Front Cover
 Back Matter
 Back Cover

Title: Neotropical primates
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098814/00042
 Material Information
Title: Neotropical primates a newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCNSSC Primate Specialist Group
Abbreviated Title: Neotrop. primates
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
Conservation International
Center for Applied Biodiversity Science
Publisher: Conservation International
Place of Publication: Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Publication Date: April 2003
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Primates -- Periodicals -- Latin America   ( lcsh )
Primates -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Wildlife conservation -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: review   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Brazil
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Language: English, Portuguese, and Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Mar. 1993)-
Issuing Body: Issued jointly with Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, <Dec. 2004->
General Note: Published in Washington, D.C., Dec. 1999-Apr. 2005 , Arlington, VA, Aug. 2005-
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 13, no. 1 (Apr. 2005).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098814
Volume ID: VID00042
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28561619
lccn - 96648813
issn - 1413-4705


This item has the following downloads:

NP11 ( PDF )

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Back Matter
        Back Matter
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text



.. ..............
... .. .. ....
... .. ..... ... .....

Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003 1

Marc G.M. van RoosmalenI and Tomas van Roosmalen2

/ Institute Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazdnia (INPA), Caixa Postal 478, Manaus 69.083-000, Amazonas, Brazil, e-mail:
2 Center for Environmental Research and Conservation (CERC), Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA, e-mail:


This paper describes a new genus of Amazonian marmosets, the dwarf marmoset Callibella, formerly identified as Callithrix
humilis (Van Roosmalen et al., 1998), and reports its phylogenetic relationship to other callitrichines, based on 902 base pairs
(bp) of the mitochondrial control region DNA sequence. The molecular data indicate an early divergence of Callibella humi-
lis, prior to the divergence of Cebuellapygmaea from the ancestral Amazonian marmoset stock. The high degree of divergence
of this new taxon warrants its placement in a distinct genus, Callibella. New observations from the morphology, physiology,
ecology, and edih. ... of the dwarf marmoset are presented which support this classification.

Key Words Primates, Callitrichidae, Callitrichinae, Callibella humilis dwarf marmoset, Cebuella pygmy marmoset, Mico
- Amazonian marmosets, Callithrix Atlantic marmosets, molecular genetics, phylogeny.


Descreve-se um novo g6nero de sagiiis da Amaz6nia Brasileira, o sagui-anao Callibella antes identificado como Callithrix
humilis (Van Roosmalen et al., 1998), e relata-se a sua condigao filogenetica baseada em 902 pares de bases da regiao de con-
trole mitochondrial. A seqiiencia da regiao de control mitochondrial revela uma divergencia cedo de Callibella humilis, antes da
divergencia de Cebuellapygmaea do sagiii Amaz6nico ancestral do Mico. 0 alto grau de divergencia deste taxon novo justifica
a sua colocacao num genero distinto, Callibella. Apresentam-se novas observatoes dos campos de morfologia, fisiologia, ecolo-
gia, e etologia do sagiii-anao os quais acrescentam a justificativa de ser classificado como o novo genero Callibella.

Palavras-Chave Primatas, Callitrichidae, Callitrichinae, Callibella humilis 'sagiii-anao', Cebuella 'mico-leiozinho', Mico
- 'sagiiis' da Amaz6nia, Callithrix 'sagiiis' Atlanticos, gen&tica molecular, filogenia.


Platyrrhines, the New World monkeys, were until recently
comprised of two families, the Cebidae and the Callitrichi-
dae (formerly Hapalidae) (Rosenberger, 1981). Schneider et
al. (1996), however, propose three families:

1) Cebidae, including three subfamilies: Cebinae (Cebus,
Saimiri), Aotinae (Aotus), and Callitrichinae (Callithrix,
Cebuella, Saguinus, Leontopithecus, Callimico);
2) Atelidae, including one subfamily: Atelinae (Ateles,
Brachyteles, Lagothrix, Alouatta); and
3) Pitheciidae (Pithecia, Chiropotes, Cacajao, Callicebus).

As presented in this paper, the callitrichine subfamily con-
sists of seven distinct genera, including Saguinus tamarinss),
Leontopithecus (lion tamarins), Mico (Amazonian marmo-
sets), Callithrix (Atlantic marmosets), Cebuella (pygmy
marmosets), Callibella (dwarf marmoset), and Callimico
(Goeldi's monkey). On morphological grounds, Callimico
stands apart in the family for its retention of third molars, its

bearing single offspring rather than twins (although sharing
this feature with Callibella), and its vocalizations (Snowdon,
1993). Callimico has been hypothesized as being basal to the
callitrichid clade (Rosenberger, 1984), and some authors
have proposed its placement in a separate family, Callimico-
nidae (Chiarelli, 1972; Hershkovitz, 1977).

Tamarins and lion tamarins have traditionally been viewed
as sharing a common ancestry, separate from the marmo-
sets and pygmy marmosets (Hershkovitz, 1977), but the
molecular data do not support these arrangements. Cronin
and Sarich (1978), based on the electrophoresis of plasma
proteins, put Callithrix and Callimico in a clade that forms
a trichotomy with Saguinus and Leontopithecus. Barroso et
al. (1997), comparing the IRBP intron 1 sequences, and
Schneider et al. (1993), comparing the e-globin nuclear
gene sequences, found the order of clade separation should
be (Saguinus (Leontopithecus (Callimico, Callithrix))),
whereas Horovitz and Meyer (1995) reversed the order of
separation between Leontopithecus and Saguinus based on
the 16S mitochondrial DNA sequences. Morphological

Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003

and molecular studies universally agree that marmosets and
pygmy marmosets are most closely related (e.g., Hershkov-
itz, 1977; Canavez et al., 1999; Porter et al., 1997).

The callitrichine subfamily represents a specialized clade
of diminutive primates that underwent secondary phyletic
dwarfing, probably due to its highly specialized diet and
feeding strategy-one based on insectivory, consumption
of small-seeded fruits (berries), and tapping exudates from
a number of woody plant species (Garber, 1992). Calli-
trichines are generally found in disturbed, edge or patchy
habitats, where a greater abundance of insects and berries
may be found (Peres, 1991). The callitrichines are unique
among New World primates in their vertically clinging
posture, made possible by claw-like nails that are specialized
for grasping onto the sides of large-diameter tree trunks.
This allows for more effective exploitation of tree sap and
insect larvae. Marmosets actively tap trees and lianas for
exudates by gouging small holes in the bark, which may
serve as an indefinitely reliable or keystone source of food.
Tamarins, lacking the tusked condition of the mandibular
incisors found in marmosets, do not actually gouge holes
themselves; but they do feed on exudates from damaged tree
stems (Egler, 1992) and Parkia fruits (Peres, 1991) as well as
"parasitizing" the gouge holes produced by sympatric pygmy
marmosets (Cebuella) (Soini, 1988). The life histories of all
callitrichines therefore indicate a highly specialized clade of
New World monkeys, instead of an ancestral or proto-plat-
yrrhine relic, as suggested by Hershkovitz (1977).

Another hallmark of the callitrichine subfamily is its
relatively high diversity of taxa. Saguinus includes 33 rec-
ognized taxa, most of which should merit full species status
upon closer morphological, molecular and biogeographi-
cal examination (Van Roosmalen and Van Roosmalen, in
prep.). Callithrix is composed of six species, while at least
14 species comprise the Amazonian Mico; four species are
recognized in Leontopithecus; and Cebuella, Callibella and
Callimico are monotypic genera. The callitrichine subfam-
ily can thus be summarized as a highly adaptive, thoroughly
diverse clade of primates that has successfully radiated
throughout much of South America.

Despite this diversity, little is known about the evolution-
ary relationships among the various species of marmoset.
In fact, most molecular phylogenies to date have found
that Mico, the Amazonian marmoset clade, is more closely
related to Cebuella (pygmy marmosets) than to Calli-
thrix, the Atlantic clade (Barroso et al., 1997; Canavez et
al., 1999; Porter et al., 1997; Tagliaro et al., 1997). This
evidence led Rylands et al. (2000) and Groves (2001) to
separate the larger marmosets into the genera Mico (Ama-
zonian clade) and C .-'. (Atlantic marmosets or ouis-
titis). This approach retained Cebuella in a distinct genus
rather than merging all marmosets-Amazonian, Atlantic
and pygmy-into a single genus. In a previous study (Van
Roosmalen et al, 2000), the phylogenetic standing of two
newly described Amazonian marmosets, Mico manicorensis
and M. acariensis, was investigated using the mitochondrial

control region. Given the relatively low number of species
represented in the few genetic studies on callitrichine inter-
relationships to date, the addition of the dwarf marmoset
to the existing phylogenies should help resolve evolutionary
patterns of radiation and speciation among the marmosets.

The purpose of this study is to determine the phylogenetic
status of the dwarf marmoset, discovered in 1996 and pub-
lished conservatively as C .-'. humilis Van Roosmalen et
al., 1998, based on mitochondrial control region (D-loop)
sequences. These sequences were selected for their high
rate of evolution, and have thus been considered optimal
for phylogenetic resolution among closely related organ-
isms by previous studies (Aquadro and Greenberg, 1983;
Tagliaro et al., 1997). The addition of the dwarf marmoset
to the marmoset phylogenetic tree-as well as new infor-
mation on its morphology, physiology, ontogeny, ecology
and ethology-should shed new light on the relationships
between marmoset clades, providing insight into patterns of
evolution, radiation and dispersal, and the mechanisms that
regulate isolation and speciation in the Amazon basin.

Genus Description

Genus Callibella Van Roosmalen and Van Roosmalen

C.. ..' .... Erxleben, 1777 type species Callithrix humilis
Van Roosmalen, Van Roosmalen, Mittermeier and Fonseca,

Callibella humilis (Van Roosmalen, Van Roosmalen,
Mittermeier and Fonseca, 1998)

Holotype: Museu Paraense Emflio Goeldi, Belkm, Pari,
Brazil, MPEG 24769, adult male, stuffed skin, skull. Speci-
men collected by Marc G. M. van Roosmalen and Tomas van
Roosmalen on May 16, 1997, one km south of Nova Olinda,
west bank of the lower Rio Aripuana, right bank tributary of
the Rio Madeira, south-central Amazonia, Brazil.

Type locality: West bank of the lower Rio Aripuana, one km
south of the settlement of Nova Olinda, 41 km SW of the
town of Novo Aripuana, Amazonas State, Brazil. This region
is located in south-central Amazonia, Brazil, south of the Rio
Amazonas and east of the Rio Madeira. Coordinates for the
type locality are 05 30' S, 600 24' W. Altitude 45 m.

Geographical distribution: The species is known from the
west bank of the lower Rio Aripuana, from the mouth with
the Rio Madeira just SW of the town of Novo Aripuana
south at least to the village of Tucunard on the west bank
of the Rio Aripuana, and along the east bank of the Rio
Madeira south as far as the mouth of the Rio Matauri. The
southern limit for the species, in the interfluve delineated
by the Rios Madeira, Matauri and Aripuana, is probably
the headwaters of the Rios Mariepaud and Araui. A geo-
graphically isolated population has been found along the
middle and upper reaches of the Rio Atininga, ca. 50 km
southwest of the southern limit of the main population and

Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003
ca. 10 km east of the town of Manicor6, situated on the east
bank of the Rio Madeira. A live specimen (INPA 4090) was
collected by the locals when it fell off the mother's back,
on the right bank of the Rio Atininga; coordinates for this
locality are 050 54' S, 610 15' W. This individual was kept
for two years in our breeding center in Manaus, where it
died just two weeks after giving birth to a single infant.
Fig. 1 shows the distribution and the localities where dwarf
marmosets were seen in the wild.

Habitat: All observations of wild dwarf marmosets in
their main distribution were in disturbed primary and
secondary terra firme rain forest, in the immediate vicin-
ity of plantations, fields and tree gardens managed by local

people (caboclos). In an earlier paper (Van Roosmalen et
al., 1998), we assumed that dwarf marmosets also occur
away from human settlements, although at extremely low
densities. However, four trained observers carried out an
intensive survey along two transects laid out perpendicular
on the left bank of the Rio Aripuana, one measuring 5
km (Capimtuba) and the other 3.5 km (Monte Alegre).
Accumulating 120 km of census observations, the survey
revealed not a single sighting of dwarf marmosets in undis-
turbed primary terra firme forest nor in riparian igapd forest
(Van Roosmalen and Peres, in prep.). Along both transects,
trees known to be exudate sources for dwarf marmosets
were carefully inspected, but only gouge holes made by
Mico manicorensis were found. During the surveys, both

Figure 1. Distribution of Callibella humilis. Numbers indicate localities where we have observed dwarf marmosets in the wild: 1. Nova
Olinda, type locality for Callibella humilis (0530'63"S, 6024'61"W); 2. Monte Alegre, opposite Ilha Monte Alegre, left bank of Rio
Aripuana (05o34'S, 60o23'W); 3. Novo Oriente, left bank of Lago Capimtuba (0543'S, 6017'W); 4. Terra Preta, left bank of Rio
Aripuana (0545'S, 6015'W) and Santa Maria, left bank of Rio Aripuana; 5. Igarape Arauazinho, left bank of Rio Aripuani; 6. Sao
Sebastiao, east bank of Lago Paiucuru, right bank of Rio Madeira; 7. Santa Cruz, on right bank near mouth of Rio Mariepaua, right-bank
tributary of Rio Madeira; 8. Sao Martin, right bank of lower Rio Matauri, right-bank tributary of Rio Madeira; 9. Gethal selective logging
site, 1 km north of Monte Alegre; 10. Tucunar&, left bank of Rio Aripuana, 2 km north of Lago Acaf Grande; 11. Guaridba, west bank of
Lago da Guaridba, left bank of Rio Aripuana (0513'03"S, 60023'04"W); 12. Atininga, both banks of upper Rio Atininga, on mouth of
Igarapd Santa Luzia and 5 km upstream from mouth of Ig. Santa Luzia (05o54'S, 6115'W). (Map by Stephen Nash.)
Note: extensive surveys at (a) Rio Arauazinho (0616'S, 60o20'W), (b) Sao Raimundo, (c) along both banks of the lower Rio Manicord,
and along the right bank of the lower Rio Aripuana (Rio Aracd, Jatuarana, Frechal, Prainha, Cipotuba, Tabira) as far south as Rio Juma,
Itapiranga and Prainha, did not reveal the presence of Callibella.

4 Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003
Mico manicorensis and Callicebus bernhardi-which share
with Callibella humilis a preference for disturbed forest
near human settlements, and abandoned or cultivated terra
preta anthrosols-were regularly seen in natural second-
ary forest growing in treefall clearings away from human
disturbance. Several groups of the disjunct southern dwarf
marmoset population, however, were observed in both
disturbed terra firme rain forest and seasonally inundated
forest (igapo6 of the Rio Atininga and its major tributaries.
Its seasonal habitat preference for igapd in this area has been
confirmed by the locals, but groups were also seen on and
near the few terrapretas scattered along this river on higher
ground behind the igapd. We assume that Callibel/a nowa-
days occurs almost exclusively on bluffs along blackwater
and clearwater streams and lakes, where generations of
ancient Indian farmers once lived and accumulated black-
earth deposits (Mann, 2002). (For a fuller discussion of
the anthropogenic black-earth areas known as terra pretas,
please refer to Appendix I.)

Diagnosis: A very small marmoset (sensu Hershkovitz,
1977), slightly larger in size than Cebuella (adult head-body
length = 160-170 mm; total length = 380-390 mm; weight
150-185 g), but sharing more physical and behavioral
characteristics with Mico. Adults are distinguished from
Cebuella by the following features: evenly non-banded
hairs, dark olive brown (not tawny agouti) above, orange-
yellow to golden to grayish-yellow below, including inner
sides of limbs; upper surface of hands, feet and lower arms
orange mixed with black; naked ears not concealed by a
cape of hair; a black triangular crown; white "eyebrows"
extending back to temples; triangular, naked face flesh-
colored and unpigmented (lacking the white mustache
or white dots beside the nostrils), except for blackish cir-
cumocular zone; larger inter-nostril distance; iris darker
orange-brown; streaks of white hairs (avg. 12 mm long)
growing from central pinna; tail longer, almost black, not
or obscurely orangish-ringed and longer-haired; color pat-
terns changing with age, particularly on head. Drastic color
changes with age are unique among marmosets, as are hair
tufts arising from the center of the pinnae (see Van Roos-
malen et aL, 1998 for description and illustrations). Table
1 gives body measurements and weight, Figures 2a, -b, and
-c provide adult cranial characteristics, and Table 2 lists
cranial and dental measurements.

Origin of the name: Callibella is a combination of the
Greek adjective calo or calli meaning 'beautiful' and the
Portuguese/Italian adjective bela/bella meaning 'beautiful,'
thus meaning 'double beautiful'; humilis means 'small' or
'dwarf' in Latin.
Comparisons with Other Callitrichines

In an earlier paper (Van Roosmalen etal., 1998), we offered
five hypotheses for the relationships and origins of the new
species, all equally parsimonious for lack of basic data on Figure 2. Skulls of adult male holotype Ca/libella humilis (CCM
behavior, ecology, geographic range and molecular genetics: 44 = MPEG 24769), adult female Callibella humilis (CCM 138 =
INPA 4090), and adult male Callibella humilis (CCM 139 = INPA
4091). Photographs by Stephen D. Nash. Scale bar = 1 cm.

Neotropical Primates 5

Table 1. Callibella humilis

Coll. nr. Gender Age (mths) Head-Body Tail Total Hand Foot Hallux Ear Weight


Cebuella Mico




Callithrix Mico

et al.



Mico manico-

Cebuella, Mico C.I, .-,

terra pretas

Molecular phylogenetics Methods




6 Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003

Table 2. Cranial and dental measurements (mm) of three Callibella humilis: CCM 138 (= INPA 4090), adult female from
Rio Atininga; CCM 139 (= INPA 4091), adult male, locality unknown; and CCM 44 (= MPEG 24769), holotype adult male
from Novo Aripuana.

Skull and Mandible (mm) CCM 138 CCM 139 CCM 44

Greatest Skull Length (SL) 35.8 37.8 36.0
Zygomatic Width (ZW) 23.6 (broken) 25.7 25.3
Biorbital Width (BW) 22.0 22.3 20.9
Postorbital Width (PW) 18.3 19.5 18.9
Nasion-Basion 24.7 26.6 26.0
Basion-Prosthion 25.8 27.2 26.2
Biauricular Breadth 20.1 22.5 21.6
Height of Canine (CH) 3.3 4.3 3.8
Length of Mandible (ML) 21.3 25.1 23.8
Across First Molars (AM) 9.0 10.0 9.4
Across Canines 6.3 6.2 6.3
Dental Field (P2-M2) 8.3 9.1 8.9 (no P2)
Premaxillary Height 5.9 6.1 6.0
Intradentale Superior to Premaxilla-Maxilla Junction at Alveolus 3.6 3.6 3.4
Intradentale Superior to Nasion (IS-NA) 10.7 10.9 11.8
Intradentale Superior to Posterior Nasal Spine (IS-PNS) 11.9 12.9 12.7
Bregma to Nasion (BR-NA) 20.4 20.1 20.5
Nasion to Fronto-Malar Junction at Orbit (NA-FM) 11.7 11.9 12.0
Fronto-Malar Junction to Pterion 5.2 5.7 5.7
Fronto-Malar Junction to Zygomaxillare Superior (FM-ZS) 6.5 7.0 6.3
Fronto-Malar Junction to Maxillary Tuberosity (FM-MT) 10.2 10.9 11.8
Zygomaxillare Inferior to Premaxilla-Maxilla Junction at Alveolus 10.0 9.6 10.8
Zygomaxillare Inferior to Zygomaxillare Superior (ZI-ZS) 5.7 4.8 5.1
Zygomaxillare Inferior to Maxillary Tuberosity (ZI-MT) 3.4 4.2 4.2
Anterior Teeth
I' Length 1.5 1.5 1.7
PI Breadth 1.2 1.1 1.2
I'Height 2.3 2.5 2.6
I2 Length 1.5 1.6 1.6
I2 Breadth 1.1 1.2 1.1
I, Length 1.0 1.2 0.9
I, Breadth 1.1 0.9 1.3
I, Height 2.2 2.8 3.1
I, Length 1.0 1.1 1.2
I, Breadth 1.7 1.5 1.7
C' Length 2.0 2.2 2.1
C2 Breadth 1.3 1.2 1.1
Cheek Teeth
P2 Length 1.7 1.9
P2 Breadth 1.2 1.2
P4 Length 1.5 1.6 1.7
P4 Breadth 1.3 1.5 1.6
M1 Length 1.9 2.1 2.2
M1 Width 1.5 1.6 1.8
M2 Length 1.8 2.0 2.1
M2 Width 1.4 1.4 1.6

Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003

(INPA), Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Sampled marmosets
included three Callibella humilis and two Cebuella pygmaea
niveiventris, all wild-caught.

DNA was extracted from the faecal samples following the
protocol provided by Gibco BRL DNAzol extraction kit.
The PCR amplification and sequencing methodology was
the same as has been used for Mico (C ',r,' ', manicorensis
and Mico (Callithrix) acariensis (see Van Roosmalen et al.,

For the control region, sequences of three Mico (Callithrix)
argentatus, three Mico (C.) mauesi, two Mico (C.) humer-
alifer four C :r,' geoffroyi, two Callithrix penicillata,
two Callithrix jacchus, five Callithrix kuhlii, two Callithrix
aurita, two Cebuella pygmaea, and one Leontopithecus chrys-
omelas were obtained from GenBank. Upon alignment,
sequences were entered into the PAUP program (Swofford,
1993) for phylogenetic analysis. A maximum parsimony
(MP) algorithm was used to analyze the data, and bootstrap
analyses (100 replicates) were performed on the resulting
consensus trees. Pair-wise nucleotide distances were also
determined for the species under consideration.

Molecular phylogenetics Results

Using PAUP, a maximum parsimony analysis with 100
bootstrap replications yielded the phylogenetic tree for the
mitochondrial control region presented in Fig. 3. This tree
does not include the shorter sequence of Cebuella pygmaea
obtained in this study. When this sequence is included in
the phylogeny, curtailed to only 532 bp for all species, boot-
strap values are raised significantly for some nodes. Both
trees agree, however, that Callibella humilis diverges before
Cebuella from their common ancestor with the Amazonian
marmoset clade. Pairwise divergences indicate a slightly
greater genetic distance of Callibella humilis from Mico
(C.) argentatus (approx. 13%) than the distance between
Cebuella and Mico (C) argentatus (11-12%). The status
of the Atlantic marmosets (genus Callithrix), diverging
before the radiation of Amazonian marmosets (including
Callibella humilis and Cebuella pygmaea), remains in con-
cordance with the phylogenetic trees presented by Tagliaro
et al. (1997) before the addition of Callibella humilis.

The positioning of the dwarf marmoset further suggests
that it should be elevated from its original generic status in
Callithrix (Van Roosmalen et al., 1998) to a distinct genus,
here proposed as Callibella. We therefore suggest renaming
the dwarf marmoset as Callibella humilis. Its divergence
from the ancestral stock of the Amazonian marmosets
(Callithrix, now Mico) prior to the divergence of the pygmy
marmosets (Cebuella) is strongly suggested by these data.
Morphological, physiological, ecological and ethological
observations as described in Van Roosmalen et al. (1998),
and above in this paper, corroborate the finding that C
humilis represents a new genus.

This conclusion is supported by the pairwise divergences

calculated for Mico, Callithrix, Cebuella, and Callibella.
For the mitochondrial control region, pairwise divergences
between the species of Amazonian marmosets (Mico) range
from approximately 3% to 7%, with 6-7% between the
two main subclades (argentatus and humeralifer/mauesi)
and 2-4% between species within each subclade. Diver-
gences between Cebuella and any species of Mico are on
the order of 11- 12%, while the average divergence between
the Amazonian marmosets and Callibella is approximately
12-13%. It is also noteworthy that the pairwise divergence
between Callibella and Cebuella is 13-14%, suggesting that
they share no common ancestry after their divergence from
the ancestral Mico stock. Within-species divergences for the
species analyzed in this study range from 0-3%. Pairwise
divergences between the Atlantic marmosets (Callithrix)
and the Amazonian marmosets (Mico) range from 12-
13%, while the divergences between Callithrix, Cebuella
and Callibella range from 14-15%. Divergence between all
marmosets (including pygmy and dwarf marmosets) and
the outgroup, the lion tamarin Leontopithecus, is over 20%.
It is important to keep in mind that these differences are
reflective only of a single DNA sequence, the mitochon-
drial control region. Such divergences may differ if other
sequences were to be analyzed. The authors also recognize

Figure 3. Callitrichid gene tree based on 902 base pairs (BP) of the
mitochondrial control region, analyzed using maximum parsimony.
Bootstrap values are given above branches.

Mkw.*rbmm& V

Kka wom

Cakrm "V I

Cabhih~ pms lt

CjMIpi4. JA6" a*
C1N46Mjmhmn 45
CUmbiri u.ad in

CdJOI& 14*5 ui
t*,d~hd,4 aU"IH1
Cau~ru L~~tab -

8 Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003

that it would be more informative to include additional
specimens from each species. Unfortunately, the remote-
ness of their geographic ranges, as well as their status as
endangered species under Brazilian law, has precluded more
intensive sampling.

In essence, these data suggest an early, almost simultane-
ous divergence of the genera Callibella, Cebuella, and Mico.
These genetic distances indicate that, contrary to sugges-
tions by previous molecular studies (e.g., Barroso et al.,
1997; Tagliaro et al., 1997) to subsume Cebuella within the
genus Callithrix, the Amazonian and Atlantic marmoset
clades should be separated into different genera. Given a 3-
7% divergence for species within either clade, and a 10-11%
divergence between clades, it seems taxonomically more
informative to group the two clades into separate genera in
recognition of their evolutionary distinctiveness. This sepa-
ration would uphold the generic status of Cebuella, which
is also much more divergent from Mico than any among-
species divergences found within Mico. With this in mind,
the comparatively greater divergence (twice that between
any two given Mico species) of Callibella humilis from any
other known marmoset or pygmy marmoset warrants its
placement in a distinct genus as well, assuming that taxo-
nomic classifications should reflect actual evolutionary dis-
tinctiveness. Similarly, the separation of Atlantic marmosets
('ouistitis') from Amazonian marmosets has been proposed
by Groves (2001), using the subgenera Mico Lesson, 1840
and C .la,' Erxleben, 1777, respectively. Rylands et al.
(2000) already treat them as distinct genera, a classification
with which we fully concur.

Conservation Status of the New Genus

The area in which Callibella humilis is confirmed to occur
is only 250,000 to 300,000 hectares in size (Van Roos-
malen et al., 1998), perhaps the smallest distribution of
any primate in the Amazon. The interfluvial basins of the
secondary tributaries that drain this part of the interfluve
(as delineated by the Rios Madeira and Aripuand) are
uninhabited. Since pre-Columbian Indians never settled
far inland from riverbanks, no terra pretas are to be found
there. Our analysis of Landsat images of the entire area of
distribution, recognizing occupied as well as abandoned
terra pretas by their specific green color, reveals that the total
surface area of terra pretas accounts for less than 1% of the
region as a whole. Suitable habitat therefore amounts to less
than 3,000 ha. Since average home range size and group
size is approximately known for a handful of terra pretas,
an educated guess would be a total population of around
10,000 individuals.

Local people living nowadays on terra pretas alongside rivers
and creeks consider the dwarf marmoset too small to hunt
for food. The monkeys may be regularly seen crossing open
areas, running over the ground to reach isolated trees in
the middle of house gardens or orchards in order to gouge
their bark for gum. In this way they expose themselves to
predators such as domestic dogs and cats-as well as birds

of prey, which are drawn to mice, rats and poultry and often
perch in nearby trees. A more serious threat to the dwarf
marmosets' survival may come from the fact that, as com-
mensals, they are often exposed to forest fires, since farmers
regularly burn secondary growth to clear their terra preta
fields. These fires may run out of control and destroy entire
orchards and house gardens, including the forest edges
where the monkeys spend most of their time. In addition,
the future survival of Callibella humilis could be dramati-
cally affected if locals were to commercialize the terra preta
soil as humus or peat for gardening, a practice commonly
seen in the vicinity of Amazonian towns and cities.

The State Department for the Protection of the Natural
Environment in the State of Amazonas (IPAAM) has been
repeatedly informed about the necessity of implementing
protected areas in the municipalities of Novo Aripuana and
Manicord, but thus far without results. In the meantime,
our Brazilian Civil Non-Profit Entity A.A.P. (the Amazon
Association for the Preservation of High Biodiversity
Areas), based in Manaus, is supporting the creation of
Private Natural Heritage Reserves (Reserva Particular de
Patrim6nio Natural, or RPPN), which are private nature
reserves with a perpetually protected status. This will not
only safeguard significant samples of Amazonian ecosys-
tems, but will also guarantee the maintenance of their
biodiversity. Our Association purchases legal land titles and
transforms these private properties into RPPNs through the
authority of IBAMA, the Brazilian Institute for the Envi-
ronment and Renewable Natural Resources. The status
of these reserves is guaranteed the most rigid protection
under the Brazilian Environmental Law of June 5', 1996
(Decree #1922). Therein, the President decrees the follow-
ing articles, among others:

Art. 1. The Private Reserve RPPN is an area of private
ownership that is specially protected, by initiative of
its owner, through the recognition of the government
because of its relevant importance in terms ofbiodiver-
sity, or its natural beauty, or its environmental charac-
teristics that justify actions for its recuperation.
Art. 2. The objective of RPPNs will be the protection
of the environmental resources representative for the
Art. 3. The RPPNs can be used for activities whose
aim is scientific, cultural, educational, recreational,
but always in line with the stated aim of the previous
article. These activities must be authorized or licensed
by the responsible organ for the recognition of the
RPPN and executed in such a manner that they will
not compromise the ecological balance or endanger
the survival of the existing species populations, in view
of the carrying capacity of the area that is determined
by the management plan.

In addition to covering habitat for Callibella humilis, the
RPPNs proposed by the A.A.P. will also include viable pop-
ulations of eight other primates along the left bank of the
Rio Aripuana, and 11 primates along the right bank-of

Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003

which seven (including the genera Ateles, Pithecia, Lago-
thrix, Saimiri, and Aotus) are species new to science, such
as the recently described Mico manicorensis and Callicebus
bernhardi (Van Roosmalen et al., 2000; Van Roosmalen et
al., 2002).


The authors thank Betty van Roosmalen-Blijenberg for
taking care of the captive dwarf marmosets in Manaus,
John Fleagle for taking the measurements of the skulls,
and Stephen Nash for illustrating this paper. We also thank
John Aguiar for his careful editing of a prior version of this
manuscript. Support for fieldwork and for publication
of this paper was kindly provided by the Margot Marsh
Biodiversity Foundation and Conservation International,
Washington, D.C.

References Cited

Aquadro, C. E and Greenberg, B. D. 1983. Human
mitochondrial DNA variation and evolution: analysis of
nucleotide sequences from seven individuals. Genetics 103
(2): 287-312.
Barroso, C. M. L., Schneider, H., Schneider, M. P. C.,
Sampaio, I., Harada, M. L., Czelusniak, J. and Goodman,
M. 1997. Update on the phylogenetic systematics of New
World monkeys: Further DNA evidence for placing the
pygmy marmoset (Cebuella) within the genus C r/,
Int. J Primatol. 18(4): 651-674.
Canavez, E C., Moreira, M. A. M., Ladasky, J.J., Pissinatti,
A., Parham, P. and Seuinez, H. N. 1999. Molecular
phylogeny of New World primates (Platyrrhini) based
on p2-microglobulin DNA sequences. Molec. Phylogenet.
Evol. 12(1): 74-82.
Chiarelli, A. B. 1972. TaxonomicAtlas ofthe LivingPrimates.
Academic Press, London, New York.
Cronin, J. E. and Sarich, V. M. 1978. Marmoset evolution:
the molecular evidence. Primates Med. 10: 12-19.
Digby, L. J. and Ferrari, S. E 1994. Multiple breeding
females in free-ranging groups of Callithrixjacchus. Int. J.
Primatol. 15: 389-398.
Egler, S. G. 1992. Feeding ecology of Saguinus bicolor
bicolor (Primates: Callitrichidae) in a forest relict in
Manaus, Brazilian Amazonia. Folia Primatol. 59: 61-76.
French, J. A. 1996. Proximate regulation of singular
breeding in callitrichid primates. In: Cooperative Breeding
in Mammals, N. G. Solomon and J. A. French (eds.), pp.
37-75. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.
Garber, P. A. 1992. Vertical clinging, small body size, and
the evolution of feeding adaptations in the Callitrichinae.
Am. J Phys. Anthropol. 88(4): 469-482.
Groves, C. P 2001. Primate Taxonomy. Smithsonian
Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Hershkovitz, P. 1977. Living New World Monkeys
(Platyrrhini) with an Introduction to Primates, Vol. 1. The
University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Horovitz, I. and Meyer, A. 1995. Systematics of New
World monkeys (Platyrrhini, Primates) based on 16S
mitochondrial DNA sequences: A comparative analysis of
different weighting methods in cladistic analysis. Molec.
Phylogenet. Evol. 4(4): 448-456.
Mann, C. C. 2002. The real dirt on rainforest fertility.
Science 297: 920-922.
Masataka, N. 1981. A field study of the social behavior of
Goeldi's monkeys (Callimico goeldii) in North Bolivia.
I. Group composition, breeding cycle, and infant
development. Kyoto University Overseas Research Reports of
New WorldMonkeys (1981): 23-41.
Peres, C. A. 1991. Ecology of mixed-species groups of
tamarins in Amazonian terra firme forests. Ph.D. thesis,
University of Cambridge, U.K.
Porter, C. A., Page, S. L., Czelusniak, J., Schneider, H.,
Schneider, M. P C., Sampaio, I. and Goodman, M.
1997. Phylogeny and evolution of selected primates as
determined by sequences of the epsilon-globin locus and
5' flanking regions. Int. J Primatol. 18: 261-295.
Roda, S. A. and Pontes, A. R. M. 1998. Polygyny and
infanticide in common marmosets in a fragment of the
Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Folia Primatol. 69: 372-376.
Rosenberger, A. L. 1981. Systematics: the higher taxa. In:
Ecology and Behavior ofNeotropical Primates, Vol. 1, A. E
Coimbra-Filho and R. A. Mittermeier (eds.), pp. 9-27.
Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Rosenberger, A. L. 1984. Fossil New World monkeys dispute
the molecular clock. J Human Evol. 13: 737-742.
Rylands, A. B., Schneider, H., Langguth, A., Mittermeier,
R. A., Groves, C. P. and Rodrfguez-Luna, E. 2000. An
assessment of the diversity of New World primates.
Neotrop. Prim. 8(2): 61-93.
Schneider, H., Schneider, M. P. C., Sampaio, I., Harada,
M. L., Stanhope, M., Czelusniak, J. and Goodman, M.
1993. Molecular phylogeny of the New World monkeys
(Platyrrhini, Primates). Molec. Phylogenet. Evol. 2(3): 225-
Schneider, H., Sampaio, I., Harada, M. L., Barroso, C. M.
L., Schneider, M. P. C., Czelusniak, J. and Goodman, M.
1996. Molecular phylogeny of the New World monkeys
(Platyrrhini, Primates) based on two unlinked nuclear
genes: IRBP Intron 1 and E-globulin sequences. Am. J.
Phys. Anthropol. 100: 153-179.
Snowdon, C. T. 1993. A vocal taxonomy of the callitrichids.
In: Marmosets and Tamarins: Systematics, Behaviour, and
Ecology, A. B. Rylands (ed.), pp.78-94. Oxford University
Press, Oxford, U.K.
Soini, P. 1988. The pygmy marmoset, genus Cebuella. In:
Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical Primates, Vol. 2, R.
A. Mittermeier, A. B. Rylands, A FE Coimbra-Filho and
G. A. B. da Fonseca (eds.), pp. 79-129. World Wildlife
Fund, Washington, D.C., USA.
Swofford, D. L. 1993. PAUP: Phylogenetic Analysis Using
Parsimony, Version 3.1. Illinois Natural History Survey,
Champaign, Illinois.
Tagliaro, C. H., Schneider, M. P C., Schneider, H., Sampaio,
I. C. and Stanhope, M. J. 1997. Marmoset phylogenetics,

Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003

conservation perspectives, and evolution of the mtDNA
control region. Molec. Biol. Evol. 14(6): 674-684.
Van Roosmalen, M. G. M., Van Roosmalen, T.,
Mittermeier, R. A. and Fonseca, G. A. B. da. 1998. A
new and distinctive species of marmoset (Callitrichidae,
Primates) from the lower Rio Aripuand, state of
Amazonas, central Brazilian Amazonia. Goeldiana
Zoologia 22: 1-27.
Van Roosmalen, M. G. M., Van Roosmalen, T.,
Mittermeier, R. A. and Rylands, A. B. 2000. Two new
species of marmoset, genus Callithrix Erxleben, 1777
(Callitrichidae, Primates), from the Tapaj6s/Madeira
interfluvium, south Central Amazonia, Brazil. Neotrop.
Primates 8(1): 2-19.
Van Roosmalen, M. G. M., Van Roosmalen, T. and
Mittermeier, R. A. 2002. A taxonomic review of the
titi monkeys, genus Callicebus Thomas, 1903, with the
description of two new species, Callicebus bernhardi
and Callicebus stephennashi, from Brazilian Amazonia.
Neotrop. Primates 10(Suppl.): 1-52.

Appendix 1: Terra Pretas

Terra pretas (literally "black earth") are exceptionally fertile
soils which are thought to have been manufactured in
pre-Columbian times by native Brazilian Indian farmers,
who disappeared before the first European immigrants
arrived (Mann, 2002). These farmers left their terra pretas
on the bluffs above white-, black-, and clearwater rivers
and streams, and along the margins of lakes with access
to lime deposits (Van Roosmalen, in prep.). These ancient
Indian farmers seem to have decomposed organic material
to humus and then mixed it with large quantities of char-
coal, calcium and phosphates. The charcoal may have been
obtained from burning down large tracts of riparian forest
(igapd), which is susceptible to fire during the peak of the
dry season. Lime could have been obtained in large quanti-
ties from game and fish bones, freshwater turtle carapaces
and molluscs (freshwater oysters, snails and mussels), com-
monly found in clear-water and white-water rivers.

Most terra pretas are currently occupied by families or small
communities of caboclos, the descendants of acculturated
Indians and immigrant settlers, who grow crops such as
manioc, maize, sweet potatoes, sugar cane, bananas, and
papaya on these almost inexhaustibly fertile soils. These
current inhabitants do not know how to manufacture this
black earth themselves. Terra pretas which have remained
uncultivated by caboclos since their creators abandoned
them are usually covered with an open type of primary rain
forest, very different in composition from the matrix terra
fire forest which covers the unmodified, extremely poor
podzolic soils found elsewhere in Amazonia. Vines and
twiners may dominate locally, or else dense stands of palms
may be found, including species such as babafii (Attalea
speciosa), inajd (A. maripa), caiaud (Elaeis oleifera), bacaba
(Oenocarpus bacaba), bacabinha (0. minor), and tucumd
(Astrocaryum vulgare and Astrocaryum aculeatum).

Moreover, quite a few tree species found elsewhere only on
richer soils, such as in whitewater floodplains (vdrzea), are
known to thrive on terra pretas, such as Spondias mombin,
Tapirira guianensis, Annona montana and other soursop
species, Duguetia spp., Rollinia mucosa, Didymopanax
morototoni, Astrocaryum aculeatum, Astrocaryum murum-
uru var. ferrugineum, Astrocaryum vulgare, Elaeis oleifera,
Ceibapentandra (the kapok tree, considered sacred by most
indigenous Amazonian peoples), Carica papaya, Platonia
insignis, Rheedia spp., Vismia spp., Cochlospermum orino-
cense, Acacia spp., Enterolobium schomburgkii, Inga spp.,
Parkia multijuga, Theobroma cacao and several species of
wild cacao.

Among these trees, many offer the dwarf marmosets exu-
dates and/or edible fruits. Species such as Didymopanax
morototoni, Spondias mombin, Enterolobium schomburgkii,
Parkia multijuga, Inga ingoides and I. alba, as well as Acacia
vines, often serve as seasonal keystone resources for the
monkeys. These are especially important during the end
of the wet season and the first half of the dry season, when
fruits are scarce, and they offer the dwarf marmosets (and,
west of the Rio Madeira, the pygmy marmosets) reliable
sources of exudate. These marmosets literally live in the
locals' backyards and orchards, and are tolerated because
they do very little damage to their fruit crops. Since the
larger Amazonian marmosets (Mico)-and, in the case of
Cebuella, tamarins (Saguinus)-do not venture into the
house gardens, intergeneric interactions are seldom seen.
It is possible that Callibella and Cebuella have "dwarfed"
in response to competition with other, more opportunistic
callitrichines, and have become more successful after the
introduction of man in Amazonian moist forest regions
around 12,000 BP. The consequent reduction in size,
coupled with a change in foraging behavior (Cebuella and
Callibella seem to be more specialized in gouging tree barks
than Mico), has led to sufficient ecological divergence to
allow for their co-existence with larger callitrichines.

Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003 11
ETAL., 1998

John M. Aguiar 1,2 and Thomas E. Lacher, Jr. 1,2

Department of Wildlife & Fisheries Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA.
2Center for Applied Biodiversity Science (CABS), Conservation International, 1919 M Street, NW Suite 600, Washington,
D.C 20036, USA.


The dwarf marmoset, described as Callithrix humilis by van Roosmalen et al. (1998), is an anomaly among Amazonian
marmosets for its size, morphology and behavior. We compare cranial and mandibular characters of the dwarf marmoset
with representatives of four other callitrichid genera. C. humilis displays qualitative differences in skull morphology when
compared to other callitrichids, and a discriminant analysis of quantitative characters suggests that the dwarf marmoset is
strongly distinct from all other Amazonian genera, including C r. .. These differences are most pronounced in the mor-
phology of the lower jaw and may reflect specialized feeding adaptations, although little is known of the dwarf marmoset's
behavior in the wild.

