine aspects of the social structure of several
Old World primates (Gagneux et al., 1999; Gerloff et al.,
1999; Goossens et al., 2000; Constable et al., 1995, 2001;
Vigilant, 2002), only a handful of studies have used feces from
New World monkeys as a source of DNA for molecular stud-
ies (Surridge et al., 2002; Escobar-Paramo, 2000; Bbhle and
Zischler, 2002). The main goal of this study was to test al-
ternative methods for preserving and subsequently extracting
DNA from fecal samples of a New World primate, in order to
identify a low-cost solution that might be broadly applied in
molecular ecological research on platyrrhines.

Materials and Methods

We collected fecal samples from two groups of black-and-gold
howler monkeys in two habitats: flooded forest on Brasilera
Island, near the confluence of the Rio ParanA and Rio Para-
guai in the Chaco region of northern Argentina (2720'S,
5840'W), and the semi-deciduous forest of the basin of the
Rio Riachuelo, a tributary of the Rio ParanA, further to the
southwest (2730'S, 5841'W) near the southern margin of
the geographic range of A. caraya. Samples were collected from
a total of five different individuals immediately after defeca-
tion. Individuals 1 and 2 were from the flooded forests, and in-
dividuals 3, 4 and 5 were from the riparian forests. In all cases
one sample (10 g) was taken from each individual and subdi-
vided into four sub-samples of approximately 2 g each, which
were then preserved according to the following protocols:

1. In paper envelopes kept in shadow at approximately
20oC (68oF);

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

2. in paper envelopes dried under the sun;
3. in paper envelopes dried at 60C in an oven
(30-120C); and
4. in sterile tubes containing 34 g of technical grade
solid salt (NaCI).

Samples were stored in these conditions for one month and
then used for extraction by three different methods.

DNA Extraction
We tested three methods for DNA extraction on each of
the four preservation protocols. Duplicate extractions were
made in all cases.

1. CTAB (Corach et al., 1995)
For each extraction, -300 mg of feces were added to
2.5 ml of Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB,
Carlo Erba RPE) and 10 pl Proteinase K (20 mg/ml).
Samples were then incubated overnight at 56C with con-
stant agitation. Organic solvent extractions were carried out
with 2.5 ml of Chloroform: Iso-Amil Alcohol (24:1); the
mixture was thoroughly shaken for 15 minutes and then
centrifuged for 25 minutes at 2000 g. The aqueous phase
was carefully removed and this procedure was repeated once
more. The aqueous phase was transferred to a fresh tube
and 2/3 of the volume of the aqueous phase of 2-Propanol
(Carlo Erba RPE) was added. Tubes were frozen overnight
and then centrifuged cold for 15 minutes at 2000 g. The
supernatant was then carefully transferred to a fresh tube;
1 ml of 70% ethanol was added to wash the pellet, centri-
fuged again, and the ethanol carefully removed. The pellet
was then dried at 37C for 2 hours and resuspended in 200
pl of deionized water.

2. Guanidinium Thiocyanate/Silica (Boom et al., 1990)
For each extraction, -300 mg feces were added to 3 ml lysis
buffer (10 M GuSCN, 0.1 M Tris-HC1, pH 6.4, 0.02 M
EDTA, pH 8.0, 1.3% Triton X-100). After 15 minutes
of constant agitation and 15 minutes of centrifugation at
12000 g, 1.8 ml of the aqueous phase were transferred to a
fresh tube and 40 pl of silica suspension described in Boom
et al. (1990) were added. The mixture was immediately
vortexed for 5 seconds, incubated at room temperature for
10 minutes, vortexed again (5 seconds) and centrifuged
(30 seconds, 12000 g). The supernatant was then disposed
of by suction, and the silica pellet was washed twice with
1 ml washing buffer (10 M GuSCN, 0.1 M Tris-HCl, pH
6.4), twice with 1 ml 70% ethanol and once with 1 ml
acetone. The pellet was then dried at 56C for 30 minutes
and nucleic acids were eluted at 56C for 10 minutes with
200 ml TE (10 mM Tris-HCl, 10 mM EDTA, pH 8.3).
The tube was centrifuged (5 minutes, 12000 g) and 50 ml
of the supernatant were carefully removed (to avoid pipet-
ting silica particles) and transferred to a fresh tube.

3. TEC/Guanidinium Thiocyanate/Silica
For each extraction, -300 mg feces were added to 3 ml
of TEC (10 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8, 10 mM EDTA, 100
mM NaCI), 10 pl of Proteinase K (20 mg/ml) and 3 pl of

DiThioThreitol 1M. After incubation for four hours at
56C with constant agitation, the mixture was centrifuged
for 20 minutes at 7000 g. One ml of the supernatant was
added to 2 ml lysis buffer (10 M GuSCN, 0.1 M Tris-HC1,
pH 6.4, 0.02 M EDTA, pH 8.0, 1.3% Triton X-100). The
tube was vortexed for 30 seconds and then centrifuged
(20 minutes, 7000 g). The supernatant was recovered and
transferred to a fresh tube, where 40 pl silica suspension
were added. The following steps are the same as those de-
scribed for silica extraction in Protocol 2.

PCR Amplification
PCR reactions were carried out using 2 pl of each extracted
sample. In all cases, extraction and amplification reactions
included negative controls. In addition, blood samples from
zoo specimens were used as positive controls.

Two PCRs were carried out for each extract obtained. As
we used three extraction methods for each of four sub-
samples from each of five howler monkeys, we ran a total
of 120 PCR reactions. The presence of nuclear DNA from
howler monkeys was tested by PCR amplifications of
one microsatellite isolated from Alouatta palliata (AP74)
using primers (5'-GCACCTCATCTCTTTCTCTG-3')
and (5'-CATCTTTGTTTTCCTCATAGC-3') (Ellsworth
and Hoelzer, 1998). These primers were used in 25 pl
PCR reactions containing the following: 2 pl of template,
0.2 mM each dNTP, 0.5 pM ofeach primer, 1.5 UTaq DNA
Polymerase (Invitrogen), 20 mM Tris-HCl, 50 mM KC1,
and 1.5 mM MgCl2. The PCR cycling profile consisted of
40 cycles of denaturing for 1 minute at 95C, annealing for
1 minute at 52C, and extension for 1 minute 30 seconds at
72C. PCR products were separated by electrophoresis on
2% agarose gels stained with ethidium bromide.


Amplification products were obtained from samples pre-
served with two of the four methods tested-those desic-
cated in NaCl and those dried in paper envelopes exposed
to the sun. However, the success rate was greater with the
former rather than the latter procedure (4/5 and 2/5, respec-
tively). The only extraction procedure that yielded DNA
suitable for amplification was that using Guanidinium
Thiocyanate/Silica (Protocol 2), with a success rate of 80%
for NaCl preserved feces (Fig. 1) and 20% for feces dried in
the sun (Table 1). No amplifications were obtained from the
samples preserved by drying at 60C or at room temperature,
no matter which extraction method was used (Table 1).

Gel electrophoresis of the straight DNA extraction prod-
ucts revealed that the TEC/Silica extraction method (Pro-
tocol 3) and CTAB (Protocol 1) ostensibly yielded a high
quantity of DNA, but serial dilutions of this template in
new AP74 PCR reactions failed to yield any product (Table
1), suggesting a low concentration of howler monkey DNA
in these extractions. This is probably due to the fact that
the CTAB extraction and TEC pre-treatment lead to im-
proved lysis of vegetable cells present in the feces and thus

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

100 pt--

C1 ItZ Imi MIm
nbd MI s 2

Mi ama I mF maz NM mN ar ruw
lSd2 h d4 ldl cOm cow
fm leae inr

Figure 1. Amplification products obtained for combination of the conservation method in NaCl and the extraction with Guanidinium
Thiocyanate/Silica. Duplicate extractions and amplifications are shown.

Table 1. Results of PCR amplifications of microsatelliteAP74 from five black-and-gold howler monkeys. One sample from each individual
was subdivided into four sub-samples with different preservation protocols and extracted by three different methods.

Extraction Ind. 1 Ind. 2 Ind. 3 Ind. 4 Ind. 5
Method Ext. 1 Ext. 2 Ext. 1 Ext. 2 Ext. 1 Ext. 2 Ext. 1 Ext. 2 Ext. 1 Ext. 2
1 No No No No No No No No No No
RT 2 No No No No No No No No No No
3 No No No No No No No No No No
1 No No No No No No No No No No
Sun 2 No No Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No No
3 No No No No No No No No No No
1 No No No No No No No No No No
60C 2 No No No No No No No No No No
3 No No No No No No No No No No
1 No No No No No No No No No No
NaCI 2 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
3 No No No No No No No No No No
Ind. 1, 2: Inhabiting the flooded forest on the island of Brasilera (27o20'S, 5840'W).
Ind. 3, 4, 5: Inhabiting the semi-deciduous forest of the Rio Riachuelo basin (27o30'S, 5841'W).
Preservation: preservation methods: RT: paper envelopes kept in shadow and room temperature; Sun: paper envelopes dried under the sun; 60C:
paper envelopes dried at 60C; NaCI: sterile tubes containing 34 g of technical grade solid salt (NaCI).
Extraction: DNA extraction methodologies tested: 1: CTAB; 2: Guanidinium Thiocyanate/Silica; 3: TEC Guanidinium Thiocyanate/Silica.
Ext. 1/ Ext. 2: Duplicate extractions for the same individual.
Ind. #: Presence or absence of amplification products for each individual.

co-extraction of plant DNA from species in the howl-
ers' diet, in addition to DNA from the animals' own cells
sloughed off in the intestine. The direct silica extraction,
on the other hand, is a fast-extraction procedure, and thus
only animal cells are expected to lyse. Since the black-and-
gold howler monkeys are folivore/frugivores (Rumiz et al.,
1986), the only animal cells that might be present in feces
are those of their gastrointestinal tract.


How to acquire samples is a pivotal issue in genetic studies
of arboreal primates. Current methods in molecular biology

allow for the use of non-invasive sampling of hair or feces.
In Alouatta caraya, as in many other arboreal species, hair
sampling is extremely difficult, although possible (Ascunce
et al., 2003). In contrast, fecal samples are easy to obtain
and to identify. Non-invasive sampling methods are limited,
however, due to the low quantity and quality of the DNA
obtained, which may lead to incorrect results (Taberlet et a.,
1996, 1999; Vigilant, 2002; Gagneux et al., 1997, 2001).
The quantity and quality of DNA obtained will improve
when samples are collected immediately after defecation
(Frantzen et al., 1998; Wasser et al., 1997). Therefore, the
ability to obtain nuclear DNA from feces depends primarily
on the method of sample storage (Vigilant, 2002). Condi-

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

tions in the field are also important, since the samples must
be collected and preserved until they can be moved to the
laboratory (Frantzen et al., 1998). Non-human primates
usually live in habitats where the climate is extremely humid,
and generally there are no drying ovens or freezers near the
field sites to preserve the samples. Thus, the difficulty and the
expense of having cryopreservation or drying systems in the
field will determine the need for appropriate and inexpensive
systems for prolonged room-temperature preservation.

Our results indicate that feces may provide samples ame-
nable to molecular research in Alouatta caraya. Duplicate
extractions and amplifications yielded reproducible results.
Of the four tested methods of fecal sample preservation, the
most appropriate seems to be in solid salt (NaCI), since it
presents no difficulties in the field, and yielded the best re-
sults in the amplifications. As for the extraction methods, the
Guanidinium Thiocyanate/Silica method was the only one
that provided useful results (from samples preserved in NaCl
and those dried in the sun). As Boom et al. (1990) described,
most viruses and mammalian cells are expected to lyse in the
first step of the silica extraction. The quick lysis of this proto-
col avoids the extraction of vegetal DNA, also present in the
samples, which might saturate the DNA-binding capacity of
the silica particles. In addition, the DNA purified by this
method is essentially free of potential inhibitors of the Taq
Polymerase that might prevent PCR amplifications. In con-
trast, CTAB extraction and pre-treatment with TEC prior
to Guanidinium Thiocyanate/Silica extraction increases the
yield of vegetable DNA that may dilute the animal DNA
obtained. The absence of amplifiable DNA in the samples
stored at 20C could be explained by bacterial proliferation.
On the other hand, the samples dried in the oven at 60
suffer a rapid and intense dehydration, reducing the ability of
the Guanidinium Thiocyanate solution to moisten and ho-
mogenize the tissue during its short exposure (15 minutes).

Our purpose in this note has been to describe simple and
inexpensive methods to sample feces from New World pri-
mates and extract DNA suitable for molecular analysis. Al-
though there are commercial kits, buffers, and other methods
which allow the extraction and preservation of DNA from
feces (Nsubuga et al., 2004), they are very expensive, even
prohibitively so, for researchers in developing countries.

Acknowledgments: This research was partially supported by
APCyT grant PICT 99 1-6171 and APCyT (L. I. Oklan-
der) fellowship. We thank J. P. Hurtado and S. Peker for
their help in the collection of fecal samples. We are grate-
ful to Dr. Anthony Di Fiore for the critical revision of the
manuscript. In conducting the research described in this
report, the authors adhered to the Guide for Care and Use
of Experimental Animals as promulgated by the Canadian
Council of Animal Care.

Luciana Ines Oklander1, Miguel Marino2, Gabriel Edu-
ardo Zunino' and Daniel Corach2, 'Museo Argentino de
Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia" (MACN), Av.
Andel Gallardo 470 (1405), Ciudad Aut6noma de Buenos

Aires, Argentina, and 2Servicio de Huellas Digitales Gen&-
ticas (SDHG), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioqufmica, Univer-
sidad de Buenos Aires, Junin 956 (1113), Ciudad Aut6noma
de Buenos Aires, Argentina.


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Keila Carla I. Godoy, Adriana Odalia-Rimoli
Josi Rimoli


A importincia dos estudos parasitol6gicos realizados corn
primatas e reforgada pelo consenso de que esses animals
podem possuir uma fauna de parasitas, caracteristica e

associada, que pode ser o reflexo de uma estreita co-
evolucao. Ao mesmo tempo, analises detalhadas das relao6es
com esses parasitas sao importantes para a avaliaqao da con-
servacao e da qualidade do habitat utilizado pelos primatas
(Stuart e Strier, 1995). Para Martins (2002) e Santa Cruz
et al. (2000), a infecqao parasitaria pode ser agravada pela
degradacao e fragmentacao de habitats. Corn a fragmenta-
cao das florestas os animals tendem a ocupar areas menores
e, conseqiientemente, permanecem um maior tempo nas
mesmas Arvores (Kowalewski e Zunino, 1999), aumentan-
do a exposicao e as possibilidades de infecqao e re-infecqao
de parasitas (Freeland, 1976, 1980; Gilbert, 1994a, 1994b).
Stuart e Strier (1995) ressaltaram que o entendimento do
process de co-evolucao, entire os parasitas e seus hospedei-
ros primatas, pode nos proporcionar insights a respeito de
events filogen&ticos e de especiacao destes animals.

Assim, a quantificaqao da preval&ncia de diferentes parasitas
em uma populacao de primatas pode auxiliar os primato-
logistas a identificar fatores ecol6gicos e comportamentais
limitantes que estariam atingindo, de diversas maneiras, po-
pulagoes inteiras, grupos, genealogias ou individuos. Fatores
como umidade da Area de uso, perfodo do ciclo reprodutivo
das femeas, densidade populacional e tamanho de grupo do
hospedeiro, ou diferencas comportamentais entire os indivi-
duos do grupo, podem influenciar o tipo de infecqao do pri-
mata hospedeiro (Stuart e Strier, 1995). Outro fator impor-
tante esta relacionado X maneira como os animals utilizam
seu habitat. Stuart et al. (1990) verificaram que os grupos
de Alouatta palliata palliata que usavam repetidamente as
mesmas rotas durante o forrageamento apresentaram uma
maior contaminaqao do que os outros grupos.

Baseado nas indmeras oportunidades de contaminacao dos
agents infecciosos, tanto em animals de cativeiro como os
de vida livre, torna-se indispensAvel o estudo parasitol6gico
nos animals envolvidos em projetos de re-introducao que
vem send desenvolvidos corn o objetivo de re-povoamen-
to de Areas naturais. Estes estudos deveriam avaliar a Area
escolhida para a reintroducao bem como acompanhar o
process de habituacao dos animals com a Area escolhida.
Desta forma, poderfamos minimizar os possiveis compro-
metimentos nao somente dos animals envolvidos na re-in-
troducao, mas, tambem, das especies jA existentes na Area
(Santini, 1986; Magnusson, 1995; Martins, 2002).

No entanto, alguns estudos constataram que os primatas
possuem comportamento de defesa no uso do seu habitat
natural numa tentative de diminuir os riscos de contamina-
dao (Stuart e Strier, 1995). Um comportamento de defesa
dos Alouatta, relacionado principalmente em evitar infeco6es
parasitArias, e de defecarem em conjunto e em locais pr&-es-
tabelecidos. Esses primatas, ap6s um perfodo de descanso
pela manha e a tarde, deslocam-se para galhos intermediA-
rios, o que possibility defecarem diretamente no solo. Este
comportamento, possivelmente, minimizaria a re-infecqao
de parasitas, evitando a contaminaqao de fontes alimentares
e o contato com os pat6genos em suas fezes (Montilha et
al., 2002; Gilbert, 1997). Aldm disso, em um estudo com

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

chimpanzes, verificou-se a utilizagao de plants nutricionais
corn agao anti-parasitaria em sua dieta (Wrangham e Nishi-
da, 1983; Huffman e Seifu, 1989). Por outro lado, varios es-
tudos relatam a relacao entire o comportamento de geofagia
e o control de parasitas entire os primatas (Bicca-Marques e
Calegaro-Marques, 1994; Krishnamani e Mahaney, 2000).

Apesar da existencia de um corpo important de literature
acerca da complex relagao entire endoparasitas e seus hos-
pedeiros (no caso especifico dos primatas neotropicais ver
exemplos corn Alouatta caraya [Bicca-Marques e Calegaro-
Marques, 1994; Santa Cruz et al., 2000]; Alouatta belzebul
[Martins, 2002], e Saguinus imperator imperator, Saguinus
fuscicollis weddelli e Cebuella pygmaea [Santos et al., 1995],
em estudos de campo e com Alouatta guariba clamitans
[Miiller et al., 2000] estudo em cativeiro) o conhecimento
sobre quais especies de parasitas estariam interagindo corn
as populao6es de primatas ainda e muito escasso. Assim,
como forma de expandir o conhecimento sobre os primatas
e seus parasitas no context da fragmentacao de habitat, o
objetivo principal desta pesquisa foi verificar a ocorrencia de
possiveis casos de endoparasitas naturals em Alouatta caraya,
em um fragmento de floresta localizado no limited dos muni-
cfpios de Terenos e SidrolIndia no Estado do Mato Grosso
do Sul.


Sitio e grupo de estudo
A Area de estudo, a Reserva Particular do Patrim6nio Natu-
ral RPPN Nova Querencia (2043'34"S, 5455'07"W),
localiza-se na Serra de Maracaj6, no municfpio de Terenos,
a 48 km do centro de Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do
Sul. Este fragmento florestal apresenta um mosaico vege-
tacional, onde podemos encontrar diferentes estratos de
florestas mes6filas e manchas de Cerrado. A Area possui
uma extensao de aproximadamente 3.864 ha e possui com-
ponentes dos biomas Amaz6nia e Mata AtlIntica. Nesta
area, podemos encontrar-de forma quase completa-os
representantes da fauna de vertebrados do Estado do Mato
Grosso do Sul. Nela encontramos bugios-pretos (Alouat-
ta caraya) e macacos-pregos-amarelos (Cebus cay) e outros
mamfferos de mddio e grande porte, como antas (Tapirus

terrestris), queixadas (Tayassu pecari), catetus (Tayassu
tajacu), lobos-guaras (Chrysocyon brachyurus) e felinos como
a onca parda (Puma concolor) e a onca pintada (Panthera
onca palustris).

Nesta pesquisa foi observado um grupo de bugios-pretos
composto por seis indivfduos: um macho adulto, uma
femea adulta e quatro imaturos triess machos e uma femea).
Dentre os imaturos, apenas um macho e uma femea foram
observados ainda filhotes. 0 process de habituaqao dos
animals teve infcio em janeiro de 2002.

Coletas das amostras fecais e andlise parasitoldgica
As coletas de amostras fecais foram realizadas durante cinco
dias consecutivos mensais, das 6:00 hs as 17:30 hs, entire
os meses de maio e dezembro de 2002. As amostras foram
coletadas no moment da defecaqao dos animals, quando
eram registrados a data, o horArio da coleta e a identidade
do individuo observado. Caso nao fosse possfvel identificar
o animal de forma individual, atraves de seu nome, anota-
va-se o seu sexo e a classes etAria. De forma cuidadosa, corn
auxilio de espAtulas, coletava-se a regiao superior e central
da amostra fecal. Esse procedimento pareceu ser o mais
adequado tendo em vista que as fezes estavam sempre di-
retamente em contato corn o solo. Dessa forma, procurou-
se evitar coletar outros organismos que nao fizessem parte
da fauna intestinal do animal. 0 material fecal era acon-
dicionado em coletores plasticos contend Ifquido conser-
vante MIF (Mercurocromo-Iodo-Formol) e conservados a
baixa temperature, em um refrigerator existente na base de
campo. Durante o trajeto, entire o local da coleta e a base
de campo, as amostras eram mantidas dentro de uma caixa
de isopor numa tentative de se evitar mudancas acentuadas
de temperature que pudessem comprometer as analises. A
pesquisa para identificaqao dos parasitas utilizou o mrtodo
de Willis e o exame direto da amostra fecal (De Carli, 1994;
Neves, 2000).


Foram coletadas 59 amostras fecais de Alouatta caraya dis-
tribufdas entire os seis animals que compunham o grupo
de estudo (Tabela 1). Dentre todas as amostras coletadas,

Tabela 1. Ndmero de amostras fecais coletadas por diferentes faixas sexo-etiria de um grupo de bugios-pretos (Alouatta caraya).
Classe sexo-etaria Individuos Maio Julho Agosto Setembro Outubro Novembro Dezembro Total
J adulto Said 2 1 0 1 0 0 1 5
i adulta Jade 0 1 3 5 0 3 6 18
o imaturo Leo 1 1 3 0 0 1 4 10
Rick 1 1 2 2 0 1 4 11
infante Jane 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 2
imatura Jane 0 0 0 3 0 0 3 6
o infante Jack 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
Nao identificados* 1 2 0 0 0 0 3 6
Total 5 7 9 11 0 5 22 59
* Individuos do grupo de estudo nao identificados no moment da coleta.

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

31 amostras (52,54%) fornecerem resultados positivos
quanto a infecqao por parasitas. A partir dos exames realiza-
dos, constatamos a incidencia de oocistos de protozoarios,
larvas e ovos de helmintos, tendo sido identificados sete
taxons diferentes de endoparasitas (Tabela 2). Em algumas
andlises, foi impossivel a identificacao do parasita em cate-
gorias taxon6micas inferiores a familiar.

Tabela 2. Ocorrencia dos endoparasitas identificados nas amostras
fecais de um grupo de Alouatta caraya.
Helmintos Protozoarios
Trichuris sp. Eimeria sp.
Oesophagostomum sp. Oocistos nao identificados
Enterobius vermicularis
Capillaria sp.
Trichostrongylus sp.
F .....i; .V . .I
(genero nao identificado)
Ovos nao identificados
Larvas nao identificados

Tabela 3. Incidencia dos parasitas intestinais nas amostras e o
ndmero de animals infeccionados por cada tixon.
No de No de
Nd N Prevalencia
Parasita amostras animals revalncia
positivas contaminados (o)
Sp. A* 7 4 66,6
Sp. B* 5 3 50
Sp. C* 1 1 16,6
Sp. D* 3 3 50
Sp. E* 1 1 16,6
Sp. F* 2 1 16,6
Trichuris sp. 1 1 16,6
Oesophagostomum sp. 1 1 16,6
Capillaria sp. 1 1 16,6
Enterobius vermicularis 1 1 16,6
Trichostrongylus sp. 1 1 16,6
Eimeria sp. 2 2 33,3
F ..... ,,_.1 ;..! : 3 2 33,3
Oocistos 2 2 33,3
Total 31 6
Espicies de parasitas nao identificados.

Tabela 4. Ocorrencia das diversas especies de endoparasitas nos
individuos do grupo de Alouatta caraya.
Individuos Endoparasitas
Said esp&cies A e D
Jade Oocistos; esp&cies A, B, C, E, F; Trichuris sp.;
Jade F .; c ,., 1 ;.., '
Leo Oocistos; Oesophagostomum sp.; esp&cie A
Rick F ... 1;, ,, ,. I ;.. ., Trichostrongylus sp.; esp&cie A
Enterobius vermicularis; Capillaria sp.; Eimeria sp.;
Jane species A, B, D

Apesar de nao ter sido possfvel identificar a esp&cie E, algu-
mas caracteristicas morfol6gicas-como o format ov6ide,
a transparencia, a membrana externa e internal bem visivel
corn a presenca de uma invaginaqao, e presenca de ifqui-
do no interior do ovo-sugerem tratar-se de um ovo de
Hymenolepis sp. Da mesma forma, a esp&cie F possufa ca-
racteristicas morfol6gicas semelhantes a um ovo de Physa-
loptera sp.

Durante as coletas das amostras fecais, foram observados
vermes adults em algumas amostras logo ap6s a defeca-
gao. A partir da descrigao feita por Martins (2002) sobre a
morfologia externa de Trypanoxyuris minutus, acreditou-se
que as larvas encontradas poderiam ser desta especie. Aldm
disso, segundo Martins, este parasita e bastante comum no
genero Alouatta.

A distribuicao dos parasitas entire os diferentes individu-
os do grupo, o ndmero de amostra onde cada parasita foi
identificado e o cilculo da prevalencia de cada especie de
parasita, sao apresentados naTabela 3. Para calcular a preva-
lencia, dividiu-se o ndmero de hospedeiros infectados por
uma especie de parasita em particular pelo ndmero total de
animals estudados, este cilculo normalmente e apresenta-
do em porcentagem (definicao descrita por Stuart e Strier,
[1995], segundo a Sociedade Americana de Parasitologia).
A prevalencia de parasitas sobre o grupo de bugios-pretos
estudado mostrou uma maior porcentagem de infeccqo da
esp&cie A (66,6%), seguida pelas especies B e D (corn 50%).
Entre os parasitas identificados, aqueles pertencentes a Fa-
mflia Strongyloidae e ao genero Eimeria sp. apresentaram
prevalencia de 33,3%.

Dentre os individuos do grupo de estudo, a femea adulta,
Jade, foi a que apresentou a maior diversidade de parasitas
(oito esp&cies) e corn a qual obtivemos o maior ndmero de
amostras (18). Nesse individuo, os parasitas encontrados
foram: Trichuris sp., um esp&cime da Familia Strongyloi-
dae, e indivfduos das esp&cies nao identificadas A, B, C,
E e F, presenca de oocistos e de um Acaro (Tabela 4). A
femea jovem, Jane, foi a segunda em incid&ncia de parasitas,
sendo que em oito amostras, seis apresentaram resultados
positivos. Foram identificadas seis especies diferentes de
parasitas: as esp&cies nao identificadas A, B e D, C,.I,,//.7-
ria sp., Enterobius vermicularis e Eimeria sp. (Tabela 4). Os
machos jovens, Leo e Rick, apresentaram entire tries e quatro
esp&cies diferentes de parasitas. 0 macho adulto, Said, foi o
que apresentou o menor ndmero de parasitas (apenas duas
esp&cies). Do filhote macho, corn quatro meses de idade,
conseguimos apenas uma amostra fecal na qual nao foi
identificado nenhum parasita (Tabela 4).

Corn o objetivo de verificar a existencia de urna possfvel
relagao entire o ndmero de parasitas e a sua prevalencia corn
o tamanho do grupo de bugios e o tamanho da area do frag-
mento utilizado pelos animals, utilizou-se a correlacao linear
de Pearson (Biostat 2.0: Ayres et al., 2000). Nesta analise,
foram utilizadas informaq6es complementares de tries traba-
lhos realizados por Santa Cruz etal. (2000), Martins (2002)

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

e Montilha et al. (2002) (Tabela 5). As analises mostraram
uma correlacao negative entire a prevalencia e o tamanho de
grupo (r = -0,74; p = 0,014). 0 mesmo acontecendo quanto
a relacao entire o tamanho de grupo e o ndmero de esp6cies
de parasitas existente (r = -0,71; p = 0,02). No entanto,
apesar de positive, nao detectamos uma correlacao muito
forte entire a prevalencia e ndmero de esp6cies de parasitas
corn o tamanho do fragmento florestal (r = 0,31, p = 0,48;
r = 0,32, p = 0,48, respectivamente).


As analises parasitol6gicas indicaram que, do total de 59
amostras, 31 delas (52,5%) foram positivas para pelo menos
um endoparasita. Apesar do ndmero de amostras da femea
adulta ser superior as dos outros individuos e ela ter apre-
sentado uma maior diversidade de parasitas (oito tAxons),
nao podemos dizer que o tamanho da amostra influenciou
a diversidade de parasitas, pois a femea imatura (Jane), da
qual obtivemos apenas nove amostras fecais, apresentou seis
tAxons diferentes.

VArios parasitas encontrados nas fezes dos primatas estu-
dados tambdm podem infectar bovinos e ovinos (ICEA,
1976). Por exemplo, Oesophagostomum sp. pode ser en-
contrado em bovinos e sufnos, enquanto que Eimeria sp.
pode infectar tanto o home quanto os animals domrsti-
cos. Ja, o helminto Trichostrongylus sp. afeta, normalmente,
os ruminantes, os eqiifdeos, porcos, caes e aves domrsticas
(Pessoa, 1988). Assim, o fato da drea de uso do grupo estu-
dado localizar-se no limited da floresta, pr6xima a Area onde
existe uma criacao de bovinos e ovinos, pode ter facilitado

Tabela 5. Informao6es sobre a prevalencia, tamanho de grupo de
Alouatta, tamanho do fragmento utilizado e ndmero de species
de parasitas.
Tamanho Tamanho de
Preval&ncia medio do especies
Estudo (1) do grupo fragmento de
(O) (2) (3) parasitas
Godoy etal 52,5 6 3.864 ha 14
(este estudo)
Montilha et al., 59 6 120 ha 6
59 6 120 ha 6
Martins, 2002 86 6 Continua 13
Martins, 2002 74 6,6 Continua 7
Martins, 2002 72,5 6,5 484 ha 9
Martins, 2002 86 6,8 360 ha 7
Martins, 2002 67,5 6,8 180 ha 10
Santa Cruz etal.,
Santa Cruz etal., 44,4 10 4
Santa Cruz etal, 7,1 12 1
2000 ___

Correlaqao de Pearson:
1x2: r =- 0,74; r2= 0,55; g.1. = 8; p:

: 0,01,n= 10; 2x4: r= -0,72; r2 = 0,55;

p = 0,02, n = 10; 1x3: r = 0,31; r2 = 0,10; p = 0,48, n = 7; 3x4: r
0,32; r2 = 0,10; p = 0,48, n = 7.

a contaminaqao deste grupo de Alouatta. Aldm disso, outras
caracteristicas ambientais, como umidade do ar e a declivi-
dade do relevo, podem ser consideradas como facilitadores
neste process. Em Trichurissp., parasita comum em porcos
e caes, a umidade e muito important para o desenvolvi-
mento deste parasita em ambiente externo (Pessoa, 1988).

No caso do genero Eimeriasp. (Eimeriidae), a infeccao d&-se
pela ingestao de Agua ou alimentos contaminados contend
oocistos que foram expulsos corn as fezes ou disseminados
por outros hospedeiros. Espucies deste genero podem causar
doencas graves nas aves, no gado e em outros animals como
galinhas, patos, peru, fais6es e pombos (Pessoa, 1988). Se-
gundo o manual de veterinaria publicado pelo Instituto
Campineiro de Ensino Agricola (ICEA, 1976) este parasita
causa a chamada "diarrdia vermelha", indicando a presenca
de sangue nas fezes.

Assim, quanto aos processes de contaminaqao pelos parasi-
tas aqui encontrados, consideramos que a maior parte pode
estar relacionado a utilizacao de alimentos ou agua conta-
minados (Trichuris sp., Eimeria sp. e Trichostrongylus sp.).
No entanto, a contaminaqao pelo Enterobius vermicularis
(oxidro do ceco e do apendice cecal) nao ocorre apenas atra-
ves de alimentos contaminados mas, tambdm, por via Area
(poeira) e atraves do ato de cocar a regiao perianal, que pode
provocar a transferencia dos ovos das maos do hospedeiro
para a boca. Em ambient 6mido, estes parasitas podem
permanecer vivos durante dias.

Neste estudo nao foi realizada uma estimativa precisa do
grau de infecqao dos animals estudados, uma vez que t&c-
nicas de quantificaqao de ovos nao foram feitas. Contudo,
observamos um pequeno ndmero de ovos nas amostras, o
que consideramos um provavel indicador da baixa carga pa-
rasitAria. Para a maioria das especies que conseguimos iden-
tificar, foi encontrado apenas um exemplar de cada especie.
Somente na especie A (nio identificada) foram encontrados
nas amostras mais de um ovo. Entretanto, nao podemos ga-
rantir que esses animals estejam livres do desenvolvimento
de doencas parasitarias, bern como, que possuam alguma
patogenia grave. As informaqoes aqui obtidas ainda sao
muito restritas para esse tipo de diagn6stico.

No entanto, os parasitas encontrados foram citados na li-
teratura especializada como especies de relative freqilencia
em outras especies do genero Alouatta e outros generos de
primatas. Por exemplo, o parasita Trichuris sp. foi encon-
trado em Alouatta belzebul na regiao Amazonica (Martins,
2002) e em Alouatta guariba clamitans em um fragmento
florestal no noroeste do Estado de Sao Paulo (Montilha et
al., 2002). 0 helminto Enterobius vermicularis, citado por
Pessoa (1988) como um oxidro bastante comum em pri-
matas, foi observado em Alouattaguariba clamitans (Muller
et al., 2000; Montilha et al., 2002) e o mesmo pode ser
verificado corn ( p (Montilha et al., 2002). Inglis
e Cosgrove (1965) ressaltam que os cebfdeos apresentam
grande taxa de infeccao por parasitas da Familia Oxyuridae.
Algumas das especies de parasitas encontradas em Alouatta

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

caraya parecem ser comuns nas especies de calitriqufneos.
Em um estudo em cativeiro (Ximenes, 1997), os sagiiis
comuns, ( .- jacchus, apresentaram como endopara-
sitas os helmintos Trichuris sp. e Oesophagostomum sp. e o
protozoirio Eimeria sp., enquanto que o Saguinusfuscicollis
weddelli, no Estado do Acre na regiao Amaz6nica, apresen-
tou Trichuris sp. e Saguinus imperator imperator apresentou
Trichostrongylus sp. (Santos et al., 1995).

Apesar de haver relatos da contribuigao da geofagia no con-
trole das infecq6es parasitirias em primatas (ver Bicca-Mar-
ques e Calegaro-Marques, 1994), este comportamento nao
foi observado nesta pesquisa.

