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 Back Matter
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Title: Neotropical primates
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098814/00043
 Material Information
Title: Neotropical primates a newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCNSSC Primate Specialist Group
Abbreviated Title: Neotrop. primates
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
Conservation International
Center for Applied Biodiversity Science
Publisher: Conservation International
Place of Publication: Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Publication Date: August 2003
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Primates -- Periodicals -- Latin America   ( lcsh )
Primates -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Wildlife conservation -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: review   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Brazil
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Language: English, Portuguese, and Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Mar. 1993)-
Issuing Body: Issued jointly with Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, <Dec. 2004->
General Note: Published in Washington, D.C., Dec. 1999-Apr. 2005 , Arlington, VA, Aug. 2005-
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 13, no. 1 (Apr. 2005).
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Volume ID: VID00043
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Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 28561619
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issn - 1413-4705


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Table of Contents
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    Back Matter
        Back Matter 1
        Back Matter 2
        Back Matter 3
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text

qPrP i Re A

Neotropical Primates
A Journal of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group

Center for Applied Biodiversity Science
Conservation International
1919 M St. NW, Suite 600, Washington, DC 20036, USA

ISSN 1413-4703 Abbreviation: Neotrop. Primates

Anthony B. Rylands, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International, i 1...... DC
Ernesto .iI.,_. -T .... UniversidadVeracruzana, Xalapa, Mexico

Assistant Editor
John M. Aguiar, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International, 1. .... .. DC

Editorial Board
Hannah M. Buchanan-Smith, University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland, UK
Adelmar E Coimbra-Filho, Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Liliana Cortes-Ortiz, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Mexico
Carolyn M. Crockett, Regional Primate Research Center, University of i1.. .. Seattle, WA, USA
Stephen E Ferrari, Universidade Federal do Para, Belem, Brazil
Eckhard W Heymann, Deutsches Primatenzentrum, C ,i...... Germany
William R. Konstant, Conservation International, i 1.1.... DC
Russell A. Mittermeier, Conservation International, 1.1..... DC
Marta D. Mudry, Universidad de ..,. .1..
Horacio Schneider, Universidade Federal do Para, Belem, Brazil
Karen B. Strier, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
Maria Emilia Yamamoto, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Brazil

Primate Specialist Group
Chairman Russell A. Mittermeier
Deputy Chair Anthony B. Rylands
Co-Vice Chairs for the Neotropical Region Anthony B. Rylands & Ernesto - .
Vice Chair for Asia Ardith A. Eudey
Vice Chair for Africa Thomas M. Butynski
Vice Chair for Madagascar Jorg U. Ganzhorn

Design and Layout: Glenda P. I .. -. and Kim Meek, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science,
Conservation International, 1.1..... DC

Editorial Assistance:
Liliana Cortes-Ortiz, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Mexico
Mariella Superina, University of New Orleans, Department of- I 1. i. Sciences, New Orleans, LA

IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group logo courtesy of Stephen D. Nash, 2002.

Front Cover:
Photo of a teaching display featuring pygmy marmosets, Cebuellapygmaea, used for environmental education in northeastern Ecuador.
Courtesy of Stella de la Torre and Pablo Yepez.

This issue of Neotropical Primates was kindly sponsored by the Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation, 432 Walker Road, Great Falls, Virginia 22066,
USA, the Houston Zoological Gardens Conservation Program, General Manager F,. .I .... 1513 North MacGregor, Houston, Texas 77030, USA,
and the Los Angeles Zoo, Director John R. Lewis, 5333 Zoo Drive, Los Angeles, California 90027, USA.


tbA gnd Ramejdnfc Dwt

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003


Stella de la Torre
Pablo Yepez


The pygmy marmoset ((.,* p i 'i is the small-
est monkey in the world. It inhabits the upper Amazon
basin of Ecuador, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia and Brazil
(Soini, 1988). In Ecuador, we have records of the species
from about 220 m to 500 m above sea level, in habitats
along rivers and lakes in the eastern lowlands (de la Torre,
2000). The habitat specialization of pygmy marmosets
makes them particularly vulnerable to anthropogenic im-
pacts, since human settlements and activities are centered
on riparian habitats (Meggers, 1989). Thus, despite the
relatively wide distribution of pygmy marmosets in east-
ern Ecuador, we have increasing evidence that this species
could be severely disturbed by human activities, altering
its social behavior and possibly reducing its population
size (de la Torre et al., 2000).

Pygmy marmosets are not included in any of the IUCN
categories in the Red Data Book of Ecuadorian mam-
mals; they are listed only in the CITES Appendix II
(Tirira, 2001). However, based on the evidence we have
gathered during almost seven years of research, we suggest
that the status of this species needs to be revised. Indeed,
the populations we have studied in northeastern Ecuador
have been severely affected by live capture, noise pollution
and habitat destruction (de la Torre et al., 2000; Yepez et
al., 2003). These factors are related to the development
of the petroleum industry, the continuous increase of
human populations due to high reproductive and migra-
tion rates, and the cultural loss which native communities
are experiencing due to their rapid insertion into West-
ern cultures (Ministerio del Ambiente et al., 2001). All
these factors have altered the equilibrium of natural ecosys-
tems and are negatively affecting the populations of pygmy

Live capture of pygmy marmosets, in particular, is a
common practice of children and adults of many indig-
enous communities. They are also eaten in some areas, or
killed for target practice in others. We believe that these
problems could be mitigated with a program of environ-
mental education. We began such a program this year,
directed to the children of the communities that live close
to some of the pygmy marmoset populations we studied.
The program was based on a didactic game through which
children learned about the ecology, behavior and conserva-
tion of these small primates.

Planning Stage

Our study of five different populations of pygmy marmo-
sets in northeastern Ecuador, along with information from
other studies elsewhere, allowed us to summarize several
aspects of the ecology and behavior of this primate species,
such as its habitat preference, feeding behavior, group com-
position and parental care. We then recreated this informa-
tion in a wooden poster of 120 x 90 cm, in which we drew
a riparian forest, a feeding tree with real holes in the trunk,
and the profiles of six animals of different ages and sex
(one reproductive pair, one subadult, one juvenile and two
dependent infants), representing a typical group of this spe-
cies. The profiles of these animals were the basis of a puzzle
of six wooden figures of the six different animals to be at-
tached to the corresponding profiles by the children during
the game (Fig. 1). The wooden poster can be folded up and
is easily carried. Large sheets of paper, thin cardboard, color
pencils, scissors, glue and stickers allowed children to recre-
ate, in their own drawings, the life of pygmy marmosets
based on the poster games.

Process Stage

We carried out this program in two indigenous commu-
nities of Ecuadorian Amazonia. The first was the Secoya
community of Bellavista on the southern bank of the Rio
Aguarico (0016'42"S, 7625'30"W). The school of this
community had 15 children. The second was the Quichua

Figure 1. Wooden poster of pygmy marmosets used for teaching
games in the schools of the Secoya community of Bellavista (on the
southern bank of the Rio Aguarico), and the Quichua community
of Afiango (on the southern bank of the Rio Napo), Ecuador.

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

community of Afiango on the southern bank of the Rio
Napo (0029'29"S, 7624'59"W), with 20 children in its
school. The ages of the children ranged from 4 to 14 years
old. Our audiences also included 2-5 young adults (ages
18-20) and 1-2 older adults (more than 30 years old). We
selected these communities for our pilot work because we
are studying pygmy marmoset groups living close to these
settlements, and we have evidence that they are continu-
ously affected by live capture and target practice.

In our presentation we first explained to the children the
purpose of our study of pygmy marmosets. We showed chil-
dren some of the equipment we use, such as binoculars and
tape recorders, and showed them how they work. We then
began a dialogue to determine what children knew about
pygmy marmosets. We had them answer questions about
where pygmy marmosets live, what they eat, how many
infants are born, how females care for the infants, and how
humans could affect them.

After this introduction we began the games with the
poster. We first asked the children to solve the marmoset
puzzle, pasting each independently moving animal to the
corresponding profile in the poster (the two dependent
infants were not included in this first game). Different
children pasted each of the four marmoset figures while
we talked about the riparian habitat in which they live.
We then told them about the gum-feeding behavior of
pygmy marmosets, and let all the children experience how
it might feel by licking a vitamin gel that we poured into
the holes of the "gum tree" on the poster. Children later
mimicked insect-feeding by finding and eating candies
hidden in the classroom.

Finally, we talked about the social organization of these
primates: the size and composition of groups, the repro-
ductive pattern and some conspicuous infant-caregiver be-
haviors (e.g., infant-carrying). We explained to them how
important it is for the marmoset infants to be carried and
attended by other group members, similar to the way that
human infants need their family to survive. The children
then participated in a new game with the poster, in which
we told them that the two infants of the group were lost and
that they were crying for their family. One child partici-
pated in the game at a time; first we blindfolded the child,
and then simulated infant crying to guide the blindfolded
child to the figures of the two infants. Once the child got
one of the infants, he or she had to paste it on the back of a
caregiver while still blindfolded.

Once this second game was over, children were divided into
small groups. Each group was provided with paper, thin
cardboard, scissors, color pencils and glue, and began to
create their own version of a family group of pygmy mar-
mosets in the forest, based on what they learned from the

Our presentation ended with an explanation of the impor-
tance of preserving primates in general and pygmy mar-

mosets in particular, and about the need to maintain and
manage wisely the natural resources of the tropical rainfor-
est. We asked the children to commit to conserve primates
and their environments. To reinforce this commitment
we used happy-face stickers (to make them remember the
benefits of conserving the monkeys and the environment)
and sad-face stickers (to remember the negative impacts of
disturbing monkeys and the environment) that we stuck on
opposite sides of each child's face.

Product Stage

We carried out this environmental education program
between June and August 2003, and thus the long-term
results are still being analyzed. We have anecdotal evidence
of the positive effects of the program on the attitude of
children of all ages in relation to our work and to pygmy
marmosets. After our presentations, children began to ac-
company us on our daily observations, helping us to carry
the equipment and to follow and observe the marmosets.
They also frequently told us that they will not disturb mon-
keys again and that they wanted us to continue to give our
presentations in their schools.

We believe that the interactive games we designed with the
wooden poster are key to maintaining the attention of chil-
dren. The interest the children of all ages showed in the poster
and their willingness to learn more about pygmy marmosets
was remarkable. During our presentations all the children and
the accompanying adults were relaxed and frequently laugh-
ing while participating in each of the games.


These are our first experiences in this community-based
program of environmental education. We are aware of the
need to continue in the communities where we have already
worked, and to expand it to other communities in the Ec-
uadorian Amazon. We are currently working on the design
of a more systematic evaluation protocol that will allow
us to better analyze the results of the program. Although
several environmental education programs have been car-
ried out in Ecuador, there is still much to do in order to
improve the environmental awareness of the people in our
country. We hope that our work will help to increase the
environmental awareness of Amazonian inhabitants, and to
preserve pygmy marmosets as well as other primate species
and their habitats.

Acknowledgements: We thank the children of the Secoya
community of Bellavista and the Quichua community of
Afiango for their participation in the program. We thank
the teachers for allowing us to visit the schools and talk
to the children and for their support during the presenta-
tions. We greatly thank Charles T. Snowdon for his support
during all the stages of our work and for his comments on
this paper, and Fernanda Tomaselli for her valuable help
in the fieldwork. We thank the people of Novarum who
helped us in the design and construction of the wooden

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

posters. Our research is supported by NIH Health (Grant 2
ROI MH29775-22). The Ecuadorian Ministry of the Envi-
ronment allows us to conduct research in these areas.

Stella de la Torre, Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Av.
Interoceinica y Jardines del Este, Cumbayi, Quito, Ecua-
dor, e-mail: , and Pablo Y6pez,
Fundaci6n Vihoma, Jose Tobar 884 e Hidalgo, Quito,
Ecuador, e-mail: .


de la Torre, S. 2000. Primates de la Amazonia Ecuatoriana
Primates ofAmazonian Ecuador. Proyecto PETRAMAZ/
de la Torre, S., Snowdon, C. T. and Bejarano, M. 2000.
Effects of human activities on pygmy marmosets in Ecua-
dorian Amazonia. Biol. Conserv. 94: 153-163.
Meggers, B. J. 1989. Amazonia: Hombre y Cultura en un
Paraiso Ilusorio. Siglo Veintiuno, Mexico.
Ministerio del Ambiente, EcoCiencia and Uni6n Mundial
para la Naturaleza (UICN). 2001. La Biodiversidad del
Ecuador. Informe 2000, C. Josse (ed.). Ministerio del Am-
biente, EcoCiencia and UICN, Quito.
Soini, P. 1988. The pygmy marmoset, genus Cebuella.
In: Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical Primates, Vol. 2,
R. A. Mittermeier, A. B. Rylands, A. F. Coimbra-Filho
and G. A. B. da Fonseca (eds.), pp. 79-129. World Wild-
life Fund, Washington, DC.
Tirira, D. (ed.). 2001. Libro Rojo de Los Mamiferos del Ec-
uador. SIMBIOE/EcoCiencia/Ministerio del Ambiente/
UICN. Serie Libros Rojos del Ecuador, Tomo 1. Pub-
licaci6n Especial sobre los Mamfferos del Ecuador 4.
Yepez, P., de la Torre, S., Pallares, M. and Snowdon, C. T.
2002. Area de vida y preferencias alimenticias del leoncillo
C .- (Cebuella) pygmaea en el nororiente ecuatoriano.
In: CD Memorias del I Congreso deEcologiay Ambiente-Ec-
uador, Pais Megadiverso, S. de la Torre and G. Reck (eds.).
Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Ecuador.


Fabio Rohe
Andre Pinassi Antunes
Cristina Farah de Tofoli

A group of black lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysopygus)
was sighted on 19 December, 2002, at 4:30 pm, at the
Fazenda Joao XXIII (2353'09"-2356'29"S, 47O42'30"-
4740'08"W), in the municipality of Pilar do Sul, state of
Sao Paulo, Brazil. The farm belongs to Eucatex S/A and
is located in the Serra de Paranapiacaba, near the Carlos
Botelho and Intervales State Parks. The farm is a mosaic
of Eucalyptus plantations (1307 ha) and patches of Atlantic

Figure 1. Recorded wild populations of black lion tamarins
(Leontopithecus chrysopygus). Numbers with circles indicate
protected areas.

forest, comprising small forest fragments and gallery forest
(440 ha) and a large fragment of 611 ha.

The group was composed of at least five individuals. They
were calling intensely during the observation period at
the same time as some bare-throated bellbirds (Procnias
..... i It is possible that the bellbirds were excited by
the presence of the lion tamarins. Foraging associations of
black lion tamarins and insectivorous birds have been de-
scribed in the literature by Passos (1997), who mentioned
that the birds were sometimes alarmed by the primates. We
were able to observe the lion tamarins at heights of 5-8 m
for about 10 minutes, after which they became silent and
disappeared. No pictures or audio recordings of their vocal-
izations were taken.

Until recently, black lion tamarins were known to occur in
only three protected areas in Sao Paulo (Morro do Diabo
State Park, Caetetus Ecological Station and Angatuba Eco-
logical Station), and in six other forest fragments located
in the western and central regions of the state of Sio Paulo
(see Coimbra-Filho, 1970; Coimbra-Filho, 1976; Mamede-
Costa and Gobbi, 1998; Passos, 1994; Valladares-PTdua
and Cullen Jr., 1994; Valladares-PTdua et al., 2002). More
recently, two new sub-populations were found in forest frag-
ments in the eastern part of the state in the municipality of
Buri (Valladares-Pidua et al., 2002) (Fig. 1).

This is the eleventh remaining natural population recorded
for this species, and the easternmost record of the distribu-
tion of L. chrysopygusin recent times. Several specimens were
captured by J. Natterer in 1819 and 1822 in the munici-
palities of Cotia and Ipanema, and by E. Garbe in 1902 at
Vitoriana; in addition, the pelt of one specimen from Bauru
was given to the Sao Paulo Zoology Museum (MZSP) by
0. Humel in 1905 (Vieira, 1944; Coimbra-Filho, 1976).
However, none are known to survive in these regions today.
Because the new Serra de Paranapiacaba population is in a
relatively large forest, it may represent a new hope for the
survival of this species. Surveys and censuses need to be
carried out in this forest and others in the region, to better
determine more exactly the numbers surviving there.

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

1. Morro do Diabo State Park (Teodoro Sampaio)*
2. Fazenda Tucano (Euclides da Cunha Paulista)* and
Fazenda Rosanella (Teodoro Sampaio)*
3. Fazenda Ponte Branca (Euclides da Cunha Pau-
4. Fazenda Santa Monica (Teodoro Sampaio)**
5. Fazenda Santa Maria I (Teodoro Sampaio)**
6. Caetetus Ecological Station (Gilia)*
7. Fazenda Rio Claro (Lengois Paulista)*
8. Fazenda Migrai (Buri)***
9. Rio Apiaiacu (Buri)***
10. Angatuba Ecological Station
11. Fazenda Joao XXIII (Pilar do Sul)

*Localities from Valladares-Padua and Cullen Jr., 1994.
"**Localities from Valladares-Padua et al, 2002.
***C. Valladares-Padua (unpubl.).

Acknowledgements. We are grateful to Claudio Valladares-
Padua and Eleonore Z. F Setz for valuable comments and
assistance with the English version of the manuscript, and
to Eucatex S/A for logistical support.

Fabio Rdhe, Coordenacao de Pesquisas em Ecologia
(CPEC), Caixa Postal 478, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas
daAmazonia, Manaus 69011-970, Amazonas, Brazil, e-mail
, Andr6 Pinassi Antunes, Universidade
Estadual Paulista, Rio Claro 13506-900, Sao Paulo, Brazil,
and Cristina Farah de T6foli, Departamento de Ecologia
Geral, Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Rua do Matao
321, Travessa 14, Sao Paulo 05508-090, Sao Paulo, Brazil.


Coimbra-Filho, A. F 1970. Acerca da redescoberta de
Leontideus chrysopygus (Mikan, 1823) e apontamentos
sobre sua ecologia (Callithrichidae, Primates). Rev. Bras.
Biol. 30: 609-615.
Coimbra-Filho, A. E 1976. Leontopithecus rosalia chrysopy-
gus (Mikan, 1823), 0 Mico-Leao do Estado de Sao Paulo
(Callitrichidae, Primates). Revta. Inst. Florest. Sao Paulo,
10(4): 1-36.
Mamede-Costa, A. C. and Gobbi, N. 1998. The black lion
tamarin Leontopithecus chrysopygus its conservation and
management. Oryx 32: 295-300.
Passos, F C. 1994. Behavior of black lion tamarins,
Leontopithecus chrysopygus, in different forest levels in the
Caetetus Ecological Station, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Neotrop.
Primates 2(Suppl.): 40-41.
Passos, F C. 1997. A foraging association between oliva-
ceous woodcreeper Sittasomus griseicapillus and black lion
tamarin Leontopithecus chrysopygus in southeastern Brazil.
Ciencia e Cultura 49(1/2): 144-145.
Valladares-Padua, C. B. and Cullen Jr., L. 1994. Distribu-
tion, abundance and minimum viable metapopulation of
the black lion tamarin Leontopithecus chrysopygus. Dodo, J.
'1 Preserv. Trust30: 80-88.
Valladares-Padua, C. B., Ballou, J. D., Martins, C. S. and
Cullen Jr., L. 2002. Metapopulation management for the

conservation of black lion tamarins. In: Lion Tamarins:
Biology and Conservation, D. G. Kleiman and A. B. Ry-
lands (eds.), pp.333-351. Smithsonian Institution Press,
Washington, DC.
Vieira, C. 0. 1944. Os simios do estado de Sao Paulo. Pap.
Avuls. Dept. Zool., Sao Paulo 4(1): 1-31.


Fernando Silva Lima, Izabel Cristina da Silva
Cristiana Saddy Martins, Cldudio Valladares-Pddua

The black lion tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysopygus) is
one of the most endangered of the Neotropical primates
(Valladares-Padua and Cullen, 1994; Rylands and Chi-
arello, 2003). Currently, we know of nine locations where
this species occurs, with the largest population about
820 individuals occurring in the Morro do Diabo State
Park (Valladares-Padua and Cullen, 1994) in the far west of
its range, the Pontal do Paranapanema in the state of Sao
Paulo. Acting on new reports of the occurrence of black
lion tamarins, in July 2003 the NGO IPL Instituto de
Pesquisas Ecol6gicas initiated a major programme of sur-
veys to cover the entire original distribution of the black
lion tamarin, to search for and assess any remaining popula-
tions which are as yet unknown to us.

We conducted our first two field surveys in the municipal-
ity of Buri, in the southeast of the state of Sao Paulo, where
Valladares-Padua et al. (2000) had observed two groups in
a riparian forest. We chose this area because we had been
informed of the occurrence of further groups in the region,
and because it is near the southeastern limit of the black lion
tamarin's geographic range (Coimbra-Filho, 1976; Rylands
et al., 2002). Thus far we have confirmed the existence of
18 groups of black lion tamarins, in forests extending
through 15 farms (fazendas) (Table 1, Fig. 1).

The survey will continue into 2005, when hopefully we
will have thoroughly explored the remaining forests where
black lion tamarins might still survive. A full understand-
ing of the location and size of the existing populations of
L. chrysopygus is vital for the Metapopulation Management
Plan for the conservation of the species (Valladares-Padua
et al., 2002).

Acknowledgements. This project is financed by the Fundo
Brasileiro para a Biodiversidade FUNBIO (Brazilian
Fund for Biodiversity), Rio de Janeiro, and the Wildlife
Trust, Philadelphia.

Fernando Silva Lima, Izabel Cristina da Silva, Cris-
tiana Saddy Martins, and Cliudio Valladares-Pidua,
IPE Instituto de Pesquisas Ecol6gicas, Caixa Postal 47,
Nazard Paulista 12960-000, Sao Paulo, Brazil. E-mail:

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

Table 1. Sightings of Leontopithecus chrysopygus in Buri. Fragments were grouped in complexes (1-7, see map).

Forest Fragment Area Location of Coordinates
( ( Location .&vids Coordinates
(complex) (ha) individuals
01 Capao Bonito National Forest (7) 396 Capao Bonito National Forest 2 23o55'14"S 4832'45"W
02 Capao Bonito National Forest (7) 396 Capao Bonito National Forest 2 2355'14"S 4832'45"W
03 River mouth (6) 83 River mouth (Fazenda Pezzoni) 6 23o55'00"S 4832'52"W
04 Riparian forest on Apiai-Mirim and 504 Riparian forest, Rios Apiai-Mirim and 2 23o49'16"S 4834'36"W
Apiai-Guaqu (5) Apiai-Guaqu
05 Riparian forest, Rios Apiai-Mirim 504 Riparian forest, Rios Apiai-Mirim and 2-3 23o49'19"S 4834'37"W
and Apiaf-Guaqu (5) Apiaf-Guaqu
06 Riparian forest, Rios Apiai-Mirim 504 Riparian forest, Rios Apiai-Mirim and 6-7 23o50'02"S 4834'07"W
and Apiai-Guaqu (5) Apiai-Guaqu
07 Fazenda Planebris (2) 273 Fazenda Planebris 4 2349'28"S 4834'23"W
08 Riparian forest (4) 20 Riparian forest close to the town of Buri 4 23o42'33"S 48o39'15"W
09 River mouth (6) 83 Fazenda Urupes 5 2347'16"S 4835'18"W
10 River mouth (6) 83 Fernando Espanhol 2 23o49'53"S 4833'35"W
11 Fazenda Floresta (3) 346 Fazenda Floresta 5 2342'01"S 48o38'17"W
12 Fazenda Vale do Apiai (1) 1007 Fazenda Vale do Apiai 3 2339'07"S 4834'20"W
13 Riparian forest, Rios ApialMirim 504 Mata/Estrada 3 2348'40"S 4835'16"W
and Apiai-Guaqu (5)
14 Riparian forest, Rios Apiai-Mirim 504 Riparian forest 2348'35"S 4835'15"W
14 1di a ua u 5) 504 Riparian forest 2348'35"S 4835'15"W
__and Apiai-Guau (5) ____ ______
15 Riparian Forest, Rios ApiaMirim 504 Banks of the Rio Apiai-Guaqu 4 2348'59"S 4832'47"W

16 Riparian Forest, Rios Apiai-Mirim 504 Olaria 5 2350'29"S 48o35'17"W
and Apiai-Guaqu (5)
17 Riparian Forest, Rios Apiai-Mirim 504 Olaria 6 2350'38"S 4835'08"W
and Apiai-Guaqu (5)
18 Riparian Forest, Rios Apiai-Mirim 504 Olaria 4 23o50'33"S 48-35'12"W
1and Apiai-Guasu (5) ______504 Olara235033"S__ 451

m "- .'mh

', % ..


Figure 1. Areas of occurrence of Leontopithecus chrysopygus in the
municipality of Buri, Sao Paulo. 01: Apiaf Valley Farm, 02: Fazenda
Planebris, 03: Fazenda Floresta, 04: Riparian forest, 05: Riparian
forest complex on the Rios Apiaf-Mirim and Apiaf-Guacu, 06:
River mouth complex, 07: Capao Bonito National Forest.


Coimbra-Filho, A. F. 1976. Os sagiiis do genero Leonto-
pithecus Lesson, 1840 (Callithricidae-Primates). Doctoral
dissertation, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de
Rylands, A. B. and Chiarello, A. G. 2003. Official list of
Brazilian fauna threatened with extinction 2003. Neo-
trop. Primates 11(1): 43-49.
Rylands, A. B., Kierulff, M. C. and Pinto, L. P. 2002.
Distribution and status of lion tamarins. In: Lion Tama-
rins: Biology and Conservation, D. G. Kleiman and A. B.
Rylands (eds.), pp. 42-70. Smithsonian Institution Press,
Washington, DC.
Valladares-Padua, C. B., Ballou, J. D., Martins, C. S. and
Cullen Jr., L. 2002. Metapopulation management for the
conservation of black lion tamarins. In: Lion Tamarins:
Biology and Conservation, D. G. Kleiman and A. B. Ry-
lands (eds.), pp. 301-314. Smithsonian Institution Press,
Washington, DC.
Valladares-Padua, C. B. and Cullen, Jr., L. 1994. Distribu-
tion, abundance and minimum viable metapopulation of
the black lion tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysopygus). Dodo,
J. '1 -,-- Preserv. Trust30: 80-88.
Valladares-Padua, C., Prado, F and Maia, R. G. 2000.
Survey of new populations of black-faced lion tamarin
(Leontopithecus caissara) in Sao Paulo and Parana states.
Institute de Pesquisas Ecol6gicas (IPE), Nazar6 Paulista,
Sao Paulo. Unpublished report, Margot Marsh Biodiver-
sity Foundation, Virginia.

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003


Lucas de Moraes Aguiar, Nilio Roberto dos Reis
Gabriela Ludwig, VlamirJosi Rocha


Na porgao sudeste do Brasil, Alouatta guariba (Humboldt,
1812) d a especie de bugio caracteristica da Mata
Atlantica, limitando sua ocorrencia na regiao do vale do
Jequitinhonha, Bahia (Gregorin, 1996), ate o municipio
de Sao Lourenco do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul (Printes et
al., 2001). A subespecie encontrada no Parana, A. guariba
clamitans, possui dicromatismo sexual: Os machos adults
apresentam coloraqao castanha avermelhada brilhante corn
reflexos dourados, e as femeas sao de padrao castanho
escuro (Auricchio, 1995).

A situacao dessa espcie no estado do Parana e preocupante.
O estado vem sofrendo intense devastacao principalmente
devido a atividades agricolas cafeeiras e agropecuarias, que
dizimam a mata native que outrora cobria 84% da area do
estado (Lange e Jablonski, 1981). De acordo corn a SPVS
(1996), restam apenas 7% da cobertura vegetal primitive.
Na regiao norte, este indice e mais alarmante, uma vez que
a floresta original foi reduzida a valores pr6ximos de 1%
a 2% (Brasil, Parana, 1987). Assim, sao poucos os relatos
da presenga da especie na regiao baixa do Rio Tibagi, onde
provavelmente estao quase extintos.

Os primatas do genero Alouatta Lacdpede, 1799 possuem
uma dieta variada, que consiste principalmente de folhas,
frutos e outras parties vegetais. Chiarello (1992) afirma que
as especies desse genero sao bastante oportunistas, send
capazes de sobreviver corn dietas compostas basicamente
por folhas, mas ingerindo os frutos e as flores durante as
6pocas em que estes itens sao mais abundantes. G6mez
(1999) observa que devido ao fato de as especies do genero
inclufrem uma porcao substantial de folhas na sua dieta,
conseguem sobreviver em fragments florestais pequenos
de ate 10 ha.

Um fator determinante no efeito da fragmentacao em pri-
matas e sua Area de vida, que possibility as analises de reque-
rimentos de Areas para futuras iniciativas de conservagao em
fragments florestais (Spironello, 2001). Numerosos traba-
lhos de campo term avaliado o uso do espago por diferentes
especies de primatas, contribuindo assim para o esclareci-
mento da sua ecologia basica (G6mez, 1999).

Em relacao is vocalizac6es, o genero Alouatta ha muito
e conhecido como um dos mais notAveis primatas que
emitem vocaliza6oes de long alcance. Quanto a isso, A.
guariba uma especie pouco estudada e algumas evidencias,
restritas a trabalhos corn a subespecie A. g. clamitans,

sugerem que seu estudo poderia fornecer novas perspectives
sobre o comportamento de emissao de chamados de long
alcance nos bugios (Oliveira, 2002).

Portanto, pela importincia dos fatos mencionados e devido
a escassez de dados da regiao, surgiu o prop6sito deste tra-
balho, o qual objetivou verificar e analisar a dieta, a Area de
vida, os percursos didrios, as vocalizag6es de long alcance
(rugido) e as estimativas populacionais da especie no frag-
mento Mata Doralice.

Material e Metodos

Area de estudo
A Mata Doralice situa-se no municipio de Ibipora,
norte do estado do Parana, na bacia do Rio Tibagi, mais
precisamente na regiao do Baixo Tibagi, nas coordenadas
2316'S e 5103'W, a 484 m de altitude. B urn fragmento
florestal de 170 ha, coberto em sua maior parte por uma
vegetacao florestal primiria alterada, do tipo Floresta
Estacional Semidecidual. 0 fragmento limita-se ao sul
corn o Rio Tibagi e estA circundado por plantios de
monoculturas, pomares e pastagens (Fig. 1). 0 solo
da regiao e classificado como terra roxa estruturada
eutr6fica e caracteriza-se por ter alta fertilidade natural.
O clima e subtropical 6mido, apresentando as quatro
estac6es bern definidas. A temperature media annual e de
22,45C e a precipitacao media annual e de 114,8 mm.
Os levantamentos fitossociol6gicos e floristicos realizados
por Soares-Silva et al. (1992) e Carmo (1995) apontaram
as families vegetais mais representatives como sendo:
Meliaceae, Myrtaceae, Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Moraceae
e Mimosaceae, e registraram tambem a densidade
absolute de 1396 ind./ha, e uma diversidade especifica de
H'= 3,6 (I = 0,786). Carmo (1995) verificou que afloresta
e constitufda por um estrato arbustivo e dois arb6reos, alem
de Arvores emergentes corn alturas superiores a 20 m.

A coleta de dados foi realizada entire outubro de 2001 e
setembro de 2002, atraves de quatro visits mensais. 0 tempo
de acompanhamento dos grupos foi dividido igualmente
para o perfodo matutino e vespertino. Foram acompanhados
diferentemente para cada fim tries grupos focais: GI, GII e
GIII. GI era constitufdo por um macho adulto dominant,
duas femeas adults, um juvenile e um infante; GII por um
macho adulto dominant, uma femea adulta e um juvenile; e
GIII, por um macho adulto dominant, duas femeas adults,
um juvenile um infante (classificaqao etAria segundo Mendes
[1989] e Hirano et al. [1996]).

Dieta: Para quantificar a dieta, os tries grupos foram
acompanhados utilizando-se o mdtodo das freqtencias
de observaiao, totalizando 122 h de acompanhamento.
Na determinaqao dos itens da dieta foram realizados dois
procedimentos: coleta de fezes e observaiao direta dos
animals, atraves do mdtodo ad libitum (Altmann, 1974).
Os itens vegetais nao identificados como sementes, frutos,
flores e caule foram mencionados como indeterminados

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

Figura 1. Mapa do Remanescente Florestal Mata Doralice, Ibipora, PR (170 ha).

(sp. 1, sp. 2, etc.). Foram classificados como "fibras vegetais"
os vestigios de folhas indeterminadas encontradas nas fezes.
Para padronizar as amostras fecais e as visuais na somat6ria
final, considerou-se como uma ocorr&ncia tanto cada especie
vegetal encontrada nas fezes como quanto cada especie
ingerida pelo animal na observacao direta do grupo focal
(Rocha, 2001).

Areas de vida e percursos didrios: Foram estudados dois
grupos vizinhos, GI e GII, acompanhados por 50 e 100
h, respectivamente. A diferenca no ndmero de horas de
acompanhamento foi porque em GII mensuraram-se os
percursos diArios, assim os resultados de GII podem ser
mais concisos devido ao maior ndmero de amostras. A
quantificaqao da Area de vida de cada grupo foi feita pelo
GPS Garmin, modelo eTrex Venture, metodologia adotada
tambem por Izar (1999). Os pontos e rotas foram marcados
pelo aparelho conforme a atividade dos animals, mudancas
de direy6es e possibilidade de contato corn satellites dentro
da mata, sendo plotados diariamente em mapas. As Areas
foram calculadas atraves do program AutoCAD 2000.
Os percursos diArios foram mensurados no GII pelo GPS
durante o verao, outono e inverno.

Vocalizafoes: Para o estudo sazonal das vocalizaqoes
de long alcance (loud calls), do tipo rugido, foram
cronometrados e anotados os horArios, local, sexo e
classes etAria do animal, independentemente do grupo
emissor. Para a analise contextual, registraram-se somente
as emitidas pelos grupos focais da Area de vida e de seus
vizinhos conhecidos. 0 m&todo ad libitum foi usado para
o registro dos comportamentos.

Estimativas populacionais: Foi empregado o m&todo
da Area de vida (Brockelman e Ali, 1987) levando-se
em conta o numero mddio de individuos encontrados
por grupo e os resultados das Areas de vida exclusivas e
sobrepostas com grupos vizinhos. Chegou-se, assim, a um
intervalo de ndmero de grupos, individuos e densidade


Alkm de Ficus spp., 41 esp&cies vegetais estiveram presents
na dieta, identificadas em 21 families. Hovenia dulcis foi a
dnica esp&cie ex6tica utilizada. Moraceae foi a famflia mais
representative e frequiente no ndmero de esp&cies (36,6%).
Alkm das figueiras (23,0%), a base da dieta constituiu-
se de mais 13 especies vegetais (38,6%), destacando-se
Maclura tinctoria e Sorocea bonplandii, totalizando uma
base alimentar de 62,0% foramm consideradas apenas
as especies que obtiveram freqiuencias acima de 1,0%).
O item "fibras vegetais", encontrado constantemente nas
fezes dos animals, tambem se apresentou corn uma fre-
qiiencia bastante elevada durante todo o estudo (24,3%)
(Tabela 1). Quanto aos itens da dieta, registraram-se folhas
(50,3%), frutos (47,9%), flores (1,4%) e caules (0,3%).

Sazonalmente, as especies vegetais mais consumidas foram:
frutos de Maclura tinctoria, Ficus spp. e Miconia tristis
durante a primavera; frutos de Jacaratia spinosa, Phytolacca
dioica e Maclura tinctoria no verao; frutos e folhas de Ficus
spp. durante o outono; e frutos de Pereskia aculeata, Sorocea
bonplandii e folhas de Ficus spp. no inverno. Esp&cies do
genero Ficus estavam presents na dieta durante todas as
estaq6es (Tabela 1), pois os animals consumiram tanto seus
frutos como suas folhas.

Durante a primavera e o verao, o consumo de frutos foi le-
vemente mais elevado do que o de folhas (62,3% e 61,0%,
respectivamente), enquanto que no outono e inverno a
freqiuncia alimentar de folhas foi maior (66,0% e 61,0%,
respectivamente) (Fig. 2). Notou-se tambem que durante o
outono, o consume de flores foi maior que nas outras estao6es
e, durante o inverno, houve o consumo de caule de liana.

Areas de vida e percursos didrios
Ao final do outono, GI nao mais ampliou sua Area amos-
trada, e GII utilizou apenas mais um pequeno trecho na
6ltima estacao, o inverno. Ambos os grupos apresenta-

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

Tabela 1. Especies vegetais, parte consumida, ndmero de vezes que o item foi consumido durante as estagoes e frequencia total com que o
item participou na dieta de Alouatta guariba. (PC = parte consumida.)
Primavera Verano Outono Inverno
Espdcies Vegetais PC 0 N D J F M A M J J A S Total %

Fibras vegetais Folhas 6 6 3 10 7 1 1 6 6 11 12 2 71 24,31
Ficus spp. Folhas 2 1 4 3 3 8 2 3 3 6 35 11,99
Ficus spp. Frutos 7 1 2 4 4 4 2 5 3 32 10,96
Maclura tinctoria Frutos 5 7 4 2 3 2 23 7,88
Sorocea bonplandii Frutos 3 1 10 1 15 5,14
Pereskia aculeata Frutos 3 7 5 15 5,14
Jacaratia spinosa Frutos 5 6 11 3,77
Phytolacca dioica Frutos 8 8 2,74
Pisonia ambigua Folhas 1 3 1 1 6 2,05
Miconia tristis Frutos 1 5 6 2,05
sp. 5 Frutos 7 7 2,39
Lauraceae Frutos 4 4 1,37
Syagrus .. .-. Frutos 3 1 4 1,37
Casearia sp. Folhas 1 1 2 4 1,37
Rollinia sericea Frutos 3 3 1,03
Jacaratia spinosa Folhas 2 1 3 1,03
Aspidosperma polyneuron Folhas 2 1 3 1,03
Outros (33 Itens) 14,28
Total 24 23 14 52 32 3 12 22 23 33 38 16 292 100%

q *T *NMW *PF *U

Figura 2. Frequencia dos itens alimentares nas estagoes: Primavera
de 2001 e verao, outono e inverno de 2002.

ram Areas bern definidas. Ao final das esta6es, o maior
grupo, GI, corn cinco indivfduos, explorou a maior area
(6 ha), corn Area nuclear de 1,5 ha, e o menor grupo, GII,
corn tries individuos, explorou 5 ha, corn Area nuclear de
1,6 ha (Fig. 3). A exigencia espacial dos grupos resultou em
mrdia de 1,45 ha/ind. Gil deteve quatro figueiras adults
(Ficus spp.) emrn sua Area nuclear e GI deteve apenas duas,
as mesmas foram bastante utilizadas como Arvores de dor-
mida dos grupos.

Os grupos utilizaram diferentes tamanhos e stores de
area ao long das estar6es (Fig. 4). As dreas foram usadas
de modo homogeneo na primavera e verao e heterogeneo
no outono e inverno, sendo que nestas duas 6ltimas es-
taq6es foi maior a utilizaqao de sub-Areas pelos animals,
as quais foram influenciadas principalmente por Ficus
spp. GI obteve maior Area na primavera (3,5 ha) e verao
(3,7 ha), reduzindo-a em quase um hectare no outono
(2,7 ha) e inverno (2,4 ha). JA GII manteve um tamanho
quase constant, em mrdia 2,4 ha ao long das estaq6es.
Os dois grupos restringiram suas atividades a locais
pr6ximos as suas Areas nucleares no inverno, e alimen-
taram-se quase que exclusivamente de frutos de Sorocea
bonplandii e folhas de Ficus spp. No verao, registrou-se
a dnica sobreposicao de Area entire os grupos focais (0,21
ha) (Fig. 4b).

Os percursos diArios, medidos no GII, tiveram mrdia de
280 m/dia (n = 7), variando entire 120 m/dia a 500 m/dia.
Os maiores valores foram medidos no verao (mrdia = 367
m/dia) e os menores no inverno (mrdia = 200 m/dia),
tendo-se registrado tambem nesta estagao o menor percur-
so, 120 m/dia.

Figura 3. Areas de vida dos grupos focais: GI, 6 ha corn Area
nuclear de 1,5 ha e GII, 5 ha corn Area nuclear de 1,6 ha.

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

Figura 4. Variaqao sazonal no uso de diferentes stores da area de vida dos grupos focais: a) Primavera, GI: 3,5 ha e GII: 2,2 ha; b) Verao,
GI: 3,7 ha e GII: 2,6 ha; c) Outono, GI: 2,7 ha e GII: 2,5 ha; d) Inverno, GI: 2,4 ha e GII: 2,4 ha.