KeyWords Primates, Callitrichidae, marmosets, Cillith, ..'. humilis, dwarf marmoset, Callibella, morphology, morphomet-
rics, Amazonia.


0 sagiii-anao, previamente descrito como Gill.:hri\ humilis van Roosmalen et al., 1998, 6 uma anomalia entire os sagtis
da Amaz6nia por causa de tamanho, comportamento e morfologia. Comparamos caricteres cranianos e mandibulares do
sagiii-anao com exemplares dos quatro outros g6neros de calitriqufdeos. C. humilis exibe diferencas qualitativas na morfo-
logia do crAnio em comparaydo aos outros calitriqufdeos, e uma anAlise discriminate dos caracteres quantitativos sugere
que o sagtii-anao 6 marcadamente distinto de todos outros generos da Amaz6nia, incluindo Callithrix. Estas diferenqas sdo
mais acentuadas na morfologia da mandibula, e talvez refletam adaptatoes especializadas para alimentagao, apesar de que o
comportamento do sagiii-anao na natureza ainda ser pouco conhecido.

Palavras-Chave Primatas, Callitrichidae, sagiiis, Callithrix humilis, sagiii-anao, Callibella, morfologia, morfometria,


The dwarf marmoset, first described as Callithrix humilis
van Roosmalen et al., 1998, is by far the most unusual
of the seven new marmosets discovered in the Brazilian
Amazon during the past decade. Its small size and atypical
behavior make it an anomaly among classic marmosets; yet
C. humilis is clearly both phenotypically and geographi-
cally distinct from Cebuella pygmaea as well. The original
description offered several plausible alternatives for its
taxonomic status, ranging from another species of Cebuella
to a new genus of its own. Recent taxonomic reviews of
the marmosets have elevated the two major species groups,
the Amazonian and Atlantic Forest clades, to subgeneric
(Groves, 2001) or full generic status (Rylands et al., 2000),
as Mico and Call.rn',' respectively-in each case recogniz-
ing that, given Cebuella's closer relationship with the Ama-
zonian clade, the latter must be considered as a full genus in
order for Cebuella to be retained. Although van Roosmalen
et al. (1998) originally described C. humilis as a conven-
tional marmoset, albeit a peculiar one, further observation

has convinced them that it deserves recognition as a novel
monotypic genus (van Roosmalen, 2002; van Roosmalen
and van Roosmalen, 2003).

The dwarf marmoset is exceptionally difficult to observe
in the wild-one reason why it remained unnamed until
the close of the twentieth century-and the most detailed
observations have been made on a very limited number of
captive specimens (van Roosmalen and van Roosmalen,
2003). This original group has since died from a variety
of causes, including an outbreak of yellow fever (van
Roosmalen, pers. comm.), but the type specimen (MPEG
24769) and two paratypes (INPA 4090, INPA 4091) have
been cleaned and preserved at the Museu Paraense Emflio
Goeldi (Bel6m, Pari) and the mammal collections of the
Institute Nacional de Pesquisas da Amaz6nia (Manaus,
Amazonas), respectively. These three specimens, each
consisting of skin and skull, represent the only material
yet available for making direct morphological comparisons
with other callitrichids. A comparative analysis of cranial
and mandibular morphology is essential to evaluate the

Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003

distinctiveness of this new species, and may also gener-
ate useful predictions concerning its ecology and feeding
behavior in the wild.


As part of a larger project on callitrichid morphometrics
and biogeography, we examined the three extant specimens
of Callithrix humilis and compared them with other speci-
mens of Callithrix and Cebuella held at MPEG and INPA,
plus additional material representing Callithrix, Saguinus
and Leontopithecus at the following institutions: the United
States National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian)
in Washington, D.C.; the American Museum of Natural
History in New York; the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke
Historic in Leiden, the Netherlands; the Museu Nacional
do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; the Museu de Zoologia da Uni-
versidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil; the Swedish Museum of
Natural History in Stockholm, Sweden; and the Humboldt
Museum far Naturkunde in Berlin, Germany.

We measured all specimens to the nearest 0.01 mm with
Mitutoyo Digimatic digital calipers, series/model 500-196.
We measured a total of 32 characters from each specimen,
except where precluded by damage; we did not take partial
measurements on damaged features. (A list of measurement
codes and descriptions is included in Appendix I.) To avoid
issues of ontogenetic size change, we only examined adult
specimens; our primary criteria for adulthood were fully
fused cranial sutures and fully descended upper canines,
supplemented by the presence of sharply defined superior
temporal ridges. We log-transformed and analyzed the data
using the Discriminant Analysis module of SPSS 11.0,
running through Windows 2000 on a Dell XPS-R400
Pentium computer.


Statistical Analyses
We compared the morphology of C humilis with representa-
tives of four other callitrichid genera: Cebuella pygmaea, Cal-
lithrix chrysoleuca, Saguinus midas midas, and one specimen
each of the four species of Leontopithecus. (See Appendix II
for a complete list of accession numbers.) The primary pur-
pose of the initial morphological assessment was to evaluate
the classification probabilities of the five genera. In an overall
discriminant analysis of 17 cranial and mandibular charac-
ters, all four genera plus C. humilis were sorted into well-
defined clusters differing markedly in both size and shape.
All groups returned a 100% correct classification. Figure la
shows a clear gradient of size along the axis of Function 1,
with a secondary gradient of shape widely dividing Callithrix
and Saguinus on Function 2. A similar pattern obtains in a
comparison of cranial dimensions alone, using eight char-
acters (Fig. lb); in both cases C humilis is closely allied to
Cebuella pygmaea, yet is classified as entirely discrete.

When features of the mandible are compared separately
(nine characters), a different pattern emerges which fur-

Fig. la
Combined Comparison of Features


1 +lA2 + Group Centroids
D a 1: Callibella
& 2: Cebuella
M Oj 0 3: Saguinus
*.3 .. 4:Callithrix
0- *6 ____ 5: Leontopithecus
.- -I. U ID ] 23a
Function 1

Fig. lb
Comparison of Cranial Features


1 4 Group Centroids
D p 1: Callibella
2: Cebuella
e *\ O 3: Saguinus
4 "4: Callithrix
"D *v 5: Leontopithecus
i -ID D 10 3
Function 1

Fig. Ic
Comparison of Mandibular Features


S*-. 4+ Group Centroids
D. '. l:Callibella
S.. 2: Cebudla
a3 2 3Saguinus
*". 4: Callithrix
*0 5: Leontopithecus
2 -ID a ID D 9
Function 1

Figure 1. Discriminant plots of representative callitrichid taxa along
gradients of size (Function 1) and shape (Function 2): a. combination of
cranial and mandibular characters (17 total); b. cranial characters ana-
lyzed separately (8); c. mandibular characters analyzed separately (9).

Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003

their separates C humilis from Cebuella (Fig. 1c). The
three larger genera-Callithrix, Saguinus and Leontopithe-
cus-form a continuum of jaw shape, with a clear bound-
ary between the exudate-gouging form of Callithrix and the
non-gouging forms of Saguinus and Leontopithecus. There
is also a recognizable gradient of size, with the latter two
genera plainly larger than Callithrix. The dwarf and pygmy
marmosets, meanwhile, are at an exceptional remove from
the other callitrichids, isolated by their smaller size; yet C.
humilis is further set apart on the dimensions of both size
and shape. As expected from the visual examination, C.
humilis separates out as slightly larger than Cebuella, and
occupies a discrete subregion of morphospace. Intriguingly,
C humilis plots toward what might be considered the non-
gouging axis, which might suggest that the dwarf marmo-
set is less reliant on active exudate-feeding than Cebuella,
which is an extreme gum specialist (Soini, 1988).

Visual Examination
In his monumental description of the callitrichids, Hersh-
kovitz (1977) gave the size of Cebuella-"smallest of known
platyrrhines and absolutely smaller than all other callitrich-
ids"-as its main diagnostic character, aside from a list of
its ostensibly primitive features. Of marmosets, he admit-
ted that "no single cranial character consistently separates
Callithrix from Cebuella or Saguinus." Similarly, C humilis
shows no definitive cranial features which might easily dis-
tinguish it from classic Callithrix or Cebuella; the skull is
significantly smaller than Callithrix, and visibly larger than
Cebuella, but there are no structures or assemblies which
are clearly unique. The mandible of C. humilis, however, is
visually distinct from any other callitrichid, and is the focus
of the comparative descriptions below.

When describing the shapes of callitrichid jaws, Hershkov-
itz (1977) concentrated on several key features: the height
of the coronoid and condylar processes; the shape of the
sigmoid notch between them; the depth of the angular
process; and the overall shape of the ascending ramus (Fig.
2). When observed firsthand, these features combine to
produce a gestalt impression of the characteristic jaw shape
for each genus. The lower jaws of Saguinus, for instance,
typically have a high, curving coronoid process with a
"wavecrest" tip, above a compact, oval sigmoid notch and

coronion sigmoid
coronoid notch
process f
molar/premolar c--- ondylion

ascending condylar
rams process
horizontal ramu process
symphysion ramus

angular process

Figure 2. A generalized callitrichid jaw, showing major features.
Drawn from a specimen at the Smithsonian National Museum of
Natural History. Scale bar = 1.0 cm.


b. d.

the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History (a-c, e) and
from a photograph by Stephen Nash (d). Scale bar = 1.0 cm.

a mandibular condyle positioned well above the toothrow
plane (Fig 3b). Leontopithecus has a similar, slightly larger
structure (Fig. 3a), and both tamarin genera display a nearly
flat jaw base, with virtually no lower projection of the angu-
lar process.

The ascending ramus of a typical Callithrixjaw, by contrast,
has a much lower coronoid process; there is a wider lateral
separation between coronoid and condylar processes, with
the sigmoid notch usually more of an open oval or a long,
inclined fish-hook (Fig. 3c). The condyle is comparatively
closer to the plane of the toothrow (though not quite as
close as Hershkovitz implied, on p. 488) and the angular
process is often a deep, rounded lobe beneath the jawline.
Cebuella represents the extreme culmination of these
trends: the coronoid process is modest, brief and shallow,
with the most delicate of points; the sigmoid notch is
wide open, more of a hyperbolic segment; and the condyle
rides directly at or just above the molar plane (Fig. 3e). In
Cebuella the angular process is sharp, lean and projects well
below the baseline; the entire ascending assembly gives the
impression of having been compressed and tilted from a
Saguinus-like starting point, elongated and rotated down-
wards and aft. Following the genera in reducing size, the
trend is for a lower and less arcuate coronoid; an increas-
ingly wide and open sigmoid notch; a shallower condylar
process, descending to meet the molar plane; and an angu-
lar process which extends ever deeper, creating an increas-
ingly recurved jawline.

In this context, the jaw of C. humilis is intermediate in shape
between Callithrix and Cebuella (Fig. 3d). The mandibular
condyle is just barely above the occlusal plane, the coronoid
just above that, with a shallow "fish-hook" sigmoid notch.
The angular process, however, projects much lower than
that of either Cebuella or Callithrix, and the composite of
these features is immediately recognizable as a singular mor-
phological package. In contrast with the Cebuella jaw, which
is gracile and delicate, the jaw of C humilis is comparatively
robust, with lower canines that are visibly much larger than
in Cebuella. The symphysial prow is not strongly procum-

bent as in Cebuella, but rather more vertical as in Callithrix;
and in general the ascending ramus of C. humilis is not quite
so angled and compressed as that of Cebuella.

In addition, Cebuella possesses another feature apparently
unique to its genus: a strong, slender ridge on the inner
face of each ramus, arising from the slight shelf interior to
the gonion and running horizontally to just below each of
the mandibular foramina. (This feature is distinct from the
mylohyoid line, which originates from the inner edge of the
mandibular condyle.) This feature is apparently unnamed
(C. Groves, pers. comm.) and here we label it as the inner
gonial flange. Although faint inner gonial flanges are fre-
quently found in Saguinus, and often in Callithrix, they are
never so exaggerated as in Cebuella-and C. humilis shows
no trace of one.

Thus the mandible of C. humilis is set apart from that of
Cebuella by several important features: the higher coronoid
and condyle, the more vertical symphysial prow, the nota-
bly deeper angular process, the absence of any inner gonial
flange, and a generally heavier aspect. If Hershkovitz were
to write a description of the C. humilis mandible today, it
might read something like this:

"...ascending ramus broad, more or less oblong; aver-
age coronoidal height about 52% of condyloincisive
length of mandible; coronoid process low, the rounded
tip extending slightly above condyle; sigmoid notch
broad and shallow; articular surface of condylar process
hardly above the plane of molar crowns; inferior border
of angular process deflected radically below basal plane
of horizontal ramus."


The dwarf marmoset, CG/nlhr,, humilis, was described as
one among many new marmoset species discovered in the
1990s. Although the number of species-level taxa had more
than doubled in the prior decade, this was almost entirely a
result of the stepwise elevation of subspecies to full species
status. Hershkovitz (1977) originally recognized only two
species of marmosets from the Amazon basin: Callithrix
humeralifer and C argentata, with three subspecies apiece.
Initially accepted without alteration (e.g., Mittermeier
and Coimbra-Filho, 1981), this arrangement persisted
throughout much of the 1980s. The first major change was
the reassertion of C emiliae by Mittermeier et al. (1988), a
species which had been described by Thomas (1920) but
later subsumed within C argentata by Hershkovitz (1977).
Earlier, de Vivo (1985) had noted the presence of a form of
Callithrix in Rond6nia, which he identified as emiliae; and
following a morphometric survey of the genus, he treated
all marmoset taxa as full species (de Vivo, 1991), which had
the effect of more than tripling the recognized diversity of
Amazonian marmosets-from the two species recognized
by Hershkovitz (1977) to a total of seven.

Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003
Immediately afterwards, the first pair of new marmoset spe-
cies was described: Callithrix nigriceps from Rondonia (Fer-
rari and Lopes, 1992) and C mauesi from the Amazonian
floodplain (Mittermeier et al., 1992), the latter description
adopting de Vivo's (1991) arrangement. Then Alperin
(1993) described the new subspecies C. argentata marcai,
later treated as a full species (Rylands et al., 2000; Groves,
2001); and in 1998 two more new species were described,
the distinctive C. saterei (Sousa e Silva and Noronha, 1998)
and the singular C humilis (van Roosmalen etal., 1998). A
final pair of species novae, C. acariensis and C. manicorensis,
was described by van Roosmalen et al. (2000)-closing a
decade of unexpected discoveries and bringing the comple-
ment of known Amazonian marmosets to a total of 14 spe-
cies. Rylands et al. (2000) and Groves (2001), following de
Vivo's (1991) lead, upheld the practice of considering all
new taxa as de facto species. In addition, many research-
ers now believe the Rondonian Callithrix, which de Vivo
(1985) had considered "C. cf. emiliae," to be another dis-
tinct species (L. Sena, pers. comm.), and the potential exists
for additional discoveries in other, underexplored regions of
the central Amazon.

In this rather heady context, the appearance of a new mar-
moset species unlike any other stimulated less discussion
than it might otherwise have. Callithrix humilis, as it was
originally described, is much closer in size to Cebuella than
to other marmosets, but is set off from the pygmy marmo-
set by its bare ears, lack of full mane and a smoother, more
even coloration. C humilis is reported exclusively from a
small region between the Rios Aripuana and Manicord,
south of the Rio Madeira (van Roosmalen et al., 1998;
van Roosmalen and van Roosmalen, 2003). Wild sightings
have been made principally along the western bank of the
Rio Aripuana, close to its convergence with the Madeira,
which has led van Roosmalen et al. (1998) to consider its
range "by far the smallest distribution of any primate in the
Amazon" and of potential conservation concern.

When van Roosmalen etal. (1998) originally described the
dwarf marmoset, they chose to include it within the genus
Callithrix, but indicated that its unusual appearance and
behavior had prompted them to consider a variety of taxo-
nomic options-considering it either a form of Cebuella,
or a separate species of C r/. or perhaps even a repre-
sentative of a previously undescribed genus. After further
explorations in the field, and prolonged observations of a
captive group, van Roosmalen and van Roosmalen (2003)
are now convinced it merits recognition as a new platyr-
rhine genus, for which they propose the name Callibella.

On purely morphological grounds, we would consider
this to be appropriate. Callibell/a exceptionally small size
clearly argues against combining it with other marmosets;
and the distinctive features of its pelage and cranial mor-
phology-in particular its unique mandibular design-
separate it just as completely from Cebuella. Given this
strong morphological differentiation from both Cebuella
and the Amazonian marmosets, the case for a new genus

Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003
appears promising-although we recognize that a genus
must be defined by its status as a monophyletic group
(Groves, 2001) and that the separation of Callibella would
be invalid if the remaining Amazonian marmosets (Mico,
sensu Rylands et al., 2000) were shown to be paraphyletic as
a result. At present, however, we have no reason to suspect
this, owing in part to a general scarcity of information on
most aspects of its biology. Its remarkably elusive nature
makes it difficult to locate and observe in the field (J. M.
Aguiar, pers. obs.), and a long-term field study would help
clarify our understanding of its distribution and behavior.

In the meantime, lacking comprehensive field data, can we
generate predictions about its behavior from the morpho-
logical information now available? A range of studies have
used cranial and mandibular characteristics to examine
ecological trends in both extinct and extant organisms.
The advantage of the latter is that their behavior may be
observed in the field and directly correlated with morpho-
logical features, allowing for attempts at synthesis between
ecological and morphological studies (e.g., Anapol and
Lee, 1994; Dumont, 1997; Monteiro-Filho et al., 2002).
Although a number of studies have employed a deductive
approach to explore the interaction of cranial morphol-
ogy and ecological specialization (e.g., Hylander, 1979;
Dumont, 1997; Vinyard et al., 2003), some recent research
has begun to integrate morphometrics and field ecology
(Sicuro and Oliveira, 2002; Aguirre et al, 2002), and cross-
taxon comparisons may generate predictions which may
be tested against both theoretical models and observations
from the field (e.g., Williams and Wall, 1999; Aguirre et al.,
2003; Vinyard et al. 2003).

Although the jaw morphology of callitrichids is often quite
variable within species (Aguiar and Lacher, 2002), certain
trends may be seen between those marmoset species which
rely heavily on exudate-feeding and those which do not.
Amazonian marmosets such as Callithrix humeralifer, which
feed more on fruits and insects and less on exudates (Steven-
son and Rylands, 1988; Ferrari and Lopes Ferrari, 1989),
often display a straighter, less arcuate jaw base, with the
lobe of the angular process extending only minimally below
the gnathion (Fig. 3c). Marmoset species from the Atlantic
Forest dade, such as C. jacchus and C penicillata, spend a
greater proportion of their time parasitizing exudate sources
(Lacher et al., 1984; Kinzey, 1997); these species typically
demonstrate a deeper angular lobe and a more strongly
recurved inferior margin of the jaw. Cebuella likewise bears
a strongly descending angular lobe, though more gracile in
form, corresponding with the rest of the lightweight man-
dible. Callibella humilis also shows a prominent angular
lobe-deeper than that of Cebuella-which by itself might
suggest an emphasis on intensive exudate-gouging.

Another major feature differentiating callitrichid jaws
is the position of the mandibular condyle in relation to
the coronoid process, the sigmoid notch and the occlusal
plane of the molars. In the larger-bodied callitrichids, the
coronoid-condylar assembly rises high above the toothrow;

the sigmoid notch is tightly oval or nearly circular, and the
coronoid process extends high above the condyle. (This
reaches an extreme in Saguinus bicolor, whose coronoid
blades sweep up and back like slender scimitars.) In the
smaller, actively gouging Callithrix, however, the coronoids
are much lower, closer to the level of the condyles, and the
sigmoid notch opens out into a fish-hook shape. The con-
dyle itself is still positioned above the toothrow, but lower
than in the tamarins.

In Cebuella, the condyle is on a direct line with the occlusal
surface of the lower molars, a dramatically different shape
which seems to occupy the endpoint of a continuum
beginning with the tamarins. In this context, Callibella is
remarkable, as its coronoid-condylar assembly is intermedi-
ate between the sturdy, nearly level pattern of Callithrix and
the gracile, sharply angled shape of Cebuella. If Callibella
were merely another species of Cebuella, as its discoverers
had once imagined, the mandible should show a similar
morphology. That it does not, but rather displays a third,
intermediate design, argues for a distinct ancestry and
dietary habit which should be recognized taxonomically.

The distinctly lower condylar position of Cebuella and
Callibella is congruent with the pattern of several other
small, gum-feeding primates, notably Phaner furcifer and
Euoticus elegantulus. In a new study on the morphology
of exudate-eaters, Vinyard et al. (2003) examined the
crania and mandibles of both gouging and non-gouging
primates, including Callithrix, Phaner, Euoticus, Galago
and Cheirogaleus. Although Vinyard et al. found virtually
no morphological evidence for special strengthening in the
skulls of gouging primates, they did detect a correlation
between the height of the mandibular condyle and dietary
reliance on gouging. According to their predictions, lower
condyles should reduce the stretching of muscle fibers in
the masseter and pterygoid, minimize the aft displacement
of the jaw in motion, and increase the moment arm of the
temporalis-the combination of which, according to Vin-
yard et al., would help a gouging primate to produce more
force in its bite, and presumably improve the efficiency of
the gouging process.

This correlation between lower condyle position and
active exudate-gouging is easily seen in callitrichids; the
genera Callimico, Saguinus and Leontopithecus, which feed
on available gum but do not stimulate its flow, all have
mandibular condyles borne high above the occlusal plane
of the teeth. Gouging marmosets-Cebuella, Callithrix
and C 'A,,.. -K.br condyles which are notably lower,
and in both Cebuella and Callibella the occlusal plane
passes through or directly beneath the condylar bulb. As
noted above, this latter condition is also visible in Phaner
furcifer and Euoticus elegantulus, which are well-established
as archetypal exudate-feeders (Charles-Dominique, 1971;
Hershkovitz, 1977; Nash, 1986). The extreme shift of the
condyles and associated structures in Cebuella is almost
certainly correlated with that species' reliance on gums as
a staple food resource (Soini, 1988; Garber, 1992), and a

similar condition in Callibella may correspond to a parallel
but less-pronounced focus on exudate-feeding.


The marmoset formerly known as Callithrix humilis, which
van Roosmalen and van Roosmalen (2003) propose as the
new genus Callibella, is morphologically distinct from all
other marmoset and tamarin taxa. Discriminant analyses
of cranial and mandibular characters all returned a 100%
separation of groups. These differences are apparent on
visual inspection, especially in the mandibular morphology,
and aspects of the jaw structure appear to fit into general
trends across the Callitrichidae. The dwarf marmoset is
morphologically distinct from both Callithrix and Cebuella
(presumably its nearest relatives) to an equal degree, and we
consider its elevation to the genus Callibella to be an appro-
priate recognition of its exceptional nature.

Callibella's suite of craniomandibular traits, in turn, suggests
a lifestyle somewhat similar to that of Cebuella, but perhaps
with less of an emphasis on exudate-feeding. Van Roos-
malen et al. (1998) reported a number of social, ecological
and behavioral traits which seem unique to this genus, and
which might imply a correspondingly unprecedented for-
aging niche. The dwarf marmoset's reported heavy reliance
on a single tree species, Didymopanax morototoni, together
with its restricted and potentially relict distribution, might
suggest a closer coevolutionary link with a specific host tree
than reported from any other marmoset; but only a full
field study will provide the necessary ecological context for
these initial speculations.


The authors would like to express their appreciation to M.
G. M. van Roosmalen for making the type skull of Cal-
libella humilis available to examine. Thanks are also due to
Josd de Sousa e Silva Jdnior and Suely Aguiar of the Museu
Paraense Emflio Goeldi in Bel6m; Joao Oliveira of the
Museu Nacional in Rio de Janeiro; Mario de Vivo of the
Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo; and the
staff of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amaz6nia in
Manaus, for access to their respective collections in Brazil.
The first author also appreciates the opportunity to exam-
ine specimens under the care of Linda Gordon and Richard
Thorington, Jr. at the United States National Museum
of Natural History; by Robert Randall at the American
Museum of Natural History; and by Bruce Patterson at the
Field Museum; and thanks also to Olavi Grunwall of the
Swedish Museum of Natural History, Manfred Ade of the
Humboldt Museum fur Naturkunde, and most especially
Chris Smeenk of the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijk Historic.
This research was supported by a grant from the Margot
Marsh Biodiversity Foundation and by Conservation Inter-
national, in cooperation with Fundacqo Biodiversitas in
Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

The authors are also grateful to Colin Groves, Duane

Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003
Schlitter and Michael Willig for constructive comments
on earlier versions of the manuscript. Finally, many thanks
must go to Ilmar Bastos Santos of Fundacao Biodiversitas
for his invaluable support, both personal and professional,
of the first author's research travel in Brazil.


Aguiar, J. M. and Lacher, Jr., T. E. 2002. Patterns of
morphological variation in the genus Callithrix in relation
to landforms and protected areas. Presented at the XIXth
Congress of the International Primatological Society,
August 2002, Beijing, China.
Aguirre, L. E, Herrel, A., van Damme, R. and Matthysen,
E. 2003. The implications of food hardness for diet in
bats. Functional Ecology 17(2): 201-212.
Aguirre, L. E, Herrel, A., van Damme, R. and Matthysen,
E. 2002. Ecomorphological analysis of trophic niche
partitioning in a tropical savannah bat community. Proc.
R. Soc. Lond. B 269(1497): 1271-1278.
Alperin, R. 1993. Callithrix argentata (Linnaeus, 1771):
Consideraqoes taxonomicas e descriqao de subespecie
nova. Bol. Mus. Para. Emilio Goeldi, Ser. Zool. 9(2): 317-
Anapol, E and Lee, S. 1994. Morphological adaptation
to diet in platyrrhine primates. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol.
94(2): 239-261.
Charles-Dominique, P. 1971. Eco-ethologie des prosimiens
du Gabon. Biol. Gabonica 7(2): 121-198.
de Vivo, M. 1985. On some monkeys from Rond6nia,
Brasil (Primates: Callitrichidae, Cebidae). Papeis Avulsos
Zool., SIo Paulo, 36(11): 103-110.
de Vivo, M. 1991. Taxonomia de Callithrix Erxleben, 1777
(Callitrichidae, Primates). Fundaqio Biodiversitas, Belo
Dumont, E. R. 1997. Cranial shape in fruit, nectar, and
exudate feeders: Implications for interpreting the fossil
record. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 102: 187-202.
Ferrari, S. E and Lopes Ferrari, M. A. 1989. A re-evaluation
of the social organisation of the Callitrichidae, with
special reference to the ecological differences between
genera. Folia Primatologica 52: 132-47.
Ferrari, S. E and Lopes, M. A. 1992. A new species of
marmoset, genus Callithrix Erxleben, 1777 (Callitrichidae,
Primates), from Western Brazilian Amazonia. Goeldiana
Zoologia 12: 1-13.
Garber, P A. 1992. Vertical clinging, small body size, and
the evolution of feeding adaptations in the Callitrichinae.
Am. J Phys. Anthropol. 88(4): 469-482.
Groves, C. P 2001. Primate Taxonomy. Smithsonian
Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Hershkovitz, P 1977. Living New World Monkeys
(Platyrrhini) with an Introduction to Primates, Vol. 1. The
University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Hylander, W. L. 1979. The functional significance in
primate mandibular form. Journal of Morphology 160:
Kinzey, W. G. 1997. New World Primates: Ecology, Evolution
and Behavior. Aldine de Gruyter, New York.

Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003

Lacher, Jr., T. E., Fonseca, G. A. B. da, Alves Jr., C. and
Magalhaes-Castro, B. 1984. Parasitism of trees by
marmosets in a central Brazilian gallery forest. Biotropica
16: 202-209.
Mittermeier, R. A. and Coimbra-Filho, A. F. 1981.
Systematics: species and subspecies. In: Ecology and
Behavior of Neotropical Primates, Vol. 1, A. F. Coimbra-
Filho and R. A. Mittermeier (eds.), pp. 29-109. Academia
Brasileira de Ciencias, Rio de Janeiro.
Mittermeier, R. A., Rylands, A. B. and Coimbra-Filho, A. F.
1988. Systematics: species and subspecies-an update. In:
Ecology and Behavior ofNeotropical Primates, Vol. 2, R. A.
Mittermeier, A. B. Rylands, A. E Coimbra-Filho and G.
A. B. da Fonseca (eds.), pp. 13-75. World Wildlife Fund,
Washington, D.C.
Mittermeier, R. A., Schwarz, M. and Ayres, J. M. 1992.
A new species of marmoset, genus Cllithr:,' Erxleben,
1777 (Callitrichidae, Primates) from the Rio Mauds
region, state of Amazonas, Central Brazilian Amazonia.
Goeldiana Zoologia 14: 1-17.
Monteiro-Filho, E. L. de, Monteiro, L. R. and dos Reis, S.
F. 2002. Skull shape and size divergence in dolphins of the
genus Sotalia: A tridimensional morphometric analysis.
Journal ofMammalogy 83(1): 125-134.
Nash, L. T. 1986. Dietary, behavioral, and morphological
aspects of gummivory in primates. Yearbook of Physical
Anthropology 29: 113-137.
Rylands, A. B., Coimbra-Filho, A. F. and Mittermeier, R.
A. 1993. Systematics, geographic distribution, and some
notes on the conservation status of the Callitrichidae.
In: Marmosets and Tamarins: Systematics, Behaviour and
Ecology, A. B. Rylands (ed.), pp. 11-77. Oxford University
Press, Oxford, U.K.
Rylands, A. B., Schneider, H., Langguth, A., Mittermeier,
R. A., Groves, C. P and Rodrfguez-Luna, E. 2000. An
assessment of the diversity of New World primates.
Neotrop. Primates 8(2): 61-93.
Sicuro, E L. and Oliveira, L. F. B. 2002. Coexistence of
peccaries and feral hogs in the Brazilian Pantanal wetland:
An ecomorphological view. Journal of Mammalogy 83(1):
Stevenson, M. E and Rylands, A. B. 1988. The marmosets,
genus Callithrix. In: Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical
Primates, Vol. 2, R. A. Mittermeier, A. B. Rylands, A. F.
Coimbra-Filho and G. A. B. da Fonseca (eds.), pp. 131-
222. World Wildlife Fund, Washington, D.C.
Soini, P 1988. The pygmy marmoset, genus Cebuella. In:
Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical Primates, Vol. 2, R.
A. Mittermeier, A. B. Rylands, A. E Coimbra-Filho and
G. A. B. da Fonseca (eds.), pp. 79-129. World Wildlife
Fund, Washington, D.C.
Sousa e Silva Jdnior, J. and Noronha, M. de A. 1998. On
a new species of bare-eared marmoset, Genus Callithrix
Erxleben, 1777, from Central Amazonia, Brazil (Primates:
Callitrichidae). Goeldiana Zoologia 21: 1-28.
Thomas, 0. 1920. On Mammals from the Lower Amazons
in the Goeldi Museum, Para. Annals and Magazine of
Natural History (9', Series) 6: 266-283.

Van Roosmalen, M. G. M. 2002. Conservation status of
primates in the Brazilian Amazon. Presented at the XIXth
Congress of the International Primatological Society,
August 2002, Beijing, China.
Van Roosmalen, M. G. M., Van Roosmalen, T., Mittermeier,
R. A. and Fonseca, G. A. B. da. 1998. A new and
distinctive species of marmoset (Callitrichidae, Primates)
from the lower Rio Aripuana, state of Amazonas, central
Brazilian Amazonia. Goeldiana Zoologia 22: 1-27.
Van Roosmalen, M. G. M., Van Roosmalen, T.,
Mittermeier, R. A. and Rylands, A. B. 2000. Two new
species of marmoset, genus Callithrix Erxleben, 1777
(Callitrichidae, Primates), from the Tapaj6s/Madeira
interfluvium, south Central Amazonia, Brazil. Neotrop.
Primates 8(1): 2-19.
Van Roosmalen, M. G. M. and Van Roosmalen, T. 2003.
The description of a new marmoset genus, Callibella
(Callitrichinae, Primates), including its molecular
phylogenetic status. Neotrop. Primates 11 (1):1-10.
Vinyard, C. J., Wall, C. E., Williams, S. H. and Hylander,
W. L. 2003. Comparative functional analysis of skull
morphology of tree-gouging primates. Am. J. Phys.
Anthropol. 120: 153-170.
Williams, S. H. and Wall, C. E. 1999. Morphological
correlates of gummivory in the skull of prosimian
primates. Am. J Phys. Anthropol. 108(Suppl. 28): 278.

18 Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003

Appendix I:
Baseline Morphometric Measurements

Code Name Description
CL cranial length Prosthion to rearmost point of cranium
OCP occipital condyle-prosthion Rear of left occipital condyle to prosthion
ZAZ zygomatics at zygions Width of zygomatic arches at zygions
SKW skull width Maximum skull width, at temporal ridges
OWC orbital width at cyclosions Maximum orbital width at cyclosions
BL bregma-lambda Distance from tripoint bregma to tripoint lambda
CONW condylar width Distance across base of occipital condyles
MW molar width Maximum width of upper molars, M 1L-M 1R
CW canine width Maximum width of upper canines, C1L-C1R
MSL-L molar series length, left Length of left upper molar/premolar row
MSL-R molar series length, right Length of right upper molar/premolar row
BN bregma-nasion Distance from tripoint bregma to tripoint nasion
PBG prosthion-bregma Distance from prosthion to tripoint bregma
NP nasion-prosthion Distance from prosthion to tripoint nasion
NL nasion-lambda Distance from tripoint nasion to tripoint lambda
PL prosthion-lambda Distance from prosthion to tripoint lambda
MWJ molar width, jaw Maximum width of lower molars, M2L-M2R
CWJ canine width, jaw Maximum width of lower canines, C1L-C1R
MSLJ-L molar series length, jaw, left Length of left lower molar/premolar row
MSLJ-R molar series length, jaw, right Length of right lower molar/premolar row
SGL-L symphysion-gonion, left Distance from symphysion to rearmost left gonial point
SGL-R symphysion-gonion, right Distance from symphysion to rearmost right gonial point
CJB-L condylion-jaw base, left Height from condylar knob to base of left jaw flange
CJB-R condylion-jaw base, right Height from condylar knob to base of right jaw flange
COR-L coronion-jaw base, left Height from coronion tip to base of left jaw flange
COR-R coronion-jaw base, right Height from coronion tip to base of right jaw flange
SCN-L symphysion-condylion, left Distance from symphysion to rearmost left condylion
SCOR-L symphysion-coronion, left Distance from symphysion to left coronial tip
SCN-R symphysion-condylion, right Distance from symphysion to rearmost right condylion
SCOR-R symphysion-coronion, right Distance from symphysion to right coronial tip
JWCR jaw width, coronia Maximum width between outer coronial tips
JWCY jaw width, condylia Maximum width between outer condylar knobs

Appendix II:
Specimens Examined

Callithrix chrysoleuca: AMNH: 91833, 91834, 91835, 91836, 91838, 91839, 92296; FMNH: 50821, 50822, 50828;
MNRJ: 5947, 5948, 5950; MZUSP: 4886, 4892, 4976, 5008, 5022, 5028, 11410, 13466, 13467; SMNH: A611502,
A611497, A611520, A611579. Callithrix humilis: MPEG: 24769; INPA: 4090, 4091. Cebuella pygmaea: AMNH: 74056,
74369, 75280, 76327, 76328, 182943, 182944; MPEG: 382, 26367. Leontopithecus caissara: MNRJ: 28861. Leontopithecus
chrysomelas: MNRJ: 24573. Leontopithecus chrysopygus: HMNK: 304. Leontopithecus rosalia: NMNH: 337334. Saguinus
midas midas: MPEG: 15269; RMNH: 20566, 20568, 20569, 20582, 20571, 20574, 20575, 20577, 20578, 20580, 22562,
22572, 24089, 22546.

Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003


Nancy Swanson Ward
Janice Chism

The distribution of the red uakari (Cacajao calvus ucayalii)
lies entirely in Peru, delimited by the Rio Amazonas to the
north, the Rfo Ucayali to the west, and the Rio Yavari to
the east (Hershkovitz, 1987; Heymann, 1992). Although
the southern limit of the subspecies' range is believed to
have once extended to the Rio Urubamba (Hershkovitz,
1987), the evidence indicates that it is now limited to the
Rio Sheshea due to overhunting (Aquino, 1988). The red
uakari's survival is seriously threatened throughout its range
primarily due to hunting and loss of habitat (Aquino, 1988;
Bartecki and Heymann, 1987), and C c. ucayalii is listed as
vulnerable on the 2002 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
(Hilton-Taylor, 2002; Rylands et al., 1997).

Although the red uakari's distribution has been tentatively
established, its current status remains undetermined. In
recent years, several published sightings have begun to pro-
vide better information about local population numbers.
The majority were along the Quebrada Blanco and the
Rfo Yavari corridor, within and to the east of the Reserva
Comunal Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo (RCTT) in northeastern
Peru (Aquino, 1998; Bartecki and Heymann, 1987; Hey-
mann, 1990; Leonard and Bennett, 1995, 1996; Puertas
and Bodmer, 1993). Others are from the Rio Tapiche and
its tributaries, approximately 300 km south of the RCTT
(Aquino, 1988; Bennett et al., 2001; Fontaine, 1979).
Aquino (1988) reported an additional two troops in the area
between the reserve and Rio Tapiche (Fig. 1). Because most
sightings are confined to these two main areas, documented
encounters with wild troops of C c. ucayalii elsewhere are
important for a better indication of the actual numbers of
wild C. c. ucayalii. With human intrusion slowly eradicat-
ing local populations of C. c. ucayalii (Aquino, 1988; Soini,
1982), it is imperative to assess existing populations before
they decline further.

We conducted a preliminary survey of wild troops of C c.
ucayalii in and around the Reserva Comunal Tamshiyacu-
Tahuayo over 13 days between 30 May and 23 June, 2001.

Figure 1. Location of documented sightings of C. c. ucayalii Quebrada Blanco/Rio Yavari corridor, and the Rio Tapiche area. Two
additional sightings between the two main locales are indicated by an "x". (Inset map modified from Bodmer et al., 1997.)

20 Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003

IW4 R R NW me" I If

Figure 2. Area of our sightings of C. c. ucayalii during our survey.
1. Quebrada Tangarana, 2. Quebrada Tahuaillo.
The primary aim was to identify an area for a long-term
study. We searched for C. c. ucayalii at various sites along
the Quebrada Tangarana, Quebrada Blanco and Quebrada
Tahuaillo, tributaries of the Rfo Tahuayo. Quebrada Tanga-
rana and QuebradaTahuaillo are black-water streams, while
Quebrada Blanco is classified as a white-water stream. We
traveled by motorboat and canoe 1-2 days up these tributar-
ies to each destination, and hiked 6-10 hours per day into
the forest with two experienced guides. Only the Quebrada
Blanco site had trails. Once we encountered a uakari troop,
we followed it and recorded ad libitum (Altmann, 1974)
information on group size, group composition, location,
time of day, vocalizations, and as much behavioral data as
possible. Geographical coordinates were obtained using a
Garmin GPS 12 global positioning system. Terms used for
vocalizations are based on Fontaine's terminology (1981).

We located two troops in the course of the survey. We
encountered a troop of C c. ucayalii on 3 June 2001 at 04
24'S, 730 17'W on the Quebrada Tangarana (Fig. 2). The
terrain there consists of undulating hills with primary terra
firme forests. At 0957 h, our tracker heard distant contact
calls of the uakaris, and we located the troop by following
their vocalizations. These were mostly 'hic', with intermit-
tent 'chick' contact calls. We observed the monkeys travel-
ing rapidly in the mid- to upper-level of the canopy. Troop
size was estimated at 70 individuals of mixed age/sex classes
including both adults and immatures. Three different

bouts of screeching 'wa' vocalizations were heard. This call,
emitted by the recipient of aggression (Fontaine, 1981),
is usually associated with fights. Immediately after hear-
ing one set of these calls, we saw an adult male displaying
aggressively by jumping back and forth at the top of a tree
and branch-shaking. After three seconds he stopped and
looked in our direction.

At 1044 h, while we watched from 50-75 m away, the troop
stopped to rest. Most individuals were hidden among the
leaves so we could not accurately estimate group spread. All
vocalizations ceased except for an occasional contact call. At
1112 h, we tried to move closer, but the troop dispersed. As
the monkeys were moving away, they resumed contact call-
ing, but in a more urgent manner (rapid, staccato 'hic' calls,
interspersed with an increased frequency of 'chick' and loud
'chyook' calls). At one point, the troop briefly split into two
contingents. As the front subgroup moved away, individuals
in the rear subgroup stopped and vocalized. Loud and urgent
'chyook' calls were given by individuals which hesitated
before jumping across to the next tree, while individuals
behind them emitted 'hic' and 'chick' calls. Eventually, some
individuals jumped into adjacent trees and the rest followed.
We heard three more bouts of the screaming 'wa' vocaliza-
tions but again did not see any altercations. At 1400 h, we
saw 10 woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagothricha) traveling in
the same direction as the uakaris. Previous field researchers
have reported C c. ucayalii in frequent associations with this
species (Aquino, 1998; Leonard and Bennett, 1996).

The second encounter occurred on the Quebrada Tahuaillo
on 22 June 2001 (04o 33'S, 73o 19'W) (Fig. 2) in swamp
forest containing many aguaje palm trees (Mauritia flex-
uosa). The nearest settlement is Nuevo Jerusalem, a small
Jivaro Indian village about 15 km downstream on the
Rio Tahuayo. At 1544 h, we heard a uakari troop moving
through the canopy in the distance. When detected this
troop was very quiet, with few contact calls as it traveled
slowly towards us in the mid- to upper-level of the canopy.
The troop numbered approximately 80 individuals spread
over some 100 m, foraging as a single unit. It contained a
mix of age/sex classes, including at least two infants each
clinging dorsally to adult females.