V~rios estudos term verificado grande prevalencia de infec-
cao por endoparasitas em grupos de Alouatta que ocupam
regi6es corn alta densidade populacional (Alouatta senicu-
lus, Gilbert, 1994b; Alouatta palliata, Stuart et al., 1990).
Gilbert (1994b), por exemplo, estudando 14 grupos de
Alouatta seniculus em fragments de 10 ha, 100 ha e flo-
resta continue, verificou que os fragments corn maior
densidade populacional (os de 10 ha e a floresta continue)
apresentaram as maiores porcentagens de infecqao entiree
38,1% a 60,0%). No entanto, Stuart etal. (1993) nao en-
contraram relacao positive entire a prevalencia de endopa-
rasitas e a densidade populacional do muriqui (Brachyteles
hypoxanthus). Alrm disso, o grupo de Alouattaguariba ava-
liado por eles, simpatrico aos muriquis, nao apresentava
nenhum ovo ou larva de endoparasitas. Para Stuart et al.
(1993), diferengas na vegetacao, no clima e no nfvel de
perturbaqao dos fragments poderiam explicar diferentes
taxas de infecqao.

Os estudos citados acima, apontam para a importIncia da
avaliaqao da densidade populacional em pesquisas parasito-
16gicos com as especies do genero Alouatta. Por outro lado,
quando utilizadas as informaq6es de Montilha et al. (2002),
Martins (2002) e os obtidos nesta pesquisa, encontramos
uma correlacao positive fraca entire o tamanho do fragmen-
to e a taxa de prevalencia de parasitas. Porem, Santa Cruz
et al. (2000) chamam a atencao para a avaliaqao do tama-
nho do fragmento e o grau de fragmentacao, pois peque-
nos fragments, com quantidade insuficiente de alimento,
podem obrigar os bugios a descerem ao chao para alcanga-
rem outras dreas. Alrm disso, caso haja poucas arvores no
fragmento, os animals seriam obrigados a permanecerem
mais tempo ou reutilizar as mesmas arvores, aumentando
os riscos de infecqao.

Vale ressaltar, que ao contririo do que foi verificado em rela-
dao ao tamanho do fragmento, o tamanho do grupo parece
ser extremamente important no process de infecqao por
endoparasitas, ji que, detectamos uma relacao negative
entire o tamanho do grupo e a prevalencia e o ndmero de
especies de parasitas encontrado. Assim, em grupos meno-
res, onde as relao6es socials entire os mesmos individuos sao
mais freqiientes, os animals infectados apresentam maior
probabilidade de contaminar outros individuos.

Devido a escassez de pesquisas parasitol6gicas com prima-
tas de vida livre, acreditamos que este estudo contribuird
para um melhor entendimento deste tema e poderi auxiliar
trabalhos de conservagao e manejo das especies do genero
Alouatta, especialmente quando envolverem a re-introdu-
gao de animals em novas dreas (Magnusson, 1995) e as po-
pulagoes que ocupam ambientes fragmentados.

Agradecimentos: Os autores agradecem a Universidade Ca-
t6lica Dom Bosco pelo apoio tecnico e financeiro e a Fun-
dagao de Apoio ao Desenvolvimento da Educaqao, Ciencia
e Tecnologia do Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul (FUN-
DECT) pelo financiamento dessa pesquisa, concedida aos
Profs. Drs. Jose Rfmoli e Adriana Odalia Rfmoli, protoco-
lo No. 363-01. Aos moradores da RPPN Nova Querencia
- Nova Esperanga, Dr. Fernando Barcellos e Dna. Cristi-
na Barcellos, proprietArios da Area, por terem gentilmente
nos cedido uma casa que esti funcionando como base de
campo; ao Sr. Negrito pelo auxflio na elaboracao do siste-
ma de trilhas e no acompanhamento inicial do grupo; aos
colegas pesquisadores F1i'i. ,,, 1 Valdivino, Luciana Gea-
copello, Orlando Corsino e Leonardo Neves. Ao professor
Hermano, do Hospital Veterindrio da Universidade Federal
do Mato Grosso do Sul, por ter orientado as andlises la-
boratoriais, e aos Veterinirios Maristela Martins de Souza
Halverson e Fabiano Oliveira Frazilio da Vet Analysis Labo-
rat6rio Veterindrio Ltda., por terem gentilmente auxiliado
as pesquisas parasitol6gicas.

Keila Carla I. Godoy, Adriana Odalia Rimoli e Jose
Rimoli, Mestrado em Psicologia e em Desenvolvimento
Local, Universidade Cat61lica Dom Bosco, Av. Tamandar6
6000, Jardim Semindrio, Campo Grande 79117-900, Mato
Grosso do Sul, Brasil, e-mails: br>, e .


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monkeys in forest fragments. Neotrop. Primates 2(2):

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matologia, Natal.


Fernanda P Paim, Maria Fernanda Iurck
Sergio L. Mendes, Karen B. Strier

The northern muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) is Criti-
cally Endangered (Hilton-Taylor, 2002) and one of the
world's 25 most endangered primates (Konstant et al.,
2002). The total known population is currently estimated
at between 700 and 1000 animals. The behavior, ecology,
demography and reproduction of one group of northern
muriquis, the Matao group, has been studied since 1982
at the Estagao Biol6gica de Caratinga in the Feliciano
Miguel Abdalla Private Natural Heritage Reserve (RPPN)
in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Here we report our observations
on the behavior and recovery of a three-year-old female
with a broken leg.

Muriquis travel by suspensory locomotion, propelling
themselves by their arms, with or without the assistance
of their tail (Nishimura et al., 1988; lurck, in prep.). Sus-
pensory locomotion optimizes time and energy costs for
primates such as muriquis that travel widely between dis-
persed food sources (Cant et al., 2001; Youlatos, 2002).
Members of the Matao study group travel an average of
1,206 m a day, with recent maximum daily travel distances
of 2,835 m (Dias and Strier, 2002). The large size of the
northern muriqui makes it especially vulnerable to injury
from falls when traveling rapidly, and/or when branches
break (Strier, 1999).

We observed the behavior of a three-year-old female in the
Matao study group during February-July 2002, when she
was suffering from a fracture in her right lower leg. We
first noticed it on 20 February 2003; there was a visible
lesion, and her leg was bent into an unnatural position. She
was seen in this state a few hours after an encounter with
a neighboring group, the Ja6 group, in an area where the
home ranges are known to overlap (Dias and Strier, 2002).
The encounter included vocal and visual displays, but we
saw no evidence that the female had been attacked or had
fallen. The fracture appeared to be of the tibia, which is
found toward the anterior of the lower leg and ordinarily

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

supports the weight of the femur above it (Gardner and
Osburn, 1971). In addition, there was evidence of swelling
and deformity consistent with trauma around the tibia, but
not the fibula (Apley and Solomon, 1989).

The female was seen on the periphery of the group five days
later (25 February 2003), together with an adult female and
her dependent infant. The injured female spent at least four
hours in a tree, where she was observed feeding and resting
until we had to leave her to accompany the rest of the group.
She did not use her injured leg, which was extended stiffly,
swollen on the lower portion, and with a visible lesion on
the fur (Fig. 1). She frequently licked and manipulated the
area around the wound.

On 28 February 2003, she was observed traveling with the
rest of the group, but without using her injured leg. On 6
March 2003, she was seen playing with two infants, and
from 12-19 March 2003, she was also seen near other juve-
niles and adult females, including her own mother and her
younger sibling. Her injured leg remained stiff and she was
not observed to use it on any of these occasions.

It was on 23 March 2003 that we first saw her using the
injured leg, resting it lightly on some branches while she
was moving. On 30 March 2003 she was again seen using
her injured leg while traveling with other group members.
From 4-26 April 2003, we had few opportunities to observe
the female, as the Matao group was subdivided into smaller
parties at the this time, and it was difficult to locate every
individual each day. However, it appeared that the female's

Figure 1. Young female (JO) feeding with lower right leg bone
fracture on 25 February 2003. Photo by Carla B. Possamai.

leg had healed, despite the persistence of some swelling
and a mark on her fur where the injury had occurred. Her
movements appeared to have returned to normal, and she
seemed to have fully recovered. She was routinely observed
until 15 September 2003, after which date she suddenly
disappeared. She is presumed to have died, because she was
much younger than is typical for natal females when they
disperse (Printes and Strier, 1999; Strier and Ziegler, 2000)
and she was not seen in any of the other muriqui groups in
the forest (Strier et al., 2002).

We are unaware of any other reports describing recovery
from bone fractures in wild muriquis, although healed frac-
tures have been reported in other species of wild primates,
including moustached tamarins (Saguinus mystax; Herrera
and Heymann, 2004), mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta
palliata; Estrada et al., 2001), black spider monkeys (Ateles
paniscus; Karesh et al., 1998), Japanese macaques (Macaca
fuscata; Nakai, 2003), mountain gorillas (Gl.I//.t go, .l.t
beringei; Lovell, 1990), and lowland gorillas (G. g. g,:.//i),
bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (P troglodytes trog-
lodytes and P t. schweinfurthii; Jurmain, 1997). Although
fractures of the tibia are described in some of the apes (for
example, Jurmain, 1997), in most primates they appear to
be uncommon compared to fractures of other bones.

In humans, recovery from bone fractures involves the forma-
tion of bone callous, which gradually replaces the damaged
bone tissue. Inferior limb bones may take 12-24 weeks to
heal (Apley and Solomon, 1989). Our observations of this
female suggest that in young muriquis, the recovery and
healing process may be much more rapid, occurring within
six to seven weeks. The muriqui's suspensory mode of loco-
motion, which relies much more on the arms than the legs,
may have contributed to her rapid recovery.

Despite her fully recovered appearance, however, it is pos-
sible that her injury was directly or indirectly responsible
for her disappearance and presumed death. Her injury may
have become infected, but there were no external signs.
It is also possible that she was still weak or slow, making
her more vulnerable to predators, the only cause of death
identified to date for younger muriquis at this site (Printes
et al., 1996).

Acknowledgments: We thank the Brazil Science Council
(CNPq) and the Abdalla family for permission to study
muriquis at this site. Fieldwork was funded by grants to
KBS from the Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation,
the Liz Claiborne and Art Ortenberg Foundation, and the
Graduate School of the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
We are grateful to J. P. Boubli, J. V. Gomes, V. 0. Gui-
maraes, R. C. R. Oliveira, C. B. Possamai, V. Souza, and
K. Tollentino for their collaboration and contributions in
the field, and to R. C. Printes, J. C. Bicca-Marques, and G.
Buss for their helpful discussions and support.

Fernanda P. Paim, Programa Macacos Urbanos, Departa-
mento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre 91501-970,
Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, e-mail: br>, Maria Fernanda lurck, Ndcleo de Estudos do Com-
portamento Animal, Pontificia Universidade Cat6lica do
Parana (PUCPR/CNPq), Rua Imaculada Conceigao 1155,
Caixa Postal 16210, Curitiba 81611-970, Parana, Brazil,
S6rgio L. Mendes, Departamento de Ciencias Biol6gicas
- CCHN, Universidade Federal de Espirito Santo, Av.
Mal. Campos 1468, Marufpe, Vit6ria 29040-090, Espirito
Santo, Brazil, and Karen B. Strier, Department of Anthro-
pology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI
53706, USA.


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Fraturas. Atheneu, Sao Paulo.
Cant, J. G. H., Youlatos, D. and Rose, M. D. 2001. Loco-
motor behavior of Lagothrix lagothricha and Ateles belze-
buth in Yasunf National Park, Ecuador: General patterns
and nonsuspensory modes. J. Hum. Evol. 41: 141-166.
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ranging patterns in Brachyteles arachnoides hypoxanthus.
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Survey of the population of howler monkeys (Alouatta
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Species. The World Conservation Union (IUCN) Species
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bridge, UK.
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apes, with special reference to the Gombe chimpazees.
Primates 38: 1-14.
Karesh, W. B., Wallace, R. B., Painter, R. L. E., Rumiz, D.,
Braselton, W. E., Dierenfeld, E. S. and Puche, H. 1998.
Immobilization and health assessment of free-ranging
black spider monkeys (Ateles paniscus chamek). Am. J. Pri-
matol. 44: 107-123.
Konstant, W. R., Mittermeier, R. A., Rylands, A. B., Bu-
tynski, T. M., Eudey, A. A., Ganzhorn, J. and Kormos,
R. 2002. The world's top 25 most endangered primates
-2002. Neotrop. Primates 10(3): 128-131.
Lovell, N. C. 1990. Skeletal and dental pathology of free-
ranging mountain gorillas. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 81:
Nakai, M. 2003. Bone and joint disorders in wild Japanese
macaques from Nagano Prefecture, Japan. Int. J. Primatol.
Nishimura, A., Fonseca, G. A. B., Mittermeier, R. A.,
Young, A. L., Strier, K. B. and Valle, C. M. C. 1988.
The muriqui, genus Brachyteles. In: Ecology and Behav-

ior j .'.....- .. 'Primates, Vol. 2, R. A. Mittermeier, A.
B. Rylands, A. F Coimbra-Filho and G. A. B. da Fon-
seca (eds.), pp.577-610. World Wildlife Fund, Washing-
ton, DC.
Printes, R. C. and Strier, K. B. 1999. Behavioral correlates
of dispersal in female muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides).
Int. J. Primatol. 20: 941-960.
Printes, R. C., Costa, C. G. and Strier, K. B. 1996. Possible
predation on two infant muriquis, Brachyteles arachnoi-
des, at the Estacao Biol6gica de Caratinga, Minas Gerais,
Brazil. Neotrop. Primates 4(3): 85-86.
Strier, K. B. 1999. Faces in the Forest: The Endangered
Muriqui Monkeys of Brazil. Oxford University Press,
New York.
Strier, K. B. and Ziegler, T. E. 2000. Lack of pubertal influ-
ences on female dispersal in muriqui monkeys, Brachyteles
arachnoides. Anim. Behav. 59: 849-860.
Strier, K. B., Boubli, J. P., Guimaraes, V. 0. and Mendes, S.
L. 2002. The muriqui population of the Estacao Biol6gi-
ca de Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brazil: Updates. Neotrop.
Primates 10(3): 115-119.
Youlatos, D. 2002. Positional behavior of black spider mon-
keys (Ateles paniscus) in French Guiana. Int. J. Primatol.
23(5): 1071-1093.


Alejandro Estrada, Sarie Van Belle
Yasminda Garcia del Valle


One of the major problems in making adequate conserva-
tion assessments of primate populations is a lack of data on
their location and demographic features-an issue exacer-
bated by rapid changes in species distribution as a result
of forest destruction and fragmentation. Rapid assessment
surveys can update such information and set the stage for
further studies of population, ecology and conservation.
In southern Mexico, large expanses of the native habitat of
Alouatta palliata, A. pigra and Ateles geoffroyi-the three
northernmost species of Neotropical primates-have
been converted to pasture, and the primates have become
extinct in many localities (Estrada and Coates-Estrada,
1996; Estrada and Mandujano, 2003). In other areas,
populations of the three species exist in fragmented land-
scapes under precarious ecological and demographic
conditions (Estrada et al., 1999, 2002b). Finally, some
populations exist in the protected forests of ecological re-
serves, national parks and biosphere reserves (Estrada et al.,
2002a, 2004). However, such information is still scanty for
many regions of southern Mexico. In this paper we report
data resulting from a first-time survey of populations of
A. pigra and A. ,.. rr .., along a 40-km section of the Rio
Lacantdn, Chiapas, one of the remotest regions of south-
ern Mexico.

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004


Study area and study sites
Fieldwork was conducted in the region of Marques de Co-
millas, bordering Guatemala, in two adjacent areas separated
by the Rio Lacantdn (1605'58"N, 9052'36"W; elevation
10-50 m. a.s.l., Fig. 1). Colonization of the eastern side of
the river (heavily impacted, which we call the "settled" side)
began about 30-40 years ago, and cattle ranching resulted
in the rapid disappearance and fragmentation of the forest
(Mariaca-Mendez, 2002). The western side of the river con-
tains a large protected forest tract of about 300,000 ha-the
Montes Azules Biosphere Reserve (MABR). The original
vegetation in the area is tall evergreen and semideciduous
rain forest, with trees reaching heights of 45 m. Common
tree species in these forests include Pterocarpus hayesii (Fa-
baceae), Nectandra aff. globosa and N. ambigens (Laura-
ceae), Brosimum lactescens (Moraceae) and Pouteria sapota
(Sapotaceae), among others (Mariaca-Mendez, 2002). The

Figure 1. Bottom right corner shows location of study area (black
dot) in the state of Chiapas (CH), Mexico. C, Y and QR are the
Mexican states of Campeche, Yucatan and Quintana Roo, respec-
tively; B = Belize, G = Guatemala. The main map shows the 40-
km section of the Rio Lacantdn (thick black line) in southern Chi-
apas, Mexico, where primate surveys were conducted. The shaded
area to the left shows part of the 300,000 ha Montes Azules Bio-
sphere Reserve (MABR). The smaller shaded area (1,700 ha) to
the right is the Reforma community ecological reserve (CR in
text). The dashed line inside CR is a major trail. Open circle is the
approximate location of the village of Reforma. The gray dots are
three forest fragments (nearest to farthest from the human settle-
ment: 1, 8 and 20 ha) surveyed for primates. The dotted line is a
dirt road. CH = Chajulillo River, TZ = Tzendales River. Grid lines
are geographic coordinates.

climate is hot and humid: mean annual precipitation and
temperature are 2874 mm and 25C, respectively.

Primate surveys
We conducted surveys of primates by boat along a 40-km
stretch of the Rio Lacantun, on both the MABR and settled
sides, between its confluence with the Rios Chajulillo and
Tzendales to the south and north respectively (1605'58"N,
9057'30"W and 1618'06"N, 9052'36"W). The width
of the river varies from 40-60 m, allowing for surveys on
both sides at once. We also conducted terrestrial surveys on
the settled side of the river, in a forested ecological reserve
of 1,700 ha belonging to Reforma, a local farming and
cattle-ranching community. The inhabitants of this com-
munity, currently numbering about 600, are immigrants
from the state of Oaxaca in western Mexico, who arrived in
the area about 30-40 years ago as a result of colonization
programs supported by the Mexican government. When
the colonists first arrived the landscape was dominated by
tropical rainforest, but they rapidly cleared much of the
land for farming corn and other staples, as well as for cattle
ranching. Interviews with some of the oldest inhabitants
indicated that on first arriving, many survived by hunt-
ing a variety of terrestrial mammals as well as primates,
especially spider monkeys. The settlers no longer hunt
these primates in the remaining forest fragments, for three
reasons: the establishment of the MABR on the other side
of the river; increased supervision by Mexican wildlife of-
ficials; and environmental awareness and ecotourism proj-
ects in the community which have been supported by the
Mexican government.

The community reserve (CR) occupies one portion of the
Reforma community's land, which encompasses about
3,500 ha all told. The reserve consists of pristine evergreen
rainforest, about 2.5 km from the human settlement. The
community (ejido) owns titles to this land, and the reserve
is part of a network of small forest reserves that, by law, the
communities in the area are required to sustain and protect.
In the case of the Reforma community, the reserve is part
of a larger government-supported project of ecotourism,
designed for this particular community and named "Gua-
camayas" for the large number of macaws in the area. Here
camping facilities and rustic cabins have been built at the
edge of the Rio Lacantun, and all members of the com-
munity, especially the women, participate in this project.
The men supervise the integrity of the 1,700-ha reserve,
and maintain the trails where they guide tourists on walks
through the forest (Fig. 1). The rest of the community's land
is pasture, with a few smaller forest fragments. According
to the residents of Reforma, three of the nearby fragments
were inhabited by howler monkeys (Fig. 1).

We carried out primate surveys along the river during three
15-day visits to the study area, in October 2002 and in
January and March 2003. Starting at 0400 h, we moved
downriver on the current, with the outboard silent, be-
ginning from the confluence of the Rios Lacantdn and
Chajulillo. These surveys usually stopped at around 0800

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

h, when howling had subsided. Whenever we heard howl-
ers, we recorded the time of day and our position with a
GPS, estimating the approximate perpendicular distance of
the vocalization to the boat and its compass direction. After
0800 h, we continued along the river at higher speed while
scanning each side. When monkeys were sighted we moved
ashore, following them to obtain repeated counts of indi-
viduals, until we reached a consensus on the total number
of monkeys in the group. In subsequent days, we began the
surveys at the point where we ended the day before.

In the CR forest, we used an existing system of trails run-
ning through the reserve to survey the primates, following
standard procedures (National Research Council, 1981;
Wilson et al., 1996). Trails were walked slowly (1 km/h)
and when a group of howler or spider monkeys was sighted,
we noted its location using a GPS, and recorded its distance
to the observer and the perpendicular distance to the trail
line. Once a group was located, we followed it for as long as
possible to obtain repeated counts of individuals, until we
reached a consensus on group size. Each of the three forest
fragments (1, 8 and 20 ha in size) reportedly inhabited by
howler monkeys was surveyed on foot by our team.

Individuals in the primate groups were classified as infants
(clinging ventrally and/or dorsally to the mother), juveniles
(independent from the mother and about 1A to 1/2 the size
of an adult) and adults (all large and robust individuals)
(Izawa et al., 1979). For both howler and spider monkeys,
we expressed population density in terms of the area sam-
pled rather than density of the species' home range (Chap-
man and Balcomb, 1998).


MABR river survey
Triangulation of early morning howling along the 40-km
stretch resulted in 67 locations for troops of howler mon-
keys. (Some howling may have been produced by solitary
animals.) Of these, 72% were heard on the MABR side of
the river and the remaining 28% on the settled side. De-
tection rates were 1.20 troop locations/km of river for the
MABR side and 0.48 locations/km for the disturbed side.
Average estimated distance (adjusting for the position of
the boat in the river) from the river's edge to the source of
howling was 208.7 171.4 m and 438.2 +202.0 m on the
MABR and settled sides, respectively.

In the later phase of the same days, our survey on the
MABR side of the river recorded 13 howler monkey troops
totaling 72 individuals, plus a couple of solitary adult males
and a lone adult male (Table 1). In the troops, adult males
accounted for 33% of individuals counted, adult females
for 42%, juvenile males 4%, juvenile females 8%, and in-
fants 13%. Mean troop size was 5.5 1.5 individuals (range
3-8); the mean number of adult males and adult females
in the troops was 1.8 0.80 and 2.3 0.63, respectively.
The sex ratio for adults was 1:1.25; for juveniles, 1:2.0. The
ratio of adult females to immatures was 1:0.66. While 38%

of the troops had one adult male, 62% had two or more
adult males.

We estimated that these surveys sampled a ribbon of veg-
etation 40 km long by 120 m wide, or about 5.2 km2 of
forest, yielding a coarse estimate for population density of
14.4 individuals/km2. In the same forest area, we detected
two subgroups of spider monkeys. One had five individu-
als (1 adult male, 1 adult female, 1 juvenile, 1 infant and
1 unsexed adult) and the other was composed of 10 adult
individuals; in the latter case their rapid movements, com-
bined with the height of the forest, prevented identification
of their sexes (Table 1).

CR survey
In the CR, ground surveys along the trail system counted
64 howler monkeys-61 as members of 12 troops, plus a
solitary adult male and a pair of solitary males (Table 2).
Adult males in the troops accounted for 34.4% of individu-
als, adult females for 45.9%, juveniles for 13.1% and in-
fants for another 6.5%. Mean troop size was 5.1 2.0 indi-
viduals (range 2-10). The mean number of adult males and
adult females in the troops was 1.8 0.75 and 2.3 1.23,
respectively. The sex ratio of adults (M:F) was 1:1.33 and
1:1.0 in juveniles; the adult female to immature ratio was
1:0.43. While 42% of the troops had one adult male, 58%
had two or more adult males (Table 2). The forest area
sampled in the CR was estimated to be 4.8 km2, resulting
in an estimate of population density of 13.3 individuals/
km2. In the same site, we detected the presence of eight

Table 1. Age and sex composition of black howler monkey troops
(Alouatta pigra) detected in the protected forest of MABR (Montes
Azules Biosphere Reserve) on the western side of the Rio Lacantdin,
Chiapas, Mexico.
Troops AM AF JM JF I Total
1 2 3 2 7
2 1 1 1 3
3 2 2 1 5
4 3 2 5
5 1 2 3
6 1 3 1 3
7 1 2 1 1 5
8 3 3 1 7
9 2 2 2 1 7
10 1 3 1 5
11 3 2 1 2 8
12 2 2 1 1 6
13 2 3 1 6
Total 24 30 3 6 9 72
Mean 1.8 2.3 0.23 0.46 0.69 5.5
sd 0.80 0.63 0.44 0.66 0.75 1.5
Solitary males 2 2
1 1
Total howlers 75

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

subgroups of spider monkeys with a total of 45 individu-
als (Table 2). Forty percent of these individuals were adult
males, 36% were adult females, 4% were juvenile males,
9% were juvenile females and 11% were infants. Adult sex
ratio was 1:1.13 and 1:2.0 in juveniles; the adult female to
infant ratio was 1:0.61. Mean subgroup size was 5.6 3.9
individuals, with a mean of 2.3 2.1 adult males and 2.3
+1.4 adult females (Table 2). A gross estimate of population
density yielded 9.3 individuals/km2.

Forest fragments
There was a single troop of A. pigra in each of the three iso-
lated forest fragments, but no spider monkeys were present

Table 2. Groups of black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) and
subgroups of spider monkeys (Ateles .. .., i counted in the
forest of the community reserve (CR: 1,700 ha) of the farming
community Reforma on the eastern side of the Rio Lacantdn, Chi-
apas, Mexico. AM = adult male, AF = adult female, JM = juvenile
male, JF = juvenile female, I = infant.

Groups AM AF JM JF I Total
Alouatta pigra
1 2 3 1 6
2 2 2 1 5
3 3 5 1 1 10
4 2 1 3
5 1 4 1 6
6 1 2 1 1 5
7 2 2 1 5
8 2 2 4
9 3 3 6
10 1 2 1 1 1 6
11 1 1 1 3
12 1 1 2
Total 21 28 4 4 4 61
Mean 1.8 2.3 0.33 0.33 0.33 5.1
+sd 0.75 1.23 0.49 0.49 0.49 2.07
Solitary males 1 1
2 2
Total 64
Groups AM AF JM J F I Total
1 2 1 1 4
2 1 3 1 1 6
3 1 2 1 4
4 7 5 1 2 15
5 1 1 1 3
6 2 1 1 4
7 3 1 1 5
8 2 2 4
Total 16 18 2 4 5 45
Mean 2.3 2.3 0.25 0.50 0.63 5.6
+sd 2.1 1.4 0.46 0.53 0.74 3.9

(Table 3). Troop size in these fragments ranged from 6-11,
with 1-3 adult males and 2-4 adult females. Each of the
three troops had at least two juveniles, and two had infants
(Table 3). Estimated densities for the 20-, 8- and 1-ha for-
ests were 0.55, 0.88 and 6.0 individuals/ha, respectively.


Our surveys on the MABR side of the river showed the
presence of what seems a large population of howler mon-
keys, and possibly a smaller population of spider monkeys.
While howler monkeys appear to be more common than
spider monkeys on this side of the river, it is certainly pos-
sible that our surveys underestimated the density of spider
monkeys as a result of their rapid movements and lack of
long-distance calls, which makes them much more difficult
to detect and count. Importantly, our surveys also showed
that the protected forest on the settled side of the river also
has both primate species, with howler monkeys again ap-
parently more common than Ateles.

Interestingly, population density estimates for howlers on
both sides of the river were quite similar (14.4 and 13.3
individuals/km2, respectively) and they fall within the range
reported for the species in other protected forests in Mexico.
For example, in Muchukux, Quintana Roo, A. pigra occurs
at densities of 15.1 individuals/km2 (Gonzilez-Kirchner,
1998), while densities in Palenque and Yaxchilan, Chiapas,
are 23.0 individuals/km2 and 12.8 individuals/km2, respec-
tively (Estrada et al., 2002a, 2004). In contrast, the high
densities estimated for A. pigra in the three forest fragments
on the community land are consistent with values report-
ed for the species from small riparian fragments in Belize
(up to 17.8 individuals/ha; Silver et al., 1998; Ostro et al.,
1999; Horwich et al., 2001) and in small forest fragments
in Palenque, Mexico (mean 1.16 individuals/ha; Estrada et
al., 2002b).

Mean troop size values for the black howlers in CR and in
MABR (5.1 and 5.5 individuals, respectively) fall within the
range of average troop sizes (3.1 to 7.5 individuals) reported
for A. pigra in other localities in Mexico and in Belize and
Guatemala (Coelho et al., 1976; Gonzalez-Kirchner, 1998;
Ostro et al., 1999; Estrada et al., 2002a, 2004).

Table 3. Black howler monkey troops, Alouattapigra, detected in
three forest fragments surveyed in the land of the Reforma farm-
ing community in Chiapas, Mexico. Sites are listed in descending
order by area (ha). AM = adult male, AF = adult female, JM =
juvenile male, JF = juvenile female, I = infant.
Site/area ha AM AF JM JF I Total
20 3 4 1 1 2 11
8 1 3 2 1 7
1 2 2 2 6
Total 6 9 1 5 3 24
Mean 2.0 3.0 0.3 1.7 1.0 8.0
sd 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.6 1.0 2.6

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

Because of the fission-fusion nature of spider monkey
communities, it is rare to see all members of the com-
munity in the same location (Van Roosmalen and Klein,
1988; Kinzey, 1997) and it is not easy to make general-
izations on density and/or subgroup size (Coelho et al.,
1976; Klein and Klein, 1977). Bearing this in mind, the
mean subgroup size of spider monkeys in the CR (5.6
3.9 individuals) falls within the range of values reported
for spider monkey populations at other protected forest
sites in Mexico and Guatemala (Coelho et al., 1976; Cant,
1978, 1990; Estrada et al., 2004). In unprotected forests,
habitat reduction coupled with hunting pressures can rap-
idly result in significant population declines, and spider
monkeys are one of the most heavily hunted of all
Neotropical primates (Raez-Luna, 1995; Kinzey, 1997).
These aspects may explain their absence in the forest frag-
ments we surveyed.

Our survey not only confirmed the existence of an impor-
tant population of A. pigra and A. ..trr ..i along a 40-km
reach of the Rio Lacantdn, but also suggests that current
land management practices in the area have an impor-
tant impact upon the persistence of populations of both
primates. First, protection by the Mexican government
of the MABR forest on the western side of the river has
so far conserved populations of A. pigra and A. ..-rr ..,
Second, while only howler monkeys seem to survive on the
eastern, settled side, owing to the extensive clearing of
forest for pasture and agriculture, one community's ini-
tiative to preserve the forest on a large section (CR) of
their land has sheltered an important population of
howler and spider monkeys in this otherwise heavily im-
pacted landscape.

Acknowledgments: We acknowledge the financial assistance
of the Scott Neotropic Fund of the Cleveland Metro Zoo,
and of the Universidad Nacional Aut6noma de Mexico.
We thank the Reforma farming community for helping
us repair our field vehicle and for providing invaluable lo-
gistical support and knowledge, both at our campsite and
in the field. We are especially grateful to our field guide
Seledonio, a member of the Reforma community, for his
tireless and invaluable help surveying primates. We thank
the Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Chiapas, for providing the
boat to conduct the river surveys, and also acknowledge
the assistance in the field of Joseph Hawes, Petra Wilbrink
and Manuel Onorbe.

Alejandro Estrada, Laboratorio de Primatologfa, Instituto
de Biologfa, Universidad Nacional Aut6noma de Mexico,
Apdo. 176, San Andres Tuxtla, Veracruz, Mexico, e-mail:
, Sarie Van Belle, Department
of Zoology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA,
e-mail: , and Yasminda
Garcia del Valle, Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR),
San Crist6bal de las Casas, Chiapas, Mexico, e-mail:


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Laura K. Marsh


Many previously untouched regions of the Amazon are
now faced with imminent disturbance from oil exploration.
Forest cover in Ecuador has been decreasing at a rate of ap-
proximately 1.8% per year over the last decade (Wunder,
2000). While this figure might not seem startling, it does
not take into account the recent push for oil speculation
into unexplored regions of the Amazon. Thus, for all those
who work in relatively unspoiled tropical forests, it is man-
datory to have as much detailed information as possible
about each region's primate fauna, since it may be slated to
become another fragmented ecosystem in the greater matrix
of rainforest loss (Marsh, 2003). This paper confirms the
primates occurring in the Tiputini Biodiversity Station
(TBS), as there has been some confusion as to the identity
of the species in this part of the Yasunf Biosphere Reserve in
Amazonian Ecuador.


Study area
TBS is located in the 1.7 million-ha Yasunf Biosphere Re-
serve (0037'05"S, 7610'15"W, c. 250 m above sea level),
300 km ESE of Quito in the province of Orellana (Salva-
dor-Van Eysenrode etal., 1998). The station was established
in 1996 by the Universidad de San Francisco, Quito (Fig.
1). It is maintained primarily for students and researchers
but is also open for limited ecotourism. The 650-ha low-
land rainforest comprising the Biodiversity Station, extend-
ing along the north bank of the Rio Tiputini, has 30 km
of well-marked trails and two established 100-ha plots (J.
Blake and B. Loiselle, pers. comm.). Yearly mean tempera-
tures exceed 24C and the relative humidity is above 80%
(weather station data from 1981-1997 at Coca Airport,
0027'08"S, 7659'02"W, Direcci6n de Aviaci6n Civil);
yearly rainfall is around 3250 mm (TBS weather station;
J. Guerra, pers. comm.). The topography is flat to gently
sloped, with characteristics of vdrzea and terra firma forest,
swamps, and a small oxbow lake. There is a canopy tower,
"Torre II," on the far western side of the trail system.

Census methods
A preliminary census was conducted in February and
March of 2002 and 2004 for a total of 205 observation
hours. Census methods followed those for one observer as
per National Research Council (1981) and Peres (1999).
Censuses were carried out along 25 km of the trail system
at approximately 1 km per hour to listen to and observe
primate species. The trails bisect the site as well as following
natural contours that lead through all habitat types in the
area, including ridgelines, vdrzea, terra firma, and swamp.
Positional data were taken with a Geographic Positioning

Figure 1. Map of Ecuador showing the location of the Tiputini
Biological Station (TBS) and details of the TBS trail system with
two 100-ha study plots (Puma and Harpia). Trail system map by
B. Loiselle and J. Blake; redrawn by Winters Redstar.

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

System (Garmin GPS III) when possible. Independent of
the censuses, primate groups were followed for as long as
possible to collect data on group size and structure and to
determine if other primate species were in association.

Primate Species Confirmed at Tiputini Biodiversity

(.,. pygmaea (pygmy marmoset, leoncito)
Pygmy marmosets were last seen within the station bound-
aries five or six years ago (J. Guerra, pers. comm.). Now
they can be found only at the furthest edges of the station
property, along the Rio Negro. They have been observed
there by TBS station staff (in 2004) although they were not
confirmed during this census. Confirmation of this species
comes from an area about 40 minutes upstream from the
station camp, at a site located on the south side of the Rio
Tiputini (0038'58.9"S, 7612'38.5"W). Two individuals
were seen displaying and chewing holes in a tree (Inga sp.)
that was partly covered by vine tangles and bromeliads. Four
other feeding trees were noted within a 30 m2 area along the
river's edge, about 10 m back from the bank.