De todas as vocalizaqoes de long alcance do tipo rugido
registradas (n = 19), 74% foi no perfodo da tarde corn
um pico das 15 as 17 h. Nao houve registro do pico de
vocalizacao no alvorecer (dawn chorus). Os rugidos foram
continues e duravam em mrdia 13 min, sendo na maioria
das vezes executados apenas pelo macho adulto dominant
(84% dos registros). Em uma ocasiao, a femea vocalizou
junto corn o macho dominant do grupo, e em outra, a femea
vocalizou sozinha ao lado do macho dominant. Um macho
de hierarquia inferior vocalizou apenas em um registro.
Sazonalmente, 42% das vocalizaqoes foram registradas no
verao, seguidas de 26% no outono, 16% na primavera e
16% no inverno. As vocalizaqoes de GI e vizinhos ocorreram
pr6ximas aos limits de suas areas, em regi6es perifkricas,
na direqao de outros grupos. Somente uma vocalizacao foi

registrada na area nuclear do GI. Houve apenas um registro
de encontro intergrupal, resultando em vocalizao6es pelos
grupos conflitantes. 0 ndmero de vocalizao6es dos grupos
focais relacionou-se ao ndmero de vizinhos transgressores
identificados, bern como a porcentagem de sobreposio6es
de suas Areas: GI 10 vocalizaqoes / 3 grupos vizinhos e 1
macho adulto solitArio transgressor, 30% de Area sobreposta;
GII 1 vocalizacao / 1 grupo vizinho e 1 macho subadulto
solitArio transgressor, 10% de Area sobreposta.

Estimativas populacionais
Distinguiu-se no total pelo menos seis grupos diferentes e
tries machos solitArios. 0 maior grupo continha seis indivi-
duos e o menor tries. Corn exceqao de um grupo que pos-
sufa mais de um macho adulto (justamente o maior grupo),
todos apresentavam-se corn um macho adulto dominant,

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

suas femeas e individuos juvenis. Em mddia foi constatado
4,5 individuos por grupo.

Corn os resultados das Areas de vida dos grupos focais e corn
a mddia de individuos por grupo, foi estimada em mddia a
populacao de A. guariba. Poderia haver de 31 a 39 grupos
habitando a mata durante o perfodo de estudo, totalizando
de 140 a 175 individuos, corn uma densidade populacional
de 0,82 a 1,02 individuos/ha.


O genero Alouatta e bastante seletivo, parecendo ter fortes
preferencias por algumas espucies vegetais e ate mesmo por
certos individuos dentro de algumas especies particulars
(Milton, 1977; Sussman, 2000). Estudos corn A. guariba
demonstraram uma marcante seletividade alimentar: Chia-
rello (1992) verificou que mais da metade da dieta destes
animals (54,5%) provdm de apenas seis especies; Limeira
(1997) citou apenas duas como base da dieta, representan-
do 55%; e Jardim e Oliveira (2000) relataram a importIn-
cia de cinco especies para estes bugios, constituindo 70%
de freqiuncia total. Na Mata Doralice, a base da dieta
constituiu-se de um ndmero maior de especies, Ficus spp.
e 13 outras (62%), demonstrando uma menor seletividade
quando comparada a outros trabalhos.

Moraceae foi a familiar mais freqiiente (36,6%) sendo as
especies de Ficus as mais presents na dieta, consumidas
durante todas as estao6es de estudo. As figueiras sao uma
fonte alimentar important para muitas especies de prima-
tas, inclusive para Alouatta (ver Terborgh, 1986; Young,
1983; Sussman, 2000; Rocha, 2001). No outono, quando
a disponibilidade dos frutos parece ser menor, as figueiras
foram importantes tanto no consumo de frutos como de
folhas: Fato tambdm observado por Prates (1990) que con-
siderou o genero Ficus como send a base da alimentagyo
deste primata. Figueiras e outras especies da famrnlia tambdm
mostraram-se importantes para outras especies de Alouatta:
A. palliata (Milton, 1977; Solano et al., 1999); A. pigra
(Schlichte, 1978); A. caraya (Marques e Marques, 1995) e
A. seniculus (Palacios e Rodriguez, 2001).

O freqiiente uso de folhas como fonte de proteinas (Braza
et al., 1983; Torres de Assumpcao, 1986) e frutos como
fonte de carboidratos nao estruturais (Smith, 1977) de
diversas especies pode ser explicada pela necessidade de
uma dieta nutricionalmente balanceada, sendo que Milton
(1980) consider comportamentais as adaptac6es para a
folivoria neste genero.

No total, a porcentagem de folhas e frutos consumidos foi
semelhante. Entretanto, notou-se uma diferenga sazonal,
visto que o consumo de frutos em perfodos de abundancia
(primavera e verao) foi maior em relagao aos perfodos de
escassez (outono e inverno) quando houve aumento no
consumo de folhas e flores. Bicca-Marques (1991) atribuiu
essas diferengas as ofertas sazonais de determinados itens

relacionados diretamente as duas estrategias adaptativas
de maximizagao de energia, uma de alto-custo, alta-recom-
pensa e outra de baixo-custo, baixa-recompensa (Zunino,
1986), conforme as mudangas das fases fenol6gicas das
especies que comp6em a dieta.

A frequiencia total corn que os frutos foram utilizados esta
acima das estimativas observadas para o genero. Entre as
especies de Alouatta, somente nos trabalhos com A. seniculus
e A. palliata (ver tabela comparative em Hirano, 1996)
verificaram-se resultados onde ocorre uma equivalencia
de ambos os itens consumidos ou onde o consumo do
item fruto foi superior ao item folha, corroborando com o
present trabalho.

Areas de vida e percursos didrios
O tamanho das Areas de vida aqui mensuradas (6 e 5 ha)
estao de acordo com as pequenas Areas citadas para as
especies de Alouatta, o que provavelmente ocorra devido
ao reflexo do comportamento folfvoro alimentar visto em
todo genero. Primatas folivoros tem Areas de vida menores
que os frugfvoros e onfvoros (Milton e May, 1976; Fl, J, .
1999). As dimens6es aqui verificadas podem estar pr6ximas
dos tamanhos reais ja que GI nao explorou novas Areas no
outono e inverno, e GII explorou apenas um pequeno novo
setor na 6ltima estagao de coleta, o inverno. Em comparadao
aos trabalhos corn a esp&cie A. guariba, estas Areas foram
menores que as encontradas por Mendes (1989) (7,94 ha),
Gaspar (1997) (8,5 ha) e Limeira (2000) (11,6 ha), mas
pr6ximas as de Chiarello (1992) (4,1 ha). Tal semelhanga
ocorreu apesar do ndmero de individuos e grau de folivoria
serem maiores e o grau de frugivoria ser menor em relagao
aos verificados neste trabalho, evidenciando diferengas nas
estrategias utilizadas pela mesma especie em diferentes
habitats. Spironello (2001) sugeriu que diferengas ecol6gicas
entire as Areas de estudo podem resultar em grandes
diferengas no requerimento de Area pela mesma esp&cie ao
long de sua distribuigio geogrAfica. Ainda, Crockett and
Eisenberg (1987) sugerem que as diferengas de tamanho nas
Areas de vida estao mais associadas as diferengas ambientais.
O ndmero de indivfduos por grupo foi outro fator que
influenciou o tamanho das Areas de vida, pois GI (5
individuos) utilizou 1 ha a mais do que GII (3 indivfduos),
concordando corn Strier (1987). A maior procura por
figueiras adults por GI tambem poderia ter aumentado sua
Area em comparacao a GII, ja que aquele apresentou menor
ndmero destas Arvores em sua Area nuclear, utilizando sua
Area de vida de modo mais homog&neo.

Sazonalmente, os grupos utilizaram suas Areas em diferentes
stores conforme a distribuigao espacio-temporal de frutos e
folhas. As estrategias citadas por Zunino (1986) pareceram
ser utilizadas pelos animals. GI apresentou maiores
Areas na primavera e verao, perfodo de maior frugivoria,
que coincidiu corn a frutificacao de Maclura tinctoria
e Jacaratia spinosa, respectivamente. Di Bitetti (2001)
tambem verificou um aumento da Area de vida de Cebus
jil.//, que coincidiu corn afrutificacao de quatro Arvores de
M. tinctoria. A procura pelos frutos de J. spinosa foi o

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

principal fator responsivel pela sobreposigao registrada
entire GI e GII e tambem responsivel pela maior Area
sazonal de GI, ja que esta especie arb6rea apresentou umrn
baixo Indice de Valor de ImportIncia nos levantamentos
floristicos e uma especie que ocorre em baixas densidades
(Lorenzi, 2000). No outono e inverno, GI diminuiu o
tamanho de sua Area em 20%, coincidindo corn o perfodo
de maior indice de folivoria. No inverno, a utilizagao de
Ficus spp. e Sorocea bonplandii na Area nuclear do grupo
contribuiu para a redugao da Area, ja que esta especie
arb6rea apresenta alta freqiiencia e Indice de Valor de
ImportIncia (Soares-Silva et al., 1992). Apesar do tamanho
da Area de vida de GII nao apresentar variagoes sazonais, os
maiores percursos foram medidos no verao e os menores
no inverno, o que poderia ser um reflexo das estrategias
citadas por Zunino (1986).

A riqueza de figueiras no fragmento, evidenciada pelos
trabalhos de levantamento floristico, poderia sustentar as
diferengas no tamanho e no modo de uso da Area quando
comparados a outros trabalhos, ja que foi nftida a influencia
destas, principalmente em 6pocas de escassez de alimentos.
No outono houve a procura por figueiras em frutificadao
e no inverno a procura por folhas novas. Neville et al.
(1988) destacam que o uso de Area de Alouatta e relatado
diretamente para a distribuigao de fontes preferidas de
comida, particularmente Ficus.

Para Alouatta, os percursos diArios estao relacionados a
qualidade do habitat e sao tambem adaptac6es relacionadas
a dieta folivora utilizada (Bicca-Marques e Calegaro-
Marques, 1995). Em relagao aos percursos de GII, estes
estao pr6ximos aos pequenos percursos encontrados para
o g&nero, pordm aqui verificaram-se menores mddias. Mais
uma vez as diferengas verificadas poderiam mostrar, alrm
de diferentes tamanhos grupais, diferentes estrategias emrn
resposta as disponibilidades de alimento.

Os rugidos na Mata Doralice apresentaram-se continues,
diferindo de outras esp&cies como A. palliata e A. seniculus
(Oliveira, 2002). 0 numero registrado (n = 19) foi inferior
aos trabalhos de Mendes (1989), Chiarello (1995) e
Oliveira (2002). Isto provavelmente esta relacionado a
um baixo ndmero de encontros intergrupais presenciados
e a uma menor porcentagem de sobreposigoes de Areas
verificadas entire os grupos, resultantes de uma densidade
nao alta. Gaspar (veja Oliveira, 2002), tambem verificou
um ndmero baixo de vocalizao6es (n = 17) em uma Area de
baixa densidade da especie.

O pico de vocalizagao encontrado na Mata Doralice entiree
15 e 17 h) esta muito pr6ximo ao encontrado por Mendes
(1989) e ao pico vespertino encontrado por Chiarello
(1995). Muitos autores detectaram a presenga do coro
matinal em algumas especies de Alouatta, tais como em A.
palliata (Carpenter, 1934; Whitehead, 1987, 1989) e A.
seniculus (Sekulic, 1982). Na primeira esp&cie, os autores
apoiaram a iddia de que o context das vocalizaqoes de

long alcance atuava basicamente como um mecanismo de
espacamento entire os grupos em umaespecie nao-territorial.
Na segunda, foi proposto um context de competihao
sexual, onde os rugidos atuariam mais como um meio de
evitar o acesso as femeas por machos externos ao grupo, mas
posteriormente reconheceu-se que esse comportamento
pode desempenhar um papel na defesa de outros recursos
(Sekulic, 1983). Neste trabalho, nao foi detectado um coro
matinal, o que constitui uma caracteristica da esp&cie, como
tambem verificado por Mendes (1989), Chiarello (1995) e
Oliveira (2002).

Os grupos de A. guariba pareceram ser territorials,
conforme constatado tambem por Mendes (1989) e Hirano
etal. (1996). No que diz respeito a defesa de suas Areas bern
definidas, suas vocalizao6es foram emitidas principalmente
nas periferias, como assinalou Mendes (1989), e na direiao
de seus vizinhos. Aldm disso, verificou-se que o grupo corn
maior numero de vizinhos e maior porcentagem de Area
sobreposta (GI) vocalizou dezvezes mais do que o grupo corn
menor numero de vizinhos e menor porcentagem de Area
sobreposta (GII), parecendo ter sofrido maior quantidade
de estfmulos para a emissao deste comportamento. Mitani
e Rodman (1979) ressaltaram que em primatas, a defesa
territorial e funcionalmente dependent da procura por
fontes de comida dentro de uma pequena Area de vida,
e que estes animals defenderao uma Area somente se seus
regimes alimentares permitirem. Assim, as pequenas Areas
de vida dos grupos focais e um alto indice de frugivoria
visto neste trabalho apontam para o fato de que estes
animals, bem como suas vocalizao6es, possivelmente estao
inseridas no context de territorialidade, corn a funcao de
defesa de espaco.

Sazonalmente, a maior porcentagem de vocalizao6es foi
registrada no verao, perfodo que correspondeu ao maior
registro de sobreposio6es de Areas entire GI e GII, e desse
corn outros grupos invasores. 0 outono foi a estanio corn
o segundo maior registro, apresentando uma maior procura
por Ficus spp. em frutificacao. Ambos os casos podem ter
colocado os grupos vizinhos em maior probabilidade de
encontros entire si, podendo levA-los a situagoes de dispute.
Em contrapartida, registrou-se a menor porcentagem de
vocalizacoes no inverno, perfodo em que os animals restrin-
giram mais suas atividades as Areas nucleares.

Estimativas populacionais
As estimativas registradas para a esp&cie (0,82 ind/ha a
1,02 ind/ha) partiram da hip6tese de a Mata Doralice
ser homog&nea e chegou-se a resultados inferiores, se
comparados aos trabalhos de Mendes (1989) e Chiarello
(1992), pordm superiores em comparacao corn as baixas
densidades encontradas por Pinto et al. (1993). Todavia,
e important salientar que esta densidade pode sofrer
alteragoes se considerar a heterogeneidade da mata, uma
vez que os grupos foram estudados numa Area de floresta
primAria e o fragmento tambem compreende um trecho
de floresta secundAria. As densidades populacionais
encontradas na Mata Doralice podem estar sofrendo pressao

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

de caca, mesmo que baixa, mas que ainda e existente neste
fragmento. Vale ressaltar que no Parque Estadual Mata dos
Godoy (o fragmento florestal mais representative da regiao
do Baixo Tibagi, corn 680 ha), a esp&cie A. guariba esta
extinta, provavelmente devido a caca predat6ria (Peracchi
et al., 2002).


Diante de todo o exposto, concluiu-se que ha uma grande
necessidade da manutencao da Mata Doralice, e outros
fragments afins, para aplicacao de projetos de manejo,
enriquecimento ambiental e genetico para esta populadao
isolada de bugios, ja que este fragmento e um dos poucos
relatos da presenca da espucie na regiao baixa da bacia do
Rio Tibagi, onde provavelmente estao quase extintos. Nao
obstante, salienta-se a importancia da criaqao de corredores
para o estabelecimento de metapopulao6es para A. guariba
na regiao.

Agradecimentos. Ao proprietario da Fazenda Doralice,
Sr. Pedro Favoreto, e a todos os moradores locals. Ao
engenheiro, Sr. Joao Aristides de Aguiar, ao Prof. Anselmo
Ludwig e aos bi6logos Isaac Passos de Lima, Jose Marcelo
Domingues Torezan, Manoel Ronaldo Carvalho Paiva e
Edmilson Bianchini.

Lucas de Moraes Aguiar, Rua Bronislau Ostoja Roguski
649, Casa 3, Bairro Jardim das Americas, Curitiba 81540-
080, Parana, Brasil, N6lio Roberto dos Reis, Laborat6rio
de Ecologia, Departamento de Biologia Animal e Vegetal,
Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Caixa Postal 6001,
Londrina 86051-990, Parana, Brasil, Gabriela Ludwig,
Rua Bronislau Ostoja Roguski 649, Casa 3, Bairro Jardim
das Am&ricas, Curitiba 81540-080, Parana, Brasil, e Vlamir
Jos6 Rocha, Klabin S. A., Klabin Florestal PR, Manejo
Ambiental, Fazenda Monte Alegre, Lagoa s/no. Pesquisa
Florestal, Lagoa 84279-000, Parand, Brasil. E-mail:


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Leonardo de C?. 71 iv,/,o Oliveira
Edeltrudes Maria V C. Cdmara
Andrd Hirsch, Ana Maria Oliveira Paschoal
Rodrigo Martins Alvarenga, Maycon G. Belarmino


The Serra do Cip6 National Park is 90 km north of Belo
Horizonte, Minas Gerais, and part of the southern section
of the Serra do Espinhago (19o12' to 1934'S, 43o27' to
4338'W). It is 33,800 ha in size, covering altitudes ranging
from 800 to 1600 m. The vegetation is a mix of cerrado (bush
savanna), campo rupestre (rocky moorland), open pasture and
gallery forests, with some forest patches on the eastern ridge.
Here we report unusual high-altitude sightings, made as part
of an ongoing project, of two eastern Brazilian primate spe-
cies: ( .-' ; ..-rr..i and Alouatta caraya.

Geoffroy's marmoset, C .-' ...rr ..n (E. Geoffroy in
Humboldt, 1812), is endemic to the Atlantic forest of
Brazil (Rylands et al., 1993; Fonseca et al., 1996). It is
found in secondary forests in lowlands, semi-deciduous
forests, gallery forest and forest borders, with a prefer-
ence for disturbed rather than mature areas (Passamani
and Rylands, 2000a, 2000b). It is diurnal, and its diet is
composed largely of fruits, exudates and small animal prey.
Populations of Geoffroy's marmoset are declining over large
parts of its relatively restricted range due to habitat loss and
fragmentation, hunting and capture for pets. Its distribution
appears to be further limited by its restriction, in many parts
of its range, to altitudes between sea level and 600-800 m
(Mendes, 1997).

The black howler monkey, Alouatta caraya (Humboldt,
1812) is typical of the Cerrado biome, but may also be
found in forests along the Parana/Paranafba rivers, in de-
ciduous forests in Caatinga regions of north-east Brazil,
semi-deciduous forests of the Pantanal, the humid Chaco of
Argentina, and in capese" forest patches of Rio Grande
do Sul and extreme northwestern Uruguay (Hirsch et al.,
2002). This species thus has a wide geographic range, from
northern Argentina to the northeast of Brazil. A. caraya is
usually to be found in low altitudes up to approximately

1000 m. It is diurnal and lives in groups of seven to nine
individuals, although group sizes of up to 17 have been re-
ported (Bicca-Marques, 1992). Leaves and fruits comprise
the majority of its diet. Although not directly threatened,
A. caraya suffers from the severe and ongoing fragmentation
of its habitat in the Cerrado. In this context it is critical to
identify new sites where it may occur, each of which will be
important to the long-term survival of this species.

In this report, we register the occurrence of (
,.. rr .., and Alouatta caraya in a small fragment of Atlantic
forest on the eastern border of the Serra do Cip6 National
Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil. This new locality is at one of
the highest elevations (1274 and 1254 m, respectively) yet
recorded for these species (Carlos E. V. Grelle, pers. comm.;
Maycon G. Belarmino, unpubl. data, respectively), at the
westernmost limits of the Rio Doce basin, headwaters of
the Rio Santo Antonio (Hirsch et al., 2002; see Fig. 1).

Methods and Results

The study was carried out in a forest fragment with an ap-
proximate area of 34.3 ha and a perimeter of approximately
3.22 km, in the municipality of Morro do Pilar, near the
neighboring municipality of Santana do Riacho (see Fig. 1).
Geographic coordinates and altitude were taken with a GPS
device. We used a Landsat 5 TM satellite image (p218/r73,
01/nov/1997; Minas Gerais, DMC/IEF, 2001) to identify
the vegetation in the surrounding areas, and ArcGIS 8.2
software (ESRI, 2001) for calculating the forest fragment's
contour, area and perimeter. From the examination of the
satellite image done by Hirsch (2003), the study site may
be characterized as a small semi-isolated fragment, linked
on only one side with a gallery forest that follows a small
watercourse downstream. The surroundings are occupied
with rocky moorland and open pasture (Fig. 1).

Two marmosets, ( .-'. ..*rr ., were heard and seen in
the forest fragment in August 2002. We later observed 10
individuals there during a return visit in March 2003. The
GPS coordinates taken in the field were 1915'28"S and
4331'01"W, and the altitude was 1274 m. On 15 March
2003, two members of the field team observed one individual
of Alouatta caraya in the same forest fragment, at approxi-
mately the same coordinates and at an altitude of 1254 m.
All the records were taken ad libitum (Altmann, 1974).


( .-. ....rr ..I
Although little studied, the home range of C ...rr ..i
is believed to vary from 20 to 30 ha (Rylands and Faria,
1993). Passamani and Rylands (2000a, 2000b) estimated a
home range of 23.3 ha for a group of 3-5 individuals in a
forest fragment of 110 ha in the state of Espfrito Santo. The
record from this study was made in a fragment of approxi-
mately 34 ha, which suggests that its area is insufficient to
support more than one group. Considering a circle as the
best shape, the ideal perimeter calculated with the formula

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

Figure 1. Location of the forest fragment where Callithrix ..
Minas Gerais, Brazil.

provided by Hirsch (2003) for this forest fragment is only
2.08 km. The actual contour (3.22 km) is larger and some-
what irregular, with a considerable edge effect acting on the
interior forest area.

One of the causes of the threatened status of C... rr ..i is
its relatively restricted distribution in a highly fragmented
environment. Our record of this species at an altitude of
1274 m extends its vertical range by almost 500 m, thereby
indicating that it may be more wide-ranging than previ-
ously thought. This is also the westernmost record of the
species in the Rio Doce basin (Hirsch et al., 2002). The
nearest record on the western slopes of the Serra do Cip6
National Park is of ( .-.'- penicillata, near the park's
administrative headquarters. Thus, the Serra do Cip6 may
be considered a biogeographic divide between these two
marmoset species (Hirsch et al., 2002).

Alouatta caraya
Home range size for the genus Alouatta is reported to
vary from 4.1 to 182 ha (Chiarello, 1993; Palacios and
Rodriguez, 2001). In fragmented landscapes, A. caraya has
been registered in patches of 2 ha (Bicca-Marques, 1992;
Bicca-Marques and Calegaro-Marques, 1995). Their abil-
ity to incorporate secondary vegetation in their diet may
explain their capacity to survive in small and degraded areas
(Chiarello, 1994). This observation is one of the highest

.., and Alouatta caraya were recorded at the Serra do Cip6 National Park,

altitudes (1254 m) recorded for the species (Maycon G.
Belarmino, pers. obs.), which extends its potential geo-
graphical distribution and suggests that new proposals for
population management might be implemented in areas
previously considered unsuitable for the species.

Small and isolated fragments such as this one may not have
sufficient core area to support viable populations of many
species (Zudeima et al., 1996). They may function, how-
ever, as an ultimate refuge for many species (Shafer, 1995).
Small populations found in such small refuges may be sub-
ject to series of stochastic processes ofdemographic, genetic
and environmental origin that may lead them to extinction,
despite measures taken for their conservation (Gilpin and
Soulk, 1986; Brito and Fernandez, 2000). The negative ef-
fects ofpopulation isolation, especially on small populations,
have already been well-demonstrated in the conservation
literature (see, for example, Meffe and Carol, 1997).

Although small forest fragments cannot support marmoset
or howler populations which are viable in the long-term,
they may serve as "stepping stones" between larger forests,
thereby facilitating gene flow and recolonization through
dispersal and migration. These new records are in a large
protected area, the Serra do Cip6 National Park, surround-
ed by the buffer zone of the Morro da Pedreira Environ-
mental Protection Area. This allows for some hope for the

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

long-term persistence of these populations. Future research
may reveal the conservation relevance of such small frag-
ments and their apparently isolated populations.

Acknowledgements: This study is part of a larger project
assessing mammal communities in the various vegeta-
tion formations in the Serra do Cip6 National Park. We
thank the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renew-
able Natural Resources (IBAMA) for permission to work
in the Serra do Cip6 National Park, and for providing
facilities. We also thank our colleagues from the Labora-
tory of Mammalogy, Museum of Natural Sciences of the
Pontiffcia Universidade Cat61lica de Minas Gerais for their
help with fieldwork. Robert Young kindly helped with
the English version of the text and provided most useful
suggestions. Carlos Eduardo de Viveiros Grelle provided
unpublished data on ( .-' geoffroyi. The Fundo de
Incentive a Pesquisa (Research Fund) of the Pontificia
Universidade Cat61lica de Minas Gerais (FIP/PUC-Minas)
funded this study.

Leonardo C. Oliveiral,2, Edeltrudes M. V C. Camara2,
Rodrigo M. Alvarenga2, Ana Maria 0. Paschoal2, 'De-
partamento de Ciencias Biol6gicas and 2Museu de Cien-
cias Naturais, PUC-Minas, Rua Dom Josd Gaspar 290,
Coracao Eucarfstico, Belo Horizonte 30535-610, Minas
Gerais, Brazil, Maycon G. Belarmino, Laborat6rio de Ver-
tebrados, Departamento de Ecologia, Instituto de Biologia,
CCS, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal
68020, Rio de Janeiro 21941-590, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
and Andr6 Hirsch, Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de
Ciencias Biol6gicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais,
Avenida Antonio Carlos 6627, Pampulha, Belo Horizonte
30270-901, Minas Gerais, Brazil. E-mail of first author:


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pling methods. Behaviour 49: 227-267.
Bicca-Marques, J. C. 1992. Drinking behaviour in the
black howler monkey (Alouatta caraya). Folia Primatol.
58: 107-111.
Bicca-Marques, J. C. and Calegaro-Marques, C. 1995. Lo-
comotion of black howlers in a habitat with discontinu-
ous canopy. Folia Primatol. 64: 55-61.
Brazil, IBGE. 1998. Dados Gerais do Brasil, InformafoesEstatisti-
cas e Geocientificas. Fundagao Instituto Brasileiro de Geogra-
fia e Estatistica (IBGE), Rio de Janeiro. Website: //www.ibge.gov.br/informag6es/territ/perfil/Perfilbr.html>.
Brito, D. and Fernandez, E A. S. 2000. Dealing with ex-
tinction is forever: Understanding the risks faced by small
populations. Ciencia e Cultura 52: 161-170.
Chiarello, A. G. 1993. Home range of the brown howler
monkey Alouatta fusca in a forest fragment of southeast-
ern Brazil. Folia Primatol. 60: 173-175.
Chiarello, A. G. 1994. Diet of the brown howler monkey
Alouatta fusca in a semi-deciduous forest fragment of
southeastern Brazil. Primates 35: 25-34.

ESRI. 2001. ArcView GIS v. 8.2. Environmental Systems
Research Institute, Redlands, CA. Website: esri.com/data/index.html>.
Fonseca, G. A. B. da, Herrmann, G., Leite, Y. L. R., Mitter-
meier, R. A., Rylands, A. B. and Patton, J. L. 1996. Lista
anotada dos mamfferos do Brasil. Occ. Papers Conserv. Biol.
4: 1-38. Conservation International, Washington, DC.
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populations: Processes of species extinction. In:
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Diversity, M. E. Sould (ed.), pp.19-34. Sinauer Associates,
Sunderland, MA.
Hirsch, A. 2003. Analise da fragmentagao do habitat e
selegao de areas prioritArias para a conservagao dos prima-
tas na bacia do Rio Doce, Minas Gerais, atraves da apli-
cacao de um Sistema de Informagoes Geograficas. Doc-
toral dissertation, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais,
Belo Horizonte.
Hirsch, A., Dias, L. G., Martins, L. de 0., Campos, R.
F, Landau, E. C. and Resende, N. A. T. 2002. BD-
GEOPRIM Database of geo-referenced localities of
Neotropical primates. Neotrop. Primates 10(2): 79-84.
Website: bdgeoprim.htm>.
Meffe, G. K. and Carroll, C. R. 1997. Principles of Con-
servation Biology. 2nd edition. Sinauer Associates, Sunder-
land, MA.
Mendes, S. L. 1997. Padres biogeograficos e vocals em
C .- do Grupo Jacchus (Primates, Callitrichidae).
Doctoral dissertation, Universidade Estadual de Campi-
nas, Campinas.
Minas Gerais, DMC/IEF 2001. Cobertura de Imagens de Sa-
tilite Landsat 5 do Estado de Minas Gerais. Convinio DMC
/ UFMG. Diretoria de Monitoramento e Controle, Insti-
tuto Estadual de Florestas and Departamento de Zoologia,
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte.
Palacios, E. and Rodriguez, A. 2001. Ranging pattern and
use of space in a group of red howler monkeys (Alouatta
seniculus) in a southeastern Colombian rainforest. Am. J.
Primatol. 55: 233-251.
Passamani, M. and Rylands, A. B. 2000a. Feeding behavior
of Geoffroy's marmoset (( .- ...rr.. in an Atlantic
forest fragment of south-eastern Brazil. Primates 41: 27-38.
Passamani, M. and Rylands, A. B. 2000b. Home range of a
Geoffroy's marmoset group, ( .- ;..- rr .., (Primates,
Callitrichidae) in south-eastern Brazil. Rev. Brasil. Biol.
60: 275-281.
Rylands, A. B. and Faria, D. S. de. 1993. Habitats, feeding
ecology, and home range size in the genus ( .-' In:
Marmosets and Tamarins: Systematics, Behaviour, and Ecol-
ogy, A. B. Rylands (ed.), pp.262-272. Oxford University
Press, Oxford.
Rylands, A. B., Coimbra-Filho, A. E and Mittermeier,
R. A. 1993. Systematics, geographic distribution, and
some notes on the conservation status of the Callitrichi-
dae. In: Marmosets and Tamarins: Systematics, Behaviour,
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versity Press, Oxford.

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

Shaffer, C. L. 1995. Values and shortcomings of small re-
serves. BioScience45: 80-88.
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fragmentation and biodiversity: The case for intermediate-
sized conservation areas. Environ. Conserv. 23: 290-297.


Marcelo Cardoso de Sousa

Sergipe d o menor estado brasileiro em extensao territorial.
Possui cerca de 21.994 km2 e localiza-se na regiao nordeste
do Brasil, ao sul do Rio Sao Francisco. Seu relevo apresenta
formas desgastadas, com altitudes pouco elevadas; cerca
de 86% do territ6rio e abaixo de 300 m sobre o nfvel do
mar. A baixada litoranea constitui uma extensa faixa de
tabuleiros sedimentares, com cerca de 150 km de largura
do litoral, em diregao ao interior, cortada pelas varzeas
dos rios (Vaza-Barris, Sergipe, Piauf, Real) que desaguam
no Oceano Atlantico. No norte do estado, esses terrenos
baixos se unem a planfcie aluvial do Rio Sao Francisco, o
maior rio de Sergipe, o qual demarca a divisa com o estado
de Alagoas. A baixada, por seus aspects fisiograficos,
corresponde em sua maior parte a Zona da Mata, cuja
vegetagao original era a floresta tropical, hoje em grande
part devastada pela exploracao econ6mica predat6ria ou
substitufda por areas agricolas.

Em meio is areas antr6picas, ainda existem remanescentes
florestais, pequenas ilhas de vegetagao secundaria
representadas por formagoes do tipo Floresta Ombr6fila
Densa e Floresta Estacional Semidecidual. Varios desses
remanescentes florestais foram percorridos nos dltimos
anos com o prop6sito de se registrar a presenga de Calli-
cebus coimbrai e ampliar o conhecimento sobre as suas areas
de ocorrencia. Apesar de inclufda na nova list da fauna
brasileira ameagada de extingao, C. coimbrai disp6e de
pouqufssimos registros de campo, e sua distribuigao e estado
de conservagao ainda nao estao efetivamente bem definidos.
As dnicas informao6es sobre essa especie foram fornecidas
por Kobayashi e Langguth (1999) quando, no trabalho da
descrigao da especie, indicaram duas Areas de ocorrencia de
C. coimbrai, aldm dasualocalidade tipo no estado de Sergipe.
Sousa (2000) acrescentou mais tries localidades, uma delas
situada no nordeste do estado da Bahia. Van Roosmalen etal.
(2002) fizeram uma compilagao das informagoes ate entao
disponfveis e sugeriram os limits de sua distribuigao entire o
Rio Itapicuru (ao norte) e o Rio Sao Francisco.

Neste nota, reportamos novos registros da distribuigao de
( .... coimbrai baseados em observag6es realizadas
no perfodo de outubro de 2002 a setembro de 2003,
durante nossos trabalhos de campo desenvolvidos no
estado de Sergipe. Nesse perfodo, tivemos a oportunidade
de registrar a vocalizagao de ( .... em 14 fragments
florestais e obter imagens de alguns individuos em
duas localidades.

4 .



do Sergipe, Brasil. Escala 1:3.000.000. ProjeAao Area Igual
Cilfndrica. Mapa gentilmente confeccionado por Mark Denil,
GIS and Mapping Laboratory, Center for Applied Biodiversity
Science, Conservation International, Washington, DC.

1. Mata da Santana (1032'S, 3644'W). Localizada entire
os municpios de Pacatuba e JapoatS, nos arredores da
localidade tipo de ( .i coimbrai, a mata da Santadona

e um fragmento corn cerca de 150 ha, isolada em meio
a plantadrica.es de cana-de-antilmentecar. A maior part da mata
Sconstituda por vegetatio secundnal, Wria, entretanto, al-

gumas arvores altas remanescentes corn cerca de 20 m
de altura ainda podem ser encontradas, principalmente,
nas grotas e encostas de dificil acesso. A retirada seletiva
de madeira e uma das principals ameagas a integridade
da mata e a sobrevivencia dos Callicebus. Outro fator de
risco d a possibilidade de incendios na floresta, uma vez
que durante a colheita da cana-de-agdcar todo o canavial,
inclusive pr6ximo a borda da floresta, e incendiado para
facilitar o manejo da safra. Observamos, ouvimos e obtive-
mos gravao6es de tries individuos de C. coimbrai no dia 4
de julho de 2003.

2. Mata do Serigy (1033'S, 3642'W). No municipio de
Pacatuba, pr6xima imata da Santana, com aproximadamente
70 ha de Area, a mata do Serigy encontra-se hoje bastante
alterada. Destaca-se na Area uma vegetagao secundaria,
muitas clareiras em process de sucessao ecol6gica e muitas
especies heli6fitas, inclusive gramineas e ciperAceas que
dificultam o acesso ao seu interior. A fisionomia atual da
mata do Serigy e conseqiiencia de um incendio ocorrido
hA aproximadamente oito anos que destruiu boa parte
da mata. Apesar do seu estado de perturbacao, ( ..'

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

coimbrai ainda pode ser encontrado no local. Registramos
sua vocalizaqao no dia 28 de setembro de 2002.

3. Mata do Oiteiro (10o39'S, 3703'W). Situada no
municipio de RosArio do Catete, em meio a uma vegetadao
de cerrado, a mata do Oiteiro localiza-se num pequeno
vale onde a vegetacao possui um maior porte. 0 estrato
arb6reo da mata possui entire 10 a 15 m, contudo, algumas
Arvores emergentes podem ultrapassar os 20 m. 0 interior
da mata encontra-se parcialmente devastado, sendo a caca
e a retirada de madeira constantes; contudo, pudemos
ouvir a vocalizacao de C. coimbrai no dia 20 de junho
de 2003.

4. Mata do Cadoz (10o23'S, 3639'W). Em meio a
pastagens, plantaq6es de coqueiros, algumas lagoas e de
uma fazenda de criaqao de peixes e gado, no municipio
de Ne6polis, encontra-se a mata da Fazenda Cadoz. A
mata, uma capoeira alta, encontra-se relativamente bern
conservada e em estAgio de recuperaqao. 0 registro da
vocalizaqao de ( .... coimbrai foi feito no dia 30 de
julho de 2003.

5. Mata da Serra Preta (10o30'S, 37o37'W). Reduzida as
encostas de uma elevacao de pouca altitude, denominada
Serra Preta, no municipio de Frei Paulo. A mata encontra-
se seriamente ameagada pela expansao de pequenas lavouras
de subsistencia que avangam no sentido do sope ate o alto
do morro. Fizemos o registro da presenca de ( ....
coimbraino dia 5 de julho de 2002.

6. Mata da Fazenda Sabao (11o30'S, 37o34'W). Uma das
principals caracteristicas dos remanescentes florestais da
Fazenda Sabao, situada no municipio de Indiaroba, e a
grande quantidade de palmeiras do genero Attalea em meio
a uma formaqao arb6rea densa e, em maiores proporo6es,
Areas de capoeira alta. Na mata, que possui aproximadamente
300 ha, obtivemos registros da vocalizacqo de ( ....
coimbraino dia 2 de maio de 2003.

7. Mata daAiumas (10o25'S, 3639'W). A Fazenda Aiumas
localiza-se as margens da rodovia estadual SE-204, no
municipio de Pacatuba. A Area florestada da Fazenda
encontra-se bastante perturbada, reflexo da retirada de
madeira para lenha e estacas para cercas. Contudo, existe
na Area um pequeno trecho de mata ciliar, entremeada corn
palmeiras dos generous Attalea e Elaeis, em bom estado de
conservacao. Fizemos o registro de ( .... coimbrai no
dia 30 de julho de 2003.

8. Mata da Aguada (10o40'S, 3656'W). Possui cerca de
40 ha e estA situada no municipio de Carm6polis, nos
arredores do Povoado Aguada. Registramos a presenca de
( .... coimbrai nesse fragmento florestal, relativamente
conservado e situado na encosta e no alto de um pequeno
morro, no dia 31 de julho de 2003. Segundo informaq6es
colhidas atraves de depoimentos de moradores do local,
a retirada de madeira nao e permitida, embora ocorra as
escondidas, mas, a caca ainda persiste no local.

9. Mata do Junco (10o32'S, 3703'W). As margens de
uma pequena estrada e cercada por pequenos povoados do
municipio de Capela, a mata do Junco possui cerca de 400
ha. Mescla trechos de mata devastada, encraves de cerrado e
Areas relativamente conservadas, principalmente nos baixios
e ao long de pequenos riachos. Registramos a vocalizadao
de ( .... coimbraino dia 14 de junho de 2003.

10. Mata da Nova Descoberta (11o06'S, 3719'W).
Ouvimos a vocalizaqao de ( .... coimbrai no dia 29 de
margo de 2003, num trecho de mata parcialmente devastada
do municipio de Itaporanga d'Ajuda. A mata localiza-se as
margens da rodovia estadual SE-270, ao lado do povoado
Nova Descoberta. As presses sofridas pela mata sao
geradas pela expansao desse pequeno ndcleo urbano cujos
habitantes utilizam a madeira, cacam e desmatam para
expandir suas lavouras.

11. Mata da Fazenda Trapsa (1112'S, 3714'W). No
municipio de Itaporanga, numa area de Cerrado bastante
deteriorado (devido a construcao de uma represa e a
exploraqao de uma jazida de cascalho lateritico) situado no
antigo terrago marinho de formaaao geol6gica do grupo
barreiras, alguns trechos de mata encontram-se nos vales e
nos terrenos baixos. Nesses locals, a vegetacao apresenta-se
mais densa, e possui um estrato arb6reo entire 5 e 15 m,
cujas Arvores apresentam geralmente um pequeno diametro.
A exploraqao de madeira ja foi intense no local, e a presenga
de Arvores mortas com cerca de 20 m evidenciam incendios
ocorridos num passado nao muito distant. A mata hoje
encontra-se em recuperaqao, embora a extraqao de madeira
continue. A caca, embora proibida pelo proprietArio da
fazenda, persiste no local. Registramos a vocalizacao de
( .... coimbraino dia 28 de abril de 2002.

12. Mata do Crasto (11o22'S, 3725'W). Localizada no
municipio de Santa Luzia do Itanhy, possui uma Area
de aproximadamente 900 ha. E um dos remanescentes
florestais mais significativos e conservados do estado.
S6 subsiste gragas a proteqao dos proprietarios que vem
tentando garantir a integridade da floresta. A mata do
Crasto foi decretada Reserva Particular de Patrim6nio
Natural (RPPN) no dia 10 de agosto de 1989 pela Portaria
No. 442/89 do Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e
dos Recursos Naturais Renovaveis (IBAMA). As principals
ameagas a mata do Crasto sao os projetos de expansao
turistica propostos a partir da pavimentacao asfaltica de
estradas de terra ja existentes no entorno e ate mesmo
dentro de alguns pontos da mata, alem da retirada de
madeira e da caca que ainda ocorrem clandestinamente e
de forma sistemitica na Area. No dia 4 de maio de 2003
ouvimos a vocalizaqao de ( .... coimbraie conseguimos
visualizar um individuo cruzando por sobre as Arvores uma
das trilhas existentes no interior da mata.

13. Mata do Dira (10o53'S, 3721'W). Os remanescentes
florestais da Fazenda Dira somam hoje pouco mais de 100
ha. A mata depauperada ainda existente estA sob a proteqao
dos proprietArios e e um testemunho do que foi um dos

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

mais importantes remanescentes de Mata Atlantica daquela
regiao do estado, destruida pela expansao de pastagens para
a criacao de gado, pela caga e pelos assentamentos para a
reform agrAria. Registramos a vocalizacao de ( ....
coimbrai no dia 23 de agosto de 2003.

14. Mata da Arauari (1045'S, 3659'W). Localizada no
municipio de Santo Amaro, a mata da Arauari foi visitada
por Langguth e Kobayashi em 1995 quando, na ocasiao,
eles coletaram uma sdrie de dois parAtipos para a descrihao
da esp&cie. No dia 14 de maio de 2003, percorremos
um trecho da mata na qual ouvimos e observamos dois
individuos. Constatamos a retirada recent de madeira da
Area e a destruigao das bordas da floresta para a formacao de
pastos e de pequenas lavouras.