We saw three individuals feed on aguaje fruits by clinging
to the side of a strand of hanging fruits, one individual at
a time. When one climbed away, another would take its
place, plucking a fruit, eating it for a second or two, then
dropping it. As the uakaris traveled and fed in the middle
and upper canopy, they dropped so many fruits from sev-
eral different species of trees that it sounded like heavy rain-
fall. As the troop eventually became aware of us, it moved
off at a faster pace-but not as hurriedly, or noisily, as the
troop encountered earlier on the QuebradaTangarana. The
Tahuaillo troop seemed more tolerant of our presence,
possibly because it was headed towards its sleeping trees.
We followed it in a wide loop until it stopped moving at
1750 h, when the area suddenly became quiet. We waited
until 1800 h (almost dark), when they were settled, before

Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003
approaching them. One individual was in a machimango
tree (Eschweilera sp.), and a female with a juvenile was in
a mimosa tree (Mimosa sp.), all three at approximately 25
m high. The uakaris covered a distance of approximately 2
km during our observations. Fruits they consumed during
this time (identified by the guide) included those of aguaje
(Mauritia flexuosa), pashaco (Parkia sp.), naranjo podrido
(Parahancornia sp.), machimango (Eschweilera sp.) and
shimbillo (Inga sp.).

These are the first documented sightings of C c. ucayalii on
the Quebradas Tangarana and Tahuaillo. The Quebradas
Blanco and Tangarana run parallel to each other in an easterly
direction into the reserve and are about 10 km apart (Fig. 2).
Although based on a very small sample (n = 4), Leonard and
Bennett (1996) estimated an average daily travel path of 7.3
km and a home range of 3,000 ha. Thus, it is possible that the
Tangarana troop was the same one that others have seen in
the Reserva Comunal Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo on the Quebrada
Blanco. The Quebrada Tahuaillo troop, on the other hand,
was southwest and outside of the RCTT, and so represents
the first documentation of C c. ucayalii between the black-
water Rio Tahuayo (west side) and white-water Rfo Yarapa.

The local C c. ucayalii populations are hunted. On the Que-
brada Blanco, we met a local hunter carrying a dead female
that he had shot an hour's walk from our camp. The next day
we searched unsuccessfully for the group. Later, two tourists
informed us that they met a hunter carrying two dead red
uakaris at the same campsite a few days after we left. As we
returned from our surveying trip to Quebrada Tahuaillo we
encountered a Jivaro Indian at Nuevo Jerusalem who told
us he had shot three (a male and two females, one with an
infant) while hunting the previous week. Infant red uakaris
are kept as pets in this area. An employee at Tahuayo Lodge
and a villager at Jaldar Village on the Rio Yarapa each pos-
sessed a female infant. Four male C c. ucayalii, two subadults
and two juveniles housed at a lodge on the Rfo Yarapa, were
all obtained as infants when their mothers were killed by
Jivaro Indian hunters on the Rfo Tahuayo.

Subsistence hunting is important for indigenous peoples
in Amazonia (Peres, 1990), and the larger cebids are espe-
cially vulnerable. They are preferred because the quality
and quantity of their meat makes hunting them cost-effec-
tive. Their populations are the first to be depleted and, in
some cases, locally extirpated, and the slow reproductive
rates of many cebids may hinder their chances of recov-
ery (Mittermeier, 1987; Peres, 1990). Populations of the
larger primates in the Rfo Tapiche basin and the Quebrada
Blanco-Rfo Yavari corridor have declined dramatically.
Puertas and Bodmer (1993) reported that the biomass of
cebids in the more populated Tahuayo-Blanco area was
only about half that of the less populated Rio Yavari-Miri
area, while that of callitrichids was similar. Over an 18-year
period, populations of the larger primates in the Tapiche
basin have also declined, while those of smaller primates
stayed constant (Bennett et al., 2001). Red uakaris may
now be experiencing the same fate as the larger primates,

due to being 'next in line' in terms of body mass after
the woolly (Lagothrix sp.), spider (Ateles sp.), and howler
(Alouatta sp.) monkeys. Based on our observations and
verbal accounts of hunted red uakaris around the Reserva
Comunal Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo area, and our encounter
with only one troop of woolly monkeys and no howler or
spider monkeys, we believe that this is exactly what is hap-
pening. The C. c. ucayalii population in this area may be
seriously threatened.

A management plan developed in the early 1990s as part of
the conservation program for the Reserva Comunal Tam-
shiyacu-Tahuayo proposed that local market-hunters har-
vest only male artiodactyls and large rodents. Primates are
apparently hunted mainly for subsistence rather than for
sale in the market, and the model depended on substitut-
ing them with female artiodactyls and large rodents. It was
hoped that this strategy would limit hunting of primates
(Puertas and Bodmer, 1993), but from our observations
this is not evident.

Acknowledgments: This research was supported by a grant
from Winthrop University Research Council and funding
provided by the Winthrop University Department of Biol-
ogy Graduate Program. We are grateful to Dr. Paul Beaver
and Tahuayo Lodge for support and assistance in the field,
and to Arturo Mozombite Arimuya of Nuevo Jerusalem for
alerting us to the existence of a troop of red uakaris while at
the Quebrada Tahuaillo site. We thank our knowledgeable
and experienced guides, Rudy Flores Lozano and Josias Tello.
Finally, we thank Richard E. Bodmer and Blackwell Publish-
ing for permission to use the inset map in Figure 1 (from
Bodmer, R. E., Eisenberg, J. F. and Redford, K. H. 1997.
Hunting and the likelihood of extinction of Amazonian
mammals. Conservation Biology 11: 460-466).

Nancy Swanson Ward and Janice Chism, Depart-
ment of Biology, Winthrop University, Rock Hill, SC
29733, USA, e-mails: ,
. Any correspondence to Janice


Altmann, J. 1974. Observational study of behavior:
Sampling methods. Behaviour 49: 227-267.
Aquino, R. 1988. Preliminary survey on the population
densities of Cacajao calmus ucayalii. Primate Conserv. (9):
Aquino, R. 1998. Some observations on the ecology of
Cacajao calvus ucayalii in the Peruvian Amazon. Primate
Conserv. (18): 21-24.
Bartecki, U. and Heymann, E. W. 1987. Sightings of red
uakaris, Cacajao calvus rubicundus, at the Rio Blanco,
Peruvian Amazon. Primate Conserv. (8): 34-36.
Bennett, C. L., Leonard, S. and Carter, S. 2001. Abundance,
diversity, and patterns of distribution of primates on the
Tapiche River in Amazonian Peru. Am. J. Primatol. 54:

22 Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003

Fontaine, R. 1979. Survey of the red uakari (Cacajao calvus
rubicundus) in eastern Peru. Unpublished report to the
New York Zoological Society, New York.
Fontaine, R. 1981. The uakaris, genus Cacajao. In:
Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical Primates, Vol. 1, A.
E Coimbra-Filho and R. A. Mittermeier (eds.), pp.443-
493. Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, Rio de Janeiro.
Hershkovitz, P. 1987. Uacaries, New World monkeys of
the genus Cacajao (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): A preliminary
taxonomic review with the description of a new
subspecies. Am. J. Primatol. 12: 1-53.
Heymann, E. W. 1990. Further field notes on red uacaris,
Cacajao calvus ucayalii, from the Quebrada Blanco,
Amazonian Peru. Primate Conserv. (11): 7-8.
Heymann, E. W. 1992. The red uakari (Cacajao calvus
ucayalii): Some field observations and speculations on a
little-known species. Primate Eye (47): 6.
Hilton-Taylor, C. 2002. 2002 IUCN Red List of Threatened
Species. Species Survival Commission (SSC), World
Conservation Union (IUCN), Gland, Switzerland, and
Cambridge, UK. URL: .
Leonard, S. and Bennett, C. 1995. Behavioral ecology study
of red uakari, Cacajao calvus ucayalii, in northeastern
Peru. Neotrop. Primates 3(3): 84.
Leonard, S. and Bennett, C. 1996. Associative behavior
of Cacajao calvus ucayalii with other primate species in
Amazonian Peru. Primates 37(2): 227-230.
Mittermeier, R. A. 1987. Effects of hunting on rain forest
primates. In: Primate Conservation in the Tropical Rain
Forest, C. W. Marsh and R. A. Mittermeier (eds.), pp. 109-
146. Alan R. Liss, Inc., New York.
Peres, C. A. 1990. Effects of hunting on western Amazonian
primate communities. Biol. Conserv. 54: 47-59.
Puertas, P. and Bodmer, R.E. 1993. Conservation of a
high diversity primate assemblage. Biodiv. Conserv. 2:
Rylands, A. B., Mittermeier, R. A. and Rodrfguez-Luna, E.
1997. Conservation of Neotropical primates: Threatened
species and an analysis of primate diversity by country
and region. Folia Primatol. 68: 134-160.
Soini, P. 1982. Primate conservation in Peruvian Amazonia.
Int. Zoo Yearb. 22: 37-47.

2002) and howlers (Alouatta spp.: e.g. Crockett, 1998;
Jones, 1997), the functional ecology underlying phenotypic
plasticity has received little attention by primatologists (but
see Kappeler and Pereira, 2003; Jones and Agoramoorthy,
2003). In this brief communication, I present data showing
that chest circumference is significantly smaller in adult
male and female Costa Rican mantled howler monkeys
(Alouatta palliata) in severely degraded habitat. These
results have important implications for the conservation
of threatened primates. Moreover, they may indicate the
existence of developmental tradeoffs between energetic
investment in cardiopulmonary structures on the one hand,
and survival, growth, and/or reproduction on the other.


Morphometric data (weight, tail-to-crown length, length
of tail, length of pubis, length of arm, circumference
of chest, in addition to age) were collected in the mid-
1970s at Hacienda La Pacifica, Canas, Guanacaste, Costa
Rica (1018'N, 85007'W) by Dr. Norman J. Scott, Jr.
and his assistants, including the present author (Scott et
al., 1976). Marked animals (120 adult females, 36 adult
males) were censused and measured in three habitats of
tropical dry forest (Frankie et al., 1974): riparian (canopy
cover estimated at 65-100%), deciduous (canopy cover
40-75%), and a degraded secondary habitat contiguous
to irrigation ditches (canopy cover 10-45%), which were
constructed consequent to anthropogenic perturbation
for the purposes of farming and cattle ranching. Some of
the numbers (n) reported below are smaller than the total
numbers of individuals for each sex measured because some
data sheets were incomplete. Alouatta palliata, which has
been classified as a "diurnal arboreal folivore", is wholly
herbivorous (primary consumer), preferring new leaves,
flowers, and fruit (Crockett and Eisenberg, 1987; Glander,
1975; Jones, 1996). All tests are two-tailed.


For the sample as a whole, there was no significant
difference between habitats in the proportion of each of



Primates exhibit a significant degree of r
variability within species (Fleagle, 1999);
studies have quantified this variation in relat
differences, or examined its consequence
exceptions of human beings (Homo sapiens: e
et al., 1995) and, arguably, the genus Pan (

four age classes represented in the sample (Chi Square
test of independence: X2 = 6.6985, df = 6, p = 0.350).
Y HABITAT There was a highly significant correlation between weight
MONKEYS: (g) and habitat for males (r = -0.5424, p < 0.003, n =
ATION AND 21) but not for females, possibly consistent with the view
that females are "energy maximizers" (Schoener, 1971),
working to obtain some threshold level of nutritional
Clara B. Jones requirements despite variations in habitat quality. Males
in the (presumably) poorest habitat (irrigation) weighed,
on average, less than (5333.13 g, n = 15) males in riparian
(5912.00 g, n = 10) or deciduous (5755.45 g, n = 11)
norphological habitat, a comparison approaching significance (F2,33 =
however, few 3.1413, p = 0.056), supporting the view that males are
ion to habitat not investing a significant portion of their "fitness budget"
s. With the in feeding (Schoener, 1971; also see Trivers, 1972). On
.g. Sundaram average, female weight did not differ by habitat (irrigation:
Boesch et al.,

Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003

4439.44 g, n = 39; deciduous: 4554.57 g, n = 37; riparian:
4530.91 g, n = 44; F2,117= 0.8602, n.s.).

Chest circumference (cm) correlated highly with habitat for
both adult females (r= -0.1851, p = 0.021, n = 89) and males
(r = -0.3273, p = 0.024, n = 21). For adults of both sexes, an
ANOVA demonstrated that mean chest circumference was
smallest in irrigation habitat (n = 39 females and 14 males),
somewhat larger in riparian habitat (n = 44 females and 10
males), and largest in deciduous habitat (n = 37 females and
11 males). Chest size, however, was significantly smaller on
average in the irrigation habitat only for females (F2, 117
3.5986, p = 0.03). No other comparisons of morphometric
data were significant.


The results presented here lead to two primary conclusions
deserving further study. First, habitat-and presumably
diet-appear to influence weight, probably through
mechanisms of energy allocation (see Nagy et al., 1999).
Although mean weight x habitat did not reach significance
in this study, a clear trend was evident, with mean weight
decreasing from deciduous to riparian to irrigation habitats,
possibly indicating differences in habitat quality and/or
dietary habits of the animals across the three forest types.
Future studies of functional ecology in howlers need to
investigate possible differences in reproductive success as a
function of habitat and the possibility of habitat selection
in this species.

The finding that chest circumference is significantly smaller
in the most degraded habitat may provide documentation
of a tradeoff in the allocation of resources (energy) between
cardiopulmonary function and some other structure or
function related to survival, growth, or reproduction
(see, for example, Sundaram et al., 1995; Emlen, 1997;
West-Eberhard, 2003). That adult females and males in
deciduous habitat were found to have the largest chest
circumference-and, it is proposed, the greatest allocation
of resources to cardiopulmonary function in this regime-
is also of interest. An investigation of the structural and
functional costs associated with habitat heterogeneity,
and in particular habitat disturbance, may enhance our
understanding of the abiotic and biotic (including social)
risks impacting population viability of mantled howlers and
other primates. Studies of functional ecology are important
for the conservation of endangered primates, since habitat
destruction may lead to fundamental changes in the
energetic of organisms, including their capacity to grow,
survive, and reproduce.


I am grateful to Norman J. Scott, Jr. (U.S. Fish and
Wildlife Service) for sharing his morphometric data with
me, and to the Werner Hagnauer family for allowing me to
conduct studies at Hacienda La Pacifica from 1973-1980.
Charlie Nunn and Anthony Rylands generously provided

constructive criticism and advice on an earlier version of
this brief communication which significantly improved
the manuscript. This technical note is dedicated to Don E.
Wilson for continued input and support.

Clara B. Jones, Livingstone College, Salisbury, NC
28144, USA, and Community Conservation, Inc., Gays
Mills, WI 54631, USA. Correspondence to: Clara B.
Jones, Livingstone College, School of Liberal Arts, 701
W. Monroe Street, Salisbury, NC 28144, USA. E-mails:
, .


Boesch, C., Hohmann, G. and Marchant, L. F. 2002.
Behavioural Diversity in Chimpanzees and Bonobos.
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Crockett, C. M. 1998. Conservation biology of the genus
Alouatta. Int. J Primatol. 19: 549-578.
Crockett, C. M. and Eisenberg, J. E 1987. Howlers:
Variations in group size and demography. In: Primate
Societies, B. B. Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R.
W. Wrangham andT. T. Struhsaker (eds.), pp. 54-68. The
University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Emlen, D. J. 1997. Diet alters male horn allometry
in the beetle Onthophagus acuminatus (Coleoptera:
Scarabaeidae). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 41: 335-341.
Fleagle, J. G. 1999. Primate Adaptation and Evolution, 2nd
edition. Academic Press, San Diego.
Frankie, G. W., Baker, H. G. and Opler, P. A. 1974.
Comparative phenological studies of trees in tropical wet
and dry forests in the lowlands of Costa Rica. J. Ecol. 62:
Glander, K. E. 1975. Habitat and resource utilization: An
ecological view of social organization in mantled howling
monkeys. Doctoral dissertation, University of Chicago,
Jones, C. B. 1996. Predictability of plant food resources for
mantled howler monkeys at Hacienda La Pacifica, Costa
Rica: Glander's dissertation revisited. Neotrop. Primates 4:
Jones, C. B. 1997. Life history patterns of howler
monkeys in a time-varying environment. Bol. Primatol.
Latinoamdricano 6: 1-8.
Jones, C. B. and Agoramoorthy, G. 2003. Alternative
reproductive behaviors in primates: Towards general
principles. In: Sexual Selection and Reproductive
Competition in Primates: New Perspectives and Directions,
C. B. Jones (ed.), pp. 103-139. American Society of
Primatologists, Norman, OK.
Kappeler, P. M. and Pereira, M. E. 2003. Primate Life
Histories and Socioecology. The University of Chicago
Press, Chicago.
Nagy, K. A., Girard, I. A. and Brown, T. K. 1999. Energetics
of free-ranging mammals, reptiles, and birds. Ann. Rev.
Nutr. 19: 247-277.
Schoener, T.W. 1971. Theory of feeding strategies. Ann.
Rev. Ecol. Syst. 2: 369-404.

24 Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003

Scott, N. J., Jr., Scott, A. F and Malmgren, L. A. 1976.
Capturing and marking howler monkeys for field
behavioral studies. Primates 17: 527-534.
Sundaram, K. K., Seth, V., Jena, T. K. and Shukla, D. K.
1995. Age at which chest circumference overtakes head
circumference in children. Indian J. Pediatrics 62: 89-94.
Trivers, R. L. 1972. Parental investment and sexual
selection: In: Sexual Selection and the Descent of Man,
1871-1971, B. Campbell (ed.), pp. 136-179. Aldine
Publishing, Chicago.
West-Eberhard, M. J. 2003. Developmental Plasticity and
Evolution. Oxford University Press, Oxford.


Eugenio Fuentes, Alejandro Estrada
Berenice Franco, Miguel Magana, Yenit Decena
David Muioz and Yasminda Garcia


En la parte septentrional de Mesoambrica, el estado de
Tabasco es tnico por resguardar poblaciones representantes
de las tres species de primates que existen en Mexico:
Alouatta palliata, A. pigra y Ateles geoffroyi (Smith,
1970; Horwich y Johnson, 1986; Rylands et al., 1995).
Originalmente, cerca del 60% de la superficie del estado
(24,141 km2) estaba cubierta por selvas, pero como
resultado de la actividad humana, cerca del 80% de estos
ecosistemas han desaparecido a una tasa de 600 km2 6 mAs
al aio, siendo las tierras baj as en donde ha ocurrido la mayor
transformaci6n de la selva a pastizales, a otros agrosistemas
y a areas abiertas causadas por la explotaci6n petrolera
(Masera, 1996; SEMARNAP, 1999; INEGI, 1996).

La conservaci6n de los primates silvestres de Tabasco es un
problema fntimamente ligado a la destrucci6n de las selvas en
esta entidad. La falta de informaci6n en el estado acerca de la
distribuci6n geogrifica actual y tamanio de las poblaciones y
la falta de datos sobre la historic natural, ecologfa, conduct
y estado de conservaci6n de las tres species de primates
dificulta su conservaci6n. Este trabajo report los resultados
de un studio parcial sobre los patrons de alimentaci6n de
una tropa de monos aulladores (Alouatta palliata) existente
en el Parque La Venta, localizado en la parte central de la
ciudad de Villahermosa en Tabasco.


Sitio de studio
El Parque Museo La Venta esta ubicado en el centro de
la ciudad de Villahermosa (18o20'N, 9318'O) a una
altura de 10 m sobre el nivel del mar. El clima es cilido
y huimedo, la precipitaci6n media annual oscila entire 1600
y 2000 mm y la temperature media annual varfa de 220 a

26o C. El Parque, fundado en 1958, cubre una superficie
de 8.0 ha, de las que 6.0 ha estin forestadas. Adn cuando
en el sitio existfa vegetaci6n selvatica residual, se sembraron
species arb6reas y no arb6reas externas al Neotr6pico,
dando como resultado un area de vegetaci6n heterogenea,
compuesta por vegetaci6n native e introducida. Algunas de
las species arb6reas nativas que predominan en el sitio son
Vochysia hondurensis, Cedrela odorata, Pouteria zapota, Ceiba
pentandra y Bursera simaruba. Entre las species arb6reas
introducidas sobresalen Byrsonina crassifolia, Mangifera
indica, Delonix regia, Pimenta dioica y Citrus sinensis
(Capello y Alderete, 1986).

Sujetos de studio
En el Parque existe una tropa de monos aulladores cuyo
origen no esta documentado, pero se conoce su existencia
desde la fundaci6n del Parque a fines de los afios cincuenta.
Actualmente, la tropa esti constituida por 15 individuos
(dos machos adults, ocho hembras adults, dos juveniles y
tres infantss.

Observaciones de los monos aulladores
Las observaciones del comportamiento de alimentaci6n
de los aulladores se llevaron a cabo durante ocho dias de
cada mes entire febrero y junio de 2001. Con el objeto de
refinar los procedimientos de registro del comportamiento
de alimentaci6n de los monos aulladores, se llev6 a cabo
un muestro piloto dos meses antes del inicio del studio.
En este period se hicieron pruebas de confiabilidad
entire observadores para establecer concordancia en las
conductas registradas. El mhtodo de muestreo empleado
en las observaciones fue el de animal focal (Altmann,
1974) y el tiempo de duraci6n de la muestra focal para
individuos representantes de cada clase de edad y sexo
en la tropa machoss adults, hembras adults, juveniles e
infants) fue de 10 minutes. Los observadores (EF, BF y
YD) se turnaron para la realizaci6n de las observaciones
focales y estas se concentraron durante las horas de mayor
actividad alimentaria de los aulladores (0700-0100 hrs
y 1600-1800 hrs), tratando de balancear las muestras
obtenidas durante estas horas del dfa. Durante la muestra
focal se registr6 el tiempo dedicado a cada una de las
siguientes actividades generals: descanso, alimentaci6n,
locomoci6n, interacciones sociales y viaje. En el caso del
comportamiento de alimentaci6n, se especific6 la parte
consumida (hojas j6venes, hojas maduras, frutos j6venes,
frutos maduros y flores) y se marc6 e identific6, a nivel de
especie, la plant de la cual se alimentaron. La distancia
viajada por los individuos fue media con un pedometro
y el viaje se defini6 como el desplazamiento del individuo
sincronizado con el del resto de la tropa de un Arbol o grupo
de arboles a otros y en donde la distancia recorrida excedfa
20 m. A los irboles utilizados como fuente de alimento se
les midi6 la altura y el diimetro a la altura del pecho (1.30
m). Cuando el comportamiento fue viaje, aparte de la
duraci6n de este, se midi6 la distancia recorrida en metros.

La localizaci6n de los irboles utilizados por los aulladores
se indic6 en un mapa a escala del sitio de studio. La

Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003

Tabla 1. Especies de plants utilizadas como fuente de alimento (febrero junio 2001) por los monos aulladores del Parque La Venta,
Tabasco, Mexico. Se muestra el porcentaje de tiempo que los aulladores pasaron alimentindose de cada parte de la plant. Las species estin
listadas de acuerdo al porcentaje de tiempo total de alimentaci6n registrado para cada una. La letra (I) indica especie forinea al Neotr6pico.
HJ hojas j6venes, HM hojas maduras, FJ frutos j6venes, FM frutos maduros, FL flores.

Especie Familia HJ HM FJ FM FL Total
% % % % % min
Mangifera indica (I) Anacardiaceae 13.9 13.3 12.5 58.0 0.2 486.8
Ficus benjamin (I) Moraceae 11.4 15.4 27.6 4.0 344.7
Andira galeottiana Fabaceae 16.5 14.5 311.5
Casearia silvestris Flacourtiaceae 12.0 3.9 192.3
Inga spuria Mimosaceae 6.0 11.8 152.4
Tabebuia rosea Bignoniaceae 1.4 2.7 71.9 138.1
Ceibapentandra Bombacaceae 6.3 6.8 28.0 134.5
Coccoloba barbadensis Polygonaceae 2.2 6.8 21.3 98.4
Luehea spedosa Tiliaceae 2.0 10.6 2.6 86.6
Xylopiafrutescens Annonaceae 1.6 27.6 4.0 79.6
Andira inermis Fabaceae 4.0 3.7 76.7
Cecropia obtusifolia Cecropiaceae 3.7 2.3 66.3
Vochysia hondurensis Vochysiaceae 3.5 0.3 0.2 2.0 63.2
Tabernaemontana arborea Apocynaceae 0.2 18.0 63.2
Enterolobium cyclocarpum Fabaceae 3.3 49.2
Muntingia calabura Elaeocarpaceae 2.2 0.7 4.8 0.0 44.6
Lysiloma bahamensis Fabaceae 2.4 37.1
Bursera simaruba Burseraceae 2.0 0.4 31.2
Delonix regia (I) Fabaceae 1.6 24.0
Gliriddia sepium Fabaceae 1.4 0.2 23.0
Lonchocarpus hondurensis Fabaceae 3.0 13.7
Tamarindus indica (I) Fabaceae 0.8 12.2
Syngoniumpodophyllum Araccae 2.0 10.0
Trichilia havanensis Meliaceae 0.1 1.6 9.4
Pachira aquatica Bombacaceae 5.5 8.0
Sterculia apetala Sterculiaceae 0.5 7.1
Calliandra houstoniana Fabaceae 0.4 0.0 6.5
Guazuma ulmifolia Sterculiaceae 0.1 6.2
Morinda citrifolia (I) Rubiaceac 0.4 5.4
Cupania dentata Sapindaceae 0.2 3.3
Haematoxylum campechianum Fabaceae 0.0 0.3

diversidad mensual en la dieta de los aulladores se express
por medio del fndice de diversidad de Shannon (H') y la
similitud intermensual en el uso de species se express
por medio del fndice de Sorensen (Brower y Zar, 1981;
Ludwig y Reynolds, 1988). Con el objeto de determinar
si la dispersi6n en el espacio de los arboles usados por los
aulladores como fuente de alimento era al azar, uniform
o agregada, se uso el fndice de Morisita (Brower y Zar,
1981). Para calcular este fndice, se trazaron tres transectos
en el mapa del sitio de studio, uno de 25 x 325 m N-S
y dos transectos de 25 x 500 m E-O0 que fueron divididos
en cuadrantes de 25 x 25 m. Los irboles utilizados por
los aulladores que quedaron ubicados en estos cuadrantes
fueron contados obtenidndose los datos para el computo
del fndice de Morisita. Los datos sobre alimentaci6n
se expresaron como porcentajes del total de tiempo de
alimentaci6n registrado durante las observaciones. Para

la determinaci6n de asociaciones entire variables se us6 el
coeficiente de correlaci6n de Spearman (r).


Durante el period de studio se completaron 2691
muestras focales. Las muestras focales se repartieron del
siguiente modo entire los representantes de las diferentes
classes de edad y sexo presents en el grupo: hembras adults
42%, machos adults 32%, juveniles 14% e infants 12%.

Recursos utilizados
Los aulladores utilizaron como fuente de alimento 133
arboles (altura media 11.0 3.0 m; diimetro medio a la
altura del pecho 0.40 + 0.23 m; r, entire estas dos variables =
0.90, p < 0.001) de 30 species representando a 20 families

26 Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003

botfinicas. Los monos tambien se alimentaron de las hojas
de una trepadora Syngonium podophyllum (Araceae). Las
species arb6reas nativas utilizadas como fuente de alimento
por los aulladores estuvieron representadas por 26 species
(17 families) y las introducidas por cinco species (cuatro
families) (Tabla 1). Cuatro species de Arboles (Mangifera
indica, Ficus benjamin, Andira galeottiana y Casearia
silvestris) contribuyeron al 50% del tiempo registrado en
alimentaci6n y al 42% de los arboles utilizados (Tabla 1),
y cuatro species adicionales (Inga spuria, Tabebuia rosea,
Ceibapentandra y Coccoloba barbadensis) aportaron un 20%
del tiempo de alimentaci6n y contribuyeron al 18% de los
irboles utilizados (Tabla 1). El resto de las species (n = 18)
contribuyeron al 30% restante del tiempo de alimentaci6n
y al 40% de los arboles registrados (Tabla 1). El tiempo de
alimentaci6n estuvo asociado positivamente al ndmero de
irboles usados por especie (r = 0.80, p < 0.008).

Las families botinicas que sobresalieron en la dieta de los
aulladores fueron Fabaceae, Anacardiaceae y Moraceae. Las
species en estas families contribuyeron al 54% del tiempo
de alimentaci6n registrado y al 50% de los irboles utilizados;
diez species en la Fabaceae aportaron el 22% del tiempo de
alimentaci6n, una especie en la Anacardiaceae aport6 el
19% y una especie en la Moraceae contribuy6 con el 13%.

Selectividad en el consumo de hojas, frutosyflores
El consume de hojas por los monos aulladores de La Venta
contribuy6 al 76% del tiempo de alimentaci6n registrado, los
frutos contribuyeron al 19% y el consume de flores aport6
el 5%. Las hojas j6venes aportaron el 57% del tiempo de
alimentaci6n, las hojas maduras el 19%, los frutos maduros
el 13%, los frutos j6venes el 6% y las flores el 5%. Los monos
utilizaron 28 species de Arboles como fuente dehojas j6venes,
pero cuatro de estas (Mangifera indica, Ficus benjamin,
Andira galeottiana, Casearia silvestris) contribuyeron al
54% del tempo de alimentaci6n. El tempo empleado por
los aulladores en el consume de hojas j6venes se encontr6
asociado positivamente con el ntumero de irboles usados por
especie (r = 0.98, p < 0.05), sugiriendo una bisqueda active
de drboles de las principles species utilizadas como fuente
de alimento. En el caso de las hojas maduras, los aulladores
utilizaron 19 species de plants y cinco de estas (Andira
galeottiana, Ficus benjamin, Mangifera indica, Luehea
speciosa y Inga spuria) contribuyeron al 60% del tiempo de
alimentaci6n (Tabla 1).

Ocho species constituyeron la fuente de frutos j6venes
para la tropa y dos de 6stas, Xylopia frutescens y Ficus
benjamin, contribuyeron a un poco mis del 50% del
tiempo de alimentaci6n. El consume de frutos maduros
fue mis important que el de frutos j6venes, consumiendo
los frutos maduros de seis species, entire las que sobresale
Mangifera indica, ya que contribuy6 al 58% del tiempo de
alimentaci6n. Los tipos de frutos utilizados porlos aulladores
fueron cipsulas (Xylopia frutescens, Luehea speciosa, Vochysia
hondurensis, Pachira aquatica, Tabernaemontana arborea),
drupas (Coccoloba barbadensis, Mangifera indica), bayas
(Muntingia callabura) y siconios (Ficus benjamina. En el





Figura 1. Variaciones mensuales en el consumo de hojas, flores
y frutos por parte de la tropa de monos aulladores en el Parque
La Venta, Tabasco, Mexico. Notese que el consumo de hojas
j6venes predomin6 sobre las otras parties en todos los meses del
period de studio y que el consumo de frutos maduros y de flores
fue marcadamente estacional. HJ hojas j6venes, HM hojas
maduras, FJ frutos j6venes, FM frutos maduros, FL flores.
caso del consumo de flores, los aulladores se alimentaron de
tres species, pero la especie Tabebuia rosea contribuy6 al 71
% del tiempo de alimentaci6n (Tabla 1).

Variacidn mensual en la dieta de los aulladores
El nimero medio de species nuevas acumuladas
mensualmente en la dieta de los aulladores fue de 6.0
(rango 1 a 13), pero en los dos primeros meses de muestreo
se acumularon 24 (80%) de las 30 species utilizadas. El
consumo de hojas j6venes predomin6 sobre el de hojas
maduras en cada uno de los meses comprendidos en el
studio, pero cuando en el mes de marzo disminuy6 el
consumo de hojas j6venes, se manifest un incremento en
el consume de hojas maduras (Fig. 1). El consume de flores
y frutos maduros fue marcadamente estacional, siendo las
primeras predominantes en los meses de febrero a abril y
los segundos en los meses de abril a junio. El consumo de
frutos j6venes predomin6 en los meses de mayo y junio
(Fig. 1). La diversidad media mensual (H') en la dieta de
los aulladores fue de 2.10 + 0.17 y 6sta vari6 de 1.90 en abril
a 2.30 en junio. El fndice medio de similitud intermensual
a nivel de especie (fndice de Sorensen) fue de 0.75 0.13 y
vari6 de 0.45 en febrero a 0.75 en abril (Fig. 2).

I Fmwo Mnwo AI M ya .iAM I
Figura 2. Variaciones mensuales en la diversidad dietitica
expresada por el fndice de Shannon (H'). Se muestra tambien la
similitud intermensual a nivel de especie por el indice de Sorensen
(IS) y la distancia media recorrida por dfa en cada uno de los
meses del period de studio (D).


Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003

Dispersidn en el espacio de los drboles utilizados por los
El valor medio del fndice de Morisita calculado para
determinar el patr6n de dispersion en el espacio de los
drboles utilizados por los aulladores como fuente de alimento
fue 2.08 +_ 0.97, indicando que estos arboles presentaron una
distribuci6n aglomerada en el espacio. El 60% de los arboles
utilizados por los aulladores representaron alas ocho species
mis importantes en su dieta, species que contribuyeron al
70% del tiempo de alimentaci6n registrado. Los aulladores
respondieron al patr6n agregado de sus recursos viajando
distancias variables dfa a dfa y mes a mes. La distancia media
recorrida por dfa por los aulladores entire fuentes de alimento
fue 118.0 + 106.0 m, pero 6sta vari6 de 67.8 + 59.5 m en
marzo a 198.4 + 180.5 men mayo. Las diferencias entire meses
en las distancias recorridas diariamente por los aulladores
fueron estadfsticamente significativas (Kruskal-Wallis test, H
= 9.53, DF = 4, p = 0.049; H ajustado por empates = 9.54,
DF = 4, p = 0.049), lo que sugiere variaciones en el tiempo y
espacio en la disponibilidad de los recursos alimenticios y una
busqueda active de estos por los aulladores (Fig. 2).

Uso de species introducidas
Las cinco species arb6reas no nativas utilizadas por los
aulladores como fuente de alimento fueron aprovechadas en
todos los meses que dur6 el studio y el ndmero medio de
species utilizadas por mes fue de 3.0 + 1.2 (rango 2-5). En
el caso de las species nativas, el ntmero medio de species
usadas por mes por los aulladores fue de 12.4 + 3.6 (rango
8-17). Aun cuando el ntmero de species nativas usadas por
mes fue mayor que para el caso de las species introducidas,
estas dltimas resaltan en importancia cuando se consider
el tiempo de alimentaci6n invertido por los aulladores en el
consume de sus hojas y frutos. Este tiempo vari6 de 10%
(marzo) al 57% (febrero) con una media mensual de 36.4
+ 18.1% y solamente en el mes de febrero el percentage de
tiempo invertido en el consume de las hojas y/o frutos de
estas species fue menor al 30%.


Los datos que presentamos aquf sobre los tipos de plants
utilizadas por los aulladores como fuente de alimento son
preliminares. Observaciones adicionales podrin aportar
informaci6n acerca de las consistencias y variaciones, en
el tiempo y espacio, en las preferencias alimentarias de los
monos aulladores del Parque La Venta. Teniendo esto en
mente, nuestros resultados indicaron que el uso de Arboles
en el entorno en el que existen los aulladores en el Parque La
Venta estuvo directamente asociado a la utilizaci6n de estos
como fuente de alimento. Estos arboles representaron a 30
species, tienden a ser de tamafio moderado y le sirven a los
aulladores como substrato ffsico y como fuente de alimento.
El predominio de species pertenecientes a las families
Fabaceae y Moraceae en la dieta de los monos aulladores
tambien ha sido reportado en otras localidades en M6xico
como en Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz (Estrada, 1984; Estrada et a.,
1999; Juan et al., 1999) y en Centro y Sudam&rica, como
en Belice (Silver et al., 1998), Finca La Pacifica, Costa Rica

(Glander, 1975), Isla de Barro Colorado, Panami (Milton,
1980), Finca Meremberg, Colombia (Gaulin y Gaulin,
1982) yen Brasil (Galetti etal., 1994).

El predominio de Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae) como
fuente de hojas j6venes y frutos maduros en la dieta de los
aulladores en el Parque La Venta fue notorio. Los Arboles de
esta especie contribuyeron al 14% de los Arboles registrados
en la dieta de los aulladores y al 19% del tiempo de
alimentaci6n registrado y fueron asiduamente visitados por
los aulladores. Es probable que debido a la predominancia
de M. indica y de individuos de Ficus benjamin en el sitio
de studio, los aulladores cuentan con una fuente adecuada
y mas o menos constant de alimento en forma de hojas y
de frutos a trav6s del afio.

Los monos aulladores presentan una marcada preferencia
por las hojas y los frutos y diariamente ingieren cantidades
variables de estos para lograr una dieta balanceada (Milton,
1998). Las hojas o los frutos predominan en la dieta
(Crockett y Eisenberg, 1987; Kinzey, 1997). Durante el
period de studio los aulladores fueron mAs folfvoros que
frugfvoros ya que pasaron el 76% del tiempo de alimentaci6n
consumiendo hojas y este patr6n fue consistent de un mes
a otro. Los aulladores del Parque La Venta mostraron mis
preferencia por las hojas j6venes que por las hojas maduras en
cada uno de los meses del studio, preferencia que se podrfa
atribuir a una alta concentraci6n de protefna (33% mis que
las hojas maduras), altos contenidos de nutrients digeribles
y menor contenido (36% menos que las hojas maduras)
de fibra que en las hojas maduras (Estrada, 1984; Glander,
1975; Milton, 1980, 1998). Esto sugiere una bdsqueda active
por los aulladores por estas parties de las plants dentro de su
Area de suministro. Los comportamientos arriba indicados se
dieron a pesar de que la presencia de hojas maduras es mis
predecible en la selva, lo que sugiere la necesidad que tienen
los aulladores de balancear su dieta y minimizar la ingesti6n
de fibra y compuestos t6xicos (Glander, 1975; Milton, 1980,
1998; Gaulin y Gaulin, 1982; Braza et al., 1983; Estrada,
1984; Estrada etal., 1999).

Especies como Xylopia frutescens, E benjamin y Coccoloba
barbadensis contribuyeron de modo important como fuente
de frutos j6venes para los aulladores, pero la dependencia
de los aulladores de los frutos maduros de M. indica es
enfatizada por el dato de que el 58% del tiempo registrado en
el consume de frutos maduros por los aulladores, se registry
en esta especie. Es probable que la presencia de individuos de
esta especie en la comunidad vegetal selvitica del Parque La
Venta haya sido un aspect favorable para el sostenimiento
de la poblaci6n de monos aulladores en este sitio. Otras
species importantes en la dieta de los aulladores fueron
aquellas que les sirvieron como fuente de flores, reforzando
asf la ingestion de protefna. Estas species, Tabebuia rosea y
Ceiba pentandra, fueron utilizadas brevemente (1-3 meses)
enfatizando la marcada estacionalidad en la disponibilidad
de flores consumidas por los aulladores. Por otro lado, el
fndice de similitud intermensual a nivel de especie sugiere
que los aulladores asiduamente estaban buscando en su Area

Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003

de suministro drboles de las species preferidas y tomando
ventaja de los periods de tiempo en que las hojas, frutos y
flores de estas species estaban disponibles.

Es claro que los monos aulladores no utilizaron de modo
uniform el area selvitica disponible, algo que estuvo
fuertemente condicionado por el patron agregado de las
fuentes de alimento, especialmente de aquellas species
arb6reas que tuvieron una marcada presencia en su
dieta, como fue el caso de M. indica y E benjamin. Los
aulladores respondieron a estos aspects de sus recursos
viajando distancias variables cada dfa, que fueron de 68
a 198 m, recorridos que los llevaron a distintas secciones
dentro de su irea de suministro. En resume, podriamos
decir durante el period de studio, dos species arb6reas
introducidasjugaron un papel important como suministro
de hojas y frutos para los aulladores del Parque La Venta.
El uso combinado de estas con las species nativas confirm
la flexibilidad en la dieta que caracteriza a las species del
gendro Alouatta. Es probable que aspects como este le
han permitido a los aulladores sobrevivir en el Parque La


Se agradece el apoyo del Cleveland Zoo Scott Neotropic
Fund y de la Universidad Nacional Aut6noma de Mexico.
Se agradece tambien la autorizaci6n del Director del Parque
La Venta, Ing. Genaro Le6n Dfaz para llevar a cabo estos
trabajos y el apoyo logfstico aportado por la administraci6n
y empleados del Parque.

Eugenio Fuentes, Divisi6n de Ciencias Biol6gicas,
Universidad Juirez Aut6noma de Tabasco, Villahermosa,
Tabasco, Mexico, e-mail: ,
Alejandro Estrada, Estaci6n de Biologfa Los Tuxtlas, IB-
UNAM, Apartado 176, San Andres Tuxtla, Veracruz,
Mexico, e-mail: , Berenice
Franco, Divisi6n de Ciencias Biol6gicas, Universidad
Juarez Aut6noma de Tabasco, Villahermosa, Tabasco,
Mexico, e-mail: , Yenit
Decena, Divisi6n de Ciencias Biol6gicas, Universidad
Juarez Aut6noma de Tabasco, Villahermosa, Tabasco,
Mexico, e-mail: , Miguel
Magafia, Divisi6n de Ciencias Biol6gicas, Universidad
Juarez Aut6noma de Tabasco, Villahermosa, Tabasco,
Mexico, e-mail: , David Mufioz,
Divisi6n de Ciencias Biol6gicas, Universidad Juarez
Aut6noma de Tabasco, Villahermosa, Tabasco, Mexico,
e-mail: , y Yasminda Garcia
del Valle, Divisi6n de Ciencias Biol6gicas, Universidad
Juarez Aut6noma de Tabasco, Villahermosa, Tabasco,
Mexico, e-mail: .