Saguinus tripartitus (golden-mantled tamarin, chichico)
Locally abundant, they were seen in treefall gaps, vine tan-
gles, and smaller understorey trees in both vdrzea and terra
firma areas of the station. They are listed as "Near Threat-
ened" (casi amenazada) in the Libro Rojo de los lI j ..
delEcuador (Tirira S., 2001). They are most often observed
in the understorey but also forage near the canopy at about
30 m. Sternal and anogenital scent-marking have been ob-
served for males. Group sizes range from two to 10 indi-
viduals, but are most often between four to seven. As with
other tamarins, they eat insects and share parental care of
twins. They have been observed to travel and associate with
Callicebus, Saimiri, and Cebus. There is one published ac-
count of intergroup variation in ranging patterns from TBS
(Kostrub, 2002).

Aotus vociferans (night monkey, mono noche)
Thus far we have confirmed only A. vociferans within the
TBS area, although there is possibly a second species in the
region. There are at least two groups within 0.5 km of the
TBS camp area. We observed one group with five members
on the edge of the camp clearing. These night monkeys are
very pale, blondish animals with less distinct facial mark-
ings than is typical of A. trivirgatus. In appearance they
closely resemble the rendering of this species in Primates de
la Amazonia delEcuador (de laTorre, 2000).

( .... cupreus (titi monkey, titf)
This titi is characterized by red underparts, brownish agouti
back and tail, and a distinct white brow-stripe running the
length of the forehead. Group size is two to three individu-
als, generally a pair with a single offspring. They chorus in
the dawn and are seen in similar habitat and forest structure
as Saguinus, mainly in terra firma or the fringes of vdrzea.
They have been seen associating with Saguinus. Judg-
ing from the dawn-calls, there are probably many groups

within the vicinity of the TBS station. One pair has been
radio-collared for a detailed ranging study by A. Di Fiore
(pers. comm.).

Saimiri sciureus (squirrel monkey, frailecito)
According to Hershkovitz (1984), squirrel monkeys at Ti-
putini belong to the subspecies macrodon Elliot, 1907. They
are found both in vdrzea and terra firma from about 3 to
-50 m above the ground. Most of the sightings were in the
lower strata but they will at times follow spider monkeys
right to the top of the canopy. They were seen in groups
of 10 to 21, and often in association with Cebus, although
they also follow and forage with Lagothrix and Ateles. Sagui-
nus seems to loosely associate with Saimiri, typically on the
fringes of a larger squirrel monkey group.

Cebus -j.. (white-fronted capuchin, mono capuchino)
The color of this species at Tiputini ranges from blondish/
light to brownish/dark, always with a lighter underbelly and
always with black cap and vertical line (of varying width) in
the center of the face. The darker color of some individuals
has led to the belief there is a second Cebus (C. 7j,,/LY) in the
region, but this has not been confirmed. When local work-
ers were questioned about the facial and body markings, all
sightings corresponded to C. albifrons. All capuchins ob-
served by this author and other primate researchers at TBS
have been C. albifrons. This species is very shy and difficult
to see. It is observed most frequently in association with
other species, particularly Saimiri, but can also be seen trav-
eling with Lagothrix, Saguinus, and ( .... (when Cal-
licebus were in association with Saguinus). White-fronted
capuchins are most frequently seen in groups of three to
six, but there have been sightings of single individuals in
association with Saimiri.

Pithecia (saki monkey, parahuaque, mono volador)
The identity of the saki monkey occurring in the TBS is
in question. Its pelage does not correspond to the pub-
lished descriptions and photographs of P aequatorialis
Hershkovitz, 1987, otherwise indicated for the region. It
may be a color variant or a distinct taxon (M. Norconk,
T. Defler, pers. comm.; L. Marsh, in prep.). P aequatoria-
lis as such has not been conclusively confirmed anywhere
within Yasunf National Park. An inconclusive photograph
was taken by a field assistant during a mammal survey in
1995 (Reid and Engstrom, 1996). During this survey they
identified the more commonly seen saki as P aequatorialis.
For observers unfamiliar with Pithecia in Ecuador, it is pos-
sible to misidentify the species based on fleeting observa-
tions. Often there are groups of three to four individuals,
of whom two are females, either two adults or an adult and
subadult traveling together. Since these animals are not par-
ticularly habituated, the females will stay together in flight
and the male can be easily missed. In these instances the
females, because of their markings and pelage characteris-
tics, can be mistaken as a male and female P monachus.
In R monachus the male and female are nearly identical in
coloration and the females of the Pithecia at TBS look very
much like them.

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

The Pithecia at TBS, however, are sexually dichromatic.
Males are blackish and brindled with a classic saki shape;
their hands and feet are white to light grey with short hair,
and the hair just under the chin and on the upper chest
is noticeably orange to rusty. The facial disk appears pale
but does not have the distinct band of dense white fur
around the face as described by Hershkovitz (1979, 1987),
Emmons and Feer (1997), and Rowe (1996). The facial
hair is short, clearly separate from the hair on the head,
more grayish than whitish, with two distinct white eye-
brows over each eye that vary in brightness among males.
The hair in general appears coarse and shorter than the
females'. White lines come down vertically on either side
of the muzzle, which also vary in intensity between indi-
vidual males.

Females are much "fluffier," with more of a grey, brindled
pelage than the males. Hands and feet are also white,
and the orange/rust color under the chin is also present.
Hair around the face and on top of the head is much
longer than in males, giving the females "bangs." The face
is less of a short-haired disk than the males', with two bald
spots immediately above the eyes with faint white eyebrows
above that. Predominant white stripes follow the edges
of the muzzle and complete the circle of the jaw under
the chin.

This saki does not closely resemble P. monachus or P aequa-
torialis (c.f. Hershkovitz, 1979, 1987; Rowe, 1996; Eisen-
berg and Redford, 1999; Burton, 1995; Napier and Napier,
1967, 1985; Kavanagh, 1983; Kinzey, 1997; Emmons
and Feer, 1997; Wolfheim, 1983; Soini, 1986; Rylands
et al., 1995), and analyses of photographs, tissue samples,
and genetic data for its correct classification are ongoing
(L. Marsh and A. Di Fiore, in prep.). A male was recently
radio-collared at TBS by A. Di Fiore for a ranging study
(pers. comm.), and material was preserved for analysis by
L. Marsh and A. Di Fiore.

Group sizes range from two to five individuals, typically
two to three, with one male and one or two females and
offspring; two or more saki groups will sometimes join
up to form loose associations of 10 individuals. They
have been seen eating fruits and insects, and travel in the
mid- to upper canopy, mainly in terra firma forests, al-
though one group included vdrzea in its territory. They
have a purr-bark-whine that is used as an alarm or warning
call when humans are near. There are six or seven groups
within the TBS trail system. They associate with Lagothrix
and Ateles, but are typically "swept up" in the action as
these larger primates come through. They have been ob-
served to join larger groups of Lagothrix or Ateles and feed
with them.

Alouatta seniculus (red howler monkey, aullador rojo)
Howler monkeys are common at the station and tend to
keep to themselves rather than associating with other spe-
cies. However, they may also be "caught up", like the sakis,
when other primates, particularly Lagothrix and Ateles,

move through their area, and they can be seen in the same
trees with them. They have smaller home ranges than the
other large primates at TBS. Group size is from three to
nine individuals, typically ranging from five to seven.
They are very quiet when not howling, and sit for long
periods at the tops of the canopy trees. They use mainly
the upper canopy and emergents, but also some mid-level
canopy trees.

Ateles belzebuth (white-bellied spider monkey, maqisapa)
The white-bellied spider monkey is listed as Vulnerable
in the Libro Rojo de los Mamiferos del Ecuador (Tirira S.,
2001). As is typical in this species, individuals vary consid-
erably in the color of their faces and pelage, even within the
same groups (Konstant et al., 1985). Individuals may vary
from the type coloration. Ateles at TBS have a wide variety
of pelage coloration that ranges from brown dorsally with
tan to cream undersides or dark brown or black dorsally
with dark undersides. The faces also vary. Some follow the
type with tan or orange cheek stripes and light muzzles.
Others occur with black or very dark brown bodies with
faces that may be entirely red. Other individuals have been
observed with black or darker dorsum and either dark or
light belly coloration with mottled pink muzzles and pink
to red "spectacles" around the eyes. This color variation has
led to a belief that there is more than one spider monkey
species at TBS.

Spider monkey groups occupy the upper canopy, and they
have been observed in association with Lagothrix, Saimiri,
and Cebus. Group sizes vary from one to 15, with an aver-
age of five to seven individuals. Groups or subgroups may
consist entirely of females and their offspring, or may be
mixed with adult males and females and juveniles of vari-
ous ages.

Lagothrix lagothricha poeppigii (Poeppig's woolly monkey,
Listed as Vulnerable in the Libro Rojo de los Mamiferos del
Ecuador (Tirira S., 2001), woolly monkeys are the largest
primates in the area, traveling in large groups of 10 to 25,
although often forming smaller feeding groups which stay
within calling range of each other. They are noisy and very
demonstrative to humans on the ground. They may also
be observed at close range from the canopy tower, and the
adult males do not seem to be as agitated with humans in
this situation. They typically use the upper-middle to high
canopy for feeding and travel. Ateles, Saimiri, Cebus, Pithe-
cia, and Alouatta have been observed feeding, traveling,
or otherwise associated with them, and occasionally more
than one species travels and forages with them (e.g., Ateles
and Saimiri). Also found in association with Lagothrix are
double-toothed kites (Harpagus bidentatus), which forage
for insects disturbed by the passing monkeys; as many as
three kites may follow the monkeys at a time.

Laura K. Marsh, Director, Global Conservation Institute,
156 County Road 113, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87506, USA,
e-mail: .

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004


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Raimundo Paulo Barros Henriques
Ricardo Jardim Cavalcante


The Cerrado biome occupies 2,064,676 km2 of the central
plateau of Brazil (Pereira et al., 1997). It is the largest of
the Neotropical savannas and the second largest biome in
South America after the Amazon forest. The vegetation is
largely scleromorphic, with an intergrading mosaic of pure
grassland to closed woodlands, gallery forest and dry sea-
sonal forest (Eiten, 1972).

Ten primate species have been recorded from the Cerrado
(Eisenberg and Redford, 1999). A recent revision of the
taxonomy of Cebus by Groves (2001) indicated that the
capuchin monkey occurring through the majority of the
region is Cebus libidinosus, but C. nigritus is the species in
the southern and eastern fringes, and C. a,'i//. occurs along
the Cerrado Amazon forest interface in the north. The
tufted capuchins (Cebus), the black howler (Alouatta caraya)
and the black-tufted-ear marmoset ((C .- penicillata)
are widely distributed throughout the biome (Mares et al.,
1989; Queiroz, 1991; Rylands et al., 1993).

Little information has been published on the ecology of
these primates in the Cerrado; most reports are lacking
detail and present only lists of species and the habitats
they occupy. All studies of wild populations in the Cer-
rado have been restricted to central Brazil. Lacher et al.
(1984; see also Fonseca and Lacher, 1984) reported on
the gum-feeding behavior of (C .- penicillata in gal-
lery forest and cerraddo (scleromorphic woodland), and
Faria (1989a, 1989b; Miranda and Faria, 2001) studied
the feeding, ranging and social behavior of C. penicillata
in gallery forest. The first survey of a primate community
in gallery forest was carried out by Queiroz (1991), who
studied a community of only three species, with low popu-
lation densities and biomass.

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

Here we review the pertinent literature and present the re-
sults of a transect census of a primate community in a wet
gallery forest in central Brazil. Our specific objectives were
to: (1) identify species; (2) estimate density and biomass of
component populations and the full community; and (3)
record data on group size and sex ratio for each species.


Study area
The study area was the Fazenda Agua Limpa, 25 km SW of
Brasflia (DF), at the ecological and agricultural field station
of the University of Brasilia (15o56'S, 4754'W). The cli-
mate there, recorded over 22 years, is markedly seasonal: the
dry season extends from May to August, when precipitation
is <10% of the annual total, and the rainy season is from
September to April. The average temperature is 21.9oC,
typical of a continental subtropical climate, and the mean
annual rainfall is 1,534 mm.

We conducted a survey of the primate community in a
humid gallery forest, 1.8 km long and approximately 100 m
wide, along the C6rrego da Onga (Fig. 1). The vegetation of
this gallery forest was described by Ratter (1980). The trees
are 14-20 m tall, providing 70-100% canopy cover with
an understorey of small trees. The forest floor has a sparse
herbaceous and sapling cover. In the better-drained areas
the most abundant tree species are Pseudolmedia laevigata,
Emmotum nitens and Copaifera langsdorfii. Where boggy
conditions prevail, the most abundant species are Calophyl-
lum brasiliense, Protium spp. and Talauma ovata.

Line transect census
The survey was conducted during the rainy season and
early dry season (11 September 1992 to 5 May 1993) using
a strip-census technique (Robinette et al., 1974). During
each census we walked a 1.8 km trail at an average speed of
1 km/hr, between 0700 and 1100 hr, 2-6 times per month,
resulting in a total of 29 census walks and a cumulative total
distance of 52 km surveyed. This cumulative total distance
is in the range of similar studies in the Amazon forest (Peres,
1997). For each primate sighting we recorded the species,

Figure 1. Location of the C6rrego da Onga gallery forest in the
SW of the Distrito Federal (DF) (see map insert), central Brazil.
Gallery forest in black.

group size and composition, and perpendicular distance
from the trail of the first animal sighted. We calculated
mean group size for all groups with more than two indi-
viduals, while individuals encountered alone were recorded
as solitary.

We estimated the population density for each species by
calculating the number of animals within the transect area,
using: (1) the numbers of animals seen (both solitary and
groups); (2) the length of the transect; and (3) an estimate of
the effective width of the transect surveyed. The total width
sampled is the perpendicular distance from the center of the
transect to the limits of effective detection on either side.

In our surveys, the numbers of sightings were insufficient to
generate species-specific detection functions to determine
the effective width of the transect (Defler and Pintor, 1985).
Instead, we derived the effective width using the maximum
reliable transect to an animal's perpendicular distance,
a method originally set forth by Kelker (1945) and later
modified by Robinette et al. (1974). This method is less
robust than models using detection functions (Burnham
et al., 1980), but it is appropriate for our relatively small
dataset, and has been used for primate surveys in Amazon
forests (Johns, 1985; Peres, 1997).

We lumped the sighting records for each species and deter-
mined the maximum reliable distance, the point beyond
which no animals were detected. Because of our small
sample size, and the animals' restriction to a strip of gal-
lery forest narrower than the effective distance, the data
clumped at a certain distance from the transect, presenting
a sudden dropoff with no outliers. In this case, the effective
width is the same as that of the maximum-distance method
(Struhsaker, 1981). Using this method, we estimated an ef-
fective width of 26.1 m for Cebus libidinosus, 19.7 m for
Alouatta caraya and 32.8 m for ( .- penicillata.

We then calculated the population density (N) of each pri-
mate species using the sum of all sighted animals (n) from
the 29 census walks, divided by twice the strip width (2w),
to account for both sides of the transect and the cumula-
tive transect length surveyed (l = 52 km). This yields the
equation N= n/(21w) (Struhsaker, 1981). To calculate the
crude population biomass, we used a value of 80% of the
average body mass of an adult male and adult female (Peres,
1997). Based on data presented in Ford and Davis (1992),
we derived the following estimates of average body mass:
C .- penicillata, 163 g; Cebus libidinosus, 2164 g; Al-
ouatta caraya, 4562 g.


We recorded 17 primate sightings from 52 km of cumu-
lative transect surveys (0.32 sightings/10 km) in the C6r-
rego da Onga gallery forest. We observed Alouatta caraya,
Cebus libidinosus and (C .- .. (Table 1), but we
did not conduct night-time surveys to check for the occur-
rence of night monkeys (Aotus). For this diurnal primate

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

community, the estimated density and biomass were
19.5 ind./km2 and 51.4 kg/km2, respectively.

Capuchin monkey
Cebus libidinosus was the most frequently sighted species,
with a total of nine sightings. Group size averaged 4.4 in-
dividuals (range 2-9) with a density of 2.0 groups/km2.
Solitary individuals were recorded in four of the nine
sightings. The density of capuchin monkeys is estimated
to be 9.8 individuals/km2 with a biomass of 21.2 kg/km2
(Table 1).

Black howler monkey
Two groups of black howler monkeys were sighted: one
with four individuals (two males and two females) and an-
other with three (one male and two females). Other groups

recorded in gallery forests near the area (Rodrigues and
Marinho-Filho, 1995; R. P. B. Henriques, pers. obs.) includ-
ed two with one male and one female each, one of two males
and three females, and one of one male and six females. The
average size for all six groups was 3.8 individuals, with an
average sex ratio of 0.53 males/females. From the transect
data, we calculated a group density of 1.7 groups/km2, a
population density of 6.5 individuals/km2, and a crude bio-
mass of 29.7 kg/km2 (Table 1).

Black-tufted-ear marmoset
We recorded six sightings of black-tufted-ear marmosets,
four of which were of solitary individuals. In the remain-
ing two sightings, the average group size was 2.5 individu-
als (range 2-3). Group density in this species was less than
1 group/km2. This species was the least abundant, with a

Table 1. Mean group size, sample size (n), group density, population density and biomass of primate species and census method in the
C6rrego da Onca gallery forest in the Cerrado of central Brazil and other Neotropical sites.
Species Mean group Group density Biomass Censusion
S size density density Biomass Census Reference
Site, country (N) groups / 2) (individuals/ (kg/kM2) method
S (N) (groups/km) km2)
Alouatta caraya
Puerto Bermejo, N. Argentinab 7.2 (11) 130.0 HR Thorington etal.

Puerto Bermejo, N. Argentinac 8.9 (11) 131.0 HR Thrin(1984)gton et a
Islands of Rio Parand, N. Argentina 7.9 (17) Pope (1966)
Acurizal, Pantanal, W. Brazil 7.2 (21) 1.0 11.0 49.5 BS Schaller (1983)
Rio Parand, N. Argentina 4.6 (? )d 50.0 SC Zunino etal. (1996)
Chaco, Paraguay 5.0 (10) Kreig (1928)
Riacho Fundo, Central Brazil 1.5 (2) 1.8 2.6 16.9 SC Queiroz (1991)
C6rrego da Onga, Central Brazil 3.8 (6)e 1.7 6.5 24.3 SC This study
Cebus libidinosus
Chaco, E. Paraguay 7.0 (4) 4.0 28.0 SC Stallings (1985)
Acurizal, Pantanal, W. Brazil 8.0 (24) 1.7 13.3 27.9 BS Schaller (1983)
Riacho Fundo, Central Brazil 4.0 (6) 5.2 23.2 51.7 SC Queiroz (1991)
C6rrego da Onca, Central Brazil 4.4 (9) 2.0 9.8 13.2 SC This study
Callithrix penicillata
Riacho Fundo, Central Brazil 4.0 (5) 10.3 38.7 10.1 SC Queiroz (1991)
C6rrego Capetinga, Central Brazil 7.5 (5) 40.0 HR Faria (1989a, 1989b)
C6rrego Capetinga, Central Brazil 4.0 (4) 11.5 49.8 12.9 SC R. B Henriques
Corrego Cape a (unpubl. data)

Cerradao A, RECOR, Central Brazil 4.6 (3) 12.1 57.0 HR Miranda and Faria
Cerradao B, RECOR, Central Brazil 7.3 (3) 5.4 40.0 HR Miranda and Faria
Dry forest, Botanical Garden, Central 9.8/ 3 8.3 81.3 HR Miranda and Faria
Brazil 9.8 3 8HR (2001)
Fonseca and Lacher
Cerradao, RECOR, Central Brazil 4.5 (2) HR Fonseca and Lacher
C6rrego da Onca, Central Brazil 2.5 (2) 0.5 3.2 0.7 SC This study

a Census method: HR = home range; SC = strip census; BS = broad survey
b 1978
d sample size not included
e including 4 groups from nearby gallery forest

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

population density of 3.2 individuals/km2 and a biomass of
0.5 kg/km2 (Table 1).


Capuchin monkey
The results of this study are compared with data from other
sites in Table 1. The average group size for Cebus ,,/''il in
the C6rrego da Onga gallery forest was similar to the mean
value reported by Queiroz (1991) in another gallery forest
in the Distrito Federal in central Brazil, but lower than in
the dry seasonal forests of Paraguay (Stallings, 1985) or the
Pantanal (Schaller, 1983), and half the value for the western
Amazonian forest surveyed by Peres (1988). The percentage
of solitary individuals observed in this study (45.5%) was
much greater than the 14.7% recorded in the Pantanal by
Schaller (1983), 5% for Peru byJanson (1984) and < 2% in
Colombia by Izawa (1980).

Likewise, the population density in the C6rrego da Onga
gallery forest was lower than the value recorded in the Pan-
tanal (Schaller, 1983), for seasonal dry forest in Paraguay
(Stallings, 1985) and in another gallery forest of central
Brazil (Queiroz, 1991). This value is at the lower end of the
range for terra firma forest in the western Brazilian Amazon
(range 2.9-12.9 individuals/km2; Peres, 1997). The popula-
tion biomass of capuchin monkeys in C6rrego da Onga is
less than half of the value reported from the Riacho Fundo
gallery forest, also in the Distrito Federal (Queiroz, 1991).

Black howler monkey
The average group size for black howler monkeys record-
ed in this study was well below the average reported from
Argentina by Thorington et al. (1984) and Pope (1966),
and in the Pantanal by Schaller (1983) in Brazil (Table 1).
The estimate in this study is similar to averages recorded in
Argentina by Zunino et al. (1996) and in the Paraguayan
Chaco by Kreig (1928). Other studies also reported a small
group size for this species in gallery forests in the Cerrado
(Queiroz, 1991; Flesher, 2001).

The density was higher than that recorded by Queiroz
(1991) in the Riacho Fundo gallery forest, and lower than
the estimate of Schaller (1983) for his site in the Panta-
nal. All three density estimates are low when compared
with those for gallery forest and dry seasonal forest in
northern Argentina (Thorington et al., 1984; Brown and
Zunino, 1994).

Black-tufted-ear marmoset
The average group size for the common marmoset was
smaller than the mean value recorded in other studies
(Table 1). Group size recorded in gallery forests in cen-
tral Brazil ranged from a minimum of four individuals
(Queiroz, 1991; R. P. B. Henriques, unpubl. data) to 7.5
individuals (Faria, 1989a, 1989b). In dry forest and sclero-
morphic woodland (cerraddo), well away from gallery forest
and surrounded by cerrado vegetation (sensu stricto, group
sizes were also higher than at C6rrego da Onga (Fonseca

et al., 1984; Miranda and Faria, 2001). Possibly the small
group size of the common marmoset in C6rrego da Onga
indicates foraging units rather than social units. There is
a record of social groups of common marmosets of up to
10-12 individuals, but Faria (1989a) suggested that these
large social groups can split to forage in small sub-groups
of three to four animals. The results of our study reflect
a higher presence of small foraging subgroups and solitary
animals. The high percentage of solitary animals is also
consistent with this hypothesis, but our number was higher
than the value of 18% observed by Faria (1989a, 1989b)
in another gallery forest in the same region. Another factor
is the difference in the food availability. C6rrego da Onga
has a lower abundance of tree species (Ratter, 1980) used
as exudate sources compared to other sites where the group
size and density of common marmosets were higher (Faria,
1989a, 1989b). Since exudate-producing trees are an im-
portant food source for this species, we can expect a differ-
ence in animal abundance between these sites (Rylands and
Faria, 1993; Miranda and Faria, 2001; Vilela, 1999).

The density of marmosets in C6rrego da Onga was quite
low when compared with the Riacho Fundo gallery forest
(Queiroz, 1991) and the Capetinga gallery forest in the
same region (49.8 individuals/km2; R. P. B. Henriques,
unpubl. data).

Community characteristics
The C6rrego da Onga gallery forest presents a primate com-
munity with species richness similar to other gallery forests
in Neotropical savannas (Peres, 1989; Eisenberg etal., 1979;
Queiroz, 1991; Flesher, 2001), but low when compared to
other Neotropical continuous forest sites (9-14 species;
Peres, 1997; Kay et al., 1997). Low species richness has
been recorded for gallery forest in the Pantanal (Schaller,
1983) and the Chaco in Paraguay (Stallings, 1985).

The species-poor primate communities of the gallery forests
of Neotropical savannas are characterized by a strong sepa-
ration of species by food niches. In communities with lower
primate species richness, folivores (Alouatta) predominate,
as in the gallery forest of Masaguaral West in Venezuela
(Eisenberg et al., 1979). An increase in species richness is
achieved by the addition of frugivores (Cebus, Aotus, Cal-
licebus, Stallings, 1985), gummivores (( .- Schaller,
1983; Queiroz, 1991; Flesher, 2001; this study), or insecti-
vores (Saimiri; Peres, 1989). This pattern of species occur-
rence is consistent with Eisenberg's (1979) suggestion that
Alouatta is a pioneer species in Neotropical habitats.

We suggest that the low primate species richness in
gallery forests may be due to the highly fragmented nature
of this habitat, when compared with continuous forest areas
on the same latitude in Neotropical forests. Another con-
straint on the number of primate species in savanna gal-
lery forest is the low and highly seasonal fruit productivity
(Oliveira and Paula, 2001). Frugivores are the principal di-
etary guild that contributes to increasing species richness in
Neotropical primate communities (Kay et al., 1997). Fruit

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

Table 2. Species richness, density and biomass of primate com-
munities surveyed in gallery forests in six Neotropical savanna
Habitat/ No. of Density Biomass Reference
Locality species (ind./km2) (kg/km2)

Acurizal (Brazil) 3 8.7 19.6 Schalle(1983)

C6rrego da Onca 3 19.5 51.4 This
(Brazil) study

Masaguaral West 1 41.0 176.3 Eisenberg
(Venezuela) et al. (1979)

Masaguaral East 2 39.0 136.0 Eisenberg
(Venezuela) et al. (1979)

Riacho Fundo 3 50.4 78.6 Queiroz
(Brazil) 3 5.4 78.6 (1991)
(Brio Jutuba 3 71.0 122.6 Peres (1989)
(Brazil) I

productivity declines with an increase in the seasonality of
rainfall and the length of the dry season, producing a pre-
dictable period of severe fruit scarcity (Schaik et al., 1993).
Seasonality, in turn, becomes sharply defined when rain-
fall is less than 2500 mm/year (Kay et al., 1997); and as
Neotropical savannas show annual precipitation well below
this value, pronounced seasonality may play a role in limit-
ing primate species richness in gallery forests.

Primate abundance in gallery forests is highly variable be-
tween sites, with Acurizal and C6rrego da Onga showing the
lowest values of density and biomass (Table 2). This varia-
tion cannot be attributed to hunting pressure, since these
sites occur in habitats with a complete absence of hunt-
ing of primate species (e.g., Acurizal, C6rrego da Onga).
Primates are not considered edible by indigenous hunters
in the Pantanal and the Cerrado of central Brazil (Becker,
1981; R. P. B. Henriques, pers. obs.).

Between-site variation in abundance could be attributed
to differences in methodology, forest structure, and/or
composition and phenology (Peres, 1997). It is unknown
how these latter factors interact to determine primate spe-
cies richness and abundance in gallery forest, nor how they
affect full primate communities.

Acknowledgments: We thank John D. Hay, Thomas E.
Lacher Jr., Regina H. Macedo and two anonymous review-
ers for helpful criticism and suggestions on an early draft of
the manuscript.

Raimundo Paulo Barros Henriques and Ricardo Jardim
Cavalcante, Departamento de Ecologia, Universidade da
Brasilia, Caixa Postal 04457, Brasilia 70919-970, DF, Brazil.


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Thais Leiroz Codenotti
Valeska Martins da Silva


0 Rio Grande do Sul e o estado mais extenso da Regiao Sul
do Brasil, com uma airea total de 282.184 km2. Como e de
conhecimento geral, a crescente destruigao do habitat carac-
teriza-se como a principal causa da reducao das populao6es
silvestres de primatas em todo o mundo. No Rio Grande
do Sul essa questao vem tornando-se um fato cada vez mais
preocupante, justamente pelo desconhecimento dos refd-
gios naturals das especies.

Sao poucas as florestas nativas originals que ainda existem
no estado, mantendo uma rica biodiversidade e com regis-
tro de ocorrencia de primatas: Alouatta guariba clamitans
(bugio-ruivo), Alouatta caraya (bugio-preto) e Cebus nigritus
(macaco-prego). Entretanto, pouco se conhece sobre a distri-
buigao dessas especies, por nao haver ainda um mapeamento
dos habitats onde se encontram. Os dados disponfveis sao
de trabalhos isolados. Prates et al. (1993) registraram a ocor-
rencia desses primatas em Unidades de Conservagao (UCs)

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

no Rio Grande do Sul e concluiram que a maioria das que
foram visitadas, apresentava problems relacionados corn a
conservagao do ambiente. A maior parte dos outros trabalhos
referem-se a dados de distribuigao, principalmente sobre A.
g. clamitans (Romanowski et al., 1998; Printes et al., 2000,
2001), existindo poucas referencias sobre A. caraya (Bicca-
Marques, 1991; Codenotti et al., 2002), e quase nenhuma
informaaao sobre a ocorrencia de Cebus nigritus.

Este artigo mostrara os resultados alcangados corn duplo
objetivo: registrar informagaes sobre a ocorrencia de pri-
matas no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, obtidas atraves da
participagao dos municipios e, subsidiary corn dados concre-
tos, o projeto "Avaliacao do Status de Conservagao e Abun-
dancia Populacional de Primatas no Rio Grande do Sul,"
em desenvolvimento pela Equipe de Primatas (EPRIM) da
Universidade de Passo Fundo.


Area de estudo
0 Mapa do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Divisdo Municipal
(1997) mostra 497 municipios emancipados e autonomos,
que estao distribufdos em 11 regi6es fisiogrAficas (Rambo,
1956; Fortes, 1959): Alto Uruguai (n = 116 municipios),
Planalto Medio (n = 65), Campos de Cima da Serra (n =
25), Encosta Superior do Nordeste (n = 44), Encosta In-
ferior do Nordeste (n = 95), Depressao Central (n = 47),
Misses (n = 36), Campanha (n = 13), Serra do Sudeste
(n = 13), Encosta do Sudeste (n = 17) e Litoral (n = 26)
(Fig. 1). 0 principal crit&rio diferencial dessas regi6es sao as
caracteristicas estruturais da vegetagao, composta por uma
rica densidade florfstica.

Figura 1. Mapa do Rio Grande do Sul dividido em regi6es fisi-
., ,, ....(fonte: Brasil, IBDF, 1983).

A pesquisa teve inicio em janeiro de 2001, quando foi elabo-
rado um instrument bAsico sobre a "Ocorrencia de primatas
no Rio Grande do Sul." Tratava-se de um questionArio, indi-
cando quern deveria responde-lo, como deveriam ser assina-
ladas e respondidas as quest6es apresentadas, de forma a nao
deixar ddvidas quanto as respostas. 0 instrument tambem
apresentava uma pAgina corn fotos coloridas e descrigao,
quanto ao tamanho, coloracao, hAbitos, etc. de tries grupos
de primatas: bugios, macacos-prego (ou micos) e sagiiis.
Estes foram selecionados pela consult a fontes bibliogrAficas
e comentArios da populagao do meio rural, principalmente
agricultores, por viverem no campo pr6ximos as matas que
sao os habitats naturals dos primatas. Os sagiiis entraram
nessa enquete, tambem para testar a possibilidade de ocor-
rencia de populagoes vivendo em liberdade no Rio Grande
do Sul, jA que hA registros de ( .-'. em Santa Catarina,
pr6ximos a faixa de limited desses estados.

0 questionario levantou quest6es gerais sobre: a) ocorrencia
de primatas (abundancia: poucos, muitos; se desapareceram
[extintos]; se nunca ocorreram); e b) onde sao encontrados
(em matas preservadas [ou nao] em propriedades particula-
res; em bosques capese] de Areas municipals; em parques e
reserves; em cativeiro: zool6gicos ou residencias; em outros
locals). Havia espago tambem para comentArios livres sobre
a localizagao dos animals, e sua distribuigao em bandos, pelo

A partir do mes de agosto de 2001, o instrument foi en-
viado as 497 Secretarias Municipais de Agricultura e Meio
Ambiente do estado, acompanhado de urna carta, explican-
do os objetivos da pesquisa e a importancia da participagao e
envolvimento de cada municipio. Foi escolhida a Secretaria
de Agriculture pelos seus contatos didrios corn a Area rural e
pela supervisor das lavouras e da pecuAria atraves da Empresa
de Assistincia Tecnica e Extensdo Rural (Emater). Ap6s o pri-
meiro ano de enviadas as correspondencias, verificou-se que
ainda faltavam 31,4% de cartas a serem respondidas. Foram
entao reenviados 156 questionArios.

Elaborou-se um segundo instrument, corn o objetivo de
identificar as esp&cies de Alouatta presents nas Areas munici-
pais de cada regiao fisiogrAfica. 0 material, bastante simples,
constava apenas de uma folha corn fotos coloridas e descridao
especifica do bugio-preto (A. caraya) e do bugio-ruivo (A. g.
clamitans). Esse instrument, acompanhado de uma carta de
agradecimento pela participacao e corn novas instrug6es, foi
enviado a partir de marso de 2002, para todos os municipios
que indicaram a presenga de bugios na resposta ao primeiro
questionario. Desde entao, a cada bloco de respostas afirma-
tivas que chegava, indicando a ocorrencia de bugios, nova
remessa do segundo questionario era encaminhada as Secre-
tarias de Agricultura. Ate o final da enquete foram remetidos
224 questionarios.

Tambem foi elaborado urn instrument para auxiliary na
identificaqao dos sagiiis, apontados como presents por
vArios municfpios, no primeiro questionario. Esse material

I affm rw"1
2 PUP*q I-M H~
IOW MwE wnH- S w

*w M4*p~tj
PD Ewmbum Svb
I I LrbraI

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

mostrava fotos coloridas do sagiii-de-tufo-preto ((
penicillata), do sagiii-de-tufo-branco (( .-'. jacchus) e
do esquilo, ou serelepe, como e conhecido no Rio Grande
do Sul (Sciurus aestuans), por suspeitar que poderia estar ha-
vendo alguma confusao no reconhecimento desses animals.

A tabulagao dos dados foi realizada tomando como crit&-
rio as respostas obtidas de cada municipio, separadas de-
vidamente por regiao fisiografica e segundo o instrument
respondido. As respostas eram langadas em matrizes para
facilitar a composicao das tabelas. Para analise dos dados
utilizou-se a estatistica descritiva (porcentagens), por ser a
mais expressive e representative dos resultados obtidos.

Todas as cartas recebidas e respectivos envelopes encontram-
se arquivadas no Banco de Dados de Pesquisa, do Instituto
de Ciencias Biol6gicas, da Universidade de Passo Fundo,
para possiveis consultas.


Ocorrencia de primatas no Rio Grande do Sul
Dos 497 questionarios enviados, indagando sobre a ocor-
rencia de primatas no estado, 68,6% (n = 341) chegaramrn
durante o primeiro ano de pesquisa. A tabulagao final dos
dados iniciou-se no mes de setembro de 2003, imediata-
mente ap6s o encerramento da enquete, no mes de agosto,
completando o bicnio previsto para essa etapa da pesquisa,
junto as Secretarias Municipais de Agricultura e Meio Am-
biente do Rio Grande do Sul.