Corn base nas observag6es realizadas em vArios fragments
florestais do estado, principalmente naqueles nos quais
conseguimos registrar a presenga de ( .... coimbrai,
podemos argumentar o seguinte:

a. Todas as areas florestadas do estado de Sergipe
encontram-se sob forte process de degradacao, inclusive
aquelas que sao redutos das diminutas populao6es de
C. coimbrai.

b. Apesar de persistirem em alguns fragments e terem su-
portado ao long dos anos a deterioraqao de seus ambientes,
as populao6es de C. coimbrai acham-se em franco declfnio,
principalmente devido a caga, reducao e conseqiiente perda
de habitat.

c. A soma de todos os fragments onde a especie ainda ocorre
totaliza pouco mais de 5000 ha distribufdos em pequenas
Areas, nenhuma delas legalmente protegida (a excecao da
RPPN Mata do Crasto). Essa falta de proteqao e fragilidade
do ponto de vista de conservacao, aldm do tamanho reduzido
de sua irea de distribuiiio ati o moment conhecida, faz de
C. coimbraiuma das esp&cies de primatas mais ameagadas do
mundo. A ampliacao do conhecimento sobre essa especie,
a busca de novas Areas de ocorrencia, a criaqao de Areas
protegidas e o estabelecimento de programs de proteqao
sao medidas que se fazem urgentes e imprescindiveis para a
garantir a sobrevivencia da especie.

Agradecimento: A Fundacao 0 BoticArio de Proteqao a
Natureza pelo suporte financeiro parcial para a realizagao
do estudo.

Marcelo Cardoso de Sousa, Laborat6rio de Zoologia,
Institute de Tecnologia e Pesquisa, Universidade Tiradentes,
Avenida Murilo Dantas 300, Aracaju 49032-490, Sergipe,
Brasil. E-mail: .


Kobayashi, S. e Langguth, A. L. 1999. A new species of titi
monkey, ( .... Thomas, from north-eastern Brazil
(Primates, Cebidae). Rev. Bras. Zool. 16: 531-551.

Sousa, M. C. 2000. New localities for Coimbra-Filho's titi
monkey, ( .... coimbrai, in North-east Brazil. Neo-
trop. Primates 8(4): 151.
Van Roosmalen, M. G. M., Van Roosmalen, T. e
Mittermeier, R. A. 2002. A taxonomic review of the
titi monkeys, genus ( .... Thomas, 1903, with the
description of two new species, ( .... bernhardi
and ( .... stephennashi, from Brazilian Amazonia.
Neotrop. Primates 10(Suppl.): 1-52.


Regiane C. Romanini de Oliveira
Andressa Sales Coelho
Fabiano R. de Melo


Primatas sao importantes indicadores para as florestas
tropicais como component fundamental de estrategias
para a conservagao da biodiversidade, tanto em nfvel
regional quanto de bioma (Rylands et al., 1997). A
Floresta Atlantica, que retum atualmente 7,5% de sua
vegetacao primiria (Myers et al., 2000), abriga 23 species
e subespecies reconhecidas de primatas, onde 74% delas
sao endemicas. Esta regiao tambdm apresenta o segundo
maior ndmero de taxa ameagados, 18, sendo endemicos e
compreendendo 78% dos primatas ocorrentes na Floresta
Atlantica (Rylands et al., 1997).

O sauA, ( ... nigrifrons, ocorre na regiao sudeste
(Kinzey, 1982). Encontra-se listada como "vulnerAvel" no
estado de Minas Gerais (Machado et al., 1998) mas infor-
mao6es a cerca da sua biologia e ecologia permanecem ainda
escassos. Dados de densidade podem ser de grande utili-
dade para o estudo das conseqii&ncias da fragmentacao do
habitat, como por exemplo para avaliar o "status" de uma
populacao que se encontra ameagada (Laurance, 1990).
Este trabalho teve como objetivo fornecer uma estimativa
da densidade e do tamanho populacional de ( .... ni-
grifrons sobreviventes em um pequeno fragmento de mata
em process de regeneracao.

Area de Estudo e Metodos

Os censos foram conduzidos numa drea de aproximadamente
75 ha no municipio de Vigosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil
(2045'S e 4251'W), em terreno de relevo montanhoso e
topografia acidentada, dentro dos limits da Universidade
Federal de Vicosa (Fig. 1). Trata-se de um fragmento
florestal que, no infcio do sdculo, foi uma plantagao de cafr
(Valverde, 1958; Golfari, 1975), e hoje e resultado de uma
sucessao secundAria em regeneracao que, apesar de situar-se
em Area urbana, e bastante representative da flora regional
(Camargo, 1993).

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

A coleta dos dados foi feita usando o m&todo dos transectos
lineares (Buckland et al., 1993), no perfodo de fevereiro a
junho de 2000, a partir de quatro trilhas (Trilha 1 = 930
m, 4 = 950 m, A = 520 m e D = 400 m) feitas de maneira
a cobrir os diferentes tipos florestais do fragmento. Umrn
total de 60,24 km de trilhas foi percorrida (comprimento
total do transecto) durante 76:56 horas de observacao. As
94 amostras de censo realizadas nesse perfodo foram feitas
predominantemente pela manha (63%) entire 08:00 h e
12:00 h, horario de maior atividade dos primatas. Esforgos
foram feitos para manter a velocidade de caminhada sempre
constant e pr6xima de 1,5 km/h. A analise dos dados se
deu atraves do program Distance versao 2.1 (Laake et
al., 1994), que se baseia nas distIncias perpendiculares
registradas durante o censo. As densidades foram calculadas
em grupos/km2, fazendo a multiplicaqao da densidade de
grupo pelo seu tamanho medio.

Resultados e Discussio

Um total de 11 encontros visuais foram registrados durante
o estudo. 0 tamanho medio dos grupos foi de 3,09
individuos. Em trabalho realizado corn C. personatus por
Pinto et al. (1993) na Reserva Biol6gica Augusto Ruschi,
o tamanho medio dos grupos foi de 3,9 individuos,
enquanto que 6 individuos/grupo foram encontrados
na Reserva Biol6gica de Sooretama por Kinzey e Becker
(1983). A altura media de deteccqo dos grupos foi de 18

m, indicando uma certa preferencia da especie por estratos
superiores da mata. Foi registrado uma taxa de encontros
de 1,83 grupos/10 km de censo, enquanto Chiarello e Melo
(2001) obtiveram, para diferentes fragments florestais no
Espirito Santo, uma variaqao de 0,22 a 1,66 grupos/10 km
de censo. Pinto et al. (1993) registraram um valor de 0,54
grupos/10 km de censo para a Reserva Biol6gica Augusto
Ruschi (Tabela 1).

A partir das distIncias perpendiculares, o program
Distance determinou a ESW ou largura efetiva da trilha,
que foi de 18,98 m, e uma densidade de 14,86 individuos/
km2. Esta se encontra dentro da variaqao registrada para
outras regi6es de Mata Atlantica (Chiarello e Melo,
2001; Pinto et al., 1993) e se mostra relativamente alta,
indicando uma elevada densidade de sauas no fragmento,
se comparado as densidades de fragments maiores (Tabela
1). Podemos inferir que pela falta de grandes predadores,
os fragments pequenos suportam uma densidade maior
de sauas que os fragments maiores. Um outro fator de
extrema importIncia que pode afetar o sucesso de especies
frugivoras, como o sauA, 6 a falta de recursos, especialmente
frutos. A sobrevivencia desses animals num fragmento
pequeno como a Mata da Biologia e provavelmente
devida, em parte, a ocorrencia de varias esp&cies de arvores
que oferecem frutos carnudos e tambrm a forma como se
encontram distribufdas. Como sabemos, em fragments
pequenos as Arvores frutiferas se distribuem melhor no

Figura 1. A localizaaio da Mata da Biologia, um fragmento de floresta de 75 ha no campus da Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Vicosa,
Minas Gerais.




Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003 93

Tabela 1. Densidades estimadas para as species de (C. // icgituada, para as virias localidades de floresta Atlantica.
Densidade Taxa de avistamento rea (km2) Fonte
Espcie Localidade/Estado (indiv./km2) (grupos/10 knm) ea (k2) Fonte
C. personatus M7/317, Espirito Santo 1,4 0,22 2,6 1
C. personatus Reserva Biol6gica Augusto Ruschi, Espirito Santo 5,4 0,54 40,0 2
C. personatus Putiri, Espirito Santo 6,4 1,02 2,1 1
C. personatus Reserva Florestal Linhares (CVRD), Espfrito Santo 7,7 1,23 218,0 1
C. nigrifrons Fazenda Barreiro Rico, Sao Paulo 7-10 32,6 2
C. personatus Reserva Biol6gica de Sooretama, Espirito Santo 9,5 1,66 242,5 1
C. melanochir Una, Bahia 3,4-16,7 1,0 2
C. nigrifrons Serra do Brigadeiro, Minas Gerais 10,3 132,1 3
C. melanochir Estayao Experimental Lemos Maia (CEPLAC), Bahia 17,0 10,0 4
C. melanochir Fazenda Teimoso, Bahia 17,7 2,4 2
C. nirifrons Vigosa, Minas Gerais 14,86 1,83 0,75 Neste estudo
Fonte: 1: Chiarello e Melo (2001); 2: Pinto et al. (1993, compilado); 3: Cosenza e Melo (1998); 4: MUller (1996).

espaco e no tempo, levando especies frugfvoras a ampliar a
sua area de uso (Milton e May, 1976).

Em relacao ao m&todo dos transectos lineares, embora ele
seja amplamente difundido no estudo de densidade de
primatas, observamos algumas dificuldades e limitaq6es
em sua aplicaqao. Melo e Mendes (2000) comprovaram a
ineficiencia do m&todo para os fragments menores, onde a
observacao direta dos grupos num process de exaustao da
area mostrou ser mais eficiente.

P6de ser estimado ainda, um valor hipot&tico para o
tamanho da populacao de sauas para a Area em estudo
(considerando a Area de 75 ha ou 0,75 km2) de 11,14
indivfduos. 0 que se observa no fragmento da Mata
da Biologia, assim como em outros remanescentes de
Mata Atlantica, e que a grande maioria das populao6es
de primatas sobreviventes e muito pequena e por isso,
muito susceptivel a extingao, tanto por fatores ex6genos
quanto end6genos. Daf a necessidade de se entender como
tais populagoes sobrevivem e se adaptam is mudangas
ambientais, especialmente a crescente fragmentagao e
conseqtiente perda de seu habitat natural.

Agradecimentos: Os autores agradecem aos profs. Jorge
A. Dergam dos Santos e Renato Feio da Universidade
Federal de Vigosa, pela assistencia, apoio e suporte moral
prestados durante o desenvolvimento do projeto; Luis E.
Fontes da Universidade Federal de Vigosa, pelo suporte
logistico e incentive; Andrd Hirsch da Universidade Federal
de Minas Gerais, pelos comentarios nas verses finals
do trabalho. Somos especialmente gratos a Adriano G.
Chiarello da PUC-Minas por sua dedicacao, pertinencia
nos comentarios e assistencia com as analises estatisticas; aos
amigos Alexandre A. do Nascimento e Adriana P. Milagres,
entire outros que nos ajudaram em campo.

Regiane C. Romanini de Oliveira, IPL Instituto de
Pesquisas Ecol6gicas, Caixa Postal 47, Nazard Paulista
12960-000, Sao Paulo, Brasil, e-mail ,
Andressa Sales Coelho, Setor de Etologia, Laborat6rio de

Ciencias Ambientais, Centro de Biociencias e Tecnologia,
Universidade do Norte Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil,
e-mail , e Fabiano R. de Melo,
Departamento de Ciencias Biol6gicas, Universidade do
Estado de Minas Gerais, Campus Fundacional de Ca-
rangola (FAFILE/UEMG), Minas Gerais, Brasil, e-mail


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J. L. 1993. Distance Sampling: Estimating Abundance of
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Camargo, S. L. 1993. A Fitossociologia da Floresta Mes6fila
Semidecfdua do Jardim BotInico da Universidade Federal
de Vigosa. Monografia de Bacharelado em Ciencias
Biol6gicas, Universidade Federal de Vigosa (UFV),
Vigosa, Minas Gerais.
Chiarello, A. G. e Melo, F R. 2001. Primate population
densities and sizes in Atlantic Forest remnants of northern
Espirito Santo, Brazil. Int. J. Primatol. 22: 379-396.
Cosenza, B. A. P. e Melo, E R. 1998. Primates of the Serra
do Brigadeiro State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Neotrop.
Primates 6(1): 18-20.
Golfari, L. 1975. Zoneamento Ecoldgico do Estado de Minas
Geraispara Reflorestamento. Srie Tcnica, vol. 3. CPRFC,
BRA- 45.
Kinzey, W. G. 1982. Distribution of primates and forest refuges.
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pp. 455-482. Columbia University Press, New York.
Kinzey, W. G. e Becker, M. 1983. Activity patterns of the
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Cooperative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit. Colorado
State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.
Laurance, W. F. 1990. Comparative responses of five
arboreal marsupials to tropical forest fragmentation. J.
Mammal. 71: 641-653.

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

Machado, A. B. M., Fonseca, G. A. B. da, Machado, R. B.,
Aguiar, L. M. S. e Lins, L. V. 1998. Livro 1. .... das
Especies Ameafadas de Extinfdo da Fauna de Minas Gerais.
Fundagao Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte.
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por grupos de ( .... 7- . reag6es aplaybacks.
Em: A Primatologia no Brasil- 7, C. Alonso e A. Langguth
(eds.), pp. 215-222. Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia e
Editoria Universitaria, Joao Pessoa, Parafba.
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range area in primates. Nature, Lond. 259: 459-462.
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(C .... personatus) from an established group, and the
foundation of a new group. Neotrop. Primates 4(1): 19-21.
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B. da. 1993. Habitat, density and group size of primates in
a Brazilian tropical forest. Folia Primatol. 61: 135-143.
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1997. Conservation of Neotropical primates: Threatened
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Minas Gerais. Rev. Brasil. Geog. 1: 3-38.


Marilyn A. Norconk, Mary Ann Raghanti
Sara K. Martin, Brian W Grafton
L. Tremaine Gregory, Bart P E. De Dijn


Brownsberg Natuurpark (501'N, 5534'W) is Suriname's
only wildlife park that is open and accessible to both Suri-
name citizens and researchers. The park lies 130 km south
of the capital, Paramaribo, and consists of a lateritic plateau,
which at 530 m forms the top of the Brownsberg range.
The plateau lies 473 m above the surrounding lowlands and
is relatively humid with low cloud cover, particularly on the
eastern perimeter. The Brownsberg range has at least one
additional lateritic plateau at some 100-150 m above sea
level, which is much drier than the upper one. In between
the two plateaus are slopes with exceptionally high forest,
but also occasional broad ridges or narrow semi-plateau
areas with lateritic soil (e.g., at 200-350 m elevation) and
medium to low forest. The areas with thick laterite crusts
(perhaps 10% of the park), especially where the forest is
low, are dominated by the Myrtaceae in all storeys (B. P.
E. De Dijn, unpubl. data). Forests range from seasonally
dry to seasonally flooded, consisting of both secondary and
primary forest, steep forested slopes, and creek-side forest
in the valleys a total area of c. 8,000 ha (Reichart, 1997).
The eastern edge of the plateau is bounded by Lake Afo-

baka, also referred to as the Brokopondo Reservoir of the
Suriname River, and the northern edge of the park is ap-
proximately 3.0 km from the village of Brownsweg.

The origin of the village and the lake corresponds to the
damming of the Suriname River in 1964 for construction
of one of the first hydroelectric plants in South America.
Half the territory of the Saramaccan people was flooded as a
result of the construction of the dam. Approximately 4,500
people from three autonomous villages were relocated to
Brownsweg, although De Dijn now estimates the popula-
tion to be about 3,500 residents. The Brownsberg is valu-
able for its floristic and faunal diversity (as yet undiscovered
for most taxonomic groups), and also for the educational
opportunity it provides to the citizens of Suriname, most
especially in the highly populous Brownsweg.

The Brownsberg has long been a destination for tourists,
particularly from Holland, but the proximity of the park to
Paramaribo also attracts day-trippers and over-night tour-
ism from Surinamers. This has resulted in a recent increase
in the number of dwellings in the park to accommodate a
few dozen permanent staff, tourists, and researchers on the
top of the berg, besides considerable forest clearing on the
eastern slope of the plateau for picturesque "outlooks" over
the forest and lake below. The berg itself rises 473 m above
the relatively flat surrounding terrain (50 m above sea level)
(Reichart, 1997). The flora is extremely diverse, supporting
not only low-elevation species, but also a flora indicative
of cloud forest on the top of the berg and intermediate
climatic conditions on the slopes. Huber (1995) character-
ized Guayana Shield elevations of 500 m or more as cool
and wet (submesothermic [mean annual temperature 18-
24 C], ombrophilous [rainfall >2000 mm]), with fewer
than two dry months a year. An informal census by P.-M.
Forget (pers. comm.), consisting of a single transect from
the lake in the east, up to and across the plateau and down
the northern side of the berg, suggested that the Browns-
berg is more floristically diverse in flowering plant species
than either Nouragues in French Guiana (see Bongers et
al., 2001) or the Central Suriname Nature Reserve (pre-
viously Raleighvallen-Voltzberg). All three sites are on
the Guiana Shield, where 6.6% of plant genera and 40%
of plant species are endemic (Berry et al., 1995, p.165).
Fitzgerald (2003) conducted a year-long wildlife survey on
the Brownsberg from November 2000 to May 2002. Her
census included primates, though not as a focus, but the
work she initiated has been incorporated into a long-term
monitoring program projected to extend until 2006.

The plateau and surrounding area of the Brownsberg have
long been known to miners for their gold and bauxite
reserves. In 1908, weekly trains transported gold from
the Brownsberg area to Paramaribo, and gold has been
mined in the area since 1718 (Reichart, 1997). In 1916,
the Surinam Bauxite Company (SURALCO, a subsidiary
of ALCOA-US) purchased the mountain and continues to
hold mineral rights to the Brownsberg. Suriname's Foun-
dation for Nature Conservation (STINASU) received a

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

75-year lease to the plateau and middle portion of the
mountain in 1970. In 2001, the park was expanded to
12,200 ha from its original 8,400 ha by the addition of
pristine high forest in the southern portion of the Browns-
berg range. At the same time, 1,000 ha in the northwest-
ern part of the park was relinquished to local inhabitants
(Fitzgerald et al., 2002).

Currently, gold mining provides a much-diminished return
compared to the value-to-effort return of the early 20t'
century, but mining practices involving heavy equipment,
water-powered extraction and the perfusion of stream
beds with mercury are causing more damage than previ-
ous methods. Fitzgerald et al. (2002, p.2) characterized
Brownsweg as "a large village with a busy small-scale gold
mining industry." Our recent observations suggest that the
level of production and speed of processing has destroyed
hundreds of meters of pristine streambeds draining the
Brownsberg since March 2003. Gold mining is also more
actively pursued today than bauxite mining, but the threat
of destruction on the plateau itself is not without devastat-
ing consequences. SURALCO has recently brought crews
with survey equipment to the plateau in order to reas-

sess the mineral content of the berg. We estimated that
4.8 ha of forest along the main plateau road was destroyed
by SURALCO for the construction of test pits in May
2003. Both forms of mining put the forests and their wild-
life at risk, and the bauxite mining and reclamation of the
plateau threatens the very existence of the park as an eco-
tourism resource uniquely accessible to all Surinamers.

The purpose of this census was to gather data specific to pri-
mate populations, conduct a feasibility study to prepare for
a long-term study of pitheciin primates, and to contribute
to the database being created by STINASU to ensure long-
term protection of the site.


The census was conducted for 28 consecutive days, from
21 May to 17 June 2003, during the early rainy season.
Two research teams, of two to three people each, censused
all trails and roads on the plateau of the Brownsberg every
other day (Table 1). The censused area included slopes
leading east to Lake Afobaka and north toward the village
of Brownsweg. We began transect walks at 06:15 hrs and

Figure 1. The Mazaroni plateau, encompassed within the 450 m topographical line, of Brownsberg Natuurpark, Suriname. Positions of
the main road (dark line) and approximate position of trails (dotted lines) both on the plateau and descending the slopes of the mountain
are indicated.

W ~e-nnag

. .' -.^ *\ '. .. ..
*** ,'" "' ""- "
-. *. ..
S. .. .

^^^^^^B ''l' ''". *'i *f /v

i A"*,, : -.,., --^ 1 3 ^
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-.uw.s Wt" ? '
"" ".'- L IZ-,


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' M w' lm s -"
4~~ HEj~

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m-. i '" "
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10AMWtttnlfk ri-^ K

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

Table 1. Characteristics and length of trails that were used as transects for the census, and the total distance walked on each trail. The
length of transect was not the entire length of the trail for AKP, Witi Kreek, and Jeep Trail. The elevation change is taken from the top of
the plateau at 473 m. Elevation changes are estimates.
Trail Name Trail characteristics Length of trail (km) Total distance walked (km) Elevation change from the plateau'
AKP Plateau & slope 3.6 62.2 250 m
Jeep Trail Plateau & slope 3.1 58.6 300 m
Mazaroni Val Plateau & slope 1.0 16.9 150 m
Irene Val Plateau & slope 2.0 10.3 300 m
Kumbu Val Plateau & slope 1.5 6.0 150 m
Witi Kreek Slope & creek side 3.5 63.4 450 m
Mazaroni Weg Plateau 3.0 70.7 0
Rondwandeling Plateau 2.3 37.4 0
Tele Sur Plateau 1.3 21.9 0
Mazaroni Top Plateau 0.7 8.4 + 10 m
('From Appendix C: Fitzgerald et al., 2002.)

ended at approximately 14:30 hrs. Walking speed was ap-
proximately 1.3 km/hr. We collected the following data
each time a primate group or individual was detected: time
of day and weather, location (trail mark), observation of pri-
mate species (height, distance, and direction from the trail),
group size and age/sex composition data, and activity at the
time of the sighting. Species encountered informally, i.e.,
not part of transect walks, were not treated in the analysis.

Data were recorded in both directions of our travel route
transectct" and "return transect") since all but one of the
trails (Rondwandeling) were linear. Visibility on either side
of the trail varied, ranging from approximately 5 m to 25 m.
We discarded any data that could have represented repeated
sampling of a species or group and, for the analysis below,
also eliminated all data collected on primate vocalizations.
None of the primates were habituated to observers, but
there were several cases in which we were able to accumu-
late sufficient data to calculate group size and composition
with confidence. Nevertheless, the summary statistics that
we report are considered to be minimum estimates.

Positional data on trail locations were collected prior to the
onset of our study by K. Fitzgerald, S. Mitro, and B. P. E.
De Dijn, using a Garmin GPS 12 XL. Satellite readings were
taken every 100 m. We measured the road to Brownsweg
(AKP) that was also used as a census transect using a Garmin
eTrex Venture, again taking readings every 100 m. GPS data
were entered into ArcView 3.2. Maps do not reflect eleva-
tional differences.

Individual encounter rates (ER) for each species (except
Saimiri and Ateles, for which data were insufficient) were
calculated by dividing the total number of individuals
encountered by 26.2 km (total survey distance). Group
encounter rates were calculated in the same manner, and
both individual and group ER were expressed as groups en-
countered per 10 km. We censused a total linear distance of
364.2 km (see Table 1), an average of 12.26 1.27 km/day.
Thus each trail was censused approximately every two days.
We estimated Primate Biomass Encounter Rate (PBER) per

10 km using body weight data from Ford and Davis (1992)
multiplied by individual ER.

We also compared primate sightings on plateau vs. slope
trails to assess variations in local abundance using non-
parametric statistics (ao-values were set at 0.05). Relative
trail abundance is reported as the number of times a species
was encountered divided by the number of times the trail
was walked. Species abundance was calculated as the relative
frequency of encountering a particular species on any trail.


All eight primate species found in Suriname were seen at
the Brownsberg. Alouatta seniculus was very abundant at
the site, with an estimated 20 groups encountered, the
highest biomass (PBER), and the second highest individual
encounter rate (ER) (Table 2). Howlers were encountered
on all trails save one, but were seen on that trail during
informal observations. Group sizes were relatively small,
ranging from 2 to 7 individuals, but the groups were well
distributed both on the plateau and slopes of the Browns-
berg (Table 3).

Chiropotes satanas had the highest estimated individual
ER due to their large group sizes (average = 32.7 indi-
viduals, n = 3 groups) and relatively frequent encounters.
We observed three groups that were encountered mainly
on trails that transected the forested slopes of the berg,
although they were also seen on the plateau during infor-
mal observations. They had the second highest PBER (see
Table 2).

The tamarins (Saguinus midas) had the third highest en-
counter rates. We estimated that we encountered 16 groups
of S. midas with an average group size of 5.7 individuals (see
Table 2). Like the howlers, the tamarins were common and
seen on almost all trails during the survey.

White-faced sakis (Pithecia pithecia) were relatively
common, having the third highest group ER (n = 10).

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

Estimated group sizes ranged from 2 to 6 individuals (av-
erage = 3.7 individuals), although small groups with 2 to
3 individuals may very well have been underestimated in
our counts. No groups were fully habituated and some were
very skittish. Nevertheless, of those seen repeatedly, only
one had more than one adult male (easily recognized by the
males' white faces).

Cebus olivaceus were encountered quite frequently, but
group sizes were difficult to estimate. An average group
size of 12 is an underestimate, since a group of > 32 was
encountered during informal (non-census) observations.
C. olivaceus individuals were well-dispersed when encoun-
tered (unlike Chiropotes that were also found in large, but
more cohesive groups) and accurate group counts were
not possible. Nevertheless, capuchins appeared to be rare
and very wide-ranging at the Brownsberg. We were more
confident with the count of a single group of Cebus ,,/i//,1
which was seen on multiple occasions, both while collect-
ing transect data and during informal observations. We

encountered C. .qi//.r most often on the plateau (Table 3),
but suspected that they too are wide-ranging in an area that
includes at least the eastern slope of the berg.

Ateles paniscus were more often heard than seen. Subgroup
size ranged from 2 to 4 (see Table 2). When encountered,
they first displayed by breaking off branches and hurling
them down on observers, and then fled. We have little
confidence in our population measures for Ateles. A single
squirrel monkey group (Saimiri sciureus) was seen once;
their preference for stream-side terrain at the base of the
berg may make them rare, or at least only seasonal visitors,
on the plateau.

We compared the trails that ran exclusively on the plateau
with those that began on the plateau and then descended
along the slopes of the berg (see Table 3). We found a non-
significant trend for higher encounter rates on the slopes as
opposed to the flat plateau on the top of the berg (Wilcoxon
signed ranks test Z = 1.83, p = 0.07).

Table 2. Group size (minimum and range of group sizes) and number of groups observed during the census. Individual and group
encounter rates (ER) were calculated from the group size data (see Methods). Primate biomass encounter rate (PBER) was calculated
by multiplying body mass data (taken from Ford and Davis, 1992) by total number of individuals encountered / 10 km linear distance
censused (after Wallace et al, 2000).
Average observed Observed no. of Individual Group PBER
Species group size (range) groups ER/10 km ER/10 km kg/10 km
Saguinus midas 5.69 (3-8) 16 34.73 6.1 1.85
Pithecia pithecia 3.70 (2-6) 10 14.12 6.1 2.29
Saimiri sciureus .
Cebus apella 14 1 5.30 0.4 1.45
Cebus olivaceus 12.0 (9-14) 3 13.70 1.1 3.68
Chiropotes satanas 32.67 (22-44) 3 37.40 1.1 10.66
Alouatta seniculus 4.65 (2-7) 20 35.50 7.6 22.72
Ateles paniscus* 2 (2-4) -
Total PBER 42.65
- Insufficient data, Subgroup size.

Table 3. Relative primate encounter rate (ER) per trail, which equals the total number of primate encounters per trail per number of census
walks (n). The column totals are the total number of sightings per species. With the exception of Rondwandeling, all the trails were linear
and n represents the number of round-trips. Shaded rows are trails that traversed both plateau and slope; unshaded rows are trails that are
found only on the plateau. Total encounters are the sum of plateau and slope and plateau only.
Trail (n walks) S. midas S. sciureus P. pithecia C. apella C. olivaceus C. satanas A. seniculus A. paniscus ER/trail

AKP (10) 7 2 2 5 5 4 0.417
Jeep (9) 3 3 1 2 3 5 0.315
Mazaroni Val (9) 1 3 1 0.185
Irene Val (4) 2 1 1 0.333
Kumbu Val (4) 1 1 1 0.250
Witi Kreek (9) 5 1 5 2 1 5 3 0.349
Mazaroni Weg (17) 10 4 1 3 1 0.224
Rondwandeling (18) 9 10 4 1 9 0.367
Tele Sur (9) 1 1 3 2 0.194
Mazaroni Top (7) 1 1 1 0.143
Total enounters/spp. 18/20 1/0 11/16 1/6 7/2 13/3 18/14 7/1

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003


Average group size for A. seniculus at the Brownsberg was
small compared with a number of group size estimates from
other seniculus populations (range 4.25 to 10.5). However,
our estimated group size was similar to that found by Mit-
termeier (1977) at the Central Suriname Nature Reserve
(where there was no hunting), and also similar to the sizes
observed by Bennett et al. (2001) on the Rio Tapiche in
Peru (where hunting was reported as severe). We have no
evidence that Alouatta is being hunted within the area that
was censused at the Brownsberg, although there are reports
of hunting primates inside the reserve near the margin of
Lake Afobaka. If the larger group size reported from the
llanos of Venezuela is excluded, there is relatively little
variation in red howler group sizes (mean 5.23 0.21, n =
6 studies) (Fig. 2).

With regard to pitheciins, we documented the largest re-
ported groups of Chiropotes satanas, ranging from 22 to 44
individuals, larger than maximum estimates by Mittermeier
(1977: 27 individuals) in Suriname or Muckenhirn et al.
(1975: 20 individuals) in Guyana. Lehman et al. (2001)
recently examined variation in group size and number of
adult males and females in Pithecia pithecia groups. The
largest body of data on Pithecia group size comes from 21
groups censused in Guyana, in which one group of 12 was
seen (Lehman et al., 2001). If that outlier is removed, the
average from the remaining 20 groups is 4.4 + 1.82 indi-
viduals (range 2-9). Groups ranging from 6 to 9 have been
documented from island habitats (Setz and Gaspar, 1997;
Norconk, 1996), but the body of evidence from Guyana
and from our census (average 4.65 1.66) suggests that
small group size is typical for white-faced sakis (see Fig. 2).
Lehman et al. (2001) found significant differences between
the sizes of groups in Venezuela and Suriname, and between
groups in Guyana and Suriname. The Venezuela-Suriname
comparison should be excluded based on the lack of dis-
persal ability on the island habitat in Venezuela, and the
Guyana and Suriname data now seem quite comparable.

The more frequent encounter rates of Alouatta at the
Brownsberg probably reflect both the relatively small
home ranges used by howlers and a ban on hunting pri-
mates in the immediate vicinity of the plateau. Alouatta
sightings are much reduced at sites where hunting is rela-
tively severe (e.g., the terra firma forest in Amazonia cen-
sused by Peres, 1997; and the Rio Tapiche sites surveyed by
Bennett et al., 2001) and more common where hunting
is prohibited (e.g., Nouragues, in Simmen et al., 2001).
Hunting at the Brownsberg does occur in active mining
areas, and may be the cause of the relatively rare encoun-
ters of Ateles paniscus during our census, besides their
threatening/evasive behavior when encountered. Encoun-
ter rates of Ateles in un-hunted sites such as Nouragues,
French Guiana, were much higher than our Brownsberg
estimates (Simmen et al., 2001). Alternatively, our low
encounter rates may have been due to a seasonal shortage
of fruit in the census area.


4 ... p --C aM

Figure 2. Comparison of group size estimates for the eight species
of primates found at the Brownsberg. Data are from: Defler
(1982, 2003), Janson (1985 in Sussman, 2000), Kessler (1998),
Mittermeier (1977), Muckenhirn (1975), Simmen et al. (2001),
Terborgh (1983), and this census.

Low species encounter rates for Saimiri sciureus may also
have been an artifact of the season, but the habitats pre-
ferred by Saimiri only occurred on one trail, the streamside
Witi Kreek trail. The heterogeneous habitats of the Browns-
berg may limit the distribution of a habitat specialist such as
Saimiri. For example, Peres (1997) reported high sighting
rates of Saimiri in three vdrzea forests in Amazonia, and
their absence or relative rarity in 12 terra firma forests.
Saimiri had the highest sighting rates of the eight species at
16 sites in Guyana surveyed by Lehman (2000).

Saguinus midas and Pithecia pithecia had the second highest
encounter rates at the Brownsberg. While Saguinus appears
to be well-dispersed on both slopes and plateau, Pithecia
was encountered more frequently on plateau trails (see
Table 3).

The Brownsberg primate population may be summarized
as follows:

1) Alouatta seniculus and Saguinus midas were well-dispersed
in relatively small home ranges both on the plateau and on
the slopes of the berg.

2) The two pitheciins were encountered frequently. The
home ranges of Pithecia appear to be small (one was cal-
culated as 10.3 ha, on the basis of repeated sightings and
territorial behavior associated with intertroop encounters).
Chiropotes occurred in larger groups than have been ob-
served at any other site (including other Suriname sites)
and are relatively wide-ranging, but more cohesive when
traveling than Cebus olivaceus. Pithecia was observed more
often on the plateau than the slopes, and Chiropotes was
seen more often on the slopes. Chiropotes fed extensively on
Pouteria melanopoda (Sapotaceae) during the census period.
The distribution of that tree may have influenced its rang-
ing patterns at the time of the census, but the rich diversity
of saki resources may help to explain both the large group

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

sizes of Chiropotes and the high density of Pithecia groups.
For example, Fitzgerald et al. (2002: Appendix G) reported
10 species of Licania (Chrysobalanaceae), four species of
Lecythis and five ofEschweilera (Lecythidaceae), and 12 spe-
cies of Pouteria (Sapotaceae).

3) The two capuchin species appear to be relatively rare at
the site, and both species may have large home ranges. Only
one Cebus ,'i//i group was seen and we estimated three
C. olivaceus groups within the census area. The data were
too few to assess habitat preferences for the capuchins, but
they appeared to range widely.

4) Saimiri and Ateles also appear to be relatively rare. We
saw Saimiri only once, but our census route covered only a
small part of their potential range. Ateles were heard often,
but rarely seen. Their behavior when they were encountered
(almost exclusively in slope terrain) suggests that they are
very sensitive to humans and furthermore, there were reli-
able reports of hunting by miners near Lake Afobaka. It is
impossible to assess population size for either species on the
basis of these census data.

Acknowledgements: We are grateful to Research and Gradu-
ate Studies at Kent State University for both summer
faculty funding and funding for undergraduate research.
Permission to conduct the research was provided by
STINASU, which also provided logistical support. We par-
ticularly would like to thank Mr. Iwon E. Molgo, research
coordinator at the Brownsberg, for his gracious hospitality
and support.

Marilyn A. Norconk1, Mary Ann Raghanti1, Sara K.
Martin2, Brian W. Grafton', L. Tremaine Gregory3
and Bart P. E. De Dijn4, 'Department of Anthropology
and School of Biomedical Sciences, Kent State Univer-
sity, Kent, OH 44242-0001, USA, 2Honors College, Kent
State University, Kent, OH 44242-0001, USA, 3Depart-
ment of Anthropology, University of California, Davis,
CA 95616, USA, 4Research Department, STINASU,
Paramaribo, Suriname. Correspondence to: Marilyn A.
Norconk, Department of Anthropology, 226 Lowry Hall,
Kent State University, Kent OH 44242, USA. E-mail:


Bennett, C. L., Leonard, S. and Carter, S. 2001. Abundance,
diversity, and patterns of distribution of primates on the
Tapiche River in Amazonian Peru. Am. J. Primatol. 54:
Berry, P. E., Huber, 0. and Holst, B. K. 1995. Floristic
analysis and phytogeography. In: Flora of the Venezuelan
Guyana. Vol. 1. Introduction. P. E. Berry, B. K. Holst
and K. Yatskievych (eds.), pp.161-191. Missouri
Botanical Garden published by Timber Press, Inc.,
Hong Kong.
Bongers, F, Charles-Dominique, P., Forget, P.-M. and
Th&ry, M. (eds.). 2001. Nouragues: Dynamics and Plant-

Animal Interactions in a Neotropical Rainforest. Kluwer
Academic Publishers, London.
Defler, T. R. 1982. A comparison of intergroup behavior in
Cebus .j... and C. a.pc//. Primates 23: 385-392.
Defler, T. R. 2003. Primates de Colombia. Conservaci6n
International, Bogota, DC, Colombia.
Fitzgerald, K. A. 2003. Utilizing ecological indicators to
assist in the management of Brownsberg Natuurpark,
Suriname, South America. Unpublished thesis,
Washington State University, Seattle.
Fitzgerald, K. A., De Dijn, B. P. E. and Mitro, S.
2002. Ecological research and monitoring program
2001 2006. STINASU (Stichting Natuurbehoud
Suriname) Foundation for Nature Conservation in
Suriname. Available in print or electronic form from
Ford, S. M. and Davis, L. C. 1992. Systematics and body
size: Implications for feeding adaptations in New World
Monkeys. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 88: 415-468.
Huber, 0. 1995. Geographical and physical features. In:
Flora of the Venezuelan Guyana. Vol. 1. Introduction.
P. E. Berry, B. K. Holst and K. Yatskievych (eds.),
pp.1-61. Missouri Botanical Garden published by Timber
Press, Inc., Hong Kong.
Kessler, P. 1998. Primate densities in the natural reserve of
Nouragues, French Guiana. Neotrop. Primates 6(2): 45-46.
Lehman, S. M., Prince, W. and Mayor, M. 2001. Variations
in group size in white-faced sakis (Pithecia pithecia):
Evidence for monogamy or seasonal aggregations?
Neotrop. Primates 9 (3): 96-101.
Lehman, S. M. 2000. Primate community structure in
Guyana: A biogeographic analysis. Int. J. Primatol. 21:
Mittermeier, R. A. 1977. Distribution, synecology and
conservation of Surinam monkeys. Doctoral dissertation,
Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
Muckenhirn, N. A., Mortensen, S., Vessey, S., Fraser,
C. E. 0. and Singh, B. 1975. Report on a primate survey
in Guyana. Unpublished report, Pan American Health
Organization (PAHO), Washington, DC. 49pp.
Norconk, M. A. 1996. Seasonal variation in the diets of
white-faced and bearded sakis (Pithecia pithecia and
Chiropotes satanas) in Guri Lake, Venezuela. In: Adaptive
Radiations y .'....- .. .. 'Primates, M. A. Norconk, A. L.
Rosenberger and P. A. Garber (eds.), pp.403-423. Plenum
Publishing, New York.
Peres, C. A. 1997. Primate community structure at twenty
western Amazonian flooded and unflooded forests.
J. Trop. Ecol. 13: 381-405.
Reichart, H. A. 1997. Brownsberg Natuurpark
Management Plan 1991-1995. WWF Project #6538.
Conservation Action Plan for Suriname. 2nd printing,
Paramaribo, Suriname.
Setz, E. Z. E and Gaspar, D. D. 1997. Scent-marking
behaviour in free-ranging golden-faced saki monkeys,
Pithecia pithecia chrysocephala: Sex differences and
context. J. Zool., Lond. 241: 603-611.
Simmen, B., Julliot, C., Bayart, E and Pages-Feuillade,
E. 2001. Diet and population densities of the primate

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

community in relation to fruit supplies. In: Nouragues:
Dynamics and Plant-Animal Interactions in a Neotropical
Rainforest, E Bongers, P. Charles-Dominique, P.-M.
Forget and M. Thry (eds.), pp.89-101. Kluwer Academic
Publishers, London.
Sussman, R. W. 2000. Primate Ecology and Social Structure,
Vol. 2: New World Monkeys. Pearson Custom Publishing,
Needham Heights, MA.
Terborgh, J. 1983. Five New World Primates: A Study
in Comparative Ecology. Princeton University Press,
Princeton, NJ.
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A. B. 2000. Primate diversity, distribution and relative
abundances in the Rios Blanco y Negro Wildlife Reserve,
Santa Cruz Department, Bolivia. Neotrop. Primates 8(1):


Oswaldo de Cn ./Il,' Jr.


Many new towns were established along the Belkm-Brasf-
lia Highway following its construction in the 1960s. One
was Paragominas, in the northeastern region of the state of
Pard (Fig. 1). Large areas of forest in this region were cut
for cattle pasture during the 1970s; and due to the deple-
tion of timber resources in southern Brazil, in the 1980s
Paragominas also became an important logging center, with

the highest concentration of sawmills anywhere in Brazil-
ian Amazonia. Today, timber is scarce in the region, and
the sawmills have been moved to new frontiers, although
Paragominas still remains an important commercial center
for the industry.

The landscape around Paragominas today is a mosaic of
agricultural land, pastures, logged and burned forest, and
small patches of primary forest which cover about 6%
of the original area (Nepstad et al., 1999). The region of
Paragominas has undergone some of the most intense de-
forestation and habitat degradation and today supports
the highest human population density of anywhere in the
Brazilian Amazon.