Altmann, J. 1974. Observational study of behavior:
Sampling methods. Behavior 49: 227-267.

Braza, F, Alvarez, E y Azcarate, T. 1983. Feeding habits of
the red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus) in the Llanos
of Venezuela. Mammalia 47: 205-214.
Brower, J. E. y Zar, J. H. 1977. Field and Laboratory Methods
for General Ecology. Win. C. Brown Co. Publishers,
Dubuque, Iowa.
Capello, G. S. yAlderete, A. 1986. Guia Botdnica delParque
Museo de la Venta. Gobierno del Estado de Tabasco.
Institute Nacional de Investigaciones sobre Recursos
Bi6ticos, Villahermosa, Tabasco, Mexico.
Crockett, C. M. y Eisenberg, J. R. 1987. Howlers: Variation
in group size and demography. En: Primate Societies, B. B.
Smuts, D. L. Cheney, M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham yT.
T. Struhsaker (eds.), pp.54-68. The University of Chicago
Press, Chicago.
Estrada, A. 1984. Resource use by howler monkeys
(Alouatta palliata) in the rain forest of Los Tuxtlas,
Veracruz, Mexico. Int. J. Primatol. 5: 105-131.
Estrada, A., Juan Solano, S., Ortiz Martines, T. y Coates-
Estrada, R. 1999. Feeding and general activity patterns
of a howler monkey (Alouatta palliata) troop living in a
forest fragment at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. Am. J Primatol.
48: 167-183.
Galetti, M., Pedroni, E y Morellato, L. P. C. 1994. Diet
of the brown howler monkey Alouatta fusca in a forest
fragment in southeastern Brazil. Mammalia 58: 111-
Gaulin, S. J. C. y Gaulin, C. K. 1982. Behavioral ecology of
Alouatta seniculus in Andean cloud forest. Int. J. Primatol.
3: 1-32.
Glander, K. E. 1975. Habitat description and resource
utilization: An ecological view of social organization in
mantled howler monkeys. En: Socioecology and Psychology
of Primates, R. H. Tuttle (ed.), pp.37-57. The Hague,
Horwich, R. H. y Johnson, R. D. 1986. Geographical
distribution of black howler (Alouatta pigra) in Central
America. Primates 27: 53-62.
INEGI. 1996. Sintesis Cirtotifica, Nomenclator y Anexos
Cartogrdficos del Estado de Tabasco. Institute Nacional de
Estadfstica, Geograffa e Informitica, Mexico.
Kinzey, W. G. 1997. Alouatta. En: New World Primates:
Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, W. G. Kinzey (ed.),
pp. 174-185. Aldine de Gruyter, New York.
Juan, S., Ortiz-Martinez, T. J., Estrada, A. y Coates-
Estrada, R. 1999. Uso de plants como alimento por
Alouattapalliata en un fragmento de selva en Los Tuxtlas,
Mexico. Neotrop. Primates. 7(1): 8-11.
Ludwig, J. A. y Reynolds, J. E 1988. Statistical Ecology.
John Wiley and Sons, New York.
Masera, 0. R. 1996. Deforestaci6n y degradaci6n forestal
en Mexico. Documento de Trabajo. Grupo Interdisciplinario
de Trabajo de Tecnologia RuralApropiada 19: 1-15.
Milton, K. 1980. The Foraging Strategy of Howler Monkeys:
A Study in Primate Economics. Columbia University Press,
New York.
Milton, K. 1998. Physiological ecology of howlers (Alouatta):
Energetic and digestive considerations and comparison
with the Colobinae. Int. J. Primatol. 19: 513-548.

Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003

Rylands, A., Mittermeier, R. A. y Rodrfguez-Luna, E. 1995.
A species list for the New World primates (Platyrrhini):
Distribution by country, endemism, and conservation
status according to the Mace-Lande system. Neotrop.
Primates 3(Suppl.): 114-164.
SEMARNAP 1999. Website: .
Secretarfa del Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales,
Gobierno de M6xico.
Silver, S. C., Ostro, L. E. T., Yeager, C. P. y Horwich, R. 1998.
Feeding ecology of the black howler monkey (Alouatta
pigra) in northern Belize. Am. J]. Primatol. 45: 263-279.
Smith, J. D. 1970. The systematic status of the black
howler monkeys, Alouatta pigra Lawrence. J. Mammal.
51: 358-369.


Leandro R. Pacheco, Fernanda M. Neri
Vivian T Frahia, Alan L. de Melo


Os primatas ngo humans sao hospedeiros de diversos
parasites e, a despeito de muitas esp6cies terem sido
relatadas para animals oriundos do ambiente silvestre
(Kuntz e Myers, 1972; Luz et al., 1987; Melo e Pereira,
1986; Melo et al., 1987, 1997; Neri et al., 1997; Pereira
et al., 1993a, 1993b, 1993c, 1993d; Resende et al., 1994;
Santa Cruz et al., 2000), os estudos basicos sobre as diversas
infecqoes naturals que acometem virias esp6cies de primates
slo negligenciados (Kuntz, 1970). Entre essas esp6cies,
encontra-se o Callicebus nigrifrons (Spix, 1823), o sauA ou
guig6, um primata endemico da Mata Atlintica, podendo
ainda ocorrer em matas ciliares do Cerrado. E. a maior das
treze esp6cies do genero, atingindo quando adulto at6 dois
quilogramas. Geralmente vivem em unidades familiares
compostas por um casal mon6gamo, um filhote e as vezes
um jovem do ano anterior (Hershkovitz, 1988, 1990; Van
Roosmalen et al., 2002).

Ap6s a implantagao da unidade de conservagao da CEMIG
(Estagao de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento Ambiental de
Galheiros), no municipio de Perdizes, Minas Gerais, foi
escolhido um grupo de C. nigrifrons para acompanhamento
diario com objetivo de se aumentar o conhecimento
parasitol6gico desses animals.

Materials e Metodos

Um grupo familiar de quatro primatas em ambiente
natural, sendo dois adults (femea [01], macho[02]), umrn
subadulto (macho[03]) e umn infante (macho[04]), foi
identificado e observado sob a forma de "scan sampling",
segundo Altmann (1974). Isto 6 uma varredura das
atividades de todos os individuos, sendo tres minutes
de observagao seguidos de sete de interval e assim por

diante. As observances seguiram-se ao long do dia, ou
seja, de seis as dezoito horas. Totalizou-se 65 dias de
observagoes e coletas assim distribufdos: oito em margo,
14 em abril, 18 em maio, 14 em junho e 11 em julho.
Ap6s a identificacao dos animals, amostras de fezes foram
recolhidas, individualmente, em dias e horas diferentes e
acondicionadas em frascos contend formalina. Foram
realizados exames parasitol6gicos pelos m6todos de
centrifugagao (Ritchie, 1948) e de sedimentagao (Hoffman
et al., 1934) de todas as amostras recolhidas com exame de
tr&s liminas por amostra de fezes para cada t6cnica. Para
efeito de comparacao e apresentagao de dados, as amostras
obtidas em diferentes horarios em um mesmo dia foram
agrupadas (amostra diaria) ap6s anilise individual.


Do material analisado, verificou-se a presenca de ovos
de Anoplocephalidae (Mathevotaenia megastoma),
Hymenolepididae (Hymenolepis spp.), Subuluridae
(Primasubulura jacchi), esp6cies ji relatadas para Callicebus
nigrifrons, e de Thelaziidae (Trichospirura cf. leptostoma),
corn relato anterior somente para C. moloch.

Os resultados iniciais dos exames revelaram que, entire as
duas t6cnicas utilizadas, o m6todo de centrifugagio foi
menos sensivel para evidenciar, nas amostras de diferentes
dias, ovos de Mathevotaenia megastoma, Primasubulura
jacchi e Trichospirura cf. leptostoma, enquanto o de
sedimentagao espontrnea apresentou-se corn maior
sensibilidade para detecoo de ovos de Hymenolepis,
Mathevotaenia, Primasubulura e Trichospirura.

No presenteestudo, os dados obtidos paraAnoplocephalidae
e Thelaziidae nio foram quantificados tendo em vista o
encontro de somente uma amostra positive durante todo
o perfodo analisado. Os ovos de Hymenolepis obtidos e
mensurados, at6 o present, nao foram ainda identificados;
aparentemente ocorre mais de uma esp6cie, sendo H.
cebidarum ja relatada para C nigrifrons. Entretanto, uma
confirmacao especifica em relaqao aos cest6deos s6 pode ser
realizada quando de necr6psias de animals.

Verificou-se para todos os animals uma variaqao diaria
relative a presenca ou nao de ovos de Hymenolepis. De
49 amostras didrias do saud 01, 46 estavam positivas. 0
animal 02 apresentou seis amostras diirias positivas em 47.
Ji para o animal 03, verificou-se positividade em tries das 51
amostras diarias. Para o animal 04, de 48, em cinco delas
ocorreu a presenca de ovos.

De acordo corn a Figura 1 (saua 01) os resultados negatives,
em nimero de tries, se concentraram entire as amostras
21 e 28. Ainda na Figura 1 (saui 02), observa-se, entire
a primeira (9) e a ultima amostra positive (20), quatro
amostras consecutivas (12-15), nas quais foram detectados
ovos. Em todas as outras amostras analisadas o resultado
foi consistentemente negative. Tambdm para o saui 03
poucas amostras de fezes revelaram a presenca de ovos (20,

30 Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003


Figura 1. Variaoao diiria de positividade para ovos de Hymenolepis
em amostras de fezes de Callicebus nigrifrons.
29 e 42). Nio hi indfcios de um agrupamento seqtiencial
dos resultados positivos em amostras pr6ximas (Figura 1).
Nota-se ainda, que o mesmo ocorreu para o sauA 04, onde
pode se observer intervalos aparentemente regulates entire
uma e outra amostra positive.

Comparando-se individualmente a contribuiqao em
porcentagem de amostras didrias positivas (Figura 2)
verificou-se que os animals 02, 03 e 04 apresentaram
resultados pr6ximos variando entire 5% e 12% do total de
suas amostras. Ji os exames do animal 01 diferentemente
dos demais resultaram em 94% de positividade de suas


Os dados obtidos foram analisados individualmente, ji que
variaqoes individuals em infeco6es parasitarias estao, muitas
vezes, relacionadas a alimentaq!o, condiq6es ambientais,
perfodo do ano em que foram recolhidas as fezes, sexo,
idade e ate mesmo fatores gen&ticos (Dunn, 1970;
Freeland, 1979; Stuart e Strier, 1994; Garber e Kitron,
1997), dificultando assim o agrupamento dos resultados de
todos os animals para caracterizaqgo mais aprofundada da
infecqio natural por helmintos parasitos.

Sao escassas na literature informaqoes bisicas sobre a
infecqao por Hymenolepis em C. nigrifrons, apesar de H.
cebidarum oriunda de Callithrix nigrifrons (= Callicebus
nigrifrons) capturado em Minas Gerais, ter sido descrita por
Baer em 1927. Outros registros de cest6deos pertencentes
a mesma famflia estio dispersos na literature, sem
contudo uma confirmaiao definitive da esp&cie-como,

Figura 2. Percentual
Callicebus nigrifrons.

de positividade em amostras de fezes de

por exemplo, em Melo et al. (1997) ao estudarem uma
populayco de C. nigrifrons resgatada durante a construdao
da Usina Hidreldtrica Nova Ponte e mantida em recintos
para translocaqao ate a soltura dos mesmos. De 17 animals,
14 apresentavam-se parasitados por Primasubulura jacchi,
sete por Anoplocephalidae e cinco por Hymenolepididae,
indicando serem parasitos freqiientes em C. nigrifrons,
considerando-se o curto perfodo entire a capture no
ambiente silvestre e o exame parasitol6gico alim dos hdbitos
alimentares, jA que a maioria das infecq6es parasitarias
ocorre quando da ingestao de invertebrados hospedeiros
intermediarios de parasitos.

A obtenqao de fezes depend da freqiiuncia e perfodo do
dia em que as diferentes espdcies defecam, quantidade de
material excretado, al6m de outros fatores como condio6es
fisiol6gicas e tipo de alimento ingerido pelo animal. Assim,
atravys das anotaq6es didrias do horario em que as amostras
foram obtidas, pode-se relatar como aspect biol6gico
de C. nigrifrons a excresio de fezes predominantemente
pela manha, considerando-se o perfodo de observacao
compreendido entire 6h e 18h. Nao houve no entanto
relaq!o alguma entire o resultado dos exames e a hora em
que foram obtidas as amostras.

Grande parte das informaqoes parasitol6gicas sobre primatas
nao humans encontradas na literature, provdm de animals
que sob tensdo, sdo capturados e mantidos em cativeiros
distorcendo-se assim as caracterfsticas da infecgio em
condiq6es naturals. Hi portanto a valorizaqgo do estudo do
parasitismo desses animals vivendo em ambiente natural,
podendo estes conseqiientemente, se revelarem como
reservat6rios naturals de pat6genos que afetam os humans
alkm de se obter dados essenciais para propostas de manejo
e conservagqo bem como a sancio de quest6es de ordem
ecol6gicas e filogendticas de alguns primatas (Chitwood,
1970; Dunn, 1970; Kuntz, 1970; Resende et al., 1994;
Stuart e Strier, 1994; Melo et al, 1997; Neri et al., 1997).

i possivel que a eliminaqio de ovos dos parasitos seja
dependent de virios fatores inclusive uma carga parasitiria
maior refletindo o verificado em um dos animals, a unica
femea, que apresentou uma alta freqiiencia de ovos em
diferentes amostras de fezes. Por outro lado, pode-se observer
que a t&cnica de sedimentaqio espontinea apresentou-
se mais adequada para o diagn6stico laboratorial, tendo

a0% I 2 uegali3


Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003

em vista a deteccao de ovos de P jacchi em tries amostras
oriundas de diferentes dias de um mesmo animal.

Resultados semelhantes foram verificados por Resende et
al. (1994) ao analisar comparativamente por tries diferentes
tecnicas, durante 18 meses, material de 21 exemplares de
Callithrix penicillata inicialmente mantidos em cativeiro.
Foram observadas oscilacoes mensais na eliminacao de
ovos de Trichospirura leptostoma, sem no entanto verificar a
variaqao diaria na excreaio de ovos dos parasites.

As informaqges obtidas no present estudo permitem
sugerir a realizaqao de exames em dias diferentes para
um diagn6stico parasitol6gico mais acurado, apesar de as
tecnicas utilizadas serem equivalentes, sensfveis e adequadas
para monitoramento, por amostras fecais, de infecq6es
causadas por helmintos gastrointestinais.

Agradecimentos:Agradecemos o apoio do Conselho Nacional
de Desenvolvimento Cientffico e Tecnol6gico (CNPq) e da
Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG).

Leandro R. Pacheco, Laborat6rio de Taxonomia e Biologia
de Invertebrados, Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto
de Ciencias Biol6gicas, Universidade Federal de Minas
Gerais, 30123-970 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil,
e-mail: , Fernanda M. Neri,
Program de P6s-Graduaqdo em Ecologia e Recursos
Naturais, Departamento de Hidrobiologia, Universidade
Federal de Sao Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luiz, Km
235, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo, e-mail: iris.ufscar.br>, Vfvian T. Frahia, Fundacao Zoo-Botinica
de Belo Horizonte, Avenida Otkcilio Negrao de Lima
8000, 31365-450 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, e-mail:
, e Alan L. de Melo, Laborat6rio de
Taxonomia e Biologia de Invertebrados, Departamento de
Parasitologia, Instituto de Ciencias Biol6gicas, Universidade
Federal de Minas Gerais, 30123-970 Belo Horizonte,
Minas Gerais, Brasil, e-mail: .


Altmann, J. 1974. Observational study of behaviour:
Sampling methods. Behaviour 49: 227-267.
Baer, J. G. 1927. Die Cestoden der Siugetiere Brasiliens.
Abh. Senck. Naturforsch. Gesel. 40: 377-386.
Chitwood, M. 1970. Comparative relationships of some
parasites of man and Old and New World subhuman
primates. Lab. Anim. Care 20: 389-394.
Dunn, E L. 1970. Natural infection in primates:
Helminths and problems in primate phylogeny, ecology,
and behaviour. Lab. Anim. Care 20: 383-388.
Freeland, W. J. 1980. Mangabey (Cercocebus albigena)
movement patterns in relation to food availability and
fecal contamination. Ecology 61: 1297-1303.
Garber, P A. e Kitron, U. 1977. Seed swallowing in
tamarins: Evidence of a curative function or enhanced
foraging efficiency? Int. J. Primatol. 18: 523-538.

Hershkovitz, P. 1988. Origin, speciation, and distribution
of South American titi monkeys, genus Callicebus (family
Cebidae, Platyrrhini). Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia
140: 240-272.
Hershkovitz, P. 1990. Titis, New World monkeys of the
genus Callicebus (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): A preliminary
taxonomic review. Fieldiana, Zoology, New Series (55):
Hoffman, W. A., Pons, J. A. e Janer, J. L. 1934. The
sedimentation-concentration method in Schistosomiasis
mansoni. Puerto Ricoj. Public Health 9: 281-289.
Kuntz, R. E. 1970. Introduction and concept for a
nonhuman primate parasite workshop. Lab. Anim. Care
20: 324-328.
Kuntz, R. E. e Myers, B. J. 1972. Parasites of South
American primates. Int. Zoo. Yearb. 12: 61-68.
Luz, V. L., Carvalho, A. C. T., Pereira, L. H., Melo, A. L.,
Silva, J. E., Mendes, S. L. e Louzada da Silva, D. 1987. Sobre
alguns parasites encontrados em inspeqao de Alouattafusca
(Primates, Cebidae) da regiao de Caratinga, MG. Resumos:
XIV Congresso Brasileiro de Zoologia, p.161. Sociedade
Brasileira de Zoologia, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais.
Melo, A. L. e Pereira, L. H. 1986. Sobre o parasitismo por
Primasubulura jacchi em Callithrix penicillata (Primates,
Callitrichidae). Em: A Primatologia no Brasil 2, M.
T. de Melo (ed.), pp.483-488. Sociedade Brasileira de
Primatologia, Brasilia.
Melo, A. L., Frazdo, E., Luz, V. L. E e Pereira, L. H. 1987.
Observagoes preliminares sobre helmintos do tubo
digestivo e da cavidade peritoneal de diversas esp&cies
de primatas do estado do Pari. Resumos: XIV Congresso
Brasileiro de Zoologia, p.191. Sociedade Brasileira de
Zoologia, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais.
Melo, A. L., Neri, F. M. e Ferreira, M. B. 1997. Helmintos
de sauas, Callicebus personatus nigrifrons (Spix, 1823,
Primates: Cebidae), coletados em resgate faunfstico
durante a construqgo da Usina Hidreletrica Nova Ponte
MG. Em: A Primatologia no Brasil 6, M. B. C. de
Souza e A. L. L. Menezes (eds.), pp.193-198. Sociedade
Brasileira de Primatologia, Natal.
Neri, E M., Fraiha, V. T. e Melo, A. L. 1997. Presenqa de
microfilarias em sangue perifdrico de Callicebuspersonatus
nigrifrons (Spix, 1823, Primates: Cebidae), coletados
em resgate faunfstico durante construcgo da Usina
Hidreletrica Nova Ponte, MG. Em: A Primatologia no
Brasil 6, M. B. C. de Souza e A. L. L. Menezes (eds.),
pp.199-204. Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia, Natal.
Pereira, L. H., Melo, A. L., Resende, D. M. e Pinto, W. A.
1993a. Primatas nao humans da regiao neotropical como
models experimentais das esquistossomoses humans.
Em: A Primatologia no Brasil- 4, M. E. Yamamoto e M.
B. C. de Souza (eds.), pp.277-287. Sociedade Brasileira de
Primatologia, Natal.
Pereira, L. H., Resende, D. M., Melo, A. L. e Mayrink,
W. 1993b. Primatas platirrinos e leishmanioses da region
neotropical. Em: A Primatologia no Brasil 4, M. E.
Yamamoto e M. B. C. de Souza (eds.), pp.245-254.
Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia, Natal.

32 Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003

Pereira, L. H., Resende, D. M., Melo, A. L. e Pinto, W. A.
1993c. Primatas platirrinos como models experimentais
da doenga de Chagas: infeccqo natural e experimental
pelo Trypanosoma cruzi. Em: A Primatologia no Brasil- 4,
M. E. Yamamoto e M. B. C. de Souza (eds.), pp.255-263.
Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia, Natal.
Pereira, L. H., Resende, D. M., Melo, A. L. e Pinto, W.
A. 1993d. Primatas platirrinos: Maliria simiana natural
e estudos experimentais de malaria humana. Em: A
Primatologia no Brasil 4, M. E. Yamamoto e M. B.
C. de Souza (eds.), pp.265-276. Sociedade Brasileira de
Primatologia, Natal.
Resende, D. M., Pereira, L. H., Melo, A. L., Tafuri, W. L.,
Moreira, N. I. B. e Oliveira, C. L. 1994. Parasitism by
Primasubulura jacchi (Marcel, 1857) Inglis, 1958 and
Trichuspirura leptostoma Smith and Chitwood, 1967
in Call..bri, penicillata marmosets trapped in the wild
environment and maintained in captivity. Mem. Inst.
Oswaldo Cruz89: 123-125.
Ritchie, L. S. 1948. An ether sedimentation technique for
routine stool examination. Bull. U.S. Army Med. Dep. 8:
Santa Cruz, A. C. M., Borda, J. T., Patifio, E. M., G6mez,
L. e Zunino, G. E. 2000. Habitat fragmentation and
parasitism in howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya). Neotrop.
Primates 8: 146-148.
Stuart, D. M. e Strier, K. B. 1995. Primates and parasites:
A case for a multidisciplinary approach. Int. J. Primatol.
16: 577-93.
Van Roosmalen, M. G. M., Van Roosmalen, T. e
Mittermeier, R. A. 2002. A taxonomic review of the
titi monkeys, genus Callicebus Thomas, 1903, with the
description of two new species, Callicebus bernhardi
and Callicebus stephennashi, from Brazilian Amazonia.
Neotrop. Primates 10(Suppl.): 1-52.


Noel Rowe
Wilberto Martinez

The recent publication of the taxonomic revision of the
genus Callicebus (Van Roosmalen et al., 2002) encouraged
us to look for three species-C dubius, C oenanthe and
C medemi-for which photographs were previously
unavailable. Using available maps, drawings and descriptions
(Van Roosmalen et al., 2002), a survey was undertaken in
October 2002. Three areas were surveyed: the Department
of Pando in northern Bolivia, the Rfo Mayo valley in the
province of San Martin in Peru, and the Cuyabeno National
Park in the northeastern part of Ecuador.

Titi monkeys are cryptic, diurnal primates known to live
in small family groups (Kinzey, 1981; Eisenberg, 1999).
Although titis prefer to rest in the dense understory, their
presence in the forest can be located by the loud territorial
calls made by both the male and female. These duets are

usually given in the morning (Emmons, 1997) between
06:00 and 10:00 in the morning. They often feed and call
from higher, more exposed trees (Kinzey, 1981, p. 245)
where they can be seen and photographed.


At all three locations we walked existing trails at a pace of
1.0 to 1.5 kilometers per hour from 6 to 10 AM unless
otherwise noted. A CD player with an amplified external
speaker was used to play a recording of Callicebus calls from
Sounds of Neotropical Rainforest Mammals (Emmons et al.,
1998). In some cases the playback of titi calls elicited calls
from wild Callicebus which helped us to locate them. In one
instance, the CD allowed us to get a better look at the titi
monkey who approached us in order to know from where
the call was coming. No density data were taken. Coat color
was also noted.


The Bolivian survey began with a meeting with Rob Wallace
from the Wildlife Conservation Society. His surveys and
information about Central Bolivia led us to concentrate our
survey in the northern Bolivian Department of Pando, and
neighboring northern sections of Department of Beni which
border Brazil. The specific identity of Callicebusin this region
is disputed. According to Van Roosmalen et al. (2002) this
area should be inhabited by Callicebus dubius, with the Rio
Madre de Dios as the boundary between C dubius and C
modestus, and with C donacophilus along the south side of
the Rio Madre de Dios and east of the Rio Beni. However,
according to Anderson (1997) and Hershkovitz (1990),
C brunneus is found in Pando and the endemic Bolivian
species C modestus is found further south and east of the
Rio Beni, in the Department of Beni. Both authors report
the range of C donacophilus as starting further south than
indicated in Van Roosmalen et al. (2002).

Our survey started on October 5 near the city of Cobija,
in the lowland rainforest of the Callimico Biological
Station run by Leila Porter (110 25.142' S, 0690 00.144'
W, elev. 237 m). Two groups of titis were heard, seen and
photographed on two out of the three days. The Callicebus
at this field site appear to be Callicebus brunneus. They had
dark foreheads with no white visible, and their limbs, throat
and belly were reddish with a grayish-brown back. The tail,
however, did not appear to have nearly as much white as
depicted in the illustration of C. brunneus by Stephen Nash
in Van Roosmalen et al. (2002). On the individuals we
observed, the tail was reddish-brownish with a white tip.

The survey proceeded to search for titis in a forest about 15
kilometers north of the Rfo Madre de Dios (11 14.599'
S, 067 11.084' W, elev. 139 m). Callicebus were heard by
one of our party but not seen. Local informants positively
identified it as C brunneus, except that only the tip of the
tail was white.

Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003

1. Sites visited in Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador.

Near a village called Suciri (11 34.862' S, 0670 08.456'
W, elev. 145 m), located between the Rio Madre de Dios
and the Rio Beni-where the Van Roosmalen et al. (2002)
map indicated C modestus should be-we heard, saw, and
photographed two titi monkeys which we identified as the
same species we had seen at the Callimico Biological Station.
Our local guides reported killing and eating a titi two weeks
before and identified the titi as C brunneus. Their method
of preparing the meat is to burn off the hair over an open
fire and boil the monkey whole. After the meat is consumed
the bones are given to the dog. Our survey of a forest near
the village of Porvenir (11 32.542' S, 066 29.266' W, elev.
157 m) on the east side of the Rio Beni, in the northern part
of the Department of Beni, did not produce any monkey
sightings. The local informants did, however, identify the
titi they hunt as C brunneus.

From the city of Riberalta we surveyed a forest about 30
kilometers to the east (10 46.725' S, 065 44.338' W, elev.
164 m) but found no primates. We then proceeded up the
Rio Madre de Dios by boat to survey the north side of the
river, where there is reported to be less hunting. A group of
titis was heard by us and seen and identified as C brunneus
by our local guide (100 56.783' S, 0660 20.293' W, 120 m).
Our final survey in Bolivia was in a 100-hectare second-
growth forest in the village of Tumichucua (11 08.406' S,
0660 09.542' W, elev. 113 m), located south of Riberalta on
the east side of the Rio Beni. This was an afternoon survey
and no primates were detected, but our local informant
identified the titis there as C brunneus.

Our brief survey results suggest that the Rio Madre de Dios
is not a boundary for Callicebus. C brunneus appears to be
distributed north of the Rio Madre de Dios, between the
Rio Madre de Dios and the Rio Beni and east of the Rio
Beni. More surveys will have to be conducted to find the
exact distribution of C brunneus, as well as whether C.
dubious is actually present in Bolivia. Our observations are
consistent with what is reported for the distribution of C
brunneus by Anderson (1997) and Hershkovitz (1990).


Recognized as a full species by Hershkovitz (1990), the
Andean titi monkey, C oenanthe, is reported to inhabit the
Rio Mayo valley in a restricted altitudinal range, between
750 to 950 meters. Our survey started north of the town of
Tarapoto in the province of San Martin. At the University
of San Martin Biodiversity Center (06 27.757' S, 0760
17.389' W, elev. 973 m) we were informed that no titis were
present in their forest, and it was suggested we go south to
a dry forest near the confluence of the Rio Mayo and the
Rio Huallaga. At an elevation of 511 meters (060 38.109' S,
076 22.574' W), we heard titis but did not see them. The
local hunters who were our guides contradicted each other
about which species was present, so no species was assigned.
Hunting pressure was intense at this time of year; within
two minutes of our playing the recorded titi call, four dogs
and two hunters found us, surprised not to find titis.

Newmpirwi Nimpt. 11(1), April 2003

We pricrdod norinhr'st through a wide cultwt-d valkle
to the town oatr N .,lhnha, anrd mrt wilh the staff of ,hE
BuApr de Pmc didsn r Ahu MIav. EtablNWhd in I'h7. hish
protmnd.l ara extem fiani the muwni of Ri, nurch .lJurn
ie border Sf the pwrircs of San arnin and Amnmus-.
Two maminpgs ern spent walking traih (0S" 41 fM' S., 077"
Yj.4?37' W, ecy. 134)2 m) listening For prinuirs None were
deected- Lo]cal farwers who illegally live L dte pmroecaed
iara campLincd aomu C&,eit ar&9fim raiding their rops,
but did nac rponr hearing lid nmoLnkeys near theil arns.
T"lki; mrvry hpgn Ja art alriuId of 1 CIMD mreten. and so n r
hr i6nov the nry of (t.ffiireru armwandthe.

Wv ako dwJ nwn dtc-t 4ny pimines ast the Rcecrva JM
Mormr dr CAlmbd (0fr 01,272' S. 077- 02,33'W W elcyv
1074 m) dwhn wr did sho t Aiftcrmn surmy,. 'hc pgId.L
lbiwner. xsured no chat this w'exw rfmin in the sullU
formi which nci.rl ilhis hbw p-eak,

We then me. wirh Ruben Wuir Viappcsnf the Faculty of the
Moy nbaluia br-nch oft w Univediy of Sni Marini, We
w iM ivieIJ uCi ary a, die Univwniis 2O-heicrare field
Te touTh Of MloAb.-mku (06" 03555' S, 076 .W5,93Y W
elew. 9 7 mi) A tislklnc ar Uthe In w.niiq', Mgiagrn Carnslca
I opf det (vniilo, show-rd rthe ftiM ure and painicipased
in a4 hhn ncKni rnal isuiriy. We were unabhr n 6nid cvidenrer
of Aovm mieJai. the enremic night monkey found in this
rrPon. hui a local infomn.inr uid this specie i. found
at higher cIvations, along with rthe yellow-mriled woolly
monkey (CAwurkxflAiwn4rdr) (Grnw., 2001. p. 19 1).

We did het die cAlh dat leasf t lir ir diffec vi Rruups of
(diker.t, which we presumed so be C dwr. on our
LLaI &y in the Rkt MA}n Vdlley. They we found in aullB
rninamn foMres at an .hliitude of 925 mannI, in -eJJIyl
surrounded by cattlrrc pauii, We were Abic i phoura ph
j caprivw Family of C rtaferk, which were trapped ncar
Rioj. and ollred loar ale fIr ihe equivak-nc of Ils duan
$1s.00 Us.

Conservaian of IPenrian T'ti

Funher surveys .dW coinsivuion actions need to be
undertaken soon for the three ademic primniaes oiund in

flUvrT 2. ('lrrd lmfr. Fisiad ins she tirnh ide ti
Agtuaaa in FeIulii.

lhis reg.m of Pen Slash.and-tnrn agriadiumire Isratens ihc
fami eTrO orn the sctp Nlup or the Alto Mayn peiecled
anra. A new haid-, uppcd, aJl-waiher mad linking Tarapoto
iu Lima is umt being Lomnpltrtd, adM culunlis fnon lae
highlands arc st.adly moving into the regian- Most of hlr
faori m ihe Rio Mayo valley brtwern 7,SU and 950 mcrcn,
the ony- known rangp ao C veatiw has been cleared for
rce culd.valion in the last 20 ED 30 )yan.


I'he map included in Van Rn-Lmalr lrrt n .12N, p. rL ll
ondiktAes the range of C ederawi c be bLnwwcn the Rio
Caqusei in Columhia and ith Rio Aguaric in Fxt dor,
We made arrangements io visit he village of Sahlo. which
" a one-hnltir car ride and suhcquwswr (ivc-hour boat trip
down the riscr Funt Nieva l*ja lIago Agria). Thc village is
inh. ited by ilv inAigenuwa C.in. prpl and ji par. ofdlhe
CuAyrabo Naioral Park, locall inf ornnc wrec positive
thAr the tiri on she soTh sde f the Rio AgitricI waL C,
dw,,4br. Ibnt in rhc trip we vitrrd Yoanmf National Plrk
((Kr 41.670' S. 076i 27,736"' W, f';, 24R ml m rith of the
Rio Aguako. and hard, nw. and phongraphed C did oW
'The irl am rhr nnnrh bank was tad not to luve the blark
(frmT PTf C' mrdemi, We heard. saw And. ph~orngraphl
mine ipir n tiris in rhree das, of vsuwrying OMr 21.47' N.
075" 40.110' W. 202 ml. T"I'he is wre firs thought to
be C irgn (dark all over wish a white collar and white
hands). but the phltographs Lter proved rhat they were
rMddish-brDown in color and had the rwllow/gold hands of C'
ie'fer. Tihc ra nge ofC heivfer 1nu tUm C eend dirih fer wna
thiln dJocribld by Van IRo acu n 4al (20021, and the
corresponding riang of (. smwdki is perhaps limited by the
Rio Paunsamt. which forms the lxrder of Columbia and
Ecuador. This range would be consis4eot with Hershkovir.
( 1990. H. 441 and GCrtw (2001. p. 177).


In ill die ,Cirsts we srarxved. hutoritng for food anId pei
was a major threat to priLmans. Though no syste maic data
were collected. die geerl inpalmssion we received from
interviews ws that hunting was mainly for sabsisiatc
for nheit. and mni for the anImen:ial marker. We did.

Fpan 3. (:Zd&lw.r ,rm ifA, faoud on the wriT sikk ofrhe Rio
Miov neat Mpt'lmbatt. Prwl

Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003

however, find a commercial trade in pets in Bolivia and
Peru. We observed many young primates in captivity in all
three countries. The following is a list of the species kept
in captivity by individuals: saddle-back tamarin (Saguinus
fuscicollis), red-bellied tamarin (S. labiatus), Spix's black-
mantled tamarin (S. nigricollis), Andean titi monkey
(Callicebus oenanthe), squirrel monkey (Saimiri sp.),
white-fronted capuchin (Cebus albifrons), brown capuchin
(Cebus apella), red howler (Alouatta sara), woolly monkey
(Lagothrix lagotricha), Peruvian spider monkey (Ateles
chamek) and white-bellied spider monkey (Ateles belzebuth).
Most were kept in appallingly small cages or tied at the waist
on a short leash. Young tapirs were also kept as pets, as were
many species of birds, especially parrots and macaws.

The hunting pressure for meat and pets appears to be high
in all three countries. No primates bigger than titis were seen
in our surveys except at field sites where primatologists were
studying and protecting them. More conservation education
is needed in all three countries. In Peru, people only had
one name for "monkey" and did not discriminate between
species, nor realize that some were endemic to their region.

In the lowlands of Bolivia there is still extensive forest, except
along the roads. But Brazil nut extractors have cut trails
throughout the forest and many hunters are now using this
trail system. This may be preferable, however, to colonists
who slash and burn the forest to grow crops and cattle.

The lowland region of Ecuador has a great deal of protected
forest on the map. However, the indigenous inhabitants are
allowed to hunt all they want in these forests, and many
have newly acquired shotguns. Some of these forests also
have oil reserves under them, and there is a great deal of
pressure to extract this oil whether it lies in a protected area
or not. The oil companies build roads which will later be
used by colonists, and the forest will inevitably disappear
as a result.


This survey for titi monkeys found that the distributions in
northern Bolivia and northern Ecuador are not consistent
with the distributions described by Van Roosmalen et al.
(2002). Rather, our observations are consistent with what
is reported for the distribution of C. brunneus by Anderson
(1997) and Hershkovitz (1990) in Bolivia. In Ecuador we
found C lucifer, not C medemi, which is consistent with
Hershkovitz (1990, Fig. 44) and Groves (2001, p. 177). More
surveys are needed in these regions to determine the exact
distributions of Callicebus. The distribution of C. oenanthe in
Peru was consistent with Van Roosmalen et al. (2002).


Anderson, S. 1997. Mammals of Bolivia: Taxonomy and
Distribution. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural
History #231, New York.

Eisenberg, J.E and Redford, K.H. 1999. Mammals of the
Neotropics, Vol. 3: The Central Neotropics. University of
Chicago Press, Chicago.
Emmons, L. H., Whitney, B.M. and Ross, Jr., D.L. 1998.
Sounds of Neotropical Rainforest Mammals: An Audio Field
Guide. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Emmons, L. H. 1997. Neotropical Rainforest Mammals:
A Field Guide, 2nd Ed. University of Chicago Press,
Hershkovitz, P. 1990. Titis, New World monkeys of the
genus Callicebus (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): A preliminary
taxonomic review. Fieldiana, Zoology, New Series (55):
Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate Taxonomy. Smithsonian
Institution Press, Washington, DC.
Kinzey, W. G. 1981. The titi monkeys, genus Callicebus. In:
Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical Primates, Vol. 1, A.
F. Coimbra-Filho and R. A. Mittermeier (eds.), pp. 241-
277. Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, Rio de Janeiro.
Van Roosmalen, M. G. M., Van Roosmalen, T. and
Mittermeier, R. A. 2002. A taxonomic review of the
titi monkeys, genus Callicebus Thomas, 1903, with the
description of two new species, Callicebus bernhardi
and Callicebus stephennashi, from Brazilian Amazonia.
Neotropical Primates 10 (Suppl.): 1-52.


Brent C. White
Jason Beare
Jodi A. Fuller
Lisa A. Houser

In the wild, woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha) form
social groups with several adult males and females. Recent
evidence (Nishimura, 1999) has indicated that males stay
in the natal group and females emigrate. This suggests that
in the formation of natural groups adult males are tolerant
of each other, having a common developmental experience,
long periods of familiarity, and the possibility of shared
kinship. Nishimura (1994, 1997) reported that even
though these males have had much in common and many
years together, it is extremely rare for them to form feeding
aggregates that are exclusively male.

Stevenson (1998) also found that close association among
adult males is rare. He studied spacing in a different group
of woolly monkeys in Tinigua National Park in Colombia,
in the same region as Nishimura. In Stevenson's study, adult
males were never observed within 2 m of each other. Of all
age/sex categories, adult males and subadult females were
most often at distances greater than 5 m from the other
animals. The subadult females were likely to move between
groups, and this distance may be a precursor to emigration,
but the adult males appeared to be stable members of the
group. Stevenson reported that adult males were the most

36 Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003

Table 1. Summary of distinguishing characteristics of a woolly bachelor group.
Date moved from Location of
Study animal #1 ID Mother's #1 Date of birth Date moved from Location of Date returned
Louisville move
132 MO 116 8 Jan 1988 5 Mar 1990 Lowry 12 Oct 1995
135 JA 115 17 Feb 1989 29 Oct 1992 St. Paul 19Apr 1998
138 WI 116 26 Oct 1989 29 Oct 1992 St. Paul 19Apr 1998
141 BR2 116 2 Nov 1991 28 Dec 1995 St. Paul 19 Apr 1998
143 LY 114 7 Mar 1992 28 Dec 1995 St. Paul 19 Apr 1998
144 JE 115 13Jun 1992
1 Studbook numbers from 1998 North American Regional Studbook.
2 Subject BR died between the summers of 1998 and 2001.

aggressive age/sex class. He suggested that avoidance of
conflict, competition for resources, and a lower predation
risk may contribute to adult males maintaining greater
social distances. In wild groups, adult male tolerance of each
other may depend on sufficient space for the individuals to
avoid or minimize close encounters.

In contrast to social grouping in the wild, captive-breeding
groups have usually been maintained with a single adult
male. Aggression among adult males has been the primary
reason for this practice. Although there are no published
reports, there have been cases where adult male aggression
has resulted in the death of one of the animals, even when
the males were siblings. Maintaining captive groups with
one adult male generates a surplus of males, which have
been placed in bachelor groups. With the limited space
available in zoo exhibits, this has the potential for creating
an unnatural concentration of males and forcing close
association among them.

We studied the formation of a six-member bachelor group
in order to characterize their adjustment in social distance
three years later. A group of four monkeys was merged with
a pair of animals. Each group had been together for at least
two years prior to being merged into the study group. On
the basis of spacing studies in the wild, we expected the
captive males to maintain substantial social distance within
the limitations of the enclosure, allowing for a relatively
peaceful accommodation to their new social arrangements.
We also predicted that individuals housed together before
the present group was formed would be likely to continue
their close association throughout the study period.


Study Site and Subjects
Six adult male woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha
poeppigii) were studied during the summers of 1998 and
2001 at the Louisville Zoo (Louisville, Kentucky, USA).
All were paternal siblings, and some were full siblings, as
shown in Table 1. Their ages ranged from six to 10 years
in 1998. Only the youngest had been at the Louisville Zoo
since birth. Table 1 shows placement of the animals at other
zoological parks. The death of BR during the course of the

study had no apparent relationship to the grouping of the

The Louisville exhibit comprised two connected rooms
inside a building (floor space approximately 40 m2) with
two ramps leading to the larger of two outdoor islands
(combined island area of approximately 100 m2). All areas
had ropes, cargo nets, trees, and/or elevated platforms for
arboreal activity. The islands were surrounded by a wet
moat and connected by ropes and a log. In May of 1998,
the four animals from St. Paul were placed in the exhibit
with MO and JE. Partial separation of the two groups was
maintained as various combinations of animals were allowed
access to each other during a six-month period of gradual
introductions. By November of 1998, all of the monkeys
were allowed to move freely within the exhibit, except when
access was restricted for cleaning or inclement weather.