As respostas obtidas equivalem ao somat6rio de cartas en-
viadas (497) e reenviadas (156), totalizando, no perfodo
entire agosto de 2001 e agosto de 2003, 653 cartas emiti-
das, das quais obteve-se 475 respostas. Apenas 22 (4,4%)
municipios nao participaram da enquete (Tabela 1). Foram
analisados e valorizados todos os tipos de resposta, como
indica a Figura 2.

As regioes mais expressivas, que alcancaram e remeteram
100% de respostas, foram: Campos de Cima da Serra, En-
costa Superior do Nordeste, Miss6es, Campanha, Serra do
Sudeste e Encosta do Sudeste. Pode-se observer que ha uma
proporcao entire o ndmero de municipios por regiao e o
ndmero de respostas recebidas (Tabela 1).

Esta muito clara a ocorrencia de macaco-prego, C. nigritus,
nas regi6es mais ingremes, corn caracteristicas e acentuadas
encostas, como no Alto Uruguai (n = 56 municipios), na
Encosta Inferior do Nordeste (n = 52) e na Encosta Superior
do Nordeste (n = 29) (Tabela 2). A presenga de bugios e
mais forte nos Campos de Cima da Serra (de 25 municipios
pertencentes a essa regiao, 23 confirmaram a ocorrencia), na
Encosta Inferior do Nordeste (n = 45 respostas) e na Depres-
sao Central (n = 37) (Tabela 2 e Figuras 3a e 3b). (
spp. foi apontada por 42 municipios, que entao receberam o
terceiro instrument, para identificaqao das especies presen-
tes. Das correspondencias devolvidas 17 afirmaram tratar-se
do esquilo (Sciurus aestuans); dois identificaram C. penicilla-
ta, em ndmero de um a tries individuos, respectivamente; e,

Figura 2. Resultados da tabulagao das respostas gerais, respondi-
das pelos 475 municipios que participaram da enquete.

Tabela 1. Resultado da enquete junto aos municipios. Ndmero e porcentagem de cartas respondidas e de cartas nao respondidas, sobre o
total de cartas enviadas, por regiao fi *c ..k.. i (agosto de 2001 agosto de 2003).
SNimero de Cartas Cartas nao
municipios respondidas respondidas
Alto Uruguai 116 107 21,53 09 1,81
Planalto Medio 65 64 12,88 01 0,20
Campos de Cima da Serra 25 25 5,03 0 0
Encosta Superior do Nordeste 44 44 8,85 0 0
Encosta Inferior do Nordeste 95 91 18,31 04 0,80
Misses 36 36 7,24 0 0
Depressao Central 47 41 8,24 06 1,21
Campanha 13 13 2,62 0 0
Serra do Sudeste 13 13 2,62 0 0
Encosta do Sudeste 17 17 3,42 0 0
Literal 26 24 4,83 02 0,40
Total 497 475 95,57 22 4,43


Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

um nao soube identificar o animal mediante as figures apre-
sentadas (Tabela 2). Os demais nao responderam.

0 conjunto das respostas gerais mostrou que em 47 municd-
pios nao ocorrem primatas. Obteve-se 77 casos sustentando
que os primatas outrora habitaram as matas p6blicas e de pro-
priedades particulares, pordm desapareceram, caracterizando
a extingao no municipio (Tabela 2). Destes, quatro mencio-
naram como extinto o bugio, e apenas um o macaco-prego.

Dados sobre primatas em cativeiro, quantidade e diferentes
locals onde sao encontrados, estao expresses na Figura 2.
Ao referir-se a presenga de primatas em Parques, 18 muni-
cipios da regiao do Alto Uruguai citaram o Parque Estadual

do Turvo (bugio e macaco-prego) e o Parque Estadual de
Rondinha (macaco-prego), salientando 15 Reservas, todas
referidas como "Area indfgena." Na regiao dos Campos
de Cima da Serra, cinco municipios fizeram mengao ao
Parque Estadual do Espigao Alto (bugio e macaco-prego).
Na Encosta Inferior do Nordeste, um municfpio referiu-se
ao Parque Estadual do Caracol (bugio), ao Parque Muni-
cipal da Ferradura (bugio), apontando tambem a Floresta
National (FLONA) administrada pelo Instituto Brasilei-
ro do Meio Ambiente (IBAMA) (bugio). Um municfpio
citou uma Area como Reserva da Biosfera da Mata Atlantica
(bugio e macaco-prego). Na regiao da Campanha, um mu-
nicfpio apontou a APA e a Reserva Biol6gica do Ibirapuita
(bugio) e quatro municipios do Litoral citaram a APA Rota

Tabela 2. Ndmero e porcentagem de ocorrencia de primatas, segundo as respostas obtidas na enquete, em cada regido fi -.. i i,.. i do estado
(agosto de 2001 agosto de 2003).
Alouatta Alouatta Ce + Trs N
C. ebus + Tres Nao
Regi6es fisiogrAficas Respostas Alouatta Cebus Callithrix + + Callithrix espdcies ocorre
(no de municipios) (n) Cebus Callithrnx
n % n % n % n % n % n % n % n % n %
Alto Uruguai (116) 107 09 8,41 34 31,78 01 0,93 13 12,15 03 2,80 07 6,54 02 1,87 31 28,97 07 6,54
Planalto Medio (65) 64 22 34,38 10 15,63 02 3,12 02 3,12 04 6,25 0 0 0 0 16 25,00 08 12,50
Campos de Cima da Serra 25 09 36,00 02 8,00 0 0 11 44,00 0 0 0 0 02 8,00 01 4,00 0 0
EncostaSuperiordo 44 08 18,18 19 43,18 0 0 08 18,18 0 0 01 2,27 01 2,27 05 11,37 02 4,55
Nordeste (44)
Encosta Inferior do Nordeste
EncostanferiordoNordeste 91 20 21,97 27 30,00 05 5,56 14 15,65 03 03,33 03 3,33 08 8,89 06 6,67 04 4,44
Misses (36) 36 21 58,33 0 0 0 0 03 8,33 01 2,78 0 0 0 0 10 27,78 01 2,78
Depressao Central (47) 41 27 65,85 0 0 0 0 07 17,07 01 2,44 0 0 02 4,88 01 2,44 03 7,32
Campanha (13) 13 06 46,15 01 7,69 0 0 0 0 0 0 01 07,69 0 0 0 0 05 38,46
Serrado Sudeste (13) 13 08 61,53 0 0 0 0 02 15,39 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 03 23,08
Encosta do Sudeste (17) 17 06 35,29 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 06 35,29 05 29,41
Litoral (26) 24 02 8,33 04 16,67 0 0 05 20,83 02 8,33 0 0 01 4,17 01 4,17 09 37,50
Total (497) 475 138 29,05 97 20,42 8 1,68 65 13,68 14 2,95 12 2,53 16 3,37 77 16,21 47 9,89
*Um municipio nao soube identificar a especie de primata que ocorre em seus limits (0,22%).

Tabela 3. Porcentagem de ocorrencia de especies de bugio (Alouatta caraya e Alouatta guariba clamitans), sobre o total de respostas corn
identificaqao, nas diferentes regi6es fi .. ik.. .. do Rio Grande do Sul (margo de 2002 agosto de 2003).

Regi6es fisiogrificas Respostas corn Ocorrncia Ocorr8ncia do Ocorr8ncia das
(no de questionArios enviados) identificao % ugio % bugio-ruivo % duas espcies %
de espdcies preto
Alto Uruguai (26) 15 6,70 5 2,60 7 3,64 3 1,56
Planalto Medio (26)* 26 11,61 15 7,81 8 4,17 2 1,04
Campos de Cima da Serra (23) 23 10,27 0 0 19 9,90 4 2,08
Encosta Superior do Nordeste (17)* 17 7,59 0 0 14 7,29 2 1,04
Encosta Inferior do Nordeste (39)* 34 15,18 3 1,56 28 14,58 2 1,04
Misses (25) 19 8,48 14 7,29 1 0,52 4 2,08
Depressao Central (35) 30 13,39 2 1,04 19 9,90 9 4,69
Campanha (6) 6 2,68 4 2,08 1 0,52 1 0,52
Serra do Sudeste (11) 11 4,91 2 1,04 7 3,65 2 1,04
Encosta do Sudeste (6) 3 1,34 0 0 1 0,52 2 1,04
Litoral (10)* 8 3,57 1 0,52 4 2,08 2 1,04
Total (224) 192 85,71 46 23,96 109 56,77 33 17,19

*Quatro municipios nao conseguiram identificar a especie (2,08%).

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

do Sol (inclufda nos dominios da Reserva da Biosfera da
Mata Atlantica) (macaco-prego e bugio).

Identificaado e ocorrencia de espicies de bugio e de macaco-
prego no estado
0 instrument enviado procurou dirigir as respostas para
a diferenciacao e identificacao do bugio-preto (A. caraya)
e do bugio-ruivo (A. g. clamitans). Foram analisadas 192
cartas-respostas (85,7%) das 224 enviadas as Secretarias
Municipais, que anteriormente haviam indicado (no pri-
meiro instrument) a presenga de bugios vivendo em am-
biente natural, nas areas de mata de propriedades parti-
culares e em Reservas e Parques. Trinta e dois municipios
(14,3%) nao enviaram respostas; quatro nao conseguiram
identificar as esp&cies, embora confirmando a ocorrencia
de bugios (Tabela 3). Um secretArio municipal contradis-
se a resposta do primeiro questionario, respondendo que
nao existem bugios ou qualquer primata nos limits de
seu municfpio.

A ocorrencia de A. g. clamitans em di-
ferentes regi6es (56,8%, n = 109 muni-
cfpios) represent mais que o dobro da
presenga de A. caraya (24,0%, n = 46), e
o triple da presenga de ambas as esp6cies
(17,2%, n = 33) (Tabela 3).

Atrav5s da analise das respostas recebi-
das, repassando municipio por munici-
pio, a Figura 3 pretend expor a tenden-
cia de ocorrencia das esp6cies, fazendo
notar a presenga dos primatas em todo
o Rio Grande do Sul. A distribuigao das
esp6cies no mapa (Fig. 3a) e os dados
da Tabela 3 mostram que em todas as
regi6es estao presents as duas especies
de bugios, com predominancia de uma
delays, na maioria dos municipios. A. g.
clamitans domina toda a porcao oriental
do Rio Grande do Sul, enquanto que A.
caraya ocorre principalmente na porgao
occidental. E bastante curioso notar que
onde foi citada a presenga de ambas as
especies, estas em sua maioria, encon-
tram-se no limited entire duas regi6es. 0
Planalto Medio mostra uma situadao
diferenciada, em que a leste predomina
o bugio-ruivo, no centro aparece simpi-
trico com o bugio-preto e expandindo-se
para oeste, ate atingir a costa do rio Uru-
guai, nas Miss6es, sobresai A. caraya.

O macaco-prego aparece naquelas regi6es
onde ha predominancia do bugio-ruivo:
Alto Uruguai, Planalto Medio, Encosta
Superior do Nordeste e Encosta Inferior
do Nordeste. Observe-se que a localiza-
dao dos municipios que declararam sua
ocorrencia estao situados nas regi6es no

norte do estado. C. nigritus desaparece a partir da grande
Depressao, inexistindo nas regi6es que abrangem o noroeste,
o oeste, o sudoeste, o sul e o sudeste do Rio Grande do Sul.
Entretanto, nas regi6es da Campanha e das Miss6es hou-
veram alguns poucos relatos, em pontos isolados. Notou-
se equfvocos em algumas respostas, quanto a presenga de
A. caraya em biomas incompativeis com a presenga da espd-
cie, como foi o caso, por exemplo, da regiao fisiografica do
Litoral (Tabela 2 e Fig. 3b).


Pela expressive participacao dos municipios riograndenses
nessa enquete, pode-se deduzir que os instruments ela-
borados foram adequados e eficazes. As respostas obtidas
trouxeram esclarecimentos de pontos obscuros sobre o
conhecimento que popularmente se tem sobre primatas,
vivendo em ambientes naturals, tao pr6ximos do home.
Algumas cartas chegaram imediatamente, corn respostas

Figura3.Mapa do Rio Grande do Sul plotandoespeciesdeprimataspo,' '..-- ',.. i .. i ..-.. -
gundo os resultados obtidos naenquete: a. bugios (A. g. clamitanse A. caraya); b. macaco-prego
(C. nigritus). (Elaborafao: Thals Leiroz Codenotti.)

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

claras, objetivas e corn comentarios indicativos da certeza de
suas afirmagoes. Outras foram chegando ao long dos meses,
justificando que o atraso teve como causa a pesquisa previa,
realizada corn os antigos moradores, e corn os agricultores
que vivem no campo, no interior dos municipios. Todas as
respostas permitiram que prevalecesse a objetividade nas
analises, e na interpretagao fiel dos resultados, deixando evi-
dente as certezas, as insegurangas e o desconhecimento da
rica biodiversidade do Rio Grande do Sul. Concluiu-se que
a expressive participagao dos municipios na enquete, deixa
evidence sua vontade de continuar somando esforgos, coo-
perando de forma ativa, na conservagao dos primatas e na
preservagao dos remanescentes onde se encontram.

A ocorrencia do sagiii (( .-.'- spp.) foi marcadamen-
te registrada, como mostraram os dados da Tabela 2.
Pordm, corn o envio de um instrument especifico ficou
muito claro o engano. Considerou-se important o fato
da ausencia de resposta corn identificaqao das especies,
pois acredita-se que o reconhecimento do esquilo (Sciurus
aestuans), roedor present nas matas do norte do estado, elu-
cidou a questao sem necessidade de enviar a carta-resposta.
Tambem as respostas identificando o esquilo ou a "especie
serelepe" evidenciou a nao ocorrencia de Callitrichidae no
Rio Grande do Sul como populagao natural, embora viven-
do em situacao de cativeiro.

O fato de que alguns municipios, de todas as regi6es, res-
ponderam que ocorrem juntas as duas especies de bugios
(A. g. clamitans e A. caraya) conduz a duas interpretac6es:
uma d a autentica possibilidade de simpatria dessas especies,
que habitam principalmente as matas de galeria dos rios que
comp6em as duas principals bacias do Rio Grande do Sul:
do rio Jacuf e do rio Uruguai. Outra interpretagao coloca
em evidencia um possivel equfvoco na identificaqao correta
dos animals, especialmente quando indicam a presenga do
bugio-preto onde vive o bugio-ruivo. Considera-se normal
esse engano, pois os infants e juvenis de A. g. clamitans
sao negros e as femeas exibem acentuada coloracao marrom
escura. Entretanto, quando as indicac6es (poucas) aponta-
vam a situacao contraria presenga do bugio-ruivo vivendo
nas dreas onde predomina o bugio-preto considerou-se
possivel essa simpatria, pois analizando a posigao geografica
desses municipios, verificou-se que a sua localizaqao esta no
limited de ocorrencia do bugio-ruivo, bem pr6xima da regiao
de ocorrencia da outra especie. Tambem o fato de dois ou
mais municipios vizinhos afirmarem a coexistencia de ambas
as especies, na situacao acima descrita, concorre para que
essa seja uma possibilidade verdadeira.

Os instruments nao tiveram intengao de analisar a catego-
ria fitoecol6gica das florestas radicadas nas diferentes regi6es
fisiograficas. Contudo, observou-se que ha uma concrete se-
paraqao dos habitats de A. caraya vivendo nas coordenadas
que passam no noroeste, centro-oeste, oeste, sudoeste e sul do
estado. Os limits de ocorrencia para essa especie foram des-
critos por Codenotti et al. (2002). 0 bugio-ruivo ocorre no
norte, nordeste, sudeste, na regiao central voltada para exten-
s6es a leste, extendendo-se ate a faixa litorInea, muitas vezes

convivendo corn o macaco-prego. 0 limited sul de ocorrencia
de A. g. clamitans foi definido por Printes et al. (2001) no
municipio de Sao Lourenco do Sul, bacia do rio Camaqua.
A. caraya prefer as matas semi-deciduas, corn distribuiiao
continental, enquanto A. g. clamitans e C. nigritus sao prima-
tas cujos habitats estao associados is florestas de araucarias
(Araucaria angustifolia), e aos dominios da Mata Atlantica.

A expressive resposta sobre a presenca das tries especies vi-
vendo em matas preservadas, ou nao, de propriedades parti-
culares, exp6e a fragilidade e a vulnerabilidade dos primatas
no sul do Brasil, haja vista a destruigao diaria das flores-
tas, em favor do plantio de graos. A ameaca e constant,
e as poucas Areas protegidas apontadas sao os derradeiros
refdgios dessas especies. Junta-se a essa evidencia a questao
respondida sobre a quantidade de animals presents: preva-
leceu o "poucos," que somada ao dado "extintos," especial-
mente na extensa regiao do Alto Uruguai, onde a araucAria
tambrm esta gravemente ameagada, o quadro apresentado
pelos municipios e grave e pede providencias urgentes.

Considera56es Finais

Corn base no que foi exposto, apesar de o Rio Grande do Sul
abrigar tries especies de primatas presents em toda sua drea
territorial, nao se pode garantir sua sobrevivencia por muito
mais tempo. A fragmentagao e a redugao das dreas dos hi-
bitats naturals onde vivem provoca consequencias imediatas
sobre o tamanho das populagoes, podendo em alguns casos
conduzir a extingao local das especies. Para que estas nao al-
cancem os patamares da extingao, medidas sdrias devem ser
tomadas pelas prefeituras municipals, atraves das secretaries
responsAveis pelo meio ambiente e pelos Ifderes das comuni-
dades locals, em conjunto corn pesquisadores. B necessArio,
primeiramente, que todos os municipios que participaram
da enquete, em todas as regi6es fisiograficas, possam ser visi-
tados para confirmar a ocorrencia de primatas in situ, anali-
sando o estado de conservag~o das populag6es encontradas,
assim como do ambiente, salientando o grau de conservagao
ou de degradagao das matas onde vivem. Torna-se urgente
a elaboracao de um plano de manejo, indicando medidas
conservacionistas concretas, quando e onde estiver patente a
ameaga para o habitat e para as especies de primatas presen-
tes. Finalmente, cada prefeitura municipal precisa ser envol-
vida num compromisso de conservagao, juntamente corn os
proprietArios de dreas cujas matas abrigam esses mamfferos.

Agradecimentos: Agradecemos corn singularidade a todos os
475 municipios do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, na pessoa
dos senhores SecretArios de Agricultura e Meio Ambiente,
pela impressionante participagao na enquete proposta. Ao
Institute de Ciencias Biol6gicas da Universidade de Passo
Fundo, pelo apoio logfstico, que possibilitou a comunicadao
corn as mais remotas cidades do estado. Agradecemos aos
revisores desse artigo: professors Marta Vanise Bordignon
e Nestore Codenotti; a bi6loga Deborah Dal Moro e ao en-
genheiro agronomo, Alessandro Davesac que, corn objetivi-
dade, revisaram o texto e aportaram contribuigoes. Somos
especialmente gratas ao consultor cientifico da EPRIM,

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

Anthony B. Rylands e aos demais membros da Equipe, pelo
carinho, apoio e incentive, sempre.

Thais Leiroz Codenotti e Valeska Martins da Silva, Universi-
dade de Passo Fundo, Instituto de Ciencias Biol6gicas (ICB),
Campus Universitario II, Bairro Sao Jos6, Passo Fundo 99.001-
970, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. E-mail: .


Brasil, IBDF. 1983. Inventdrio Florestal Nacional. Florestas
Nativas Rio Grande do Sul. Minist&rio da Agricultura,
Institute Brasileiro de Desenvolvimento Florestal (IBDF),
Departamento de Economia Florestal, Brasilia.
Bicca-Marques, J. C. 1991. Ecologia e comportamento de
um grupo de bugios-pretos Alouatta caraya (Primates, Ce-
bidae) em Alegrete, RS, Brasil. Dissertacao de mestrado,
Universidade de Brasilia, Brasilia.
Codenotti, T. L., Silva, V. M. da, Albuquerque, W J. de, Camar-
go, E. W e Silveira, R. M. M. da. 2002. Distribuiyco e situaqao
atual de conservagao de Alouatta caraya (Humboldt, 1812) no
Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Neotrop. Primates 10(3): 132-141.
Fortes, A. B. 1959. G... F Fisica do Rio Grande do Sul.
Oficina Grafica da Livraria Globo, Porto Alegre.
Printes, R. C., Jerusalinsky, L. e Perotto, M. 2000. Embaixadores
da natureza em Porto Alegre. CienciaHoje 27(158): 49-51.
Printes, R. C., Lisenfeld, M. V. A. e Jerusalinsky, L. 2001.
Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera, 1940: A new southern
limit for the species and for Neotropical primates. Neotrop.
Primates9(3): 118-121.
Rambo, B. 1956. A Fisionomia do Rio Grande do Sul. 2a
edigao. Livraria Selbach, Porto Alegre.
Romanowski, H. P., Dornelles, S. da S., Buss, G., Brutto, L.
F G., Printes, R. C. e Fialho, M. de S. 1998. Bugio-ruivo:
O ronco ameagado. Em: Atlas Ambiental de Porto Alegre, R.
Menegat (coordenador geral), pp.62-63. Universidade Fe-
deral do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS) e Prefeitura Munici-
pal de Porto Alegre (PMPA), Porto Alegre, Instituto Nacio-
nal de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos.

PEKKA SoINI: 1941-2004

RussellA. Mittermeier

I first met Pekka Soini in 1972 on my first visit to Iquitos,
Peru. He was working as a travel agent at the time, but was
already an expert on the fauna of Peruvian Amazonia. Being
both avid herpetologists, we hit it off immediately and began
a friendship that lasted more than three decades. Although
we came from very different backgrounds, we shared many
things, not the least of which was the fact that both of us had
been inspired to go to the tropical rain forest by reading Tarzan
books when we were children, Pekka in his native Finland
and me in New York. When I reconstituted the IUCN/SSC

Primate Specialist Group in 1977, Pekka, who was also an
expert in primates, became one of the charter members and
he provided reams of new and important information on
Amazonian primates during the course of his career. Over
the years, I visited Pekka many times in Peru, perhaps most
notably in 1983 when we joined him in the Pacaya-Samiria
to do a film on Amazonia, one of the first of its kind. When
we visited Pekka in the Pacaya that year, I was delighted to
see that even though he was living in a thatched hut without
walls he was nonetheless listening to Sibelius on a broken-
down little record player that he had brought with him.
A true jungle man, he nonetheless never forgot his strong
cultural roots.

Pekka was one of the best field biologists I have ever known,
a real leader and pioneer who would have been far better
known had he chosen to participate in more international
meetings. As it was, he was rather shy, and preferred to
spend almost all of his time in the field, carrying out detailed
research on the many species that captured his imagination.
His range of knowledge and the number of species on which
he carried out some of the first-ever field studies was truly
astounding. I remember, during the period of more than
a decade that he lived in the Pacaya-Samiria, he would
periodically send me typed "Informes del Pacaya," with
new information on primates, reptiles, fish and a range of
other topics. All he wanted was that I copy and send these
informeds" to a handful of his closest colleagues, so that they
would know what he was doing. All of these reports were
worthy of publication in scientific journals, and fortunately,
through the urging and collaboration of people such as
Eckhard Heymann, James Dixon, Bill Lamar, Chuck
Snowdon, myself, and a number of others, we managed
to get a number of his most important papers published,
notably his work on the herpetofauna of the Iquitos region
and his classic study of the pygmy marmoset (Cebuella
S, I and his wonderful informes were finally collected
and published in a volume as well. Although I hadn't seen
Pekka much over the past decade, I always counted him
among my very best friends. He was a classic, a delightful
charismatic personality, a truly unique individual who made
a major contribution to our understanding of Amazonia and
who will always occupy a very special place in the hearts of
those who knew him best. He will be missed.

Russell A. Mittermeier, President, Conservation Inter-
national, and Chairman, IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist
Group, 1919 M Street, NW, Suite 600, Washington, DC
20036, USA.


Eckhard W Heymann

I first met Pekka Soini in 1982 at the Peruvian Primate Center
in Iquitos, where I did research for my doctoral dissertation
on tamarin behaviour. Pekka was already famous to me as

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

one of the few persons who had carried out field research on
callitrichids by that time.The short conversation we maintained
was very inspiring and augmented the already existing desire
to do field work myself. A few years later, in 1988, I visited
Pekka at his field site Estaci6n Biol6gica Cahuana on the
Rio Pacaya. I will always remember the few days in Cahuana
together with Pekka as amongst the most beautiful moments
that I spent in Amazonia. Pekka's friendship, hospitality
and all the knowledge he shared with me will remain as an
incomparable experience. Over the last couple of years, I
visited Pekka each time I came through Iquitos on the way to
my field site. As during my first encounter with him in 1982, I1
was always inspired and intrigued by Pekka's broad knowledge
and perspective; unfortunately, there was never enough time
during these visits to learn all that could be learned from him.
Pekka was an unsurpassable, hard-working and dedicated
naturalist and conservationist. I do not know anybody else who
had such a broad knowledge of and who had studied so many
different organisms in Amazonia. As a primatologist I can
say that Pekka has made major contributions to Neotropical
primatology, but I am sure that his research on other taxa is
as valuable as his primate work. Everybody who knows his
"Informes de Pacaya" will appreciate the wealth of knowledge
Pekka had accumulated. His modesty hindered him from
creating the publicity which his work deserved. I will miss a
very good friend, and Pekka will remain unforgettable to me
and all who knew him.

EckhardW. Heymann, Abteilung Soziobiologie, Deutsches
Primatenzentrum, Kellnerweg 4, D-37077 Gbttingen,
Germany, e-mail: .


Jukka Salo
Mikko Pybald

El investigator Pekka Soini falleci6 a los 62 anos afectado por
un cancer pulmonar, el 8 de agosto del 2004 en la ciudad de
Iquitos, Perd. En el Perd fue muy apreciado por todos aquellos
vinculados a la conservaci6n y el uso sostenible de los recursos
amaz6nicos, y conocido por ejemplo a travys de los articulos
de Barbara D'Achille. El pdblico finland&s conoci6 la labor de
Soini en la Amazonia a traves de programs de naturaleza de
la TV. En el Ambito international, Pekka Soini ha sido reco-
nocido como un pionero de importantes studios biol6gicos
y ecol6gicos tropicales. "Era uno de los mejores bi6logos de
campo que he conocido, un lfder y un pionero", dice Russ
Mittermeier, Presidente de Conservation International. "Le
tuve una tremenda admiraci6n", comenta el Dr. Carlos Peres,
especialista brasilefo en la biology a de la conservaci6n. "Siem-
pre fue un buen candidate para la santidad", dicen Christine
Padoch y Miguel Pinedo-Vasques, bi6logos prominentes de
Nueva York (Miguel naci6 y creci6 en la Amazonia).

Soini se estableci6 en la Amazonia peruana en 1965, donde
inicialmente trabaj6 en el sector de turismo, dedicandose siem-

pre mas y mas al studio de la fauna amaz6nica, autofinancian-
do sus investigaciones. Entre los primeros objetos de su investi-
gaci6n fueron los reptiles de Loreto. Soini colectaba serpientes
raras y venenosas y las enviaba al Instituto Butantan que pro-
ducia suero antiofidico. Colectando serpientes, se familiariz6
profundamente con la biologfa de los bosques amaz6nicos.

Soini lleg6 a la fama cientifica mundial como pionero de
la investigaci6n primatol6gica en los neotr6picos. Fue el
primero que durante meses observaba grupos de monos,
siguikndolos en terrenos extremadamente dificiles de paso,
y escribi6 sobre su biologfa de reproducci6n, nutrici6n y

Uno de sus aportes mas significativos fue la recuperaci6n y
dispersi6n de los quelonios acuaticos amenazados, no s6lo en
el Perd, sino tambien a traves de manuales escritos por 61
- en los pauses vecinos. Durante los anos 1979-1986, Soini
y su esposa convivieron en la cuenca del rio Pacaya donde
desarrollaron y pusieron en practice metodologfas exitosas
para la incubaci6n de huevos y propagaci6n de varias espe-
cies nativas de quelonios, tales como charapas (Podocnemis
expansa), taricayas (P unifilis) y cupisos (P sextuberculata) en
cantidades de decenas de miles. Estas metodologfas fueron
compartidas con los pobladores de las comunidades nativas
de la zona, desarrollandose asf una de las primeras experien-
cias de manejo participativo comunitario en la Amazonia
peruana que se basaba en el manejo sostenible. Asf los quelo-
nios volvieron a ocupar un lugar important en la nutrici6n
de la poblaci6n local.

Las investigaciones de Soini y su proselitismo contribuye-
ron a la creaci6n del Parque Nacional de Pacaya-Samiria, el
mayor del Perd. El Parque garantiza la conservaci6n de los
mas importantes bosques inundables de la Amazonia y de
sus mamfferos, como el tapir y el manati. Soini junto a otros
investigadores enfoc6 la atenci6n hacia la enorme y parti-
cular biodiversidad de la zona de Allpahuayo-Mishana en
las cercanfas de la ciudad de Iquitos, la cual fue catalogada
como Zona Reservada y Reserva Nacional en 1999 y 2003,
respectivamente. Esta Reserva tambien ha sido el centro de
atenci6n e investigaci6n del grupo multidisciplinario de la
Universidad de Turku, Finlandia.

En los tltimos anos, Pekka Soini continue apoyando iniciati-
vas de conservaci6n no solamente de una diversidad biol6gi-
ca excepcionalmente alta, sino tambikn de la diversidad cul-
tural de las comunidades nativas en las zonas de Pucacuro y
Pintuyaco-Chambira. Soini tambikn fue un activo colabora-
dor y coordinator en el proyecto de Cooperaci6n Diversidad
Biol6gica de la Amazonia Peruana, BIODAMAZ: Perd-Fin-
landia, que fortalece los mecanismos de conservaci6n y uso
sostenible de la biodiversidad amaz6nica. Soini ha asistido y
compartido sus conocimientos con decenas de investigadores
y estudiantes finlandeses interesados en la conservaci6n am-
biental y la biodiversidad amaz6nica.

Soini aprendi6 a arreglarse con los peligros de la selva hdmeda
y, por ejemplo, una vez rescat6 su perro dela boca de una

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

enorme anaconda. Otra vez a la familiar Soini le robaron
todas sus pertenencias de su casa de selva, menos los discos
de misica clisica, libros, y las notas cientificas de Soini.

En el afio 1999 la Universidad Nacional de la Amazonia
Peruana le otorg6 al autodidacta Soini el titulo de Doctor
honors causa, y recibi6 la medalla de la Orden del M&rito
Agricola del Ministerio de Agricultura. Asi mismo, en 1982
recibi6 el Premio de Conservaci6n de Am&rica Latina de la
Audubon Society, yel Premio de Conservaci6n de los Bosques
por The Nature Conservancy en 1988. Soini fue miembro
permanent de varias comisiones de la Uni6n Internacional
para la Conservaci6n de la Naturaleza (UICN). Sus lazos
familiares se extienden a various continents. Por su caricter,
era modesto y optimista.

Jukka Salo, Profesor, Secci6n de Biodiversidad y
Investigaci6n Ambiental, Universidad de Turku, FI-20014
Turku, Finlandiay Coordinador del Proyecto BIODAMAZ,
Apto. Postal 454, Iquitos, Perd, e-mail fi> y Mikko Pyhaldi, Embajador de Finlandia en el Perd,


Heymann, E. W., Encarnaci6n, C. E and Soini, P. 2002.
On the diagnostic characters and geographic distribution
of the "yellow-handed" titi monkey, ( .... lucifer, in
Peru. Neotrop. Primates 10(3): 124-126.
Heymann, E. W. and Soini, P. 1999. Offspring number in
pygmy marmosets, (., pygmaea, in relation to group
size and the number of adult males. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol.
46(6): 400-404.
Soini, P. 1995a. La dieta del mono huapo (Pithecia
monachus). In: Reporte Pacaya-Samiria: Investigaciones
en la Estacidn Bioldgica Cahuana 1979-1994, P. Soini,
A. Tovar and U. Valdez (eds.), pp.273-278. Fundaci6n
Peruana para la Conservaci6n de la Naturaleza and Centro
de Datos para la Conservaci6n, Universidad Nacional
Agraria La Molina, Lima.
Soini, P. 1995b. Desarollo dentario y la estimaci6n de la
edad en (,, ,. pygmaea, Saguinus fuscicollis y Saguinus
mystax (Callitrichidae, Primates). In: Reporte Pacaya-
Samiria: Investigaciones en la Estacidn Bioldgica Cahuana
1979-1994, P. Soini, A. Tovar and U. Valdez (eds.),
pp.257-271. Fundaci6n Peruana para la Conservaci6n de
la Naturaleza and Centro de Datos para la Conservaci6n,
Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima.
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Encarnaci6n, E, Moya, L., Aquino, R., Tapia, J. and Soini, P.
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and R. Coates-Estrada (eds.), pp.331-343. Universidad
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Soini, P. 1993. The ecology of the pygmy marmoset,
Cebuellapygmaea: Some comparisons with two sympatric
tamarins. In: Marmosets and Tamarins: Systematics,
Behaviour, and Ecology, A. B. Rylands (ed.), pp.257-261.
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Soini, P. 1990. Ecology of Lagothrix lagotricha on the Rio
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Soini, P., de Soini, M., Aquino, A., Encarnaci6n, F., Moya, L.
and Tapia, J. 1990. Aspectos bioecol6gicos de las species
de los generos Saguinus y Cebuella. In: La Primatologia en
elPeru, N. E. Castro-Rodrfguez (ed.), pp.36-44. Proyecto
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Lima, Perd.
Encarnaci6n, E, Moya, L., Soini, P., Tapia, J. andAquino, R.
1990. La capture de Callitrichidae (Saguinus y Cebuella)
en laAmazonfa Peruana. In: La Primatologia en elPera, N.
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experimental de (.,. pygmaea. In: La Primatologia
en el Peru, N. E. Castro-Rodriguez (ed.), pp.104-121.
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Soini, P. 1990. Ecologia y dinimica poblacional de pichico
comiun Saguinus fuscicollis (Callitrichidae, Primates). In:
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pp.202-253. Proyecto Peruano de Primatologia "Manuel
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estimaci6n de la edad en (, pygmaea, Saguinus
fuscicollisy Saguinus mystax. In: La Primatologia en el Peru,
N. E. Castro-Rodrfguez (ed.), pp.254-271. Proyecto
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P. 1990. Censos poblacionales y sacas periodicas de
primates en la Amazonia Peruana (1976-1985). In: La
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pp.325-341. Proyecto Peruano de Primatologia "Manuel
Moro Sommo," Lima, Perd.
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1989. Situaci6n de los Primates en la Amazonia peruana.
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Milwaukee Public Museum, Milwaukee.
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2): 1-21.
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Intl. Zoo Ybk. 22: 37-47.
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variation in the long calls of the tamarin, Saguinusfuscicol-
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partitioning in Amazonian snake communities. Milwau-
kee Public Museum Contributions in Biology and Geology
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seasonal incidence of tropical snakes. Milwaukee Public
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the Amazonian region of Peru. Intl. Zoo Ybk. 12: 26-36.