Although the remaining fragments suffer from hunting and
selective logging, some still maintain primate populations
(Lopes and Ferrari, 2000). In this study I evaluate the ef-
fects of this land use model on primates in a forest fragment
isolated since the late 1970s and composed of three differ-
ent habitats (unlogged UN, logged LG and secondary
forest SF), and compare my results with other studies in
the same region.

Study Area

Data were collected at Fazenda Vitoria (FV) (0255'S,
4735'W), 6 km northwest from Paragominas town. Rain-
fall (1750 mm/yr) varies seasonally, with a pronounced dry
season between July and November (< 50 mm/month)
(EMBRAPA-CPATU). Hunting pressure is high, and hunt-
ers are frequently encountered, especially on weekends.

Figure 1. Location of the Fazenda Vit6ria (1) and the other sites in the state of Pard in eastern Brazilian Amazonia. See Table 1.


Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

At the time of the study, there was a forest fragment on
the FV of approximately 400 ha: 210 ha of primary forest
(UN), 70 ha of logged forest (LG) and 60 ha of an 18-
year-old secondary forest (SF) surrounded by pasture. Since
1984, a combined team from the Amazonia Environmental
Research Institute (Instituto de Pesquisas Ambientais da
Amdzonia IPAM), the Woods Hole Research Center
(WHRC), Woods Hole, MA, the Center for Research in
Agro-forestry in the Eastern Amazon (CPATU) of the Bra-
zilian Agricultural and Cattle-Breeding Research Company
(EMBRAPA) (Centro de Pesquisa Ag ,,aiF c,'r. 7 da Amazonia
Oriental- CPATU/EMBRAPA) and the Federal University
of Para (UFPA) have conducted research on forest ecology
in one area of 260 ha (80 UN, 70 LG, 60 SF and 50 in
abandoned pasture).


I used the Line Transect Method (NRC, 1981; Brockel-
man and All, 1987) to evaluate the composition and
abundance of the primate community. When a group
was sighted the following data were noted: date, time of
day, trail, location on the trail, species identification, number
of animals and animal-to-trail perpendicular distance. In
order to compare this study area with other sites (Table 1),
I calculated the number of individuals sighted per 10 km
(sighting rate) as suggested by Lopes and Ferrari (2000).

The transects were walked between 06:00-12:00 and
16:00-18:00 at a mean speed of 1 km/h on a 4-km-long
trail (2 km UN, 1 km in LG, and 1 km in SF). A total
of 69 km (23 km in each habitat) was surveyed during the
late dry season to early wet season of 1994-1995.


Eight mammal species were recorded in 40 sightings, 25 of
which were of primates of four species. Sighting rates were
5.88/10 km walked for all mammals and 3.68/10 km for
primates. Each primate species was seen in all three habitat
types. Table 2 compares the sighting rates at FV with other
sites in the same region (Fig. 1). For details on each site see
Lopes and Ferrari (2000), Emfdio-Silva (1998) and Boba-
dilla and Ferrari (1998).

The primates observed during the census were Alouatta
belzebul belzebul, Chiropotes satanas satanas, Saguinus niger
and Saimiri sciureus. The night monkey (Aotus infulatus)
and brown capuchin monkey (Cebus, ,J'//.r, ,cI/Ii,) were not
recorded, although they are known to inhabit the site. The
highest sighting rates for Alouatta, Chiropotes and Saguinus
were in the primary (undisturbed) forest. Squirrel monkeys
were seen just once in secondary forest (Table 3).


Six species inhabit the study area: four were confirmed by
actual sightings, and Cebus 'i.//ai and Aotus infulatuswere re-
ported by local people. The four species observed during the
study were seen in each of three forest types (primary, logged
and secondary forest). Although the sighting rate in dis-
turbed forest was lower than in primary, it has an important
role for some species. For example, during a six-month study
nearby, Oliveira and Ferrari (2000) observed S. niger using
disturbed forest for feeding, while primary forest provided
their sleeping sites. Surprisingly, Cebus, ',, /II.- generally one
of the commoner primates in Amazonia occurs in very low
densities at FV. The reasons for this are not known, but may
reflect local ecological factors, such as forest type, composi-
tion and productivity, as well as human interference.

The only species expected but not seen was Cebus kaapori.
The Ka'apor capuchin has a restricted range, is rare, and
occurs at low densities (Ferrari and Lopes, 1996; Carvalho
Jr. et al., 1999). Although Carvalho Jr. et al. (1999) sug-
gested that the abundance of C. kaapori is inversely related
to the presence and abundance of C. ,c'i//a, at least at FV,
other factors may also be influencing its distribution there,
such as intolerance to high levels of habitat degradation
(Carvalho Jr. et al., 1999).

In general, it would seem that FV maintains higher popu-
lation densities of these primates when compared with
other sites (Table 2). In a rank of the sighting rates for
the 10 sites, the FV has the highest density of Saguinus
niger, was second in this respect for Alouatta belzebul and
Saimiri sciureus, and third for Chiropotes satanas. The
high sighting rates at FV might be a result of: 1) rapid
deforestation, which packed the primates into this frag-

Table 1. Characteristics of sites in eastern Amazonia used for comparison with the Fazenda Vit6ria, Paragominas.

Municipality Size (ha) Vegetation disturbance Hunting pressure Source
Site 1 Paragominas 20,000 Moderate None 1
Site 2 Tailandia 18,000 Moderate High 2
Site 3 Sao Domingos do Capim 8,000 High High 2
Site 4 Irituia 5,000 Moderate Moderate 2
Site 5 Gurupi 340,000 Moderate to Low Low 2
Site 6 Novo Repartimento 350,000 Moderate to Low Moderate 3
Site 7 Novo Repartimento 350,000 Moderate to Low Moderate 3
Site 8 Novo Repartimento 7,000 Moderate to High Moderate 4
Site 9 Melgaco 300,000 Low Low 4
Sources: 1. Carvalho Jr. and Pinto, in prep.; 2. Lopes, 1993; 3. Emidio-Silva, 1998; 4. Bobadilla and Ferrari, 1998.

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

Table 2. Sighting Rate (SR) of primates at FV and other sites in the region. Number of sightings in parentheses.
A. belzebul C. satanas S. midas S. sciureus Transect length (km) Source
FV 1.32(09) 0.44 (03) 1.76 (12) 0.14 (01) 69 This study
Site 1 0.72 (05) 0.58 (07) 0.58 (03) 69 1
Site 2 0.005 (01) 0.28 (06) 1.20 (26) 216 2
Site 3 0.20 (04) 0.005 (01) 1.22 (25) 205 2
Site 4 0.25 (10) 0.34 (14) 1.47 (60) 408 2
Site 5 0.56 (27) 0.37 (18) 1.10 (53) 0.002 (01) 480 2
Site 6 0.31 (03) 0.52 (05) 0.10 (01) 0.10 (01) 96 3
Site 7 0.98 (08) 0.12 (01) 0.25 (02) 81 3
Site 8 1.00 (10) 2.07 (21) 0.50 (05) 0.40 (04) 101 4
Site 9 2.08(111) 0.11 (06) 1.11 (59) __ 533 4
Sources: 1. Carvalho Jr. and Pinto, in prep.; 2. Lopes, 1993; 3. Emfdio-Silva, 1998; 4. Bobadilla and Ferrari, 1998.

Table 3. Sighting Rate (SR) of primates at the Fazenda Vit6ria in the different habitats. Number of sightings in parentheses.
A. belzebul C. satanas S. midas S. sciureus
Primary Forest 2.61 (06) 0.87 (02) 2.61 (06) 0
Logged Forest 1.30 (03) 0.43 (01) 1.74 (04) 0
Secondary Forest 0 0 0.87 (02) 0.43 (01)

ment (in which case the population densities may decline
over the coming years); 2) Low hunting pressure on pri-
mates in the region, except for howlers (Cymerys, 1994);
3) Absence of potential predators (J. R. Martins, pers.
comm.); and 4) ecological and behavioral flexibility of
primate species. Other factors, such as interspecific com-
petition and floristic composition of the forest fragments,
are also important influences on the occurrence and local
abundance of primate species.

There is only one strictly protected area in eastern Ama-
zonia, the Gurupf Biological Reserve; it is seriously threat-
ened, however, and much of its forest has already been de-
stroyed. Numerous logging companies are active there and
causing widespread environmental degradation through
pollution and hunting, resulting in threats to many species
of the region. East of the Rio Tocantins, A. belzebul ululata
(coast of Maranhao) and Cebus kaapori are now considered
Critically Endangered, and Chiropotes satanas satanas En-
dangered (Rylands and Chiarello, 2003). With such threats
increasing, these relatively small forest fragments together
with the few large remaining areas of undisturbed forest
- could play an important role in conservation strategies
in the future.

Acknowledgements: Fieldwork was supported by grants
from USAID and the Federal University of Pard (UFPA),
Belkm. Thanks to A. C. M. Oliveira and C. Emfdio-Silva
for helping me to collect field data, and to IPAM for lo-
gistical support. S. E Ferrari made helpful comments on
the manuscript.

Oswaldo de Carvalho Jr., Instituto de Pesquisa Ambiental
da Amazonia (IPAM), Avenida Nazard 669, 66035-170
Belkm, Para, Brazil. E-mail: .


Brockelman, W. Y. and Ali, R. 1987. Methods of survey-
ing and sampling forest primate populations. In: Primate
Conservation in the Tropical Rainforest, C. W. Marsh
and R. A. Mittermeier (eds.), pp.21-62. Alan R. Liss,
New York.
Bobadilla, U. and Ferrari, S. E 1998. First detailed data on
Chiropotes satanas utahicki Hershkovitz, 1985. Neotrop.
Primates 6(1): 17-18.
Carvalho Jr., 0., Pinto, A. C. B. and Galetti, M. 1999. New
observations on Cebus kaapori Queiroz, 1992, in eastern
Brazilian Amazonia. Neotrop. Primates 7(2): 41-43.
Cymerys, M. 1994. Sustainable faunal harvest: Game man-
agement for small-landholders in eastern Amazonia. Un-
published report, Woods Hole Research Center, Woods
Hole, MA, and Universidade Federal do Para, Belkm.
Emfdio-Silva, C. E. 1998. A caga de subsistencia praticada
pelos indios Parakand (sudeste do Para): Caracterfsticas e
sustentabilidade. Master's thesis, Universidade Federal do
Para, Belkm.
Ferrari, S. F and Lopes, M. A. 1996. Primate populations in
eastern Amazonia. In: Adaptive Radiations of Neotropical
Primates, M. A. Norconk, A. L. Rosenberger and P. A.
Garber (eds.), pp. 53-67. Plenum Press, New York.
Lopes, M. A. and Ferrari, S. E 2000. Effects of human colo-
nization on the abundance and diversity of mammals in
eastern Amazonia. Conserv. Biol. 14: 1658-1665.
Nepstad, D. C., Moreira, A. G. and Alencar, A. A. 1999.
A Floresta em Chamas: Origens, Impactos e Prevenado de
Fogo na Amazonia. Program Piloto para a Protegao das
Florestas Tropicais do Brasil, Brasflia.
NRC. 1981. Techniques for the Study of Primate Population
Ecology. National Research Council (NRC), National
Academy Press, Washington, DC.

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

Oliveira, A. C. M. and Ferrari, S. E 2000. Seed dispersal
by black-handed tamarins, Saguinus midas niger (Cal-
litrichinae, Primates): Implications for the regeneration
of degraded forest habitats in eastern Amazonia. J. Trop.
Ecol. 16: 709-716.
Rylands, A. B. and Chiarello, A. G. 2003. Official List of
Brazilian Fauna Threatened with Extinction 2003. Neo-
trop. Primates 11(1): 43-49.


Briseida D. Resende, Vivian L. G. Greco
Eduardo B. Ottoni, Patricia Izar

Capuchin monkeys are the most omnivorous of the New
World primates and are predators of small vertebrates (Ter-
borgh, 1983). Cebus capucinus has been observed hunting
coatis (Nasua narica) and squirrels (Sciurus variegatoides) in
Costa Rica (Newcomer and De Farcy, 1985; Rose, 1997).
Brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus. q,I/i) capture and eat liz-
ards, squirrels, frogs and birds (Izawa, 1978; Terborgh, 1983;
Galetti, 1990). Ferreira et al. (2002) described predation on
birds by a group of tufted capuchins at the Tiete Ecological
Park, Sao Paulo. Here we report on our observations of this
same, semi-free-ranging group eating small mammals. The
group lives in an 18 ha reforested area in the Tiete Ecologi-
cal Park, Sao Paulo, Brazil. A detailed description of the area
and the group is given by Ottoni and Mannu (2000).

On 6 June, 2001, at around 0930, one of us (BDR) was
following the capuchin group and saw the juvenile male
Frank eating birdseed near the juvenile male Lobato
and juvenile female Vava. Suddenly he descended to the
ground, grabbed a mouse hidden in the bushes and took it
to a tree. The mouse was not seen moving prior to capture,
so we cannot be sure if he had killed it or if it was already
dead. Frank examined its belly and ripped the skin between
the hind limbs, but soon abandoned the prey. Lobato ap-
proached, took the mouse and, after a brief examination,
also abandoned it.

On 15 March, 2003, at around 1050 in the morning,
BDR and VG observed the dominant male Bisqiii on a
branch, 10 m above the ground, eating the head and intes-
tines of an adult male rat (Rattus rattus). The adult female
Cisca, carrying her 5-month-old infant, and the adult
male Medeiros were watching Bisqiii from very close by.
An unidentified immature was also nearby, and watching
keenly. Bisqiii showed great tolerance, never threatening
or attacking those who were watching. The unidentified
immature was able to eat a piece of the viscera. After about
three minutes, Bisqiii abandoned the rat, which fell on the
ground. Female juvenile Ada went down and took the car-
cass. We observed her from a close distance (around 4 m).
She ate parts of the digestive tract, liver and pancreas, and
after about four minutes, also abandoned the carcass. The

juvenile male Qufmico then approached and examined it,
but soon went away, following the group and leaving the
rat on the ground.

On examination, most of the muscle tissue of the carcass
was intact, except for the abdominal layers and the face
muscles. The rat's belly was ripped open, and its liver, pan-
creas, stomach, heart, the entire digestive tract, and the
brain were completely eaten. Consumption of the head
and brains of small vertebrate prey has also been regis-
tered by Heymann et al. (2000) in their study of Saguinus
mystax and Saguinus fuscicollis. Biting the head of lizards,
frogs and bird nestlings was seen as a killing strategy with
a rich energy source, the brain, as a reward. Izawa (1978)
described Cebus .q''//, in Colombia which killed frogs by
squeezing the prey's neck or biting them, and then con-
suming the thighs, the tips of the hands and feet, and the
viscera. We were unable to see the way the prey was killed,
but the monkeys certainly showed a preference for eating
the intestines and brain. Later that morning, at 1135,
VG observed an adult male eating a small young, pink
mammal around 5 cm in length. Another adult male had
also been observed eating two young mammals similar to
this one in July 2002.

On 27 May, 2003, at 0945, VG observed an adult female
carrying the carcass of an opossum infant (Didelphis sp).
The dominant male, Bisqiii, and another adult female were
nearby. Almost the entire carcass was consumed; only the
head, skin and bones and a small part of the intestines re-
mained. Unlike the rat carcass, in this case the muscle tissue
was broadly consumed and the brain was intact.

Although the capuchin monkeys are provisioned daily,
they forage continuously, eating fruits, leaves, birds and
invertebrates such as spiders and worms (Ferreira et al.,
2002). As opportunists, they probably capture vertebrate
prey whenever possible, even though food scarcity is not a
problem for this group; varied protein sources are always
welcome, and hunting behaviors may be rewarding per se.
In contrast to what was observed with Izawa's group in

Figure 1. Adult female (Cisca) observes dominant male (Bisqiii)
eating a rat.

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

Colombia, in all predation events described here the pos-
sessor tolerated the proximity of conspecifics; this created
opportunities for food transfer, either direct and tolerated
or, more often, through scrounging. Food transfer in this
group was also registered in bird predation events, and
scrounging was also the most common type of transfer
(Ferreira et al., 2002).

In a review of the genus by Freese and Oppenheimer
(1981), vertebrate prey listed included only lizards, birds
and rodents in the diet of C. capucinus, and frogs in the diet
of C. a,i/i//. While John Oppenheimer was the pioneer in
studies of this genus in the wild (C. capucinus in particular),
this diet list reflected the paucity of information available
at the time. As new field studies are conducted, our under-
standing of the diversity of prey taken by tufted capuchins,
and the dynamics of food transfer among them, will con-
tinue to improve.

Acknowledgements: We thank the staff of the Tiete Ecologi-
cal Park for their support, and also Michele Verderane and
Guilherme Imura, who helped in the description of the
predation on the infant opossum. This work was funded by
a grant from the Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado
de Sao Paulo FAPESP (Sao Paulo State Research Support
Foundation) (Process 99/11573-2).

Briseida D. Resende, Vivian L. G. Greco, Eduardo B.
Ottoni and Patricia Izar, Departamento de Psicologia
Experimental, Instituto de Psicologia, Universidade de Sao
Paulo, Avenida Prof. Mello Moraes 1721, Sao Paulo 05508-
030, Sao Paulo, Brazil. E-mail: .


Ferreira, R. G., Resende, B. D., Mannu, M., Ottoni,
E. B. and Izar, P. 2002. Bird predation and prey-transfer
in brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus j,u,//,). Neotrop.
Primates 10(2): 84-89.
Freese, C. H. and Oppenheimer, J. R. 1981. The capu-
chin monkeys, genus Cebus. In: Ecology and Behavior of
Neotropical Primates, Vol. 1, A. F Coimbra-Filho and
R. A. Mittermeier (eds.), pp.331-390. Academia Brasilei-
ra de Ciencias, Rio de Janeiro.
Galetti, M. 1990. Predation on the squirrel Sciurus aestuans
by capuchin monkeys, Cebus ,ii'//a. Mammalia 54:
Heymann, E. W., Knogge, C. and Herrera, E. R. T.
2000. Vertebrate predation by sympatric tamarins,
Saguinus mystax and Saguinus fuscicollis. Am. J. Primatol.
51: 153-158.
Izawa, K. 1978. Frog-eating behavior of wild black-capped
capuchin (Cebus ,i//.i). Primates 19: 633-642.
Newcomer, M. W. and De Farcy, D. 1985. White-faced
capuchin (Cebus capucinus) predation on a nestling coati
(Nasua narica). J. Mammal. 66: 185-186.
Ottoni, E. B. and Mannu, M. 2000. Semifree-ranging
tufted capuchins (Cebus, ',,//,.) spontaneously use tools to
crack open nuts. Int. J. Primatol. 22: 347-358.

Rose, L. 1997. Vertebrate predation and food-sharing in
Cebus and Pan. Int. J. Primatol. 18: 727-765.
Terborgh, J. 1983. Five New World Primates. Princeton
University Press, Princeton, NJ.


Andres Link


Studies on the diet and feeding behavior of spider monkeys
(Ateles spp.) have revealed they are primarily frugivorous,
with fruits representing between 72% and 90% of their
diet (Carpenter, 1935; Hladik and Hladik, 1969; Klein
and Klein, 1977; Van Roosmalen, 1985; Chapman, 1987;
Symington, 1988; Dew, 2001). Flowers and young leaves
are also eaten frequently, especially when fruit is scarce (Van
Roosmalen and Klein, 1988; Castellanos, 1995; Nunes,
1998; Stevenson et al., 2000). Bark, decaying wood, fungus,
seeds, soil from salt-licks and termite nests, insects and other
items are seldom consumed and represent only a small part
of their diet (see Van Roosmalen and Klein, 1988).

Insect-eating in spider monkeys has been reported in
several studies and, except for passive consumption (for
example, fig wasps in fig fruits), it represents a minor part
of their feeding activities. Wagner (1956) reported that
spider monkeys eat insects and insect larvae. Termites are
eaten selectively (Klein and Klein, 1977; Van Roosmalen,
1985), but this behavior has been difficult to separate from
decaying wood or termite-nest eating (Castellanos, 1995)
and has not been observed in several studies (Dew, 2001;
Link, pers. obs.). They have been incidentally observed
eating meliponid bees in Costa Rica (C. A. Chapman, pers.
comm.) and Colombia (P. Stevenson, pers. comm.), and
caterpillars are eaten intensively by spider monkeys during
short periods of the year in a number of different sites (Van
Roosmalen, 1985; Chapman, 1987; Symington, 1988;
Cant, 1990).

White-bellied spider monkeys (Ateles belzebuth) have been
studied in the Tinigua National Natural Park in Colombia
for several years and, until this study, no insect-eating be-
havior had been observed except by Pablo Stevenson (pers.
comm.), who reported it as a minor part of the diet of one of
his study groups (MB-1); no individuals in his other groups
had ever been seen actively consuming insects. During the
study reported here, I observed white-bellied spider mon-
keys eating insects on a number of occasions and, although
it represents a small part of their total diet in the study year,
it was an important food item at certain times.

Study Site

This research was carried out at the Centro de Investiga-
ciones Ecol6gicas de La Macarena (CIEM), part of Tinigua
National Natural Park in the northwestern Amazon, located

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

between the eastern Andes and the Serranfa de La Macare-
na, Departamento de Meta, Colombia (240'N, 7410'W;
350-400 m a.s.l.). Annual temperature is relatively constant
at approximately 26C and rainfall is highly seasonal, with
a dry season between December and March and the rainy
season between April and November. Peak rainfall is in
June and July, and the region averages 2700 mm annually
(Kimura et al., 1994; Stevenson, 2002).

Field Methods

Observations of insect-eating by white-bellied spider mon-
keys were recorded during 13 months of fieldwork, from
January 2001 to January 2002. Focal animal sampling (Alt-
mann, 1974) was used to study their basic ecology and diet.
Instantaneous sampling (every five minutes) was used to
quantify activity budgets and habitat use. Continuous sam-
pling was used every time the focal animal began to feed.
Total feeding time per bout, the species and item eaten, and
DBH (diameter at breast height) in trees and lianas were
recorded, in addition to the number of individuals feeding
on the same item and, when possible, consumption rates
(measured in number of ingested items per minute).


Sixteen insect-eating bouts were observed during the study,
during which the spider monkeys ate orthopterans (n = 2),
meliponid bees (n = 8) and lepidopteran larvae (n = 6). Fif-
teen of these bouts were observed directly, while one event
was inferred by insect exoskeletons found in fecal samples.
Grasshoppers (Orthoptera) were probably eaten opportu-
nistically. Caterpillars and bees were eaten intensively, and
active foraging to obtain these food items was observed in
all of these feeding bouts.

Insect-eating constituted 1.5% of the total feeding time
during the study year. All age/sex classes were seen eating
insects and, although no aggression was seen on these occa-
sions, there were some displacements at the meliponid bee
nests. Spider monkeys were observed eating grasshoppers
twice: in February, I collected two fecal samples next to each
other, each of which contained one-half of the exoskeleton
of an orthopteran (c. 40 mm long); and in April, one small
grasshopper was caught from the top of a leaf and eaten by
a female with an infant (J. Cajiao, pers. obs.).

Meliponid bees (Scaptotrigona sp.) were also part of the
diet of this spider monkey group. Bee-eating was seen
repeatedly throughout the year, and although it is an in-
frequent activity (compared to eating fruits or leaves), large
quantities of bees were eaten on each occasion. Six out of
eight observations were at the same two bee nests located
on the trunk of an emergent Bombacopsis quinata (Jacq.)
Dugang (Bombacaceae) tree, another nest was in another
B. quinata tree, and one in an unidentified tree. All were in
the canopy, about 20-25 m above the ground. One to three
monkeys were seen eating bees simultaneously at the same
nest (excluding dependant infants). They usually hung

from their tails in front of the bee nest, or sat on the trunk
and branches nearby waiting for their turn to gain access.
When bees attacked and flew into the monkey's fur, they
were easily captured and eaten. Mothers ate simultaneously
with their juveniles and infants, capturing bees on their
own or another individual's fur. When the bees stopped
attacking, the spider monkeys would disturb the nest with
their hands, and the bees would start attacking again. The
feeding bouts lasted 2, 4, 5, 6, 6, 7, 11 and 13 minutes, and
average feeding rates were 18.0 + 6.2 bees/min (SD), range
12-30 (n = 9). These few observations reveal that spider
monkeys could be eating a large quantity of bees per feed-
ing bout, and although data were only collected from focal
animals, several spider monkeys fed on these nests after and
before the focal animal started its feeding bout.

Caterpillars were eaten intensively during a short period of
the year in October, as well as on one occasion in February,
when a medium size (c. 30-40 mm long) caterpillar was
eaten by a female with twins. The other five caterpillar-
eating bouts were observed during focal animal sampling;
in each case the spider monkeys ate caterpillars of a single
species, which were heavily clumped in the leaves of a few
individual trees. During October almost 9% of the feeding
time of spider monkeys was invested in this item, which was
the fourth most commonly eaten item during that month.
One to three monkeys were seen eating caterpillars in the
same tree. Each individual actively foraged for and captured
the caterpillars by directly licking or biting the fresh or dry
leaves. These five feeding bouts lasted 1, 17, 27, 11 and 53
min. No feeding rates were obtained due to the difficulty
in recording when a single caterpillar had been ingested,
but large quantities of caterpillars were consumed at each
feeding bout.


Insect-eating by spider monkeys is uncommon, but may
reveal some important aspects of their feeding ecology
and adaptations. The few species of insects eaten are the
only animal matter in their otherwise plant-supported
diets. In several studies carried out on different species of
spider monkeys, caterpillars were the only group of insects
observed in the diet of this genus. In all of these studies,
this activity occurred in specific short periods (c. 15 days)
of the year (Van Roosmalen, 1985; Chapman, 1987;
Symington, 1988; this study), probably when the cater-
pillars of some lepidopteran species hatch and aggregate
on the leaves of particular trees. These caterpillars were
eaten only in a short period of the year, which is similar
to the availability of other food items such as some fruits,
flowers and leaves of particular plant species (in contrast
with meliponid bees, which were available throughout the
year). Taxonomic identification of these caterpillars, and
those eaten at other sites, would be useful to determine if
they are phylogenetically related, and whether they might
have been part of the diet of an ancestral spider monkey, or
if the exploitation of this food resource has evolved sepa-
rately in isolated populations.

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

Meliponid bees were eaten at different times of the year,
and this is the first report on such repeated feeding bouts
at bee nests. In these cases, the spatial and temporal
availability of bees is predictable and somewhat constant
throughout the year. Nevertheless, the spider monkeys ate
them on only a few occasions, and this feeding source was
totally ignored at other times, even though they rested or
passed very close to the nests, and bees were seen flying
around them. It would seem that fruit availability is not an
important determinant of this behavior, as bees were eaten
during periods of fruit abundance and scarcity alike (Link,
unpubl. data).

Insect-eating by spider monkeys, and its selectivity and
possible consequences, are still not well understood. There
are few data available, and practically no information on
the taxonomic groups eaten or on their nutritional compo-
nents. Most studies of primate diets focus on quantitative
and qualitative analysis of the major food items. Consid-
erable information of this sort is now available for several
species of spider monkeys at different localities (Carpenter,
1935; Hladik and Hladik, 1969; Klein and Klein, 1977;
Van Roosmalen, 1985; Chapman, 1987; Symington, 1987;
Van Roosmalen and Klein, 1988; Cant, 1990; Castellanos,
1995; Nunes, 1998; Wallace, 1998; Dew, 2001). It is pos-
sible that food items such as insects, which are only a small
part of their diet, contribute essential or complementary
nutrients, besides the soil eaten by both howler and spider
monkeys at salt-licks (see Izawa, 1993).

One important aspect of the feeding ecology of spider mon-
keys that has not been studied in detail is the set of physical
constraints they experience while capturing, manipulating
and exploring objects with their hands. Their thumbless
hands make them less agile at such foraging when compared
with other genera such as Saimiri, Cebus or Lagothrix. This
is supported by the fact that other primate groups which
have vestigial or absent thumbs (i.e., Colobus spp.) rarely
include insects in their diets (see Davies and Oates, 1994).
Thumbless hands and long fingers are adaptations that are
probably associated with their locomotive patterns and a
diet based on fruits and leaves, which certainly constrains
their ability to capture fast-moving animal prey.

Given the "precision-grip" constraints on the spider monkey
hand, the caterpillars and meliponid bees which were eaten
in Tinigua Park might represent a food resource which does
not require high energetic costs in foraging and capturing.
Meliponid bees are found in their nests and easily captured
when they entangle in a monkey's fur. The caterpillars
are densely clumped in individual trees, and move slowly
enough that they may be captured with the hands or direct-
ly with the mouth. The abundance and predictable location
of these food resources, as well as the ease with which the
spider monkeys capture them, may explain why they are
among the few insects eaten by this primate species.

Many studies have assessed differences in the ecological strat-
egies of the atelines, especially comparing spider monkeys

and woolly monkeys (Lagothrix spp.); these genera overlap
widely in their geographic distribution, and are sympatric at
several northwestern Amazonian sites in Ecuador and Co-
lombia (see Strier, 1992; Stevenson etal., 2000; Dew, 2001).
Differences in their diets include the higher proportion of
lipid-rich fruits eaten by spider monkeys, and the more fre-
quent foraging and insect-eating by woolly monkeys.

Differences in the diets of the atelines are apparent in the
proportions of food items they consume, which probably
evolved to avoid direct competition. Although all are fru-
givorous, each species complements its diet with different
items. Howler monkeys (Alouatta spp.) eat a great variety of
mature and young leaves, as well as other vegetative plant
parts (Neville et al., 1988; Juliot and Sabatier, 1993) and
there is also limited evidence of insect-eating. Woolly mon-
keys eat young leaves and insects, especially in periods of
fruit scarcity (Ramirez, 1988; Defler and Defler, 1996; Ste-
venson et al., 1994). Ateles and muriquis (Brachyteles spp.)
base their diet on fruits and leaves, but the former relies
more on fruits, while the latter feeds more on leaves (Van
Roosmalen and Klein, 1988; Nishimura et al., 1988; Strier,
1991; Nunes, 1998). Both spider and howler monkeys
include small proportions of selected insects in their diet
(Milton, 1980; references above) and more information is
needed to understand why they do not rely on other insects,
as woolly monkeys do, in order to complement their nutri-
tional requirements, considering the widespread availability
of this resource in the forest (Izawa, 1993).

Acknowledgements: I thank G. de Luna and J. Cajiao for
their support and data collection in the field. C. Chap-
man, K. Izawa, P. Stevenson, H. Castellanos and G. de
Luna provided useful comments on the manuscript.
G. Nates (UniversidadNacionalde Colombia) helpedwiththe
identification of the insects eaten by Ateles in our study site.
G. de Luna, N. Silva, A. Sanabria and B. Ramfrez helped in
collecting the insects. Members of the Unidad Administra-
tiva Especial del Sistema de Parques Naturales Nacionales
de Colombia collaborated with this research at Tinigua
National Park. Finally, I thank the Colombian-Japan agree-
ment through K. Izawa and C. Mejfa, who provided per-
mission for this research at the CIEM.

Andres Link, Doctoral Program in Physical Anthropol-
ogy at New York University, Rufus D. Smith Hall, 25
Waverly Place, New York, NY 10003, USA. E-mail:


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pling methods. Behavior 49: 227-267.
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Panama. /. Mammal. 16: 171-180.
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S..rr .., i at Tikal, Guatemala. Hum. Evol. 5: 269-281.
Castellanos, H. G. 1995. Feeding behaviour of Ateles bel-
zebuth E. Geoffroy, 1806 (Cebidae: Atelinae) in Tawadu

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forest, southern Venezuela. Doctoral dissertation, The
University of Exeter, Devon, UK.
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Costa Rican primates. Folia Primatol. 49: 90-105.
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Thomas R. Defier

When von Humboldt (1812) wrote the holotypic descrip-
tion of Humboldt's woolly monkey, he spelled the species
name both lagotricha and lagothricha. According to some,
lagothricha (and its variant lagothrica) are incorrect Latiniza-
tions of the Greek words Xayo(c) lago(s) (hare) + OpiXo(()
- thrico(s) (hair)' because of the preceding vowel, o, which
would require the form "trichos" rather than "thrichos". The
use of the two versions was certainly a lapsus on von Hum-
boldt's part. However, when revising the genus, Fooden
(1963), under Article 24 (24.2) of the International Code of
Zoological Nomenclature, chose the variation lagothricha as
the "correct legal spelling" for Lagothrix lagothricha.

"Article 24: Precedence between simultaneously published
names, spellings or acts.

24.1. Automatic determination of precedence of
names. When homonyms or synonyms are established

1 No pun intended, as von Humboldt was writing in French, not English.

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

simultaneously, but proposed at different ranks, in the
family group, genus group or species group the name
proposed at higher rank takes precedence [Arts. 55.5,
56.3, 57.7]. See Article 61.2.1 for the precedence of
simultaneous but different type fixations for taxa and
their nominotypical subordinate taxa.

24.2. Determination by the First Reviser.

24.2.1. Statement of the Principle of the First Re-
viser. When the precedence between names ofnomen-
clatural acts cannot be objectively determined, the pre-
cedence is fixed by the action of the first author citing
in a published work those names or acts and selecting
from them; this author is termed the "First Reviser".

24.2.2. Determination of precedence of names or acts
by the First Reviser. If two or more names, different or
identical, and based on the same or different types, or
two or more nomenclatural acts, are published on the
same date in the same or different works, the prece-
dence of the names or acts is fixed by the First Reviser
unless Article 24.1 applies." (International Commis-
sion on Zoological Nomenclature, 1999.)

Thus has the binomial Lagothrix lagothricha been spelled
by Hershkovitz (1977), Napier and Napier (1967), Napier
(1976), Eisenberg (1989), Emmons (1990, 1997), Eisen-
berg and Redford (1999) and many others, although
Mittermeier and Coimbra-Filho's (1981:95) inclusion of
a brief comment by R. Thorington Jr. on von Humboldt's
original spelling has influenced many primatologists to use
the lagotricha variant. (Thorington's published comment
on p.95 itself is incorrect, since von Humboldt used both

Some years ago I asked Philip Hershkovitz what he thought
about the legality of all of this. He consulted with Jack
Fooden (Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago) and
wrote to me that Fooden (1963) had "unfortunately" legal-
ized lagothricha under the Code when he chose that variant
of the spelling. Thus, they opined, lagothricha is legal under
the Code, lagotricha is not (P. Hershkovitz and J. Fooden,
pers. comm. to T. R. Defler). The dilemma is whether to
use a legal but perhaps incorrect Latinization, or to use the
correctly Latinized (I suppose) but illegal form. Each person
makes his own choice whether to respect the Code or not;
but by the Code, lagothricha is correct.

We all understand there are two (or three) spelling variations
for this taxon. Despite my own constant misspelling of the
binomial, what is to me far more important is to determine
what we shall mean in the future when we refer to Lagothrix
lagothricha. Should Lagothrix lagothricha include lugens,
poeppigii and cana as subspecies, or are these truly distinct,
separate species, as suggested by Groves (2001:190-192)?
Urgent chromosomal, molecular and morphological re-
search is needed to resolve these questions. Ruiz and Alvarez
(2003) have made a start by identifying separate haplotypes

of mtDNA from individuals of the two taxa lagothricha and
lugens, but in the same study they found different haplo-
types of mtDNA in Saimiri sciureus .' '. and Saimiri
sciureus macrodon, suggesting that we need yet more molecu-
lar information to be able to truly solve the species problem
in Lagothrix. A difference in haplotypes alone is insufficient
for the establishment of a new species name.

Thomas R. Defler, Instituto Amaz6nico de Investigaciones,
Universidad Nacional de Colombia, A. A. 215, Leticia, Am-
azonas, Colombia. E-mail: .


Eisenberg, J. F. 1989. Mammals of the Neotropics: The
Northern Neotropics: Vol. 1: Panama, Colombia, Venezuela,
Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana. The University of
Chicago Press, Chicago.
Eisenberg, J. F. and Redford, K. H. 1999. Mammals of
the Neotropics: The Central Neotropics: Vol. 3: Ecuador,
Peru, Bolivia, Brazil. The University of Chicago Press,
Emmons, L. H. 1990. Neotropical Rainforest Mammals: A
Field Guide. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Emmons, L. H. 1997. Neotropical Rainforest Mammals: A
Field Guide. Second Edition. The University of Chicago
Press, Chicago.
Fooden, J. 1963. A revision of the woolly monkeys (genus
Lagothrix). J. Mammal. 44: 213-247.
Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate Taxonomy. Smithsonian Insti-
tution Press, Washington, DC.
Hershkovitz, P 1977. Living New World Monkeys (i '
ni) with an Introduction to Primates, Vol. 1. The Chicago
University Press, Chicago.
Von Humboldt, A. and Bonpland, A. 1812. Recueil
d'observations de zoologie et d'anatomie compare faites dans
l'ocian Atlantique, dans l'intirieur du Nouveau Continent
et dans la mer du Sud, pendant les annees 1799, 1800,
1801, 1802 et 1803. Pt. 2, Vol. 1. Paris, viii + 368 pp.,
40 pls.
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature.
1999. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.
Fourth Edition. International Trust for Zoological No-
menclature, British Museum (Natural History), London.
(Effective from 1 January 2000.)
Mittermeier, R. A. and Coimbra-Filho, A. F. 1981. System-
atics: Species and subspecies. In: Ecology and Behavior of
Neotropical Primates, Vol. 1, A. F. Coimbra-Filho and R.
A. Mittermeier (eds.), pp.29-109. Academia Brasileira de
Ciencias, Rio de Janeiro.
Napier, P. H. 1976. Catalogue of Primates in the British
Museum ('. .- History). Part 1: Families ( -
idae and Cebidae. British Museum (Natural History),
Napier, J. R. and Napier, P H. 1967. A H.welbook, of Living
Primates. Academic Press, London.
Rufz-Garcfa, M. and Alvarez, D. 2003. RFLP analysis of
mtDNA from six platyrrhine genera: Phylogenetic infer-
ences. Folia Primatol. 74:59-70.

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003


Daniela Fichtner Gomes
Jilio Cesar Bicca-Marques

The genus Alouatta (howler monkeys) has the largest
geographic distribution of all Neotropical primate genera,
occurring from Mexico to Argentina and Brazil (Neville
etal., 1988). Its ecology and behavior have been arecurrent
topic of field research, but very few studies have been con-
ducted in captivity due to the difficulty of keeping these
primates outside of their natural environment (Kinzey,
1997). The species A. caraya and especially A. belzebulare
still poorly known.

Alouatta caraya and A. belzebul live in social groups com-
posed of two to 19 individuals. Generally, there are more
adult females than adult males in the group (see Crockett
and Eisenberg, 1987; Rowe, 1996). In A. caraya, sexual
maturity is reached around 35-42 months in females and
24-37 months in males (Shoemaker, 1982). The menstrual
cycle in this species lasts on average 20 days (Colillas and
Coppo, 1978). Estimates of the gestation period range from
152 to 195 days (see Calegaro-Marques and Bicca-Marques,
1993), whereas the interbirth interval varies from seven to
27 months (Calegaro-Marques and Bicca-Marques, 1993;
Lindbergh, 1978; Shoemaker, 1982; Zunino, 1996).

Howler monkeys rarely breed in captivity, but some success
has been achieved with Alouatta caraya (see Crockett, 1998;
Kinzey, 1997). Studies of A. caraya suggest the absence of
reproductive seasonality in captivity (Colillas and Coppo,
1978; LaHue, 2000; Lindbergh, 1978; Shoemaker, 1979,
1982), although conflicting results have been obtained in
the wild (Zunino, 1996; see also Calegaro-Marques and
Bicca-Marques, 1993; evidence of birth seasonality in
wild A. palliata, A. pigra and A. seniculus is presented by
Brockett et al., 2000; Crockett and Rudran, 1987; Fedigan
et al., 1998; and Jones, 1980). According to Di Bitetti and
Janson (2000), folivorous and large-sized Neotropical pri-
mates such as Alouatta tend to be non-seasonal breeders.
In Argentina, however, Zunino (1996) observed a greater
frequency of births during the dry season, a time of higher
availability of new leaves and fruits. He related this birth
seasonality to three environmental variables: Temperature,
rainfall, and especially food availability (Zunino, 1996).

Here we examine whether A. caraya and A. belzebul breed
seasonally in captivity in Brazil based on an analysis of the
monthly distribution of birth records. Data were obtained
through a questionnaire sent to Brazilian zoos. The follow-
ing information was requested: Species (scientific name),
date of birth, litter size, sex of offspring, and characteristics
of the cage (indoor/outdoor).

A total of 48 births of A. caraya and nine of A. belzebul
were recorded from 1960 to 2003 in outdoor cages at 12

Brazilian zoos (see "Acknowledgements"). It was not pos-
sible to test the data on A. belzebul for seasonality because
of the small sample. (Data on the reproduction of this spe-
cies at the National Primate Center [Kingston, 1987] were
not available for this research.) Although A. belzebul birth
records were scattered throughout the year, most of them
(78%) occurred between September and February (Fig. 1).