Two observers performed 241 instantaneous focal
observations during the summer of 1998 (18 June through
31 July), over the course of 136.7 observer-hours at the
exhibit. In the summer of 2001, a single observer recorded
277 observations (11 June through 26 July), during 109.5
hours at the exhibit. Focal observations lasted for 15
minutes, during which the behavior of the focal animal
and the proximity of other animals were recorded from
scans every 30 seconds. Proximity was scored in mutually
exclusive categories of contact: within reach, nearest, or
alone (no other monkey on the island or in the stall area
with the focal). Mutually exclusive categories of behavior
included feeding (consuming or handling food), resting
(stationary and not standing), and other (for example,
play, groom, aggression, locomotion, stationary alert). Our
preliminary observations revealed that with the exception
of locomotion and stationary alert, these "other" behaviors
were rare. We used Radio Shack Model 100 handheld
computers and The Observer 2.0 (Noldus Technology
Services) software for the focal observations. All instances
of screaming and chest-rubbing were recorded in ad libitum
notes throughout the time an observer was at the exhibit.

Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003

Using the proximity results, we calculated an association
index (AI) similar to Nishimura's feeding association index
(Nishimura, 1997). AI represented the percentage of the
scans in which a pair of monkeys was nearest to each other
based on their total scans when they were in proximity to
any monkey. We used the Spread of Participation Index
(SPI; Dickens, 1955; Shepherdson et al., 1993) to quantify
the degree to which an individual's associations were spread
among the group. Participation in chest-rubbing was also
evaluated with the SPI. This index ranges in value from
0 to 1.0. In this paper we have reported SPI as 1-SPI so
that the higher number represents a more even spread of


From 1998 to 2001, there was a dramatic decline in the
mean proportion of days on which an animal screamed
(mean for 1998 = 0.10; mean for 2001 = 0.04; paired t(4)
= 3.52, p = 0.02). The mean proportion of days on which
an animal chest-rubbed also declined from 1998 to 2001
(mean for 1998 = 0.36; mean for 2001 = 0.18; paired t(4)
= 3.71, p = 0.02). In 1998, participation in chest-rubbing
was spread quite evenly among the animals (1-SPI = 0.85).
In 2001, three of the animals did almost all of the chest-
rubbing (1-SPI = 0.64).

Proximity measures also changed over the three years of the
study. Contact between animals was rare in 1998 (< 3% of
7230 scans) and in 2001 (< 1% of 8310 scans). The next
level of proximity that we measured was an estimate of how
often these animals were within reach of another animal
and not in contact. This measure declined from 12% of the
scans in 1998 to 3% in 2001. A proportion test applied to
the frequencies of within-reach scans yielded a statistically
significant decline (z = 8.37; p < 0.001). The low incidence
of animals within reach or in contact precluded more
detailed statistical analysis of these measures. There was
no change in the time that an animal spent alone. We also
recorded the frequency and identity of the nearest monkey
when no animal was within reach or in contact. In 1998,
72% of the scans included a nearest animal while 82% were
recorded in 2001.

Figure 1 shows the sociograms constructed with the AI
for each year and each animal. The grouping in 1998
largely reflects the maintenance of the previous living
constraints while the animals were being introduced. The
2001 sociogram illustrates the accommodation of the
animals after 2.5 years of unrestrained grouping by the
keepers (from November 1998 to July 2001). The AI for
monkey pairings in 2001 was significantly correlated with
the 1998 AI (r(9) = 0.64, p = 0.04), but not with genetic
relatedness or total time together. To evaluate the change in
the distribution of associations, we calculated SPI for each
animal in each year based on the frequency of their being
nearest to each other. In Figure 2, we have expressed this as
1-SPI so that a high score represents a more even spread of
association among the animals. The mean 1-SPI increased

o ,L


1998 Associations 2001 Associations

Figure 1. Sociograms for 1998 and 2001. The values represent theAI
(see text) for each possible pairing of the animals.

significantly from 1998 to 2001 in all behavioral categories:
feeding (paired t(4) = 3.84, p = 0.02), resting (t(4) = 5.00, p
= 0.008), and other behaviors (t(4) = 4.83, p = 0.009).


As expected from the behavior of wild woolly monkeys
(Nishimura, 1994, 1997; Stevenson, 1998), the bachelor
group spent very little time in contact or within reach. Our
assessment of the nearest animals when none was within
reach revealed a more even distribution of proximity in
2001 than in 1998. The correlation between the 1998 and
2001 AIs illustrates the persistence of the earlier bonding of
the animals. We expected this result based on the apparent
long-term association of adult males in wild populations
(Nishimura, 1994, 1997). Kinship could be a factor in the
adjustment of these animals. All were related at the level
of paternal siblings and some were full siblings. Degree of
relatedness did not predict final association as reflected in
the nearest-neighbor AIs, but the correlation approached
statistical significance. A better test of the role of kinship
would include animals with a wider range of relatedness
and a larger sample.

Applying the SPI to nearest-neighbor associations revealed
a more even spread of associations among the individuals

ise I 2001



Figure 2. Mean 1-SPI showing increasing spread of association
among the animals from 1998 to 2001 as they engaged in the
three types of behavior. Higher values of 1-SPI indicate a more
even spread of associations among the animals in the group.

Fedn Otar
Behwfltof -a~g


38 Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003

after three years together. This more equitable spread of
associations was consistent across the three categories of
behavior, indicating that it was not limited to the feeding
context, which is likely to force close association.

The sociograms and the SPIs show that the adult males are
capable of adapting to the presence of relatively unfamiliar
males. This has not yet been reported in wild populations.
Perhaps the tendency of adult males to maintain social
distance provides the basis for accommodation when
additional adults are introduced. Our results suggest
that two components of this social adjustment include
maintenance of a minimal social distance and increasing
tolerance of other individuals at that minimal distance.

The scream and chest-rubbing results suggest that the
accommodation achieved by this group was stable
and peaceful. The change in the rate of screaming and
chest-rubbing over the three years of the study indicates
a reduction in tension. In earlier studies of a breeding
group in this exhibit, we found scream interactions to be a
measure of social tension that could be used to characterize
the social hierarchy of the group (White et al., 1988;
Stearns et al., 1988). These earlier studies yielded a scream
rate of 0.12 screams/hour/animal, which is slightly lower
than the rate for the present bachelor group in 1998. By
2001 the bachelor group's social accommodation resulted
in a dramatically reduced scream rate. In fact, the incidence
of screaming was insufficient for us to use it to construct a
social hierarchy.

Chest-rubbing is common in captive woolly monkeys,
but its function is unknown. From our earlier studies of
a breeding group (White et al., 2000), we found chest-
rubbing was exhibited by adult monkeys and most often
by males. We were not surprised to find a high incidence of
chest-rubbing in the present study when the bachelor group
was formed. Whether its role is spacing among groups of
monkeys, or as a displacement activity, we would have
predicted that a group of adult males would exhibit a high
frequency of this behavior. However, an unexpected result
was the marked decline to a rate similar to our studies of
the breeding group (0.05 chest-rubs/hour/animal). Nearly
all of the chest-rubbing in the breeding group was done
by the adult male (White et al., 2000) and it is interesting
that the present all-male group had a similar rate of chest-
rubbing after three years. Participation in chest-rubbing
was distributed more widely when the bachelor group
was first put together in 1998. The broad participation
at the point of disruption of the group is similar to the
increased involvement of females in chest-rubbing in
the breeding group when the adult male died (White et
al., 2000). Disturbance of the social group appears to
produce wider participation in chest-rubbing. An increase
when group relationships are altered is consistent with a
displacement function for this behavior in captivity. It may
be appropriate to conclude from our captive studies that
the frequency and participation in chest-rubbing reflects
the level of disruption of the group.

Our results suggest similar behavioral spacing mechanisms
may be operating in captivity and the wild. Further study
of group formation and social dynamics is likely to improve
the management of this species and may contribute to
the understanding of the high sensitivity of Lagothrix to
fragmentation of its habitat.


The Centre College Matton Professorship (BCW) provided
partial support. We appreciate the assistance of the
Louisville Zoological Garden, including Silvia Zirkelbach,
Steve Taylor, Tracy Williams, and others involved with
the Monkey Island exhibit. We thank Josh Fuller for
constructive comments on the manuscript.

Brent C. White, Psychobiology Program, Centre College,
Danville, KY 40422, USA, e-mail: ,
Jason Beare, 7610 W. Highway 524, Westport, KY 40077,
USA, Jodi A. Fuller, Arizona Prevention Research Center,
Arizona State University, 542 East Monroe, Bldg. D,
Phoenix, AZ 85004, USA, e-mail: ,
and Lisa A. Houser, 7816V2 Lloyd Ave., Pittsburgh, PA
15218, USA, e-mail: .


Dickens, M. 1955. A statistical formula to quantify the
spread of participation in group discussion. Speech Mon.
22: 28-31.
Nishimura, A. 1994. Social interaction patterns of woolly
monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha): A comparison among the
atelines. Sci. Eng. Rev. Doshisha Univ. 35(2): 91-110.
Nishimura, A. 1997. Co-feeding relation of woolly
monkeys, Lagothrix lagotricha, within a group at La
Macarena, Colombia. Field Stud. Fauna Flora La
Macarena Colombia. 11: 11-18.
Nishimura, A. 1999. Reproductive patterns of wild female
woolly monkeys, Lagothrix lagotricha. Sci. Eng. Rev.
Doshisha Univ. 40(2): 59-72.
Shepherdson, D. J., Carlstead, K., Mellen, J. D. and
Seidensticker, J. 1993. The influence of food presentation
on the behavior of small cats in confined environments.
Zoo Biol. 12: 203-216.
Stevenson, P. 1998. Proximal spacing between individuals
in a group of woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha) in
Tinigua National Park, Colombia. Int. J. Primatol. 19:
Stearns, M., White, B. C., Schneider, E. and Bean, E. 1988.
Bird predation by captive woolly monkeys (Lagothrix
lagotricha). Primates 29: 361-367.
White, B. C., Dew, S. E., Prather, J., Schneider, E., Taylor,
S. and Stearns, M. 2000. Chest-rubbing in captive woolly
monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha). Primates 41: 185-188.
White, B., Stearns, M., Schneider, E. and Taylor, S. 1988.
An index of social standing for captive woolly monkeys.
Am. J. Primatol. 14: 451. (Abstract.)

Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003


Cldudio Valladares-Pddua

I first met Mircio Ayres
at a primate conservation
workshop organized
by the University of
Leicester in 1982. He
.a was a postgraduate
student in England
then, and Dr. Bob
n Martin, a mutual friend,
z introduced us, certain
that we would have a lot in common. Bob was right. The
long conversations and laughs we had together then were
the essence of all our future meetings; he had a tremendous
sense of humour and a passion for the conservation of
nature. The years followed, punctuated by innumerable
meetings with Mircio; always anxious to tell me his news,
his plans, his progress. Mircio had the enormous energy of
one who is working for a mission Amazonia, a mission he
never lost sight of throughout his life.

Mdrcio Ayres graduated in Biological Sciences in 1976 at the
University of Sdo Paulo. Even when young, he showed his
determination to put his ideas into practice when, only 20
years old, he took the job of administrator at the Ribeirio
Preto Zoo. But he was not content to stop there, and enrolled
in the Master's course in Ecology of the National Institute for
Amazon Research (INPA) and the University of Amazonas
(INPAIFUA), under the supervision of Dr. Paulo Emfio
Vanzolini. His thesis was pioneer and challenging, as in all
he did a field study of the white-nosed saki, Chiropotes
albinasus, at Aripuana (along with some observations of the
Guiana bearded saki, Chiropotes satanas, at the field site of
the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project, north
of Manaus). It was then that he experienced at first hand
the enormous threats hanging over the Amazonian forests,
and realized that the salvation of its primates and enormous
wealth of biodiversity was only possible through the creation
of protected areas. I believe it was then that the seed of young
MArcio's future vision as a creator of protected areas was
planted, and the only reason he did not pursue his objective
then with the vigour of later years was the need to complete
his qualifications. Not content with a Master's degree,
Mfrcio followed on with a doctoral degree at the University
of Cambridge, England, under the supervision of Dr. David
J. Chivers. In the early 1980s, his Ph.D. research took him
back to Amazonia in search of primates this time to the
white uakaris, Cacajao calvus, and the middle Solim6es. The
vdrzeas of Mamiraui were under numerous threats. The risk
to his study animals inspired him to initiate a campaign
for a protected area for the region, until then known only

from the descriptions of Henry Walter Bates in the middle
19th Century. On one occasion, Marcio recounted that
the communities of the region were convinced he was a
missionary priest, and those who knew him then could
well believe it; his appearance was that of a monk with the
mission not to save souls, but to save biodiversity! In 1987,
Marcio was appointed to the Wildlife Conservation Society
(WCS) Carter Chair in Rainforest Ecology.

In 1985, he sent a proposal to the Secretary of the
Environment for the creation of the Mamiraua Ecological
Station, the first with the specific aim of protecting
Amazonian vdrzea and its regional biodiversity while at
the same guaranteeing the well-being and prosperity of
the human populations living there. To his frustration,
the proposal languished; but in 1990, undeterred, he
convinced the Governor of the State ofAmazonas to declare
the area (the confluence of the Rios Solim6es and Japuri,
bounded on the west by the Auatf-Parani) a reserve. His
original proposal was for 36,000 ha, and I remember his
bemusement (and slight alarm at the consequence) at his
powers of persuasion when the reserve was decreed with
an area of 1,124,000 ha! To deal with its enormous size,
he drew up a plan for a "focal area" of 260,000 ha, where
he established a pilot programme for research, community
work, and the management of the reserve. From 1994
to 1996, further inspiration on the part of Mdrcio (and
the determination to go with it) resulted in the State of
Amazonas passing a law which created a new protected
areas category, the State Sustainable Development Reserve
(later, in 2000, incorporated into the National System of
Protected Areas SNUC), and Mamiraui was the first.

Marcio's major challenge was to ensure that protected areas
such as Mamiraua did not remain only as decrees, and with
the creation of an NGO the Sociedade Civil Mamiraua
- he set up a system of participative active management and
protection by the local communities themselves.

In 1997, we were staying in the same hotel in Manaus. His
eyes were bright with enthusiasm once again as he recounted
his plans for the creation of a new reserve, Amani, which
would connect Mamiraua with the Jad National Park to create
an enormous "corridor" of protected forests and waters in
the central Amazon. The Governor of the State of Amazonas
decreed the Amana State Sustainable Development Reserve
in 1998. The two reserves combined protect more than 3
million ha. The Management Plan for Mamiraua, based on
more than 10 years of research, surveys, monitoring and
community development, is considered exemplary

The overwhelmingly positive results of the innovative
experiences in the conservation and management of the
two reserves brought Mircio international recognition in
the field of conservation biology, and he was consequently
the recipient of numerous awards the American Society
of Primatology's Conservation Award, the WWF-
International Gold Medal, the Society for Conservation
Biology Award, and the Rolex Award for Enterprise. The

40 Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003

Sociedade Civil Mamiraua, which he created, was awarded
the Von Martius Prize from the Brazil-Germany Chamber
of Commerce in 2000, and the UNESCO Prize in the
Science and Development category in 2001.

The final time I heard Marcio's voice was last year, during the
annual Congress of the Society for Conservation Biology in
Kent, UK. Although MArcio was physically absent, victim of
cancer which stopped him travelling, his colleague of many
years, Dr. Gustavo Fonseca, arranged for a telephone call to
be broadcast at the ceremony which was to give him a special
tribute from the Society. Talking from the hospital where he
was already severely ill, once more he showed his enormous
courage, enthusiasm and hope in talking of how important
the award was for him and for his future plans.

Twice after this I tried to visit MArcio in New York, but his
illness made it impossible, and he died on 7 March 2003. We
have lost, prematurely, one of the greatest conservationists
our country has ever seen. One certainty remains, however:
on high, our untiring friend Marcio is creating new protected
areas in Heaven. A sincere and sad goodbye from all of us
primatologists who admired him so much.

*Translated from the Portuguese, originally published in
the Boletim Informativo da Sociedade Brasileira de Zoologia,
June 2003, No. 72: 6-7.

Cludio Valladares-PNdua, IPE Instituto de Pesquisas
Ecol6gicas e Universidade de Brasilia, UnB Colina Bloco
G, Apto 503, 70910-900 Brasilia, DF, Brazil, e-mail


RussellA. Mittermeier

Jos6 MArcio Ayres and I shared a love for a very special
primate, the white uakari of the vdrzea forests of the upper
Solim6es. I had originally planned to do my thesis on this
animal, and carried out an expedition to find it in 1973. I
succeeded in locating several populations, especially in the
tiny Rio Panaui, but the logistics of working there (and
the mosquitos) were so difficult that I gave up and chose
another thesis topic. It would be a decade before Marcio,
who was also fascinated by this bizarre monkey with a
short tail, long shaggy white fur and a bright red face,
demonstrated his dedication and persistence by conducting
the first detailed field study of this animal. This study, which
Marcio carried out in spite of many hardships and a variety
of health problems that he encountered during his work,
is now a classic and one of the most important bodies of
research ever carried out on an Amazonian primate. What
is more, his commitment to the species and the region in
which it occurs led to the creation of the 1,124,000 ha
Mamiraua Sustainable Development Reserve, and later
the huge Mamiraua-Amana-Jad Corridor, one of the most
important protected-area complexes on Earth.

But MArcio was not satisfied with the mere creation of a new
protected area. Rather, he decided that Mamiraui should
become a model for conservation in Amazonia, and he
began, more than a decade ago, to create an infrastructure
and find the funding to make MamirauA work at a scale
that was meaningful and relevant to the region, its human
inhabitants and its biodiversity-something that had never
been done before. He used his considerable skills in science,
communications, and fund-raising to create a program that
is unmatched anywhere in Amazonia, and that has set new
standards for conservation. Several years ago, before his
illness began, he and I talked about trying to recreate the
Mamiraua model in 10 other places in Amazonia. He first
looked at me like I was crazy, but, after a brief reflection,
indicated that he was ready to go. I have no doubt that, had
he lived, he would have over the course of his career been
instrumental in the creation of many more reserves of this
kind. Indeed, the Sustainable Development Reserve model,
of which Mamiraua was the first, has already become an
integral part of conservation strategies for Amazonia, with
another four, covering 3,281,021 ha, having been created in
Mircio's lifetime and many more in the planning stages.

Mircio Ayres, in the simplest possible terms, was the
greatest conservationist ever to work in Amazonia. He was
a true leader, a visionary, a practical implementer, a clever
communicator, and an amazing salesman who succeeded in
finding funds for his work from a wide range of different
sources. On top of that, he was a world-class scientist,
whose grasp of the biodiversity conservation business was
unsurpassed and whose scientific contributions will long
be remembered. And, last but not least, he was a loyal
and steadfast friend who could always be counted upon in
any circumstance. I first met MArcio at a primate meeting
in Bel6m in 1977, and over the next quarter century, we
shared many experiences in the field, in international
gatherings of many different kinds, and as members of
the Steering Committee of the IUCN's Species Survival
Commission. As with so many others who shared his life, I
will miss him very much and still find it hard to believe that
he is gone. He had so much to contribute in so many ways,
and it is truly sad that he left us before he could realize all of
his dreams. The best thing that we can do to honor him is
to help continue what he so effectively started, and to make
sure that his vision of Amazonia becomes a reality.

Russell A. Mittermeier, President, Conservation
International, and Chair, IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist
Group, Conservation International, 1919 M Street, NW,
Suite 600, Washington, DC 20036, USA.


Gustavo A.B. da Fonseca

The life of Jos6 MArcio Ayres-MArcio to his colleagues,
and Z6 MArcio to his relatives-epitomized the power of
articulating strong links between good science and effective

Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003

conservation action, something that is often said but much
less frequently accomplished. He would derive as much
pleasure from having a high-profile paper of his appearing
in The American Naturalist, supporting the allopatric model
of speciation driven by Amazonian rivers, as he would by
dumbfounding an unimaginative government bureaucrat
into committing sizable sums of money to his beloved
reserves. I remember him being as proud of himself from
being accepted into the Brazilian Academy of Sciences,
and receiving countless prizes and honors internationally,
as he was of showing the progress in the human health
statistics resulting from investments in the Amazonian
communities he loved to work with. He definitely lived
what he preached.

Very funny, personable and unassuming, Marcio definitely
had the Midas touch. While working on a doctoral
dissertation with the white uakari, Cacajao calvus, he
envisioned the largest flooded forest reserve in the world,
the Mamiraua Sustainable Development Reserve. While
thinking about new ways of ensuring the long-term
ecological integrity of the Amazon basin, Marcio dreamt
of the most extensive and unbroken network of protected
areas and Indigenous reserves in the world: the Central
Amazon Corridor, in excess of 12 million hectares.
Transplanting to the national and international arenas
the political skills acquired through many years of the soft
talk that characterizes the social environment of all native
Amazonids, his dreams and vision slowly but surely became
reality. The protected area management models pioneered
in the Mamiraua and Amand Sustainable Development
Reserves, anchored on solid conservation biology and
socio-economic research agendas, will remain Marcio's
most enduring legacy, and the principal inspiration to those
who follow in his footsteps.

Since the diagnosis of his illness in late 2001, Marcio and I
spoke on the phone every couple of days or so, his condition
permitting. The usual optimism and the constant scheming
up of great new things never slowed down, even in the
worst phases of his treatment. Mircio would continue
spending many hours a day on the Internet working on
numerous projects but, as a master junk-mailer, he never
ceased to continue playing tricks and teasing friends with
jokes of all tastes and colors. Above all, Marcio was a great
optimist who enjoyed life.

During my few visits to his apartment in New York,
where he was staying while receiving the best medical care
possible-almost always in the company of his wife, sons
and parents-he suggested writing a book on the work
that we and many other colleagues did in 1996: designing
and proposing, at the request of the Brazilian government,
the creation of seven major "Ecological Corridors" in the
Amazon and the Atlantic Forest which encompassed many
dozens of reserves and other forms of managed landscapes.
He likely knew this would be his last publication, and
his choice was emblematic of how he would like to be
remembered as an advocate of bold new ideas.

Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca, Professor of Vertebrate
Zoology, Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Ci&ncias
Biol6gicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo
Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and Executive Vice-
President, Conservation International, 1919 M Street, NW,
Suite 600, Washington, DC 20036, USA.

ULYSSES S. SEAL: 1929-2003

Ulie Seal, Chair of the IUCN/SSC
Conservation Breeding Specialist
Group (CBSG), died on 19 March,
2003. He was a truly remarkable
man. He took over the CBSG with 15
members and, over the course of 24
years, turned it into a global network
of over 1000 members, which has had,
and still has, an enormous impact on the conservation of
the world's biodiversity. The CBSG network has become a
widespread and highly effective interdisciplinary vehicle for
communication and collaboration between people from the
captive breeding community, wildlife managers, NGOs,
governments and the private sector. Ulie further expanded
CBSG's capacity by establishing a regional network of
offices in South Asia, Mesoamerica, Indonesia, Mexico,
South Africa, and Europe. As Chairman, Ulie contributed
to the survival of thousands of plant and animal species
throughout the world, from the tiny goblin fern in the
northern Minnesota forests to the mountain gorillas in
Uganda. Ulie influenced and touched countless individuals
who continue to carry on his passion for the conservation
of wildlife. (Adapted from CBSG News, 14(1), 2003, a
special edition in his honor.)

With CBSG, he developed the various workshop
mechanisms that have contributed so much to prioritizing
and organizing conservation strategies worldwide notably
the Population and Habitat Viability Assessment (PHVA)
and the Conservation Assessment and Management Plan
(CAMP). CBSG organized three workshops for Brazilian
primates Ulie Seal led and facilitated two of them: the
Lion Tamarin, Leontopithecus, PVA held in Belo Horizonte,
Minas Gerais, in 1990, and the Muriqui PHVA, also in
Belo Horizonte in 1998 (see Neotropical Primates 6(2):
52-53, 1998). (The second Lion Tamarin PHVA, held in
1997, was orchestrated by Ulie and facilitated by Susie
Ellis and Robert Lacy; see NeotropicalPrimates 5(2): 53-55,
1997). PHVAs have also been held for Alouatta palliata in
Mexico (1995), Saimiri oerstedii citrinellus in Costa Rica
(1994), and Saguinus oedipus in Colombia, and CAMP
workshops were also organized through CBSG for Mexican
Primates (1995), Panamanian Endemic Species (1994) and
Mesoamerican Primates (1997).

Robert C. Lacy, of the Department of Conservation
Biology of the Chicago Zoological Society, Brookfield Zoo,
who developed the Vortex population analysis software
used in these PHVAs, was appointed to the Chair of the

42 Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003

CBSG in Ulie's place. There follows a letter from him, and
also Onnie Byers, Executive Officer of the CBSG.

A letter from Robert C. Lacy

It is with great sadness that I write to let you know that
Ulysses S. Seal, Chairman of the Conservation Breeding
Specialist Group since its inception several decades ago,
succumbed to cancer on 19 March, 2003. Ulie's seemingly
boundless energy was drained by the effects of the disease
and the treatments, but he continued to provide wise and
caring advice up to his last days with us.

Ulie's legacy is so vast that it would be impossible to
summarize in a short letter. Through his several careers,
he made tremendous contributions to human health,
animal health, wildlife conservation, and the development
of effective processes for collaboration. Perhaps most
importantly, he inspired, challenged, and worked with
an amazing network of friends and colleagues (and
even with his professional antagonists) to make progress
on the problems of conservation about which he felt
so passionately. It is a tribute to Ulie, and to his direct
personal influence, that the CBSG has more than 1,000
members, has more than 130 organizational and individual
sponsors, and has impacted countless more people globally.
Appropriately, Ulie has received almost every conservation
medal and award that there is.

At the recommendation of the CBSG Steering Committee
and with Ulie's approval, David Brackett as Chair of the
IUCN Species Survival Commission has asked me to become
the next chair of the CBSG. Taking on this role is obviously a
daunting challenge for me. I decided to accept this challenge
because of the tremendous value I place on, and energy I
receive from, the philosophies and people that are the
CBSG. The CBSG has always recognized that the problems
of conservation are caused by many, diverse, interacting
threats, resulting from the actions of humans. The solutions,
therefore, will require collaborative efforts of many people
from diverse backgrounds and with varied expertise and
styles. To obtain and sustain the critically needed benefits
of productive collaborations requires that the CBSG adhere
to and promote a philosophy of openness, listening to and
embracing the diverse and at times discordant views of
our colleagues, seeking knowledge and expertise wherever
we can find it, and keeping focused on ideas, ideals, and
actions, rather than on personalities, assumed motivations,
and rhetoric. The threats to wildlife species and natural
systems arising from the exploding numbers and impacts
of humans can be extremely depressing. Yet, it is impossible
not to see hope in a loose network of more than a thousand
talented people who have committed themselves to working
together to find solutions. In addition, formal partnerships
with other conservation organizations provide opportunities
for successes that neither CBSG nor any one organization
could achieve on its own. Finally, the staff of the CBSG
office in Minneapolis, as well as in our regional network
offices in India, Costa Rica. Mexico. Indonesia. South

Africa, Japan, and Denmark, are remarkable resources upon
which we can all call for support and guidance.

Last month, I asked Ulie what guidance he could provide
to me and to the CBSG. His response was that the CBSG
has the people and the philosophy it needs to make a
difference to conservation around the world. He said that
specific advice from him is unnecessary and unwarranted,
as the organization needs to continue to grow in whatever
directions we can all take it, making maximal use of our
talents, resources, and passion to conserve the natural world
that sustains us. It is up to us to determine where Ulie's
legacy will lead, which is as he always wanted it to be. I
very much look forward to working with all of CBSG's
members, partners, colleagues, and staff as we continue and
grow the efforts and successes of the CBSG.

Robert C. Lacy, Chair, IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding
Specialist Group, 12101 Johnny Cake Ridge Road, Apple
Valley, MN 55124, USA, e-mail: .

A letter from Onnie Byers

Dr. Ulysses S. Seal, one of the conservation world's most
effective leaders, was born 13 June 1929 in Mullens,
West Virginia, and died on 19 March 2003 in Burnsville,
Minnesota. It may seem strange, at least for those who don't
know him, that when I think of the future of conservation
I think of Ulie. Those of you who are familiar with the
personality, impact and reach of this man, will understand
that he is not just the past and present but also the future.

Ulie originally trained as a psychologist before receiving his
PhD in biochemistry. Following a post-doc in endocrinology,
he took a position at the Veterans Administration Hospital
in Minneapolis, MN, in the US where he spent the majority
of his career conducting research on prostate cancer. During
this time he became interested in developing safe techniques
for wildlife anesthesia and contraception, conducting
research on a variety of species, including white-tailed deer,
wolves and Siberian tigers. His interest in applying science
to endangered species conservation continued to grow.

In 1973, he developed the International Species
Information System, ISIS, a record keeping system for
zoos, which grew into a fully functional entity of its own.
In 1979, Sir Peter Scott appointed Ulie Chairman of the
IUCN/SSC's Conservation Breeding Specialist Group
(CBSG). In the early 1980s Ulie developed the first model
for Species Survival Plan programs on which most SSP/
EEP-type captive population management programs have
been based. In the mid-1980s, when, in the southwestern
US, the black-footed ferret was discovered to have been
reduced to just 18 animals, Ulie became a champion
of interdisciplinary collaborations to solve complex
conservation problems. This theme continued to play a key
role in Ulie's long-term philosophy.

Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003

Over the years, Ulie combined social processes with
biological science to address a significant number of complex
problems and to turn conservation theory into conservation
action. Ulie and CBSG conducted more than 300 species-
based conservation workshops in over 60 countries.
Ulie commanded the respect of international leaders in
conservation, zoo directors, scientists and wildlife managers
throughout the world. He was a recognized leader.

I had the privilege of spending time with Ulie, after his
illness was diagnosed, talking to him about his life and what
he saw as the reasons for his success and that of CBSG.
The man was a genius but he did not talk about intellect
as the factor responsible for his effectiveness. He talked
about emotional qualities that have been with him since
childhood. These are qualities such as being a good listener,
being respectful and accepting, making people feel valued,
viewing everyone as a potential partner and making people
believe in themselves.

Ulie's academic and emotional intelligence led him to develop
a unique, influential organization and a set of species-based
processes for biodiversity conservation. He influenced
people all over this planet, many of whom think, work and
live their lives differently and more effectively because of
their interaction with him. This is why Ulie Seal was a world
leader and catalyst in the conservation community and why
he will live on as the future of conservation. I was honored
to be a part of this man's life and his death and I learned as
much from him in his dying as I did in his living. Our work
will always be a tribute to him.

Onnie Byers, Executive Officer, IUCN/SSC Conservation
Breeding Specialist Group, 12101 Johnny Cake Ridge Road,
Apple Valley, MN 55124, USA, e-mail: .


A workshop, involving about 200 Brazilian and interna-
tional specialists, was held from 9-12 December, 2002, in
Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, to revise the Official List of
Brazilian Fauna Threatened with Extinction (Lista Oficial
da Fauna Brasileira Ameafada de Extinfdo). The previous
revision was in 1989 (Edict 1.522, 19' December, 1989;
Bernardes et al, 1990). The workshop was coordinated by
the Fundaqgo Biodiversitas, in collaboration with the local
NGO Terra Brasilis, Conservation International do Brasil,
the Sociedade Brasileira de Zoologia (SBZ), and the Insti-
tuto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais
Renoviveis (IBAMA). Sponsorship was provided by the
Projeto de Biodiversidade (PROBIO) of the Ministry of the
Environment (MMA), Shell do Brasil, Grupo Odebrecht,

and Conservation International do Brasil, and support
from the US Fish and Wildlife Service and Avina.

Demonstrating the importance given to this workshop as a
major evaluation of the status of the Brazilian fauna by the
scientific community, the opening ceremony was attended
by the Minister of the Environment, Jose Carlos Carvalho;
the Minas Gerais State Secretary for the Environment, Celso
Castilho; the President of Biodiversitas, Roberto Messias
Franco; the President of IBAMA, R6mulo Josi Fernandes
Barreto Melo; the President ofSBZ, OlafMielke; the Director
President of CI do Brasil, Roberto Brandao Cavalcanti; and
the Director of Terra Brasilis, Sonia Rigueira.

Prof. Angelo B. M. Machado, world expert on Neotropical
dragonflies, and Professor of Zoology at the Federal Uni-
versity of Minas Gerais, led the assessment process in
1989 (Bernardes et al., 1990), representing the Sociedade
Brasileira de Zoologia (SBZ). He was again the driving
force for the 2002 re-assessment of the Official List of
Brazilian Fauna Threatened with Extinction. This time,
representing the Fundagao Biodiversitas, he was general
coordinator for the workshop and the assessment, and most
competently supported by the staff, who are uniquely expe-
rienced in carrying out these sorts of workshops (see, for
example, Fonseca et al., 1994; Lins et al., 1997; Machado et
al., 1998; Mendonqa and Lins, 2000), and deserve special
acknowledgment: Gliucia Moreira, Cassio Soares Martins,
Cliudia Costa, Lfvia Vanucci Lins and Gisela Hermann.
Considerable support was also provided by M6nica Fonseca
and Adriano Paglia of Conservation International do Brasil,
Belo Horizonte.

The Official List of Brazilian Fauna Threatened with
Extinction was published by the Ministry of the Envi-
ronment (MMA), through the Brazilian Institute for the
Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA),
on 22 May, 2003 websitee: sbf/fauna/index.cfm>).

The Primate Assessment

The list of threatened species tripled from 218 in the 1989
revision to 627 species with two extinct in the wild (still
maintained in captivity) and a further nine extinct. The
increase in numbers was due to the inclusion of new groups
(fish and invertebrates) which had not been assessed previ-
ously, but also to an increase in our knowledge of the status
of the country's fauna. Of the 26 primates placed on the
list, 24 are endemic to Brazil. The criteria used to evaluate
threatened status were those of the IUCN -World Conser-
vation Union Species Survival Commission (SSC), Version
3.1 (IUCN, 2001).

Adriano Chiarello was the coordinator for the Mammal
Group, and Anthony Rylands was coordinator of
the Primates Sub-group. Prior to the workshop,
information and the opinions of numerous biologists
and conservationists were solicited through a site on the

44 Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003

Table 1. The number of people who provided information for
the assessment of the threatened status of Brazilian mammals in
the pre-workshop consultation, and the number of contributions
regarding a particular species.

Sub-group Informants Contributions
Primates 15 103
Carnivora 21 93
Chiroptera 6 33
Aquatic mammals 8 42
Small mammals 13 42
Other mammals 22 79

internet specifically set up for the purpose by the Fundaq!o
Biodiversitas. To give an idea of the extent to which the
scientific and conservation community were consulted, we
give here some statistics. Fifty-two people replied to the
consultation for Brazilian mammals, providing a total of
392 "contributions" in terms of pertinent information on a
particular species (Table 1). Dividing them into six groups,
it can be seen that the Primates and Carnivora attracted
the most attention, with 103 contributions from 15 people
for the former, and 93 contributions from 21 people for
the latter. Alouatta (n = 18 or 18.8%), Callicebus (n = 14
or 14.6%) and Leontopithecus (n = 12 or 12.5%) were
the genera given most attention (see Table 2). In terms of
species, Alouatta guariba clamitans was the subject of nine
contributions, Cebus xanthosternos was the subject of six,
and Brachyteles hypoxanthus, B. arachnoides, the Atlantic
forest titi monkeys and Callithrix aurita each drew five

The following people contributed to the pre-workshop
consultation for primates: Julio CUsar Bicca-Marques,
Bras Cozenza, Ant6nio Rossano Mendes Pontes, Ana
Alice Biedzicki de Marques, Rosana Vera Marques, Mar-
celo Gordo, Carlos Eduardo Grelle, Fabiano Rodrigues de
Melo, Raquel Moura, Fibio Olmos, Fernando de Camargo
Passos, Rog6rio Cunha de Paula and Jos6 de Sousa e Silva
Jr., besides those who were able to participate directly in
the workshop's subgroup for primates to finalize the list:
Maria lolita Bampi, Adriano G. Chiarello, Gustavo A. B.
da Fonseca, Sdrgio Lucena Mendes, Marcelo Marcelino and
Anthony B. Rylands.

Threatened Primates

Following the criteria and categories of IUCN (2001),
the assessments for 103 species and 133 species and
subspecies of Brazilian primates resulted in the listing of
26 as threatened, seven as "Near Threatened" (NT), and
a further 16 as "Data Deficient" (DD). Of those which
are threatened, 10 were ranked as "Critically Endangered"
(CR), six as "Endangered" (EN), and 10 as "Vulnerable"
(VU). Fifteen of the threatened primates are from the
Atlantic forest, and 11 from Amazonia. They occur in 11
Brazilian states: Minas Gerais (9), Bahia (8), Amazonas (6),
Espirito Santo (5), Pard (4), Sao Paulo (4), Maranhao (3),
Sergipe (3), Rio de Janeiro (3), Parana (2) and Mato Grosso

Table 2. The number of contributions in the pre-workshop
consultation for each primate genus.

Genera No. of contributions
Alouatta 18
CGa '..,'. , 14
Leontopithecus 12
Brachyteles 10
Cebus 10
Callithrix 7
Saguinus 6
Mico 5
Ateles 4
Cacajao 3
Callimico 2
Chiropotes 2
Lagothrix 2
Saimiri 1

There are a number of changes from the 1989 list
(Bernardes et al., 1990), resulting mainly from the use, for
the first time, of the IUCN (2001) criteria as opposed to
expert opinion; but also due to improved knowledge on the
status and distributions, the inclusion of newly discovered
primates, and conservation efforts on behalf of the species.

Cebus kaapori was described only in 1992, and Callicebus
coimbrai in 1999 both enter the list for the first time,
and both as critically endangered. In the 1989 list the
Atlantic forest titi monkeys were all considered subspecies
of Callicebus personatus, and the form barbarabrownae,
described only in 1990, was included by default.
Leontopithecus caissara, described in 1990, was included
on Brazil's Official List in 1992 by special edict (Edict No.
045/92-N / 27' April 1992).

A number of primates were dropped from the 1989 list.
Alouatta belzebul belzebul was included in 1989 due to the
fact that it is critically threatened over a very large part of its
former range in the northern Atlantic forest and North-east
Brazil. Considering only this region, its status as the most
threatened primate in South America we believe would be
unchallenged. However, no evidence has come forward
that it is distinct from populations in eastern Amazonia,
which are widespread and disqualify the subspecies from
categorization as threatened. The Amazonian pitheciines,
Cacajao melanocephalus, Chiropotes albinasus and Pithecia
albicans, although hunted, are now known to have relatively
broad distributions, large portions of which are still remote.
Cacajao melanocephalus occurs in two of the three largest
national parks in Brazil: Pico da Neblina (2,200,000 ha)
and Jadi (2,270,000 ha).

Despite the fact that Ateles paniscus occurs over an
enormous area of remote forests of the Guayana Shield,
it was considered a threatened species along with other
spider monkeys and the woolly monkeys, Lagothrix
- due to the susceptibility of these large, relatively slow-

Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003
breeding species to hunting, habitat degradation, and
forest fragmentation and loss. They are the first primates
to disappear near villages or wherever there is hunting
pressure anywhere more than insignificant. These species
have long gone from many areas of the Amazon. Their
still-large, wide-ranging populations, however, disqualify
them from the IUCN (2001) criteria for threatened status,
and in the particular case of Ateles paniscus, it now occurs
in a considerable number of protected areas, including the
Mountains of Tumucumaque National Park of 3.8 million
ha decreed in August 2002 (see NeotropicalPrimates 10(3):
158-160). Ateles marginatus has a considerably more
restricted distribution in southern Para, centered on the
current wave of deforestation moving north with Brazil's
agricultural frontier and the paving of the Cuiabi-Santardm
highway. Its range is also dissected by the Transamazon,
and it does not occur in any strictly protected areas of any
significant size. Ateles belzebuth also has a more restricted
distribution in the northwest Brazilian Amazon, and is
classified as vulnerable. The Brazilian woolly monkeys,
although having quite wide distributions, are classified as
near threatened. Their extreme susceptibility to hunting
and forest fragmentation has been well-documented.

While the nominal, northern subspecies of the brown
howler, Alouatta guariba, is evidently now extremely rare
- only a handful of localities in Minas Gerais and southern
Bahia are known to maintain small isolated populations
- the southern brown howler has a broad distribution
extending south from Minas Gerais and Espfrito Santo
to Rio Grande do Sul and the province of Misiones in
northern Argentina. Its broad range, although covering
enormous areas where the forests have been very largely
destroyed, means that the overall population size, the
number of populations, and its presence in large protected
areas through the Serra do Mar, for example, exclude it
from entering the threatened category according to the
criteria required. It is classified as near threatened. A similar
situation applies to the black-horned capuchin, Cebus
nigritus, and the masked titi, Callicebus nigrifrons, also
classified as near threatened.