The Instituto Ambiental do Parand has published the Livro
S', 'w/ilbo da Fauna Ameacada no Estado do Parand, in coop-
eration with the Government of Parand and the Secretaria
de Estado do Meio Ambiente e Recursos Hfdricos (SEMA).
Edited by Sandra Bos Mikich and Renato Silveira Brnils,
this 700-page volume provides the most recent assessment
of the conservation status of well over three hundred threat-

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

ened and indeterminate species in the Brazilian state of
Parana. Detailed entries, each with its own map, cover 56
species of mammals, 167 birds, 13 reptiles, 25 amphibians,
50 fishes, 18 bees and 15 butterflies, for a total of 344 spe-
cies designated as threatened, Near Threatened or Data De-
ficient. Of all the species known to occur in Parana, 32% of
the mammals are considered threatened, 28% of the reptiles
and amphibians, 22% of birds, and 5% or less of fishes,
bees and butterflies.

Of the 176 mammal species verified from Parana, six are
primates, four of which are treated in the Livro I C' i'//,,:
Alouatta caraya (EN), A. guariba (VU), Brachyteles arachnoi-
des (CR) and Leontopithecus caissara (CR). All four species
are susceptible to habitat destruction-the greatest overall
threat-and they are also hunted for food and the animal
trade. In all cases, the Livro 1. .'.. recommends control
of hunting and protection of habitats as top priorities, fol-
lowed by field research to improve the understanding of the
distribution, ecology and population dynamics of these spe-
cies. In addition, a program of environmental education is
recommended for the inhabitants of the Ilha de Superagiii,
who occupy much of the largest remaining refuge for the
black-faced lion tamarin.

The Parana volume follows the publication, in 2003, of
an equally comprehensive survey for Brazil's southernmost
state: the Livro 1. .... da Fauna Ameajada de Extinado no
Rio Grande do Sul, edited by Carla S. Fontana, Glayson A.
Bencke and Roberto E. Reis, and published by Edipucrs,
the university press of the Pontificia Universidade Cat6lica
do Rio Grande do Sul. This volume received support from a
variety of foundations and NGOs, including Conservation
International do Brasil and the Fundagao 0 Boticario de
Protegao a Natureza. The assessments detailed in the Livro
1. .'..., resulting from more than three years of work by
dozens of specialists, were codified in state law by Decreto
Estadual n 41.672, promulgated on 11 June 2002 and
signed by then-governor Olfvio Dutra.

The Livro I ,:,'/I/ of Rio Grande do Sul provides infor-
mation on 261 species in five threat categories, including
33 mammals, 128 birds, 27 reptiles and amphibians, 28
fishes, 18 insects, 17 molluscs, 7 crustaceans and 3 sponges.
Of the three primates known from the state, all are listed
as threatened: Alouatta caraya (VU), A. guariba (VU) and
Cebus nigritus nigritus (DD). As in Parana, habitat destruc-
tion is the paramount threat, especially for the two species
of howlers. In recent decades, the western regions of Rio
Grande do Sul have undergone a massive transformation,
with native ecosystems replaced wholesale by ranching
and agricultural properties. The remaining forest habitat
is often selectively logged and otherwise degraded, which
interferes with forest regeneration and affects the species
dependent on it-which may alter patterns of food avail-
ability for howlers, for instance, or drastically increase their
ectoparasite load. Hunting and the animal trade are also
persistent pressures, in particular for the more common A.
guariba; and C. n. nigritus is undoubtedly affected as well,

although the data available for this species were inadequate
for a full assessment.

The Livro 1. .'...is quite specific in calling for proposals
for development and economic exploitation which protect
natural areas and connect them with conservation parcels.
This approach would include the creation of corridors to
link isolated forest fragments, and would require the man-
agement of populations for proper genetic interchange.
Research programs on the basic ecology and biology of
these species, as well as how they adapt to changing envi-
ronments, are also recommended, along with surveys and
detailed mapping of their current distributions.

These two volumes from Parana and Rio Grande do Sul
are the most recent additions to a small series of regional
assessments produced by individual states in Brazil. Parana
was the first state to do so, in 1995, at which time their list
included 21 species of mammals (Brazil, Parana, SEMA,
1995). Three years later the states of Minas Gerais, Rio de
Janeiro and Sao Paulo also released summaries of threatened
species within their borders (Machado et al., 1998; Bergallo
et al., 1998; Brazil, Sao Paulo, SMA, 1998), listing 40, 43
and 41 species of threatened mammals respectively. All to-
gether these five states, concentrated in the industrialized
and heavily impacted southeast of Brazil, remain the only
states to have produced current, comprehensive assessments
of threatened species. We hope that other Brazilian states
will join this continuing process, and provide summaries of
equal scope and value for other regions in Brazil.

Threatened Primates in Parana

Alouatta caraya-EN
The black howler only occurs in the westernmost sliver of
the state, along the Rio Parana. Its extraordinary adaptabil-
ity in diet and behavior has allowed small populations to
survive in scattered forest fragments, in some cases in sym-
patry with Alouatta guariba. What few populations remain
in Parana are threatened by hunting, habitat destruction
and capture for the animal trade. Currently there are no
measures in place to preserve this species in the state, but
the Livro 1. ... recommends controlling hunting, pre-
serving and rehabilitating habitat, and additional research.

Alouatta guariba-VU
The brown howler is spread throughout Parana and has
been reported from a number of state and national parks.
Despite its ample distribution and ecological adaptability,
though, it remains susceptible to habitat destruction, and
it is also hunted for food and for the animal trade. Detailed
studies are underway on its ecology, but the Livro I ,'',.iA//
recommends additional research-in particular, mapping
populations across the state-plus control of hunting and
the protection of suitable habitat.

Brachyteles arachnoides-CR
Only one small population of muriquis is known from
Parana, in a small forest fragment with no legal protection;

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

Table 1. Regional classifications for primates in Parand and Rio Grande do Sul.
Status* Threats
Alouatta caraya EN Habitat destruction; hunting; animal trade
Alouatta guariba VU Habitat destruction; hunting; animal trade
Brachyteles arachnoides CR Habitat destruction and fragmentation; hunting
Leontopithecus caissara CR Habitat destruction and degradation; hunting; animal trade
Rio Grande do Sul
Alouatta caraya VU Agricultural expansion; habitat disruption; parasite and disease outbreaks
Alouatta guariba VU Agricultural expansion; habitat disruption; hunting; animal trade
Cebus nigritus nigritus DD Habitat destruction and alteration
* DD = Data Deficient, VU = Vulnerable, EN = .. .1....... and CR = Critically .. .1.... I

this is potentially the southernmost outpost of the species,
although there have been recent sightings elsewhere in the
eastern portions of the state. Exceptionally social and un-
aggressive, muriquis prefer lower-elevation montane forests
and once occurred along the Atlantic coast from Bahia to
Parana. One of the most intensively hunted primates in
Brazil, the total population plunged from less than half a
million to barely three thousand by the mid-twentieth cen-
tury-and with the virtual elimination of montane Atlantic
Forest throughout its range, it has since declined to barely
over a thousand individuals. Hunting has not entirely
ceased, and deforestation continues to destroy potential
habitat; but where surviving populations are protected from
hunting, their numbers soon recover. The Livro I I',.ic//,
emphasizes that active research projects help to protect the
muriquis, and their tolerance of successional habitat en-
courages reforestation efforts.

Leontopithecus caissara-CR
Occupying barely 300 km2 on the border of littoral Parana
and Sao Paulo, the few hundred remaining black-faced lion
tamarins survive in coastal sand forest and associated wet-
land habitats. Their original distribution is completely un-
known, and today they are confined to the Ilha de Superagiii
and a small ribbon of adjoining mainland. Although much
of their primary island is a national park, the lion tamarins
are seriously threatened by the degradation of their special-
ized habitats and from hunting by local fishermen, as well as
capture for the animal trade. Field studies are underway on
their ecology, behavior and population parameters, and the
Livro 1. .'.. recommends the protection and monitor-
ing of habitat and environmental education for the adjacent

Threatened Primates in Rio Grande do Sul

Alouatta caraya-VU
In Rio Grande do Sul, the black howler occurs only in
the westernmost section of the state, where its distribution
crosses over the Rio Parana to Argentina; there has also
been a sighting in Uruguay, which may or may not have
been a captive release. Although occupying only a portion
of western Rio Grande do Sul, black howlers appear in

several protected areas, and in some areas may be quite
common. Black howlers have been affected by the large-
scale conversion of native landscapes to agroecosystems
in the region. Apart from the raw loss of habitat, more
subtle effects continue to cascade through the remaining
patches of forest, including parasite infestations and out-
breaks of yellow fever. The Livro 1, '..recommends the
creation of new protected areas, and surveys to determine
the size and distribution of existing populations, in order
to understand the correlation of population dynamics and
habitat degradation. Additional recommendations include
managing protected howler habitat to maintain a connec-
tion with natural areas, and field research comparing the
ecology of black howlers in different habitats, in order to
better understand how populations tolerate and adapt to
changing conditions.

Alouatta guariba clamitans-VU
Ranging from the Atlantic Forest of Bahia to northernmost
Argentina, brown howlers are spread throughout the ma-
jority of Rio Grande do Sul, absent only from the extreme
west and southwestern regions. Given this ample extent,
they appear in at least a dozen protected areas across the
state. The species prefers montane areas, but in Rio Grande
do Sul it occurs at all elevations. In Rio Grande do Sul, as
elsewhere in their range, brown howlers are most threat-
ened by habitat destruction and alteration. The continu-
ing fragmentation of the remaining Atlantic Forest traps
small groups in isolated forest patches, and plant species
they rely on are often economically valuable and targeted
for extraction. Hunting and the animal trade are addi-
tional pressures, and yellow fever has severely reduced or
eliminated populations in some areas. The Livro I '1,:'.//,,
calls for an ambitious program of research on the distri-
bution, density and population dynamics of brown howl-
ers, including range-wide surveys and detailed mapping
of the most fragmented and isolated sectors of its range.
Additional research would evaluate the species' ability to
adapt to fragmentation and habitat alteration, improving
the design of management plans and habitat restoration.
As with black howlers, conservation corridors are recom-
mended to reconnect isolated populations with remaining
natural areas.

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

Cebus nigritus nigritus-DD
These capuchins have been recorded across Rio Grande
do Sul, and must have experienced similar declines owing
to widespread destruction of native landscapes. But
the information is lacking which would allow for a full
evaluation of their conservation status, and additional
research is required on their ecology, distribution and
population size.

John M. Aguiar, Center for Applied Biodiversity
Science, Conservation International, 1919 M Street
NW, Suite 600, Washington, DC 20036, USA. E-mail:


Bergallo, H. de G., Duarte da Rocha, C. E, Alves, M.
A. dos S. and Van Sluys, M. 1998. A Fauna Ameacada
de Extincao do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Unpublished
report, Programa de Ecologia, Conservacao e Manejo
de Ecossistemas do Sudeste Brasileiro, Universidade do
Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro.
Brazil, Parana, SEMA. 1995. Lista 1. de Animais
Ameafados de Extinfdo no Estado do Parand. Secretaria
de Estado do Meio Ambiente (SEMA), Deutsche
Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit GTZ
(GmbH), Curitiba.
Brazil, Sao Paulo, SMA. 1998. Fauna Ameajada no Estado
de Sdo Paulo. Centro de Editoracao (CED), Secretaria de
Estado do Meio Ambiente (SMA), Sao Paulo.
Fontana, C. S., Bencke, G. A. and Reis, R. E. (eds.). 2003.
Livro 1. .. da Fauna Ameafada de Extinfdo no Rio
Grande do Sul. Edipucrs, Porto Alegre.
Machado, A. B. M., Fonseca, G. A. B. da, Machado, R. B.,
Aguiar, L. M. de S. and Lins, L. V. 1998. Livro I: .,'I/ilbo
das Especies Ameafadas de Extinfdo da Fauna de Minas
Gerais. Fundagao Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte.
Mikich, S. B. and Bernils, R. S. (eds.). 2004. Livro I : ,.//lbo,
da Fauna Ameafada no Estado do Parand. Institute
Ambiental do Parana, Curitiba.


0 guariba-preto, Alouatta caraya, e principalmente
folivoro e frugivoro (Milton, 1980; Crockett e Eisenberg,
1987; Neville et al., 1988; Bicca-Marques e Calegaro-
Marques, 1994), consumindo aldm destes itens, peciolos,
caules, cascas, sementes e flores (Bicca-Marques, 1991).
As folhas correspondem a uma variacao de 60 a 90%
da dieta destes animals, sendo as folhas imaturas o item
predominante, seguidas de flor ou botao floral (Bicca-
Marques, 1991; Oliveira, 1997). As diferengas encontradas
na dieta sazonal desta especie decorrem provavelmente
devido a oferta de determinados itens especfficos no
transcorrer do ano. Bicca-Marques (1991) verificou
que, quando a disponibilidade dos frutos utilizados por
estes animals diminui, o consumo de folhas aumenta ao

inves destes individuos safrem em busca de outros frutos.
Algumas especies arb6reas se destacam como importantes
recursos para a sobrevivencia desta especie de primata;
entire elas podemos citar Ficus enormis, Chorisia speciosa,
Parapiptadenia rigida, Melia azedarach (v. Bicca-Marques,
1991), Tapirira guianensis, Salacia crassifolia, Cecropia
sp., Mauritia flexuosa e Ferdinandusa speciosa (v. Neville
et al., 1988).

O Distrito Federal encontra-se entire os paralelos de 15'30'
a 1630'S e 4718' a 4817'W. Ocorrem duas estao6es bem
definidas, uma seca de maio a setembro e outra chuvosa de
outubro a abril, sendo a precipitagao mddia de 1600 mm
anuais e a temperature variando de 18 a 22C. A Reserva
Ecol6gica do IBGE esta inserida na APA do Gama/Cabega-
de-Veado DF, e em seu interior encontram-se varias matas
de galeria, entire elas a mata do Monjolo, onde este estudo
foi realizado. Durante oito horas, do amanhecer ao por do
sol, no mes de julho do ano de 2001, um grupo de Alouatta
caraya composto por um macho e duas femeas foi
acompanhado, registrando-se os itens alimentares utilizados
por estes primatas no decorrer deste dia.

Devido a dificuldade de observagao do grupo e ainsuficiencia
de dados coletados, os padres de dieta dessa especie
nao puderam ser suficientemente analisados. Entretanto
foram descritos os tipos de itens consumidos (Tabela 1),
consistindo basicamente de folhas, frutos e brotos, send o
iltimo item consumido em menor proporgao.

Tabela 1. Especies vegetais consumidas por Alouatta caraya e o
tipo de item consumido.
Familia Espdcie Item consumido
Caesalpiniaceae Sclerolobiumpaniculatum Folhas novas
Chrysobalanaceae Hirtella glandulosa Folhas
Hippocrateaceae Cheiloclinum cognatum Frutos
Humiriaceae Sacoglottis guianensis Frutos
Myrsinaceae Myrsine spp. Folhas
Sapindaceae Serjania caracasana Brotos

Nota-se, portanto, que neste dia da estagao seca a dieta
do grupo se baseou principalmente em folhas e brotos.
Os frutos disponfveis nesta estagao tambdm foram
consumidos, pordm em menor freqiuencia, talvez devido
a escassez dos mesmos nesta dpoca. Estes resultados estao
de acordo com os resultados obtidos nos estudos de Bicca-
Marques (1991) e Oliveira (1997), entretanto as especies
vegetais aqui descritas sao diferentes das registradas por
Bicca-Marques (1991) e Neville et al. (1988) observando
dieta de Alouatta caraya. Um volume maior de dados
nao pode ser coletado devido ao comportamento arisco
destes animals, nao sendo o grupo encontrado em outras
ocasi6es. Portanto, estudos de maior duracao tornam-se
necessarios para comprovar esta dieta e incrementar os
dados tao restritos ate hoje descritos para esta esp&cie em
ambiente natural.

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

Agradecimentos: Ao Rochinha, pela ajuda na identificaqao
das especies vegetais e a diregao da Reserva Ecol6gica
do IBGE por permitir a realizacao do trabalho em suas

Sinara Lopes Vilela, Coordenadora Tecnica, Associadao
Mico-Leao-Dourado, Rodovia BR 101 Km 214, Caixa
Postal 109.968, Casimiro de Abreu 28860-970, Rio de
Janeiro, Brasil, e-mail: e D6ris
Santos de Faria, Centro Internacional de Ffsica da Mat&ria
Condensada, Multiuso II sala AS 19, Campus Universitario
Darcy Ribeiro Asa Norte, Brasflia 70910-900, DF, Brasil.


Bicca-Marques, J. C. 1991. Ecologia e comportamento de
um grupo de bugios-pretos Alouatta caraya (Primates,
Cebidae) em Alegrete RS, Brasil. Dissertagao de
mestrado, Universidade de Brasilia, Brasilia.
Bicca-Marques, J. C. e Calegaro-Marques, C. 1994. Activity
budget and diet of Alouatta caraya: An age-sex analysis.
Folia Primatol. 63: 216-220.
Crockett, C. M. e Eisenberg, J. F 1987. Howlers: Variations
in group size and demography. Em: Primate Societies, B. B.
Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham
e T. T. Struhsaker (eds.), pp.54-68. The University of
Chicago Press, Chicago.
Milton, K. 1980. The Foraging S ., of Howler Monkeys:
A Study in Primate Economics. Columbia University Press,
New York.
Neville, M. K., Glander, K. E., Braza, E. e Rylands, A.
B. 1988. The howling monkeys, genus Alouatta. Em:
Ecology and Behavior j .'....- . 'Primates, Vol. 2, R. A.
Mittermeier, A. B. Rylands, A. E Coimbra-Filho e G. A.
B. da Fonseca (eds.), pp.349-453. World Wildlife Fund,
Washington, DC.
Oliveira, D. A. G. de. 1997. Vocalizao6es de long alcance
do bugio (Alouatta fusca clamitans) na irea do Parque
Estadual da Cantareira (Sao Paulo, SP). Dissertacao de
mestrado, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo.


Two forms of muriqui, or woolly spider monkeys
(Brachyteles), are currently recognized. The northern
muriqui, B. hypoxanthus, occurs in the Brazilian states of
Bahia, Minas Gerais and Espirito Santo, and is listed as
Critically Endangered; the southern muriqui, B. arachnoides,
is known from Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and ParanA, and
is Endangered (Hilton-Taylor, 2000; Rylands et al., 2003a,
2003b). Hunting, forest destruction and fragmentation are
the main threats to the survival of these species (Rylands et
al., 2003a, 2003b).

Here we report an observation of three individuals, most
probably northern muriquis, in Una Biological Reserve
(REBIO Una), Bahia, Brazil (1507-15'S, 39015-25'W).

Although the reserve was probably within the species'
former distribution (Aguirre, 1971), there are no recent
records of muriquis having been present there. The
observation described here was made in the western section
of the REBIO Una, called Piedade, by Josinei da Silva
Santos (JSS), a field assistant working for Project BioBrasil.
Coordinated by the Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp
(Belgium) in partnership with the Institute for Socio-
Environmental Studies of southern Bahia (IESB), this
project includes studies of the ecology of golden-headed
lion tamarins in fragmented and disturbed areas in and
near the REBIO Una since February 2003. Trained field
assistants observe the lion tamarin groups on a daily basis,
recording their behaviour, and also reporting on sightings
of other animals.

On February 9, 2004, while following a group of lion
tamarins, JSS observed three very large primates. They were
fleeing from the observer, travelling through the canopy
by swinging their arms in alternating movements, using
their tail as an aid and support. Two larger individuals were
moving in front, followed by a third smaller one. Their
bodies were brown-coloured, while the fur around their face
was lighter, with more beige. The area surrounding the eyes
and nose was darker than the rest of their body. They were
obviously very large, much larger and heavier than either the
buff-headed capuchin (Cebus xanthosternos) or the southern
Bahian masked titi monkey, ( .... melanochir, which
also occur in the reserve and with which JSS is familiar.
These primates bent the branches considerably under their
weight, and JSS estimated their size to be about one meter
from head to pelvis.

Although JSS had heard of the mono carvoeiro (another
Portuguese name for muriqui), he had never actually seen
it before, neither in the reserve nor anywhere else. When
shown pictures of muriquis in Strier (1992), he said they
appeared to be the same, not only in appearance, but also
their posture and locomotion. When asked to indicate the
primate he had seen in Rowe (1996), he chose the picture
of the northern muriqui (p.80), noting particularly that the
colouration of the body, the face and its surrounding fur
was similar to what he had seen. He was secure in his belief
that both the pictures from Strier (1992) and Rowe (1996)
showed the species of primate that he had seen.

The observation occurred at 1510'87"S, 3908'88"W
in an area of selectively logged forest. The vegetation
surrounding this location is very heterogeneous and
fragmented, composed ofpatches of selectively logged forest,
regenerating low secondary forest and relatively open areas
of pasture in various stages of regeneration (pers. obs.). A
few very small islands of mature forest are left. Muriquis are
known to use both secondary and primary forest (Emmons
and Feer, 1997).

For various reasons relating to the lion tamarin research,
we have not been able to work intensively in the area where
the muriquis were seen; since February 2004, we have only

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

been able to visit the area once or twice a month, if at
all, and no other muriqui sightings have been reported. It
is therefore not clear if the muriquis seen are permanent
in the reserve or whether their presence on that day was
merely transient.

If these muriquis are permanent residents, their presence
strengthens the position of the Una Biological Reserve as
one of the most important of the Atlantic Forest protected
areas. Until now, the reserve was known to contain
representatives of four threatened primates-Leontopithecus
chrysomelas, Cebus xanthosternos, ( .-'. kuhlii and
( .... melanochir-besides numerous other rare and
threatened animals and plants. Adding muriquis to the list
of the reserve's occupants further increases the conservation
value of the reserve, and reinforces the urgent need to
safeguard and expand this area, which is now the largest
single forest block remaining in the region.

Acknowledgments: Funding for Project BioBrasil is provided
by the National Lottery of Belgium and the Flemish
Ministry of Science, through the Centre for Research and
Conservation of the Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp.

Kristel De Vleeschouwerl,2, Josinei da Silva Santos1,2,
Kristin Leus' and Linda Van Elsacker', 'Project BioBrasil,
Centre for Research and Conservation, Royal Zoological So-
ciety of Antwerp, K. Astridplein 26, B-2018 Antwerp, Bel-
gium, and 21nstituto de Estudos S6cio-Ambientais do Sul
da Bahia (IESB), Rua Major Homem Del Rey, 147, Cidade
Nova, Ilhdus 45650-000, Bahia, Brazil. Correspondence to


Aguirre, A. C. 1971. 0 mono Brachyteles arachnoides
(E. ...rr .. Situafao Atual da Especie no Brasil. Academia
Brasileira de Ciencias, Rio de Janeiro.
Emmons, L. H. and Feer, F 1997. Neotropical Rainforest
Mammals. Second edition. The University of Chicago
Press, Chicago.
Hilton-Taylor, C. (compiler). 2000. 2000 IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. IUCN The World Conservation
Union, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Rowe, N. 1996. The Pictorial Guide to the Living Primates.
Pogonias Press, East Hampton, New York.
Rylands, A. B., Bampi, M. I., Chiarello, A. G., Fonseca,
G. A. B. da, Mendes, S. L. and Marcelino, M. 2003a.
Brachyteles arachnoides. In: 2004 IUCN Red List of Threat-
ened Species. Available at . Ac-
cessed 7 January, 2005.
Rylands, A. B., Bampi, M. I., Chiarello, A. G., Fonseca, G.
A. B. da, Mendes, S. L. and Marcelino, M. 2003b. Brachy-
teles hypoxanthus. In: 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened
Species. Available at . Accesssed
7 January, 2005.
Strier, K. B. 1992. Faces in the Forest: The Endangered
Muriqui Monkeys of Brazil. Harvard University Press,
Cambridge, Massachusetts.


On 30 July 2004, Maren Huck defended her doctoral
dissertation at the University of Bielefeld, Germany. As
a cumulative thesis, published as a sequence of accepted
papers, her research draws on work carried out at the De-
partment of Biology of the University of Bielefeld and also
at the Department of Sociobiology of the German Primate
Centre in Gbttingen, Germany. Her supervisors were Prof.
Dr. Roland Sossinka of the University of Bielefeld and Dr.
Eckhard W. Heymann of the Department of Behavioural
Ecology and Sociobiology of the German Primate Centre.
Her research was funded by a grant to E. W. Heymann
from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft DFG (HE
1870/10-1,2). The following is a summary of her cumula-
tive thesis.

Males are generally believed to show much higher variabil-
ity in reproductive success than females. Males may increase
their reproductive success mainly by increasing the number
of copulations with different mates, while promiscuous fe-
males will theoretically not fare better than those which are
monogamous. In mammals, males are predisposed to desert
their mates after copulation and to leave the entire care
for the offspring to the females. But the callitrichines, the
marmosets and tamarins, deviate in all these aspects. Their
mating systems are quite variable, and moustached tamarins
(Saguinus mystax) in particular are often polyandrous, while
female reproduction is restricted to a single individual per
group. The infants are cared for co-operatively by all group
members. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate
how this mating system is maintained proximately, on both
the endocrine (concentrations of testosterone and cortisol)
and the behavioral (agonistic, mate guarding) levels, and
what might be the ultimate reasons for the extensive help-
ing behaviour.

From January to December 2001 we collected behavioral
data and faecal samples from two habituated groups of
individually known wild moustached tamarins at the Es-
taci6n Biol6gica Quebrada Blanco in north-eastern Ama-
zonian Peru. Behavioural data were collected daily during
all-day follows by focal animal sampling (group W, 203.5
h; group E, 220 h), scan sampling (group W, 3262 scans;
group E, 3758 scans) and continuous behaviour sam-
pling for social interactions, infant care, and scent mark-
ing (group W, 3004 contact hours; group E, 3257 contact
hours). First we had to establish the genetic relationships,
both within groups and compared to the population mean
(paternities and relatedness values). For genetic analyses we
collected faeces from the two main study groups and from
seven neighboring groups, yielding samples from a total
of 62 different individuals. The DNA of these samples was
extracted and used in a microsatellite analysis (12 primers

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

with an average of seven alleles per locus), thus providing
the first genetic data on a wild tamarin population. For
hormonal analyses, 562 samples from six identified adult
males and six immatures were used for enzyme immunoas-
say (EIA).

At first glance, it might seem that with tamarins, all males
are equal, since all unrelated males mate with the breed-
ing female; but our study revealed that, as George Orwell
might say, some are more equal than others: paternity was
completely monopolized in two-thirds of the groups, and in
89-93% of all infants. Nonetheless, paternity was shared in
some groups, and we also found evidence for dual paternity
in a pair of infants thought to be twins. Relatedness within
groups was generally high (R = 0.31) but unrelated individ-
uals of both sexes did occur. Despite the interrelationships
of many group members, mates were never related and no
cases of incest were recorded.

Since neither testosterone nor cortisol levels varied between
males, the ability to monopolize a female was not based on
endocrine inhibition of other males. In addition, during a
phase of social instability-in which the breeding female
died, a new female immigrated, and several adult males
subsequently left the group-hormone levels were not
significantly elevated (although they were unusually high
in immatures), nor did they correlate with inter-group en-
counter rates. Following the birth of infants, however, when
the breeding females of both groups were not ovulating,
we detected a greater concentration of testosterone in all
adult males. Whether these elevated levels are related to the
demands of infant care or to the imminent mating season
could not be determined. The hormonal results support
the challenge hypothesis (Wingfield et al., 1990), which
assumes that in the reproductive context, the general influ-
ence of androgen levels on aggression is most pronounced
in situations of social instability-for example, during the
formation of dominance relationships, the establishment
of territorial boundaries, or challenges by conspecifics for
access to mates. Testosterone levels before the mating season
are also predicted to be relatively low in species with mini-
mal intra-group aggression and the sharing of infant care by
all members of the group. An analysis of hormone levels of
five immature individuals demonstrated that in tamarins,
age and morphology alone cannot predict sexual maturity.
The precocious behaviour of one immature male, and thus
his elevated hormone levels-together with the reduced
rate of helping-might have precipitated his eviction once
an unrelated female arrived.

Nor did aggressive interactions play any apparent role in
the monopolization of paternity. Instead, the father of the
infants was observed to guard the female during the prob-
able time of conception. This behaviour incurs a hidden
cost, as the male is more conspicuous while guarding, and
thus most likely at a greater risk from predation. The male
engaged in mate-guarding almost entirely on his own initia-
tive, and the timing probably relied on cues in scent marks
made by the breeding female.

All group members participated in infant care, but other
adults carried infants significantly more than either of the
infants' own parents. Caring for infants demands changes
in the time budgets of the helpers, which is another cost of
this behaviour. The fact that each helper is closely related
to at least one of the parents, however, suggests that the in-
direct benefits to their overall fitness are likely to outweigh
these costs. The presence of unrelated individuals, however,
requires there to be direct benefits to be gained from help-
ing as well. Males who would otherwise have a poor chance
of establishing their own group might find such a benefit
by tolerating occasional matings by other males with the
breeding female, given the possibility of dual paternity in
twins. Other possibilities, such as inheriting the territory
or the mate when the same-sex main breeder emigrates or
dies, cannot be ruled out; but evidence which is amenable
to statistical analysis is often difficult to collect in the field.

In conclusion, this study suggests that in moustached tama-
rins, the mating system tends towards monogamy despite
polyandrous matings; this near-exclusivity is achieved by
one male guarding the group's breeding female. Although
extensive and costly, communal infant care may increase the
inclusive fitness of helpers through kin selection, but pos-
sible direct gains to fitness are likely to be valuable enough
for unrelated individuals to participate.

Resumen espaiiol

Es sabido que los machos en comparaci6n con las hembras
muestran mas variabilidad en el exito reproductive. Los
machos aumentan su exito reproductive mayormente in-
crementando el ndmero de copulaciones con distintas hem-
bras mientras que las hembras promiscuas en teoria no
muestran ventaja en comparaci6n con las hembras mon6-
gamas. En los mamfferos, los machos estan predispuestos a
dejar a sus hembras despuds de la copulaci6n y solamente
las hembras se encargan de las crias. Entre los monos neo-
tropicales, los miembros de la subfamilia Callitrichinae
(los "pichicos"), sin embargo, son diferentes en todos los
aspects mencionados del esquema general. El sistema de
emparejamiento (mating system) es muy variable y especial-
mente los "pichicos barba blanca" (Saguinus mystax) copu-
lan regularmente de una manera poliandrica. No obstante
la reproducci6n esta restringida a una hembra por manada.
Todos los miembros de la manada cuidan a las crias co-ope-
rativamente. Por eso, el objetivo principal de este studio
fue investigar como el sistema de emparejamiento esta rela-
cionado con sistema endocrino (los niveles de testosterone
y cortisol) y con el sistema del comportamiento (agresi6n y
mate-guarding o sea guardar-la-hembra). Tambi6n investi-
gamos cuales son las razones 6ltimas para la ayuda intensive
en cuidar las crias.

Para investigar esas preguntas coleccionamos en la Estaci6n
Biol6gica Quebrada Blanco en el noreste de la Amazonfa
Peruana (a partir de Enero hasta Diciembre 2001) datos
del comportamiento y muestras de heces de dos manadas
de "pichicos barba blanca" salvajes que conoclamos indivi-

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

dualmente. Siguiendo las manadas a lo largo del dfa colec-
cionamos a diario datos de comportamiento tanto muestreo
focal-animal (en total: grupo W, 203.5 h; grupo E, 220 h),
muestreo instantaneo (total: grupo W, 3262 registros; grupo
E, 3758 registros) y continuamente los datos de interaccio-
nes sociales, cuidado de las crias, y marcaciones (en total:
grupo W, 3004 horas de contact; grupo E, 3257 horas de
contacto. Primero tuvimos que establecer las relaciones ge-
ndticas en las manadas asf como tambien en comparaci6n
con el promedio de la populaci6n (paternidad y coeficientes
de relaciones gen&ticas). Para los analisis gen&ticos analiza-
mos las heces de nuestras dos manadas y de siete manadas
vecinas. Asf obtuvimos muestras de 62 individuos diferentes.
Utilizamos el ADN extrafdo de las muestras para los analisis
de microsatdlites (12 primers con siete alelos para cada locus
en promedio). Esos son los primeros datos gen&ticos de una
manada salvaje de una especie de Saguinus. Para los analisis
de hormones utilizamos 562 muestras de seis machos adul-
tos y seis adolescents identificados. Estas muestras fueron
utilizadas para un inmuno-ensayo enzimitico.

Nuestro studio muestra a primera vista que "todos los
machos son iguales" porque todos los machos que no son
parientes de la hembra reproductive copulan con ella. No
obstante, para hablar con G. Orwell, "algunos son mrs
iguales" porque en dos tercios de los grupos (y en 89-93%
de todos los infants) la paternidad fue monopolizada por
un solo macho. No obstante, en unas manadas la paterni-
dad fue compartida. Tambikn encontramos una serial de pa-
ternidad multiple en un par de mellizos supuestos. El grado
de parentesco fue generalmente alto (R = 0.31) pero habfa
tambikn individuos de ambos sexos que no fueron relacio-
nados. Parejas copuladoras nunca fueron relacionadas, por
lo cual el incesto no parece ser comin.

La monopolizaci6n no se cumple por inhibici6n endocrina
de otros machos porque ni los niveles de testosterone ni de
cortisol estaban diferentes entire los machos. Los niveles de
hormones no estaban elevados durante una fase de inestabi-
lidad demografica (pero fueron mrs altos de lo normal en los
adolescents) y no estaban correlacionados con la frecuencia
de encuentros con otras manadas. Sin embargo se encontr6
una elevaci6n de testosterone poco despues del nacimiento
de los infants durante una fase de inactividad ovarica de la
hembra reproductive. Actualmente no es possible distinguir
si esa elevaci6n fue relacionada a las necesidades del cuidado
a las crfas o a la temporada de reproducci6n inminente. Los
resultados tambikn coinciden con la hip6tesis del desaffo
(/,ul//,,g hypothesis, Wingfield et al., 1990) que supone que
la influencia general de niveles de hormones andr6genas en
la agresividad (en el context de la reproducci6n) es mas
profundo en situaciones de inestabilidad social. La hip6tesis
tambikn supone que el aumento de testosterone no es muy
alto en species con poca agresividad en los grupos y un
nivel alto de ayuda en la crianza por individuos no-mater-
nales. El analisis de los niveles hormonales de cinco indivi-
duos adolescents muestra que en los "pichicos" ni la edad
ni la morfologfa son suficientes para pronosticar la madurez
sexual. La precocidad asf como los niveles hormonales mas

altos en un adolescent y/o el grado menor del cuidado de
los infants de dl podrian ser las razones de la expulsion de
este individuo de la manada. La expulsion segufa directa-
mente a la inmigraci6n de una hembra no-relacionada.

Las interacciones agresivas tampoco tienen un papel en la
monopolizaci6n de la paternidad. En su lugar, observamos
que el padre de los infants guardaba a la hembra reproduc-
tiva alrededor del tiempo probable de concepci6n. Mostra-
mos que ese comportamiento incluye expenses escondidas
de ser mas visible y asf el riesgo de depredaci6n aumenta. La
sincronizaci6n de la vigilancia del macho contra la hembra
(el tiempo de la guard de la pareja, mate guarding), que
casi exclusivamente fue iniciado por el macho, depend
probablemente de senales olfatorias en las marcaciones de la
hembra reproductive.