Data on A. caraya were grouped (January-February,
March-April, and so on) for statistical analysis because of
the low frequency of birth records per month. There was
no evidence of seasonality, since birth records were well
distributed across the year (Z2 = 4.75, df= 5, NS; Fig. 1).
The analysis of birth records of A. caraya at 25 zoos in the
USA (compiled by LaHue, 2000) corroborates the absence
of seasonal reproduction of this species in captivity (Z2 =
11.02, df= 11, NS; Fig. 2). This research confirms results
from other studies that suggest that A. caraya may give birth
throughout the year under the conditions of regular food
availability observed in captivity (Shoemaker, 1979, 1982).

Acknowledgements. We thank the Pontificia Universidade
Cat61lica do Rio Grande do Sul for logistical support
and the zoos that kindly provided data for this research:
Parque Zool6gico de Sapucaia do Sul/RS, Parque Balneario
Turistico Oasis/RS, Criadouro de Animais Silvestres da
ITAIPU Binacional/PR, Zool6gico de Curitiba/PR, Centro
de Conservayto da Fauna Silvestre de Ilha Solteira/SP,
Parque Zool6gico Municipal "Quinzinho de Barros"/SP,
Zool6gico Municipal de Mogi Mirim/SP, Fundacao Rio-
Zoo/RJ, Fundacao Zoobotanica do Distrito Federal/DF,

E .


Figure 1. Monthly distribution of birth records of A. caraya (N =
48) and A. belzebul (N = 9) at Brazilian zoos.

Am Ate M u Ar A k JA "Iap s Oe h

Figure 2. Monthly distribution of birth records of A. caraya in
captivity in the U.S.A. (N = 280) (data compiled by LaHue,

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

Parque Zool6gico de Goiania/GO, Parque Zoobotanico de
Carajis/PA and Museu Paraense Emflio Goeldi/PA.

Daniela Fichtner Gomes and Jdilio Cesar Bicca-Marques,
Faculdade de Biociencias, Pontificia Universidade Cat6lica
do Rio Grande do Sul, Avenida Ipiranga 6681, Pd. 12A,
Porto Alegre 90619-900, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
E-mail: .


Brockett, R. C., Horwich, R. H. and Jones, C. B. 2000.
Reproductive seasonality in the Belizean black howling
monkey (Alouatta pigra). Neotrop. Primates 8: 136-138.
Calegaro-Marques, C. and Bicca-Marques, J. C. 1993. Re-
producao de Alouatta caraya Humboldt, 1812 (Primates,
Cebidae). In: A Primatologia no Brasil- 4, M. E. Yama-
moto and M. B. C. Souza (eds.), pp. 51-66. Editora da
Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN),
Colillas, 0. and Coppo, J. 1978. Breeding Alouatta carayain
the Centro Argentino de Primates. In: Recent Advances in
T -.. '.- 2. Conservation, D. J. Chivers and W. Lane-
Petter (eds.), pp. 201-214. Academic Press, London.
Crockett, C. M. 1998. Conservation biology of the genus
Alouatta. Int. J. Primatol. 19: 549-578.
Crockett, C. M. and Eisenberg, J. F. 1987. Howlers: Varia-
tions in group size and demography. In: Primate Socie-
ties, B. B. Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W.
Wrangham and T. T. Struhsaker (eds.), pp. 54-68. The
University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Crockett, C. M. and Rudran, R. 1987. Red howler monkey
birth data I: Seasonal variation. Am. J. Primatol. 13:
Di Bitetti, M. S. and Janson, C. H. 2000. When will the
stork arrive? Patterns of birth seasonality in Neotropical
primates. Am. J. Primatol. 50: 109-130.
Fedigan, L. M., Rose, L. M. and Avila, R. M. 1998. Growth
of mantled howler groups in a regenerating Costa Rican
dry forest. Int. J. Primatol. 19: 405-432.
Jones, C. B. 1980. Seasonal parturition, mortality, and
dispersal in the mantled howler monkey, Alouattapalliata
Gray. Brenesia 1: 1-10.
Kinzey, W. G. 1997. Alouatta. In: New World Primates:
Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, W. G. Kinzey (ed.), pp.
174-185. Aldine de Gruyter, New York.
Kingston, W. R. 1987. Captive breeding of Alouatta belze-
bul and Chiropotes satanus [sic] utahicki. Lab. Prim. Newsl.
26: 8.
LaHue, K. 2000. Southern Black Howler Monkey Interna-
tional Studbook. Riverbanks Zoo and Garden, Columbia.
Lindbergh, S. M. 1978. A preliminary report on the allopa-
rental care and its importance in group development and
behavior in the black howler monkey (Alouatta caraya).
Unpublished report.
Neville, M. K., Glander, K. E., Braza, E and Rylands, A. B.
1988. The howling monkeys, genus Alouatta. In: Ecology
and Behavior of Neotropical Primates, Vol. 2, R. A. Mit-
termeier, A. B. Rylands, A. E Coimbra-Filho and G. A.

B. da Fonseca (eds.), pp. 349-453. World Wildlife Fund
(WWF), Washington, DC.
Rowe, N. 1996. The Pictorial Guide to the Living Primates.
Pogonias Press, New York.
Shoemaker, A. H. 1979. Reproduction and development
of the black howler monkey Alouatta caraya at Columbia
Zoo. Int. Zoo Yrbk. 19: 150-155.
Shoemaker, A. H. 1982. Fecundity in the captive howler
monkey, Alouatta caraya. Zoo Biol. 1: 149-156.
Zunino, G. E. 1996. Anilisis de nacimientos en Alouatta
caraya (Primates, Cebidae), en el noreste de la Argentina.
Mus. Arg. Cienc. Nat. 133: 1-10.



Michael Schropel

Birth weights of various callitrichid species in the Mag-
deburg Zoo were reported by Schropel (1989) and were
compared to data from research journals. Usually, the
birth weights of callitrichids may only be taken from still-
born animals, or from neonates that have been neglected
by their mothers and are available to be raised by hand.
Hand-rearing enables firsthand observation and measure-
ment of the weight development of the subject during
ontogenesis, and allows for comparison of the subject to
members of its own and other species. For parent-reared
infant callitrichids that cannot be weighed, it is possible
to observe their weight development through physical and
behavioral development.

In general, we observed no differences between the develop-
ment of parent-reared and hand-reared infant callitrichids
at the Magdeburg Zoo. Even the twins of golden-handed
tamarins (Saguinus midas) that were separated at birth the
male raised by hand, the female by her parents did not
demonstrate any differences in their morphological and
behavioral development.

The infants for which weight development is reported
here grew up free of disease or other complications. This
report covers the cases of three (2.1) cotton-top tamarins
(Saguinus oedipus) from two separate births in 1987, two
(2.0) golden-handed tamarins (Saguinus midas) born at the
end of 1999 and in September 2001, one (1.0) golden lion
tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia) born in March 2001, and
seven (2.5) common marmosets (( .-' jacchus) from
three separate births in 2000 and 2001.

Two of the common marmosets came from a quadruple
birth; the remaining two quadruplets were reared by their
parents, and all four young survived. The neonate hand-
reared common marmosets weighed 20 grams after their
births. These weights are considered at the low end for this
species. The other five hand-reared common marmosets
included one set of twins and one set of triplets. The sole
golden lion tamarin came from a triplet birth. One of the

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

triplets was stillborn; a second survived only one day with
its parents. We found the third neonate with low body
temperature, an uncut umbilical cord, and shallow res-
piration. The newborn cotton-top tamarins were slightly
injured, as immediately after birth their mother dropped
and bit them.

Schrbpel (1988a) wrote in detail about methods for hand-
rearing cotton-top tamarins. From the first day of life, all of
the hand-reared callitrichids are carried close to the body
of the "human parent" usually on a piece of fur that has
been wrapped around the human parent's arm. (At one
time, the newborn cotton-top tamarins were put in a heat-
ing box during the first days of their life.) While clinging
to the "fur" of the human parent, the infant callitrichid
experiences movements of the keeper similar to the natural
movement of its parents. This supports the development of
their sensory perception, communication and social behav-
iour. However, if the subject is placed in a rearing-box when
removed from its parents, this support is unavailable, and
there is the danger that "Kaspar Hauser Syndrome" may de-
velop. In my opinion, the rearing method we implemented
is important, even essential to achieve a normal social on-
togenesis in young primates, because infant primates are
carried all the time by their mother or father (Schrbpel,
1982). There is a difference in the rearing of nesting mam-
mals. Indeed, some keepers are also using the method of
"parking" in the hand-rearing of primates. In most cases,
we reintegrate the young hand-reared callitrichids into the
family group after three months, with a high rate of success.
In the meantime, some of the hand-reared subjects have
become parents themselves and have successfully reared
their own infants.

Initially, the newborn callitrichids are bottle-fed every two
hours with a human infant milk formula; the quantity is
dependent upon the newborn's need. In the first days of
life the quantity consumed is hardly measurable. From

the first day, there is a four-hour break in feeding during
the night, and with normal development, the interval
increases to six hours after one week of life. After ap-
proximately 10 days, the intervals between the feedings
are extended to three hours during the day. After 15 to 20
days, depending upon the individual, the infant gradually
receives solid food. Normally, the infants determine when
they will begin to eat solid food by showing interest in
the human parent's mouth and the chewing motion. In
a natural rearing, infants regularly steal food from their
father's mouth. In hand-rearing, the infant callitrichids
receive banana pulp, apple pulp, and biscuit as the first
solid foods with other foods introduced gradually. By ap-
proximately 10 weeks there are longer intervals between
formula feedings.

During hand-rearing the infants are weighed daily. Usually
the daily weighing ends when the subjects reach between
80 and 100 days, because the young callitrichids become
too agile, and the measurements are not exact. The birth
weights of the cotton-top tamarins were 47 g and 48 g
(both males from a twin birth) and 40 g (female from a
triplet birth). The two male golden-handed tamarins (from
separate twin births) weighed 41 g and 53 g. The male
golden lion tamarin (from a triplet birth) weighed 65 g,
and the newborn common marmosets weighed between
20 g and 28 g.

The development of the total body weights for these four
species of hand-reared callitrichids is shown in Figure la.
The weight curves on the diagram increase in a gradually
linear fashion until the subjects reach 90 days of age. The
increase in the curves is shallower, however, in the first
two weeks of life. The hand-reared Saguinus midas and
Leontopithecus rosalia demonstrate a sine-like progress (less
pronounced in Leontopithecus) with slow growth at the be-
ginning, more rapid growth between three and 10 weeks,
and finally slow growth again.

AhB-elMW 0--



. 0i-

f t N1 M sa t 1' ,h n w ar ni.

Figure 1. (a) Absolute weight development of Callithrixjacchus, Saguinus oedipus, Saguinus midas, and Leontopithecus rosalia. (b) Absolute
weight gain of the callitrichids studied, presented as a regression line. S. oedipus, S. midas, and L. rosalia gain weight in the same scale,
C. jacchus slightly less.

m* N NI

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

Figure 2. Regression lines of the weight development on a
percentage basis to the birth weight.

=19i .r inl9 *EUWUW*
(1 4 F jSmMMI I EAMMJl L FM'In
aMq A-t 4ap SWa h4 .n L A WO.O .U

Figure 3. Relative weight development of the studied callitrichids
to the adult weight of the different species, shown as regression

Figure 4. Possible dependence of the weight development of
callitrichids to the birth weight of the respective species.

.- meumue
ti &am.i k*i

Kirkwood (1985) reported the weight development of
callitrichids as a simple exponential curve with a flatten-
ing gradient. In our current results we will proceed on
the assumption that a gradual linear increase is generally
typical in the first three months of life. If the weight gain
of the individuals from each species is averaged over the
first three months, then the common marmosets gain their
body weight by 1.43 g daily; the golden-handed tamarins
and the cotton-top tamarins by 1.95 g and 1.89 g per day,
respectively; and the golden lion tamarin by 1.86 g daily.
The tamarins and the lion tamarin are not notably different
in their absolute weight increase (Fig. ib).

It was noticeable while recording the weight measurements
that the various species doubled their birth weight at differ-
ent times while undergoing the same regimen of artificial
rearing. In C. jacchus the birth weight doubled between
days 18 and 26, in S. oedipus between days 27 and 28, in
S. midas at days 32 and 35, and in L. rosalia at day 42. To
compare the weight development among the species we
computed the daily weight increase on a percentage basis
of the birth weight (Fig. 2). There is a significant negative
correlation between birth weight and weight development
on a percentage basis (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). Only be-
tween S. midas and S. oedipus is the difference not signifi-
cant; however, the birth weight of both these species differs
only minimally. The birth weight of C. jacchus increased by
6.11% daily, in S. oedipus by 4.22%, in S. midas 4.14%,
and in L. rosalia only 2.90%.

Tardif et al. (1993) compared the weight development of
infants to their adult weight in S. oedipus and C. jacchus.
The absolute weight development of the two species was
different, but the relative curves of the adult weights were
nearly identical. The absolute weight development of the
infants in Tardif et al. (1993) is clearly different from our
results in this study, in which the curves increase in a shal-
lower line, as depicted in Figure la. Furthermore, the au-
thors did not report the adult weights as the basis for their
computation. If we consult the data on body weights of
these species as reported in the literature (e.g., in summary
Hershkovitz, 1977, and other sources), then the reports
concerning the adult weights in C. jacchus, for instance,
range from 240 g to nearly 400 g. When using different
adult weights from the same species as base values, the
computed relationships of weight development will be
correspondingly different as well. Therefore, we compared
the weight development of the individuals reported in
the present study with the adult weights of these species
found at Magdeburg Zoo. The average adult weights of
specimens in the Magdeburg Zoo are: C. jacchus- 295 g;
S. oedipus- 420 g; S. midas- 480 g; and L. rosalia- 550
g. In this comparison of the weight development in rela-
tion to the adult weight, there are no significant differences
among the species (Fig. 3).

Present interpretations suggest that the greater the species-
specific birth weight, the smaller the weight growth over
time on a percentage basis, and the longer the time for full

sto. a* am-vew

t.lltion between Brth WeIght
ied ativn VHlly Wight Gmwti
of DWffrent Speale


". qr' 1 imJ q ,

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

weight development (Fig. 4). This correlation is almost
linear, and is adequately significant with a correlation coef-
ficient of-0.997. The relationship between the adult weight
of a species and the weight development of the infants also
demonstrates a trend of slower weight development with
greater adult weight, but this tendency is not definitely
linear. This trend is considerably less correlated, with a cor-
relation coefficient of-0.951.

Yamamoto (1993) compared data drawn from several
studies on the behavioral development of the different
callitrichid genera. The infants of ( .-.'. start weaning
from their parents at the age of eight weeks, Saguinus at
10 weeks, and Leontopithecus at 14 weeks. These observa-
tions coincide with the weight development curves we
recorded. Yamamoto (1993) also found a correlation be-
tween weight and the time when the young are no longer
carried on their parent's back or by another group member.
She indicated eight weeks for ( .-'. nine weeks for
Saguinus, and 12 weeks for Leontopithecus. Tardif et al.
(1993), on the other hand, concluded that the duration
of the carrying phase is not connected with weight devel-
opment, but rather with the average species-specific daily
path length through their home range. Saguinus groups
usually travel daily path distances which are clearly longer

Figure 5. Common marmoset, Callithrixjacchus. 16 days old.

Figure 7. Golden-handed tamarin, Saguinus midas. 4 days old.

than those of ( .-'. The carrying phase in the onto-
genesis of callitrichids is not determined by one single
factor (e.g., body weight or daily path length), but may
have multiple causes. There are also differences in the
length of the carrying phase between wild and captive
individuals. In the zoo setting, for example, some young
common marmosets are carried up to the age of 18 weeks.
In pygmy marmosets ((,. J i this age was 14
weeks (Schrbpel, 1988b).

Hershkovitz (1977) summarized reports concerning the
age of complete adulthood in callitrichids. He indicated
18 months for ( .-' and 24 months for both Saguinus
and Leontopithecus. These observations are confirmed to
some extent by our results concerning weight development,
although we registered and interpreted the weights only up
to the 90"' day of life.

Of course, hand-rearing is seldom necessary and it will
therefore require some time to demonstrate or negate
our results with additional data. Some comparisons of
published weight curves from other individuals of the spe-
cies studied here, or of related species, may only be used
indirectly, because the methods of rearing are unknown.
Different methods of rearing, and especially the nutrition

Figure 6. Cotton-top tamarin, Saguinus oedipus. 19 days old.

Figure 8. Golden lion tamarin, Leontopithecus rosalia. 22 days old.

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

of the infants milk formula, whether the amount of milk
is determined by the keeper or by the infant, starting time
of solid food, and so on may cause different patterns of
weight development. For example, the curves of weight
development published by Pook (1978) and Tardif et al.
(1993) for Saguinus oedipus increase more slowly than
ours, but the values found by Rohrhuber (1987) agree
with our data. In addition, Tardif et al. (1993) presented
weights for ( .- jacchus which are lower than those
we found. The values published by Kingston (1975) coin-
cide with our findings.

Michael Schrdpel, Zoologischer Garten Magdeburg, Am
Vogelgesang 12, D-39124 Magdeburg, Germany. E-mail:


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Kirkwood, J. K. 1985. Patterns of growth in primates.
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Rohrhuber, B. 1987. Hand-rearing and reintegration of
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lation to energetic, ecology, and social organization. In:
Marmosets and Tamarins: Systematics, Behaviour, and Ecol-
ogy, A. B. Rylands (ed.), pp.220-234. Oxford University
Press, Oxford.
Yamamoto, M. E. 1993. From dependence to sexual ma-
turity: The behavioral ontogeny of Callitrichidae. In:
Marmosets and Tamarins: Systematics, Behaviour, and Ecol-
ogy, A. B. Rylands (ed.), pp.235-254. Oxford University
Press, Oxford.


Cristina Do:n/., 'gi-BIi/c/. Ernesto Rodriguez-Luna
Mateo Escobar-Aliaga, Jorge Morales-Mdvil


Son escasos los studios que abordan las interacciones
sociales intragrupales y la jerarqufa de dominancia en los
monos aulladores de manto Alouatta palliata (Jones, 1980;
Domfnguez-Domfnguez, 1994; Zucker y Clarke, 1998).
Una possible raz6n es la dificultad de registrar events pun-
tuales tales como las agresiones directs o la direccionalidad
de las interacciones sociales entire los miembros del grupo,
particularmente en libertad. No obstante, el agonismo
entire machos puede ser severo, siendo a menudo estimado
a partir de heridas, cicatrices o mutilaciones (Crockett y
Pope, 1988). Las invasiones de machos, las muertes por
ataques recibidos durante la lucha con otros machos y los
infanticidios asociados, han sido reportados para A. palliata
(Clarke, 1983). El factor de competici6n en estos casos
estA relacionado con el aspect reproductive, aunque a un
nivel intragrupal es el acceso al alimento el principal factor
de competici6n en los grupos de primates (Van Schaik,

Como primates basicamente folfvoros, los monos aulladores
consume recursos no monopolizables de los que obtienen
energfa limitada (Milton, 1980). Debido a ello los models
sociales de Wrangham (1980) yVan Schaik (1989) predicen
que el principal tipo de competici6n esperada serfa indirecta
(scramble competition), ya que los individuos no pueden ex-
cluir agresivamente a otros de los recursos. La obtenci6n
de recursos tenderfa a ser igualitaria y todos los sujetos
serfan afectados igualmente por la escasez de recursos, por
lo que las jerarqufas se preveen debiles y la tasa agonistica
muy baja. Por el contrario, la competici6n direct (contest
competition) es aquella en la que la distribuci6n de recursos
permit que algunos animals accedan a ellos excluyendo a
otros. Los individuos dominantes obtienen mas recursos.
En la mayoria de situaciones naturales se produce una
combinaci6n de ambos tipos de competici6n, pudidndose
estimar separadamente (Van Hooffy Van Schaik, 1992).

Wrangham (1980) postul6 que a menudo son los parientes
los aliados mas fiables a largo plazo en el seno de los grupos
sociales de primates, de manera que habria una tendencia
a permanecer en la sociedad natal o al menos migrar en
conjunto con los parientes. Por ello, estos models sociales
se basaron en species de primates con grupos formados por
hembras emparentadas. La excepcionalidad de los monos
aulladores de manto radica en el hecho de que no s6lo los
machos que alcanzan la madurez sexual emigran de los
grupos originales, sino que tambikn las hembras abandonan
el grupo individualmente y se incorporan a otros grupos
s6lo cuando pueden convertirse en dominantes de los inte-

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

grants de su misma clase de sexo y edad (Zucker y Clarke,
1998). En consecuencia, las predicciones de los models de
competici6n intragrupal se han de tomar con precauci6n
para A. palliata y el studio social ha de ser conveniente-
mente contextualizado.

En este trabajo se control la disponibilidad de los recursos
para un grupo de monos aulladores, potenciando el compo-
nente de competici6n direct por la acumulaci6n de fruta
en comederos. Las condiciones de cautiverio permitieron
la observaci6n direct de las interacciones afiliativas y ag-
onisticas y su direccionalidad en cada dfada. Se determine
la jerarqufa de dominancia del grupo y se analizaron las in-
teracciones sociales entire sus miembros. Se evalu6 tambikn
la relaci6n de asociaci6n entire los individuos del grupo y el
m&todo para su determinaci6n.


Sujetos, lugar de studio y colecta de datos
El grupo de studio const6 de un macho adulto (MA), un
macho subadulto (MSA), una hembra adulta (HA), una
hembra adulta-vieja (HA+), una hembra juvenile de mas
edad (HJ+) y una hembra juvenile de menos edad (HJ). La
edad aproximada de los individuos se determine en fun-
ci6n de la dentici6n. Todos los individuos formaban parte
de un grupo socialmente establecido en libertad, aunque
se desconocia su historic de formaci6n y parentesco entire
sus miembros. El grupo se capture el 25 de marzo de 2002
en Cascajal del Rio (Acayucan, Veracruz, Mexico), dentro
del marco de un program de translocaci6n de esta especie
realizado por el Parque de Flora y Fauna Silvestre Tropical
(PAFFASIT) y auspiciado por la Universidad Veracruzana
(Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico).

El studio se realize en instalaciones del PAFFASIT,
localizadas en la Reserva de la Biosfera de Los Tuxtlas, en
el municipio de Catemaco, Veracruz. El encierro consta de
una base de hormig6n de forma rectangular con diez jaulas
de 2x3 m, paredes de malla metalica y techo de lImina de
zinc. Para permitir la exposici6n de los animals al sol,
se anex6 una jaula de igual tamafio, pero sin cubierta de
lImina. Todas las jaulas estan interconectadas por puertas
y troncos lisos para facilitar la locomoci6n de los animals.
Los troncos conforman un entramado permanent en el in-
terior de todo el habiticulo a una altura aproximada de un
metro y medio desde el suelo, para que los animals puedan
desplazarse y descansar. El aprovisionamiento de alimento
constaba de fruta cultivada (mel6n, papaya, pifia y platano)
y de alimento silvestre colectado diariamente (ramas frescas
con y sin frutos) de distintas species reportadas dentro de

la dieta del mono aullador (Rodrfguez-Luna et al., 2003).
El alimento se suministraba diariamente alas 09:00 h, antes
de lo cual se retiraba el alimento sobrante del dia anterior. La
fruta cultivada se situaba en cuatro comederos equidistantes
y las ramas frescas de Arboles silvestres se situaron en una
posici6n central, formando una cama de follaje, por donde
podfan desplazarse los animals y realizar el forrajeo.

Inmediatamente despues de la capture los animals fueron
sometidos a las condiciones de cautiverio del studio. El
grupo demor6 ocho dfas en empezar a consumer el ali-
mento novedoso (fruta cultivada). Tras este period todos
los individuos se alimentaron de la fruta situada en los
comederos y aceptaron la presencia del observador en el
interior del encierro sin alterar aparentemente su conduct.
El muestreo sistematico inici6 el ocho de abril de 2002 y se
registraron un total de 180 horas de observaci6n repartidas
en 36 dfas de muestreo, en sesiones de mariana y tarde, de
cinco horas cada una. El horario de muestreo abarcaba de
09:00 a 14:00 h para las sesiones de mariana y de 14:00 a
19:00 h para las de tarde. Se utiliz6 el m&todo de muestreo
focal-animal (Altmann, 1974; Martin y Bateson, 1991),
muestreando cada individuo durante media hora. Se regis-
tr6 cada individuo en orden rotatorio en cada sesi6n, para
balancear los efectos de horario. Se registraron todos los
events de agonismo (mordida, empuj6n, desplazamiento,
amenaza) y afiliaci6n (juego, caricia, acicalamiento, abrazo),
seg6n la definici6n dada en el etograma de la especie de
Carrera-Sanchez (1993), en los cuales estaba involucrado
el animal-focal.

Complementariamente al registro focal-animal, cada cinco
minutes se realize un muestreo instantaneo (Altmann,
1974; Martin y Bateson, 1991), en el que se anotaron los
individuos que se encontraban en las cercanfas del animal-
focal. Se registraba el nombre del individuo, la actividad
que realizaba y la distancia al animal-focal media como:
contact contacto corporal entire el animal-focal y otro in-
dividuo), 1 brazo (distancia no superior a un brazo de mono
aullador de longitud) y 2 brazos (distancia entire uno y dos
brazos de longitud). Los individuos que se hallaban a mayor
distancia no se registraban como animals cercanos, ya que
en esa situaci6n la interacci6n direct entire los individuos
es dificil. El empleo de indicadores de distancia basados en
la longitud del brazo de los monos aulladores permit medir
mediante una extrapolaci6n sencilla la distancia, incluso
cuando el observador esta lejos de los animals. Se prefiri6
este m&todo a la medici6n de proximidad en metros usada
en otros studios (por ejemplo, < 1 m para Alouattapalliata
en libertad [Zucker y Clarke, 1998]; < 5 m para Cercocebus
torquatus [Range y Nod, 2002]).

Tabla 1. Ndmero de agresiones emitidas por cada individuo y su tasa (ndmero de agresiones por hora observaci6n del individuo). Se
present el total del grupo y la media junto a la desviaci6n estindar. MA = macho adulto, MSA = macho subadulto, HA = hembra adulta,
HJ+ = hembra juvenile de mis edad, HA+ = hembra adulta-vieja, HJ = hembra juvenile de menos edad.
MA MSA HA HJ+ HA+ HJ Total Media SD
N agresiones 17 34 7 25 9 0 92 15.33 12.56
Tasa agresi6n 0.64 1.23 0.26 0.91 0.34 0 0.564 0.563 0.45

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

Andlisis de datos
Se calcul6 la tasa de agonismo como el ndmero de
events agonisticos emitidos por hora de observaci6n
del individuo y del grupo. Se realizaron sociogramas en
funci6n del ndmero y direcci6n de las interacciones so-
ciales ocurridas durante el studio para cada dfada (pareja
de individuos).

La jerarqufa de dominancia del grupo se determine en
funci6n de la direcci6n de los events agonisticos entire
los individuos siguiendo el m&todo de Landau (Landau,
1951). A partir del ndmero de events emitidos y recibidos
por cada individuo, se realize una matriz de dominancia,
donde las filas correspondent al emisor de la agresi6n y las
columns al receptor. La dominancia se establece en fun-
ci6n de la direccionalidad de la agresi6n bastando un solo
event de agresi6n en la direcci6n A-B para determinar que
A domina a B. A esta dominancia se le da un valor de 1.
Si A nunca domina a B se da el valor de 0 y si entire A y B
hay bidireccionalidad se le da valor de 0.5 (Appleby, 1983).
Siguiendo esto se genera una matriz de direccionalidad. La
suma de los valores de dominancia de cada individuo da el
rango jerarquico, cuanto mayor es el valor mayor rango de
dominancia present el individuo en el grupo.

Para calcular la linealidad de la jerarqufa se aplic6 el indice
de Landau h (Landau, 1951) y el coeficiente de Kendall
K (Kendall, 1962). El indice de Landau se obtiene con
la siguiente ecuaci6n: h = 12/(n n) I [S,-1/2 (n 1)] 2,

Tabla 2. Matriz de interacciones agonisticas entire diadas. En las
filas el individuo emisor, en las columns el individuo receptor.
MA = macho adulto, MSA = macho subadulto, HA = hembra
adulta, HJ+ = hembra juvenile de mis edad, HA+ = hembra adulta-
vieja, HJ = hembra juvenile de menos edad.
MA 2 7 1 5 2
MSA 0 8 3 16 7
HA 0 0 3 2 2
HJ+ 0 0 8 1 16
HA+ 0 0 0 5 4
HJ 0 0 0 0 0

Tabla 3. Matriz de direccionalidad de las interacciones
agonisticas. Ver texto para mayor explicaci6n. Rango = rango
de dominancia en funci6n de la suma, en este caso no existen
empates en el rango. La matriz se ha ordenado de manera que
bajo la diagonal queden el mayor ndmero de ceros. MA = macho
adulto, MSA = macho subadulto, HA = hembra adulta, HJ+ =
hembra juvenile de mis edad, HA+ = hembra adulta-vieja, HJ =
hembra juvenile de menos edad.
MA MSA HA HJ+ HA+ HJ Suma Rango
MA 1 1 1 1 1 5 1
MSA 0 1 1 1 1 4 2
HA 0 0 0.5 1 1 2.5 3
HJ+ 0 0 0.5 0.5 1 2 4
HA+ 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 5
HJ 0 0 0 0 0 0 6

donde n es el ndmero de individuos y S, la suma de los
valores de la fila correspondiente a cada individuo en la
tabla de dominancia (Tabla 3). El coeficiente de Kendall
se calcula: K = 1 dl max d, donde d es el ndmero de
triadas circulates: d = n(n 1)(2n 1)/12-1/2 _(S,)2, y
donde max d es el ndmero de triadas circulares maximo
para un tamafio de grupo determinado. En nuestro studio,
con un ndmero par de individuos (n = 6), la formula es:
max d= 1/24 (n3 4n). Presentamos ambos indices pese a
que se prefiere h para un ndmero par de individuos, debido
a que hay subestimaci6n del ndmero de posibles trfadas
circulares y result en K< h.

Ademas, calculamos los indices de linealidad mejorados por
De Vries (1995), que evitan sesgos cuando hay dfadas bidi-
reccionales (nuestro caso). El indice mejorado h' se calcula:
h' = h + 6/n n u, donde u es el ndmero de relaciones
desconocidas. El coeficiente de Kendall mejorado se obtiene
substituyendo dpor d', siendo d' = d- 0.25.

La asociaci6n entire los miembros del grupo suele inferirse
a partir de datos de proximidad relative, usada como in-
dicador (Crockett y Eisenberg, 1987). En nuestro studio
valoramos la proximidad en funci6n de tres parametros:
contact corporal, distancia de un brazo de longitud y dis-
tancia de dos brazos de longitud. Para decidir cual de ellos
era el mejor indicador de asociaci6n se calcul6 el indice
de diversidad de Shannon-Wiener (H), que determine
la selectividad en cuanto a las parejas potenciales con las
que un individuo podfa hallarse en proximidad. El indice
se present en funci6n de la diversidad maxima, que de-
pende del ndmero de individuos del grupo y estandariza
los resultados para poder compararlos con otros studios
(Range y Noe, 2002). Una vez decidido el indicador de
proximidad mas selectivo se calcularon los indices de
asociaci6n diadicos (Lehner, 1979; Martin y Bateson,
1991) con la formula TAB / (TA + TB + TAB), donde TA
es el tiempo en que los individuos A y B se encontraron
en proximidad selective del tiempo de observaci6n de A
sin B, de B sin A y de A con B. Se represent un socio-
grama de asociaci6n y se calcul6 la correlaci6n de Spear-
man entire el ndmero de afiliaciones entire los miembros
de cada dfada (en ambas direcciones) y su indice de asoci-
aci6n basado en proximidad.


Las tasas individuals de agonismo fueron bajas (inter-
valo 0 1.23), con una tasa media para el grupo de 0.56
(Tabla 1). La mayor parte de interacciones agonisticas
entire los individuos del grupo ocurrieron en un context
de alimentaci6n, particularmente relacionadas con los co-
mederos donde se presentaba la fruta cultivada. Durante la
alimentaci6n se produjeron el 75% de los events agonisti-
cos (53.26% durante la alimentaci6n de fruta y 22.83%
durante la alimentaci6n de hojas silvestres), el 17% durante
periods de descanso y el 7% en relaci6n con episodios de
juego. El tipo de interacci6n afiliativa mis comdn fue el
juego (73.03%); el abrazo represent el 6.96% de las inter-

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

acciones afiliativas, asf como la caricia (6.96%) y el acicala-
miento s6lo se present el 2.61% de las ocasiones. No hubo
diferencias significativas entire manana y tarde en cuanto a
interacciones afiliativas o agonisticas.

La Tabla 2 present la matriz de agonismo y la Tabla 3 la
matriz de direccionalidad asociada, a partir de la cual se
calcul6 la linealidad de la jerarqufa de dominancia. Los
resultados fueron los siguientes: h = 0.914, p = 0.044 y
h' = 0.971, p' = 0.032 (fndice de linealidad de Landau y
mejorado de De Vries) y K= 0.906, p < 0.05, K'= 0.937,
p' < 0.05 (coeficiente de Kendall y mejorado de De Vries).
Seg6n Martin y Bateson (1991) y Lehner (1979), se con-
sidera lineal una jerarqufa con indice de Landau superior a
0.9, por lo que encontramos que la jerarqufa de dominancia
en nuestro grupo de studio es lineal: MA > MSA > HA >
HJ+ > HA+ > HJ (Tabla 3).

Se suele considerar separadamente el rango para hembras y
machos, ya que las hembras compiten basicamente por el
alimento, mientras que los machos compiten ademas por el
derecho de apareamiento (Van Hooffy Van Schaik, 1992).
Por este motivo calculamos tambidn los indices de lineali-
dad s6lo para las hembras. El resultado fue poco lineal: h =
0.70, p > 0.05 y h'= 0.90, p' > 0.05, K= 0.625, p > 0.05 y K'
= 0.75, p' > 0.05. La hembra mas joven y pequena se halla al
final de la jerarqufa, pero las otras tres hembras forman una
trfada circular con reversiones agonfsticas (Figura 1). Los
machos al dominar a todas las hembras son los que interac-
cionaron agresivamente con mas individuos. El macho sub-
adulto es el que emiti6 mas conductas agonisticas, seguido
por la hembra joven de mas edad. La hembra mas joven HJ
es la que recibi6 mayor ndmero de agresiones, principal-
mente de HJ+, y nunca emiti6 agresi6n hacia ningdn otro
individuo (Figura 1). El macho dominant interaccion6
preferentemente con la hembra alpha, que fue objeto del
mayor ndmero de sus acciones agonisticas y afiliativas (ex-
ceptuando el juego) (Figuras 1 y 3).

El analisis de las distancias interindividuales demostr6 que
cuando dos individuos se hallaban en descanso toleraban
mayor contact corporal (21.07% del tiempo), mientras
que cuando ambos se alimentaban estaban en contact
dnicamente el 0.94%. El 47.86% del tiempo en que los
individuos se hallaban descansando se encontraban a una
distancia de un brazo y el 30.73% a dos brazos. La distancia
durante la alimentaci6n fue de uno y dos brazos de longitud
(45.79% en cada caso).

El indice de diversidad para los parametros de proximidad
registrados arroj6 que el contact corporal era el mejor
indice de asociaci6n por la elevada selectividad que los indi-
viduos mostraban en su permanencia en contact con otros
individuos (Tabla 4). El macho alpha y la hembra alpha
estaban altamente asociados. La hembra alpha, ademas, se
hallaba asociada a la hembra vieja HA+ y la hembra joven
de mas edad HJ+, de forma que los miembros de la trfada
circular presentan altos indices de asociaci6n entire ellas.
El macho subadulto pas6 mas tiempo en contact con la

hembra mas joven HJ, existiendo elevada asociaci6n entire
los tres miembros mas j6venes del grupo (Figura 2).

El sociograma de interacciones afiliativas (excluyendo el
juego), muestra que MSA fue el mas activo, emitiendo

Mph. 1

Figura 1. Sociograma de interacciones agonisticas en el grupo.
El macho dominant y la hembra de mis alto rango se han
representado como alpha. En direcci6n contraria a las agujas
del reloj, comenzando por la hembra alpha se han ordenado las
hembras por rango jerirquico. Las flechas parten del individuo
emisor de la agresi6n y la punta llega al receptor de la misma.
El grosor de la flecha es proporcional al ndmero de events
agonisticos entire los miembros de la diada y el ndmero indica el
ndmero total de events. En negro se presentan las interacciones
agonisticas emitidas por los machos y en gris las de hembras. En
linea discontfnua se presentan las reversiones en las agresiones, en
contra del rango jerirquico obtenido. La triada circular HA, HJ+,
HA+, se present en la esquina inferior izquierda. Ver texto para
mayor explicaci6n.

Figura 2. Sociograma de asociaci6n entire individuos. El macho
dominant y la hembra de mis alto rango se han representado
como alpha. En direcci6n contraria a las agujas del reloj,
comenzando por la hembra alpha se han ordenado las hembras por
rango jerirquico. El grosor de las lines es proporcional al valor del
indice de asociaci6n en las diadas (ver texto). El macho alpha s6lo
se halla altamente asociado con la hembra alpha. Existe elevada
asociaci6n entire la triada circular. Las asociaciones entire hembras
se han marcado en gris.


vlpht FIM. N
.. .

,: fap ,, h,

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

afiliaci6n hacia todos los demas individuos, incluso hacia el
macho alpha, siendo la afiliaci6n muy reciproca entire ellos.
El macho alpha emiti6 afiliaci6n preferentemente hacia la
hembra alpha, la cual emiti6 y recibi6 afiliaci6n reciproca-
mente con la HA+, y recibi6 el maximo de afiliaci6n de HJ+
y MSA (Figura 3).

El calculo de la correlaci6n de Spearman entire el indice de
asociaci6n y el ndmero de afiliaciones de cada dfada (en
ambas direcciones), indic6 que ambos parametros estaban
correlacionados positivamente (r, = 0.602, p < 0.02, n =
15). Es decir, que los individuos que permanecian mias
tiempo en contact eran los que interaccionaban mis afili-
ativamente. La correlaci6n es negative, pero no significativa,
entire emisi6n y recepci6n de afiliaci6n (r = 0.48, p > 0.05).
Tampoco hubo correlaci6n significativa entire el rango del
individuo y la cantidad de afiliaci6n emitida o recibida, ni
con la emisi6n o recepci6n de agresi6n.


La tasa de agonismo media del grupo de studio (0.56)
fue mayor a la reportada por Zucker y Clarke (1998) para

Figura 3. Sociograma de afiliaci6n entire individuos. El macho
dominant y la hembra de mis alto rango se han representado
como alpha. En direcci6n contraria a las agujas del reloj,
comenzando por la hembra alpha se han ordenado las hembras
por rango jerirquico. El grosor de las lines es proporcional al
ndmero de interacciones afiliativas.

Alouatta palliata en un studio durante cuatro afios en
Costa Rica (tasa media 0.38, intervalo annual 0.24 0.51).
Esto puede ser debido a que: a) el studio de Costa Rica
s6lo consideraba a las hembras del grupo y, como muestra
este studio, son los machos los que interaccionan mis
agonisticamente (Figura 1), b) las condiciones de cautive-
rio aumentan la tasa agonistica por constricci6n espacial,
c) registrar en condiciones de libertad subestima la tasa real
por la dificultad de registrar todos los events, d) el compo-
nente de competici6n direct (contest competition) fue supe-
rior en nuestro studio debido a la forma de administrar el
alimento de forma agregada (fruta cultivada en comederos).
Adicionalmente, en Costa Rica se manejaron tasas anuales
sin diferenciar estacionalidad en la agregaci6n y disponibi-
lidad de los recursos.

Probablemente, la plasticidad conductual de esta especie
tambidn incluye variaciones estacionales en los compo-
nentes de competici6n intragrupal relacionados con la
disponibilidad de alimento en el entorno. La competici6n
direct mediante agresi6n debe variar con la dinamica
fenol6gica de las species vegetables presents en el Ambito
hogarefio del grupo, al igual que varfan los patrons de
actividad, forrajeo y distribuci6n espacial en relaci6n con
el alimento, especialmente los frutos (Rodrfguez-Luna,
2000; Rodrfguez-Luna et al., 2003; Serio-Silva, 1992), ya
que, a pesar de ser ampliamente generalistas y folivoros, los
monos aulladores son selectivos en su elecci6n del alimento
(Milton, 1980). Apoyando este razonamiento, observamos
que el mayor ndmero de events agonisticos tuvieron lugar
durante la alimentaci6n, principalmente en relaci6n con los
comederos donde se concentraba la fruta.

Wrangham (1980) y Van Schaik (1989) predijeron jerar-
qufas de dominancia para hembras de primates seg6n el
tipo de competici6n intragrupal. Para los monos aulladores
las jerarqufas serfan poco lineales, aunque consideraron a
A. palliata como un caso particular. Zucker y Clarke (1998)
reportaron una jerarqufa dinamica a lo largo de cuatro afios
para las hembras, sin correlaci6n rango-edad, pero con una
tendencia a que las hembras dominantes sean las j6venes
recidn inmigradas. Sus datos apoyan parcialmente las pre-
dicciones de los models sociales de Wrangham (1980) y
Van Schaik (1989), ya que en ciertos moments la jerarqufa
es poco lineal, pero existen periods donde existe estabilidad
y linealidad en la jerarqufa de dominancia de las hembras.