Goeldi's monkey, Callimico goeldii, has a geographic
distribution which is large through the upper Amazon
of Bolivia and Peru, and a small area of southern Colombia
- but it is always rare and its occurrence very patchy; it is
absent from large areas throughout its range. In Brazil it
occurs in Acre, and here and there in southern and western
parts of the state ofAmazonas. It is ranked as near threatened.
The recent discovery of numerous marmoset species in the
interfluvium of the Purus and Madeira, all with very small
ranges, has diluted somewhat the arguments prevailing in
the past which pinpointed as threatened those species with,
what seemed then, alarmingly small ranges: Mico leucippe,
M humeralifer, M. nigriceps, M. chrysoleucus and Saguinus
imperator. Specifically in the case of the emperor tamarin,
S. imperator, the creation of a large number of protected
areas of various categories in Acre over the last two decades
at least provides some guarantees for the permanence of

large areas of forest within its range. These animals are
poorly known, however, with their evidently minute ranges
often being good guesses based on at best a mere handful
of localities. Along with the newly discovered species, they
were placed in the category of "Data Deficient" in the
hopes of inspiring more research on their distributions and
status. Mico marcai is known only from three specimens in
the National Museum, all from the type locality (Alperin,

Cebus robustus is now added to the list as vulnerable,
although we believe that further study on its status may well
result in it being more properly classified as endangered.
In 2001, Josi de Sousa e Silva Jr., researcher at the Museu
Goeldi, Beldm, completed a full systematic review of the
genus and argued solidly that it should be considered a full
species (Silva Jr., 2001). A review of its status in Espirito
Santo, and the Rio Doce valley in Minas Gerais, resulted
in its categorization as vulnerable. Its threatened status had
been recognized for some time, however, with its forests
largely destroyed and fragmented, and along with Cebus
xanthosternos, it is not only hunted for food, but prized as
a pet. In 1992, the Brazilian Institute for the Environment
(IBAMA) created an International Management Committee
specifically for these two species, not only to promote their
conservation in the wild, but to support the establishment
of breeding programs to accommodate the large numbers
of pets and individuals confiscated from animal dealers
(Edict No. 111, 16 October, 1992). Since then, captive
breeding programs have been set up for both species (Baker
and Kierulff, 2002). C. robustus (VU) and especially C.
xanthosternos (CR) are evidently declining very rapidly.
Conservation International do Brasil and the Instituto de
Estudos Sociambientais do Sul da Bahia (IESB), Ilhdus, are
currently carrying out surveys to establish better the status
and geographic range of C. xanthosternos, and Waldney
Pereira Martins is planning a similar project for C. robustus,
under the auspices of the post-graduate program in Ecology,
Conservation and Wildlife Management of the Federal
University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte.

The status of three of the four lion tamarins has remained
unchanged. Leontopithecus rosalia has, however, just slipped
out of the "Critically Endangered" category, and is now
considered "Endangered". This testifies to the remarkable
efforts of the Golden Lion Tamarin Conservation Program,
begun in 1983, currently being administered in Brazil by
the Associaq1o Mico-Leio-Dourado (AMLD), Casimiro
de Abreu, Rio de Janeiro, and personnel of the National
Zoological Park, Washington, DC. The program has
successfully protected the population in the Poqo das Antas
Biological Reserve, established a reintroduced population
(now numbering about one-third of the total animals in the
wild), created a new protected area, the Uniao Biological
Reserve, and populated it through the translocation of six
groups threatened in other parts of the golden lion tamarin's
highly fragmented range (Kleiman and Rylands, 2002;
Kierulff and Rylands, 2003). The population in the wild is
believed to be about 1,000 animals. Current estimates for

Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003


c- -, c, N -

rq L
0 0 rt t rt: ~

u N ^< C N N"

ci Q I Id .
3 5 n t4 r u 0 r t r t r t r
.o U p N d

S----- ---

- : 0 'o
0o o 0

'd -
1c 0
c4 oc C

U^ C 1 4- 1

1- U 14-~Ui5 1 t
-'o 8C f- SH^ ^ s ^ ^s r C ?.

C o 0 it C -i C w

cq 0
4-' -d 0 t-z-2E 0 -
-| 4-4 4 -J |
4- - -- - -- - - -- -

0) &
rt~ u CT\

U^ U" --S/- o
rt-' CO CCr ? ~ t

O| 5 ^ ^i

^j- ^ s Ci ,.C -s 't V CC I

1 || 1 1^ 3 lI U II I I

U. \ i
d I
1^ 4 it ^ ^1- lil&

N" 0> U N- ^ ^ o ^ 'i ~~ ^ ^ -i ^ *i
-s -

Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003 47


. E

pa U P-

7 7-

rt rt
*-i C N
'a- a

7- "a 7- 'a- 7

48 Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003

Table 4. Primates removed from and added to the Lista Oficial da Fauna Brasileira Ameafada de Extindao.
Dropped from the list of 1989:
Alouatta belzebul belzebul Critically endangered in the North-East of Brazil, but widely distributed in eastern Amazonia
Alu a Taxonomic revision. Now referred to as A. guariba. The species was ruled NT, but A. guariba
_Alouaa fusca guariba CR
Ateles paniscus Not threatened according to criteria of IUCN (2001)
Cacajao melanocephalus Not threatened according to criteria of IUCN (2001)
Callimico goeldii Near threatened NT
Chiropotes albinasus Not threatened according to criteria of IUCN (2001)
Lagothrix lagothricha Near threatened NT
Callithrix humeralifer Taxonomic revision. Now in the genus Mico. Data deficient DD
Callithrix argentata leucippe Taxonomic revision. Now considered a full species in the genus Mico. Data deficient DD
Pithecia albicans Not threatened according to criteria of IUCN (2001)
Saguinus imperator Data deficient DD
Entered the list of 2002:
Alouatta ululata New evaluation. Taxonomic revision. Previously considered a subspecies ofAlouatta belzebul
Ateles marginatus Taxonomic revision. On the 1989 list, but as a subspecies of A. belzebuth
Brachyteles hypoxanthus Taxonomic revision. On the 1989 list, but as a subspecies of B. arachnoides
Cacajao calvus rubicundus On the 1989 list, but as a subspecies of C. calvus
Cacajao calvus novaesi New subspecies Hershkovitz, 1987
Callicebus coimbrai New species Kobayashi & Langguth, 1999
Callicebus barbarabrownae New species Hershkovitz, 1990
Callicebus melanochir Taxonomic revision. On the 1989 list, but as a subspecies of C. personatus
Cebus kaapori New species Queiroz, 1992
Cebus robustus New evaluation. Taxonomic revision. Previously considered a subspecies of Cebus apella

the black lion tamarin, L. chrysopygus, also indicate about
1,000 surviving in scattered populations in the state of Sao
Paulo, but this species remains in the category "Critically
Endangered" because the large majority occur in just one
site, the Morro do Diabo State Park the other few forests
still maintaining the species are minimal in size (Valladares-
Padua etal., 2002).

Two distinct forms of muriqui, Brachyteles, are now
recognized (by some as subspecies, others as distinct
species), while the 1989 CiO List included them both
under the name of B. arachnoides. The highly fragmented
and small populations of the northern muriqui, B.
hypoxanthus, are considered "Critically Endangered",
whereas the more widespread southern muriqui, B.
arachnoides, occurs in a number of parks and reserves in the
Serra do Mar in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro and is ranked
only as "Endangered" (see Strier and Fonseca, 1996/1997).
The situation of the muriqui is reflected somewhat in that
of the buffy-headed marmoset, Callithrixflaviceps, listed as
"Endangered" in the highly fragmented forests of Espfrito
Santo and eastern Minas Gerais, and the buffy-tufted-ear
marmoset, C. aurita, listed as "Vulnerable", occurring to
the south in southern Minas Gerais, Sao Paulo and Rio de
Janeiro (see Mendes, 1993; Coimbra-Filho, 1991).

Summary: Comparison with the 1989 Lista Oficial da Fauna
Brasileira Ameafada de Extingdo
A number of changes resulted from this re-assessment of
the status of the Brazilian primates. Eleven primates were
dropped from the 1989 Official List, and 10 new names

were added. The reasons for the loss or addition of the
species and subspecies are indicated in Table 4. Four of
the primates "added" to the list were, in fact, implicitly on
the 1989 Official List, but were named for the first time on
the 2003 list: Ateles marginatus was considered a subspecies
of A. belzebuth; Brachyteles hypoxanthus was considered a
subspecies of B. arachnoides; Callicebus melanochir was
considered a subspecies of C personatus; and Cacajao calvus
was listed, but not its subspecies. Four of the new additions
are species described after 1989, and a further two were
added as a result of new information. Six primates, then,
were in fact added to the 2003 CrO. 'List.

Summary: Comparison with the 2002 IUCN Red List of
Threatened Species
The fact that 24 of the 26 primates on Brazil's new
threatened species list are endemic to the country means
that their status assessments are valid globally. The 2002
IUCN Red List for primates is still based on IUCN's
1994 Red List categories and criteria, which are slightly
different from the new scheme (Version 3.1) in terms of
the categories and less stringent in terms of the criteria. We
expect that IUCN will adopt the results of the assessments
of these (and the other 52) primates which occur only in
Brazil. Key changes, resulting from the strict application
of the IUCN (2001) criteria and a better understanding
of the distributions, taxonomic status and conservation
status of many of the species, are as follows: Alouatta
guariba clamitans from VU to NT; Brachyteles arachnoides
from CR to EN; Callicebus nigrifrons from VU to NT;
C".'.' aurita from EN to VU; Callithrix geoffroyi from

Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003
VU to "Least Concern" (LC); Cebus kaapori from VU to
CR; Cebus nigritus from LC to NT; Leontopithecus rosalia
from CR to EN; Mico chrysoleucus from VU to DD; Mico
leucippe from VU to DD; Mico nigriceps from VU to DD;
Saguinus bicolor from EN to CR; and Saguinus imperator
imperator from VU to DD.

Anthony B. Rylands, Center for Applied Biodiversity Sci-
ence, Conservation International, 1919 M Street, NW, Suite
600, Washington, DC 20036, USA, and Departamento de
Zoologia, Instituto de Ciencias Biol6gicas, Universidade
Federal de Minas Gerais, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte,
Minas Gerais, Brazil, and Adriano G. Chiarello, Programa
de Mestrado em Zoologia de Vertebrados, Pontificia Uni-
versidade Cat61lica de Minas Gerais, Rua Dom Jose Gaspar
500, Prddio 41, Coracqo Eucaristico, 30535-610 Belo Hor-
izonte, Minas Gerais, e-mail: .


Alperin, R. 2002. Sobre a localidade tipo de Mico marcai
(Alperin, 1993). Neotrop. Primates 10(3): 126-128.
Baker, A. J. and Kierulff, M. C. M. 2002. International
Committee for Cebus xanthosternos and Cebus robustus.
Neotrop. Primates 10(3): 158.
Bernardes, A. T., Machado, A. B. M. and Rylands, A. B.
1990. Fauna Brasileira Ameafada de Extincdo. Fundacao
Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte.
Coimbra-Filho, A. F 1991. Apontamentos sobre Callithrix
aurita (L. Geoffroy, 1812), um sagiii pouco conhecido
(Callitrichidae, Primates). In: A Primatologia no Brasil-
3, A. B. Rylands and A. T. Bernardes (eds.), pp.145-158.
Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia, Belo Horizonte.
Fonseca, G. A. B. da, Rylands, A. B., Costa, C. M. R.,
Machado, R. B., Leite, Y. L. R. and Furlani, C. (eds).
1994. Livro Vermelho dos Mamiferos Brasileiros Ameacados
de Extincdo. Fundacao Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte.
IUCN. 2001. IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria.
Version 3.1. IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN,
Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Kierulff, M. C. M. and Rylands, A. B. 2003. Census and
distribution of the golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus
rosalia). Am. J. Primatol. 59(1): 29-44.
Kleiman, D. G. and Rylands, A. B. (eds.). 2002. Lion
Tamarins: Biology and Conservation. Smithsonian
Institution Press, Washington, DC.
Lins, L. V., Machado, A. B. M., Costa, C. M. R. and
Herrmann, G. 1997. Roteiro Metodologico para Elaborafdo
de Listas de Espdcies Ameafadas de Extincdo. Publicafoes
Avulsas da Fundafdo Biodiversitas 1: 1-50. Fundacgo
Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte.
Machado, A. B. M., Fonseca, G. A. B. da, Machado, R. B.,
Aguiar, L. M. de S. and Lins, L. V. 1998. Livro Vermelho
das Especies Ameafadas de Extincdo da Fauna de Minas
Gerais. Fundaqco Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte.
Mendes, S. L. 1993. Distribuiqao geogrifica e estado
de conservaqao de Callithrix flaviceps (Primates:
Callitrichidae). In: A Primatologia no Brasil 4, M. E.

Yamamoto and M. B. C. de Souza (eds.), pp.139-154.
Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia, Natal.
Mendonga, M. P. and Lins, L. V. 2000. Lista Vermelha das
Espdcies Ameafadas de Extinfdo da Flora de Minas Gerais.
Fundacqo Biodiversitas, Fundacqo Zoo-Botanica de Belo
Horizonte, Belo Horizonte.
Silva Jr., J. S. 2001. Especiaqdo nos macacos-prego e
caiararas, genero Cebus Erxleben, 1777 (Primates,
Cebidae). Doctoral thesis, Universidade Federal do Rio
de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro.
Strier, K. B. and Fonseca, G. A. B. da. 1996/1997. The
endangered muriquis in Brazil's Atlantic forest. Primate
Conservation (17): 131-137.
Valladares-PAdua, C., Ballou, J. D., Martins, C. S. and
Cullen Jr., L. 2002. Metapopulation management for the
conservation of black lion tamarins. In: Lion Tamarins:
Biology and Conservation, D. G. Kleiman and A. B.
Rylands (eds.), pp.301-314. Smithsonian Institution
Press, Washington, DC.


The Serra dos Orgaos National Park occupies 11,800 ha
of the coastal forest of the Serra do Mar ecoregion (sensu
Dinerstein etal., 1995) in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
The park, which ranges from 300 to 2263 m above sea level
in the municipalities of Mage, Guapimirim, Petr6polis and
Teres6polis (Brazil, IBAMA, 1980), protects a number of
vegetation types of the Atlantic forest, including upper
montane, montane and lower montane dense forest and
high altitude grassland (campos de altitude) (sensu Veloso et
al., 1991). The Serra dos Orgaos National Park, founded in
1939, is contiguous with a number of other protected areas
(Table 1), comprising as such a large ecological corridor
in the region, internationally recognized as a conserva-
tion priority (Conservation International do Brasil et al.,
2000). With widespread fragmentation being typical of
the vast majority of the remnants of Brazil's Atlantic forest,
relatively extensive continuous forests such as can be found
in this corridor undoubtedly play an important role in
maintaining intact the mammalian faunas typical of the
region (Chiarello, 1999). The composition and ecology of
the medium-sized and large mammal fauna of the Serra do
Mar is, however, still poorly known.

Schirch (1931) was the first to register Brachyteles arach-
noides in the region. Grelle (2000), examining museum
specimens and reviewing the literature, found records for
B. arachnoides, Alouatta guariba, Cebus nigritus (sensu Silva
Jr., 2001), and Callithrix aurita in the Serra dos Orgaos. C
aurita was also registered as occurring there by Cerqueira et
al. (1998). Surveys in the Park by Garcia and Andrade Filho
(2002) have confirmed the presence of B. arachnoides and
also indicated the continued presence of A. guariba, Cebus
nigritus, and Callithrix aurita. Although the masked titi,
Callicebus nigrifrons, would also be expected to occur there

50 Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003
Table 1. Protected areas of the Serra dos Orgios region, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Protected Areas Area (ha) Decree Municipalities
Serra dos Orgdos National Park 11800 1939 Guapimirim; Magd; Teres6polis; and
os os NPetr6polis
TinguBiological Reserve 26000 1989 Petr6polis, Duque de Caxias; Queimados
Tingui Nova Iguaou; Miguel Pereira; and Japeri
Petr6polis, Duque de Caxias; Guapimirim;
Petr6polis Environmental Protection Area (APA) 59049 1982 Petr6poi, Duque de Ci; Gupimirim;
Petrpol and Magd
Paraiso Ecological Station 4920 1987 Guapimirim and Cachoeiras de Macacu
Araras Biological Reserve 2068 1950 Petr6polis
(inside the APA of Petr6polis) 2068 1950 Petr6ois
Tris Picos State Park* 40000 2002 Teres6polis; Guapimirim; Cachoeiras de
Macacu; Nova Friburgo; and Silva Jardim
Bacia dos Frades Environmental Protection Area (APA) 7500 1990 Teres6polis
Floresta do Jacarandi Environmental Protection Area (APA) 2700 1985 Teres6polis
Source: Secretaria de Estado do Meio Ambiente e Desenvolvimento Sustentivel do Rio de Janeiro (SEMADS). 2001. Not included on the data source.

according to its supposed distribution, it has not to date
been recorded in the Serra dos Orgaos. In Rio de Janeiro
it is known only from its type locality, in the north of the
state in the municipality of Campos (Van Roosmalen etal.,
2002), and from Itatiaia in the south-west (Grelle, 2000).

Since 1998, I have worked as a guide in the Park, also
coordinating field studies on small mammals for the
Vertebrate Laboratory of the Department of Ecology of
the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. Here I report on
some observations of the primates occurring in the Serra
dos Orgios National Park.

In December 1999, I observed a male brown howler,
Alouatta guariba, foraging alone in bracts of taquarafu
(Guadua sp.) by a road near the hostel of the Teres6polis
headquarters of the Park (22 27'28"S, 42 59'42"W, alti-
tude 1050 m). In August 2000, I also heard howlers vocal-
izing at the base of the Verruga do Frade mountain, and
again in March 2003, I heard them in the forest above the
Mozart Catio visitor's trail.

The Serra dos Orgaos is the type locality of the black-
horned capuchin, Cebus nigritus (Goldfuss, 1809) (see Hill,
1960). I have seen it there twice. In July 1999 and October
2000, the same group of 8-12 individuals was observed in
a secondary forest at 1100 m above sea level, behind the
Park hostel. In August 2000, while carrying out a prelimi-
nary survey of medium-sized and large mammals (Cunha,
2003), I also found some tracks of capuchin monkeys
located in upper montane dense forest (Floresta Ombrofila
DensaAltaMontanha, sensuVeloso, 1991) at 1550 m, along
the Pedra do Sino trail.

Marmosets were recorded by Limeira and Rocha (1999), but
they were unable to identify the species. Garcia and Andrade
Filho (2002) indicated the presence of Callithrix aurita, but
without confirming they had seen them. In October 2002,
a single semi-tame Callithrix penicillata was seen near to

the Park hostel, but this was undoubtedly due to somebody
releasing it. They occur naturally only to the west, in the
Cerrado of Central Brazil, and are not native to the state of
Rio de Janeiro. I have never seen, nor have any evidence of,
the occurrence of Callithrix aurita in the region.

The presence of the black-fronted titi, Callicebus nigrifrons
(Spix, 1823), in the Serra dos Orgios was recorded in Octo-
ber 2002 in two different areas of the National Park by its
unmistakable vocalizations. The first locality was near Rio
Soberbo, at around 1000 m, and the other in the upper
reaches of the Rio Bonfim, at around 1300 m, above the
Vdu da Noiva waterfall in the Petr6polis side of the Park.
The distance and the relief between the two areas suggest
that these observations are from different populations. I
compared the calls with those of Callicebuspersonatus in the
CD of Sounds ofNeotropical Rainforest Mammals: An Audio
Field Guide by Emmons et al. (1998).

In August 2003 I registered a small group of muriquis
(Brachyteles arachnoides) on the upper Rio Paquequer, at
around 1600 m at 11:30 am. They saw me first and fled;
I could count only two adult individuals and a single juve-
nile on the female's back. B. arachnoides and C. nigrifrons
apparently occur only in the more remote areas of the Park,
avoiding the presence of humans.

Urgently needed are detailed studies on the primates
occurring in the Serra dos Orgaos to obtain a better
understanding of their distribution in the park, their
densities and the vegetation types and altitudes where
they are occurring. Except for Cd /l:,' penicillata, all are
endemic to the Atlantic Forest (Fonseca et al., 1996) and,
excepting Cebus nigritus, are ranked as threatened in the
state of Rio de Janeiro (Bergallo et al., 2000). A recent re-
assessment of Brazil's threatened species has listed Brachyteles
arachnoides as "Endangered", and Callicebus nigrifrons,
Cebus nigritus and Alouatta guariba as "Near Threatened"
(Rylands and Chiarello, 2003). Further surveys are needed

Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003

to establish the presence or otherwise of Callithrix aurita,
listed as "Vulnerable" on the 2003 Brazilian List of Species
Threatened with Extinction.

Acknowledgments: Carlos E. Grelle made helpful comments
in the earlier version of this manuscript. I am grateful to a
number of students who participated in the surveys in the
Park, especially Andr6 Allonso and Gustavo Reich.

Andre Almeida Cunha, Laborat6rio de Vertebrados,
Departamento de Ecologia, Universidade Federal do Rio
de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68020, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-
590, Brazil, e-mail: .


Bergallo, H. G., Geise, L., Bonvicino, C. R., Cerqueira,
R., D'Andrea, P., EsberArd, C. E., Fernandez, E, Grelle,
C. E., Peracchi, A., Siciliano, S. and Vaz, S. M. 2000.
Mamfferos. In: A Fauna Ameafada de Extinfdo do Estado
do Rio de Janeiro, H. G. Bergallo, C. F. D. Rocha, M. A.
S. Alves and M. Van Sluys (eds.), pp. 125-135. Editora
da Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de
Cerqueira, R., Marroig, G. and Pinder, L. 1998. Marmosets
and lion tamarins distribution (Callitrichidae, Primates)
in Rio de Janeiro state, south-eastern Brazil. Mammalia
62: 213-226.
Chiarello, A. G. 1999. Effects of fragmentation of the
Atlantic forest on mammal communities in south-eastern
Brazil. Biol. Conserv. 89: 71-82.
Conservation International do Brasil, Fundacao SOS Mata
Atlantica, Fundaqco Biodiversitas, Instituto de Pesquisas
Ecol6gicas, Secretaria de Meio Ambiente do Estado
de Sao Paulo, Instituto Estadual de Florestas MG.
2000. Avaliafdo e Ajoes Prioritdrias para a Conservardo
da Biodiversidade da Mata Atldntica e Campos Sulinos.
Ministr&io do Meio Ambiente (MMA), Secretaria de
Biodiversidade e Florestas (SBF), Brasflia.
Cunha, A. A. 2003. Abundancia de mamiferos de medio e
grande porte na Serra dos Orgaos. Unpublished report,
Program de P6s-graduacqo em Ecologia, Universidade
Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro.
Dinerstein, E., Olson, D. M., Graham, D. J., Webster, A. L.,
Primm, S. A., Bookbinder, M. P. and Ledec, G. 1995. A
Conservation Assessment of the Terrestrial Ecoregions of Latin
America and the Caribbean. World Wildife Fund US and
The World Bank. Washington, DC.
Emmons, L. H., Whitney, B. M. and Ross, D. L. 1998.
Sounds ofNeotropical Rainforest Mammals: An Audio Field
Guide. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Fonseca, G. A. B. da, Rylands, A. B., Costa, C. M. R.,
Machado, R. B. and Leite, Y. L. R. 1994. Lista Vermelha
dos Mamiferos Brasileiros AmeaCados de Extincdo. Fundagao
Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte.
Fonseca, G. A. B. da, Herrmann, G., Leite, Y. L. R.,
Mittermeier, R. A., Rylands, A. B. and Patton, J. L. 1996.
Lista anotada dos mamfferos do Brasil. OccasionalPapers in
Conservation Biology 4: 1-38. Conservation International,

Washington, DC, and Fundacqo Biodiversitas, Belo
Garcia, V. L. A. and Andrade Filho, J. M. de. 2002.
Muriquis no Parque Nacional da Serra dos Orgaos.
Neotrop. Primates 10(2): 97.
Grelle, C. E. 2000. Areografia dos primatas endemicos da
Mata Adtlntica. Doctoral thesis, Universidade Federal do
Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro.
Hill, W. C. 0. 1960. Primates: Comparative Anatomy and
Taxonomy IV Cebidae Part A. Edinburgh University Press,
IBAMA. 1980. Plano de Manejo do Parque Nacional da
Serra dos Orgdos. Institute Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente
e dos Recursos Naturais Renoviveis (IBAMA), Brasflia,
and Fundacao Brasileira para a Conservacao da Natureza
(FBCN), Rio de Janeiro.
Limeira, V. L. A. G. and Rocha, R. M. da. 1999. Situacao
atual de Brachyteles arachnoides no Parque Nacional da
Serra dos Orgaos e Areas adjacentes, RJ. Livro de Resumos:
IX Congress Brasileiro de Primatologia, p.49. 23-30 July,
1999. Santa Teresa, Espfrito Santo. Sociedade Brasileira
de Primatologia, Santa Teresa, Espfrito Santo. Website:
(accessed February
Rylands, A. B. and Chiarello, A. G. 2003. Official List
of Brazilian Fauna Threatened with Extinction 2003.
Neotrop. Primates 11(1): 43-49.
Schirch, P F. 1931. Contribuigao ao conhecimento da
fauna de Therez6polis, 960 m. Bol. Museu Nacional 8:
Secretaria de Estado do Meio Ambiente e Desenvolvimento
Sustentivel do Rio de Janeiro (SEMADS). 2001. Atlas das
Unidades de Conservacdo da Natureza do Estado do Rio de
Janeiro. Metalivros, Sao Paulo.
Silva Jr., J. S. 2001. Especiaqao nos macacos-prego e
caiararas, genero Cebus Erxleben, 1777 (Primates,
Cebidae). Doctoral thesis, Universidade Federal do Rio
de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro.
Van Roosmalen, M. G. M., Van Roosmalen, T. and
Mittermeier, R. A. 2002. A taxonomic review of the
titi monkeys, genus Callicebus Thomas, 1903, with the
description of two new species, Callicebus bernhardi
and Callicebus stephennashi, from Brazilian Amazonia.
Neotrop. Primates 10(Suppl.): 1-52.
Veloso, H. P., Rangel Filho, A. L. R. and Lima, J. C. A.
1991. Classificafdo da Vegetafdo Brasileira Adaptada a
um Sistema Universal. Institute Brasileiro de Geografia e
Estatfstica (IBGE), Rio de Janeiro.



For the last 20 years Argentinean primatologists have
developed numerous studies of the platyrrhine taxa that
inhabit northern Argentina and neighboring Paraguay
and Bolivia. The species include Alouatta caraya, Alouatta

52 Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003

guariba (= fusca), Aotus azarae, Cebus apella and Saimiri
boliviensis, and the studies have centered on their
geographical distribution, population parameters, social
organization, habitat use, behavior, and genetics (Mudry,
1983; Brown, 1986; Zunino, 1986; Rumiz, 1987; Giudice,
2000; Szapkievich, 2001; Ascunce, 2002).

The main goal of our genetic studies has been to provide
essential information necessary to infer evolutionary pat-
terns and the taxonomic status of these primates. Karyologi-
cal studies of Alouatta caraya, Aotus azarae, Cebus apella and
Saimiri boliviensis have been conducted employing banding
techniques (G, C, NOR, G/C, Q, DAPI and enzyme diges-
tion) and also fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)
techniques (Mudry etal., 1998, 2001a, 2001b; Rahn etal.,
1996; Nieves et al., 2002). Through mitotic studies in both
sexes and meiotic studies in males, the multiple sexual system
of A. caraya (2n = 52) XX2Y1Y,/X1XX2X2 was described for
the first time (Rahn etal, 1996). Chromosomic sexual deter-
mination analyses in Alouattapalliata mexicana also showed a
multiple sexual system while the modal number is different in
males and females (Mudry et al, 2001b; Solari et al., 2002).
Meanwhile meiotic analyses in specimens of Ateles and Cebus
apella confirmed an XY chromosomic sexual system determi-
nation. Genotoxic studies are being developed that consider
the effect of chemical agents on the chromosomal liability
in Cebus apella chromosomes through the analysis of fragile
sites (Martinez, doctoral thesis project).

Biochemical analysis of electrophoretic loci was used to char-
acterize natural populations of Alouatta caraya from both
margins of the Rio Parani (Szapkievich, 2001; Szapkievich
and Mudry, 2002a). Molecular systematic studies based on
mitochondrial DNA sequences have investigated the phylo-
genetic relationships among New World monkeys (Ascunce,
2002; Ascunce et al., 2002, 2003a, 2003b). The genetic
variability of the southernmost populations of Alouatta
caraya also has been analyzed by mitochondrial DNA and
through microsatellite markers (Ascunce, 2002; Ascunce et
al., 2003b).

In the past few years, GIBE has begun to develop projects
with zoological institutions in Argentina in order to study
the genetics of captive primates, to contribute to their
correct taxonomic identification, and to provide data to
improve the management of breeding colonies (Szapkievich
et al., 2002b). Another aspect of the collaborative projects
includes environmental enrichment, allowing for the devel-
opment of the first study of this aspect of captive primates
in Argentina conducted on Cebus apella (Giudice, 2000).
The functional and social behavior ofAlouatta caraya have
been studied in its natural habitat (Giudice, 1997; Giudice
and Mudry, 2000), and we have also analyzed the adapt-
ability of this species in a forest fragment outside its natural
geographic range (Giudice and Ascunce, 1998).

Currently, ecological studies are focusing on the impact of
habitat fragmentation, and aspects such as seed dispersal,
demography and mating behavior. One of the main goals

is to evaluate the role of Alouatta caraya in the dynamics
and regeneration of the flooded forest of the Rfo Parani
(Bravo, doctoral thesis, in prep.; Bravo et al., 1995; Bravo
and Zunino, 1998, 2000; Bravo and Sallenave, submit-
ted). The other objective is to obtain an understanding
of demographic and social patterns in Alouatta caraya
related to food availability, type of habitat, and geographic
distribution. These studies involve two doctoral projects
(Kowalewski; Oklander) and were subjects of three "Licen-
ciatura" theses (Kowalewski, 1995; Bravo, 1996; Bazzalo,
1998), a Master's thesis (Kowalewski, 2000) and a number
of publications (Kowalewski et al., 1995; Zunino et al.,
1996; Fernandez-Duque and Bravo, 1997; Zunino et al.,
2000; Santa Cruz et al., 2001; Gonzalez et al., 2002).

Other ecological studies on Aotus azarae and Cebus apella
by Argentinean primatologists have focused on seasonal
birth patterns, allogrooming behavior and demography
(Di Bitetti, 1997; Di Bitetti and Janson, 2000; Di Bitetti
et al., 2000; Fernandez-Duque et al., 2001; Rotundo et al.,
2002). Considering the importance of New World mon-
keys as biomedical models, their reproduction, neurology,
nutrition and endocrinology have also been the subject
of research programs (Rey et al., 1996; Pucciarelli and
Dressino, 1996; Pucciarelli et al., 2000; Colombo, 2001).
Finally, paleontological studies by Argentinean paleontolo-
gists have helped to elucidate platyrrhine evolutionary his-
tory (Tejedor, 1996, 1998).

The Corrientes Biological Station (EBCo) (originally the
Argentinean Primate Center CAPRIM) was inaugurated
in July 2001 as a research center under the supervision of
CONICET, the Argentine Museum of Natural Sciences
(MACN) and the Directorate of the Fauna and Flora of
Corrientes Province (Argentina). The Biological Station
continues to breed Saimiri boliviensis and Cebus apella, but
the objectives have been expanded to cover not only primate
breeding and research but also education, conservation, and
field research. For more information about the Biological
Station and its program of scientific activities, you can visit
its website at: , or con-
tact Dr. Gabriel Zunino at or

Future research will concentrate on the genetic and
ecological dynamics of the primates of the region to help us
understand the patterns of speciation, their distributions,
and the different ecological strategies they have evolved.
However, the future of Argentinean primatology will
depend on the continuity of national grants and the
availability of international funds during these difficult
times that Argentina is facing.

Acknowledgments: We are grateful to the Argentinean insti-
tutions that have provided most of our research funding:
CONICET (Consejo Nacional de Investigacidn Cientifica
y Tecnologica), UBA (Universidad de Buenos Aires) and the
Agencia de Promocidn Cientifica y TecnoMlgica. We also thank
the international organizations that have provided us with

Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003
grants and fellowships, particularly S. Bravo, a Ph.D. stu-
dent funded by the International Foundation for Science
(IFS) (04/1998 06/2000; 09/2001 present), and a Pas
de Loup Research Grant (2000). She also participated in
the course "Ecologfa Tropical y Conservaci6n" (Costa Rica,
1999) sponsored by the Organization for Tropical Stud-
ies (OTS). M. Kowalewski (Ph.D. student) has received
international funds from the Fulbright Program, the Aca-
demic Institution Award (State University of New York at
Stony Brook, USA), the Monica Archibald Fund from the
Institute of International Education (IIE) and a Summer
Research Assistance Award from the Department of
Anthropology, University of Illinois at Urbana (USA). With
an Andrew Mellon Foundation Fellowship, M. Ascunce
conducted all the microsatellite work at STRI (Smithsonian
Tropical Research Institute) in Panama. Finally, we thank
all the people who have helped us in so many ways in our
research, including several students who collaborated in field
work, colleges at UBA who allowed us the use of their labo-
ratory facilities, and Argentinean zoos who provided us with
biological samples for genetic analyses and have facilitated
behavioral studies of captive primates.

Ph.D. Theses
Mudry, Marta D. 1983. Estudios citogeneticos en ccbidos
argentinos: Su proyecci6n en taxonomfa y evoluci6n.
University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Brown, Alejandro D. 1986. Autoecologfa de bromeliiceas
epffitas y su relaci6n con Cebus apella (Primates) en el NO
argentino. University of La Plata, La Plata, Argentina.
Zunino, Gabriel E. 1986. Algunos aspects de la ecologfa
y etologfa del mono aullador negro (Alouatta caraya) en
habitat fragmentados. University of Buenos Aires, Buenos
Aires, Argentina.
Gorostiaga, Maria A. 1999. Caracterizaci6n de la linea
cellular VERO como sustrato para la producci6n de
vacunas virales. University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires,
Giudice, Aldo M. 2000. Anilisis del comportamiento de
Cebus apella en jardines zool6gicos. University of Buenos
Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Szapkievich, Valeria B. 2001. El rfo Parani como modelador
del ambiente de la distribuci6n marginal sur de Alouatta
caraya (Primates, Platyrrhini). University of Buenos Aires,
Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Ascunce, Marina S. 2002. Variabilidad nucleofrdica en el
ADN mitocondrial deAlouatta caraya delNE de Argentina.
University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Mudry, M. D., Szapkievich, V., Hick, A., Giudice, A. M.
and Zunino, G. E. 1996. La primatologfa en laArgentina:
Estudios sobre evoluci6n, ecologfa y manejo en cautiverio.
Neotrop. Primates 4(3): 80-83.
Rahn, M., Mudry, M. D., Merani, S. and Solari, A. J. 1996.
Meiotic behavior of the XX2YY2 quadrivalent of the
primate Alouatta caraya. Chromosome Res. 4: 350-356.

Zunino, G. E., Bravo, S. P., Reisenman, C. and Murad
Ferreira, E 1996. Characteristics of two types of habitat
and the status of the howler monkey (Alouatta caraya).
Neotrop. Primates 4(2): 48-50.
Fernandez-Duque, E. and Bravo, S. P. 1997. Population
genetics and conservation of owl monkeys (Aotus azarae)
in Argentina: A promising field site. Neotrop. Primates
5(2): 48-50.
Giudice, A. M. 1997. Comportamiento social en aulladores:
el caso de la emigraci6n de una hembra subadulta en
Alouatta caraya. Neotrop. Primates 5(2): 39-43.
Zunino, G. E., Bravo, S. P. and Kowalewski, M. M. 1997.
Impact of the increasing biomass in howler monkeys
Alouatta caraya, due to the translocation of groups in
a wildlife refuge in Corrientes, Argentina. Program de
Refugios de Vida Silvestre, Fundaci6n Vida Silvestre
Argentina-WWF, Argentina.
Bravo, S. P. and Zunino, G. E. 1998. Effects of black
howler monkey (Alouatta caraya) seed ingestion on insect
larvae. Am. J. Primatol. 45: 411-415.
Giudice, A. M. and Ascunce, M. S. 1998. Presencia de
Alouatta caraya fuera de su drea de distribuci6n natural.
Neotrop. Primates 6(3): 82-86.
Mudry, M. D., Rahn, M., Gorostiaga, M., Hick, A., Merani,
M. S. and Solari, A. J. 1998. Revised karyotype of Alouatta
caraya (Primates: Platyrrhini) based on synaptonemal
complex and banding analyses. Hereditas 128: 9-16.
Szapkievich, V. B., Comas, C., Zunino, G. and Mudry, M.
D. 1998. Analisis de la variabilidad proteica en Alouatta
caraya y Cebus apella (Primates: Platyrrhini). Mastozool.
Neotrop. 5(1): 5-11.
Ascunce, M. S., Martinez, R., Avila, I. and Mudry, M. D.
1999. New World primates of the Argentinean Museum
of Natural Sciences "Bernardino Rivadavia", Buenos
Aires. Neotrop. Primates 7(1): 28.
Kowalewski, M. M. and Zunino, G. E. 1999. Impact
of deforestation on a population of Alouatta caraya in
Northern Argentina. Folia Primatol. 70(3): 163-166.
Bravo, S. P. and Zunino, G. E. 2000. Germination of
three arboreal seeds dispersed by black howler monkeys
(Alouatta caraya). Folia Primatol. 71: 342-345.
Giudice, A. M. and Mudry, M. D. 2000. Drinking
behavior in the black howler monkey (Alouatta caraya).
Zoocriaderos 3(1): 11-19.
Mudry, M. D. 2001. La evoluci6n cromos6mica en los
ceboideos (Primates: Platyrrhini). XXX Argentine
Congress of Genetics (SAG), Mar del Plata, Argentina,
September 2001, p. 146.
Mudry, M. D., Rahn, I. M. and Solari, A. J. 2001. Meiosis
and chromosome painting of sex chromosome systems in
Ceboidea. Am. J. Primatol. 54: 65-78.
Santa Cruz, A. C. M., Borda, J. T., Gomez, L., Patifio, E.
M. and Zunino, G. E. 2001. Fragmentaci6n del habitat y

54 Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003

parasitismo en poblaciones de monos aulladores (Alouatta
caraya). Neotrop. Primates 8(4): 146-148.
Zunino, G. E., Gonzalez, V., Kowalewski, M. M. and
Bravo, S. P. 2001. Alouatta caraya. Relations among
habitat, density and social organization. Prim. Rep. 61:
Ascunce, M. S., Hasson, E. and Mudry, M. D. 2002.
Description of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit II
gene in some genera of New World monkeys (Primates,
Platyrrhini). Genetica 114: 253-267.
Gonzalez, V., Zunino, G. E., Kowalewski, M. and Bravo, S.
P 2002. Densidad de monos aulladores (Alouatta caraya)
y composici6n y estructura de la selva de inundaci6n
en una isla del Rio Parana medio. Rev. Museo Argentino
Cienc. Nat. n. s. 4(1): 7-12.
Szapkievich, V. and Mudry, M. D. 2002. Estudios de
polimorfismos cromos6micos y proteicos en el mono
aullador negro de Argentina (Alouatta caraya). Rev.
Fundacidn de Historia Natural. In press.
Szapkievich, V., Martinez, R. A. and Mudry, M. D.
2002. Genetic parameters and their meaningfulness for
management of captive primates in Argentinean zoos. Zoo
Criaderos. In press.
Ascunce, M. S., Oklander, L. and Mudry, M. D. 2003a.
Amplification of mitochondrial COII gene from DNA
extracted from hair samples in some species of New
World monkeys. Folia Primatol. 74: 165-167.
Ascunce, M. S., Cortes-Ortiz, L. and Mudry, M. D. 2003b.
The mitochondrial control region of the black howler
monkey, Alouatta caraya (Primates, Platyrrhini), and the
development of new primers. Molec. Ecol. Notes 3(3):
Ascunce, M. S., Hasson, E. and Mudry, M. D. 2003c.
COII: A useful tool for inferring phylogenetic
relationships among New World monkeys (Primates,
Platyrrhini). Zoologica Scripta, Norwegian Academy of
Science and Letters 32(5): 397-406.