Todos los miembros de la manada participan en el cuidado
de los infants, pero no-padres adults cargan significati-
vamente mas a los infants que los padres mismos. El cui-
dado de las crias cambia los time budgets de los ayudantes
que ensefa a expenses de ese comportamiento. El alto grado
de parentesco de los ayudantes con (por lo menos) uno de
los padres de las crias indica que hay ventajas de beneficios
indirectos para la eficacia biol6gica que probablemente son
mis altos que los costs. Pero la presencia de individuos no-
relacionados reclama que haya (tambien) beneficios director
para los ayudantes. Por ejemplo, la tolerancia de copulacio-
nes ocasionales por el macho reproductive y asf la posibilidad
de reproducci6n propia (especialmente con la posibilidad de
paternidades multiples en los mellizos) puede ser un estimu-
lo suficiente para los ayudantes que quizas tendrian pocas
oportunidades de establecer una manada propia. Otras posi-
bilidades, como "heredar" el territorio o una pareja cuando el
procreador mayor del mismo sexo se muere o emigra, no son
descartados pero es muy dificil obtener datos en el campo
que se puedan interpreter estadisticamente.

Sumariamente, este studio sugiere que en los pichicos barba
blanca el sistema genetico de emparejamiento tiene una ten-
dencia hacia la monogamia a pesar de las copulaciones po-
liandricas. El mecanismo de monopolizaci6n es la guardia
de la hembra reproductive (mate guarding) por un macho
en el grupo. El cuidado intensive y costoso de los infants
puede aumentar la eficacia biol6gica inclusive de los ayudan-
tes mediante la selecci6n por parentesco (kin selection), pero
los beneficios director son probablemente suficientemente
altos para estimular adn a los individuos no-relacionados
para ayudar en la crianza.

Maren Huck, Department of Behavioural Ecology and
Sociobiology, German Primate Centre, Kellnerweg 4,
D-37077 Gbttingen, Germany, e-mail: gwdg.de>.


Huck, M. 2004. All males are equal but some are more
equal: Proximate mechanisms and genetic consequences

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

of the social and mating system of moustached
tamarins, Saguinus mystax mystax (Spix, 1823). Doctoral
dissertation, Universitat Bielfeld, Bielefeld, Germany. (A
PDF is available upon request from the author at huck@hotmail.com>.)
Wingfield, J. C., Hegner, R. E., Dufty, A. M. J. and Ball,
G. E 1990. The "challenge hypothesis": Theoretical
implications for patterns of testosterone secretion, mating
systems, and breeding strategies. Am. Nat. 136: 829-846.


Fabiano Rodrigues de Melo defended his doctoral thesis
"Primates and Priority Areas for the Conservation of Bio-
diversity in the Rio Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais"
for the Postgraduate Course in Ecology, Conservation and
Wildlife Management of the Federal University of Minas
Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, on 21 May 2004. His aca-
demic supervisor was Anthony B. Rylands, and the study
was supported by the Instituto Estadual de Florestas -
Minas Gerais (IEF/MG), the US Fish and Wildlife Service
(USFWS), the State University of Minas Gerais (UEMG),
the Primate Action Fund of Conservation International and
the Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation, and the Brazil-
ian Science Council (CNPq). The following is a summary:

In 1999, the Minas Gerais State Forestry Institute (IEF-
MG) (Instituto EstadualdeFlorestas deMinas Gerais) began a
series of biological surveys in the areas indicated in the Atlas
of Biodiversity Conservation Priorities in Minas Gerais, the
results of a workshop held in 1998 by the Fundacao Biodi-
versitas. The northwest of the state, specifically the middle
and lower Rio Jequitinhonha, was given particular prior-
ity, covering as it does forest fragments within the ranges
of golden-headed lion tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysomelas)
and buff-headed capuchin (Cebus xanthosternos). Eleven
species of non-human primates are known to occur there, a
key area for the conservation of 65% of the primate species
occurring in the state. We proposed a number of inter-in-
stitutional partnerships to allow for specialists to participate
in field trips with the staff of the IEF, targeting 15 munici-
palities in the Jequitinhonha valley in Minas Gerais. Two
employees from the Forestry Institute headquarters (Belo
Horizonte), besides people from local and regional IEF of-
fices, accompanied field trips to the valley from 1999 to
2001. Each involved surveying the most significant forest
fragments along the middle and lower valley of the Rio
Jequitinhonha. Threatened species were given priority, and
particularly threatened primates.

Three main forest types were identified within the Atlan-
tic Forest portion of the lower valley-seasonal deciduous
forest, seasonal semideciduous forest and dense closed-
canopy forest. Despite the widespread destruction and deg-
radation of the forests of the region, there are still some
areas which are relatively intact and preserved. Indepen-
dent of their size, about 65% of the fragments maintain

primary forest to some extent. Except for the marmosets
(C .-('. ), the primates surveyed in the region are threat-
ened, with populations severely reduced by forest loss and
fragmentation, and hunting affecting especially the larger
species. The results of the surveys indicate that the larger
species are under especially severe pressure, with fragmenta-
tion and fragment size influencing the occurrence of Cebus
xanthosternos, Alouatta guariba guariba and Brachyteles hy-
poxanthus. Maintenance of the highest possible richness of
primates along the middle and lower Rio Jequitinhonha
will depend on fragment size, degree of connectivity and
the influence or persistence of selective logging. There was
a positive correlation between primate species richness and
mammal species richness overall, providing strong argu-
ments for the protection of the best fragments remaining.

Information was also obtained on the occurrence of other
mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and the flora of each
site, allowing for an evaluation of each forest fragment in
terms of both primates and other threatened species. Six
areas in the Atlantic Forest portion of the valley were iden-
tified as of high biodiversity value, of relatively good size,
with representative populations of threatened vertebrates,
and with the least threats and negative impacts. Immediate
measures should be taken for the creation of five protected
areas in the valley-Fazenda Limoeiro and Serra de Sao
Simao, Almenara; Fazenda Canada in Bandeira; Fazenda
Santana in Salto da Divisa and Fazenda Alto Cariri, in Salto
da Divisa and Santa Maria do Salto-which would contrib-
ute to the conservation of threatened primates, and include
numerous animal and plant species typical of the Atlantic
Forest in north-eastern and eastern Minas Gerais.

Fabiano R. de Melo, Coordenador do Curso de Ciencias Bi-
ol6gicas, Universidade do Estado de Minas Gerais, Campus
Fundacional de Carangola (FAFILE/UEMG), Praca dos
Estudantes 23, Santa Emflia, Carangola 36800-000, Minas
Gerais, Brazil. E-mail: .


Melo, E R. de. 2004. Primatas e Areas Prioritarias para a
Conservacao da Biodiversidade no Vale do Rio Jequi-
tinhonha, Minas Gerais. Doctoral dissertation, Instituto
de Ciencias Biol6gicas, Universidade Federal de Minas
Gerais, Belo Horizonte.


The Grande Sertao Veredas National Park in the Cerrado
(bush savanna) in the municipality of Formoso, in the
northwest of the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais, was cre-
ated in 1989 with an area of 84,000 ha. It is on the Central
Plateau (Chapaddo Central) which divides the basins of the
Rios Tocantins and Sao Francisco, and protects gallery for-
ests along the headwaters of the Rios Preto and Carinhanha
and their springs, called veredas, marked by concentrations

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

of palms: buriti (Mauritia vinifera) and buritirana (Mauri-
tia armata). The rich fauna is typical of the Cerrado, and
includes the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), giant
armadillo (Priodontes maximus), maned wolf (Chrysocyon
brachyurus), pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus), hoary
zorro (Dusicyon (Pseudalopex) vetulus) and rheas (Rhea
americana), in a region otherwise largely devastated by ag-
riculture-especially soybean and coffee plantations-and
cattle ranching. Primates occurring in the park include the
black-tufted-ear marmoset (( .- penicillata), the black
howler (Alouatta caraya), and the bearded capuchin (Cebus
libidinosus). On 21 May, 2004, its size was more than
doubled to 231,000 ha, extending it to the border with the
state of Bahia. Of interest is that this will now allow for
the creation of an "extended ecological corridor" with the
Serra Geral in Bahia. This significant measure was in large
part the result of pressure from a large number of NGOs,
including the Fundacao Pro-Natureza (Funatura)-largely
responsible for the creation of the park in 1989-the World
Wild Fund for Nature (WWF) Brazil, Conservation Inter-
national do Brasil, the Insitituto Socioambiental (ISA),
and the Cerrado NGO network (Rede de ONGs do Cer-
rado). Source: Institulo Socioambiental, Sao Paulo. Website:


The Brazilian government published a decree on 7 June,
2004 creating the Serra do Itajaf National Park of 57,000
ha in the east of the state of Santa Catarina. The Itajaf valley
was one of the 80 priority areas for the creation of protected
areas in the Atlantic Forest identified during a workshop
held in August 1999 in Atibaia, Sao Paulo: "Evaluation
and Priority Actions for the Conservation of Biodiversity
in the Atlantic Forest and Southern Grasslands", organized
by Conservation International do Brasil in collaboration
with the Fundagao SOS Mata Atlantica; IPE Instituto de
Pesquisas Ecol6gicas; Fundagao Biodiversitas; Secretaria do
Meio Ambiente do Estado de Sao Paulo SEMAD/SP; and
the Instituto Estadual de Florestas IEF/MG; and under
the general coordination of the Ministry of the Environ-
ment (MMA). The initial proposal for the park, prepared
by staff and researchers from the Brazilian Institute for the
Environment (IBAMA), the Federal University of Santa
Catarina, the Regional University of Blumenau (FURB),
and the Santa Catarina State Environmental Secretariat,
was sent to the MMA by the State Council for the Atlantic
Forest Biosphere Reserve (Conselho Estadual da Reserva da
Biosfera da MataAtldntica) in 2002. The park includes parts
of nine municipalities-Ascurra, Apidna, Blumenau, Botu-
verA, Gaspar, Guabiraba, Indaial, Presidente Nereu and
Vidal Ramos-and covers headwaters and springs vital for
the region. The Itajaf valley has one of the largest remaining
tracts of Atlantic Forest in southern Brazil, and researchers
from the Regional University of Blumenau have found that
the park protects 78% of the mammals (including nota-
bly the southern brown howler, Alouatta guariba, and the

black-horned capuchin, Cebus nigritus), 38% of the birds
and 47% of the trees and shrubs known to occur in the
state. Source: Instituto Socioambiental, Sao Paulo. Website:


On 3 June, 2004, the Brazilian Minister of the Environ-
ment, Marina Silva, announced the creation of four new
protected areas-two National Forests and two Extractive
Reserves in the states of ParanA (Piraf do Sul National Forest
of 124.8 ha in the region of Campos Gerais), Parafba (Rest-
inga do Cabedelo of 103 ha; mangroves and coastal rest-
inga vegetation), Maranhao (Cururupu Extractive Reserve
of 185,000 ha; marine resources-mangroves and coastal
swamps) and Amazonas (Capand Grande Extractive Re-
serve of 304,000 ha; municipality of Manicord, Rio Madei-
ra). Capand Grande is one of the protected areas foreseen in
the Amazon Region Protected Areas (ARPA) programme of
the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), Brazil, which is
working towards the creation of 50 million ha of new pro-
tected areas in the Amazon over the next 10 years. Eighteen
million ha are planned for the first phase of the program
(2002-2006), which is supported by the Global Environ-
ment Facility (GEF) of the World Bank, the KfW Banken-
gruppe, and the Brazilian government. At the government
ceremony creating these reserves, representatives of the
state governments of Acre, Amazonas, Mato Grosso, ParA,
Rondonia and Tocantins signed cooperative agreements re-
garding the implementation of the ARPA.


Estimados colegas y amigos: Los invito a hacer parte de la
Red Colombiana de Primatologfa. Este es un espacio vir-
tual para la actualizaci6n y el intercambio de informaci6n
e ideas sobre este campo de investigaci6n. La red es un es-
pacio gratuito que cuenta con su pagina web y un foro para
las discusiones. En este moment esta en lfnea la primera
version, pero la idea es que la construyamos entire todas las
personas de la red. Este espacio no busca competir con la
Sociedad Colombiana de Primatologfa, al contrario busca
complementarla y espero que muy pronto las dos paginas
estin ligadas, para no repetir trabajo y sacarle el mejor pro-

Una de las ideas de esta red, es tener la informaci6n de las
personas que trabajan en el Area (nombre, areas de interns o
species de interns y correo electr6nico), al igual que informa-
ci6n acerca de los proyectos que se estAn adelantando. Si us-
tedes quieren pertenecer a la red por favor escriban un correo
electr6nico a la siguiente direcci6n: -subscribe@yahoogroups.com>.

Si ustedes quieren aparecer en el directorio de investigadores,
o en la secci6n de proyectos, por favor envfenme la infor-

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

maci6n que considered relevant: Titulo de la investigaci6n,
nombre de los investigadores y/o organizaci6n, correo elec-
tr6nico. La pagina web de la Red es: com/primatescolombia/>. Espero que podamos integrarnos
y ayudarnos mutuamente.

Alba Lucia Morales Jim6nez, Master's Course in Primate
Conservation, Oxford Brookes University, Headington,
Oxford, UK, e-mail .


The primary goal of the Colombian Primate Network
is to create a virtual community, open to researchers
from Colombia and around the world, in order to share
information about Colombian primatology-the status
and ecology of Colombian primates, research projects,
conservation programs, methodologies and publications.
This community will connect people who are working in
the same areas of research, or on the same species; it will
inform both the general public and researchers of the
news from Colombian primatology; and it will connect
investigators and organizations with international agencies,
primatological societies and other resources, such as
databases, which may be useful in developing and improving
research and conservation programs.

The Colombian Primate Network has a full online presence
including the website, email and a discussion group. The
website is entirely bilingual, with parallel sections in Spanish
and English, which feature the following topics: General
Information; Endangered Primates of Colombia; Ongoing
Projects; Directory of Colombian Primatologists; News and
Events; Discussion Board; and Links.

The directory of Colombian primatologists is indexed and
searchable by name, institution, and field of research, as
well as more detailed searches by specialty and ecosystem
type. The listing of endangered primates includes profiles
of Ateles hybridus (CR), Saguinus oedipus (EN), Ateles
belzebuth, Aotus spp., Cacajao melanocephalus, ( .-.
cupreus, Callimico goeldii, Lagothrix lagotricha, Pithecia
monachus, and Saguinus leucopus (all VU). The links are
divided into subsections on primatological societies,
databases and bibliographies, grants and scholarships, and
primate taxonomy.

Current status
The Colombian Primate Network began on 9 June, 2004,
and in its first two months it was visited 1990 times. There
are currently 46 subscribers to the email discussion group,
19 active projects listed on the website and 14 researchers
in the directory. Both Spanish and English versions of the
website have been visited with approximately the same
frequency. These results demonstrate the value of this virtual
community, and now the challenge is to continue growing
and to have an impact at national and international levels.

To join the Colombian Primate Network, visit the website at
, or contact
Alba Lucia Morales Jimenez, MSc. Primate Conservation,
Oxford Brookes University, at .


The International Foundation for Science (IFS) is a research
council with international operations whose mission is
to build the scientific capacity of developing countries
for the sustainable management of biological and water
resources. IFS believes that the interests of both science and
development are best served by promoting and nurturing
the research efforts of promising young science graduates
who have the potential to become leading scientists in
their countries. Since 1974, IFS has provided support to
more than 3500 Grantees in over one hundred developing
countries in Africa, Asia, the Pacific, Latin America and
the Caribbean.

The IFS Granting Programme is open for project proposals
from young scientists from developing countries who meet
the eligibility criteria and who conduct research on the
sustainable management of biological resources. Proposed
projects must be related to the sustainable use of the
biological and/or water resource base. IFS is specifically
targeting scientists in countries with developing science and
technology infrastructures. Research grants are awarded up
to a maximum value of US$12,000 for a period of one to
three years, and may be renewed twice. They are intended
for the purchase of equipment, expendable supplies, and
literature. Details of IFS awards can be found on the
IFS website at programme.asp>.


The Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS) of the
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) is currently
accepting proposals for the sixth cycle of their Research
Grants Program.

' -... T' '-, The CTFS Research Grants Program is
intended to provide opportunities for senior researchers,
post-doctoral fellows, and graduate students to utilize
existing CTFS Forest Dynamics Plots (FDPs) and to conduct
research with scientists associated with these plots. The
CTFS network of FDPs includes 18 sites in 15 countries.
Anyone working directly in a Forest Dynamics Plot,
analyzing data from a plot, or generating complementary
data that strengthens FDP research programs is eligible to
apply. Projects may be field-oriented, laboratory-based, or
analytical, and the science may be basic or applied in nature.

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

Grants range from $3,000-$30,000. The CTFS Research
Grants Program will make awards for projects between three
months and three years in length.

Application: Grant proposals should include a Research
Proposal (not to exceed 1500 words), a list of collaborators,
curriculum vitae, proposed referees, and a detailed budget.
For more information on how to submit a proposal, please
visit .

Deadline for Applications: This grants program has switched
to an annual cycle. Submissions will be accepted yearly on
the last Friday of July; the next deadline for applications is
July 29, 2005. For more information, please contact: Center
for Tropical Forest Science, Smithsonian Tropical Research
Institute, P.O. Box 37012, QUAD 3123, MRC 705,
Washington DC, 20013-7012, USA, Tel: 202-633-4012,
Fax: 202-786-2557, .


The Wisconsin Primate Research Center Library and
Information Service is pleased to announce the launch of a
new notification service, "Primate-NEWS". Primate-News
(P-News) is designed to deliver Web-based news clippings,
information about upcoming television programs, and
other items of interest about primates via e-mail. The list
is a notification or "push" service; subscribers will not
have the ability to post messages. For more information
and to subscribe, complete the brief subscription form at
. Please note: all of
the content included in Primate-News is also posted to

Matthew Hoffman, Internet Services and Outreach
Librarian, National Primate Research Center, University
of Wisconsin-Madison, 1220 Capitol Court, Madison,
WI 53715, USA, e-mail ,
website .


IPE Institute for Ecological Re-
k search is hosting the "Latin-Ameri-
can Course for Conservation Biol-
ogy and Wildlife Management" at
S0"O '" -its Center for Conservation Biol-
ogy. This event will be conducted in partnership with the
Smithsonian Institution (USA). The course will take place
from 31 October to 5 December 2005 at the IPL headquar-
ters in Nazar6 Paulista, and in the Pontal do Paranapanema,
Sao Paulo. The course will be given in Portuguese by twenty
professionals with extensive experience in Brazilian conserva-
tion projects.

Course objectives: Evaluate the various processes that are
today leading to biodiversity loss and discuss possible solu-
tions to these issues. Program: Introduction to Conservation
Biology; Global Ecological History; Landscape Ecology;
Agroforestry Systems and Landscape Conservation; Envi-
ronmental Education in Conservation Projects; Commu-
nity Entrepreneurship and Sustainable Businesses; Public
Policies and Brazilian Environmental Law: An Analysis;
Principles of Environmental Economics and Carbon Cred-
its; Proposal-Writing and Soliciting Resources for Conser-
vation Projects; Vegetation Studies; Methodology for Stud-
ies of Animal Behavior; Research on Avifauna; Studies of
Insects in Conservation Projects; Distance Methodology
for Population Estimates; Population Estimates from Mark-
Recapture; Radio-Telemetry Techniques and Data Analysis;
Hunting and Sustainability of Fauna; Conversation Medi-
cine; Conservation Genetics. Course load: approximately
260 hours/module.

Each participant will prepare a PowerPoint presentation
prior to the start of the course, introducing their respective
projects or employment. The main part of the course will
be structured around workgroups that will put together re-
search projects using the ideas discussed in the modules.
Target participants- Postgraduate students and profession-
als that work with or have an interest in conservation or
wildlife management. Cost- US$1,350.00. This includes
room and board, local transportation, materials and field
equipment used during the course. Registration: Interested
candidates should complete the registration form avail-
able on the IPL website or by mailing
<,.1-.., ip.- ... br>. This should be returned by email as
an attachment to BCCB Brazilian Center for Conser-
vation Biology (<,.V.'. ip. -... br>). Closing date for re-
ceiving registration forms is 1 September 2005. A limited
number of partial scholarships will be made available for
this course.

For additional information: IPL Instituto de Pesquisas
Ecol6gicas, Rodovia Dom Pedro I, km 47/Bairro Moinho,
Nazar6 Paulista, Sao Paulo (100 km from Sao Paulo City).
Tel: 55 (11) 4597-1327 or 55 (11) 9634-3574 (from 9:00
to 12:00 and 14:00 to 17:00 local time), e-mail org.br>, website: .



0 IPE Instituto de Pesquisas
fl Ecol6gicas, atraves do seu centro
de capacitacao, CBBC Centro
Brasileiro de Biologia da Conser-
h -j i n f, vagao oferece em parceria com a
Smithsonian Institution (EUA), o "Curso Latino-America-
no em Biologia da Conservacao e Manejo da Vida Silves-
tre." No seu d&cimo ano de realizagao, este curso acontecera

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

na sede do IPL (em Nazard Paulista SP), na regiao do
Pontal do Paranapanema (oeste do estado de Sao Paulo),
no perfodo de 31 de outubro a 05 de dezembro de 2005.
As aulas te6ricas e praticas serao ministradas em portugu&s,
por cerca de 20 profissionais corn ampla experiencia de
trabalho em projetos de conservacao no Brasil. Confira a
programaqao abaixo.

Objetivo do curso: Apresentar e analisar os varios processes
que levam aos atuais padres de perda de diversidade e dis-
cutir possiveis soluc6es para os problems detectados. Con-
teado programdtico: Introdugao a Biologia da Conservacao;
Hist6ria Ecol6gica Global; Ecologia da Paisagem; Sistemas
Agroflorestais e Conservacao de Paisagens; Praticas de Edu-
caqio Ambiental em Projetos de Conservacao; Empreen-
dimentos Comunitarios e Neg6cios Sustentaveis; Polfticas
Pdblicas e Legislacao Ambiental Brasileira: Uma Analise;
Principios de Economia Ambiental e Mercado de Carbono;
Elaboraqao de Propostas e Mobilizacao de Recursos para
Projetos de Conservacao; Estudos de Vegetacao; Metodo-
logia para Estudos de Comportamento Animal; Estudos de
Avifauna; Estudos de Insetos em Projetos de Conservacao;
Metodologia "Distance" para Estimativas Populacionais;
Estimativas Populacionais por Captura-Marcaqao-Recaptu-
ra; TBcnica e Analise de Dados de Radiotelemetria; Caca
e Sustentabilidade de Fauna; Medicina da Conservacao;
Genetica da Conservacao. Carga hordria: aproximadamente
260 horas/aula.

Dindmica de curso: Atraves de seminarios, com duraqao
maxima de 30 minutes, os alunos apresentarao suas expe-
riencias de trabalho. Os seminarios deverao ser preparados
em Power Point por cada um dos participants, previamen-
te a realizagao do curso. Uma das dinamicas deste curso e
a formaqao de grupos de trabalho para a elaboraqao de um
projeto de pesquisa, onde serao aplicados os conhecimen-
tos adquiridos durante as aulas. Pablico alvo: Estudantes de
p6s-graduaqro, profissionais que atuam ou que pretendem
atuar em projetos de conservacao e/ou manejo da vida sil-
vestre. Prefo: US$1,350.00. Incluido: hospedagem e refei-
9oes, transport local, materials do curso e equipamento do
campo durante o curso. Inscrifoes. Os interessados em se
candidatar deverao preencher ficha de inscrigao disponfvel
no website , ou solicitar a mesma por e-
mail para <,.H.., ipf. ... b.>. Esta ficha deve ser enviada
por e-mail como anexo para CBBC Centro Brasileiro de
Biologia da Conservacao (<,.b-.-.I pi. ... b. >). Data limited
para enviar aficha de inscrifao: ate 1 de setembro (nao serao
aceitas inscrio6es ap6s esta data). Havera um ndmero limi-
tado de bolsas parciais para este curso.

Local: IPL Instituto de Pesquisas Ecol6gicas, Rodovia
Dom Pedro I, km 47/ Bairro Moinho, Nazare Paulista- SP
(100 km da cidade de Sao Paulo). Mais informafoes. Tele-
fones: 55 (11) 4597-1327 ou 55 (11) 9634-3574 (das 9:00
is 12:00 horas, das 14:00 is 17:00 horas, horario local), e-
mail: <,..., -. ip.... b>, website: .


SThe Board of Directors of the American
Society of Primatologists for 2004-
2006 are as follows: President Steven J.
Schapiro, Associate Professor, Chief, Section of Behavioral
Care and Enrichment, Department of Veterinary Sciences,
The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center,
Bastrop, Texas; Past President Jeffrey A. French, Professor,
Psychology and Biology Departments, University of
Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, Nebraska; President-Elect
Suzette Tardif, Associate Director, Southwest National
Primate Research Center, San Antonio, Texas; Executive
Secretary: Toni Ziegler, Senior Scientist, National Primate
Research Center and Department of Psychology, University
ofWisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin; and Treasurer.
Evan Zucker, Professor, Department of Psychology, Loyola
University, New Orleans, Lousiana.

The Committee Chairs are as follows: Membership and
Finance Committee- Evan Zucker; Conservation Committee
- Janette Wallis; Education Committee Sue Howell;
Research and Development Committee- Lynn Fairbanks and
Karen Bales; Program Committee- Larry Williams and Peter
Judge; Publications Committee Randy Kyes; and Award
and Recognition Committee- Chris Abee. Visit the American
Society of Primatologists website at: .


On 10 June 2004, Stephen Nash received
the President's Award of the American
Society of Primatologists (ASP) in
recognition of his unique and exceptional contributions
to primatology. In an announcement made on that date,
the President of the ASP, Dr. Jeffrey A. French, cited
three major influences Stephen Nash has had on the field
of primatology. First, Stephen's artwork has become "the
taxonomic gold standard" for the identification of primates
(many of them rarely if ever photographed) and for the
comparison of coloration and external features. Second,
French noted the power of Stephen's works to move his
audience as "examples of excellence in wildlife art." And
third, Stephen's countless illustrations have often served
as the centerpiece of major campaigns for conservation
education: his primate art has appeared on posters, t-
shirts, stickers, buttons, bumper stickers, bookmarks and
a variety of other popular and visible media, making his
work perhaps the most broadly disseminated and widely
recognized of any primate artist.

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

Apart from his work as Scientific Illustrator for Conservation
International, Stephen Nash is also a Visiting Research
Associate in the Department of Anatomical Sciences at the
State University of New York at Stony Brook. As a graduate
of the Natural History Illustration Department of the Royal
College of Art in London, Stephen Nash worked with
the World Wildlife Fund US Primate Program before
coming to work for Conservation International in 1989.
In addition to his other distinctions, he is the only modern
primate artist to have had a primate species named for him:
( .... stephennashi, Stephen Nash's titi monkey. We
congratulate Stephen for this most recent award, and look
forward to many more works of primate art from him in
the years to come.


p The ASP Conservation Award for 2004,
which provides recognition and financial
support for students and young investi-
gators from habitat countries who demonstrate potential
for making significant and continuing contributions to
primate conservation, was given to Mr. William Olupot
of the Uganda Office of the Wildlife Conservation Society,
Kampala. Congratulations to Mr. Olupot, who is Chair of
the Organizing Committee for the 21st Congress of the In-
ternational Primatological Society, to be held in Entebbe,
Uganda in June 2006.

Conservation Small Grants were awarded for nine projects,
totaling US$11,988. Three were for projects in South and
Central America:
* Fecal parasites and stress levels in a hurricane-damaged
population of Alouattapigra (Belize) Mary Pavelka;
* The effects of Amazonian forest fragmentation on
the brown-bearded saki monkey (Chiropotes satanas)
(Brazil) Sarah Boyle;
* Density of the endangered spider monkeys of Colom-
bia (Ateles hybridus) in Cauca valley (Colombia) Alba
Lucia Morales Jiminez.


f lp Four awards were given for the best student
papers and posters presented during the
27d Annual Meeting of the American
Society of Primatologists, held in Madison, Wisconsin,
8-11 June 2004. The winner for the Oral Presentation was
A. J. Ginther and C. T. Snowdon (University of Wisconsin
- Madison) for "The Oedipal conflict in Saguinus oedipus
(the Cotton tamarin)." N. Maninger, J. P. Capitanio,
S. A. Blozis, J. D. Ruys and S. P. Mendoza (UC Davis)
received an Honorable Mention for their presentation
"Differential effects of stressors on the hypothalamic-

pituitary-adrenal hormones cortisol and DHEAS in adult
Rhesus macaques."

The Poster Presentation Award was given to G. M. Karere
and P. L. Kinnally (California National Primate Research
Center and UC Davis) for their poster "Infant tempera-
ment and responses to maternal separation are associated
with serotonin genotype in Rhesus macaques." The Hon-
orable Mention went to S. M. Joyce and C. T. Snowdon
(University of Wisconsin Madison) for "Do adults un-
derstand what infants know about food? Food transfer in
captive cotton-top tamarins." From: ASP Bulletin 28(2),
June 2004.


S In June 2004 the IPS Captive Care Com-
mittee awarded $2000 in Captive Care
Small Grants. Four applications were
received from primatologists and two
awards were made. The following indi-
viduals received grants for their excellent projects:
* Luisa Fernanda Lema Valez was awarded $1,000 for
the purchase of an incubator for the care and treat-
ment of confiscated primates at Fundaci6n Ecolom-
bia, Colombia.
* Patricia Peignot was awarded $1,000 to provide
enhancement to the enclosures for the chimpanzees at
CIRMF in Gabon.
Congratulations to Luisa and Patricia for their outstand-
ing proposals, and we look forward to hearing updates on
their projects and how the work resulting from these awards
has improved the lives of the primates in their care. These
grants were made from the IPS General Fund. We are plan-
ning to award another set of grants within the next year;
the announcement appears in the most recent IPS Bulletin.
Grant applications were evaluated by the members of the
IPS Captive Care Committee and I would like to thank
Hannah Buchanan-Smith, Kay Farmer, Helena Fitch-
Snyder, Lisa Jones-Engel, Mark Prescott, and Sylvia Taylor
for their work. Don't forget, you can make a contribution
to IPS at any time at the IPS website: IPS/MembersOnly/selectloginoptions.cfm>.

Colleen McCann, IPS Vice President for Captive Care,
Wildlife Conservation Society, 2300 Southern Blvd., Bronx,
New York 10460, USA, e-mail .

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004


A revista Lundiana estA completando, em 2004, seu tercei-
ro ano de publicaqao em sua nova fase, como revista de bio-
diversidade. Ao long deste tempo, ela publicou 59 artigos
em Botanica, Ecologia e Zoologia, escritos por autores de
todas as regi6es do Brasil e de 10 pauses das tries Amtri-
cas, da Europa e Australia. Lundiana tem se mostrado uma
boa alternative para publicacao de artigos relacionados a
biodiversidade, pelas seguintes raz6es: 1. Alta qualidade
grAfica (papel de alta qualidade; diagramacao modern e
atraente; impressao de altissima qualidade); 2. Publicadao
rApida (em mddia, menos de 11 meses); 3. Indexagao na
maioria dos mais importantes indexadores internacionais
nas diversas areas das ciencias naturais; 4. Espago ilimita-
do para publicacao; 5. Publicacao gratuita; 6. 25 separates
inteiramente grAtis e 7. Publicacao de fotos coloridas sem
custo adicional. Esses fatores tem levado a um aumento
contfnuo do fluxo de manuscritos submetidos a nossa re-
vista. Corn isto, jA estamos considerando a possibilidade de
passarmos a publicar tries em vez de dois ndmeros por ano,
a partir de 2005.

Ajudem-nos a manter nossa revista em sua rota ascenden-
te de qualidade e sucesso: Assine Lundiana. Os valores das
assinaturas sao: Estudantes (graduacao e p6s-graduacao):
R$25,00; Profissionais: R$35,00. Para assinar: Prof. Fer-
nando Silveira, Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de
Ciencias Biol6gicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais,
Belo Horizonte 3270-901, Minas Gerais, Brasil, e-mail:


Darwinian Heresies, edited by Abigail Lustig, Robert J.
Richards, and Michael Ruse. Cambridge University Press,
New York, 2004. 208pp. ISBN 0521815169 (hardcover),
$65.00. Darwinian Heresies looks at the history of evo-
lutionary thought in an attempt to break through con-
ventional thinking to see whether there are assumptions
or theories that are blinding us to important issues. The
collection, which includes essays by historians and phi-
losophers of science, digs beneath the surface and shows
that not all is precisely as it is often assumed to be. Cover-
ing a wide range of issues starting back in the eighteenth
century, Darwinian Heresies brings us up from the time of
Charles Darwin and The Origin of Species all the way to
the twenty-first century. It is suggested that Darwin's true
roots lie in Germany, not in his native England; that Rus-
sian evolutionism is more significant than many are pre-
pared to allow; and that the main influence on twentieth-
century evolutionary biology was not Charles Darwin at
all but his often-despised contemporary, Herbert Spencer.
The collection is intended to interest, to excite, to infuri-

ate, and to stimulate further work. Contents. 1. Introduc-
tion: Biologists on crusade Abigail Lustig, p.1-13; 2.
Russian theoretical biology between heresy and orthodoxy:
Georgii Shaposhinikov and his experiments on plant lice
- Daniel Alexandrov & Elena Aronova, pp.14-47; 3. The
specter of Darwinism: The popular image of Darwinism in
early twentieth-century Britain Peter J. Bowler, pp.48-
68; 4. Natural atheology Abigail Lustig, pp.69-83; 5.
Ironic heresy: How young-Earth creationists came to em-
brace rapid microevolution by means of natural selection
- Ronald L. Numbers, pp.84-100; 6. If this be heresy:
Haeckel's conversion to Darwinism Robert J. Richards,
pp.101-131; 7. Adaptive landscapes and dynamic equilib-
rium: The Spencerian contribution to twentieth-century
American evolutionary biology Michael Ruse, pp.131-
150; 8. "The Ninth Mortal Sin": The Lamarckism of W.
M. Wheeler Charlotte Sleigh, pp.151-172; 9. Con-
temporary Darwinism and religion Mikael Stenmark,
pp.173-192. Available from: Cambridge University Press,
40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-4211, USA,
Fax: 1-212-691-3239. General Address (Orders & Cus-
tomer Service): Cambridge University Press, 100 Brook
Hill Drive, West Nyack, NY 10994-2133, USA, Tel: 1-
845-353-7500, Fax: 1-845-353-4141. Website: www.cup.org>.