Tabla 4. Indice de diversidad de Shannon-Wiener para la proximidad con otros individuos media como contact, distancia de uno o
dos brazos. Se present el valor estandarizado como la proporci6n entire el indice H y la diversidad maxima para un grupo de tamafio
seis. Tambien se muestra la media y su desviaci6n estindar. El indice varfa entire 0 = mAxima selecci6n de pareja y 1 = maxima diversidad.
* = Valores inferiores a 0.4, que fueron considerados selectivos. MA = macho adulto, MSA = macho subadulto, HA = hembra adulta,
HJ+ = hembra juvenile de mis edad, HA+ = hembra adulta-vieja, HJ = hembra juvenile de menos edad.
Contacto 0.23* 0.38* 0.33* 0.37* 0.39* 0.26* 0.33* 0.656
1 Brazo 0.47 0.38* 0.48 0.46 0.46 0.48 0.45 0.039
2 Brazos 0.48 0.48 0.47 0.47 0.45 0.48 0.47 0.013


Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

Para nuestro grupo de studio, considerando machos y hem-
bras, la jerarqufa fue altamente lineal, situando a los machos
dominando sobre las hembras y basicamente los individuos
adults sobre los no-adultos. La jerarqufa entire hembras fue
poco lineal debido a una triada circular formada por las dos
hembras adults y la juvenile de mas edad, pr6xima a la mad-
urez sexual. Las reversiones en la dominancia entire las hem-
bras podrian ser consecuencia de las caracteristicas de los
miembros del grupo, principalmente edad, madurez sexual
e historic de formaci6n del grupo en cuanto a migraciones
y parentesco. Por tanto, la conduct social intragrupal debe
ser convenientemente contextualizada para poder interpre-
tar las interacciones entire los individuos de los grupos y sus
relaciones de asociaci6n y dominio.

El patr6n de migraci6n de los aulladores resultarfa en grupos
con adults no emparentados. La jerarqufa de dominancia
reportada muestra una tendencia a que los inmigrantes
recientes dominen sobre los mas viejos residents (Jones,
1980; Zucker y Clarke, 1998). Lajerarqufa de dominancia
de nuestro grupo de studio posiblemente variarfa en un es-
tudio a mas largo plazo, debido a que en cautiverio no serfa
possible la migraci6n de los individuos j6venes MSA y HJ+.
Es possible que se establecieran nuevos individuos alpha con
un aumento de agonismo durante el period intermedio,
consecuencia del balance de fuerzas entire los individuos
alpha y los j6venes adults. De hecho, durante el studio
estos individuos ya estaban presentando las mayors tasas
de agonismo.

En cuanto a la afiliaci6n, la conduct afiliativa de acicala-
miento, tan important entire monos del Viejo Mundo
(Jones, 1980; Neville et al., 1988), fue un event poco
comin entire aulladores (2.61% de las afiliaciones en el
grupo). Incluso en una especie del mismo genero como
A. seniculus, el acicalamiento es mas comin que en A. palliata,
lo cual puede tener que ver con las diferencias entire ambas
species en cuanto a patrons de competici6n entire hem-
bras, ya que las de A. palliata no forman alianzas por paren-
tesco en los grupos (Sanchez-Villagra et al., 1998).

El juego fue la conduct afiliativa mas important, con
mas del 70% del tiempo dedicado a interacciones afili-
ativas en el grupo. En nuestro studio el individuo social-
mente mas activo fue el macho subadulto, emitiendo afili-
aci6n y agresi6n hacia el resto de individuos en la mayor
proporci6n. Nunca se registry agresi6n de este macho
hacia el macho alpha, pero sf un elevado porcentaje de
afiliaciones, incluyendo el juego. Todos los individuos del
grupo participaron activamente en los episodios de juego,
a veces colectivamente. Durante el desarrollo de los aul-
ladores, la cantidad de tiempo invertido, la intensidad y
la complejidad del juego varfa, pero se consider que tiene
un lugar predominante en su historic vital (Carpenter,
1965). Junto con el macho joven, las dos hembras j6venes
participaron en el juego en la mayor proporci6n, lo que
demuestra la importancia social de este tipo de afiliaci6n
durante el desarrollo y vida social de los monos aulladores.
Jugando no s6lo practican activamente las capacidades

perceptivas-motoras, que son necesarias para su future
ajuste y sobrevivencia en el entorno del bosque tropical,
sino que tambidn aprenden el comportamiento social
complejo que caracteriza su vida en grupos compactos
(Crockett y Eisenberg, 1987).

La hembra joven de mayor edad (HJ+) fue tambidn muy
active socialmente, pero interactuando de distinta forma
que el macho subadulto. HJ+ present la segunda mayor
tasa de agonismo (tras MSA), siendo el principal recipient
de sus agresiones la hembra mas joven de menor rango.
La presencia de reversiones en la jerarqufa donde estaba
involucrada HJ+ indica la inconsistencia de la domi-
nancia entire las hembras de mono aullador predicha en
los models sociales de Wrangham (1980) y Van Schaik
(1989), y a su vez apoyan la hip6tesis de que HJ+ se hal-
laba en el process de aumentar de rango en su grupo natal,
lo que se verfa favorecido posiblemente por la avanzada
edad de las dos hembras adults. Ambos factors no son
contradictorios, pero sin mas datos no es possible dar una
explicaci6n totalmente satisfactoria para la trfada circular
del grupo de studio.

La mejor media de asociaci6n en funci6n de distancias
interindividuales para monos aulladores en condiciones
de cautiverio, se debe calcular con base en el tiempo en
que dos individuos permanecen en contact corporal, por
ser el indicador de proximidad mis selective. Es necesario
establecer previamente el mejor indicador de asociaci6n
por proximidad en cada caso particular y no usar dis-
tancias arbitrarias que quizas no aporten la informaci6n
requerida. El fndice de asociaci6n tuvo una correlaci6n
positive con el numero de interacciones afiliativas en las
dfadas, esto dltimo ademas aporta direccionalidad, por
lo que se sugiere una combinaci6n de ambos parametros
para el establecimiento de relaciones entire los miembros
de los grupos.

En nuestro studio, los individuos que permanecfan mas
tiempo en contact eran los que interaccionaban mas afili-
ativamente. Esto no fue consecuencia de la mayor proximi-
dad entire ellos, como muestrael caso de HJ+ y HA+, donde
la elevada cercanfa entire ellas no se correspondfa con un
gran ndmero de interacciones afiliativas (Figuras 2 y 3). El
registro de proximidad no fue direccional por la imposibi-
lidad de registrar el responsible de la misma en todos los
casos. Inferimos que el responsible de la proximidad en
las dfadas corresponderfa al emisor del mayor ndmero de
afiliaciones en cada dfada. Por ejemplo, la responsible de
la proximidad entire HA y HJ+ podrfa ser HJ+, ya que es
6sta la que emite el grueso de las interacciones afiliativas en
esa dfada. La responsabilidad entire HA y HA+ serfa mas
reciproca (Figuras 2 y 3). La elevada asociaci6n entire HJ+
y HA+ no serfa debida a una asociaci6n real entire ellas,
sino serfa una consecuencia indirecta de la asociaci6n de
ambas con la tercera hembra (con la hembra alpha HA). En
otras palabras HJ+ y HA+ se hallan en contact corporal
a menudo no porque exista un vinculo intenso entire ellas
sino porque ambas "quieren estar con la HA". En cuanto a

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

los machos, el macho alpha s6lo present elevado ndmero
de afiliaci6n con la hembra alpha y esto coincide con el
mayor tiempo que pasan en contact, pero no present
elevada asociaci6n con las hembras HJ+ y HA+, por lo que
se deduce que cuando se acerca el macho a la hembra alpha
las otras se alejan.

La composici6n del grupo de studio en cuanto a classes de
sexo-edad y el analisis de las interacciones sociales y distan-
cias interindividuales, nos hacen plantearnos los siguientes
puntos: 1) el grupo no presentaba adults j6venes, por lo
que no existe la posibilidad de inmigraciones recientes en
el grupo y los individuos dominantes son los adults MA
y HA; 2) por tanto, es probable que los individuos j6venes
del grupo fueran parientes de los individuos adults; 3) la
elevada afiliaci6n y/o asociaci6n entire individuos j6venes
y adults, quizAs tengan que ver con relaciones de paren-
tesco materno o paterno-filiales; 4) los individuos j6venes
que estAn cercanos a la madurez sexual son los mas activos
socialmente, tanto afiliativa como agonisticamente, lo que
puede estar indicando el establecimiento de su status social
en el seno del grupo; 5) la jerarqufa de dominancia entire las
hembras del grupo no es lineal a consecuencia de bidirec-
cionalidad en el agonismo entire HA, HJ+ y HA+, lo que
puede indicar inconsistencia en la jerarqufa de las hembras
o un process de cambio en 6sta; 6) existen efectos de aso-
ciaci6n ficticios debido al analisis diadico de las distancias
interindividuales, entire HA+ y HJ+, que podrfan deberse a
parentesco desconocido por los autores (por ejemplo, que
HJ+ es hija de HA y HA de HA+), o bien a una asociaci6n
con la hembra alpha por parte de ambas hembras por otras
razones desconocidas; y 7) existe una relaci6n especial entire
el macho alpha y la hembra alpha.

En conclusion, la elevada plasticidad conductual reportada
para la especie A. palliata (Chapman, 1988; Neville et al.,
1988; Milton, 1998; Crockett y Eisenberg, 1987) incluirfa
los aspects de competici6n intragrupal por el alimento, en
funci6n de la disponibilidad de los recursos y su agregaci6n
en el Ambito hogarefio de los grupos. Lajerarqufa de domi-
nancia serfa, por tanto, dinamica, en relaci6n con la com-
posici6n de sexo y edad y la historic de los individuos del
grupo en cuanto a origen y migraciones. Para determinar
asociaciones entire los miembros del grupo se recomienda
el uso de distancias interindividuales conjuntamente con
interacciones sociales, que aportan direccionalidad entire
las relaciones diadicas y permiten interpreter la distribu-
ci6n espacial de los individuos unos respect a otros. La
proximidad por sf sola puede dar efectos de asociaci6n
entire individuos no realmente asociados. En cada caso, se
recomienda evaluar previamente el mejor indicador de aso-
ciaci6n en funci6n de la proximidad realizando una prueba
de diversidad.

Agradecimientos: Agradecemos al M. C. Domingo Cana-
les, M. V. Z. Javier Hermida y Sres. Antonio JAuregui e
hijo por su labor en la capture de los animals. Agradec-
emos a SEMARNAT y PROFEPA por la autorizaci6n y
supervision del process de capture y transport. Agradec-

emos al personal del PAFFASIT su trabajo de manten-
imiento de las instalaciones de cautiverio y aprovision-
amiento de los animals. Y a la Dra. Liliana Cortes y la
Dra. Mariella Superina por sus comentarios en la revision
de este articulo.

Cristina Domingo-Balcells, Ernesto Rodriguez-Luna,
Mateo Escobar-Aliaga y Jorge Morales-Mivil, Instituto de
Neuroetologfa, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Veracruz,
Mexico. E-mail: .


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During a birdwatch-
ing trip to the Alta
Floresta area of Mato
Grosso, Brazil, in Oc-
tober 2003, our small
group (myself, a fellow
traveler and our guide) sighted two titi monkeys
which looked very much like ( .... bernhardi.
They had very black faces with red beards, gray
above their eyes, gray hands and feet, and a gray tail
with a white tip. We were able to see the monkeys
clearly through binoculars, but none of us had a
camera along.

We made the sighting in a 50 ha reserve adjoining the Flo-
resta Amazonica Hotel in Alta Floresta, about five minutes
from the airport. We were birding along a dirt road which
runs parallel to the property, and sighted the monkeys at
the edge of the reserve forest. The area around the reserve is
developed with housing.

Doug Trent, our guide, has worked in Brazil for over 20
years, and had the chart of titi monkeys from Van Roos-
malen et al. (2002). We compared the monkeys that we had
seen to the chart, and ( .... bernhardi was the only one
which looked like them. Doug Trent knew that C. bernhardi
had not been reported from the Alta Floresta area. The
owner of the hotel, Vitoria da Riva Carvalho who is also
the director of the reserve told us that she knew there were
titis in the reserve, but not which species. Further surveys of
the fauna there are needed.

Carole Stepp, 10363 Glenbarr Avenue, Los Angeles, CA
90064, USA. E-mail: <2stepps@comcast.net>. Doug Trent
may be contacted at .


Van Roosmalen, M. G. M., Van Roosmalen, T. and Mit-
termeier, R. A. 2002. A taxonomic review of the titi
monkeys, genus ( .... Thomas, 1903, with the
description of two new species, ( .... bernhardi and
( .... stephennashi, from Brazilian Amazonia. Neo-
trop. Primates 10O(Suppl.): 1-52.


An Ecological Station of 5,500 ha was created by Presiden-
tial Decree on 16 July, 2002, for, and with the name of, the
Black Lion Tamarin, Leontopithecus chrysopygus. Located
in the far west of the state of Sao Paulo, the Pontal do
Paranapanema just west and north of the Morro do

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

Figure 1. The Black Lion Tamarin Ecological Station, Pontal do
Paranapanema, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Diabo State Park the Ecological Station provides perma-
nent protection for four important populations of the spe-
cies: in the Fazendas Tucano and Rosanella, Fazenda Santa
M6nica, Fazenda Ponte Branca, and Fazenda Santa Maria.
The estimated total population is over thirty animals. IPL
- Institute de Pesquisas Ecol6gicas drew up the original
proposal and supported the Instituto Brasileiro do Meio
Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renoviveis (IBAMA)
and the Ministry of the Environment in its creation. The
challenge now is to implement the reserve, and plans are
underway for reforestation to join the forest patches and
extend a corridor to the main population of L. chrysopygus
in the Morro do Diabo State Park.

Cliudio Valladares-Pidua, IPL Instituto de Pesquisas
Ecol6gicas, Caixa Postal 47, 12960-000 Nazard Paulista,
Sao Paulo, Brazil. E-mail: . Website


Tres nuevas Areas Naturales Protegidas en la cordillera de
Vilcabamba, para el SINANPE, es el resultado de la catego-
rizaci6n de la Zona Reservada Apurimac: Reserva Comunal
Ashaninka, Parque Nacional Otishi y Reserva Comunal
Matziguenka, de acuerdo al Decreto Supremo 003-2003-
AG publicado el 15 de enero, 2003 en el Diario Oficial El
Peruano. Esta region tiene particular importancia por la
presencia de varias species de primates, y el esfuerzo que
se hizo para declarar las Areas protegidas fue apoyada por
grupos de investigadores de Conservation International.

Del total de 1,669,200 ha que tenfa la Zona Reservada
Apurimac, 709,347.06 ha se destinan a la creaci6n de
tres Areas naturales protegidas: Parque Nacional Otishi
con 305,973.05 ha, Reserva Comunal Ashaninka con
184,468.38 ha y Reserva Comunal Matziguenka con
218,905.63 ha. La diferencia del total de lo que era la Zona
Reservada del Apurimac se constitute en comunidades nati-
vas tituladas, Ashaninkas y Matziguenkas, cuyos territories

pasarfan a ser parte de la Zona de Amortiguamiento de las
tres Areas naturales protegidas. Dichas etnias tendrAn una
participaci6n decisive a traves de los comites de gesti6n de
cada una de las Areas naturales protegidas mencionadas.
Estas tres Areas se localizan en medio de un macizo aislado
de la cordillera de los Andes, en medio de los rfos Apurimac,
Ene, Tambo y Urubamba.

Cabe destacar que la acci6n del gobierno y de las comuni-
dades indfgenas, asf como de organizaciones conservacio-
nistas nacionales e internacionales, ha sido un process muy
antiguo, que viene desde la d&cada de los 60 y que hoy dia
se plasma con la formalizaci6n de estas Areas. Por otro lado,
asegurar la conservaci6n de esta important Area significa
una continue planificaci6n del territorio con un enfoque de
Corredor de Conservacidn, que combine los mecanismos de
conservaci6n de las propias comunidades y la participaci6n
de las diferentes instituciones en el desarrollo sostenible,
combinando las actividades econ6micas sostenibles con la
conservaci6n de la biodiversidad.

La Zona Reservada Apurimac esta ubicada en una cordillera
escabrosa e inaccesible con varias montanas que superan los
4000 msnm y todavia contiene restos de los grandes bosques
de montana que antiguamente cubrian gran parte de los
Andes tropicales orientales, de Venezuela a Bolivia (Boyle,
2001). Los bosques supervivientes del Apurimac contienen
una notable biodiversidad que include varias species raras
y endemicas, pero esta region aislada ha permanecido casi
inexplorada por bi6logos. Esta Area es especialmente inte-
resante en lo que respect a la biogeografia de primates, ya
que la cresta de Vilcabamba esta ubicada en cercanfas de la
zona de contact de las Areas de distribuci6n de distintos
gdneros de primates, incluyendo a Pithecia monachus y
P irrorata, Saguinus fuscicollis weddelliy S. f leucogenys y dos
taxa de Lagothrix.

Tres expediciones han realizado observaciones en esta Area
en los anos 1997 y 1998, dos del Programa de Evaluaci6n
RApida (Rapid Assessment Program, RAP) de Conserva-
tion International y uno del Programa el Hombre y la Bio-
sfera (Man and the Biosphere Program, MAB) de la Smith-
sonian Institution. Estas expediciones han cooperado para
documentary la excepcional riqueza biol6gica de la region,
y su informed final realizado en conjunto incluy6 una pro-
puesta para crear un Parque Nacional y Reservas Comuna-
les (Alonso et al., 2001). Entre muchos otros hallazgos que
resultaron de estas expediciones, se descubri6 a Cuscomys
ashaninka, un nuevo gdnero y una nueva especie de roedor
perteneciente a la familiar de los Abrocomidae (Emmons,
1999). Adicionalmente, los equipos del RAP confirmaron
la presencia de various grandes primates en el Area, los cuales
estan sufriendo una seria presi6n cineg&tica en altitudes
mAs bajas. Observaciones en el sitio mAs alto evaluado en
el RAP, a 3500 msnm, no produjeron evidencias de pri-
mates; pero en el segundo sitio mAs alto se hallaron varias
species que ocupaban una franja de bosque inusual en la
base de una pared alta, aproximadamente a 2500 msnm.
Aquf, el equipo observ6 Cebus 7,',1//, y posiblemente

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

C. albifrons, y registry vocalizaciones de Ateles chamek y de
monos nocturnos (probablemente Aotus nigriceps).

En el tercer sitio, s6lo 1000 m mas alto que el Rio Urubam-
ba, los equipos hallaron Aotus, Lagothrix lagothricha, Cebus
., i//,r y C. .*... y oyeron vocalizaciones de Alouatta se-
niculus y Ateles chamek. Algunas de estas species (Alouatta,
Ateles, Lagothrixy C. ... fueron halladas por Edmund
Heller en el afio 1915, junto con Saimiri boliviensis y Sa-
guinus fuscicollis weddelli. Aunque su distribuci6n sugerirfa
su presencia en la region, no se registry ning6n ejemplar de
Pithecia por ninguno de los equipos de biodiversidad y los
pobladores locales no incluyeron a este genero en una lista
de primates conocidos (Rodriguez y Amanzo, 2001). No se
espera que Callicebus, Callimico y (.. estin presents
en esta area.

Estas y otras expediciones cientificas mas recientes han do-
cumentado otras species importantes de vertebrados, entire
ellas el "hormiguero gigante" (Myrmecophaga tridactyla),
el "oso de anteojos" (Tremarctos ornatus), el "gallito de las
rocas" (Rupicola peruviana) y el "caiman blanco"(Caiman
crocodylus). AdemAs, se encuentra una rica diversidad de
flora como el "ulcumano o romerillo" (Podocarpus sp.), el
"quinual" (Polylepis sp.) y el "cedro de altura" (Cedrela sp.),
entire otras.

Para acceso a imagenes y entrevistas por favor contact a
Nina Pardo, .


Three new Natural Protected Areas were created in the Vil-
cabamba mountains of southern Peru, in accordance with
Supreme Decree 003-2003-AG, published on 16 January,
2003 in the Diario OficialElPeruano. This region is of par-
ticular importance for a number of primate species, and the
effort to declare the protected areas was supported in part
by research teams from Conservation International.

The former Zona Reservada Apurimac covered a total of
1,669,200 ha, of which 709,347.06 ha were allocated to
the creation of the three new protected areas: the Otishi Na-
tional Park, with an area of 305,973.05 ha; the Ashaninka
Communal Reserve, covering 184,468.38 ha; and the
Matziguenka Communal Reserve, covering 218,905.63 ha.
The difference in area from the total of the former Zona
Reservada Apurimac is incorporated into the lands of the
indigenous communities, the Ashaninkas and Matziguen-
kas, whose territories will become part of the buffer zone
of the three protected areas. These tribes will be able to
participate in decision-making through the administra-
tive committees of each of the protected areas. The three
areas are located within an isolated massif of the Andean
mountain range, between the Rios Apurimac, Ene, Tambo,
and Urubamba.

It is worth emphasizing that the action of the government
and the indigenous communities, as well as of national and

international conservation organizations, has been an ongo-
ing process which was begun in the 1960s, and which has
culminated in the legal protection of these areas. Ensuring
the conservation of this important region, however, will
require a continuing planning process for the territory with
a focus on implementing a conservation corridor, which
combines the conservation mechanisms of the communities
and the participation of different institutions in sustainable
development, which combines sustainable economic activi-
ties with the conservation of biodiversity.

The new protected areas cover the highest portions of a
rugged and inaccessible mountain range, often rising above
4000 m, which still harbors remnants of the great montane
forests which once covered much of the eastern tropical
Andes from Venezuela to Bolivia (Boyle, 2001). The surviv-
ing forests of the Apurimac hold remarkable biodiversity,
including many rare and endemic species, but this isolated
region has been largely unexplored by biologists. It is espe-
cially interesting in terms of primate biogeography, as the
Vilcabamba ridge lies near the meeting of species bound-
aries for several primate genera, including Pithecia mona-
chus and P irrorata, Saguinus fuscicollis weddelli and S. f
leucogenys, and two taxa of Lagothrix.

Three expeditions surveyed this area in 1997 and 1998,
two from the Rapid Assessment Program (RAP) of Con-
servation International and one from the Man and the
Biosphere (MAB) program of the Smithsonian Institution.
These expeditions cooperated to document the exceptional
biological wealth of the region, and their combined final
report included a proposal for the creation of the National
Park and Communal Reserves (Alonso etal., 2001). Among
many other finds from these expeditions was the discovery
of Cuscomys ashaninka, a new genus and species of abroco-
mid rodent (Emmons, 1999). In addition, the RAP teams
confirmed the presence of several of the larger primates in
the area, which suffer severe hunting pressure in the lower
altitudes. Surveys at the highest-elevation RAP site, at 3500
m, yielded no evidence of primates; but at their second site
they found several species occupying an unusual band of
forest at the base of a high cliff, at approximately 2500 m.
Here the team observed Cebus ,'',//,, and possibly C. albi-
frons, and recorded the calls of night monkeys (probably
Aotus nigriceps) as well as those of Ateles chamek.

At the third site, only 1000 m above the Rio Urubamba,
the survey teams saw Aotus, Lagothrix lagothricha, and
both Cebus j,e,//1, and C. albifrons, and they also heard
Alouatta seniculus and Ateles chamek. A number of these
species (Alouatta, Ateles, Lagothrix and C. ,j .. i
were collected by Edmund Heller in 1915, along with
Saimiri boliviensis and Saguinus fuscicollis weddelli. Al-
though their distribution would suggest their presence in
the region, no Pithecia were noted by any of the biodiver-
sity teams, and local residents did not include the genus in
a list of known primates (Rodriguez and Amanzo, 2001).
Callicebus, Callimico and (. are not expected to
occur in this area.

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

These and other recent scientific expeditions have
also documented many other vertebrate species in the
new protected areas, including giant anteater (Myr-
mecophaga tridactyla), spectacled bear (Tremarctos orna-
tus), Andean cock-of-the-rock (Rupicola peruviana), and
white cayman (Caiman crocodylus). This area is also di-
verse in its flora, which includes the "romerillo" (Podo-
carpus sp.), quinual trees (Polylepis sp.) and cedar trees
(Cedrela sp.).

For more information and images of the protected areas,
please contact Nina Pardo at .

Erick Meneses, Director, Vilcabamba Regional Program,
Conservation International-Peru, Malec6n de La Reserva
281, Miraflores Lima 18, Peru, and John M. Aguiar,
Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation
International, 1919 M Street NW, Suite 600, Washington,
DC 20036, USA.


Alonso, L. E., Alonso, A., Schulenberg, T. S. and Dallmeier,
F (eds.). 2001. Biological and Social Assessments of the
Cordillera de Vilcabamba, Peru. RAP Working Papers
12 and SI/MAB Series 6. Conservation International,
Washington, DC.
Boyle, B. 2001. Vegetation of two sites in the northern
Cordillera de Vilcabamba, Peru. In: Biological and Social
Assessments of the Cv,: /,/I':, de Vilcabamba, Peru. RAP
Working Papers 12 and SI/MAB Series 6, L. E. Alonso,
A. Alonso, T. S. Schulenberg and F Dallmeier (eds.), pp.
69-79. Conservation International, Washington, DC.
Emmons, L. 1999. A new genus and species of abrocomid
rodent from Peru (Rodentia: Abrocomidae). American
Museum Novitates 3279: 1-14.
Rodriguez, J. J. and Amanzo, J. M. 2001. Medium and
large mammals of the southern Vilcabamba region, Peru.
In: Biological and Social Assessments of the Cordillera de
Vilcabamba, Peru. RAP Working Papers 12 and SI/MAB
Series 6, L. E. Alonso, A. Alonso, T. S. Schulenberg
and E Dallmeier (eds.), pp. 117-126. Conservation
International, Washington, DC.


During the First World Conservation Congress held in
Montreal in 1996, IUCN adopted a resolution requesting
the Species Survival Commission (SSC) to develop guide-
lines for using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria
at the regional level. Development of the guidelines has
involved a broad consultation with people with technical
experience in the development of IUCN Red List Crite-
ria and those with practical experience in producing Red
Lists at regional levels. During this process, draft versions
of the guidelines were published in Species (Gardenfors
et al., 1999) and in Conservation Biology (Girdenfors

et al., 2001; see also Gardenfors, 2001), and comments
received on these drafts were used to improve and refine
the guidelines.

The Guidelines for Application of IUCN Red List Criteria at
Regional Levels: Version 3.0 have been published as a booklet
in three languages: English, French and Spanish. They are rec-
ommended for anyone who wishes to use the IUCN Red List
Categories and Criteria to undertake Red List assessments at
the regional level. They are now available on the SSC website
as PDF files, in the three languages, at: themes/ssc/redlists/regionalguidelines.htm>.

Craig Hilton-Taylor, Red List Programme Officer, Species
Survival Programme, 219c Huntingdon Road, Cambridge
CB3 ODL, UK. E-mail: .


Gardenfors, U. 2001. Classifying threatened species at a na-
tional versus global level. Trends Ecol. Evol. 16: 511-516.
Gardenfors, U., Rodriguez, J. P., Hilton-Taylor, C., Hyslop,
C., Mace, G., Molur, S. and Poss, S. 1999. Draft guide-
lines for the application of IUCN Red List criteria at
national and regional levels. Species 31-32: 58-70.
Gardenfors, U., Hilton-Taylor, C., Mace, G. and Rodri-
guez, J. P. 2001. The application of IUCN Red List Crite-
ria at regional levels. Conserv. Biol. 15(5): 1206-1212.


The first symposium on lion tamarins was organized by
the Associaqao Mico-Leao-Dourado (AMLD) at the Poco
das Antas Biological Reserve, Rio de Janeiro, in 1992 (see
Neotropical Primates 2[Suppl.], December 1994), and the
second was in 1997, organized by the Fundacao Biodiver-
sitas in Belo Horizonte, at the time of a Population and
Habitat Viability Assessment Workshop (PHVA) carried
out in collaboration with the IUCN/SSC Conservation
Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG). The III Lion Tamarin
Symposium, a three-day meeting, was hosted by the man-
agement of the Serra dos Orgaos National Park, Teres6po-
lis, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, 26-28 May, 2003, preced-
ing the annual meeting of the International Committee for
the Conservation and Management of the Lion Tamarins
(ICCM-LT). It was organized by Denise Rambaldi, Execu-
tive Secretary, and the staff of the Associaqao Mico-Leao-
Dourado (AMLD), based in Casimiro de Abreu, Rio de
Janeiro, and Marcelo Marcelino de Oliveira and Elaine
C. Costa Eloy of the Centro de Protecao de Primatas
Brasileiros IBAMA, Cabedelo, Parafba. The event was
supported by the Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation,
Conservation International, and the Fundacao 0 Boticario
de Protecao a Natureza.

Concerns and efforts for the conservation of lion tama-
rins, which began more than 40 years ago with the initial
surveys and alarms raised by Adelmar F Coimbra-Filho,

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

have resulted in an extraordinary and diversified combina-
tion of research, management and education programmes
- many of them pioneer and accompanying, and often
leading in, the developing science of conservation biology.
This meeting was attended by 127 people a good sample
of the researchers and students (47), conservationists, and
managers and staff of protected areas, both foreign and
Brazilian, who are involved directly, and sometimes indi-
rectly, with such aspects of conservation as: behavioral,
ecological and demographic studies; population genetics
and management (including translocation and reintro-
duction programmes); habitat and landscape protection
and restoration; captive breeding, management and
husbandry; and environmental education and rural exten-
sion, as well as public policy, institutional development
and capacity-building, and professional training all
elements of the conservation programmes established for
the lion tamarin species, Leontopithecus rosalia, L. chrys-
omelas, L. chrysopygus and L. caissara. The aim, successfully
achieved, was to discuss, renew and broaden partnerships
amongst the numerous students, professionals and profes-
sional institutions involved in lion tamarin conservation
- reporting on their work, exchanging views on their ex-
periences, integrating and planning scientific studies and,
most especially, engaging a younger generation of prima-
tologists who will be responsible for the programmes over
the coming years.

The opening of the meeting was marked by a presenta-
tion of the book Lion Tamarins: Biology and Conservation,
edited by Devra G. Kleiman and Anthony B. Rylands, and
published in 2002 by the Smithsonian Institution Press.
Afterwards, in a moment of reflection, ClAudio Valladares-
PAdua then read an homage to Josd Marcio Ayres, "The
primatologist who liked to create reserves", who had died
at a young age just two months previously, in March, 2003
(see Neotropical Primates 11(1): 39-41, 2003). Over the fol-
lowing two days there were talks and roundtables on the
following themes: "Leontopithecus as a model for primate
conservation", "Current status of the genus Leontopithecus",
"Processes and tools for the conservation of Leontopithecus",
"Conservation of fragmented habitats", and "Institutional
cooperation and its importance in the conservation of the
genus Leontopithecus", besides three general sessions with
a further 18 talks. The abstracts, published in the Livro de
Resumos, are listed on page 138 of this issue.

Special thanks are extended to the Director and staff of the
Serra dos Orgaos National Park, Teres6polis, for their hos-
pitality and generosity in hosting the meeting.

Denise Marcal Rambaldi, Associacao Mico-Leao-Dou-
rado, Rodovia BR-101, Km 214, Caixa Postal 109.968,
Casimiro de Abreu, 28860-970 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil,
e-mail: , Marcelo Marcelino
de Oliveira and Elaine C. Costa Eloy, Centro de Protedao
de Primatas Brasileiros, BR-230, Km 10, Mata daAMEM,
2 Andar, Cabedelo, 58310-000 Paraiba, Brazil, e-mail:



Seed dispersal is an important process affecting the density
and distribution of plants and the floristic composition of
plant communities. Frugivorous species play a key role in the
natural regeneration mechanism of tropical forests, as 45-95%
of tropical plant species depend on animals to disperse their
seeds (McKey, 1975; Terborgh, 1983). Primates represent
25-40% of frugivore biomass in tropical forests, and therefore
as a group they play a very important role in seed dispersal in
tropical forests (Eisenberg and Thorington, 1973).

At the 10th Brazilian Congress of Primatology, held in
November, 2002, at the Federal University of Para, Belkm,
Brazil, a roundtable entitled "Seed Dispersal" discussed the
role of primates as seed dispersers in structuring the vegeta-
tion of Brazilian tropical forests. Participants presented their
data for different species of primates, covering a number of
key aspects of seed dispersal.

Seed dispersal by Saguinus niger, Cebus apella and
Brachyteles arachnoides

Ana Cristina Oliveira monitored the feeding behavior of a
group of Saguinus niger for six months in eastern Amazo-
nia. The diet of the group was predominantly frugivorous:
87.5% of recorded feeding behavior was of fruits. Of 16
species of plants providing fruits, Saguinus ingested and
defecated whole seeds from at least six. Seeds with diameter
> 1 cm and/or length >2 cm were discarded. Seeds that were
ingested took from two to four hours to pass through the
digestive tract. In association with the movement patterns of
the group, 19.3% of the seeds taken from mature forest were
dropped in secondary forest, demonstrating clearly that Sa-
guinus niger plays an important role in the dispersal of seeds
from primary forest trees, and contributes to succession in
the secondary forest (Oliveira, 2002).

Following a similar line of investigation, the research of Patri-
cia Izar in the Atlantic Forest of Intervales State Park, Sao
Paulo, analyzed the characteristics of fruiting species exploited
by (., iJ d Brachyteles arachnoides. Her results showed
that the quantity of fruits produced affected the seed dispersal
by both primate species that is, the greater the production,
the greater the number of seeds dispersed. Comparing the size
of seeds dispersed by Cebusand Brachyteles, she found that the
former was a more efficient disperser of smaller seeds (limited
by diameter), whereas Brachyteles arachnoides was evidently a
more efficient disperser of large seeds (Izar, 2002).

Characteristics and Germination Rates of Seeds Dispersed
by Alouatta guariba clamitans

Ana Alice Biedzicki de Marques studied a group of Alouatta
guariba clamitans for 13 months in the Atlantic Forest of

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

Itapua State Park, Rio Grande do Sul. Seeds from their feces
were separated, identified through a seed bank established
from a phenological study of 257 trees, shrubs, and lianas
encountered in the study area, and used in germination
tests. These tests were conducted in a greenhouse, with
forest soil in special trays, protected from birds and ants
and under daily monitoring for a period of 12 months.
Germination rates of seeds collected from feces (tests) and
from ripe fruits (control) were compared using the Chi-
square test. Significant differences were found between tests
and controls in five of the 10 species tested. For Syagrus
.. -rt- Erythroxylum argentinum and Lithraea
brasiliensis, the percentage of ingested seeds that germinated
successfully was higher than that of the control seeds, while
for Enterolobium contortisiliquum and Myrciaria cuspidata,
the control seeds germinated better than those ingested.
S. .. :.-rr accounted for 24.12% of the total fruit
ingested during the 13 months of the study. These fruits
are available for almost the whole year, and Alouattaguariba
clamitans was evidently an efficient disperser for this species
in terms of an increase in the number of germinated seeds,
their defecation far from the parent tree, and the quantity
of seeds ingested (Marques, 2002).

Germination In Vivo and In Vitro as Tools to Conserve
the Plant Species Dispersed by Callithrix jacchus in the
Atlantic Forest

Carla S. S. de Castro used in vivo germination tests to verify
the viability of seeds dispersed by ( .-'. jacchus, and
also created a germplasm bank for the species involved.
She studied two groups of marmosets for 18 months in an
Atlantic Forest remnant in the Dunas State Park, in Natal,
Rio Grande do Norte.

The marmosets ingested seeds from Coccoloba sp., Campo-
manesia dichotoma and Hexaclamys itatiaiae. Average lengths
of the seeds were 5.7 mm, 6.0 mm and 5.6 mm, respectively.
Seeds were collected from the marmoset feces at average dis-
tances of 16.8 m, 60.0 m and 45.3 m, respectively, from the
parent tree, reflecting the movement patterns of marmoset
groups within their home ranges. Seeds from feces (tests) and
seeds taken from ripe fruits (control) were planted with forest
soil, and kept in a greenhouse (germination in vivo). The
percentage of seeds germinating and the time to germination
were compared using the Kruskall-Wallis and the Mann-
Whitney U-tests. For seeds of Coccoloba sp. and Campoma-
nesia dichotoma, the proportion germinating was greater, and
the time to germination was shorter, in those collected from
feces than from ripe fruits indicating that passage through
the marmoset's digestive tract promotes germination, or
may even have caused a break in dormancy. There was no
significant difference in the germination rate and time to
germination for the two sets of H. itatiaiae seeds. The seeds
were monitored from germination to seedling stage. When
they reached 50 cm in height, they were removed from the
greenhouse and planted in clearings in the forest, increasing
the number of fruiting trees for the marmosets and other
frugivores in the study area (Castro, 2002).

In the next stage of her research, Carla Castro will experi-
ment with the seeds found in the marmosets' feces, as well
as those collected from trees for in vitro germination. This
technique has the advantage of reducing seed infestation by
fungi or other pathogenic agents, since the seeds are washed
in disinfectant agents, inoculated and maintained under
controlled temperature and light conditions. The objective of
this technique is the creation ofgermplasm banks to conserve
the plant species dispersed by this primate (Castro, 2002).

The Study of Seed Dispersal: Future Perspectives

Post-dispersal represents the longest phase of the plant life
cycle, since it involves seed germination, seedling establish-
ment and tree maturation (Howe et al., 1985). Few studies
have explored this phase, likely due to the difficulty in track-
ing the plant's growth over a long period of development.
Maria Aparecida Lopes showed that more recent studies
have broadened their approach and are examining all aspects
of the dispersal process from fruit removal to seedling re-
cruitment with new techniques employing stable isotopes
and genetic markers, which will allow for the identification
of seed and seedling origin (Lopes, 2002). Participants in
the roundtable emphasized the importance of preserving
primate populations as a means of guaranteeing plant diver-
sity in the Amazon and Atlantic Forests. The use of stable
isotopes and genetic markers for the identification of seed
and seedling origin, as well as in vitro germination, will pro-
vide important tools in the study of seed dispersal.

Acknowledgements: We thank the organizing committee and
Stephen Ferrari (President) of the Xth Brazilian Congress of
Primatology. We are also grateful to the Brazilian Science
Council (CNPq) for financing research on ( .-'. jac-
chus; the Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation and the
Brazilian Higher Education Authority (CAPES) for financ-
ing research on Alouatta guariba clamitans; the Sao Paulo
State Research Support Foundation (FAPESP Fundagio
de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo) for financ-
ing research on Cebus ap,/'',r and Brachyteles arachnoides;
and the CNPq and the Amazon Environmental Research
Institute (IPAM Instituto de Pesquisas Ambientais da
Amazonia) for financing research on Saguinus niger.

Carla S. S. de Castro, Departamento de Botanica, Ecologia
e Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte,
Avenida Senador Salgado Filho s/n, Campus Universitario,
Lagoa Nova, Natal 59078-970, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil,
e-mail: , Ana Alice B. de Marques, PPG
em Biologia, Diversidade e Manejo de Vida Silvestre,
Universidade Vale do Rio dos Sinos, Centro 2, Avenida
Unisinos 950, Caixa Postal 275, Sao Leopoldo 93022-000,
Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, Patricia Izar, Departamento
de Psicologia Experimental, Instituto de Biociencias,
Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao 321, Travessa
14, Butanta, Sao Paulo 05508-900, Sao Paulo, Brazil,
Ana Cristina M. Oliveira and Maria Aparecida Lopes,
Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Para,
Av. Bernardo Saydo s/n, Belkm 66075-900, Para, Brazil.

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003


Castro, C. S. S. de. 2002. Tecnicas de germinaqao
utilizadas em sementes dispersadas pelo sagiii ((
jacchus) num fragmento de mata Atlantica. In: Programa
e Resumos do X Congresso Brasileiro de Primatologia, S. F.
Ferrari and V. B. Souza (eds.), p.36. Sociedade Brasileira
de Primatologia, Belkm.
Eisenberg, J. F and Thorington, R. W. 1973. A preliminary
analysis of a Neotropical fauna. Biotropica 5: 150-161.
Howe, H. E, Schupp, E. W. and Westley, L. C. 1985. Early
consequences of seed dispersal for a Neotropical tree
(Virola surinamensis). Ecology 66: 781-791.
Izar, P. 2002. Dispersao de sementes por Cebus a,ci//
e Brachyteles arachnoides em Area de mata Atlantica.
In: Programa e Resumos do X Congresso Brasileiro de
Primatologia, S. F Ferrari and V. B. Souza (eds.), p.38.
Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia, Belkm.
Lopes, M. A. 2002. 0 estudo da dispersao de sementes e
de seus efeitos na estrutura de populao6es e comunidades
vegetais: Avancos recentes e perspectives futuras.
In: Programa e Resumos do X Congresso Brasileiro de
Primatologia, S. F Ferrari and V. B. Souza (eds.), p.40.
Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia, Belkm.
Marques, A. A. B. 2002. Dispersao de sementes por Alouatta
guariba clamitans Cabrera, 1940 no Parque Estadual de
Itapua, RS. In: Programa e Resumos do XCongresso Brasileiro
de Primatologia, S. E Ferrari and V. B. Souza (eds.), p.37.
Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia, Belkm.
McKey, D. B. 1975. The ecology of coevolved seed dispersal
systems. In: Coevolution of Animals and Plants, L. E.
Gilbert and P. H. Raven (eds.), pp.159-191. University of
Texas Press, Austin.
Oliveira, A. C. M. 2002. Dispersao de sementes por
um grupo de Saguinus midas niger (Callitrichinae,
Primates) e seu papel na regeneraqao de dreas de
florestas degradadas na Amazonia Oriental. In: Programa
e Resumes do X Congresso Brasileiro de Primatologia, S. F
Ferrari and V. B. Souza (eds.), p.39. Sociedade Brasileira
de Primatologia, Beldm.
Terborgh, J. 1983. Five New World Primates. Princeton
University Press, Princeton, NJ.