Submitted and in preparation
Martinez, R., Ascunce, M. S., Giudice, A., Szapkievich,
V., Zunino, G. and Mudry, M. D. 2002. Phenotypic,
behavioral and genetic parameters modeling speciation in
Cebus apella (Primates: Platyrrhini). Submitted.
Bravo, S. P and Sallenave, A. Foraging behavior and activity
patterns of black howler monkeys inhabiting flooded
forest of the Parand River, Argentina. Submitted.
Nieves, M., Ascunce, M., Rahn, M. and Mudry, M.
D. Genetic relationships among Ateles paniscus, Ateles
chamek, Ateles belzebuth, Ateles geoffroyi and Alouatta
caraya: A new contribution to the controversial Atelid
systematics. Submitted.
Mudry, M. D., Rahn, M., Cortes-Ortiz, L., Canales, D.
and Rodrfguez-Luna, E. Cytogenetic characterization of
Alouatta palliata mexicana and Ateles geoffroyi from the
northern extremes of their geographic distributions. In


Members of the Research Group in Evolutionary Biology
gibeE), Faculty of Exact and Natural Sciences, University of
Buenos Aires: Dr. Marta Mudry (CONICET Research,; Dr.
Aldo Giudice (); Dr. Marina
S. Ascunce (); Lic. Romari
Martinez (); Lic. Mariela Nieves.
(maenie@bg.fcen.uba.ar>). Address: GIBE, Dpto. Ciencias
Biologicas, FCEN, UBA, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabell6n
II, 4 Piso, (1428) Buenos Aires, Argentina. E-mail:

Members of the Primatology Laboratory in the Mammals
Division of the Argentinean Museum of Natural
Sciences "Bernardino Rivadavia" (MACN): Dr. Gabriel
Zunino (CONICET Research, com.ar>); Lic. Susana P Bravo (CONICET Fellow,
); Msc. Martin Kowalewski
(Fulbright Fellow, );
Lic. Luciana Oklander (Agencia de Promoci6n Cientifica
Fellow, ); Lic. Ana Sallenave
(); Pablo Salom6n
(). Address: Laboratorio
de Primatologfa, Div. Mastozoologfa, Museo Argentino
de Ciencias Naturales, Av. Angel Gallardo 470, (1405)
Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Marina S. Ascunce, Dept. of Anthropology, University of
Florida, 1112Turlington Hall, PO Box 117305, Gainesville,
FL 32611-7305, USA, e-mail: ,
Gabriel E. Zunino, MACN (Museo Argentino de Ciencias
Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia"), Ciudad Aut6noma de
Buenos Aires, Argentina, and Marta D. Mudry, Grupo de
Investigaci6n en Biologfa Evolutiva gibeE), Departamento
de Ecologfa, Gen&tica y Evoluci6n, Facultad de Ciencias
Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA),


Colombo, A. J. 2001. A columnar-supporting mode of
astroglial architecture in the cerebral cortex of adult
primates? Neurobiology (Bp) 9(1):1-16.
Di Bitetti, M. S. 1997. Evidence for an important social
role of allogrooming in a platyrrhine primate. Anim.
Behav. 54(1): 199-211.
Di Bitetti, M. S. and Janson, C. H. 2000. When will the
stork arrive? Patterns of birth seasonality in neotropical
primates. Am. J Primatol. 50(2): 109-30.
Di Bitetti, M. S., Vidal, E. M., Baldovino, M. C. and
Benesovsky, V. 2000. Sleeping site preferences in tufted
capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus). Am. J. Primatol.
50(4): 257-74.
Fernandez-Duque, E., Rotundo, M. and Sloan, C. 2001.
Density and population structure of owl monkeys (Aotus
azarai) in the Argentinean Chaco. Am. J. Primatol. 53:

Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003

Pucciarelli, H. M. and Dressino, V. 1996.
Orthocephalization in the postweaning squirrel monkey.
Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 101: 173-81.
Pucciarelli, H. M., Mune, M. C., Oyhenart, E. E., Orden,
A. B., Villanueva, M. E., Rodriguez, R. R. and Pons, E. R.
2000. Growth of skeletal components in the young squirrel
monkey (Saimiri sciureus boliviensis): A longitudinal
experiment. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 112(1): 57-68.
Rey, R. A., Nagle, C. A. and Chemes, H. 1996.
Morphometric study of the testicular interstitial tissue of
the monkey Cebus apella during postnatal development.
Tissue Cell28(1): 31-42.
Rotundo, M., Fernandez-Duque, E. and E. Gimenez, M.
2002. Cuidado biparental en el mono de noche (Aotus
azarai) de Formosa, Argentina. Neotrop. Primates 10(2):
Solari, A. J., Rahn, M. I. and Canales, D. 2002. Sistemas
sexuales mtiltiples en monos aulladores. I Congress
"Osvaldo Reig" of Basic and Evolutive Vertebrate and
Science History, pp.58-59. 13-17 March, 2002, Buenos
Aires, Argentina.
Tejedor, M. E 1996. The affinities of Homunculus and
Carlocebus (Primates, Platyrrhini), early Miocene
platyrrhines from southern Argentina. Am. J. Phys.
Anthropol. Suppl. 22: 227-228.
Tejedor, M. E 1998. The evolutionary history of platyrrhines:
Old controversies and new interpretations. Neotrop.
Primates 6(3): 77-82.


Barreiro Rico is a privately-owned cattle ranch in the Atlan-
tic Forest, near the confluence of the Rios Piracicaba and
Tiet& (22o41'S, 48o06'W), in the eastern part of the Central
Plateau (c. 450-586 m altitude) of the state of Sao Paulo,
southeastern Brazil. Despite being in a region of remark-
ably intense agriculture and ranching, the farm harbors
some semi-deciduous forest remnants, each surrounded by
pastureland and fields. Through the years, the owners have
maintained the fragments for recreational game hunting
(common in the past) and birdwatching. Mittermeier et al.
(1987) estimated the total remaining forest area as 3259
ha. Currently, however, the forests have been reduced to
2325 ha, in three fragments of 1450, 501, and 374 ha (J. C.
Magalhles, pers. comm.). All patches have broken canopies
with dense understorys of lianas and old selectively-logged
areas in regeneration. The largest forest has the oldest
logged areas, with a moderately open understory but still
large-crowned individuals of Hymenaea courbaril (Legumi-
nosae) and Aspidosperma polyneuron (Apocynaceae).

Recently, the Brazilian Institute for the Environment
(IBAMA) of the Ministry of the Environment, along with
a number of non-governmental institutions, identified the
forest fragments of Barreiro Rico as one of the most important
areas for the conservation of mammals in the Atlantic Forest

(Conservation International do Brasil et al., 2000). The site
is the richest in Sao Paulo in terms of primate species-no
other includes five: the buffy-tufted-ear marmoset (Callithrix
aurita), the masked titi (Callicebus nigrifons), the capuchin
monkey (Cebus nigritus), the brown howler (Alouatta guar-
iba), and the muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides).

Its proximity to a number of academic institutions has been
an attraction for biologists. For decades, research in Bar-
reiro Rico was possible through the hospitality of Sr. Jos6
Carlos R. de Magalhaes, one of the landowners, who pro-
vided accommodation and logistical support to researchers
and visitors. Sr. Magalhaes, who passed away on 21 August
2002, was a keen naturalist, one who contributed signifi-
cantly to our understanding of the behavior and songs of
many bird species (Magalhaes, 1999). Thirty-one scientific
publications have been and still are being produced with
data partially or totally gathered in the forest fragments
of Barreiro Rico. Four relate to flora, 10 to bird species or
community ecology, and 17 to primates.

Primatological studies in Barreiro Rico, which began in
the early eighties, continue up to the present time. Kath-
erine Milton studied Brachyteles arachnoides from 1980-89,
including their ecology (Milton, 1984), reproductive behav-
ior (Milton, 1985a, 1985b, 1985c), population surveys, and
conservation status (Milton and de Lucca, 1984; Milton,
1986; Mittermeier et al., 1987). The primate community
as a whole was studied by Torres de Assumpcao (1981,
1983). In the nineties, the successful darting and capture of
two muriquis (Lemos de SA and Glander, 1993) provided
morphological and genetic data for analysis of differences
between the southern variety, arachnoides, and the northern,
hypoxanthus (Lemos de Sa et al., 1990; Pope, 1998). Strier
and Fonseca (1996) revised the species' population status
throughout the muriquis' range, and Galetti (1996) carried
out a study on predation avoidance behavior by four of the
primate species there. More recently, Azevedo (2001) stud-
ied the ecology of a B. arachnoides group and Martins (in
prep.) has investigated feeding strategies and seed dispersal
by syntopic A. guariba and B. arachnoides groups.

Brachyteles arachnoides is endangered (IUCN, 2002).
Eighty-seven percent of the remaining populations of the
southern variety occur in large protected areas (Strier and
Fonseca, 1996/1997; Strier, 2000), all of them in the ever-
green coastal forest. Individuals observed in at least six dif-
ferent groups in Barreiro Rico appear to be healthy. Apart
from the isolation of groups within forest patches, the most
evident threat to Brachyteles in Barreiro Rico is selective
logging, especially of the commercially valuable guaranty,
Esenbeckia leiocarpa (Rutaceae). Over a year, muriquis fed
on the immature seeds of this species in 18.1% of 724
fruit/seed feeding records. E. leiocarpa is also important for
the howlers of Barreiro Rico. One group used an Esenbeckia
tree as a sleeping site on 13 of 46 occasions (Martins, in
prep.). Many saplings of this species can be found in old
logging trails, however (pers. obs.), and locally it is prob-
ably under no risk of extinction.

Four aspects of the Barreiro Rico forests make them a pri-
ority for the implementation of conservation actions: 1)
recognized biological importance of the mammal fauna;
2) primate richness on a regional scale; 3) the existence
of some information on the flora and fauna sufficient to
provide a basis for management plans; and 4) the lack of
protected areas in the semi-deciduous forests of the Atlan-
tic Forest of the State of Sio Paulo where B. arachnoides
occurs. Financial resources are required for the elaboration
and implementation of a management plan. Landowners,
with few exceptions, have always been unwilling to invest
in the sustainable management of their timber resources,
besides their antipathy when targeted for a commitment to
wildlife conservation.

Large protected areas are, of course, vital for holding viable
primate populations; but, as argued by Mendes (1994),
small, well-protected, privately-owned forests represent a
valuable summation of the genetic material vital for the
survival of a threatened species. Combining the efforts of
Sao Paulo's environmental authorities and international non-
government institutions would be the most appropriate road
to conserving the remaining biodiversity in Barreiro Rico.

Acknowledgements: Drs. K. S. Brown and P. Nogueira-Neto
provided helpful comments on an early draft of this manu-
script. The study carried out by M. M. Martins was sup-
ported by the Fundacqo de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado
de Sao Paulo (FAPESP), the Margot Marsh Biodiversity
Foundation, and Primate Conservation, Inc.

Milene M. Martins, PPG/Ci6ncias Biol6gicas, Departa-
mento de Zoologia, Instituto de Bioci&ncias, Universidade
de Sao Paulo (USP), Caixa Postal 11461, 05422-970
Sao Paulo, Sio Paulo, Brazil. Address for correspondence.
Dept. Zoologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade
Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Caixa Postal 6109,
13.083-970 Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, e-mail:


Azevedo, M. A. L. 2001. Ecologia do mono carvoeiro na
Fazenda Sao Francisco do Tiete: Contribuindo com uma
estrat6gia integrada de conservacao do genero Brachyteles.
Master's thesis, Universidade Federal do Pard, Bel6m.
Conservation International do Brasil, Fundacao SOS
Mata Atllntica, Fundaqao Biodiversitas, Instituto de
Pesquisas Ecol6gicas (IPft), Secretaria do Meio Ambiente
do Estado de Sao Paulo, SEMAD/Instituto Estadual de
Florestas MG. 2000. Avaliafdo eAf&es Prioritdrias para a
Conservaado da Biodiversidade da Mata Atldntica e Campos
Sulinos. MMA/SBF, Brasilia.
Galetti, M. 1996. Comportamentos antipredat6rios de
quatro espdcies de primatas no sudeste do Brasil. Rev.
Bras. Biol. 56: 203-209.
IUCN. 2002. 2002 Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN,
Gland, Switzerland.
Lemos de Sa, R. M., Pope, T. R., Glander, K. E., Struhsaker,
T. T. and Fonseca, G. A. B. da. 1990. A pilot study of

Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003
genetic and morphological variation in the muriqui
(Brachyteles arachnoides). Primate Conserv. (11): 26-30.
Lemos de Sa, R. M. and Glander, K. 1993. Capture
techniques and morphometrics for the woolly spider
monkey, or muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides 1. Geoffroy,
1806). Am. J. Primatol. 29: 145-153.
Magalhies, J. C. R. 1999. As Aves na Fazenda Barreiro Rico.
Sao Paulo, Editora Pliade.
Martins, M. M. In prep. Estratkgias alimentares e dispersao
de sementes por Alouatta guariba e Brachyteles arachnoides
em um fragmento de floresta semidecfdua. Doctoral
thesis, Instituto de Bioci6ncias, Universidade de Sao
Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP
Mendes, F D. C. 1994. Muriqui conservation: The
urgent need of an integrated management plan. Neotrop.
Primates 2(2): 16-19.
Milton, K. 1984. Habitat, diet, and activity patterns of free-
ranging woolly spider monkeys (Brachyteles arachnoides E.
Geoffroy, 1806). Int. J. Primatol. 5: 491-513.
Milton, K. 1985a. Multimale mating and absence of canine
tooth dimorphism in woolly spider monkeys (Brachyteles
arachnoides). Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 68: 519-523.
Milton, K. 1985b. Mating patterns of woolly spider
monkeys, Brachyteles arachnoides: Implications for female
choice. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 17: 53-59.
Milton, K. 1985c. Urine washing behavior in the woolly
spider monkey (Brachyteles arachnoides). Z. Tierpsychol.
Milton, K. 1986. Ecological background and conservation
priorities for woolly spider monkeys (Brachyteles
arachnoides). In: Primates: The Road to Self-Sustaining
Populations, K. Benirschke (ed.), pp.241-250. Springer-
Verlag, New York.
Milton, K. and de Lucca, C. 1984. Population estimate for
Brachyteles at Fazenda Barreiro Rico. IUCN/SSC Primate
Specialist Group Newsletter (4): 27-28.
Mittermeier, R. A., Valle, C. M. C., Alves, M. C., Santos, I.
B., Pinto, C. A. M., Strier, K. B., Young, A. L., Veado, E.
M., Constable, I. D., Pacagnella, S. G. and Lemos de Sa,
R. M. 1987. Current distribution of the muriqui in the
Atlantic forest region of eastern Brazil. Primate Conserv.
(8): 143-149.
Pope, T. R. 1998. Genetic variation in remnant populations
of the woolly spider monkey (Brachyteles arachnoides). Int.
J Primatol. 19: 95-109.
Strier, K. B. and Fonseca, G. A. B. da. 1996/1997. The
endangered muriqui in Brazil's Atlantic forest. Primate
Conserve. (17): 131-137.
Strier, K. B. 2000. Population viabilities and conservation
implications for muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides) in
Brazil's Atlantic Forest. Biotropica 32(4b): 903-913.
Torres de Assumpcao, C. 1981. Cebus apella and Brachyteles
arachnoides (Cebidae) as potential pollinators of Mabea
fistulifera (Euphorbiaceae).J. Mammal. 62: 386-388.
Torres de Assumpqio, C. 1983. An ecological study
of primates in southeastern Brazil, with a reappraisal
of Cebus apella races. Doctoral thesis, University of
Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003


Durante marzo de 2002 ejecu-
tamos el proyecto "Conserva-
ci6n del mono aullador negro
(Alouatta palliata aequatorialis) en
un bosque himedo tropical del
Choc6 Biogeografico de Colom-
bia" cuyo objetivo fue realizar el
primer censo de A. p. aequato-
rialis en Colombia para estimar
su abundancia poblacional y

tener una aproximaci6npreliminar a su estado de conser-
vaci6n en la regi6n de Cabo Corrientes (Departamento de
Choc6, Colombia). El studio se llev6 a cabo en la Estaci6n
Biol6gica "El Amargal", ubicada sobre la costa pacffica a 5
km de Arusf, poblaci6n que posee alrededor de 600 habi-
tantes. El bosque hdmedo tropical de esta zona alcanza una
extension de 25 000 ha y pertenece a la comunidad negra
de Arusf por disposici6n de las leyes colombianas. Gran
parte de la poblaci6n asentada en la region vive del aprove-
chamiento director de los recursos naturales: la extracci6n
de madera, la pesca y la caza; sin embargo, su inter&s por
la conservaci6n de estos recursos ha aumentado gracias a
la presencia active de la Fundaci6n Ingued6 (Colombia), a
trav6s de la Estaci6n Biol6gica El Amargal y los diferentes
proyectos comunitarios que se han realizado en la zona.

Un component fundamental en el proyecto de conserva-
ci6n del mono aullador fue la participaci6n de la comuni-
dad de Arusf. Antes de llevar a cabo el censo de aulladores
realizamos una charla informative con ayudas audiovisu-
ales en el colegio local. Asistieron aproximadamente 40
personas, entire nifios y adults de la comunidad negra y
algunos colonos residents en la region. La presencia de tal
cantidad de gente, teniendo en cuenta el tamafio reducido
de la poblaci6n, demuestra el interns generado por la pre-
sentaci6n del proyecto. La charla comprendi6 3 aspects:
1) Dar a conocer los resultados de un studio realizado en
esa misma zona entire 1995 y 1996 por la bi6loga Carolina
Ramfrez, acerca de la dieta, comportamiento alimentario y
etnozoologia de los monos aulladores, 2) Explicar detalla-
damente el censo de monos que pretendfamos realizar en la
zona y 3) Sostener un diilogo sobre la importancia de estu-
diar y conservar a este primate. Durante la charla, algunas
personas formularon preguntas sobre el proyecto, propusi-
eron modificaciones a la metodologfa y demostraron inter&s
en participar activamente de los censos. Hablamos de la
importancia que tiene el Arbol "lechero" (Brosimum utile,
Moraceae) para los monos aulladores y para los habitantes
locales porque los primeros consume los frutos y las hojas,
y los habitantes lo aprovechan para uso artesanal (elabo-
raci6n de lanchas) y medicinal (uso del exudado del tronco).
Aunque dste arbol es abundante en la zona, planteamos la
importancia de utilizarlo racionalmente y de propender por

la conservaci6n del mono aullador que es dispersor de sus
semillas. Los ninos, por su parte, reconocieron la presencia
de michichfs (Saguinusgeoffroyi) en la zona, pero muchos de
ellos desconocen a los monos aulladores. Los adults expli-
can que esto se debe a que los michichfs suelen encontrarse
en areas de vegetaci6n intervenida y cerca de viviendas,
mientras que los monos aulladores permanecen en el inte-
rior del bosque maduro, donde los nifios ya no acceden por
razones de seguridad. Adicional a esto, la reciente ilegada
del paramilitarismo y de la television satelital han llamado
la atenci6n de algunos j6venes reemplazando el inter6s que
pueda existir por aprovechar econ6micamente el bosque,
ocasionando una p&rdida del conocimiento traditional en
las nuevas generaciones de la comunidad negra.

Unavez finalizada la charla, obsequiamos a los nitios, materi-
ales escolares (libretas, esferos y carpetas) con motivos alusivos
a los monos aulladores, que fueron donados al proyecto por
el Centro de Primatologfa Araguatos. Por intermedio de uno
de sus lfderes comunitarios, los habitantes nos expresaron su
agradecimiento por exponerles previamente el proyecto ya
que esto no habfa sucedido con los proyectos de investigaci6n
anteriormente desarrollados en esta zona. En dfas posteriores,
nos manifestaron sus expectativas por conocer el progress del
censo, algunos de ellos nos comentaron sus observaciones
recientes de los aulladores en diferentes zonas y sus propias
identificaciones al respect (conteo de los monos, diferenci-
aci6n por classes de edad y sexo y su comportamiento), infor-
maci6n que fue valiosa al moment de identificar claramente
la localizaci6n de los grupos de monos.

Otro component fundamental en el proyecto fue el
entrenamiento de un ifder local como auxiliar de campo.
Durante los censos contamos con la ayuda del senior Juan
de Dios Grueso, perteneciente a la comunidad negra. El
colabor6 en las observaciones de campo, la toma de datos
y sus comentarios acerca de la metodologfa fueron valiosos
al moment de realizar algunos ajustes y adaptaciones a las
condiciones del terreno. Gracias a sus conocimientos sobre
la regi6n, aport6 informaci6n valiosa para fortalecer la con-
tinuidad de studios posteriores en la zona.

El inter&s y la participaci6n active de la comunidad de Arusf
en la conservaci6n del mono aullador negro demuestran
que los process de sensibilizaci6n ambiental deben ser
un component fundamental de las diferentes iniciativas
de investigaci6n, porque no solamente se abren espacios
de discusi6n e intercambio cultural, sino tambidn se iden-
tifican las perspectives de la comunidad y los elements
necesarios para implementar estrategias de conservaci6n.
Consideramos de suma importancia que proyectos cortos o
programs a largo plazo proyectados para esta zona y para el
Choc6 BiogeogrAfico en general, sean dados a conocer pre-
viamente a las comunidades locales y reconozcan los aportes
que ellos pueden dar al desarrollo de los mismos.

Este proyecto cont6 con la valiosa participaci6n de entidades
como Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation que brind6 el
soporte econ6mico, el Centro de Primatologfa Araguatos

58 Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003

por su apoyo institutional, la Fundaci6n Inguede por su
apoyo logfstico en la Estaci6n Biol6gica El Amargal y las
empresas VARTA y KODAK de Colombia por la donaci6n
de sus products.

Carolina Ramirez y Ivan Sanchez, Centro de Primatologfa
Araguatos, Calle 96 No 22-08 Bogoti, D.C., Colombia. E-
mail: , .


_. 0 Curso Latino-Americano em Biologia
UFO&l da Conservacao e Manejo da Vida Sil-
vestre, 4 de novembro a 6 de dezembro
de 2003, seri ministrado pelo IP- Instituto de Pesquisas
Ecol6gicas em parceria com a Smithsonian Institution
- USA, com apoio do Instituto Florestal do Estado de Sao
Paulo. 0 curso sera oferecido em portugues e sua parte
introdut6ria serA realizada no Centro Brasileiro de Biologia
da Conservacao (CBBC) do IPE, localizado no municfpio
de Nazard Paulista, pr6ximo a cidade de Sao Paulo. Grande
parte de seu conteddo sera abordado no Parque Estadual
Morro do Diabo, localizado no Pontal do Paranapanema,
oeste do Estado de Sio Paulo. No Pontal do Paranapanema
existem muitos dos mais importantes remanescentes da
Mata Atlbntica do Interior. Destaca-se o Parque Estadual
Morro do Diabo que, com seus 35.000 ha de floresta con-
tinua, represent o maior monument vivo desse raro e
ameaqado ecossistema. Entre os representantes das diversas
e integras fauna e flora do Morro do Diabo ainda existem
o raro e endemico mico-ledo preto (Leontopithecus chryso-
pygus) bem como a maioria dos carnivores e ungulados
brasileiros, como a onca pintada, a onca parda, a jagua-
tirica, a anta, veados, queixadas e caetetus. Instrutores com
experiencia nos temas conduzirao aulas te6ricas e exercfcios
de campo em aspects relevantes em biologia da conserva-
dao e manejo da vida silvestre. Pesquisadores com trabalhos
especificos na conservacao da biodiversidade brasileira
apresentarao palestras sobre os resultados e a aplicacqo de
suas pesquisas. Todos os participants apresentarao um
seminitrio de 30 minutes sobre seus trabalhos especfficos
na Area de conservacao da natureza. Os participants usarao
tambem seus conhecimentos adquiridos durante o curso
para a elaboracqo de projetos de pesquisa de campo sobre os
t6picos abordados durante o curso. Instrutores: Cliudio Val-
ladares-Pidua, Universidade de Brasilia e IPR Instituto de
Pesquisas Ecol6gicas; Cristiana Saddy Martins, IPP Insti-
tuto de Pesquisas Ecol6gicas; Helder Henrique Faria, Insti-
tuto Florestal do Estado de Sao Paulo; Jose Augusto PAdua,
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; Laury Cullen
Junior, IPE Instituto de Pesquisas Ecol6gicas; Paulo Rog-
erio Mangini, Pesquisador Associado, IPPE Instituto de
Pesquisas Ecol6gicas; Patricia Medici, IPE Instituto de Pes-
quisas Ecol6gicas; Paulo de Marco Jr., Universidade Federal
de Vigosa (UFV); e Suzana Machado Padua, IPE Instituto
de Pesquisas Ecol6gicas. Palestrantes e colaboradores: Edu-

ardo Humberto Ditt, Fabiana Prado, Luiz Henrique Lima,
e Maria das Graqas de Souza, todos do IPE Instituto de
Pesquisas Ecol6gicas. Prazo de Inscrifdo: 31 de Agosto, 2003.
Terbo preferencia os candidates que se inscreverem com mais
antecedencia. Candidates: Profissionais relacionados a con-
servagao de vida silvestre, alunos de graduayco, p6s-gradu-
aqdo e Areas afins. Inscrifdo/Selefdo: Os interessados em se
candidatar deverao enviar para o IPE os seguintes documen-
tos, que serio considerados no process seletivo: Uma carta
de intenoqes justificando como esse curso podera contribuir
para a carreira professional (1-2 paginas), uma carta de reco-
mendagco, e uma c6pia do Curriculum Vitae (CV). Enviar
todos os documents por e-mail (em arquivo atachado de
Word) para: . Ou pelo correio para: IPE
- Institute de Pesquisas Ecol6gicas, Caixa Postal 47, Nazard
Paulista 12960-000, Sao Paulo, Brasil. Prefo: US$ 1,350.00.
Inclui hospedagem, alimentacqo, transport local, mate-
rial diditico e bibliografico e material de campo utilizado
durante o curso. Logistica: Alojamento, transport local e
equipamentos durante o perfodo do curso. Organizafdo: IPE
- Institute de Pesquisas Ecol6gicas, Smithsonian Institution
- USA e Wildlife Trust USA. Apoio Logistico: Instituto
Florestal de Sao Paulo IF/SMA, Parque Estadual Morro
do Diabo IF/SMA, e Centro Brasileiro em Biologia da
Conservaaio CBBC/IPPE. Apoio Financeiro: IPE Insti-
tuto de Pesquisas Ecol6gicas e SI Smithsonian Institu-
tion, USA. Mais informalies: Tel: +55-11-4597-1327 ou
+55-11-9789-4827, e-mail: . Website:


A Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina VeterinAria (SBMV),
President Rend Dubois, Secretario Geral Milton Thiago de
Mello, a Rede Nacional de Combate ao TrAfico de Animais
Silvestres (RENCTAS) e a Universidade Federal Rural da
Amaz6nia (UFRA), cornm apoio de muitas outras institu-
io6es, promoverao, de 09 de setembro a 28 de novembro
de 2003, o "50 Curso Latino Americano de Especializaqao
em Animals Silvestres: Conservacqo na Amaz6nia". 0
curso incorpora tambem o "1 Curso De Especializaqao em
Combate ao Trifico de Animais Silvestres" e o "1 Curso
de Extensao em Conservacao e Uso SustentAvel de Animais
Silvestres na Amazonia". Os coordenadores sao Milton
Thiago de Mello (SBMV), Raulff Lima (RENCTAS) e
Maria das Dores Correia Palha (UFRA).

O Curso abrangerA os seguintes temas:

* Importancia dos animals silvestres. Conservaqco da
biodiversidade. Destruiqao de habitats. Espucies amea-
qadas de extingqo. Legislacqo.
* Bases para o estudo da fauna silvestre. Sistemitica e
taxonomia. Biogeografia e demografia. Ecologia. Eto-
logia e bem estar animal. Fauna Amaz6nica.
* Conservacao, manejo e reproduqao de animals silves-

Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003
tres em cativeiro. Alimentaqdo. Reproduqio de especies
ameayadas de extingao.
* Criaqdo de animals silvestres para conservacqo e edu-
caqao ambiental. Exemplos de zool6gicos, centros
criat6rios e de projetos de educaqao ambiental visando
t conservacao da fauna silvestre.
* Conservaqao, manejo e reproduqao de animals silves-
tres em areas submetidas a impact ambiental. Resgate,
adaptaqao, reproducao e manejo em cativeiro. Rein-
troduqdo, translocaqlo e introduqlo. Fornecimento a
instituiqoes do Pafs e do exterior. Exemplos das Usinas
Hidro-Elktricas, mineraqdo e projetos agropecuarios.
* Participayao em reunites cientificas sobre animals sil-
vestres, congresses, simp6sios, encontros, conferencias,
seminArios, etc.
* Participaqco no XXX Congresso Brasileiro de Medicina
Veterinaria (CONBRAVET/2003, Manaus, 5 a 9 de
outubro de 2003) e na comemoraqao dos 20 anos dos
Cursos de Animais Silvestres.
* Atividades de repressao ao trafico.

O Curso comeyara e terminara em Bel6m, Pari. As prin-
cipais cidades de onde se irradiario as atividades serao as
seguintes: Bel6m, Santarem (Pari), Manaus (Amazonas),
Macapi (Amapa), Boa Vista (Roraima) e Rio Branco
(Acre). 0 financiamento das viagens de aviao para as
cidades inclufdas no roteiro sern providenciado pelos par-
ticipantes, o que poderi ser feito em parcelas, por meio de
cartao de credito. Nzimero de Vagas: 15, sendo 10 para par-
ticipantes brasileiros e 5 para participants de outros pauses
latino americanos. Clientela: Profissionais de nfvel superior,
oriundos de instituiqes governamentais ou nMo gover-
namentais (ONGs) relacionadas corn animals silvestres,
meio ambiente, legislaqdo, monitoramento, policiamento
e fiscalizaqao ambiental, principalmente Jardins Zool6gi-
cos, Museus, Institutos e Polfcias Florestais, Secretarias de
Meio Ambiente, Unidades de Conservagao e entidades
correlatos; pesquisadores ou docentes de ensino tdcnico
ou superior, de profiss6es e especialidades relacionadas
com animals silvestres, que desejem aprofundar o conhe-
cimento de areas especificas ao tema; e outros profissionais
de nfvel superior. Inscrifdes: Atd 01 de agosto de 2003, no
seguinte endereqo (por correspondencia ou pessoalmente):
Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Veteriniria (SRTVS), a/c
Coordenador do 5 Curso: Prof. Milton Thiago de Mello,
Quadra 701, Bloco E, Ed. Palicio do Ridio II, Sala 333,
70340-902 Brasilia, DF, Brasil. Telefax: (61) 468-2808 ou
(61) 226-3364, e-mail: .


WildlifeDecisionSupport.com was launched a year ago by
Dr. Andrew McKenzie, the editor of the Capture and Care
Manual-which has become the definitive text for wildlife
managers, ranchers and veterinarians-and Peter Morrison,
a well-known ecotourism manager.

The first edition of the Capture and Care Manual is virtu-

ally sold out and at this stage there is no definite plan for a
second edition; however, the full text of the Manual is now
online at . The site also
has a community-based section where members can share
their experiences, knowledge, techniques and queries with
colleagues and experts globally. A "news and smalls" section
keeps the members up-to-date with their industry and the
option to market or purchase services or products. The site
also distributes the specialized wildlife publications of the
Wildlife Group and has recently become the South African
distributor for the World Organization for Animal Health.
For further information contact: Peter Morrison, Member
Communications at .


Mammalian Species, editor Virginia Hayssen, is published
regularly by the American Society of Mammalogists with
25-30 new accounts issued each year. Each account sum-
marizes the current understanding of the biology of a
single species, including systematics, distribution, fossil
history, genetics, anatomy, physiology, behavior, ecol-
ogy, and conservation. The American Society of Mam-
malogists have now put 631 mammalian species accounts
online as PDF files, and subscriptions to the series are
also available for $30.00 per year. For more informa-
tion on the series e-mail David Stadler at Allen Press:
or visit the Mammalian Species
website at VHAYSSEN/msilmsiaccounts.html>.


Presently being installed on Barro Colorado Island (BCI),
Republic of Panama, the premier field station of the Smith-
sonian Tropical Research Institute, an automated telemetry
system will permit the radio-tracking of tagged animals on
a large scale in a tropical forest. The project is being funded
by the Celerity Foundation, Gray Island Systems and the
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute and will address
many of the most important questions in biology and
conservation, including species interactions and the evo-
lution of diversity, competition, predation, seed dispersal,
effects of fragmentation and human disturbance. Apply-
ing telemetry will also allow for the ability to consistently
find a study animal, which opens up future possibilities to
research behavior, eco-physiology, disease, etc.

The project will utilize an automated telemetry system
designed by William Cochran, and described by Larkin
et al. (1996). The system uses a scanning receiver which
measures the relative signal strength from an array of six
directional antennas to estimate the direction of a transmit-
ter. The correct placement of towers should provide good
coverage of the entire island for large terrestrial animals and
medium-sized high-flying animals, and respectable coverage

for smaller animals. Initial tests suggest an accuracy of about
5 degrees in direction finding. Wireless communication will
link each receiver to the main lab and will allow the trans-
mission of data back to the lab in real time which will be
used to triangulate the location of the animal. Data will be
immediately available online through software provided by
Gray Island Systems and will be used both for educational
purposes, open to the general public, and also through pass-
word-protected areas available only to researchers involved in
specific projects. Presently, three initial projects are planned
to test the system, which will hopefully include a study of
ocelots, high-flying bats, and large frugivorous bats.

For further information contact: Roland Kays, Ph.D.,
Curator of Mammals, New York State Museum, CEC
3140, Albany, NY 12230, USA, Tel: 518-486-3205, Fax:
518-486-2034, email: , //www.princeton.edu/-wikelskilresearch/index.htm>.


Larkin, R. P., Raim, A., & Diehl, R. H. 1996. Performance
of a nonrotating direction-finder for automatic radio
tracking. Journal of Field Ornithology 67: 59-71.


Topics in Primate Conservation (TPC) of Primate Info
Net (Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, Uni-
versity of Wisconsin, Madison) presents conservation
news and reports from Asia, Africa, Madagascar and the
Neotropics. Coverage includes the following: conservation
strategies and activities; systematics and geographic distri-
bution; habitat evaluation; and field research on ecology,
evolution and behavior. The TPC Coordinators welcome
collaboration with those engaged in conservation work
with primates. Suggestions for topics or brief synopses of
current research or conservation activities should be sent
to the TPC Coordinators: Nancy Ruggeri (Department
of Zoology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, e-mail:
), or Liza Moscovice (Depart-
ment of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, e-
mail: ). TPC is available
at .


The SSC Re-introduction Specialist Group (RSG) has
produced a resource CD (RSG Resource CD v. 1.0 Janu-
ary 2003), which includes an introduction to the RSG,
22 issues of RSG's newsletter (November 1990 January
2003), RSG Guidelines, SSC and other conservation poli-
cies and reports, Re-introduction Practitioners Directory,
Specialist Group Bibliography, and RSG and SSC Strategic
Plans. The CD was produced to fulfill the objectives of the
RSG and SSC Strategic Plan. It provides access to RSG lit-

Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003
erature for the wider conservation community and especially
for those who may have little or no Internet access. The fol-
lowing organizations supported the production and distribu-
tion of the RSG CD: Denver Zoological Foundation, USA;
Environmental Research & Wildlife Development Agency,
UAE; Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust, Channel Islands;
National Tropical Botanical Garden, USA. The CD is avail-
able on the SSC website via: ssc/sgs/rsg/index.htm>. For further information contact:
IUCN/SSC Re-introduction Specialist Group, Environ-
mental Research & Wildlife Development Agency, P.O.
Box 45553, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Tel:
+971-2-693-4650, Fax: +971-2-681-0008, e-mails: Chair-
man, Frederic Launay, , and Exec-
utive Officer, Pritpal S. Soorae, .


SSC's information management initiative, the Species
Information Service (SIS), has received fresh impetus with the
appointment of Mr. Stuart Salter as SIS manager. Previously
Stuart was Director General, Science, Technology and
Advisory Services Division, Policy Branch at the Canadian
International Development Agency. He has broad domestic
and international experience both within Government and
the private sector. Based at IUCN headquarters in Gland,
Stuart takes on the critical position of coordinating this
multi-million-dollar initiative and is working closely with
SSC Chair, David Brackett on fundraising.


Primate-Science announces an on-line resource available
through Primate Info Net which is intended to help students
locate grants to fund research in primate conservation and
behavior. The grants list includes pertinent information and
links to websites for a number of grants focused on primate
conservation. It was compiled by Liza Moscovice, one of
the coordinators for Topics in Primate Conservation and a
University ofWisconsin graduate student. The site is currently
focused on grants that are accessible to students, either at the
undergraduate or graduate level. However, the list is in no way
comprehensive, and Liza hopes to continue to expand it in
the future to include a wider range of grant opportunities in
primate behavior and conservation. You can help by bringing
other grant opportunities to her attention. The grants website
is online at: .

Grants which are limited to a particular country, state or
locale are certainly appropriate for listing on this site. As with
all other related resources on Primate Info Net, international
input is most welcome. Liza hopes this resource will provide
a useful starting point for aspiring primate conservationists.
As you look over the list, please send Liza your comments and
alert her to other grant opportunities that should be added.
You can contact her at: .

Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003


i A supplement issue of Number 79 of the
Primate Society of Great Britain's pub-
lication Primate Eye provides a listing of
primate field studies worldwide, compiled
by Eluned Price of the Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust
(DWCT), Jersey, British Isles. Each entry includes the fol-
lowing information: country, field site, species involved, the
research team, the start date, duration and project status,
the project aims, and correspondence address. It is the
second to be produced in collaboration with the Wisconsin
Regional Primate Research Center, Madison. Overall, 248
projects were listed in 48 countries, a considerable increase
over the 2000 survey, which recorded 186. For the Ameri-
cas, three projects are listed for Argentina, three for Belize,
two for Bolivia, 30 for Brazil, six for Colombia, two for
Ecuador, four for French Guiana, two for Honduras, five
for Mexico, one each for Nicaragua and Panama, three for
Peru, and one each for Suriname, Trinidad, and Venezuela.

The numbers of projects in Asia, Africa and the Neotropics
were similar (each contributing a little less than one-third
to the total), while Madagascar contributed 10%. Conser-
vation was listed as the aim for 46% of the 248 projects,
while research on behaviour was listed in 38%, ecology
- 33%, population ecology 29%, and behavioral ecol-
ogy 28%. Physiology, genetics, evolution, community
ecology and life histories were each listed for less than 10%
of the projects and programs. Using the 2002 IUCN/SSC
Red List of Threatened Species, Price analysed the extent to
which threatened primates were the subject of studies in
the wild, with the following results: Globally, 47% of 19
"Critically Endangered" (CR) species, 63% of the "Endan-
gered" (EN) species, and 45% of the "Vulnerable" (VU)
species were the subject of one or more studies. For the
Americas, threatened primates listed in the field projects
were as follows: CR Brachyteles arachnoides (Brazil), B.
hypoxanthus (Brazil), Leontopithecus chrysopygus (Brazil),
L. rosalia (Brazil), L. caissara (Brazil), Cebus albifrons trini-
tatis (Trinidad); EN Callithrix aurita (Brazil), Callithrix
flaviceps (Brazil), Saguinus oedipus (Colombia), Chiropotes
satanas satanas (Brazil); VU Callimico goeldii (Bolivia),
Callithrix geoffroyi (Brazil), Callicebus personatus (Brazil),
Alouatta guariba (fusca) clamitans (Argentina, Brazil),
Alouatta seniculus insulanus (Trinidad), Ateles belzebuth
(Colombia, Ecuador). Cebus albifrons aequatorialis, listed as
Data Deficient, is being studied in Ecuador.

For membership in the Primate Society of Great Britain
or copies of the Current Primate Field Studies Supplement
(5.00), please write to Dr. Russell Hill, Treasurer and
Membership Secretary Primate Society of Great Britain,
Evolutionary Anthropology Research Group, Department

of Anthropology, University of Durham, 43 Old Elvet,
Durham DH1 3HN, UK.

Eluned Price, 2 La Grange, La rue de Cambrai, Trinity, Jersey
JE3 5AL, British Isles, e-mail: .


The IPS is inaugurating its first award for service to the
field of Primatology with the Lifetime Achievement Award.
It is to be given to a member of IPS for outstanding career
contributions to research, conservation and/or captive care
and breeding of nonhuman primates, with attention to
efforts with enduring international scope (in keeping with
the international scope of the society). Current members of
the Council are not eligible. The first Lifetime Achievement
Award will be given at the next IPS Congress, in Torino,
Italy, 23-28 August, 2004. The recipient will be selected in
April 2004 by the Awards Committee, chaired by the Presi-
dent of the Society and with three or more other members
of the Society. The recipient will be notified by April 30,
2004, and invited to attend to the IPS Congress to receive
the Award. Any member of the IPS can nominate some-
one for this award. To do so please send a brief letter (not
more than 600 words) documenting the person's career
accomplishments to the Chair of the Committee, Dorothy
Fragaszy, by September 1, 2003. Ask a second person (who
does not need to be a member of IPS) to do the same.

Dorothy M. Fragaszy, President of IPS, Psychology
Department, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia
30602, USA, e-mail: .


The Conservation Committee of IPS is soliciting appli-
cations of up to $1,500 to support the development of
primate conservation field programs. The Committee
is expecting to distribute up to $5,000 this year with a
strong probability of a substantial increase next year. The
deadline for this award is 30 September 2003. For the
guidelines about the application process, contact: Dr.
Cliudio Valladares-Pidua, IPS Vice President for Conser-
vation, IPE Instituto de Projetos e Pesquisas Ecol6gicas,
Caixa Postal 47, 12960-000 Nazar6 Paulista, Sao Paulo,
Brazil, e-mail: , or visit the IPS website:

Martha J. Galante Award. Grant proposals are solicited
from professionals of habitat countries of primates. Money
awarded should be used for conservation training; trans-
portation to a course or event location; course or event fees;
or expenses during the event. People interested in receiv-
ing this award should be officially enrolled in an academic
institution or a similar organization (either taking or giving

62 Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003

courses or doing research or conservation work). To apply,
send information about the program of interest (courses,
congresses, symposia, field work, etc.); send a letter explain-
ing your interests in participating in the course or event (in
English); send a CV in English; send a letter of acceptance
for the respective course; and send two recommendation
letters (including information about the referee). Deadline
for applications for the 2004 Martha J. Galante Award is 1
May 2004. Send the completed grant proposal by e-mail to
Cliudio Valladares-Pidua (address above).


The Captive Care and Breeding Committee of IPS awards
grants of up to $500 for projects focusing on captive care
issues that relate to: 1) the status of primates in captivity
(for example, sanctuaries, private, commercial) in range
countries, 2) information from local wildlife officials and
field researchers on the problems relating to captive pri-
mates, and 3) improving conditions for the well-being of
captive primates in range countries. Interested individuals
should send a proposal (maximum three pages including
a one-page CV of the principal investigator) outlining
the project, including: background/introduction, meth-
ods, application of results to the captive care issue, and a
budget. Deadline for applications is 1 June each year. Please
send proposals to Dr. Colleen McCann, IPS Vice President
for Captive Care and Breeding, do Wildlife Conservation
Society, 2300 Southern Boulevard, Bronx, NY 10460,
USA, e-mail: .


The IPS 2004 Congress Organizing Committee is working
hard on several aspects to ensure to all a great meeting in
Torino. The Congress has been included in the events that
will celebrate the 600th Anniversary of Torino University.
This is a very important role for the meeting and a great
chance to give Primatology a better visibility in Italy. Both
the Department of Animal and Human Biology and the
Associazione Primatologica Italiana (API) are doing the
hard work of getting in contact with possible sponsors and
funding institutions. We have already firmed the contract
for low cost student accommodations and the hotel accom-
modations have also been allotted. Symposium proposals
are listed on the website. Anyone interested in submitting
a proposal should contact the organizers as soon as possible.
Elisabetta Visalberghi, Giovanna Spinozzi, Patrizia Poti and
Maria Cristina Riviello are organising a pre-Congress work-
shop on "Capuchins: The State of the Art" in Radicondoli
(Siena), 19-22 August, 2004, and Cliudio Valladares-Pidua
is setting up a pre-Congress workshop on Primate Con-
servation in Torino, 19-22 August 2004. A post-Congress
workshop on "Social Learning in Callitrichidae: Recent
Trends and Perspectives" will be organised by API Presi-

dent Augusto Vitale in Rome, and another on "Primate
Cytogenetics and Comparative Genomics" will be held in
Firenze, organised by Luca Sineo, Daniela Romagno and
Roscoe Stanyon. It is now possible to register and book
accommodation go to
and follow the instructions. For further information (regis-
tration forms, abstract preparation, guidelines, presentation
tips, student instructions, tourist information, etc.) go to
the website or contact the professional congress organizer at
. The Congress is from 23-28
August, 2004.