Janelas para a Biodiversidade no Parque Nacional do Jaa, por
Sergio Henrique Borges, Simone Iwanaga, Carlos Cesar
Durigan e Marcos Roberto Pinheiro. Fundagao Vit6ria
Amazonica, Manaus, 2004. 280pp. ISBN: 8585830034,
R$50.00 (+ postagem). "Janelas para a Biodiversidade" e
um projeto de planejamento de pesquisa, com o objetivo
de desenvolver uma estrategia para inventariar e monitorar
a biodiversidade e o uso dos recursos naturais, pelos resi-
dentes do Parque Nacional do Jad. 0 projeto conta com a
participagao de pesquisadores de varias instituio6es, como
o Institute Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA),
Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Universida-
de de Campinas (UNICAMP) e Universidade de Sao Paulo
(USP). 0 Projeto "Janelas para a Biodiversidade" foi im-
plementado pela Fundagao Vit6ria Amazonica (FVA) entire
1999 e 2002, em parceria com o Instituto Brasileiro do
Meio Ambiente (IBAMA), com o apoio da WWF-Brasil e
do Program USAID. A experiencia do projeto e relatada
em um livro editado em 2004 pela FVA, na expectativa de
que seja 6til para outras entidades e agencies ambientais
que trabalham na Amazonia. 0 livro redne contribuigoes
de 31 pesquisadores das areas biol6gicas e sociais represen-
tando a FVA e outras importantes instituigoes de pesquisa.
Ao comprar um exemplar voce estara contribuindo para
projetos de conservagao na bacia do rio Negro. Sumdrio:
Apresentagao J. T. da Frota Alves Neto & C. C. Du-
rigan, pp. vii-viii; Preficios M. Saragoussi & J. A. A.
Gomes, pp.ix-xii. Segao 1 Definindo a Metodologia. 1.
Planejando o estudo da biodiversidade na Amazonia brasi-
leira: Uma experiencia no Parque Nacional do Jad S. H.
Borges, C. C. Durigan, M. R. Pinheiro, J. L. C. Camargo
& A. Murchie, pp.3-14; Caracterizagao das Janelas para a
Biodiversidade do Parque Nacional do Jad M. R. Pinhei-

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

ro & S. H. Borges, pp.19-28. Secao 2 Pesquisas Sociais.
Dinamica da populacao humana nos rios do Parque Nacio-
nal do Jad M. R. Pinheiro & A. B. Macedo, pp.43-61;
As condiqoes de vida e uso dos recursos pelos moradores do
Parque Nacional do Jad M. P. S. R. Chaves, J. P. Abreu
& E Binda, pp.63-78. Secao 3 Inventarios Biol6gicos.
5. Biodiversidade de algas planctonicas do Parque Nacio-
nal do Jad: Janela Seringalzinho S. Melo, M. G. Sophia,
M. Menezes & C. A. Souza, pp.83-92; 6. As palmeiras da
regiao do Seringalzinho C. V. Castilho, pp.95-102; 7.
A vegetacao ao long de um gradiente edafico no Parque
Nacional do Jad A. Vicentini, pp.105-131; 8. Araneo-
fauna na regiao do Seringalzinho C. S. Azevedo & M.
Smith, pp.135-141; 9. Tabanidae (Insecta: Diptera) do
Parque Nacional do Jad. II A. L. Henriques, pp.143-
151; 10. Formigas do Parque Nacional do Jad: Uma pri-
meira analise H. L. Vasconcelos, N. J. Fraga & J. M. S.
Vilhena, pp.153-160; 11. Anfibios, lagartos e serpentes do
Parque Nacional do Jad S. Neckel-Oliveira & M. Gordo,
pp.161-173; 12. Inventario de aves no Parque Nacional
do Jad utilizando a abordagem do Projeto Janelas para a
Biodiversidade S. H. Borges, pp.177-192; 13. Levan-
tamento de mamfferos diurnos de mddio e grande porte
no Parque Nacional do Jad: Resultados preliminares S.
Iwanaga, pp.195-207. Segao 4 Uso de Recursos Natu-
rais. 14. A caca e a pesca no Parque Nacional do Jad J. C.
B. Pezzuti, G. H. Rebelo, D. E Silva, J. P. Lima & M. C.
Ribeiro pp.213-228; 15. 0 extrativismo de cip6s (He-
teropsis spp., Araceae) no Parque Nacional do Jad C. C.
Durigan & C. V. Castilho, pp.231-242; 16. Praticas agri-
culturais dos moradores do Parque Nacional do Jad S. H.
Borges, F Filoni & I. C. Siqueira, pp.245-253. Segao Final
- Sfntese e Avaliacao. 17. Projeto Janelas a Biodiversidade:
Avaliacao e perspectives -J. L. C. Camargo, S. H. Borges,
C. C. Durigan, M. R. Pinheiro & S. Iwanaga, pp. 259-
273. Para comprar: ligue para (Oxx92) 642 7866/4559 ou
escreva para informando o seu enderego
complete para cilculo de taxas postais.

Los Mamiferos de la Argentina, y la Region Austral de Suda-
mirica, by Anfbal Parera, with photographs by Francisco
Erize. 2002. Editorial El Ateneo, Buenos Aires. 454pp.
ISBN 950-02-8536-3 (hardback), US$59.30. This superb
book presents an overview of the mammal fauna of Argen-
tina, illustrated with careful line drawings and excellent
photographs. An accomplished conservationist, Parera has
selected 108 native species from 13 orders to represent the
full diversity of Argentine mammals. Each family, when
possible, is represented by at least one species, and for
those orders with exceptional diversity-notably bats and
rodents-there is at least one example of each major feed-
ing guild or ecomorph. In addition, owing to their broad
interest and visual appeal, there is a particular focus on the
ungulates, edentates and carnivores. The section on eden-
tates in particular is quite remarkable; the photographs
must be among the best ever published for these animals,
especially of such rare and camera-shy creatures as the fairy
armadillo and giant armadillo. Each species profiled in the
book is given a thorough dossier, including body measure-

ments and description, habitat preferences and geographic
distribution-with excellent range maps-and behavior,
ecology and conservation status. Parera has also assembled a
formidable bibliography of research on Argentinean mam-
mals, many citations of which are not well known in North
America. The primates profiled in the text include Alouatta
caraya, Aotus azarai, and Cebus ,q,//ia, with additional in-
formation on other primates of southern South America.
Aside from its value as a compilation of Argentine mam-
malogy, this book is a wonder to page through, and-rare
among books in this field-would be just as appropriate for
a child who delights in mammals as for the adult who stud-
ies them. Available from the publisher's website at www.elateneo.com>.

On Human Nature: 25th Anniversary Edition, by Edward
0. Wilson. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
2004. ISBN 0674016386 (paperback), $18.95. According
to the Harvard University Press, no one who cares about
the human future can afford to ignore Edward 0. Wilson's
book. On Human Nature begins a new phase in the most
important intellectual controversy of this generation: Is
human behavior controlled by our species' biological heri-
tage? Does this heritage limit human destiny? With char-
acteristic pungency and simplicity of style, the author of
Sociobiology challenges old prejudices and recurring mis-
conceptions about the nature-nurture debate. His goal is
nothing less than the completion of the Darwinian revolu-
tion by bringing biological thought into the center of the
social sciences and humanities. Wilson presents a philoso-
phy that cuts across the usual categories of conservative,
liberal, or radical thought. In systematically applying the
modern theory of natural selection to human society, he
arrives at conclusions far removed from the social Darwin-
ist legacy of the last century. Sociobiological theory, he
shows, is compatible with a broadly humane and egalitar-
ian outlook. But biological facts can never take the place
of ethical choices. Once we understand our human nature,
we must choose how "human" in the fullest, biological
sense, we wish to remain. We cannot make this choice with
the aid of external guides or absolute ethical principles be-
cause our very concept of right and wrong is wholly rooted
in our own biological past. This paradox is fundamental
to the evolution of consciousness in any species; there is
no formula for escaping it. To understand its essence is
to grasp the full predicament of the human condition. In
his new preface for the 25th Anniversary Edition, E. 0.
Wilson reflects on how he came to write this book: how
The Insect Societies led him to write Sociobiology, and how
the political and religious uproar that engulfed that book
persuaded him to write another that would better explain
the relevance of biology to the understanding of human
behavior. Contents: Updated 2004 Preface, p.ix; Original
Preface, p.xix; 1: Dilemma, p.1; 2: Heredity, p.15; 3: De-
velopment, p.53; 4: Emergence, p.71; 5: Aggression, p.99;
6: Sex, p.121; 7: Altruism, p.149; 8: Religion, p.169; 9:
Hope, p.195. Available from: Harvard University Press,
79 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Website:

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004


Cristobal-Azkarate, J., Dias, P. A. D. and Vea, J. J. 2004.
Causes ofintraspecific,__> i.., i, 1.. .-7- palliata mex-
icana: Evidence from injuries, demography, and habitat.
Int. J. Primatol. 25(4): 939-953.
Dennis, J. C., Ungar, P. S., Teaford, M. E and Glander, K.
E. 2004. Dental topography and molar wear in Alouatta
palliata from Costa Rica. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 125(2):
Estrada, A., Luecke, L., Van Belle, S., Barrueta, E. and
Meda, M. R. 2004. Survey of black howler (Alouatta
pigra) and spider (Ateles rr .., i monkeys in the Mayan
sites of Calakmul and Yaxchilan, Mexico and Tikal, Gua-
temala. Primates 45(1): 33-39.
Fontenot, D. K., Gregory, C. R. and Lamberski, N. 2004.
Retrospective evaluation of renal disease in captive black
howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya). J. Zoo ., Med.
35(3): 292-302.
Goncalves, E. C., Silva, A., Barbosa, M. S. R. and Sch-
neider, M. P. C. 2004. Isolation and characterization of
microsatellite loci in Amazonian red-handed howlers Al-
ouatta belzebul (Primates, Platyrrhini). Molec. Ecol. Notes
4(3): 406-408.
Guedes, D. and Young, R. J. 2004. A case of pseudo-preg-
nancy in captive brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guar-
iba). Folia Primatol. 75(5): 335-338.
Jones, C. B. and Young, J. 2004. Hunting restraint by Cre-
oles at the Community Baboon Sanctuary, Belize: A pre-
liminary survey. J. Appl. Anim. Welf Sci. 7(2): 127-141.
Kitchen, D. M., Horwich, R. H. and James, R. A. 2004.
Subordinate male black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra)
responses to loud calls: Experimental evidence for the ef-
fects of intra-group male relationships and age. Behaviour
141(6): 703-723.
Knopff, K. H., Knopff, A. R. A. and Pavelka, M. S. M.
2004. Observed case of infanticide committed by a resi-
dent male Central American black howler monkey (Al-
ouatta pigra). Am. J. Primatol. 63(4): 239-244.

Castillo, F, Guerrero, C., Trujillo, E., Delgado, G., Mar-
tinez, P., Salazar, L. M., Barato, P., Patarroyo, M. E. and
Parra-Lopez, C. 2004. Identifying and structurally char-
acterizing CD1b in Aotus nancymaae owl monkeys. Im-
munogenetics 56(7): 480-489.
Chambers, C. M., Gossett, J. E. and Evans, S. 2004. Sniff-
ing their way around: Observations on captive owl mon-
keys. Lab. Prim. Newsl. 43(3): 5-7.
Gibbons, A. 2004. Seeing what an extinct monkey saw. Sci-
ence 304(5672): 819.

Campbell, C. J. 2004. Patterns of behavior across repro-
ductive states of free-ranging female black-handed spider
monkeys (Ateles .rr .., i. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 124(2):

Hasegawa, H., Ikeda, Y., Diaz-Aquino, J. J. and Fukui, D.
2004. Redescription of two pinworms from the black-
handed spider monkey, Ateles .. rr .-i with reestablish-
ment of Oxyuronema and Buckleyenterobius (Nematoda:
Oxyuroidea). Comp. Parasitol. 71(2): 166-174.
Isler, K. 2004. Footfall patterns, stride length and speed of
vertical climbing in spider monkeys (Ateles fusciceps ro-
bustus) and woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha). Folia
Primatol. 75(3): 133-149.

Carvalho Jr., 0. de, Ferrari, S. F and Strier, K. B. 2004.
Diet of a muriqui group (Brachyteles arachnoides) in con-
tinuous primary forest. Primates 45(3): 201-204.

Bicca-Marques, J. C. and Garber, P. A. 2004. Use of spatial,
visual, and olfactory information during foraging in wild
nocturnal and diurnal anthropoids: A field experiment
comparing Aotus, Callicebus, and Saguinus. Am. J. Prima-
tol. 62(3): 171-187.
Coq, J. 0., Qi, H. X., Collins, C. E. and Kaas, J. H. 2004.
Anatomical and functional organization of somatosensory
areas of the lateral fissure of the New World titi monkey
(C .... moloch). J. Comp. Neurol. 476(4): 363-387.

Barros, M., de Souza Silva, M. A., Huston, J. P. and Tomaz,
C. 2004. Multibehavioral analysis of fear and anxiety
before, during, and after experimentally induced preda-
tory stress in C .-' penicillata. Pharmacol. Biochem.
Behav. 78(2): 357-367.
Bergers, W. W. A., van de Meent-van der Horst, D. and
Joosen, M. J. A. 2004. Respiration-based measurement of
lung deposition of a fluorescent dextrane aerosol in a mar-
moset monkey. Inhalation Toxicology 16(3): 141-146.
Blessing, E. M., Solomon, S. G., Hashemi-Nezhad, M.,
Morris, B. J. and Martin, P. R. 2004. Chromatic and
spatial properties of parvocellular cells in the lateral ge-
niculate nucleus of the marmoset (C .- jacchus). J.
Physiol. 557(1): 229-245.
Caine, N. 2004. CRES conservation corner: Three's com-
pany, marmoset triplets. Zoonooz77(9): 8-9.
Caldwell, C. A. and Whiten, A. 2004. Testing for social
learning and imitation in common marmosets, (
jacchus, using an artificial fruit. Anim. Cognition 7(2):
Chamove, A. S. and Goldsborough, S. 2004. Callitrichid
monkey branch preference. Lab. Prim. Newsl. 43(2): 1-
Cross, N. and Rogers, L. J. 2004. Diurnal cycle in salivary
cortisol levels in common marmosets. Developmental Psy-
S.'..,"..'. i 4A (3): 134-139.
Danilova, V. and Hellekant, G. 2004. Sense of taste in a
New World monkey, the common marmoset. II: Link be-
tween behavior and nerve activity. J. Neurophysiol. 92(2):
Francisco, E. 2004. Monkey love: Male marmosets think
highly of sex. Science News 165(8): 117.

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

Gerber, P. and Schnell, C. R. 2004. Behavioral and car-
diophysiological responses of common marmosets (Cal-
lithrix jacchus) to confrontations with opposite-sexed
strangers. Primates 45(3): 187-196.
Hankerson, S. J. and Caine, N. G. 2004. Pre-retirement
predator encounters alter the morning behavior of cap-
tive marmosets (C .-' ,r...r' .. i. Am. J. Primatol.
63(2): 75-85.
Hatt, J. M., Grest, P., Posthaus, H. and Bossart, W. 2004.
Serologic survey in a colony of captive common mar-
mosets ((C .- jacchus) after infection with herpes
simplex type 1-like virus. J. Zoo 1 -- Med. 35(3):

Alport, L. J. 2004. Comparative analysis of the role of ol-
faction and the neocortex in primate intrasexual compe-
tition. Anat. Rec. 281A(1): 1182-1189.
Anonymous. 2004. Pygmy marmosets born at Connecti-
cut's Beardsley Zoo. AZA Communique (American Zoo
& Aquarium Association) (December): 38.

Brosnan, S. F. and de Waal, F. B. M. 2004. A concept
of value during experimental exchange in brown ca-
puchin monkeys, Cebus 7,i/,it. Folia Primatol. 75(5):
Brosnan, S. F. and de Waal, E B. M. 2004. Socially learned
preferences for differentially rewarded tokens in the
brown capuchin monkey (Cebus ,ijc/ll). J. Comp. Psy-
chol. 118(2): 133-139.
Cleveland, A., Rocca, A. M., Wendt, E. L. and Wester-
gaard, G. C. 2004. Transport of tools to food sites in
tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus ,',c'//,i). Anim. Cogni-
tion 7(3): 193-198.
Coulibaly, C., Hack, R., Seidl, J., Chudy, M., Itter, G.
and Plesker, R. 2004. A natural asymptomatic Herpes
B virus infection in a colony of laboratory brown ca-
puchin monkeys (Cebus ,a'c'//). Lab. Anim. 38(4):
de Resende, B. D., Mannu, M., Izar, P. and Ottoni, E. B.
2004. Interaction between capuchins and coatis: Nona-
gonistic behaviors and lack of predation. Int. J. Primatol.
25(6): 1213-1224.
Evans, T. A. and Westergaard, G. C. 2004. Discrimination
of functionally appropriate and inappropriate throwing
tools by captive tufted capuchins (Cebus ,'c/l/a). Anim.
Cognition 7(4): 255-262.
Fedigan, L. M. and Jack, K. M. 2004. The demographic
and reproductive context of male replacements in Cebus
capucinus. Behaviour 141(6): 755-775.
Fragaszy, D., Izar, P., Visalberghi, E., Ottoni, E. B. and de
Oliveira, M. G. 2004. Wild capuchin monkeys (Cebus
libidinosus) use anvils and stone pounding tools. Am. J.
Primatol. 64(4): 359-366.
Gros-Louis, J. 2004. Responses of white-faced capuchins
(Cebus capucinus) to naturalistic and experimentally pre-
sented food-associated calls. J. Comp. Psychol. 118(4):

Di Fiore, A. and Fleischer, R. C. 2004. Microsatel-
lite markers for woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha)
and their amplification in other New World primates
(Primates: Platyrrhini). Molec. Ecol. Notes 4(2):
Di Fiore, A. 2004. Diet and feeding ecology of woolly mon-
keys in a western Amazonian rain forest. Int. J. Primatol.
25(4): 767-801.

Anonymous. 2004. Tamarins turn up at Woodland Park
Zoo. AZA Communique (American Zoo & Aquarium As-
sociation) (August): 41.
Britt, A., Welch, C. and Katz, A. 2004. Can small, isolated
primate populations be effectively reinforced through the
release of individuals from a captive population? Biol.
Conserv. 115(2): 319-327.
Burity, C. H. E, Pissinatti, A. and Mandarim-de-Lacerda,
C. A. 2004. Stereology of the liver in three species of Le-
ontopithecus Lesson, 1840 Callitrichidae-Primates. Anato-
mia, Histologia, Embryologia33(3): 183-187.
Gerbault-Serreau, M., Bonnet-Garnier, A., Richard, E and
Dutrillaux, B. 2004. Chromosome painting comparison
of Leontopithecus chrysomelas (Callitrichinae, Platyrrhini)
with man and its phylogenetic position. Chromosome Res.
12(7): 691-701.
Hoelzle, L. E., Corboz, L., Ossent, P. and Wittenbrink,
M. M. 2004. Tularaemia in a captive golden-headed lion
tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysomelas) in Switzerland. Vet-
erinary Rec. 155(2): 60-61.

Anderson, J. R., Kuroshima, H., Kuwahata, H. and Fujita,
K. 2004. Do squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) and ca-
puchin monkeys (Cebus ,iIc//i) predict that looking leads
to touching? Anim. Cognition 7(3): 185-192.
Lieberman, D. E., Krovitz, G. E., Yates, F W, Devlin, M.
and St. Claire, M. 2004. Effects of food processing on
masticatory strain and craniofacial growth in a retrogna-
thic face. J. Hum. Evol. 46(6): 655-677.
Lyons, D. M., Yang, C., Eliez, S., Reiss, A. L. and Schatz-
berg, A. E 2004. Cognitive correlates of white matter
growth and stress hormones in female squirrel monkey
adults. J. Neuroscience 24(14): 3655-3662.

Fernandez, E. J., Dorey, N. and Rosales-Ruiz, J. 2004. A
two-choice preference assessment with five cotton-top
tamarins (Saguinus oedipus). J. Appl. Anim. Welf Sci. 7(3):
Huck, M., Loettker, P. and Heymann, E. W. 2004. Proxi-
mate mechanisms of reproductive monopolization in
male moustached tamarins (Saguinus mystax). Am. J. Pri-
matol. 64(1): 39-56.
Huck, M., Loettker, P. and Heymann, E. W. 2004. The
many faces of helping: Possible costs and benefits of infant
carrying and food transfer in wild moustached tamarins
(Saguinus mystax). Behaviour 141(7): 915-934.

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

Leong, K. M., Terrell, S. P. and Savage, A. 2004. Causes of
mortality in captive cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedi-
pus). Zoo Biol. 23(2): 127-137.
Loettker, P., Huck, M. and Heymann, E. W. 2004. Demo-
graphic parameters and events in wild moustached tama-
rins (Saguinus mystax). Am. J. Primatol. 64(4): 425-449.
Loettker, P., Huck, M., Heymann, E. W. and Heistermann,
M. 2004. Endocrine correlates of reproductive status in
breeding and nonbreeding wild female moustached tama-
rins. Int. J. Primatol. 25(4): 919-937.

Alport, L. J. 2004. Comparative analysis of the role of olfac-
tion and the neocortex in primate intrasexual competi-
tion. Anat. Rec. 281A(1): 1182-1189.
Anderson, M. J., Hessel, J. K. and Dixson, A. E 2004. Pri-
mate mating systems and the evolution of immune re-
sponse. J. Reprod. Immunol. 61(1): 31-38.
Anonymous. 2004. From war to conservation in El Salva-
dor. CC Update (Community Conservation, Inc.) 15(1): 2.
Anonymous. 2004. Evolution of primate sense of smell and
full trichromatic color vision. PLOS Biology 2(1): 9.
Boyer, D., Miramontes, 0., Ramos-Fernandez, G., Mateos,
J. L. and Cocho, G. 2004. Modeling the searching behav-
ior of social monkeys. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and
Its Applications 342(1-2): 329-335.
Brito, D. 2004. Lack of adequate taxonomic knowledge
may hinder endemic mammal conservation in the Brazil-
ian Atlantic Forest. Biodiv. Conserv. 13(11): 2135-2144.
Bush, E. C. and Allman, J. M. 2004. Three-dimensional
structure and evolution of primate primary visual cortex.
Anat. Rec. 281A(1): 1088-1094.
Carlsson, H. E., Schapiro, S. J., Farah, I. and Hau, J. 2004.
Use of primates in research: A global overview. Am. J. Pri-
matol. 63(4): 225-237.
Coleman, M. N. and Ross, C. F. 2004. Primate auditory
diversity and its influence on hearing performance. Anat.
Rec. 281A(1): 1123-1137.
Collen, B., Purvis, A. and Gittleman, J. L. 2004. Biological
correlates of description date in carnivores and primates.
Global Ecology and Biogeography 13(5): 459-467.
Collins, A. C. 2004. Atelinae phylogenetic relationships:
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Selected abstracts from the 16th Meeting of the Italian
Primatological Society, Convento dell'Osservanza, Radi-
condoli, Italy, 28-30 October 2003. In: Folia Primato-
logica 75(6): 385-414. Guest editors: D. Formenti and
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Addessi, E. & Visalberghi, E. The role of individual learn-
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Bartolommei, P. & Poti, P. The use of landmarks for spatial
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Bigatti, M. P., Bovio, B. & Piccinini, R. Didactic experience
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Carosi, M., Civai, A. & Cozzolino, R. Non-human primates
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Lagan, T., Truppa, V. & Spinozzi, G. Manual asymmetries in
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Truppa, V., Spinozzi, G. & De Lillo, C. The importance of
spatial organisation of parts for visual stimulus recognition
in capuchin monkeys (Cebus ,ij/''i), pp.397-398.

Selected abstracts from the XXth Congress of the Interna-
tional Primatological Society (IPS), 22-28 August 2004,
Torino, Italy. In: Folia Primatologica 75 (Suppl. 1): 1-450.
Guest editors: Cristina Giacoma, Daniele Formenti, and
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Factors affecting preferences for novel and familiar food in
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Agoramoorthy, G. & Hsu, M. J. Welfare, enrichment and
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Anzenberger, G., Steiner, L. & Rohr, R. von C. The taxo-
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Aronson, G. P. The energetic of positional behaviour and
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Arruda, M. E, Aradijo, A., Sousa, M. B. C., Albuquerque, E
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Arruda, M. F., Queiroz, J. S. G., Wattori, W. T., Nascimen-
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Ascunce, M., Hasson, E., Zunino, G. & Mudry, M. Mito-
chondrial DNA phylogeography of Alouatta caraya popu-
lations of northeastern Argentina, p.356.

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

Aureli, E Is reconciliation an artifact of captivity? p.75.
Aureli, F, Boesch, C. & Schaffner, C. Fission-fusion societ-
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Bard, K. A. Innovations in theory and methods in compara-
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Beck, J., Altmann, J., Flesness, N., Ryder, 0. & Weiss, M.
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Boinski, S. The beats of different drummers: Percussion as
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Bowell, V., Buchanan-Smith, H. M. & Morris, K. The
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Box, H. Lifetime contribution award: Callitrichids and
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Costa da Silva, A. L. da, Carepo, M., Azevedo, J., Sampaio,
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Davis, N., Schaffner, C. M. & Wehnelt, S. The context,
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De Lillo, C., Spinnozi, G. & Truppa, V. Sensitivity to the
spatial organization of the component parts of visual
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Deputte, B. L. & Menard, N. Welfare of captive primates:
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Deputte, B. L., Peretta, G. & Vitale, A. The welfare of
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Farmer, H., Pullen, K. & Garrett, N. Preliminary investi-
gations into howling vocalisations and associated behav-
ioural patterns in captive black-and-gold howler mon-
keys (Alouatta caraya), p.373.
Farrand, A. & Buchanan-Smith, H. M. Integrating zoo
visitors into olfactory enrichment programmes for cap-
tive primates, pp.373-374.
Fernandez-Duque, E. Cathemerality and lunarphilia in
owl monkeys of the Argentinean Chaco, p.67.
Fernandez-Duque, E. High levels of intra-sexual competi-
tion in sexually monomorphic owl monkeys, p.260.
Ferrari, S. F, Lima, E. M., Silva, S. S. B. da & Veiga, L. M.
Conservation of remnant populations of bearded sakis

(Chiropotes satanas) in the Tucuruf Reservoir, southeastern
Amazonia, pp.260-261.
Ferrari, S. E, Silva, S. S. B. da, Pereira, A. P. C. P., Port-Car-
valho, M., Santos, R. R. & Veiga, L. M. Rethinking the
ecology of eastern Amazonian bearded sakis (Chiropotes
satanas), p.261.
Ferrari, S. E, Ghilardi, R., Lima, E. M., Pina, A. L. C. B. &
Martins, S. S. Tucuruf fifteen years on: Long-term effects
of reservoir flooding on primate populations in southeast-
ern Amazonia, p.262.
Figueiredo, W. B., Harada, M. L., Silva, J. M. C. da &
Bates, J. M. Molecular phylogeography and conservation
of the pitheciines, pp.262-263.
Figueiredo, W. B., Tejedor, M. F, Harada, M. L., Silva, J.
M. C. da & Bates, J. M. Platyrrhine divergence time esti-
mates using Bayesian statistics, p.375.
Fontenot, M. B. & Roberts, K. A. Capuchin monkeys
(Cebus i,c/l1i) and cooperation decisions, pp.263-264.
Fragaszy, D. & Christel, M. I. Current research on manual
function in primates, p.81.
Fragaszy, D., Crast, J. & Matsuzawa, T. Intrinsic move-
ments of the hands of chimpanzees and capuchin mon-
keys, p.83.
French, J. A., Fite, J. E. & Bales, K. L. Up and down regu-
lation of maternal behaviour in marmosets and tamarins,
Galloway, A. & Addessi, E. Food neophobia: Comparing
capuchin monkeys and children, p.266.
Garber, P. A., Bicca-Marques, J. C. & Azevedo-Lopes, M.
A. 0. An experimental field study of the effects of social
rank and patch size on emperor and saddleback tamarin
foraging decisions, pp.100-101.
Gillespie, T. R. & Chapman, C. A. Forest fragmentation
alters primate parasite dynamics: Implications for primate
health and conservation, p.267.
Gomes, U. R., Tomaz, C. & Pessoa, V. F Influence of stim-
uli size on colour vision discrimination of capuchin mon-
keys, pp.189-190.
Gomes, U. R., Tomaz, C. & Pessoa, V. F Do tufted capuchin
monkeys show large field trichromacy?, pp.378-379.
G6mez-Posada, C. Use of space by a group of brown ca-
puchin Cebus ,',c//,t in the Colombian Amazon forest,
G6mez-Posada, C., Kattan, G., Martinez, J. & Giraldo, P.
Home range, habitat use, and density of red howler mon-
keys in a Colombian cloud forest, pp.267-268.
Hattori, Y., Kuroshima, H. & Fujita, K. Spontaneous co-
operative problem solving in capuchin monkeys (Cebus
.,c/ll.), p.270.
Heymann, E. W. The neglected sense-olfaction in primate
behaviour, ecology and evolution, pp.45-46.
Heymann, E. W. Scent-marking strategies in New World
primates, p.50.
Hines, J. J. H. Survey of Ateles ...rr .., in Parque Nacional
Pico Bonito, Honduras, p.274.
Hiramatsu, C., Aureli, E, Fedigan, L. & Kawamura, S.
Testing spectral tuning residues of visual pigments and
colour-vision typing of wild New World monkeys in
Costa Rica, p.191.

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

Hodgkinson, C., Kirkby, C. & Milner, E. J. The impact
of tourism on Neotropical primate behaviour in Tam-
bopata, Peru, pp.42-43.
Holbrook, G. D., Chambers, C. M. & Evans, S. Seasonal
breeding in captive owl monkeys, p.276.
Hubrecht, R. C. Welfare considerations for the manage-
ment and breeding of captive New World monkeys,
Ishikawa, S., Kuroshima, H. & Fijita, K. Conceptualiza-
tion and representation of abstract relations in capuchin
monkeys (Cebus a,'c//i), pp.384-385.
Izar, P., Resende, B. D., Verderane, M. P. & Ferreira, R. G.
Reproduction in semi-free-ranging capuchin monkeys
(Cebus .ai//.), p.284.
Jacobs, G. H. & Rowe, M. P. Photopigments and colour
vision polymorphisms: Are all pigments created equal?
Janson, C. Thinking ahead: Does spatial foraging select for
prospective thought? p.100.
Kauffman, L. M., Ehmke, E. E. & Boinski, S. Increased
male-male cooperation among brown capuchin monkeys
(Cebus .,'c//) in Suriname, pp.287-288.
Kierulff, M. C. M. Conservation measures for primates in
the Atlantic Forest, pp.208-209.
Laska, M. & Wieser, A. Challenging the dogma of 'mi-
crosmatic' primates-olfactory performance in squirrel
monkeys and pigtail macaques, p.46.
Link, A. & De Luna, A. G. The importance of Oenocarpus
bataua (Arecaceae) in the diet of spider monkeys at Ti-
nigua National Park, Colombia, p.391.
Link, A., Spehar, S. N. & Di Fiore, A. Sex differences
in behaviour in sympatric spider and woolly monkeys,
Lopes, F. A., Lopes, N. A., Santos, B. G. A. C. L. & Yama-
moto, M. E. Feeding competition in captive (
jacchus families, p.391.
MacKinnon, K. C. Individual variation in the appearance
of social behaviours in infant capuchin monkeys (Cebus
capucinus) in Costa Rica, pp.296-297.
MacLarnon, A. & Ross, C. Diets, brains and guts: Correla-
tions and their evolutionary significance, p.297.
Manciocco, A., Puopolo, M. & Vitale, A. Animal welfare
and enrichment: A preference study in the common mar-
moset (( .-' jacchus), pp.297-298.
Manson, J. H. & Perry, S. Reunions following separation:
Negotiating uncertain relationships? pp.146-147.
Mantini, S., Bruner, E. & Manzi, G. A geometric morpho-
metric approach to airorhynchy and functional morphol-
ogy in the skull of Alouatta, p.218.
Marsh, L. K. Primate-based community education, p.35.
Martinez-Mota, R., Valdespino-Quevedo, C. & Sanchez-
Ramos, M. A. Faecal cortisol levels as a measurement of
stress due to habitat fragmentation in wild black howler
monkeys (Alouattapigra) in Mexico, p.299.
Mattle, E, Benz, B. & Anzenberger, G. Experimentally in-
duced polygyny in two callitrichid species: Comparison
between ( .-' and Callimico, p.394.
McCallister, J. M., Smith, T. E. & Elwood, R. W. Compar-
ison of the behavioral physiological disposition across

the callitrichid family in captive versus free-ranging envi-
ronments, p.300.
McDermott, P. & Smith, T. E. Individual olfactory signa-
tures in common marmosets, .- jacchus, p.48.
Mendes, S. L. Conservation of muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxan-
thus) in Atlantic Forest fragments, pp.209-210.
Mittermeier, R. A. Primate conservation in the 21st Centu-
ry-a global overview, pp.201-202.
Mittermeier, R. A. & Rylands, A. B. Primate conservation in
the 21st Century-an update, p.201.
Mondrag6n-Ceballos, R. & Anaya-Huertas, C. Affiliation
networks in captive black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles
..rr .., 1, p.396.
Montiel-Castro, A. J., Mondrag6n-Ceballos, R. & Landaluce,
D. 'Direct exchange' and possible 'barter', pp.305-306.
Mora, L., Garcia, M. & Ponsa, M. Chromosomal territories
in evolutive rearranged primate chromosomes, p.6.
Morales Hernandez, K. Survey of black-handed spider
monkey Ateles ..-rr .., populations in El Salvador, Central
America, pp.306-307.
Moura, A. de A. C. & Lee, P. C. Tool-use as an ecological
strategy for survival in a harsh environment among Cebus
.q.'/'/, libidinosus, p.252.
Moura, A. de A. C. & Lee, P. C. Foraging activity of Cebus
,.c/'/lt libidinosus in the Caatinga dry forest: The role of
males as food provider, pp.369-370.
Mundy, N. I. & Cook, S. Molecular genetics and olfactory
communication in primates, p.47.
Muniz, L. S. B., Perry, S., Manson, J. H., Gros-Louis, J. &
Vigilant, L. Genetic assessment of male reproductive suc-
cess in wild white-faced capuchin monkeys, p.310.
Mufioz-Delgado, J., Corsi-Cabrera, M., Canales-Espinosa,
D., Santillan-Doherty, A. M. & Erkert, H. G. Geophysical
variables and the rest/activity rhythm in the spider monkey
Ateles ..rr .p. p.398.
Newman, J. D. & Becker, M. L. Comparative primate bio-
acoustics: Development of the isolation call in squirrel
monkeys and common marmosets, p.198.
Nishimura, A. Grooming interactions of woolly monkeys,
Lagothrix lagothricha, at La Macarena, Colombia, p.401.
Norconk, M. A. & DeGama-Blanchet, N. Male-male
proximity suggests that sex-specific social preferences
exist in Venezuelan white-faced sakis (Pithecia pithecia),
Ottoni, E. & Resende, B. D. Watching the best nut-crack-
ers: What capuchins know about others' tool-using abili-
ties, pp.315-316.
Padua, S. M. The Black Lion Tamarin Conservation Educa-
tion Programme, p.36.
Pertz-Ruiz, A. & Mondrag6n-Ceballos, R. Differences in
social interactions during feeding periods in free-ranging
spider monkeys (Ateles ...rr .., i, p.316.
Perry, S. & Manson, J. H. Wild white-faced capuchins need
to cool down before they can reconcile, p.76.
Pessoa, D. M. A., Tomaz, C. & Pessoa, V. F Colour vision
in callitrichids: Advantages of polymorphic trichromacy,
Piazza, S., Pizzigalli, C., Boscarol, G., Gamba, M., Mar-
tinoli, L., Fiore, R., Falcone, I. & Giacoma, C. Acoustic

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

features of loud call in a group of Alouatta palliata mexi-
cana: Individual differences and connections with age,
Pines, M. K., Kaplan, G. & Rogers, L. J. Stressors of common
marmosets (( .-' jacchus) in the captive environment:
Effects on behaviour and cortisol levels, pp.317-318.
Pollo, S. & Augusto, V. Towards a new definition of the
concept of refinement, pp.132-133.
Ponce, G., Cano, E., Andresen, E. & Cuar6n, A. Seed dis-
persal by two species of primates and secondary dispersal
by dung beetles of the Ram6n tree (Brosimum alicastrum)
in Tikal National Park, Guatemala, p.318.
Poti, P., Bartolommei, P. & Saporiti, M. No configurational
use of landmarks by capuchins, p.319.
Prescott, M. J., Buchanan-Smith, H. M. & Smith, A. C.
Social interaction modifies a learned food aversion in
single- and mixed-species troops of tamarins, p.12.
Pryce, C. R., Dettling, A. C., Feldon, J. & Martin, R. D.
Causes and consequences of parental care in the common
marmoset, p.52.
Pullen, K. The EEP Studbook for the white-faced saki
monkey (Pithecia pithecia): A tool for interpreting
minimum standards of welfare in zoological parks,
Ramos-Fernandez, G., Boyer, D., Miramontes, 0., Mateos,
J. L., Cocho, G. & Larralde, H. Ecological causes of fis-
sion-fusion: A computer modeling approach, p. 140.
Ramos-Fernandez, G., Vick, L. G., Aureli, F, Schaffner, C.
& Taub, D. M. Use of secondary forest by spider mon-
keys, pp.406-407.
Rapaport, L. G. & Ruiz-Miranda, C. R. Provisioning of
young in two populations of wild golden lion tamarins
(Leontopithecus rosalia), pp.322-323.
Resende, M. C., Tavares, M. C. H. & Tomaz, C. Ontoge-
netic dissociation of memory systems in capuchin mon-
keys, p.325.
Riba-Hernandez, P., Stoner, K. E. & Lucas, P. W. The im-
portance of trichromacy for detecting monosaccharide-
rich fruits in spider monkeys, p.188.
Righini, N. & Rico-Gray, V. Germination of Ficus perforata
(urostigma) seeds ingested by howler (Alouatta palliata
mexicana) and spider (Ateles, ...rr.. vellerosus) monkeys,
Riviello, M. C. & Wirz, A. A colony of tufted capuchins
(Cebus, ,c/'I/ ) in captivity: Demographic and reproductive
data, p.327.
Rogers, J. The potential impact of increased access to pri-
mate genetic and genomic resources on evolutionary pri-
matology and biomedical research, pp.168-169.
Rogers, L. & Kaplan, G. Ageing, hand preferences and cog-
nition in common marmosets, pp.327-328.
Rbnn, A. C., Bruford, M., Crouau-Roy, B., Domingo-
Roura, X., Doxiadis, G., Rocchi, M., Verschoor, E., Zis-
chler, H. & Syvainen, A. C. Evaluation of whole genome
amplification for genotyping of non-human primate
DNA, pp.171-172.
Rose, A. L. Consuming primates-factors that will promote
and deter human consumption of other primates in the
21" Century, pp.207-208.