La Reserva Experimental Horco Molle, dependiente de la
Facultad de Ciencias Naturales e Instituto Miguel Lillo,
Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, esta organizando el
Curso de grado "Primates: El estado actual de su cono-
cimiento" dictado por docentes e investigadores de la
Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA) y CONICET: Dra.
Marta Mudry, Lic. Mariela Nieves y Lic. Luciana Oklander.
Contenido: Introducci6n a la Primatologfa, Gen&tica, Nu-
trici6n y Comportamiento y Manejo en Cautiverio. Reserva
Experimental Horco Molle, Yerba Buena, Tucuman, Argen-
tina 5, 6 y 7 de septiembre de 2004. Pre-inscripci6n hasta
el 30 de abril de 2004. Informes e Inscripciones: Reserva

Experimental Horco Molle, Tel: (0381) 425-0396, E-mail:

Marta Mudry, Grupo de Investigaci6n en Biologfa Evolu-
tiva gibeE), Departamento de Ciencias Biol6gicas, Facul-
dad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Pabell6n II, 4o Piso,
Ciudad Universitaria, (1428) Buenos Aires, Argentina.


Mariela Nieves realize la Licenciatura en Ciencias Biol6gi-
cas en la Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales (FCEyN)
de la Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA), Argentina. Con-
cluy6 sus studios en diciembre de 2002 con un trabajo
de Tesis titulado "Contribuci6n de la Citogen&tica para la
identificaci6n de species animals en cautiverio: El ejem-
plo de los primates Neotropicales". Su director fue Marta
Dolores Mudry PhD. (Prof. Asoc. Dpto. de Ecologfa,
Gen&tica y Evoluci6n, FCEyN-UBA). La investigaci6n fue
realizada con subsidies otorgados por el Consejo Nacional
de Investigaciones Cientificas y TBcnicas (CONICET) y la
Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBACyT). A continuaci6n
se present el resume de la Tesis:

Los primates del Nuevo Mundo (Primates Neotropicales)
muestran una notable diversidad distribuyendose en las
regions boscosas desde el sur de Mexico hasta el norte
de Argentina. Desde el punto de vista taxon6mico, se ha
considerado que estarfan representados por cuatro families:
Pitheciidae, Callithrichidae, Atelidae y Cebidae, agrupados
en la Superfamilia Ceboidea. Sin embargo en el marco de
la aplicaci6n de medidas de conservaci6n se presentan si-
tuaciones complejas ya que la distribuci6n geografica no es
ampliamente conocida, falta de informaci6n que dificulta
la possible reintroducci6n de determinadas species, asf
como el studio de sus caracteristicas ecol6gicas y com-
portamentales. En el manejo de poblaciones en cautiverio,
tradicionalmente se recurre a parametros morfom&tricos
para la diagnosis sistematica de los ejemplares al ingresar a
los zool6gicos ya que la procedencia geografica, en general,
es desconocida. Sumado a esto, la gran variedad fenotfpica
tanto etaria como intraespecifica en muchas oportunidades
genera confusiones al moment de armar los grupos de
individuos para su mantenimiento en cautiverio. En este
context, los analisis gen&ticos han cobrado gran relevancia
permitiendo la corroboraci6n taxon6mica tanto por medios
citogen&ticos como isoenzimAticos o incluso mediante
analisis de marcadores moleculares que complementan las
diagnosis morfol6gicas tradicionales.

En este trabajo de Tesis se realizaron dos studios comple-
mentarios: Por un lado, se utiliz6 la Citogen&tica como
herramienta de diagn6stico taxon6mico en la sistematica
de primates Neotropicales en cautiverio, tomando como
ejemplo el mono arafa, Ateles sp. (Platyrrhini: Atelidae).
Por el otro lado, se realize un studio evolutivo de la fa-
milia Atelidae utilizando para ello tanto la citogen&tica

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

comparada con tecnicas de bandas G y C, como el analisis
de sintenias cromos6micas identificadas por FISH. Se
aplicaron metodos de reconstrucci6n filogenetica donde
las variantes cromos6micas con bandas G se utilizaron
como caracteres morfol6gicos. El studio citogen&tico-
taxon6mico se realize con especfmenes de Ateles adults
de ambos sexos, provenientes de distintos zool6gicos.
Los hallazgos cariol6gicos incluyeron medidas cromos6-
micas, 2N, NF y tecnicas de tinci6n diferencial bandass
G y C) que permitieron reclasificar tres ejemplares de Ateles
chamek que habfan sido asignados a Ateles paniscus por
diagnosis morfom&trica. El studio por FISH en ejempla-
res de Ceboidea (Ateles, Alouatta y Cebus) mostr6 la con-
servaci6n de la sintenia 3-21 en las tres species estudiadas.
La filogenia cromos6mica de Ateles mostr6 concordancia
con otras reconstrucciones realizadas a partir de datos de
ADN mitocondrial. Los resultados citogen&ticos comple-
mentados con la descripci6n fenotfpica realizada al ingreso
de cada ejemplar a la instituci6n de cautiverio permitieron
el diagn6stico en ciertos casos y la reclasificaci6n en otros,
integrando desde distintas fuentes y a nivel de especie, el
concept de "evidencia total".

Mariela Nieves, Grupo de Investigaci6n en Biologfa Evolu-
tiva gibeE), Departamento de Ecologfa, Gen&tica y Evolu-
ci6n, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad
de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabell6n II, 4to.
Piso, Laboratorios 46-47, (1428) Buenos Aires, Argentina.
E-mail: .


Nieves, M. 2002. Cytogenetic contribution to the
identification of animal species in captivity: The case of
Neotropical primates. Licenciature Thesis, University of
Buenos Aires (UBA), Buenos Aires, Argentina.


Primate Conservation, Incorporated (PCI) is a not-for-
profit foundation established to fund field research that
supports conservation programs for wild populations of
primates. Priority will be given to projects that study, in
their natural habitat, the least known and most endangered
species. The involvement of citizens from the country in
which the primates are found will be a plus. The intent is
to provide support for original research that can be used
to formulate and to implement conservation plans for the
species studied.

F- "- Primate Conservation, Inc. will grant seed
monies or provide matching grants for graduate students,
qualified conservationists and primatologists to study
rare and endangered primates and their conservation
in their natural habitat. Grants have averaged approxi-
mately $2,500, with a maximum grant of $5,000. We
do not support conferences, travel to scientific meet-

ings, legal actions, tuitions or salaries at institutions, and
overhead costs.

Selection Criteria: Proposals are evaluated on a competitive
basis. Applications are screened by outside reviewers and
the Board of Directors of PCI. All appropriate projects will
be considered, but the regions of current interest are Asia
and West Africa.

Closing Dates and Notification: Deadlines for all grant ap-
plication materials are March 1 and September 20. Awards
will be given May 15 and December 15.

For more information, please write to Primate Conserva-
tion, Inc., 1411 Shannock Rd., Charlestown, Rhode Island
02813-3726, USA, or visit their website at primate.org>.


A workshop, "Capuchins: The State of the Art," will be
held prior to the XXth Congress of the International Pri-
matological Society, Turin, Italy (23-28 August, 2004).
It will take place at the Convento dell'Osservanza, Radi-
condoli, Siena (Tuscany), Italy, 18-22 August, 2004. The
aim of the Pre-Congress is to illustrate the state of the art
of scientific studies on the genus Cebus and to promote a
peer-review of the most challenging findings. Each of the
topics listed below will be presented by two discussant
leaders. They will highlight the state of the art as well as
the possible inconsistencies and controversies about their
topic. The presentation of each topic will be followed by
a general discussion guided by the discussant leaders, in
which everyone may participate.

Topic 1. Social structure and ecology Leader discussants:
Linda Fedigan (University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada)
and Patricia Izar (University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo,
Brazil); Topic 2. Cognition Leader discussants: Patrizia
Poti (Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie della Cognizione,
CNR, Rome, Italy) and Katie Leighty (University of
Georgia, Athens, USA); Topic 3. Capuchin Behavioral
Economics Leader discussants: Frans de Waal (Emory
University, Atlanta, USA) and Camillo Padoa Schioppa
(Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA); Topic 4. Social
learning and traditions Leader discussants: Susan Perry
(Department of Anthropology, UCLA, Los Angeles, USA
and Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology,
Leipzig, Germany) and Elsa Addessi (Istituto di Scienze e
Tecnologie della Cognizione, CNR, Rome, Italy). General
discussion. Looking into the future. In addition to the above
themes, the following topics will be addressed in the general
discussion: (a) the new proposed taxonomy for the genus

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

and its implications for captive management; (b) conserva-
tion, human-animal interactions. Fees. We will charge each
participant 160 Euro (and 110 Euro for students), covering
all meals (all lunches and dinner from the 18t' to the the
22nd, excluding the dinner in Siena), all coffee breaks, a
concert, a trip to Siena, transport from Poggibonsi to Radi-
condoli, and the bus trip from Radicondoli to Grosseto
Railway Station (from where the train for Turin departs).
The fee does not include the train ticket to Grosseto-
Torino, nor lodging and breakfast. In Radicondoli there are
both amazingly beautiful lodgings (60-80 Euro per person
per night) and more simple rooms (20-50 Euro per person
per night). All the accommodations are nice, and close to
the meeting hall in the convent. Deposit for the pre-congress
fee: There is a maximum of 70 participants, so I would urge
everybody to confirm their participation by paying the
fee as soon as possible. Accommodation: see the website at
by January 2004
at the latest. If you need further help or assistance (this
might be the case for room reservation at the Convento
delle Suore Agostiniane), please do not hesitate to contact:

Elisabetta Visalberghi, Istituto di Psicologia, Consiglio Na-
zionale delle Ricerche, Via Aldrovandi 16 B, 00197 Roma,
Italy. E-mail: .


In honor of Larry Jacobsen's commitment to providing re-
sources, expertise, and guidance to numerous students and
researchers in the field ofprimatology, the Education Com-
mittee of the International Primatological Society is pleased
to announce that the education award will now carry his
name to recognize his outstanding contributions to the field
of education and career development.

The Lawrence Jacobsen Education Development Award
supports the initiation and long-term support of primate
conservation education programs. This education award
supports field conservation programs, work with local com-
munities and/or schools, or provides training in conserva-
tion education techniques.

I am pleased to announce that the first recipient of this
award is Dr. Gigi Joseph, Extension Education Officer of
the Periyar Tiger Reserve in Kerala, India. His program
entitled "Education and awareness programs to conserve
lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus) in Periyar Tiger Re-
serve, Kerala, India" was awarded $1000 to support teacher
and student training workshops on the conservation needs
of the lion-tailed macaque.

Anne Savage, Vice-President for Education, International
Primatological Society, Disney's Animal Kingdom, Con-
servation Station Administration, P. 0. Box 10,000, Lake
Buena Vista, FL 32830, USA.


To become a member of the International Primatological
Society, please contact Steven J. Schapiro, IPS Treasurer
and Vice President for Membership, UTMDACC, 650
Cool Water Drive, Bastrop, TX 78602, USA, Tel: +1
512 321 3991, Fax: 512 332 5208, e-mail: mdanderson.org>. For Regular Members the annual fee
is $40.00, for Student Members $20.00, and for Lifetime
Membership a bargain for younger applicants $520.00.
A small voluntary contribution (4%) is requested when
paying by credit card. IPS members receive the newsletter,
edited by Katie Leighty, VP for Communication, and also a
discount for registration at the Congresses, held every two
years. The IPS website is: pin/ips.html>.


The ASP Search Committee selected and the Board of Di-
rectors approved the nomination of Linda Fedigan as the
new AJP editor. Dr. Fedigan will be replacing the interim
editors, Melinda Novak and Randy Keyes, in mid-January
2004. She is in the process of selecting Section Editors "to
represent as wide a spectrum of expertise in primatology
as possible." Dr. Fedigan, an anthropologist, received her
Ph.D. from the University of Texas at Austin. She is cur-
rently a Professor of Anthropology at the University of
Calgary and holds the prestigious Canada Research Chair.
Linda has studied many species of primates, both in the field
and in captivity for example, Japanese monkeys, vervets,
capuchins, howlers and spider monkeys. She is the author/
editor of five books and over 70 journal articles and book
chapters. As a widely respected and well-known primatolo-
gist, she will bring substantial credibility and strength to
the office. For more information about Dr. Fedigan and her
extensive research, please visit her finely designed website at


We are pleased to announce that through the support
and cooperation of Anthony Rylands and the staff at
Conservation International, the full text of articles
published in Neotropical Primates will be available through
the bibliographic database, PrimateLit. This means that
when you search PrimateLit and find an article published in
Neotropical Primates, you will be provided with a URL that
will link you to the issue containing that article. You will
be able to read the full text online or print out the relevant
publication. Links for volumes 1-8 have been added; links
for volumes 9-10 will be available shortly.

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

With support from NCRR grant RR 15311, Coordinated
Information Services for Primate Research, the Wisconsin
Primate Center is engaged in a project to scan key primate
newsletters so that users of PrimateLit can link directly to
the full text of articles indexed by the Primate Information
Center, Seattle. We have approximately ten other primate
newsletters that we hope to scan and make accessible
through the database. PrimateLit already includes links to
over 65,000 biomedical articles indexed in the National
Library of Medicine's PubMed. Within the limitations of
copyright, our goal is to make PrimateLit a window to the
literature of primatology and accessible, particularly to
those in areas where primates are endemic and where print
resources may not be readily available.

If you have suggestions for titles to include in our scanning
project, please contact the scanning project coordinator,
Ray Hamel, at . PrimateLit is
available at: .


The Laboratory Primate Newsletter, which has gone (more
or less) completely electronic, announces two new e-mail
lists in addition to the original LPN-L, which sends out
the complete plain-text contents of each issue (no pictures,
graphs, bold-face type, etc.).

The first new list is LPN-WARN, which simply announces
that a new issue has been put on our website at //www.brown.edu/primate>. Starting with volume 42,
number 1 (January 2003), a PDF file of each issue is included
on the web, so that readers can use an Adobe Acrobat reader
to print out their very own LPN, identical to what we used
to print (except that it will be stapled on the side, instead of
in the center of a double-sized sheet of paper).

The second list is LPN-PDF, which sends out the immense
PDF file to subscribers. Frankly, we don't know why anyone
would want to get this and clog their mailboxes; but people
do want it, so we provide it.

To subscribe to any of these options, send a message as

SUBSCRIBE LPN-L your-own-name
SUBSCRIBE LPN-WARN your-own-name
SUBSCRIBE LPN-PDF your-own-name


All of these lists are used quarterly, since the LPN is
a quarterly publication. There may be an occasional
announcement besides, but that has been rare in the past.

If you have paid for paper issues of the LPN, you will
continue to receive them until your subscription runs out,

but we will not accept renewals unless you wish to pay
the (exorbitant) price of $60/year in the U.S. or $80/year
outside the U.S.

And, if you have paid, but are now willing to print your own
copies, please let us know and we will send our blessings
and thanks.

Judith E. Schrier, Editor, Laboratory Primate Newsletter,
Box 1853, Psychology Department, Brown University,
Providence, RI 02912, USA, e-mail
and on the web at .



Since October 1, 1999, anyone who purchased goods from
Amazon.com through the link on the ASP website (http:
//www.asp.org/links/index.html) has been contributing
to the ASP Conservation Fund! Through our associate
relationship with Amazon.com, ASP earns 5% on
purchases of most of the goods they sell. (Certain items,
like some tools, don't generate the 5% return to ASP.) In
the past four years the Society has earned over $1000 for
conservation. Best of all, you don't have to be an ASP
member to purchase this way. So, let your friends and
relatives know: purchases at Amazon.com will generate a
5% donation to our conservation fund. The only caveat is
that you must enter Amazon.com through the link on the
ASP site, not through the main Amazon.com homepage.
Entering through our link is the only way that Amazon.com
knows which purchases are assigned to ASP. Do your online
shopping at Amazon.com through our link, and support
primate conservation!

Nancy Capitanio, Webmaster, American Society of
Primatology at .


Setchell, J. M. and Curtis, D. J. (eds.). 2003. Field and
Laboratory Methods in PF -..'. A Practical Guide.
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. 343 pp.
$100.00 (USD). Reviewed by Clara B. Jones.

If this book had been available when I began conducting
field studies in 1973, I would have learned fewer lessons
by trial and error. Setchell and Curtis, researchers in the
early years of their careers, have produced a comprehensive
and knowledgeable volume summarizing many of the most
important aspects of primate research. In their words, "If
this book proves useful to fieldworkers, acts to stimulate
research and understanding of primates in their natural

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

state, and through that increased knowledge can make
some small contribution to primate conservation, then
we will have achieved our aim" (Curtis and Setchell, 2003:
12). Field and Laboratory Methods in P -..'. i (hereaf-
ter, FLMP) is likely to accomplish the authors' objectives.
Since their Introduction includes a detailed overview of the
volume, here I will highlight what seem to me its primary
strengths and weaknesses.

It is necessary to reveal a bias borne of age and, perhaps,
fading memory. Like elders recalled from my own youth, I
note a growing tendency to romanticize my early years in
the field and, armed with anecdote, to exaggerate my past
experiences studying monkeys. But I do think it may be
accurate to say that when I began as a fieldworker, research
was conducted with fewer ethical constraints or, rather,
with less self-consciousness about these issues. One rarely
hesitated to collect animals, to conduct field manipulations,
to mark individuals, to place weighty transmitter collars
around their necks, and otherwise intervene in the natural
course of events, as long as this was considered to serve the
ends of Science (with a capital "S"). I fear that, perhaps due
to the critical losses of biodiversity, purely scientific ends
have been compromised. Surely the issue of primate con-
servation is a compelling one for all of the contributors to
FLMP, and it is unlikely that any primatologist today can
separate his or her science from a concurrent concern for
the fate of prosimians, monkeys, and apes.

Among the numerous strengths of this book are its balanced
emphasis upon Neotropical and Paleotropical species, rec-
ommendations of websites and products, well-documented
reviews, chapters covering poorly known topics not empha-
sized in most graduate programs (e.g., chronobiology, field
endocrinology), and a humorous but practical concluding
chapter of "tips" from Adaptors to Zip-lock Bags. There are,
however, some disappointments. Certain "litanies" of field
work common when I was trained are not included (e.g.,
safe procedures for tasting fruit, the danger of many ex-
travagant species [e.g., orchids, frogs], and the importance
of wearing dull-colored clothing [a lesson learned from
Louis Leakey who, to my delight, was a Visiting Scientist
at Cornell during my graduate training]). Another signifi-
cant omission is the failure to provide instruction for the
use of rappelling equipment to climb trees or descend rock
faces, and I think that a chapter on procedures for study-
ing "recognition mechanisms" (e.g., individual, kin) should
have been included in the book. Perhaps most seriously for
myself, however, was to see Jeanne Altmann's classic paper
on observational study attributed to Stuart Altmann on
page xxiii. In the early 1970s, a professor gave me a copy of
this paper when it was circulating for commentary in pre-
print form, creating one of my most pleasurable memories
from graduate school.

Throughout my reading of FLMP, I was aware in almost
every chapter of the distance still remaining between biolo-
gists and many social scientists. The contributors, most of
whom are anthropologists, appear to be interested in pri-

mates primarily in their own right, and especially in rela-
tion to humans, rather than as components of communities
and ecosystems governed by "first principles." Approaches
to the study of animals found in mainstream ecology and
natural history journals (e.g., Ecology, Oikos, Conservation
Biology, The American Naturalist) are, on the whole, not
reflected in this volume. If primatologists are to become
integrated with the wider community of natural scientists,
it will be necessary for us to adopt standard approaches and
procedures of population, community and ecosystem ecol-
ogy, not only the science of the individual and his or her
group or population.

Primates are evolved taxa positioned in the dynamic
context of abiotic and biotic forces, subject to the same
constraints governing other taxa, and the present volume
neither provides such a holistic (ecological) perspective nor
the insights or procedures required to study the Order with
the tools of population, community and ecosystem ecol-
ogy. The website of the American Society of Mammalo-
gists (see index.html>) and those of other professional societies
relevant to mammalogists include publications that would
be helpful to primatologists, based upon the perspectives
and procedures taught in tropical biology field courses
(e.g., courses sponsored by the Organization for Tropical
Studies) rarely attended by students of primates. My own
personal bias is that primatology should be absorbed into
mammalogy and ecology; but my quibbles are not intend-
ed to detract from a solid text reflecting the current state
of methods and procedures in field and laboratory research
on primates. Setchell and Curtis are to be congratulated
for editing a volume that every aspiring fieldworker should
read before committing to a career in primatology, and
that primate researchers are advised to carry with them at
all times in the field.

Clara B. Jones, Theoretical Primatology Project, 1105
North Jackson Street, Salisbury, NC 28144, USA.
E-mail: , website:


Altmann, J. 1974. Observational study of behavior:
Sampling methods. Behaviour 49: 227-267.
Curtis, D. J. and Setchell, J. M. 2003. Introduction. In:
Field and Laboratory Methods in PF -..'. A Practical
Guide, J. M. Setchell and D. J. Curtis (eds.), pp. 1-14.
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.


De Apen van Suriname The Monkeys of Suriname, by Sue
Boinski. Stichting Natuurbehoud Suriname (STINASU),
Paramaribo, Suriname. 2002. 64pp. ISBN 99914-964-2-4.
In Dutch and English. This interesting guide to the eight
primate species occurring in Suriname includes a sketch

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

map of the country and its protected areas. The introduc-
tion to the guide includes sections on Suriname and its
natural vegetation, a short review of the theories regard-
ing the appearance of primates in South America, "Why
does Suriname have eight species of monkeys?", what the
Suriname monkeys eat, "Why conservation?", "Why do
monkeys live in troops?", how to watch monkeys and what
to look for, and where they can be found in Suriname. The
remainder describes the eight species, their behavior and
ecology, and where they can best be seen: Saguinus midas,
Saimiri sciureus, Cebus j,,//la, Cebus olivaceus, Chiropotes
satanas, Pithecia pithecia, Ateles paniscus, and Alouatta
seniculus. There is a centre spread of color photos of each
species, and the booklet is amply and beautifully illustrated
by Stephen D. Nash. At the end is a short discussion of some
taxonomic aspects. Available from: STINASU Stichting
Natuurbehoud Suriname, P 0. Box 12252, Paramaribo,
Suriname. Website: .

A Biodiversidade nos Grandes Remanescentes Florestais do
Estado do Rio de Janeiro e nas Restingas da Mata Atldntica,
por Carlos Frederico Duarte da Rocha, Helena de Godoy
Bergallo, Maria Alice dos Santos Alves e Monique Van
Sluys. 2003. RiMa Editora, Rio de Janeiro. 134pp. ISBN
85-86552-49-6. Parceria: Departamento de Ecologia,
Institute de Biologia, Universidade Estadual do Rio de
Janeiro (UERJ), Instituto Biomas e Centro de Conservadao
da Biodiversidade da Conservation International do
Brasil. Apoio Fundacao Brasileira para a Conservacao da
Natureza (FBCN). Roberto Cavalcanti, ex-Presidente
da Conservation International do Brasil, escreveu, "Para
conservar e preciso saber onde estao as oportunidades e o
que tem de ser feito. Este livro apresenta um diagn6stico
precioso do patrim6nio natural remanescente no Estado
do Rio de Janeiro. A obra comprova que o Estado e
privilegiado em terms de biodiversidade e que, embora
sejam gravissimas as ameagas a sobrevivencia das especies
dnicas da region, a situaqr o atual pode ser revertida a fim
de melhorar o ambiente natural e garantir a qualidade de
vida das pessoas e das esp&cies com que compartilhamos
o planet. Por meio de linguagem t&cnica mas acessivel, os
autores descrevem a geologia, o clima, os solos e a biota
dos principals blocos de floresta do Rio de Janeiro, dando
destaque as unidades de conservacao e a sua biodiversidade.
Mostram que os parques e reserves nao estao ali por
capricho ou acaso; sua funcao e conservar a biota native e
permitir que geraqoes futures possam continuar a coexistir
com as especies que sempre nos fascinaram. Trata-se de
obra essencial para todos os envolvidos com conservacao,
planejamento e educaqao ambiental." Sumario: Preficio
- L. P Pinto, pp.ix-x; Apresentacao, pp.xi-xiii. Parte I. 0
estado da Biodiversidade no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. 1. Os
grandes blocos de remanescentes florestais no Estado do Rio
de Janeiro, pp.3-32; 2. Esforgo de conservacao nos blocos de
grandes remanescentes do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, pp.33-
36; 3. Fatores predominantes de pressao de degradacao nos
grandes blocos de remanescentes florestais, p.37-42; 4. A
relevancia do estabelecimento de corredores interligando
os grandes remanescentes florestais do Estado do Rio de

Janeiro, pp.43-46; 5. Estado do conhecimento cientifico
biol6gico nos grandes blocos de remanescentes florestais do
Estado do Rio de Janeiro, pp.47-48; 6. Especies endemicas
e ameacadas de vertebrados terrestres nos grandes blocos de
remanescentes florestais do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, pp.49-
67. Parte II. A Biodiversidade nas Restingas dos Corredores
da Serra do Mar e Central da Mata Atlantica. 7. Diagn6stico
do estado de conservacao da biodiversidade das restingas do
Corredor da Serra do Mar e do Corredor Central da Mata
Atlantica, pp.71-74; 8. Fatores predominantes de pressao
de degradacao nas restingas dos corredores e diversidade
de vertebrados terrestres, pp.75-80; 9. A fragmentacao dos
habitats de resting e a ordenaqao na extincao das especies
das comunidades de vertebrados terrestres, pp.81-84; 10.
Esforgo de conservacao nas restingas do Corredor da Serra
do Mar e do Corredor Central da Mata Atlantica, pp.85-
88; 11. Vertebrados terrestres endemicos e ameacados,
pp.89-100; 12. Indicadores biol6gicos para monitoramento
da biodiversidade, pp. 101-108; 13. Ampliaqao da extensao
de areas protegidas e criaqio de novas areas para conservadao
nos grandes blocos de remanescentes florestais e nas
restingas dos Corredores da Serra do Mar e Central da Mata
Atlantica, pp. 109-112; Recomendaqoes, pp.113-116. Para
maiores informacoes: Carlos Frederico Duarte da Rocha,
Departamento de Ecologia, Instituto de Biologia Roberto
Alcantara Gomes, Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro,
Rua Sao Francisco Xavier 524, Maracana, 20550-013 Rio
de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil, e-mail: .

Gerenciamento de Areas de Protefao Ambiental no Brasil,
editado por Sandra Maria dos Santos Guapyassd. Funda-
cao 0 BoticArio de Protecao a Natureza, Curitiba, Parand,
Brasil. 2003. 144pp. ISBN 85-88912-03-1. Resultado de
um Workshop "Panorama das Areas de Protecao Ambiental
no Brasil", realizado em outubro de 2002 e fruto de parceria
entire a Fundacao 0 Boticario de Protecao a Natureza e The
Nature Conservancy do Brasil. Esta publicaqao e dividida
em quarto parties. Na Parte I sio desenvolvidas seis temas
relacionadas com a gestao de APA, atraves de 31 pergun-
tas e respostas discutidas durante o Workshop. Partes II e
III correspondem a sfntese das palestras e estudos de caso
apresentados por gestores ou por profissionais que foram
especialmente convidados a fazer apresentaq6es t&cnicas du-
rante o Workshop. Na Parte IV encontra-se um mapa com a
localizacao da maioria das APA formalmente representados
no Workshop, como tambem uma sfntese das caracteristicas
das APAs, contend dados como: localizacao, tamanho,
tipos de biomas, existencia de Conselho e de instrumen-
tos gerenciadores, entire outros, preenchidos pelos seus
responsAveis t&cnicos. Escreva para: Fundacao 0 Boticario
de Protecao a Natureza, Rua Goncalves Dias 225, Batel,
80240-340 Curitiba, Parana, Brasil. Website: fundacaoboticario.org.br>.

Mamiferos del Parque Nacional Madidi, by Teresa Tarifa,
Enzo Aliaga Jr., Boris Rfos U. and Daniel Hagaman. Con-
servaci6n Internacional Bolivia and Albergue Ecol6gico
Chalalan. 2001. 194pp. ISBN 99905-0-106-8. In Spanish
and English. This attractive pocket guide is dedicated to

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

the mammalogist Sydney Anderson. It covers all mammals
known to occur in the Madidi National Park which weigh
more than 200 g, including eight primates. The treatment
for each species includes an illustration and a distribution
map, plus notes on identification, body measurements,
habitat and habits, and conservation status and for the
terrestrial mammals, a description and illustration of their
tracks. Available from: Conservacfion Internacional Bolivia,
Caller M. Pinilla No. 291, Esq. Av. 6 de Agosto, Casilla
13593, La Paz, Bolivia, Tel: (591-2) 434058 / 435225, e-
mail: .

Metodos de Estudos em Biologia da Conservaado e Manejo de
Vida Silvestre, editado por Laury Cullen, Jr., Rudy Rudran
e ClAudio B. Valladares-PAdua. Editora UFPR e Fundadao
0 Boticario de Protecao a Natureza, Curitiba, Parana.
Serie Pesquisa No. 8. 2003. 667pp. ISBN 85-7335-114-4.
Prego: R$45,00. Trata-se de um novo aprendizado ligado
is quest6es socioambientais, no qual a teoria e pratica sao
insepariveis. Um livro didatico e no mesmo tempo pioneiro
na sua abordagem dos mais importantes principios e prati-
cas na biologia de conservacao. Imprescindivel leitura para
todos. Conteudo: Apresentacao Suzana Machado Padua.
Parte 1. Macroinvertebrados, Mamfferos e Aves. Estimativas
de riqueza em especies A. J. dos Santos, pp.19-41; Ma-
croinvertebrados aquaticos como indicadores ambientais da
qualidade de Agua D. P Eaton, pp.43-67; Diversidade de
macroinvertebrados em riachos -A. S. Melo, pp.69-90; Cap-
tura e marcaqio de animals silvestres P R. Mangini & P. A.
Nicola, pp.91-124; Insetos como indicadores ambientais -A.
V. L. Freitas, R. B. Francini & K. S. Brown, Jr., pp.125-151;
M&todos para estudos com aves P. E Devely, pp.153-168;
Transectos lineares na estimativa de densidade de mamfferos
e aves de mddio e grande porte L. Cullen, Jr. & R. Rudran,
pp.169-179; Levantamento rapido de mamfferos terrestres
de mddio e grande porte R. Pardini, E. H. Ditt, L. Cullen,
Jr., C. Bassi & R. Rudran, pp.181-201; Manejo e control de
danos causados por especies da fauna S. M. C. Cavalcanti,
pp.203-242; Uso de armadilhas fotograficas em levantamen-
tos populacionais W. M. Tomas & G. H. B. de Miranda,
pp.243-267; Armadilhamento fotogrifico de grandes felinos:
Algumas considerao6es importantes U. Karanth, J. D.
Nichols & L. Cullen, Jr., pp.269-284; Radiotelemetria em
estudos populacionais A. A. Jacob & R. Rudran, pp.285-
342; Metodologias moleculares utilizadas em gen&tica da
conservacao B. M. Perez-Sweeney, E. P. Rodrigues & D.
Melnick, pp.343-380. Parte 2. Vegetacao e Ecologia de Pai-
sagem. Restauracao e conservacao de ecossistemas tropicais,
P. Kageyama & E B. Gandara, pp.383-394; Fenologia, fru-
givoria e dispersao de sementes M. Galetti, M. A. Pizo &
P. C. Morellato, pp.395-422; Estrutura da paisagem: 0 uso
adequado das m&tricas -J. P. Metzger, pp.423-453; M&todos
para analise de vegetacao arb6rea G. Durigan, pp.455-479;
Conservacao em paisagens fragmentadas E. Rodrfgues, R.
L. P. Cainzos, J. Queiroga & B. C. Herrmann, pp.481-511.
Parte 3. Analises Estatisticas. Estatistica e interpretacao de
dados P. de Marco Jr. & A. P. Paglia, pp.515-538; Deli-
neamento de experiments numa perspective de ecologia
da paisagem J. P. Metzger, pp.539-553. Parte 4. Educaqao

Ambiental e Conservacao. A abordagem participativa na
educaqao para a conservacao da natureza S. M. Padua,
M. E Tabanez & M. das G. de Souza, pp.557-591; Anilise
da sustentabilidade de caca em florestas tropicais no Peru
- Estudo de caso R. E. Bodmer & J. G. Robinson, pp.593-
629; Entrevistas e aplicaqao de questionarios em trabalhos
de conservacao E. M. Ditt, W. Mantovani, C. B. Valla-
dares-PAdua & C. Bassi, pp.631-646; Manejo integrado de
especies ameagadas C. B. Valladares-PAdua, C. S. Martins
& R. Rudran, pp.647-665. 0 livro podera ser adquirido na:
Editora da Universidade Federal do Parana, Centro Polit&c-
nico, Jardim das Am&ricas, Caixa Postal 19.029, 81531-980
Curitiba, Parana, Brasil, Tel/Fax: (41) 361-3380. Website:

Monogamy: Mating Strategies and Partnerships in Birds,
Humans, and Other Mammals, edited by Ulrich H. Reich-
ard and Christophe Boesch. Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge, UK. 2003. 278pp. ISBN: 0521819733 (cloth),
ISBN: 0521525772 (paperback). Price: $100.00 (cloth),
$40.00 (paperback). Why do males of some species live
with a single mate when they are capable of fertilizing more
than one female's eggs? Why do some females pair only with
one male, and not with several partners? Why do birds usu-
ally live in pairs and feed chicks together, whilst mammals
often live in larger groups with females rearing their young
without male help? These questions form the central theme
of this book. Social monogamy is a complex, multi-faceted
phenomenon that does not always correspond with repro-
ductive monogamy, so a paired male may not necessarily
be raising his own offspring. Exploring the variables influ-
encing and maintaining the fascinating diversity of social,
sexual and reproductive monogamous partnerships in birds,
mammals and humans, this book provides clues to the bio-
logical roots of monogamy for students and researchers in
behavioral ecology, evolutionary anthropology, primatol-
ogy, zoology and ornithology. Contents: 1. Monogamy: Past
and present U. H. Reichard. Part I. Evolution of Social
Monogamy. 2. The evolution of monogamy: Mating rela-
tionships, parental care and sexual selection A. P. Moller;
3. Mate guarding and the evolution of social monogamy
in mammals P. N. M. Brotherton & P. E. Komers; 4.
The evolution of social monogamy in primates C. P. van
Schaik & P. M. Kappeler; 5. The evolution of social and re-
productive monogamy in Peromyscus: Evidence from Pero-
myscus californicus (the California mouse) D. 0. Ribble.
Part II. Reproductive Strategies of Socially Monogamous
Males and Females. 6. Social functions of copulation in the
socially monogamous razorbill (Alca torda) R. H. Wagner;
7. Social and reproductive monogamy in rodents: The case
of the Malagasy giant jumping rat (Hypogeomys antimena)
- S. Sommer; 8. Social polyandry and promiscuous mating
in a primate-like carnivore, the kinkajou (Potosfliavus) R.
Kays; 9. Monogamy correlates, socioecological factors, and
mating systems in beavers Lixing Sun; 10. Social monog-
amy and social polygyny in a solitary ungulate, the Japanese
serow (Capricornis crispus) R. Kishimoto. Part III. Repro-
ductive Strategies of Human and Non-human Primates. 11.
Ecological and social complexities in human monogamy

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

- B. S. Low; 12. Social monogamy in a human society:
Marriage and reproductive success among the Dogon B.
I. Strassmann; 13. Social monogamy in gibbons: The male
perspective U. H. Reichard; 14. Pair living and mating
strategies in the fat-tailed dwarf lemur (Cheirogaleus
medius) J. Fietz; 15. Social monogamy and its variations
in callitrichids: Do these relate to the costs of infant care?
- Anne W. Goldizen; 16. Monogamy in New World pri-
mates: What can patterns of olfactory communication tell
us? Eckhard W. Heymann. Available from: Cambridge
University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY
10011-4221, USA, Fax: +1 212-691-3239. GeneralAddress
(Orders, Customer Service): Cambridge University Press,
100 Brook Hill Drive, West Nyack, NY 10994-2133, USA,
Tel: +1 845-353-7500, Fax: +1 845-353-4141. Website:

Nutrient Requirements j .'.....'. .' Primates, edited by the
National Research Council of The National Academies.
Second Revised Edition, 2003. The National Academies
Press, Washington, DC. 286pp. ISBN 0-309-06989-0 (pa-
perback). The Second Revised Edition 2003 is an update on
the previous 1972 and 1978 First Editions, covering over 250
species of primates. Chapter 1 is new and discusses foraging
in the wild, gastrointestinal morphology and physiology of
prosimians, marmosets, cebids, colobines, non-colobine cer-
copithecines, and the apes. Chapter 2 covers energy require-
ments of adults, growth of young, pregnancy and lactation.
Chapter 3 discusses carbohydrates including classification
and digestion, incorporating examples of wild sources of
fiber and what fiber levels are found in captive primate
diets. Chapter 4 covers protein sources and requirements,
Chapter 5 fats and fatty acids, Chapter 6 minerals, Chapter
7 vitamins, and Chapter 8 water requirements. Chapter 9
discusses pathophysiologic and life-stage considerations, and
Chapter 10 diet formulation and dietary husbandry. Chapter
11 covers nutrient requirements and purified and semipuri-
fied diets. Chapter 12 is comprised largely of tables includ-
ing, for example, the composition of important feeds, min-
eral concentrations in macro- and micromineral sources, and
the characteristics of various sources of fats and oils. Chapter
13 examines food as a component of environmental enrich-
ment. Mary Ellen Goldberg (Virginia Commonwealth Uni-
versity, Richmond, VA), who reviewed the book for Primate-
Science Book Reviews, Primate-Science List Serve ( //www.primate.wisc.edu/pin/review/goldbergreview.html>)
(July 2, 2003), concluded that the book "encompasses every-
thing imaginable under the topic of Nutrient Requirements
of Nonhuman Primates. There should be a copy in every
facility, whether public or private, to be referred to, most
probably weekly. I can highly recommend this text and admit
to enjoying it more than any other nutrition text I've read."
This book is available from the National Academies Press at
, where it can be
ordered in hardcopy or browsed online.

Primate Life Histories and Socioecology, edited by Peter M.
Kappeler and Michael E. Pereira, 2003. 416pp. The Uni-
versity of Chicago Press, Chicago. ISBN 0 226 42463 4

(cloth), 0 226 42464 2 (paperback). Price: Cloth $75.00,
Paper $30.00. The first systematic attempt to understand
relationships among primate life histories, ecology, and
social behavior. Topics covered include how primate life
histories interact with rates of evolution, predator pres-
sure, and diverse social structures; how the slow maturation
of primates affects the behavior of both young and adult
caregivers; and reciprocal relationships between large brains
and increased social and behavioral complexity. Contents:
Foreword R. D. Martin, xi-xx; Primate life histories and
socioecology P. M. Kappeler, M. E. Pereira & C. P. van
Schaik, pp. 1-23. Part 1. Life History and Socioecology. Pri-
mate life histories and phylogeny A. Purvis, A. J. Webster,
P.-M. Agapow, K. E. Jones & N. J. B. Isaac, pp.25-40; So-
cioecological correlates of phenotypic plasticity of primate
life histories P. C. Lee & P. M. Kappeler, pp.41-65; Matrix
models for primate life history analysis S. C. Alberts &
J. Altmann, pp.66-102; Puzzles, predation, and primates:
Using life history to understand selection pressures C.
H. Janson, pp.103-131; Adaptations to seasonality: Some
primate and nonprimate examples J. U. Ganzhorn, S.
Klaus, S. Ortmann & J. Schmid, pp.132-144. Part 2.
Development. Modes of primate development M. E.
Pereira & S. R. Leigh, pp.149-176; Dental development
and primate life histories L. R. Godfrey, K. E. Samonds,
W. L. Jungers & M. R. Sutherland, pp.177-203; Human
life histories: Primate trade-offs, grandmothering socioecol-
ogy, and the fossil record K. Hawkes, J. E O'Connell &
N. G. Blurton-Jones, pp.204-227. Part 3. Evolution of
Primate Brains. Primate brains and life histories: Renewing
the connection R. 0. Deaner, R. A. Barton & C. P. van
Schaik, pp.233-265; Life history, infant care strategies, and
brain size in primates C. Ross, pp.266-284; Why are apes
so smart? R. I. M. Dunbar, pp.285-298. Part 4. Where do
we go from here? Primate life histories and future research
- S. C. Stearns, M. E. Pereira & P. M. Kappeler, pp.301-
311. Appendix A primate life history database, pp.313-
330. Available from: The University of Chicago Press,
e-mail: . Website: press.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/hfs.cgi/00/15344.ctl>.

Primates de la Amazonia delEcuador /Primates ofAmazonian
Ecuador, by Stella de laTorre, 2000, 60pp. ISBN 9978-41-
577-7. Part of the SerieFauna delEcuador, published by the
Corporaci6n Sociedad para la Investigaci6n y Monitoreo
de la Biodiversidad Ecuatoriana (SIMBIOE), Quito. In
Spanish and English. An excellent little field guide, with
color illustrations of Ecuador's 15 primate species. Follow-
ing an introduction, treatments of each species include the
common name, a distribution map, and sections which
describe their appearance and provide information on
social structure, habitat, and feeding habits. Available from:
SIMBIOE, Av. Amazonas 2915 e Inglaterra, Edificio Ingla-
terra, Piso 2, Apartado 17-11-6025, Quito, Ecuador, Tel:
(593-2) 431-097, 452-596, Fax: (593-2) 442-771, e-mail:

Primates de Colombia, by Thomas R. Defler, 2003, 543pp.
Conservaci6n Internacional, Bogota, Colombia. ISBN

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

1-881173-73-9. Conservacidn Internacional Serie de Guias
Tropicales de Campo, edited by Jose Vicente Rodriguez-Ma-
hecha. In Spanish. Illustrations by Stephen D. Nash, C&sar
LanadazAbal Mendoza and Margarita Nieto Diaz. This is
a remarkable and amply and beautifully illustrated guide
and compilation of information on 27 species of primates
occurring in the country. Following presentations by Peter
Seligmann (CEO, Conservation International), Russell A.
Mittermeier (President, Conservation International) and
Fabio Arjona (Executive Director, Conservaci6n Interna-
cional Colombia) and a Prologue by Jose Vicente Rodri-
guez-Mahecha, the author reviews Colombian primate
diversity, prehistory and zoogeography and the phylogeny
of the platyrrhines and their classification, and summarizes
the conservation status of the Colombian primates. The
species are divided into four families: Cebidae (Callimico,
(.,. Saguinus, Cebus and Saimiri), Aotidae (Aotus),
Atelidae (Alouatta, Ateles, Lagothrix), and Pitheciidae (Cal-
licebus, Cacajao, Pithecia). Descriptions and treatments of
the species and subspecies are comprehensive, with colour
illustrations of each, drawings of the skulls of each genus,
and line drawings of typical postures and behaviors. Excel-
lent range maps are provided for all species and subspecies.
At the end there is an extensive glossary of terms and a com-
prehensive bibliography for the New World primates and
Colombian primates in particular. The book is dedicated
(with a wonderfully appropriate photograph of a sleep-
ing "mono", Alouatta seniculus) in memorial to Jorge I.
Hernandez-Camacho, naturalist and mentor of the author.
It will serve not only as a guide to identifying Colombia's
primate species and subspecies, but is also an excellent com-
pendium and source of information for conservation and
research efforts on their behalf. Available from: Thomas R.
Defler, Instituto Imani, Universidad Nacional de Colom-
bia, Leticia, Colombia, e-mail: , or
Jose Vicente Rodrfguez-Mahecha, e-mail: conservation.org>.

Primates Face to Face: The Conservation Implications of
Human-nonhuman Primate Interconnections, edited by
Agustin Fuentes and Linda Wolfe, 2002. 358pp. Cam-
bridge Studies in Biological and Evolutionary Anthropol-
ogy, 29. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
ISBN 0 521 79109X. Price: Hardback 60.00. As our
closest evolutionary relatives, nonhuman primates are
integral elements in our mythologies, diets and scientific
paradigms, yet most species now face an uncertain future
through exploitation for the pet and bushmeat trades, as
well as progressive habitat loss. New information about
disease transmission, dietary and economic linkage, and
the continuing international focus on conservation and
primate research have created a surge of interest in pri-
mates, and focus on diverse interaction of human and
nonhuman primates has become an important component
in primatological and ethnographic studies. By examin-
ing the diverse and fascinating range of relationships
between humans and other primates, and how this plays
a critical role in conservation practice and programs, Pri-
mates Face to Face disseminates the information gained

from the anthropological study of nonhuman primates
to the wider academic and nonacademic world. Avail-
able from: Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th
Street, New York, NY 10011-4211, USA, Tel: (800) 872-
7423, Fax: (914) 937-4712, e-mail: cambridge.org>. Website: .

The Trade in '1 --j, Regulation for Conservation, edited
by Sara Oldfield. 2002. Earthscan Publications, London.
ISBN 1 85383 954 X (hardback), 1 85383 959 0 (paper-
back). Price: 48.00 (hardback) and 17.95 (paperback).
This book provides a critical assessment of how the trade
in wildlife is currently regulated and how the regulations
are enforced. Through analysis of case studies and com-
parisons with the trade in illegal goods, it shows what the
weaknesses are and where the system is failing. It points
the way to what must be done if conservation efforts are
to be supported by trade regulations, and not undermined.
Contents: Preface Michael Meacher. Part 1. Background.
The nature and extent of legal and illegal trade in wildlife;
What is the goal of regulating wildlife trade?; Is regula-
tion a good way to achieve this goal?; Regulatory design;
Regulation, conservation and incentives; Control and the
holy grail. Part 2. Systems Regulation and Enforcement.
Compliance and enforcement mechanisms of CITES; The
European Community wildlife trade regulations; Evolu-
tion, impact and effectiveness of domestic wildlife trade
bans in India. Part 3. Case Studies. Regulation and pro-
tection: successes and failures in rhinoceros conservation;
Elephant poaching and resource allocation for law enforce-
ment; Crocodiles: legal trade snaps back; Regulation of the
timber trade; Bushmeat: traditional regulation of or adap-
tation to market forces; The impact of the proposal to list
the Devil's Claw on Appendix II of CITES; The need for
a better understanding of context when applying CITES
regulations: the case of the Indonesian parrot Tanimar
corella. Part 4. Lessons from Illegal Trade in Other Goods.
Lessons from the control of illegal trade in ozone-depleting
substances, fisheries and timber; The controlled trade in
drugs; Lessons from the trade in illicit antiquities. Conclu-
sion: Looking ahead: international wildlife regulation and
enforcement. Contributors: S. Broa, T. Mulliken, D. Roe,
N. Sinclair-Brown, B. Moyle, M. Murphree, J. C. Vasquez,
D. Morgan, M. Misra, N. Leader-Williams, H. Jachmann,
J. Hutton, G. Webb, S. Oldfield, W. Bowen-Jones, C.
Lombard, P. du Plessis, P. Jepson, D. Brack, D. Lowe, N.
Brodie and R. Cooney.

Other titles from Earthscan Publications include: Policing
International Trade in Endangered Species: The CITES Treaty
and Compliance, by Rosalind Reeve (19.95 paperback
and 50.00 hardback), and Endangered Species, Threat-
ened Convention: The Past, Present and Future of CITES, the
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of
Wild Fauna and Flora, edited by J. Hutton & B. Dickson
(14.95 paperback and 35.00 hardback). Available
from: Earthscan, 120 Pentonville Road, London, N1
9BR, UK, Fax: +44 (0)20 7278 1142, e-mail: earthscan.co.uk>. Website: .

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003


Adams, J. S., Chen, H., Chun, R. E, Nguyen, L., Wu, S.,
Ren, S. Y., Barsony, J. and Gacad, M. A. 2003. Novel
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Brown, C. H. 2003. Ecological and physiological con-
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Chen, H., Hu, B., Huang, G. H., Trainor, A. G.,
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In: Primate Audition: F1-'-. i and Neurobiology, A. A.
Ghazanfar (ed.), pp.43-59. CRC Press, Boca Raton.
Miller, K. E., Laszlo, K. and Dietz, J. M. 2003. The role
of scent marking in the social communication of wild
golden lion tamarins, Leontopithecus rosalia. Anim. Behav.
65(4): 795-803.
Newman, J. D. 2003. Auditory communication and cen-
tral auditory mechanisms in the squirrel monkey: Past
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biology, A. A. Ghazanfar (ed.), pp.227-246. CRC Press,
Boca Raton.
Nunn, C. L. 2003. Behavioural defences against sexu-
ally transmitted diseases in primates. Anim. Behav. 66(1):
Palacios, E. 2003. Primate conservation at the lower Ca-
queti and Apaporis Rivers through educational activities.
ASP Bulletin 27(1): 9.
Peres, C. A. and Lake, I. R. 2003. Extent of nontimber re-
source extraction in tropical forests: Accessibility to game
vertebrates by hunters in the Amazon basin. Conserv. Biol.
17(2): 521-535.
Perry, S., Manson, J. H., Dower, G. and Wikberg, E. 2003.
White-faced capuchins cooperate to rescue a groupmate
from a Boa constrictor. Folia Primatol. 74: 109-111.
Phillips, K. A., Grafton, B. and Haas, M. E. 2003. Tap-
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Plavcan, J. M. 2003. Scaling relationships between cranio-
facial sexual dimorphism and body mass dimorphism in
primates: Implications for the fossil record. Am. J. Phys.
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Power, M. L., Tardif, S. D., Power, R. A. and Layne, D.
G. 2003. Resting energy metabolism of Goeldi's monkey
(Callimico goeldii) is similar to that of other callitrichids.
Am. J. Primatol. 60(2): 57-67.
Resende, M. C., Tavares, M. C. H. and Tomaz, C. 2003.
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Rodriguez-Toledo, E. M. and Mandujano, W. S. 2003.
Evaluation of actual and potential fragments occupation
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S.*. .. 'vellerosus) monkeys in an altered landscape in
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Ruiz-Garcia, M. and Alvarez, D. 2003. RFLP analysis of
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Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003


Selected abstracts from the Primate Society of Great Brit-
ain Spring Meeting, School of Psychology, University of
St. Andrews, Fife, Scotland, 10-11 April, 2003. In: Pri-
mate Eye 80, June 2003.

Ashley, P. J., Neill, J. C., Middelmiss, D. N. and Hendrie,
C. A. Behavioural and physiological methods for the as-
sessment of social status in pair housed common marmo-
sets (( .-' jacchus), p.3.
Barrett, L. From 'what now?' to 'what if?': Quotidian cogni-
tion and cognitive control, pp.3-4.
Blackwood, N., Pearce, P., Scott, L. and De Ruiter, J. Do
age and sex affect responsiveness to novelty in common
marmosets? p.5.
Buchanan-Smith, H. M., Smith, A. C., Surridge, A. K.,
Prescott, M. J., Osorio, D. and Mundy, N. I. Colour
vision and cognition in primates, pp.5-6.
Caldwell, C. and Whiten, A. Can scroungers be learners?
Social learning in common marmosets, C .- jacchus,
Laland, K. Necessity is the mother of primate invention:
An examination of behavioral innovation in primates,
Moura, A. C. de A. and Lee, P. C. The cognitive abilities of
Cebus ,i///,q libidinosus. Tool use and survival in a harsh
environment, p. 12.
Snowdon, C. T. Social learning in cooperative breeders,
Valero, A. and Byrne, R. W. Do spider monkeys have
mental maps? A new procedure to study animal move-
ments in the wild, p.24.
Van Bergen, Y., Almond, R. and Brown, G. R. Marmosets
go back to school: The role of food sharing in learning
about food, pp.17-18.

In: Livro de Resumos: III Simposio sobre Micos-Leoes,
Parque Nacional da Serra dos Orgaos, Teres6polis, Rio
de Janeiro, Brasil, 26-28 de maio de 2003. Centro de
Protecao de Primatas Brasileiros, Cabedelo, Parafba, As-
sociacao Mico-Leao-Dourado, Casimiro de Abreu, Rio
de Janeiro.

Amaral, A. T., Prado, F & Valladares-PAdua, C. B. Es-
timativa do tamanho populacional de micos-le6es-de-
cara-preta (Leontopithecus caissara) na Ilha de Superagiii,
Guaraquegaba, PR, Brasil, p.64.
Bampi, M. I. Cooperacao institutional e sua importancia
na conservagao de primatas do genero Leontopithecus: "A
contribuigao do IBAMA", p.41.
Beck, B. B., Castro, I., Martins, A., Rambaldi, D., Dietz, J.
D., Kleiman, D. G. & Rettberg-Beck, B. Causes of loss
of reintroduced golden lion tamarins and their offspring,
Bento, M. I. da S. & Santos, M. B. Ag6es integradas para o
desenvolvimento sustentavel dos assentamentos no entor-
no da Reserva Biol6gica Pogo das Antas / IBAMA, p.53.

Brito, B., Brandao, R. A. & Rocha, S. B. Areas protegidas
para os micos-le6es, p.30.
Camara, I. de G. Leontopithecus como modelo para a con-
servagao de primatas tropicais em unidades de conserva-
gao, p.18.
Cardos, B. M. S. Experiencias do Zoo de Salvador em
reprodugao de Leontopithecus chrysomelas (Kuhl, 1820)
(Callitrichidae, Primates), p.61.
Coelho, A. S., Ruiz-Miranda, C. R. & Kleiman, D. G.
Ontogenia dos choros e trinos emitidos por micos-le6es-
dourados, Leontopithecus rosalia, p.57.
Coimbra-Filho, A. E Desafios do passado e present na
conservagao dos micos-le6es, p.17.
Cullen Jr., L. Agrofloresta, eco-negociacao e a conservacao da
biodiversidade no Pontal do Paranapanema, Sao Paulo, p.37.
Dietz, J. D., Ballou, J. & Baker, A. J. Conseqiiencias gend-
ticas e demograficas da fragmentagao das populagoes de
micos-le6es, p.33.
Deitz, L. A. A contribuigao das ONGs, p.44.
Eloy, E. C. C., Oliveira, M. M., Laroque, P. & Porfirio, S. A
aplicacao da experiencia com micos-le6es no manejo das
populagoes cativas de primatas brasileiros, p.62.
Fandi, A. C., Santos, G. R. dos & Gomes, A. R. Educadao
ambiental para a sustentabilidade do entorno da Reserva
Biol6gica de Una (REBIO Una), p.55.
Fernandes, R. V. & Rambaldi, D. M. Corredores florestais:
Novos caminhos para o mico-ledo-dourado, p.38.
Grativol, A. D., Fernandez, E & Cooper, A. DNA antigo
e gen&tica da conservagao do mico-ledo-dourado (Leonto-
pithecus rosalia), p.56.
Henry, M. D., Bales, K. L., Miller, K. E. & Dietz, J. D.
Effects of resource availability on reproductive patterns in
golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia), p.66.
Kierulff, M. C. M. & Proc6pio de Oliveira, P. Program
de translocacao de micos-le6es-dourados (Leontopithecus
rosalia), p.29.
Lapenta, M. J., Proc6pio de Oliveira, P & Kierulff, M. C.
M. 0 mico-ledo-dourado (Leontopithecus rosalia) como
dispersor de sementes na Reserva Biol6gica Uniao /
IBAMA, Rio das Ostras RJ, p.52.
Martins, C. S. & Valladares-Padua, C. B. Atual status da
conservacao de Leontopithecus chrysopygus, p.22.
Matsuo, P M. & Boucinha, V. Envolvendo escolas na
conservagao do mico-ledo-dourado e da mata Atlantica,
Monteiro, R. V. & Jansen, A. M. Doengas em primatas e o
risco da fragmentacao dos ambientes naturais, p.36.
Nascimento, M. T. Estrutura da vegetagao em habitats
fragmentados, p.35.
Oliveira, M. M. de. A contribuigao do Centro de Protegao
de Primatas Brasileiros no esforgo de conservagao dos
micos-le6es, p.42.
Paranhos, K. M., Martins, C. S. & Valladares-Padua, C. B.
Resultados preliminares da atualizacao do status popula-
cional do mico-ledo-preto, Leontopithecus chrysopygus, no
Parque Estadual Morro do Diabo, SP, p.63.
Paschoal, F R. Contribuigao dos zool6gicos brasileiros na
conservacao do genero Leontopithecus, p.45.
Passos, F C. A contribuicao das universidades, p.43.

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

Pissinatti, A. A contribuigao das populag6es em cativeiro,
Prado, E, Valladares-Padua, C. B. & Amaral, A. T. Levanta-
mento populacional de mico-leao-de-cara-preta (Leonto-
pithecus caissara) no estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil, p.65.
Proc6pio de Oliveira, P. Atual status da conservagao do
genero Leontopithecus "Mico-leao-dourado (Leontopithe-
cus rosalia)", p.21.
Proc6pio de Oliveira, P., Veruli, V. P. & Keirulff, M. C. M.
Estrutura do habitat na Reserva Biol6gica Uniao, p.51.
Raboy, B. E. GHLTs: Proactive conservation for the 21st
century, p.23.
Rambaldi, D. M. & Godoy, F Sequestro de carbon:
Novas oportunidades para a mata Atlantica e os micos-
le6es, p.49.
Rapaport, L. & Tressoldi, B. A inffiencia do forrageamento
social no desenvolvimento dos micos-le6es-dourados sel-
vagens, p.59.
Ruiz-Miranda, C. R., Morais, M. M. de, Martins, A. &
Beck, B. B. Conservagao dos micos-le6es em fragments
de mata: Especies invasoras, condigao fisica dos animals e
comportamento social, p.34.
Ruiz-Miranda, C. R., Amorim, A. P. S., Beck, B. B., Bonad-
iman, S. E & Martins, A. Diferengas de peso entire micos-
le6es-dourados (Leontopithecus rosalia) reintroduzidos
nascidos em cativeiro e sua prole sob diferentes manejos
p6s solta, p.58.
Silva, B. A., Guedes, P. G., Boubli, J. P. & Salles, L. 0.
Descrigao preliminary das estruturas microsc6picas dos
pelos-guarda de Leontopithecus rosalia (Linnaeus, 1766)
e Leontopithecus chrysomelas (Kuhl, 1820) (Platyrrhini,
Primates), p.60.
Valladares-PAdua, C. B. Jose Marcio Ayres, o primatologo
que gostava de criar reserves, pp.5-6. (Obituary.)
Venorin, L. B., Godoy, E & Fernandes, R. V. Mapeamento
de RPPNs como instrument de conservagao do habitat
para o mico-leao-dourado, p.50.

Selected abstracts from the 28th International Ethological
Conference, Florian6polis, Santa Catarina, Brazil, 20-27
August, 2003. In: Revista de Etologia, 5 (Suppl.), 2003.
C. R. Ruiz-Miranda, M. J. R. Paranhos da Costa, R. H.
Macedo, A. V Peretti and C. Ades (eds.).

Almond, R. E., Van Bergen, Y. & Brown, G. R. Marmosets
go back to school: The role of food sharing in the devel-
opment of infant food preferences, p.73.
Baldovino, M. C. Infant handling in tufted capuchin mon-
keys (Cebus ./'i/i), p.143.
Bezerra, B. M., Schiel, N., Souto, A. & Huber, L. The
development of saltatory search in C .- jacchus (Pri-
mates: Callitrichidae), p.79.
Bicca-Marques, J. C., Garber, P. A. & Azevedo-Lopes, M.
A. de 0. An experimental study of social foraging in wild
titi monkeys (( .... cupreus) under conditions of
changing patch quality, p.35.
Bonnie, K. E. & de Waal, E B. M. Monkey see, monkey
do? Factors affecting observational learning in brown
capuchin monkeys (Cebus i'c//.i), p.80.

Brumm, H. & Todt, H. Acoustic communication in noise:
Regulation of signal characteristics in primates and birds,
Buchanan-Smith, H. & Prescott, M. Inter-specific social
learning in mixed species troops of tamarins, p.43.
Buchanan-Smith, H., Smith, A., Surridge, A., Prescott,
M., Osorio, D. & Mundy, N. Colour vision in primates:
Effects on foraging behaviour, efficiency and learning
abilities, p.82.
Caldwell, C. A. & Whiten, C. A. Can scroungers be learn-
ers? Social learning in the common marmoset, C
jacchus, p.227.
De la Torre, S. & Snowdon, C. T. Babbling in wild pygmy
marmosets, pp.88-89.
Fernandez-Duque, E. & Rotundo, M. Are female owl mon-
keys imposing social monogamy on males, p.92.
Fal6tico, T., Verderane, M. P., Resende, B. D., Ottoni, E. B.
& Izar, P. Rank reversal in females' hierarchy in semi-free-
ranging capuchin monkeys (Cebus. '//.i), p.158.
Fujita, K., Kuroshima, H. & Masuda, T. Spontaneous de-
ception by capuchin monkeys (Cebus .'c'//.) in an experi-
mental food-competition contest? p.58.
Garber, P. A., Bicca-Marques, J. C. & Azevedo-Lopes,
M. A. de 0. Experimental field study of decision-
making in two species of wild tamarins: Changing
foraging strategies under conditions of changing food
availability, p.44.
Gimcnez, M. C. & Fernandez-Duque, E. Summer and
winter diet of night monkeys in the gallery and thorn
forests of the Argentinean chaco, p.164.
Juarez, C. P., Rotundo, M. & Fernandez-Duque, E. Behav-
ioral sex differences in the socially monogamous night
monkeys of the Argentinean chaco, p. 174.
Kleiman, D. G. & Ruiz-Miranda, C. R. Behavioral compe-
tencies and reintroduction of captive-bred animals, p. 11.
Lefebvre, L. & Sol, D. Innovation and learning vary with
seasonality and food distribution, p.48.
Lefebvre, L., Bouchard, J. & Reader, S. Social learning in
mammals and birds: Similarities and differences, p.37.
Lopes Aradjo, F, Lopes, N. A., Santos, B. L. and Yama-
moto, M. E. Influence of the number of food sources
on feeding competition in captive ( .- jacchus,
Odalia-Rfmoli, A. Development of socialization of muriqui
infants (Brachyteles arachnoides), p. 189.
Oliveira, D. A. G. & Ades, C. Form and function in the
roars of two howler monkey species, p. 189.
Rapaport, L. & Tressoldi, B. Social foraging in immature
golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) in the Uniao
Federal Biological Reserve, RJ, Brazil, p.197.
Resende, B. D., Izar, P. and Ottoni, E. B. Interaction be-
tween social play and nutcracking behavior in semifree
tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus q",c//.), pp.198-199.
Ruiz-Miranda, C. R. Behavioral aspects of habitat fragmen-
tation, p.18.
Stamps, J. A. Habitat selection: Animal behavior meets
landscape ecology, pp. 13-14.
Santos, L. R. & Hauser, M. D. The cotton-top tamarin's
understanding of tools, p.44.

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

Schiel, N. & Huber, L. The ontogeny of social learning in
free-living ( .-'. jacchus, p.45.
Slater, P. J. B., Deecke, V. B. & Rainey, H. J. Calls and alarm
calls: Some problems of predator recognition, p.70.
Snowdon, C. T. Cooperative learning in cooperative breed-
ers, p.45.
Souto, A. & Moonen, C. How C .-' jacchus and Cal-
lithrix ...rr ..i solve string pattern problems: A compara-
tive study, p.46.
Sousa, M. B. C. de, Leao, A. de C., Nobre, A. V. de S. M.,
Mendonga, E E de & Leite, S. M. Influence of gender and
relatedness on the behavioral response of common mar-
mosets to environmental and social change, pp.209-210.
Spinelli, S., Feldon, J. & Pryce, C. Measuring cognition in
the home cage in common marmoset monkeys, p. 129.
Veracini, C. & Ruiz-Miranda, C. R. Alarm vocalizations in
two callitrichid species, p. 203.
Visalberghi, E. & Addessi, E. Do capuchin monkeys (Cebus
q''//i) learn from others, with others or by themselves
about novel foods? Insights from the laboratory, p.37.
Visalberghi, E. & Fragaszy, D. The role of behavioral, cog-
nitive and environmental factors in capuchin monkeys'
tool use, p.49.
Voelkl, B. and Huber, L. Social influences on the foraging
behaviour of common marmosets, p.46.
Yamamoto, M. E. & Aradjo Lopes, F Food neophobia and
food competition in captive ( .-'. jacchus, p.38.
Ycpez, P., de la Torre, S., Snowdon, C. T. & Pallares, M.
Inter-population differences in exudate feeding of pygmy
marmosets in Ecuadorian Amazonia, pp.223-224.
Zimmermann, E. How motivation/emotion may be encod-
ed in nonhuman primate vocal communication, p.32.


XXV Congresso Brasileiro de Zoologia, 8 a 13 de feverei-
ro, 2004, Brasilia. Promovido pela Sociedade Brasileira de
Zoologia. Organizaqao: Departamento de Zoologia, Uni-
versidade de Brasilia. 0 tema sera "A Conservacao da Fauna
do Cerrado". Maiores informao6es: ib/zoo/CBZ/>.

Catalysts for Conservation: A Direction for Zoos in the
21st Century, 19-20 February, 2004, Zoological Society
of London, Regent's Park, London, UK. Chester Zoo is
proud to co-organize an international symposium hosted
by The Zoological Society of London and the Wildlife
Conservation Society. This symposium will challenge the
global zoo community to review its conservation missions.
It will bring together leading thinkers and practitioners
familiar with the in situ and ex situ conservation roles of
zoos. Speakers will aim to define a new conservation vision
for zoos and aquariums that increases their contribution to

tackling the on-going global biodiversity crisis. Organized
by Alexandra Zimmermann (North of England Zoologi-
cal Society), Chris West (Zoological Society of London),
Matthew Hatchwell (Wildlife Conservation Society) and
Richard Lattis (Wildlife Conservation Society). For further
details contact: Alexandra Zimmermann, NEZS Conserva-
tion Coordinator, at
or Deborah Body, ZSL Scientific Meetings Coordinator,
at or visit publication/meeting.html>.

Student Conference on Conservation Science, 24-26
March, 2004, Department of Zoology, University of
Cambridge, UK. Plenary lectures by four leading figures
in the field: Prof. Gretchen Daily (Stanford University),
Prof. Kathy Homewood (University College, London),
Prof. John Reynolds (University of East Anglia) and Dr.
Bob Watson (The World Bank and former Chair, IPCC).
For more information see the website: zoo.cam.ac.uk/sccs>.

73rd Annual Meeting of the American Association of
Physical Anthropologists, 14-17 April, 2004, Tampa,
Florida. Hosted by the University of South Florida, the
meeting will be held at the Hyatt Regency Tampa Hotel.
For program information, contact John H. Relethford,
Dept. of Anthropology, State Univ. of New York, College
at Oneonta, Oneonta, NY 13820, phone: (607) 436-2017,
fax: (607) 436-2653, e-mail: .
For more information visit the AAPA meeting website at

27th Meeting of The American Society of Primatologists,
8-11 June, 2004, Madison, Wisconsin. Hosted by the
Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center and the De-
partment of Anthropology at the University of Wisconsin.
Meeting sessions will be held in the Memorial Union at the
University of Wisconsin. For information on registration
and submission guidelines, please see the website at www.asp.org/asp2004/index.htm>.

41st Meeting of the Animal Behavior Society, 12-16 June,
2004, Oaxaca, Mexico. For the first time, the Animal
Behavior Society will meet outside English-speaking
North America, with the vision of becoming a more geo-
graphically diverse society. Scientists from the Universidad
Nacional Aut6noma de Mexico, Mexico City, the Univer-
sidad Aut6noma de Tlaxcala, Tlaxcala and the Instituto
de Ecologfa, Xalapa, Veracruz, will host the meeting. For
more information contact Shan D. Duncan at @abs.animalbehavior.org>, or visit the websites at: //> and abs2004>.

International Fund for Animal Welfare Forum on
Wildlife Conservation, 17-20 June, 2004, University of
Limerick, Ireland. The theme is "Wildlife Conservation: In

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

Pursuit of Ecological Sustainability". The aim is to focus at-
tention on, and to advance the understanding of, issues sur-
rounding the pursuit of ecologically sustainable use and the
conservation of wildlife (including fisheries). The program
consists of approximately 24 invited lectures, and a limited
number of contributed papers, which will be presented as
posters. It is divided into five sessions: 1) The Global Con-
text; 2) Modern Examples; 3) Factors at Play; 4) The Way
Forward; 5) Theory into Practice. The program committee
invites submission of abstracts to be considered for inclu-
sion in the program as contributed poster papers. Abstracts
will be received until 1 February, 2004. Abstracts should
follow the guidelines described in the "Abstract Guidelines"
section on the IFAW website. For more information on the
Forum, including a list of confirmed speakers, please visit
or contact Sheryl Fink at

Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation
2004 Annual Meeting, 12-15 July, 2004, Miami,
Florida, USA. The meeting will be held at the James L.
Knight International Center in downtown Miami, with
the theme of "Geographic and Conceptual Frontiers of
Tropical Biology." The meeting will be co-sponsored by the
University of Miami and Florida International University,
along with other members of the Center for Excellence in
Tropical Biology. The deadline for symposium proposals
is 15 October, 2003. For more information as it becomes
available, visit the ATBC Meetings webpage at www.atbio.org/meetings.html> or contact the two Program
Directors: Theodore H. Fleming, Department of Biology,
University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124, USA, Tel.:
305-284-6881, Fax: 305-284-3039, email: cox.miami.edu>, or David Lee, Department of Biological
Sciences, Florida International University, University Park,
Miami, FL 33199, USA, Tel.: 305-348-3111, Fax: 305-
348-1986, email: .

18th Annual Meeting of the Society for Conservation
Biology, 30 July 2 August, 2004, New York, New York.
The Center for Environmental Research and Conservation
(CERC) at the Earth Institute at Columbia University will
host the 2004 Society for Conservation Biology Annual
Meeting, bringing together conservation biology scientists,
practitioners and students from around the world. This
year's meeting theme is "Conservation in an Urbanizing
World." For the first time in history, more of the world's
population lives in urban rather than non-urban settings.
The urbanization process poses significant conservation
challenges, changing patterns of consumption, trade and
ecosystem use. Ecosystem health near urban areas is integral
to human welfare, and urban conservation issues involve
marine, freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems all over the
world. The SCB 2004 Annual Meeting will consider this
and other emerging topics through plenary sessions, sym-
posia, workshops, organized discussions, contributed oral
presentations, and poster sessions. Field trips to key restora-

tion and conservation sites in and near New York City have
been organized to highlight the possibilities that exist. For
more information, please visit the meeting website at //cerc.columbia.edu/scb2004/>.

Feeding Ecology in Apes and Other Primates: Ecological,
Physiological and Behavioral Aspects, 17-20 August, 2004,
Leipzig, Germany. This meeting addresses issues of feeding
ecology and related questions from different perspectives,
bringing together both field and lab scientists from different
disciplines including anthropology, evolutionary biology,
primatology, physiology, and biochemistry. The goal is
to synthesize the latest research on the feeding ecology of
apes, and to identify avenues of future research to best
understand the evolution of the diversity of feeding strategies
observed in the apes. The conference will be held at the Max
Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig,
Germany, and will host about twenty-five invited speakers
for oral presentations. In addition, the conference invites
poster presentations on related topics. For more information,
please contact Claudia Nebel ()
or Silke Streiber (), Max Planck
Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz
6, 04103 Leipzig, Germany, phone: 49-341-3550-200, fax:
49-341-3550-299, or see the conference website at //www.eva.mpg.de/primat/FEC2004/index.htm>.

XXth Congress of the International Primatological
Society, 23-28 August, 2004, Torino, Italy. All major
topics of primatology will be discussed, with an emphasis
on their interactions with other specialized branches of
modern biology. Special attention will be paid also to the
implementation of recent discoveries on primate welfare and
conservation. For comprehensive information on abstracts,
schedules, registration and pre-congress workshops, see the
website at .

VI International Conference on Wildlife Management in
Amazonia and Latin America, 5-10 September, 2004, Iquitos,
Peru. Organized by The National University of the Peruvian
Amazon (UNAP), the Durrell Institute of Conservation and
Ecology (DICE) and the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS).
The organizers cordially welcome and invite the participation
of a wide audience including students, professionals, local
communities, NGOs, government representatives and the
general public. Special emphasis during this conference will be
on lessons learned in wildlife conservation and management in
Amazonia and Latin America. Discussions and presentations
will look at the advances made for conservation, and the
lessons learned in the design, development, implementation,
methods, and management plans for wildlife in Amazonia
and Latin America. For further information, please visit the
conference website at . For
any questions, contact the conference organizers by e-mail
at . The Organizing
Committee includes Dr. Richard Bodmer (DICE), Dr. Lorgio
Verdi (UNAP) and Pablo Puertas (WCS).

Neotropical Primates 11(2), August 2003

IV Congress Brasileiro de Unidades de Conservacao,
17 a 21 de outubro de 2004, Curitiba, Parand, Estadao
Embratel 21 Convention Center. Realizaqao: Rede
Nacional Pr6-Unidades de Conservacao e Fundacao 0
Boticirio de Proteqao a Natureza, Rua Gongalves Dias 225,
Curitiba 80240-340, Parand, Brasil. Website: fundacaoboticario.org.br>.

3rd IUCN World Conservation Congress, 17-25 Novem-
ber 2004, Bangkok, Thailand. Theme: "People and Nature
- Only One World". IUCN members will gather to set the
work priorities of the Union and elect its Council for the in-
tersessional period. The IUCN World Conservation Forum
takes place 18-20 November, and the Members' Business
Assembly 21-25 November. The Species Survival Commis-
sion (SSC) meeting will be held in Bangkok over two days
prior to the Congress from 16 to 17 November, 2004. Dr.
David Brackett, who has served two terms as Chair of the
SSC, will be standing down, and elections will be held for
the new Chair during the Business Assembly. See: //www.iucn/org/themes/ssc>.


19th Annual Meeting of the Society for Conservation
Biology, 15 a 19 de julho de 2005, Universidade de Bra-
sflia (UnB), Brasflia. A organizaqao geral estari a cargo do
Prof. Miguel Angelo Marini, Departamento de Zoologia
da UnB. Informao6es detalhadas do congress s6 estarao
disponfveis na Internet em 2004.

Association of Tropical Biology and Conservation 2005
Annual Meeting, 23-29 July, 2005, Uberlandia, Brazil.
The venue will be the Uberlandia Convention Center. For
more information write to the Chair of the Organizing
Committee, Kleber del-Claro, Laborat6rio de Ecologia
Comportamental e Interagoes, Universidade Federal
de Uberlandia, Caixa Postal 593, Uberlandia, 38400-
902 Minas Gerais, Brazil, e-mail or
, .

IX International Mammalogical Congress, 31 July 5
August, 2005, Sapporo, Japan. Organizing Committee:
MAMMAL2005, c/o Field Science Center, Hokkaido
University, N11 W10, Sapporo 060-0811, Japan, e-mail:
. Website: //www.imc9.jp>.

29th International Ethological Conference, 20-27 August,
2005, Budapest, Hungary. The aim for this conference is to
encourage interdisciplinary discussion among representa-
tives of all areas of behavioral biology. The conference will
be hosted at the Eotvis University Convention Center on
the banks of the Danube. Deadline for early registration
and abstract acceptance: 1 March, 2005. Final deadline for
abstract acceptance: 1 May, 2005. Late registration until
1 June, 2005. For more information, write to: IEC2005,
Department of Ethology, Eotvis University, 1117 Buda-
pest, Hungary, or subscribe to the e-mail newsletter at


In the note cited below, the correct unit of measurement for
morphometric characters should be millimeters (mm) not
centimeters (cm). The author apologizes for any confusion
or inconvenience this error may have caused the reader.
None of the results or conclusions is changed due to this

Jones, C. B. 2003. Chest circumference differs by habitat
in Costa Rican mantled howler monkeys: Implications for
resource allocation and conservation. Neotrop. Primates
11(1): 22-24.

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d Spanish

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The force and mystery of set of Megadiversity, Hotspots
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Espectaculos de Vida Silvestre
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Wildlife Spectacles

Mail and Fax Order Form

Wildlife Spectacles by Russell A. Mittermeier, Patricio Robles Gil, Cristina G. Mittermeier, Thomas Brooks, Michael
Hoffmann, William R. Konstant, Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca, Roderic B. Mast. Preface by Peter A. Seligmann. Foreword by
William G. Conway. ISBN: 968-6397-72-8. Hardcover.
Price: $50.00 (includes UPS Ground shipping within the continental United States). Orders requiring faster service than
UPS Ground will be charged $50.00 plus all shipping costs.

Overnight shipping, wholesale orders, shipping outside of the continental United States, and/or Spanish versions, please call
Jill Lucena at (202) 912-1208.

Please complete the following form and mail or fax to:
Jill Lucena
Conservation International
1919 M Street NW, Suite 600
Washington, DC 20036 USA

Phone: (202) 912-1208
Fax: (202) 912-1026
E-mail: j.lucena@conservation.org
Please allow 2-3 weeks for delivery.

First name: Last Name:


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Title: Wildlife Spectacles (hardcover)
Quantity: x $50.00 / per copy (US dollars) Total: $
($50.00 price per copy includes UPS Ground shipping within continental US).
Overnight shipping, shipping outside of the continental US, wholesale orders, and/or Spanish versions,
please call Jill Lucena at (202) 912-1208.

1 Payment enclosed (check or money order payable to Conservation
International in US dollars)

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The journal/newsletter aims to provide a basis for conservation
information relating to the primates of the Neotropics. We
welcome texts on any aspect of primate conservation, including
articles, thesis abstracts, news items, recent events, recent publica-
tions, primatological society information and suchlike.


Please send all English and Portuguese contributions to:
John M. Aguiar, Conservation International, Center for Applied
Biodiversity Science, 1919 M St. NW, Suite 600, Washington,
DC 20036, Tel: 202 912-1000, Fax: 202 912-0772, e-mail:
, and all Spanish contributions to:
Ernesto Rodrfguez-Luna, Instituto de Neuroetologfa, Universi-
dad Veracruzana, Apartado Postal 566, Xalapa 91000, Veracruz,
Mexico, Tel: 281 8-77-30, Fax: 281 8-77-30, 8-63-52, e-mail:


Manuscripts may be in English, Spanish or Portuguese, and should
be double-spaced and accompanied by the text on diskette for
PC compatible text-editors (MS-Word, WordPerfect, Excel, and
Access), and/or e-mailed to (English,
Portuguese) or (Spanish). Hard
copies should be supplied for all figures (illustrations and maps)
and tables. The full name and address for each author should be
included. Please avoid abbreviations and acronyms without the
name in full. Authors whose first language is not English should
please have texts carefully reviewed by a native English speaker.

Articles. Each issue of Neotropical Primates will include up to
three full articles, limited to the following topics: Taxonomy,
Systematics, Genetics (when relevant for systematics), Biogeogra-
phy, Ecology and Conservation. Texts for full articles should not
exceed about 20 pages in length (1.5 spaced, and including the
references). Please include an abstract in English, and (optional)
one in Portuguese or Spanish. Tables and illustrations should be
limited to six, excepting only the cases where they are fundamental
for the text (as in species descriptions, for example). Full articles
will be sent out for peer-review.

Short articles. These are usually reviewed only by the editors.
A broader range of topics is encouraged, including such as
behavioral research, in the interests of informing on general
research activities which contribute to our understanding of
platyrrhines. We encourage reports on projects and conservation
and research programs (who, what, where, when, why, etc.) and
most particularly information on geographical distributions,
locality records, and protected areas and the primates which
occur in them. Texts should not exceed 10 pages in length
(1.5 spaced, including the references).

Figures and maps. Articles may include small black-and-white
photographs, high-quality figures, and high-quality maps and
tables. Please keep these to a minimum. We stress the importance
of providing maps which are publishable.

News items. Please send us information on projects, field sites,
courses, recent publications, awards, events, activities of Primate
Societies, etc.

References. Examples of house style may be found throughout this
journal. Please refer to these examples when listing references:

Journal article
Stallings, J. D. and Mittermeier, R. A. 1983. The black-tailed
marmoset (C( .- argentata melanura) recorded from Paraguay.
Am. J. Primatol. 4: 159-163.

Chapter in book
Brockelman, W. Y. and All, R. 1987. Methods of surveying and
sampling forest primate populations. In: Primate Conservation
in the Tropical Rain Forest, C. W. Marsh and R. A. Mittermeier
(eds.), pp. 23-62. Alan R. Liss, New York.

Napier, P. H. 1976. Catalogue of Primates in the British Museum
(.'. .- History). Part 1: Families Callitrichidae and Cebidae.
British Museum (Natural History), London.

Wallace, R. B. 1998. The behavioral ecology of black spider
monkeys in north-eastern Bolivia. Doctoral thesis, University of
Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.

Muckenhirn, N. A., Mortensen, B. K., Vessey, S., Fraser,
C. E. 0. and Singh, B. 1975. Report on a primate survey in
Guyana. Unpublished report, Pan American Health Organization,
Washington, DC.

Neotropical Primates is produced in collaboration
with Conservation International, Center for Applied
Biodiversity Science, 1919 M St. NW, Suite 600,
Washington, DC 20036, USA.

Printed on New Leaf Reincarnation Matte 80# cover (100% recycled/50% post-
consumer waste, processed chlorine free) and New Leaf Reincarnation Matte 70#
text (50% recycled/30% post-consumer waste, elemental chlorine free). By using this
environmentally friendly paper, Conservation International saved the following resources:
6 fully-grown trees
621 gallons of water
4 million BTUs of energy
294 pounds ofsolid waste
357 pounds of greenhouse gases
Calculated based on research done by EnvironmentalDefense another members of the Paper Task Force
For more information about New Leaf Paper, go to ww newleafpaper. corn.

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