Ruiz-Herrera, A., Garcia, E, Giulotto, E., Attolini, C.,
Egozcue, J., Ponsa, M. & Garcia, M. Intrachromosomal
telomeric-like repeats on Cebus aj,'i,// (Primates) chromo-
somes, p.5.
Ryder, 0. A., Houck, M. L., Chemnick, L. G., Beck, J.,
Altmann, J. & Flesness, N. Linking primate biomaterials
resources with primate conservation efforts, p. 167.
Rylands, A. B. Taxonomic issues and the diversity of
Neotropical primates, p.203.
Sabbatini, G., Stammati, M., Tavares, M. C. H. & Visal-
berghi, E. Capuchin-human interactions in the Parque
Nacional de Brasilia, Brasil, pp.328-329.
Saito, A., Mikami, A., Ueno, Y., Kawamura, S., Widayati,
K. A., Suryobroto, B., Mori, Y., Teramoto, M. & Hasega-
wa, T. Advantage of dichromats over trichromats in dis-
crimination of colour-camouflaged stimuli, p. 186.
Savage, A. Conservation education programmes for pri-
mates: Community involvement in primate conservation
programmes, pp.34-35.
Savage, A., Giraldo, H., LaRotta, C. & Guillen, R. Devel-
oping a conservation education programme for rural and
urban audiences in Colombia, p.37.
Schaffner, C. M. & Aureli, E Problems and solutions for
conflict management in fission-fusion societies, p. 146.
Schultz-Darken, N. Investigation of appetitive sexual be-
haviour in the common marmoset using sexual condi-
tioning and functional magnetic resonance imaging,
Schiel, N. & Huber, L. Aspects of social learning mecha-
nisms in free-living common marmosets, p.410.
Scharauf, C., Voelkl, B. & Huber, L. The response of infant
marmosets towards novel food, pp.410-41 1.
Schwindt, D. M., Carillo, G. A., Bravo, J. J., Di Fiore, A.
& Fernandez-Duque, E. Comparative socioecology of
monogamous primates in the Amazon and Gran Chaco,
Setchell, J. M. Alternative reproductive tactics in primates,
Slater, K., Schaffner, C. & Aureli, E Female dispersal and
male philopatry: Effects on quality of social relationships
in spider monkeys, p.416.
Smith, A. C., Buchanan-Smith, H. M., Surridge, A. &
Mundy, N. Effects of colour vision on group spread within
wild mixed-species troops of tamarins (Saguinusfuscicollis
and Saguinus mystax), p.185.
Snowdon, C. T., Boe, C. Y., Cronin, K. A., Joyce, S.
M., Kurian, A. V., Moscovice, L. R. & Roskos, T. R.
Cooperative cognition in cooperatively breeding tama-
rins, p. 11.
Snowdon, C. T., Ferris, C., King, J. A., Ziegler, T. E., Schul-
tz-Darken, N. A. & Olson, D. P. Non-invasive imaging
of neural pathways activated by odours from ovulating
female common marmosets, p.222.
Spinozzi, G., Truppa, V. & Lagana, T. How tufted capu-
chins (Cebus ,i//Ii) use their hands to prehend small food
items, pp.338-339.
Sri Kantha, S., Koda, H. & Suzuki, J. Basic rest activity
cycle (BRAC) rhythm and vocal repertoire of owl mon-
keys (Aotus sp.), p.417.

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

Stoner, K. E., Riba-Hernandez, P. & Lucas, P. W. Compara-
tive use of colour vision for frugivory by sympatric species
of platyrrhines, pp.187-188.
Stanyon, R. The last fifty years of primate cytogenetics, p.4.
Strier, K. B. Long-term research and conservation of north-
ern muriquis at the Biological Station of Caratinga, Minas
Gerais, Brazil, p.210.
Suarez, S. S., Bbhle, U. R., Jolly, C. J. & Disotell, T. R.
Behavioural and genetic data illustrate alternative repro-
ductive strategies in monogamous groups of wild red-bel-
lied tamarins (Saguinus labiatus) in northwestern Bolivia,
Surridge, A. K., Suarez, S. S., Buchanan-Smith, H. M.,
Smith, A. C. & Mundy, N. I. Distribution of colour vision
phenotypes in wild tamarins, p. 184.
Takai, M., Nishimura, T., Shigehara, N. & Setoguchi, T. The
first osteomorphological evidence for the diurnal ancestry
of the owl monkey, Aotus, p.343.
Talebi, M. G. The conservation of the southern muriquis
(Brachyteles arachnoides arachnoides) in Sao Paulo State,
Brazil, p.209.
Talebi, M. G. Digesta passage time in southern muriquis
(Brachyteles arachnoides, Atelidae), p.344.
Talebi, M. G. & Dominy, N. J. Evolution and molecular
basis for colour vision in the muriqui (Brachyteles arach-
noides), p. 190.
Tardif, S. D. & Power, M. L. Effects of energetic constraints
upon maternal behaviour in a small, cooperatively breed-
ing primate, pp.52-53.
Travis, D. & Jones-Engel, L. Disease risk-analysis-Inte-
grating standardised health data into primate conservation
policy decision making, pp.101-102.
Urbani, B. Mining among wedge-capped capuchin monkeys
(Cebus olivaceus), pp.421-422.
Valero, A. & Byrne, R. W. How do spider monkeys find the
resources they need in Mexican dry woodland?, p.95.
Veiga, L. M. & Ferrari, S. E Predation of arthropods by
southern bearded sakis (Chiropotes satanas satanas), p.346.
Veracini, C. Anti-predator behaviour and alarm calls in the
silvery marmoset (Mico argentatus), pp.422-423.
Veracini, C. & Ruiz-Miranda, C. R. The marmosets of Rio
de Janeiro: Victims or guilty?, p.347.
Visalberghi, E. Tool-use in capuchin monkeys: The solution
to a mystery?, p. 15.
Visalberghi, E., Spinozzi, G., Poti, P., Riviello, M. & Rivi-
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Visalberghi, E., Fragaszy, D. M., Izar, P., Ottoni, E. B. &
Gomes, M. Wild capuchin monkeys use anvils and stone-
pounding tools, p.348.
Vitale, A. Social learning in Callitrichidae: Recent trends and
perspectives, p.9.
Vitale, A., Tedesco, A., Licata, E. & Puopolo, M. Response
to a manual task by the common marmoset (C .- jac-
chus), p. 10.
Voelkl, B. & Huber, L. Social foraging and social cognition
in common marmosets, pp.10-11.
Vogel, E. R., Sen, D., Sengupta, A., Stamatopoulos, G. &
Janson, C. H. A game theoretical model of within-group
coalition formation in non-human primates, pp.348-349.

Wallis, J. The risk of disease transmission in primate
ecotourism, p.43.
Wickings, E. J., Schneider, M. P. C., Costa da Silva, A. L.
da, Ferrari, S. F & Goncalves, E. C. Evolutionary genetics
of natural populations of Neotropical primates, p.166.
Williams, L. Assessment of temperament in nursery- and
dam-reared squirrel monkeys, pp.426-427.
Wolfensohn, S. E. & Honess, P. E. Welfare implications of
transporting primates, pp.131-132.
Wolovich, C. & Evans, S. Feeding behaviour of infant owl
monkeys (Aotus nancymaae): Development, food transfers
and insect foraging, p.351.
Yamamoto, M. E. & Lopes, F A. Social feeding, food com-
petition and food neophobia in captive ( .- jacchus,
Yamamoto, M. E., Domeniconi, C. & Box, H. Sex differ-
ences in a food task in captive common marmosets (Cal-
lithrix jacchus), p.427.
Zahed, S. K., Ziegler, T. E. & Snowdon, C. T. Some help
and some don't: Factors influencing infant care by non-re-
productive helpers in cotton-top tamarins, pp.352-353.
Ziegler, T. & Snowdon, C. Minimalist mothers: It takes a
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Ziegler, T., Schultz-Darken, N., Scott, J., Snowdon, C. &
Ferris, C. Social condition modulates neuroendocrine re-
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sets, C .- jacchus, p.223.


Primate Society of Great Britain 2004 Winter Meeting,
1 December 2004, Institute of Zoology, London. Theme:
"People, Primates and Conservation." Organized by Kate
Hill, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, UK, and Caroline
Ross, University of Surrey Roehampton. Speakers include:
John Fa (Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust), Anna Feist-
ner (AFP Conservation Support), Alison Jolly (University
of Sussex), Phyllis Lee (University of Cambridge), France
Maddine (Consultant in Human-Wildlife Conflict), Anna
Nekaris (Oxford Brookes University), and Nancy Priston
(University of Cambridge). The 2004 Osman Hill Lecture
will be given by Carel van Schaik. For more information:
Kate Hill, e-mail: or visit the
website at .


Biodiversity: Science and Governance: Today's Choice
for Tomorrow's Life, 24-28 January, 2005, Paris, France.
Hosted by the Ministry of Research, with additional
coordination by the Institut Francais de la Biodiversite,
the conference is part of the ongoing global effort to curb
the loss of biodiversity by 2010 and ensure the long-term

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity.
Visit the website at biodiv2005paris/en/index.htm>.

Zoos and Aquariums: Committing to Conservation, 26-
30 January, 2005, Cocoa Beach, Florida. The Brevard Zoo
will again be hosting the conference, which will continue
to examine and promote the role of zoos and aquaria in
supporting in situ field research and conservation. Contact
Beth Armstrong at for further details.
For additional ZACC information, please contact: Beth
Armstrong, Field Conservation Coordinator, 1-321-454-
6285, or Cheri Purnell, 1-321-254-
9453 ext. 25, .

XXIIIrd Annual Conference of the Australasian Primate
Society, 12-13 March, 2005, South Australian Museum,
Adelaide, South Australia. Twenty-minute sessions will be
reserved for each paper. Abstracts should be received before
1 February, 2005. Information: Graeme Crook, President,
Australasian Primate Society, PO Box 500, One Tree Hill,
SA 5114, Australia, e-mail: . For
further details visit htm>.

Primate Society of Great Britain 2005 Spring Meeting,
22-23 March, 2005, Chester College. For more information
contact: Paul Honess, PSGB Meeting Officer, Department
of Veterinary Services, University of Oxford, Parks Road,
Oxford OX1 3PT, UK, e-mail: or
visit the website at .

IX Simposio de Antropologia Fisica, 4-8 April, 2005,
Habana, Cuba. El Museo Antropol6gico "Montand" y la
Catedra de Antropologfa "Lufs Montand" de la Facultad
de Biologfa de la Universidad de La Habana, la Sociedad
Cubana de Antropologfa Biol6gica, la Sociedad de
Studios Primatol6gicos Eopithecus de Mexico, convocan
al IX Simposio de Antropologfa Ffsica "Luis Montand",
el V Congreso Primates como Patrimonio Nacional, el II
Coloquio Primates a traves del Caribe y el II Coloquio de
Antropologfa "Manuel Rivero de la Calle", del 4 al 8 de
abril del 2005. Correspondencia: Dr. Armando Rangel
Rivero, Secretario, Museo Antropol6gico Montand,
Calle 25 #455, entire J e I. ElVedado, Facultad de Biologfa,
Universidad de La Habana, Ciudad de La Habana,
Cuba, e-mail: , website:

2005 Meeting of the Mexican Society of Primatologists,
4-7 May, 2005, Instituto de Ecologfa, Xalapa, Veracruz,
Mexico. For information: Juan Carlos Serio Silva, Presidente,
Asociaci6n Mexicana de PrimatologfaAC, Departamento de
Biodiversidad y Ecologfa Animal, Instituto de Ecologfa AC,
km 2.5 antigua carretera a Coatepec, No. 351 congregaci6n
El Haya, CP 91070, Apartado Postal 63, Xalapa, Veracruz,

Mexico, Tel: +52 (228) 8 42 18 00 ext 4109 /4110 (Fax: ext
4111), e-mail: .

Fourth Annual Callitrichid Behavioral Husbandry and
Management Workshop, 21-22 May, 2005, Washington,
DC, USA. The Callitrichid Behavioral Husbandry and
Management Workshop will be presented by the Cotton-
top Tamarin SSP and hosted by the US National Zoo in
Washington, DC. For more information, see the Work-
shop's website at: AndScience/EndangeredSpecies/GLTProgram/Callitrich-

19th Annual Meeting of the Society for Conservation Bi-
ology, 15-19 July, 2005, Universidade de Brasflia, Brasi-
lia, Brazil. Theme: "Conservation Biology: Capacitation
and Practice in a Globalized World." The chair is Miguel
Marini, Zoology Department, Universidade de Brasf-
lia. Contact: SCB 2005 Local Organizing Committee,
Departamento de Zoologia, IB, Universidade de Brasf-
lia, 70910-900 Brasflia, DF, Brasil, telefax: +55 61 307-
3366, e-mail: <2005@conbio.org>, website: conservationbiology.org/2005 >.

Association of Tropical Biology and Conservation 2005
Annual Meeting, 23-29 July 2005, Uberlandia, Brazil. The
venue will be the Uberlandia Convention Center. For more
information write to the Chair of the Organizing Commit-
tee, Kleber del-Claro, Laborat6rio de Ecologia Comporta-
mental e Interacoes, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia,
Caixa Postal 593, Uberlandia 38400-902, Minas Gerais,
Brazil, e-mail or br>.

IX International Mammalogical Congress, 31 July -
5 August, 2005, Sapporo, Japan. Organizing Commit-
tee: MAMMAL2005, c/o Field Science Center, Hokkaido
University, N11 W10, Sapporo 060-0811, Japan, e-mail:
, website: www.imc9.jp>.

1t Congress of the European Federation of Primatology,
9-12 August, 2005, Gbttingen, Germany. The Congress
will be hosted by the German Society for Primatology (GfP)
at the German Primate Centre (DPZ), University of Gat-
tingen. It will coincide with the 9h Congress of the German
Society. European students and researchers working on all
aspects of primatology are invited to attend. Registration
from 1 November 2004 to 30 March 2005. For more infor-
mation contact Peter M. Kappeler, President EFP, German
Primate Center (DPZ), Abteiling Verhaltensforschung &
Okologie, Kellnerweg 4, D-37077 Gbttingen, Germany,
e-mail: , website: primatologie.de/EFP2005/index.htm>.

28th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Prima-
tologists, 17-20 August, 2005, Portland, Oregon. The

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

meeting will be held at the Benson Hotel and hosted by
the Oregon National Primate Research Center. Call for ab-
stracts and the meeting announcement will be sent electron-
ically to all ASP members in mid-December 2004. Dead-
line for proposals for symposia, roundtables or workshops
is 17 January, 2005. Deadline for abstracts for contributed
papers, symposia speakers, workshops and roundtable dis-
cussions is 14 February, 2005. If a paper version of the
meeting announcement is preferred, please contact Larry
Williams, Program Co-Chair, Tel: +1 251-460-6293, Fax:
+1 251-460-6286, e-mail: . For
more information, please contact Dr. Kristine Coleman,
Chair of the local organizing committee of the ONPRC, at

29th International Ethological Conference, 20-27 August,
2005, Budapest, Hungary. For more information, write
to: IEC2005, Department of Ethology, ELtvis University,
1117 Budapest, Hungary, or subscribe to the e-mail news-
letter at .

Measuring Behavior 2005 5th International Conference
on Methods and Techniques in Behavioral Research, 30
August 2 September, 2005, Wageningen, The Nether-
lands. Measuring Behavior will offer an attractive mix of
presentations, demonstrations, discussions, meetings and
much more (see gram/index.html> for details). Proceedings of the 2002
meeting are available at mb2002/index.html>. Deadline for proposals of Symposia
and SIGs: 1 December 2004. For more information, con-
tact Prof. Dr. Louise E. M. Vet, Program Chair, Measuring
Behavior 2005, Conference Secretariat, P.O. Box 268, 6700
AG Wageningen, The Netherlands, Tel: +31-317-497677,
Fax: +31-317-424496, e-mail: ,
website: .

Sixth Meeting of the Asociaci6n Primatol6gica Espaniola,
27-30 September, 2005, Facultad de Psicologfa, Universi-
dad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain. Sponsored by
the Asociaci6n Primatol6gica Espafiola (A.P.E.), the Meet-
ing will focus on the themes of Child Ethology, Conserva-
tion, Great Apes and Humans: Similarities and Differences,
and Tool Use. For more information please see the website
at or contact Dr. Fernan-
do Colmenares () or Dra. Maria
Victoria Hernandez-Lloreda ().

2005 Annual Meeting of the Conservation Breeding Spe-
cialist Group, 29 September 1 October, 2005, Syracuse,
New York, USA. Beginning with a late-afternoon ice-break-
er on Wednesday, the meeting will run through Saturday,
ending with an afternoon and dinner at the Rosamond
Gifford Zoo. Regional network meetings will take place on
Tuesday, 27 September, and a Steering Committee meeting
on Wednesday, 28 September. Accommodations are at the
Genesee Grande Hotel (http://www.geneseegrande.com),

which offers a variety of rooms and rates. The deadline for
registration is 1 August, 2005; for more information, email
a request to <2005cbsg@cbsg.org> or visit their website at

New World Primate Workshop (A Focus on Cebids), 30
September 1 October, 2005, Cleveland, Ohio, USA. The
Cleveland Metroparks Zoo announces a workshop on New
World Primates that will focus on the captive care of Cebids
in U.S. institutions. Informal roundtable discussions will
include the following topics: diet and health, social groups
and mixed species, enrichment and training behaviors, and
population management. The workshop will begin at 10
am on Friday, 30 September, and end at 4 pm on Saturday,
1 October. Attendance is limited to 50 people and registrants
will be asked to complete a pre-meeting survey regarding
their experiences with Cebids. The workshop will be held
on the zoo grounds. Some meals will be provided and local
lodging suggestions can be provided. Registration fee = $25.
For more information and a registration form, contact Tad
Schoffner at 216-635-3332 or com>.

8th World Wilderness Congress, 30 September 6 Octo-
ber, 2005, Anchorage, Alaska, USA. Over a thousand del-
egates from dozens of nations will attend the Eighth WWC,
with additional events in Kamchatka and the Russian Far
East. Convening every three to four years, the theme of this
year's Congress is "Wilderness, Wildlands and People-A
Partnership for the Planet." This Congress will generate ac-
curate, up-to-date information on the benefits of wilder-
ness and wildlands to both contemporary and traditional
societies, and will examine the best models for balancing
wilderness and wildlands conservation with human needs.
For more information, see the Congress website at www.8wwc.org>.

60th World Association of Zoos and Aquariums Annual
Conference, 2-6 October, 2005, New York, New York,
USA. The 60th WAZA Annual Conference will be hosted by
the Wildlife Conservation Society and held at the Marriott
Marquis hotel. The theme of the meeting will be "Wildlife
Conservation: A Global Imperative for Zoos and Aquari-
ums." Additional information will be made available on the
conference website at .

III Congresso Brasileiro de Mastozoologia, 12 a 16 de
outubro de 2005, realizado pela Sociedade Brasileira de
Mastozoologia (SBMz) e a Universidade Federal do Espirito
Santo (UFES), no SESC Praia Formosa em Aracruz, Espf-
rito Santo. 0 event reunira pesquisadores, profissionais e
estudantes com o objetivo de apresentar, analisar e discutir
trabalhos cientfficos, descobertas e tendencias no estudo dos
mamfferos. 0 tema dessa edigao e "Diversidade e Conserva-
gao de Mamfferos," que sera abordado sob diversos aspects
durante o event, que contara com a participacao de espe-
cialistas ligados a instituigoes de ensino e pesquisa nacionais

Neotropical Primates 12(2), August 2004

e estrangeiras, bem como outros profissionais que atuam em
6rgaos governamentais, na iniciativa privada e em organiza-
o6es nao-governamentais. Somente serao aceitas inscriq6es
pela internet. Podera ser realizada a inscridao online do con-
gresso ate o dia 31 de maio, e o envio dos resumos podem
ser feitos ate o dia 30 de junho de 2005. Mais informaq6es:

Counting Critters: Estimating Animal Abundance and
Distance Sampling, 17-21 October 2005, Disney's Animal
Kingdom, Orlando, Florida, USA. This five-day workshop
will introduce participants to the most important methods
of estimating animal abundance in a rigorous but accessible
way. In the first half of the workshop, we cover plot
sampling, distance sampling, mark-recapture and removal
methods. We explain the common key statistical concepts
underlying the methods, use custom-written simulation
software to understand how the methods work, and discuss
which method to use when. In the second half, we focus on
distance sampling in more detail. We discuss practical issues
such as use of the software Distance, field methods and
survey design. The workshop is aimed at anyone who needs
to estimate wildlife density or abundance, and is taught
by leading researchers from the Centre for Research into
Ecological and Environmental Modelling at the University
of St Andrews, Scotland. Registration for this workshop is
now open. Since all of our previous workshops in the USA
have been oversubscribed, we encourage everyone interested
to register as soon as possible. For more details, please see
contact Rhona Rodger, Workshop Organizer, CREEM,
University of St Andrews, The Observatory, St Andrews,
Scotland KY16 9LZ, tel: +44 1334 461842, fax: +44 1334
461800, e-mail:.

Primer Congreso Colombiano de Primatologia,
Asociaci6n Colombiana de Primatologfa, del 2 al 4
noviembre de 2005, Bogoti, Colombia. El Primer
Congress Colombiano de Primatologfa tendra tres Areas
Tematicas para la presentaci6n de los trabajos: Biologia
y Ecologia studios en ciencias basicas que incluyen
morfologfa, taxonomfa, sistematica, gen&tica, biologfa
molecular, evoluci6n, biodiversidad, comportamiento
y ecologfa; Medicina studios en anatomfa, fisiologfa,
medicine, clinic, patologfa, epidemiologfa, nutrici6n, y
restricci6n de primates; y Conservacidn y Manejo (in situ / ex
situ) investigaci6n aplicada y gesti6n multidisciplinaria,
herramientas conceptuales y tecnicas dirigidas a la
conservaci6n, uso y aprovechamiento, trabajo comunitario,
comercio, mantenimiento en cautiverio, reproducci6n,
tecnicas de capture, manipulaci6n, registro y marcaje,
enriquecimiento ambiental, rehabilitaci6n, disposici6n
de primates decomisados, normatividad y legislaci6n. La
ponencia debe incluir informaci6n nueva, se pueden enviar
resdmenes de temas presentados en reuniones anteriores
pero su aporte al Congreso debe ser clave, general discusi6n
constructive o representar temas emergentes. Para mayor

informaci6n del Congreso, puede visitar la siguiente pagina
web: , o en
el correo electr6nico .

V Gdttinger Freilandtage "Primate Diversity Past,
Present and Future", 13-16 December, 2005. University
of Gbttingen and German Primate Center, Gbttingen,
Germany. Organized by Peter M. Kappeler. Confirmed
invited speakers: Diversity in the past- Extinct primate
communities John F1, I, (State University of New
York, Stony Brook). Diversity today. Diversity of Malagasy
primates Anne Yoder (Yale University); Diversity of
American primates Anthony B. Rylands (Conservation
International); Diversity ofAsian primates -Jatna Supriatna
(Conservation International Indonesia); Diversity of
African primates John F Oates (Hunter College New
York); Primate biogeography Shawn Lehman (University
of Toronto); Speciation and taxonomy Colin P. Groves
(Australian National University); Human diversity Mark
Stoneking (Max Planck Institute, Leipzig). Preserving
Diversity for Tomorrow: Diversity and conservation hotspots
- Russell A. Mittermeier (Conservation International);
Extinction biology Carlos Peres (University of East
Anglia); Conservation genetics George Amato (Wildlife
Conservation Society); Conservation genetics Michael
Bruford (Cardiff University); Reintroductions Carel P.
van Schaik (University of Zirich). Comparative Perspectives:
Speciation in birds -Trevor Price (University of Chicago);
Bird taxonomy and conservation Robert Zink (University
of Minnesota). Contact: Prof. Dr. Peter M. Kappeler,
Deutsches Primatenzentrum (DPZ), Kellnerweg 4, D-
37077 Gbttingen, Tel/Fax: +49-551-3851-284/291, e-mail:
, website: sociobiology/GFT2005/index.htm>.


75th Annual Meeting of the American Association for
Physical Anthropology, 5-12 March 2006, Anchorage,
Alaska, USA. For program information, please contact
the Program Chair, Lyle W. Konigsberg, Department of
Anthropology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN
37996-0720, USA, Tel: (865) 974-4408, fax: (865) 974-
2686, e-mail . Local Arrangements
Committee Chair: Christine Hanson, Department of
Anthropology, University of Alaska Anchorage, Anchorage,
AK 99508, USA, tel: 907-786-6839, fax: 907-786-6850,
e-mail . Website at physanth.org/annmeet>.

21st Congress of the International Primatological Society,
25-30 June 2006, Imperial Resort Beach Hotel, Entebbe,
Uganda. Theme: "Primate Conservation in Action."
Preliminary contact details: Dr. William Olupot, Chair,
Organizing Committee, IPS 2006 Congress, P. 0. Box
21669, Kampala, Uganda, tel: 077598134, 077947397,
041501020, e-mail .


The journal/newsletter aims to provide a basis for conservation
information relating to the primates of the Neotropics. We
welcome texts on any aspect of primate conservation, including
articles, thesis abstracts, news items, recent events, recent publica-
tions, primatological society information and suchlike.


Please send all English and Portuguese contributions to:
John M. Aguiar, Conservation International, Center for Applied
Biodiversity Science, 1919 M St. NW, Suite 600, Washington,
DC 20036, Tel: 202 912-1000, Fax: 202 912-0772, e-mail:
, and all Spanish contributions to:
Ernesto Rodrfguez-Luna, Instituto de Neuroetologfa, Universi-
dad Veracruzana, Apartado Postal 566, Xalapa 91000, Veracruz,
Mexico, Tel: 281 8-77-30, Fax: 281 8-77-30, 8-63-52, e-mail:


Manuscripts may be in English, Spanish or Portuguese, and should
be double-spaced and accompanied by the text on diskette for
PC compatible text-editors (MS-Word, WordPerfect, Excel, and
Access), and/or e-mailed to (English,
Portuguese) or (Spanish). Hard
copies should be supplied for all figures (illustrations and maps)
and tables. The full name and address for each author should be
included. Please avoid abbreviations and acronyms without the
name in full. Authors whose first language is not English should
please have texts carefully reviewed by a native English speaker.

Articles. Each issue of Neotropical Primates will include up to
three full articles, limited to the following topics: Taxonomy,
Systematics, Genetics (when relevant for systematics), Biogeogra-
phy, Ecology and Conservation. Texts for full articles should not
exceed about 20 pages in length (1.5 spaced, and including the
references). Please include an abstract in English, and (optional)
one in Portuguese or Spanish. Tables and illustrations should be
limited to six, excepting only the cases where they are fundamental
for the text (as in species descriptions, for example). Full articles
will be sent out for peer-review.

Short articles. These are usually reviewed only by the editors.
A broader range of topics is encouraged, including such as
behavioral research, in the interests of informing on general
research activities which contribute to our understanding of
platyrrhines. We encourage reports on projects and conservation
and research programs (who, what, where, when, why, etc.) and
most particularly information on geographical distributions,
locality records, and protected areas and the primates which
occur in them. Texts should not exceed 10 pages in length
(1.5 spaced, including the references).

Figures and maps. Articles may include small black-and-white
photographs, high-quality figures, and high-quality maps and
tables. Please keep these to a minimum. We stress the importance
of providing maps which are publishable.

News items. Please send us information on projects, field sites,
courses, recent publications, awards, events, activities of Primate
Societies, etc.

References. Examples of house style may be found throughout this
journal. Please refer to these examples when listing references:

Journal article
Stallings, J. D. and Mittermeier, R. A. 1983. The black-tailed
marmoset (C( .- argentata melanura) recorded from Paraguay.
Am. J. Primatol. 4: 159-163.

Chapter in book
Brockelman, W. Y. and All, R. 1987. Methods of surveying and
sampling forest primate populations. In: Primate Conservation
in the Tropical Rain Forest, C. W. Marsh and R. A. Mittermeier
(eds.), pp. 23-62. Alan R. Liss, New York.

Napier, P. H. 1976. Catalogue of Primates in the British Museum
(.'. .- History). Part 1: Families Callitrichidae and Cebidae.
British Museum (Natural History), London.

Wallace, R. B. 1998. The behavioral ecology of black spider
monkeys in north-eastern Bolivia. Doctoral thesis, University of
Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.

Muckenhirn, N. A., Mortensen, B. K., Vessey, S., Fraser,
C. E. 0. and Singh, B. 1975. Report on a primate survey in
Guyana. Unpublished report, Pan American Health Organization,
Washington, DC.

Neotropical Primates is produced in collaboration
with Conservation International, Center for Applied
Biodiversity Science, 1919 M St. NW, Suite 600,
Washington, DC 20036, USA.

Printed on New Leaf Reincarnation Matte 80# cover (100% recycled/50% post-
consumer waste, processed chlorine free) and New Leaf Reincarnation Matte 70#
text (50% recycled/30% post-consumer waste, elemental chlorine free). By using this
environmentally friendly paper, Conservation International saved the following resources:
6 fully-grown trees
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294 pounds ofsolid waste
357 pounds of greenhouse gases
Calculated based on research done by EnvironmentalDefense another members of the Paper Task Force
For more information about New Leaf Paper, go to ww newleafpaper. corn.

Neotropical Primates
A Journal and Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group
Vol. 12(2), August 2004


Short Articles

The Use of Date Palms (Phoenix sp.) as Resting and Sleeping Sites by Callithrixjacchus in Northeastern Brazil
Marcelo Oliveira Teles de Menezes .................z 53
On the Occurrence of the Owl Monkey (Aotus azarai) in Cerro Leon, Chaco, Paraguay
Juan M anuel Campos, Ivon Benitez and Dennis A. M eritt Jr. ............................................................................... ..................55
The Use of Camera-Traps in a Survey of the Buff-Headed Capuchin Monkey, Cebus xanthosternos
Maria Cecilia Martins !. Gabriel Rodrigues dos Santos, Gustavo Canale, Carlos Eduardo Guidorizzi and Camila Cassano........ 56
Preservation and Extraction of DNA from Feces in Howler Monkeys (Alouatta caraya)
Luciana Ines Oklander, Miguel Marino, Gabriel Eduardo Zunino and Daniel Corach.................................................................. 59
Infecqao por Endoparasitas em um Grupo de Bugios-Pretos (Alouatta caraya) em um Fragmento Florestal no Estado
do Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil
Keila Carla I. Godoy, Adriana Odalia-Rimoli e Jos Rimoli ............................................................................. ..........................63
A Muriqui (Brachyteles !, ...i..d i- with a Broken Leg at the Estaqao Biol6gica de Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Fernanda P Paim, Maria Fernanda lurck, Sirgio L. Mendes and Karen B. Strier......................................................................... 68
A Survey of Black Howler (Alouatta pigra) and Spider (Ateles geoffroyi) Monkeys Along the Rio Lacantdin,
Chiapas, Mexico
Alejandro Estrada, Sarie Van Belle and Yasminda Garcia del Valle .....................................................................70
Primate Species at the Tiputini Biodiversity Station, Ecuador
Laura K. M arsh ............................................ a 75
Survey of a Gallery Forest Primate Community in the Cerrado of the Distrito Federal, Central Brazil
Raimundo Paulo Barros Henriques and Ricardo Jardim Cavalcante ............................................................................ .................... 78
Resultados da Enquete sobre Ocorrencia de Primatas no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil
Thais Leiroz Codenotti e Valeska M artins da Silva ............................. .................................................................................... 83
In Memoriam: Pekka Soini: 1941-2004
RussellA. Mittermeier, Eckhard W Heymann, Jukka Salo and Mikko Pyhala.................................................................................. 89

N ew s ............................................................. 92

Prim ate Societies ...................................... 104

Recent Publications.................................. 106

M meetings ............ ..................................

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