Cristina Giacoma and Marco Gamba, V. Accademia, Alber-
tina 17, 1-10123 Torino, Italy, Phone +39 011 670 4761,
Fax: +39 011 670 4732, e-mail: .


The IPS Education Committee is excited to announce that
they will be conducting a student competition for best oral
and poster presentations, beginning at the 2004 Torino
Congress. The winners will be presented with $100. Stu-
dent prize winners will be encouraged to submit their work
to the International Journal of Primatology for publication,
which will be listed in the following year's meeting issue of
the journal and in the IPS Bulletin, and their abstract will
be put up on the Society's website. For questions about the
competition please contact Anne Savage (address below) or
refer to the IPS website. The following criteria determine
eligibility: the student must be the first author, but need
not be sole author; must be a student when the abstract
is submitted and a current member of IPS; the student
must present the paper or attend the poster; if the student
cannot attend the meeting to which an abstract has been
submitted, it should be withdrawn in writing no less than
5 days before the start of the meeting (failure to do this will
disqualify the student from future competitions); if the stu-
dent wishes to withdraw, even though presenting the paper
or abstract, the VP for Education should be notified before
the meeting; when applying, an extra copy of the abstract
and presentation information should be included in the
mailing to the IPS Congress Organizers.

Anne Savage, IPS Vice President for Education, Disney's
Animal Kingdom, PO Box 10,000, Lake Buena Vista, FL
32830, USA, e-mail: .


Informo as iltimas modificac6es realizadas em nossa
homepage ():
(1) Link para os iltimos fascfculos do peri6dico Labora-
tory Primate Newsletter em format PDF no item "Pub-
licaq6es"; (2) Divulgaqgo de cursos, vagas para esttgio e
oportunidades de trabalho encontram-se agora no item

NeotropicalPrimates 11(1), April 2003
"Oportunidades", saliento o edital FNMA/PROBIO e a
vaga para residencia em Estudos Amaz6nicos na irea de
mastozoologia do Museu Goeldi; (3) Noticias cientificas
encontram-se no item "Noticias", o qual poder! ser atu-
alizado semanalmente; (4) Inclusio da lista atualizada dos
primatas brasileiros ameagados de extingdo. A s6cia Milene
Martins sugeriu que se criasse uma lista de discussao em pri-
matologia e se disp6s a ser uma das mediadoras. Precisamos,
no entanto, de outro professional que se disponha a dividir
esta tarefa com ela. Solicito aos interessados que a contatem
pelo email .

Nao deixem de enviar sugestoes e informaqoes para a
homepage. Mandem informaq6es sobre vagas para estigio,
trabalho, divulgaqao de encontros cientificos relevantes,
noticias, links interessantes, etc. Nossa iddia e que a pigina
esteja em permanent atualizacqo e, para isto, precisamos da
colaboraqao de todos.

Julio Cisar Bicca-Marques, Faculdade de Biociencias/
PUCRS, Avenida Ipiranga 6681, Pd. 12A, Porto
Alegre 90619-900, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, e-mail:


A special supplement issue (Vol. 11, Suppl. 1, 2002) of
Evolutionary Athl'opolo,',, Editor John G. Fleagle (State
University of New York (SUNY) Stony Brook), is dedi-
cated to the proceedings of the Centenary Congress of the
Zurich Anthropological Institute and Museum 1899-1999,
"Anthropology and Primatology into the Third Millen-
nium". The proceedings were edited by Christophe Soligo,
Gustl Anzenberger and Robert D. Martin. A fascinating
collection of short review and research papers; they are
divided into six parts. Editorial- Into the Third Millenium:
One hundred years of Anthropology in Zurich C. Soligo,
G. Anzenberger & R. D. Martin, pp.1-2. Part 1 Primatol-
ogy and Anthropology. Primatology as an essential basis for
biological anthropology R. D. Martin, pp.3-6; Zoos and
universities: Collaborating for primate conservation A. T.
C. Feistner & E. C. Price, pp.7-11; Historical explanation
and the concept of progress in primatology M. Cartmill,
pp.12-15; Historical aspects of primatological collections
- H.-K. Schmutz, pp.16-19; The primate fossil record J.
G. Fleagle, pp.20-23; Primatology, paleoecology, and a new
method for assessing taphonomic bias in fossil assemblages
- C. Soligo, pp.24-27; Taxonomy and evolution of gib-
bons-T. Geissmann, pp.28-31. Part2 HominidEvolution.
Adaptive radiations and dispersal in hominin evolutionary
ecology- R. Foley, pp.32-37; New perspectives on the
hominids of the Turkana Basin, Kenya-A. Walker, pp.38-
41; Early hominid body proportions and emerging com-


plexities in human evolution L. R. Berger, pp.42-44; The
Gladysvale Project P. Schmid, pp.45-48; Characteristics
of vertical climbing in gibbons K. Isler, pp.49-52; New
insights into the locomotion of Australopithecus africanus
based on the pelvis M. Haeusler, pp.53-57; New perspec-
tives on the Neanderthals C. Stringer, p.58-59; When
did Neanderthals and modern humans diverge? P. Beerli
& S. V. Edwards, pp.60-63; A computational approach to
paleoanthropology C. P. E. Zollikofer, pp.64-67; Com-
puterized paleoanthropology and Neanderthals: The case
of Le Moustier 1 M. S. Ponce de Le6n, pp.68-72. Part 3
- Primate Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation. Topics gained
and lost in primate social behavior H. Kummer, pp.73-
74; Adaptive array of lemurs of Madagascar revisited R.
W. Sussman, p.75-78; Biology of the fat-tailed dwarf lemur
(Cheirogaleus medius E. Geoffroy, 1812): New results from
the field A. E. Miller & U. Thalmann, pp.79-82; Cath-
emerality in lemurs D. J. Curtis & M. A. Rasmussen,
pp.83-86; Fungus and Callimico goeldii: New insights into
Callimico goeldii behavior and ecology L. M. Porter & A.
Christen, pp.87-90; Self-organizing properties of primate
social behavior: A hypothesis for intersexual rank overlap
in chimpanzees and bonobos C. K. Hemelrijk, pp.91-94;
Ecological plasticity of Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus)
- N. Menard, pp.95-100; Alaotran gentle lemur: Some
aspects of its behavioral ecology T. Mutschler, pp.101-
104; Contrasts between two nocturnal leaf-eating lemurs
- U. Thalmann, pp.105-107. Part 4 Primate Senses,
Physiology, and Behavior. Comparative studies of basal rate
of metabolism in primates M. Genoud, pp.108-111;
Nature of proximate mechanisms underlying primate social
systems: Simplicity and redundancy S. P. Mendoza, D.
M. Reeder & W. A. Mason, pp.112-116; Comparison of
a beholder's response to confrontations involving its pair-
mate or two unfamiliar conspecifics in common marmosets
(Callithrixjacchus) P. Gerber, C. R. Schnell & G. Anzen-
berger, p. 117-121; Why do New World monkey fathers
have enhanced prolactin levels? C. Schradin & G. Anzen-
berger, pp.122-125; Big brain for bad genes: Nonmental
correlates of encephalization H.-P Lipp & D. P. Wolfer,
pp.126-131; Progress toward understanding the evolution
of primate color vision G. H. Jacobs, pp.132-135; Experi-
mental studies of primate sensory capacities D. Glaser,
pp.136-139. Part 5 Genetics, Molecular Evolution, and
Conservation. Evolution and immunology L. A. Knapp,
pp.140-144; Chromosomal and molecular primatology
- Y. Rumpler, pp.145-149; Phylogenetic relationships of
gentle lemurs (Hapalemur) J. Pastorini, M. R. J. Forstner
& R. D. Martin, pp.150-154; The nature of relationships
among founders in the captive population of Goeldi's
monkey (Callimico goeldii) K. Vhsirhelyi, pp.155-158;
Conservation genetics of Barbary macaques (Macaca sylva-
nus) F. von Segesser, pp.159-161; Technical challenges in
the microsatellite genotyping of a wild chimpanzee popula-
tion using feces L. Vigilant, pp.162-165; Reconstructing
the demography of prehistoric human populations from
molecular data- L. Excoffier, pp.166-170; Human popula-
tion genetics in a primatological context W. Scheffrahn,
C. Brandt-Casadeval & A. Kratzer, pp.171-174; Genetic

64 Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003

variability and phylogeography in the wild Alaotran gentle
lemur population C. M. Nievergelt, J. Pastorini & D. S.
Woodruff, pp.175-179. Part 6- Reproductive Biology. Non-
invasive assessment of reproductive function in primates -
J. K. Hodges & M. Heistermann, pp.180-182; Monitoring
reproduction in Callitrichidae by means of ultrasonography
-A.-K. Oerke, M. Heistermann, I. Kiiderling, R. D. Martin
& J. K. Hodges, pp.183-185; Reproductive biology of non-
human primates M. H. Jurke, pp.186-189; Bio-behav-
ioral description of social and reproductive relationships
in captive Goeldi's monkeys C. R. Pryce, J. Pastorini, K.
Vaisrhelyi & A. Christen, pp.190-194; Sexual selection by
cryptic female choice and the evolution of primate sexuality
- A. Dixson, pp.195-199; Anthropology of human repro-
duction: The male factor K. Christiansen, pp.200-203;
Correlates of infant-directed behavior in captive gorillas: A
brief review N. I. Bahr, pp.204-206; Reproduction and
development in Goeldi's monkey (Callimico goeldii) A.
C. Dettling, pp.207-210. Evolutionary Anthropology (ISSN
1060-1538) is published by Wiley Liss Inc. Subscription
enquiries to: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Attn: Subscription
Distribution US, 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030,
USA, Tel: (800) 825-7550, (201) 748-6645, Fax: (202)
748-6021, e-mail: .


The Red Data Book for Ecuadorean Mammals (Libro Rojo
de Los Mamiferos de Ecuador) is edited by Diego Tirira, S.
It is an attractively produced and informative evaluation, in
Spanish, of the threatened mammals of Ecuador. Authors
of the treatments of the various mammal groups include:
Carlos Boada (SIMBIOE), Santiago Burneo (Museo de
Zoologia, Pontificia Universidad Cat61lica del Ecuador),
Armando Castellanos (Fundaci6n Zoobreviven, Quito),
Cristina Castro, A. (Yaqu-Pacha, Organizaci6n para la
Conservaci6n de Mamfferos Acuiticos en Sudamerica),
Francisco Cuesta (Fundaci6n EcoCiencia, Quito), Stella
de la Torre (Quito), Judith Denkinger (Yaqu-Pacha,
Organizaci6n para la Conservaci6n de Mamfferos
Acuaticos en Sudam&rica), Godfrey Merlen (Estaci6n
Cientffica Charles Darwin, Galipagos), Sandie Salazar
(Estaci6n Cientffica Charles Darwin, Galipagos), Luis
Sudrez (Fundaci6n EcoCiencia, Quito), Diego Tirira, S.
(SIMBIOE) and Victor Utreras, B. (Wildlife Conservation
Society Ecuador). The list of threatened species was the
result of two years' work and the participation of more
than thirty people. Following training in threatened species
assessment and the use of the 2000 IUCN criteria given by
the IUCN/SSC Red List program staff, the list was finalized
at a workshop organized by SIMBIOE and the Fundaci6n
EcoCiencia in Quito, September 2000.

Each threatened species is nicely illustrated, with information
on the distribution, current status, principal threats, and
measures already undertaken and measures proposed for
their conservation. The IUCN 2000 criteria are used for

the assessments (IUCN, 2001). In the introduction, Diego
Tirira, Francisco Cuesta and Luis Suarez explain that
Ecuador has the richest biodiversity per unit area of any
country in the world. They report 369 mammal species,
19 of which are primates. The book includes some valuable
analyses of the biogeography and status of Ecuadorean
mammals in general by Santiago Burneo and Diego Tirira.
Nine of the 13 mammal orders in Ecuador have threatened
species. Forty-nine mammals are listed as threatened, and
four orders account for nearly 78% of them Rodents 14
of 100 species, Carnivora 11 of 31 species, Cetacea 7 of 33
species and Chiroptera 6 of 132 species. Of the 19 primate
species Tirira recognizes for Ecuador, the following are
listed as threatened: Critically Endangered (CR) Ateles
fusciceps [fusciceps] A4acd; Vulnerable (VU) Alouatta
palliata [aequatorialis] Cl+2a(i), Ateles belzebuth A4acd,
Cebus capucinus capucinuss] C2a(i), Lagothrix lagothricha
[lagothricha and poeppigii] A4acd; Near threatened (NT)
- Saguinus fuscicollis [lagonotus], Saguinus tripartitus, Cebus
albifrons aequatorialis, Cebus apella macrocephaluss]; Data
Deficient (DD) Aotus lemurinus, Pithecia aequatorialis.

Two books to accompany this one are Biologia, Sistemdtica
y Conservacidn de los Mamlferos del Ecuador (1998) and
Mamiferos del Ecuador (1999), both also by Diego Tirira.
The first is an edited volume, which reviews numerous
aspects of Neotropical mammalogy and Ecuadorean
mammals in particular. The second is a more formal review
of the diversity, distributions and taxonomy of Ecuadorean
mammals, including chapters on diversity, Ecuadorean
species and their distributions, an identification guide,
bibliography and scientific collections. Besides the species
mentioned above in the Red Data Book, Tirira (1999) lists for
Ecuador Callithrix [Cebuella] pygmaea, Saguinus nigricollis
[graellsi], Alouatta seniculus, Aotus vociferans, Callicebus
cupreus [discolor], Callicebus torquatus [lucifer], Pithecia
monachus monachuss] and Saimiri sciureus [macrodon].

The Red Data Book is available from: SIMBIOE, Av.
Amazonas 2915 e Inglaterra, Ediffcio Inglaterra, Piso
2, Apartado 17-11-6025, Quito, Ecuador, Tel: (593-
2) 431-097 or 452-596, Fax: (593-2) 442-771; e-mail:


IUCN. 2001. IUCN RedList Categories and Criteria. Version
3.1. IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN, Gland,
Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Tirira S., D. (ed.). 1998. Biologia, Sistemdticay Conservacidn
de los Mamiferos del Ecuador. Publicaci6n Especial 1.
Museo de Zoologfa. Centro de Biodiversidad y Ambiente,
Pontificia Universidad Cat6lica del Ecuador y Sociedad
para la Investigaci6n y Monitoreo de la Biodiversidad
Ecuatoriana (SIMBIOE), Quito. 217pp. ISBN 9978-
Tirira S., D. 1999. Mamiferos del Ecuador. Publicaci6n
Especial 2. Museo de Zoologfa. Centro de Biodiversidad

Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003

y Ambiente, Pontificia Universidad Cat6lica del Ecuador
y Sociedad para la Investigaci6n y Monitoreo de la
Biodiversidad Ecuatoriana (SIMBIOE), Quito. 392pp.
ISBN 9978-40-835-5.
Tirira S., D. (ed.) 2001. Libro Rojo de Los Mamiferos de
Ecuador. Sociedad para la Investigaci6n y Monitoreo de
la Biodiversidad Ecuatoriana (SIMBIOE) / Ecociencias
/ Ministerio del Ambiente / UICN. Serie Libros Rojos
del Ecuador, Tomo 1. Publicaci6n Especial sobre los
Mamfferos del Ecuador. 236pp. ISBN 9978-41-614-5.


Diversidad y Conservacidn de los Mamiferos Neotropicales,
edited by Gerardo Ceballos and Javier A. Simonetti,
Comisi6n Nacional para el Conhecimento y Uso de la
Biodiversidad (CONABIO) and Universidad Nacional
Aut6noma de M6xico, M6xico, DE 2002. 582pp. ISBN
970-9000-18-7. This edited volume provides excellent
country-by-country reviews of the mammal faunas of
South America, Costa Rica, Cuba, Panama, and Mexico.
In Spanish but with English abstracts. The Prologue is by
Michael Mares (Oklahoma Museum of Natural History
and Department of Zoology, University of Oklahoma).
Contents: Mamiferos de Argentina R. A. Ojeda, C. E.
Borghi & V. G. Roig, pp. 23-63; Mamfferos de Bolivia- J.
G. Bravo, T. L. Yates & L. M. Zalles, pp.65-113; Mamffe-
ros de Brasil C. J. R. Alho, M. L. Reis & P. Seixas, pp. 115-
150; Mamfferos de Chile -J. E. Mella, J. A. Simonetti, A.
E. Spotorno & L. C. Contreras, pp.151-183; Mamfferos
de Colombia- M. Alberico &V. Rojas-Diaz, pp.185-226;
Mamfferos de Costa Rica D. E. Wilson, R. M. Timm &
E A. Chinchilla- pp.227-253; Mamfferos de Cuba- G. S.
Taboada, pp.255-270; Mamfferos de Ecuador L. Albuja
V., pp.271-327; Mamfferos de Guyana M. D. Engstrom
& B. K. Lim, pp.329-375; Mamfferos de M6xico G.
Ceballos, J. Arroyo-Cabrales & R. A. Medellin, pp.377-
413; Mamfferos de Panami- R. Samudio Jr., pp.415-451;
Mamfferos de Paraguay P Myers, A. Taber & I. G. de
Fox, pp.453-502; Mamfferos de Peril-V. Pacheco, pp.503-
549; Mamfferos de Uruguay P. 0. Baes, S. SUihring &
G. Ceballos, pp.551-565; Mamfferos de Venezuela G.
Ceballos, P 0. Baes, S. Siihring, Y. Domfnguez & H.
Zarza, pp.567-582. Available from: Comisi6n Nacional
para el Conhecimento y Uso de la Biodiversidad (CONA-
BIO), Liga perif6rico-Insurgentes sur 4903, Col. Parques
del Pedregal, Tlalpan, 14510, Mexico, DF, Mexico.

Primates in Fragments: Ecology and Conservation, edited by
Laura K. Marsh, 2003, Kluwer Academic / Plenum Pub-
lishers, New York. ISBN 0-306-47696-7. Price: US$139.00
(hardbound). This volume resulted from a symposium of
the same name presented at the XVIII Congress of the
International Primatological Society in Adelaide, South
Australia, 6-12 January 2000. One of the primary goals of
this book is to be a reference not only in the primate litera-
ture but in fragmentation science. The contributors to this
volume realize the significance of working within fragments

as a whole no matter how disturbed, and that these systems
respond to and depend upon the matrix they are embedded
within. It seeks to address several key questions regarding
primates in fragments: to clarify some of the issues, but
perhaps in trying to bring to light the complexity of the
situation with primates in disturbed habitats. The book is
divided into sections based on broad categories of research
on primates in fragments. In the Genetics and Population
Dynamics section, the authors cover topics in viability,
metapopulations, and species that remain in remnant for-
ests. In the Behavioral Ecology section, authors take a closer
look at feeding, ranging, and other behaviors that allow
primates to remain in or disperse between fragments. In
Conservation and Management, authors bring knowledge
of species which remain in fragments together with plans to
implement strategies for their long-term viability. Finally,
in the Integration and Future Directions section, authors
synthesize the information in this volume and make rec-
ommendations for future and continued work in this field.
Contents: The nature of fragmentation L. K. Marsh. Sec-
tion I: Genetics and Population Dynamics L. K. Marsh.
Effects of habitat fragmentation on the genetic variability
of silvery marmosets, Mico argentatus E. C. Gonyalves,
S. E Ferrari, A. Silva, P E. G. Coutinho, E. V. Menezes &
M. P C. Schneider; Changes in distribution of the snub-
nosed monkey in China Baoguo Li, Zhiyun Jia, Ruliang
Pan & Baoping Ren; Analysis of the hypothetical popula-
tion structure of the squirrel monkey (Saimiri oerstedii)
in Panama A. R. Rodriguez-Vargas; Primate survival in
community-owned forest fragments: Are metapopulation
models useful amidst intensive use? C. A. Chapman, M.
J. Lawes, L. Naughton-Treves & T. Gillespie; Relationships
between forest fragments and howler monkeys (Alouatta
palliata mexicana) in southern Veracruz, Mexico E. M.
Rodriguez-Toledo, S. Mandujano & E Garcia-Ordufia;
Primates of the Brazilian Atlantic forest: The influence of
forest fragmentation on survival-A. G. Chiarello; Dynam-
ics of primate communities along the Santardm-CuiabA
highway in south-central Brazilian Amazonia S. E Fer-
rari, S. Iwanaga, A. L. Ravetta, E C. Freitas, B. A. R. Sousa,
L. L. Souza, C. G. Costa & P. E. G. Coutinho; Primates
and fragmentation of the Amazon forest K. A. Gilbert.
Section II: Behavorial Ecology L. K. Marsh; Impacts of
forest fragmentation on lion-tailed macaque and Nilgiri
langur in Western Ghats, South India G. Umapathy
& A. Kumar; Population size and habitat use of spider
monkeys at Punta Laguna, Mexico G. Ramos-Fernandez
& B. Ayala-Orozco; Changes in forest composition and
potential feeding tree availability on a small land-bridge
island in Lago Guri, Venezuela M. A. Norconk & B. W.
Grafton; Foraging strategy changes in an Alouatta palliata
mexicana troop released on an island E. Rodrfguez-Luna,
L. E. Dominguez-Dominguez, F. E. Morales-Mavil & M.
Martinez-Morales; Dietary flexibility, behavioral plasticity,
and survival in fragments: Lessons from translocated howl-
ers S. C. Silver & L. K. Marsh; Howler monkeys (Alouatta
palliata mexicana) as seed dispersers of strangler figs in
disturbed and preserved habitat in southern Veracruz,
Mexico J. C. Serio-Silva & V. Rico-Gray; How do howler

66 Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003

monkeys cope with habitat fragmentation? J. C. Bicca-
Marques. Section III: Conservation and Management L.
K. Marsh. Fragments, sugar, and chimpanzees in Masindi
District, western Uganda V. Reynolds, J. Wallis & R.
Kyamanywa; Shade coffee plantations as wildlife refuge for
mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in Nicaragua
- C. McCann, K. Williams-Guillen, E Koontz, A. A. R.
Espinoza, J. C. Martinez Sanchez & C. Koontz; Effects of
habitat fragmentation on the Cross River gorilla (Gorilla
gorilla diehli): Recommendations for conservation E. A.
Eniang; Wild zoos: Conservation of primates in situ L. K.
Marsh. Integration and Future Directions. Fragmentation:
Specter of the future or the spirit of conservation? L. K.
Marsh, C. A. Chapman, M. A. Norconk, S. E Ferrari, K. A.
Gilbert, J. C. Bicca-Marques & J. Wallis. To order: Andrea
Macaluso, Editor, Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers,
New York, NY 10013, USA, Tel: (212) 620-8007, Fax:
(212) 463-0742, e-mail: . Web-
site: .

Anonymous. 2002. Spider monkeys in El Salvador. CC
Update (Community Conservation, Inc.): 13(2): 1.
Anonymous. 2002. The Community Baboon Sanctuary
after 18 years. CC Update (Community Conservation,
Inc.): 13(2): 3.
Carter, C. S. and Keverne, E. B. 2002. The neurobiology
of social affiliation and pair bonding. In: Hormones, Brain
and Behavior, Vol. 1, D. W. Pfaff, A. P. Arnold, A. M.
Etgen, S. E. Fahrbach, R. T. Rubin (eds.), pp. 299-337.
Academic Press, San Diego.
Collins, W. E. 2002. Nonhuman primate models. I.
Nonhuman primate host-parasite combinations. Methods
in Molecular Medicine 72: 77-84.
Collins, W. E. 2002. Nonhuman primate models. II.
Infection of Saimiri and Aotus monkeys with Plasmodium
vivax. Methods in Molecular Medicine 72: 85-92.
Daan, S. and Beersma, D. G. M. 2002. Circadian frequency
and its variability. In: Biological Rhythms, V. Kumar (ed.),
pp. 24-37. Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi.
de Oliveira, E. H. C., Neusser, M., Figueiredo, W. B.,
Nagamachi, C., Pieczarka, J. C., Sbalqueiro, I. J.,
Wienberg, J. and Mueller, S. 2002. The phylogeny of
howler monkeys (Alouatta, Platyrrhini): Reconstruction
by multicolor cross-species chromosome painting.
Chromosome Research 10(8): 669-683.
de Resende, B. D. and Ottoni, E. B. 2002. Play and tool
use learning in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).
Estudos de Psicologia 7(1): 173-180. In Spanish.
Dunham, A. E. and Wright, P C. 2002. The Association of
Tropical Biology Annual Meeting, Panama, 2002: From
primates to Precolombian archeology. Evol. Anthropol.
11(6): 213-214.
Erdelyi, K., Szeredi, L., Sztojkov, V., Mezosi, L., Sos, E.
and Markus, E. 2002. Toxoplasma gondii epidemic in a
squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) population. Magyar
Allatorvosok Lapja 124(6): 367-371. In Hungarian.

Feer, F and Forget, P. M. 2002. Spatio-temporal variations
in post-dispersal seed fate. Biotropica 34(4): 555-566.
Gonzilez, V., Zunino, G. E., Kowalewski, M. and Bravo, S.
P. 2002. Densidad de monos aulladores (Alouatta caraya)
y composici6n y estructura de la selva de inundaci6n
en una isla del Rio Parand medio. Rev. Museo Argentino
Cienc. Nat. n. s. 4(1): 7-12.
Gonzalez-Mariscal, G. and Poindron, P 2002. Parental care
in mammals: Immediate internal and sensory factors of
control. In: Hormones, Brain and Behavior, Vol. 1, D. W.
Pfaff, A. P. Arnold, A. M. Etgen, S. E. Fahrbach, R. T.
Rubin (eds.), pp. 215-298. Academic Press, San Diego.
Gonzalez-Solis, J., Guix, J. C., Mateos, E. and Llorens, L.
2002. Density estimates, group size and habitat use of
monkeys (Mammals: Cebidae). In: Censuses of Vertebrates
in a Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest Area: The Paranapiacaba
Fragment, E. Mateos, J. C. Guix, A. Serra and K. Pisciotta
(eds.), pp. 111-125. Centre de Recursos de Biodiversitat
Animal, Barcelona.
Grelle, C. E. V. 2002. Is higher-taxon analysis an useful
surrogate of species richness in studies of Neotropical
mammal diversity? Biological Conservation 108(1): 101-
Guezeldere, G., Nahmias, E. and Deaner, R. 0. 2002.
Darwin's continuum and the building blocks of
deception. In: The Cognitive Animal: Empirical and
Theoretical Perspectives on Animal Cognition, M. Bekoff,
C. Allen and G. M. Burghardt (eds.), pp. 353-362. MIT
Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Guix, J. C., Pisciotta, K., Mateos, E. and Serra, A.
2002. The Paranapiacaba fragment as a key area in the
conservation of the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. In:
Censuses of Vertebrates in a Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest
Area: The Paranapiacaba Fragment, E. Mateos, J. C. Guix,
A. Serra and K. Pisciotta (eds.), pp. 207-217. Centre de
Recursos de Biodiversitat Animal, Barcelona.
Hashimoto, C. 2002. How to choose the definition of party
size. Reichorui Kenkyu / Primate Research 18 (3): 320-325.
In Japanese.
Heiduck, S. 2002. The use of disturbed and undisturbed
forest by masked titi monkeys Callicebus personatus
melanochir is proportional to food availability. Oryx
36(2): 133-139.
Hill, C. M. 2002. Primate conservation and local
communities ethical issues and debates. American
Anthropologist 104(4): 1184-1194.
Hirsch, B. T. 2002. Social monitoring and vigilance
behavior in brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 52(6): 458-464.
Isachenko, E. F, Nayudu, P. L., Isachenko, V. V., Nawroth,
E and Michelmann, H. W. 2002. Congenitally caused
fused labia in the common marmoset (CaGd/l ri, jacchus).
Journal ofMedical Primatology 31(6): 350-355.
Iwanaga, S. and Ferrari, S. E 2002. Geographic distribution
of red howlers (Alouatta seniculus) in southwestern
Brazilian Amazonia, with notes on Alouatta caraya. Int. J.
Primatol. 23(6): 1245-1256.
Labruna, M. B., Paula, C. D. de, Lima, T. F. and Sana, D.
A. 2002. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on wild animals from the

Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003

Porto-Primavera hydroelectric power station area, Brazil.
Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 97(8): 1133-1136.
Lambert, J. E. 2002. Exploring the link between animal
frugivory and plant strategies: The case of primate fruit
processing and post-dispersal seed fate. In: Seed Dispersal
and Frugivory: Ecology, Evolution and Conservation, D. J.
Levey, W. R. Silva and M. Galetti (eds.), pp. 365-379.
CABI, New York.
Lehman, S. M. 2002. Ecology and social organization of
the bearded saki Chiropotes satanas chiropotes (Primates:
Pitheciinae) in Venezuela, by A. Peetz. Society of Tropical
Ecology, Bonn (2001). Int. J Primatol. 23(6): 1347-
1348. (Book review.)
Lilenbaum, W., Monteiro, R. V., Ristow, P., Fraguas, S.,
Cardoso, V. S. and Fedullo, L. P L. 2002. Leptospirosis
antibodies in mammals from Rio de Janeiro Zoo, Brazil.
Research in Veterinary Science 73(3): 319-321.
Manosa, S. and Mateos, E. 2002. An overview to the counting
methods of the Paranapiacaba frugivore vertebrates survey.
In: Censuses of Vertebrates in a Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest
Area: The Paranapiacaba Fragment, E. Mateos, J. C. Guix,
A. Serra and K. Pisciotta (eds.), pp. 51-57. Centre de
Recursos de Biodiversitat Animal, Barcelona.
Mateos, E. 2002. Global analysis ofdistance sampling counts
results: Effects of environmental and methodological
variables. In: Censuses of Vertebrates in a Brazilian Atlantic
Rainforest Area: The Paranapiacaba Fragment, E. Mateos,
J. C. Guix, A. Serra and K. Pisciotta (eds.), pp. 127-138.
Centre de Recursos de Biodiversitat Animal, Barcelona.
Miller, C. T. and Ghazanfar, A. A. 2002. Meaningful
acoustic units in nonhuman primate vocal behavior.
In: The Cognitive Animal: Empirical and Theoretical
Perspectives on Animal Cognition, M. Bekoff, C. Allen
and G. M. Burghardt (eds.), pp. 265-273. MIT Press,
Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Milton, K. 2002. The evolution of a physical anthropologist.
In: Physical Anthropology: Original Readings in Method
and Practice, P N. Peregrine, C. R. Ember and M. Ember
(eds.), pp. 264-280. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River,
New Jersey.
Natori, M. 2002. Geographical distribution of L6nnberg's
tamarin. Reichorui Kenkyu / Primate Research 18(3): 347-
350. In Japanese.
Natori, M. and Kobayashi, S. 2002. A report on taxonomy
of capuchin monkeys. Reichorui Kenkyu /Primate Research
18(3): 341-346. In Japanese.
Pattison, J. C., Mapes, S. M., Pryce, C. R., Conley, A. J. and
Bird, I. M. 2002. Marmosets express a fetal zone at birth
but no ZR in adulthood. Endocrine Research 28(4): 675.
Pedrocchi, V., Silva, C. R. da and Silva, A. da. 2002.
Checklist of birds and mammals in the Paranapiacaba
forest fragment. In: Censuses of Vertebrates in a Brazilian
Atlantic Rainforest Area: The Paranapiacaba Fragment, E.
Mateos, J. C. Guix, A. Serra and K. Pisciotta (eds.), pp.
183-204. Centre de Recursos de Biodiversitat Animal,
Peres, C. A. and van Roosmalen, M. 2002. Primate frugivory
in two species-rich Neotropical forests: Implications for
the demography of large-seeded plants in overhunted

areas. In: Seed Dispersal and Frugivory: Ecology, Evolution
and Conservation, D. J. Levey, W. R. Silva and M. Galetti
(eds.), pp. 407-421. CABI Publications, New York.
Pizo, M. A. 2002. The seed-dispersers and fruit syndromes
of Myrtaceae in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. In:
Seed Dispersal and Frugivory: Ecology, Evolution and
Conservation, D. J. Levey, W. R. Silva and M. Galetti
(eds.), pp. 129-143. CABI Publications, New York.
Savage, A., Zirofsky, D. S., Shideler, S. E., Smith, T. E. and
Lasley, B. L. 2002. Use of levonorgestrel as an effective
means of contraception in the white-faced saki (Pithecia
pithecia). Zoo Biology 21(1): 49-57.
Schwibbe, M. 2002. 25 Jahre Deutsches Primatenzentrum:
DPZ. DPZ, Goettingen.
Sena, L., Vallinoto, M., Sampaio, I., Schneider, H., Ferrari,
S. E and Schneider, M. P C. 2002. Mitochondrial COII
gene sequences provide new insights into the phylogeny
of marmoset species groups (Callitrichidae, Primates).
Folia Primatol. 73(5): 240-251.
Serio-Silva, J. C. and Rico-Gray, V. 2002. Interacting effects
of forest fragmentation and howler monkey foraging on
germination and dispersal of fig seeds. Oryx 36(3): 266-
Shuker, K. 2002. The New Zoo: New and Rediscovered
Animals of the Twentieth Century. House of Stratus,
Thirsk, United Kingdom. 304 pp.
Stevenson, P R., Castellanos, M. C., Pizarro, J. C. and
Garavito, M. 2002. Effects of seed dispersal by three
ateline monkey species on seed germination at Tinigua
National Park, Colombia. Int. J. Primatol. 23(6): 1187-
Szapkievich, V. B., Martinez, R. A. and Mudry, M. D.
2002. Genetic parameters of captive New World primates
and their meaningfulness for management in Argentinean
zoos. Zoocriaderos 8: 1-11.
Tavares, M. C. H., Aguiar, L. and Tomaz, C. 2002.
Effect of practice on hand preference on a color visual
discrimination task by capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).
Perceptual andMotor Skills 95(3, Pt.2): 1027-1034.
Tomasello, M. and Zuberbuhler, K. 2002. Primate vocal
and gestural communication. In: The Cognitive Animal.
Empirical and Theoretical Perspectives on Animal Cognition,
M. Bekoff, C. Allen and G. M. Burghardt (eds.), pp. 293-
299. MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Visalberghi, E. 2002. Insight from capuchin monkey
studies: Ingredients of, recipes for, and flaws in capuchins'
success. In: The Cognitive Animal: Empirical and
Theoretical Perspectives on Animal Cognition, M. Bekoff,
C. Allen and G. M. Burghardt (eds.), pp. 405-411. MIT
Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Webster, A. J. and Purvis, A. 2002. Ancestral states
and evolutionary rates of continuous characters. In:
Morphology, Shape and Phylogeny, N. MacLeod and P L.
Forey (eds.), pp. 247-268. Taylor and Francis, London.
Werdenich, D. and Huber, L. 2002. Social factors determine
cooperation in marmosets. Anim. Behav. 64(5): 771-781.
Wich, S. A. and Nunn, C. L. 2002. Do male "long-distance
calls" function in mate defense? A comparative study of
long-distance calls in primates. Behavioral Ecology and
Sociobiolozy 52(6): 474-484.

68 Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003


Duren, D. L. 2002. Phyeseal orientation, form, and
function: Relationships with primate locomotor behavior.
Diss. Abst. Int. A63(4): 1431.
Goldman, J. A. 2002. Acoustic communication in
common marmoset monkeys (C ,'. jacchus jacchus):
Measurements of transmissions and responses. Diss. Abst.
Int. B63(4): 2093.
Higaki, S. and Ueno, Y. 2002. Evaluation of enrichment in
a sunroom for New World monkeys. Reichorui Kenkyu /
Primate Research 18(3): 431. In Japanese.
Hiramatsu, C., Kawamura, S. and Takenaka, 0. 2002.
Color-vision typing of New World monkeys by examining
fecal DNA. Reichorui Kenkyu /Primate Research 18(3):
363. In Japanese.
Inaba, A. 2002. Social relationships of wild spider monkeys
in Macarena, Colombia. Reichorui Kenkyu / Primate
Research 18(3): 416. In Japanese.
Izawa, K. 2002. On the speciation of Cacajao. Reichorui
Kenkyu /Primate Research 18(3): 370. In Japanese.
Kawasaki, K., Kitajima, K., Mori, T., Miyoshi, T. and
Tanioka, Y. 2002. Emergence of the third molars in
common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) application of
micro-CT to the 3D reconstruction and tooth anatomy.
Reichorui Kenkyu / Primate Research 18(3): 412. In
Kobayashi, S., Natori, M., Pessoa, L. M., Oliveira, J.
A., Langguth, A. R. and Setoguchi, T. 2002. Dental
morphology of Barbara Brown's titi (Callicebus
barbarabrownae). Reichorui Kenkyu / Primate Research
18(3): 366. In Japanese.
Miller, K. E. 2002. Olfactory communication, feeding
behaviors and energy budgets of wild golden lion tamarins
(Leontopithecus rosalia). Diss. Abst. Int. B63(6): 2696.
Nakatsukasa, M., Hirasaki, E., Ogihara, N. and Hamada,
Y. 2002. Are energetic costs for bipedalism and
quadrupedalism same in primates? Reichorui Kenkyu /
Primate Research 18(3): 377. In Japanese.
Nishimura, A. 2002. Copulation pattern and mating
relationship of wild woolly monkey (Lagothrix lagotricha),
at La Macarena, Colombia. Reichorui Kenkyu / Primate
Research 18(3): 384. In Japanese.
Raboy, B. E. 2002. The ecology and behavior of wild
golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas).
Diss. Abst. Int. B63(6): 2698.
Shimooka, Y. 2002. Ranging behavior of spider monkeys
at La Macarena, Colombia. Reichorui Kenkyu / Primate
Research 18(3): 417. In Japanese.
Takenaka, A. and Takenaka, 0. 2002. Mutations of LDL
receptor gene of primates and nucleotide sequences of the
control region. Reichorui Kenkyu / Primate Research 18(3):
408. In Japanese.
Perez-Sweeney, B. M. 2002. The molecular systematics of
Leontopithecus, population genetics of. Diss. Abst. Int.
A62(12): 1063-1070.

Selected abstracts from the IV Congreso de la Asoci-
aci6n Primatol6gica Espafiola (APE), Madrid, 27-28
September, 2001. In: Folia Primatologica 73, 2002.

Esteban, M. M. The use of indices to describe social
relationships, p.289.
Iglesias, D. & Gil-Burmann, C. Environmental enrichment
programme for squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus and
Saimiri boliviensis) in captivity, pp.291-292.
Morcillo, A., Suarez, M., Sanchez, S. & Peliez, F The
influence of carrying on energetic intake in the cotton-
top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus), p.293.
Suirez, M., Morcillo, A., Sinchez, S. & Pelhez, F. Energy
consumption related to infant carrying in cotton-top
tamarins (Saguinus oedipus), p.294.

Selected abstracts from the XV Congresso dell' Associ-
azione Primatologica Italiana, 30 May 1 June, 2002.
In: Folia Primatologica 73, 2002.

Adessi, E. & Visalberghi, E. Do social influences foster novel
food acceptance or the acquisition of a 'safe' diet?, pp.317.
Agostini, I. &Visalberghi, E. Response to novel food in wild
tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), pp.323-324.
Bruner, E., Capanna, E. & Manzi, G. The primatological
collections at the Dipartimento di Biologia Animale e
dell'Uomo, University of Rome 'La Sapienza', p.325.
De Michelis, S. & Lernould, J. M. Mulhouse Zoo and
primate conservation: In situ and ev situ activities,
Drapier, M., Addessi, E. & Visalberghi, E. What are you
eating? Does it smell new? Tufted capuchin monkeys
(Cebus apella) discriminate novel from familiar odours by
nosing a group member while eating, p.318.
Gippoliti, S. 150 years of applied primatology in zoos: An
overview, pp.321-322.
Gippoliti, S. & Vitale, A. The Italian contribution to
primate conservation: Theoretical and practical aspects,
Montaldo, L., Mafai, M. & Scolavino, M. Knowing to
preserve: The educational role in a modern zoo. The Bush
meat trade An example of communication for primate
conservation, pp.329-330.
Sabattini, G., Stammati, M. & Visalberghi, E. Social
influences on preferences towards novel foods in tufted
capuchin monkeys, pp.316-317.
Spinozzi, G., Lubrano, G. and Truppa, V. The categorical
representation of spatial relations by tufted capuchin
monkeys (Cebus apella), pp.302-303.
Spinozzi, G., Truppa, V. & De Lillo, C. Perceptual
processing of hierarchical visual stimuli in tufted capuchin
monkeys (Cebus apella), p.301.
Stammati, M., Sabbatini, G. & Visalberghi, E. How
do tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) rank their
familiar foods? An experimental approach, p.316.
Truppa, V., Lagank, T. & Spinozzi, G. Grip type and
manual asymmetry in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus
apella), p.304.

Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003

Valenzano, D. R. & Visalberghi, E. Facial expressions in
tufted capuchins (Cebus apella), p.298.
Veracini, C. Selected contact calls of a wild group of silvery
marmosets (Mico argentatus, L. 1766), pp.333-334.
Vitale, A., Queyras, A., Puopolo, M. & Licata, E. Possible
effects of different social contexts in the response to
a manual task by the common marmoset (Callithrix
jacchus), pp.301-302.

In: Livro de Resumos: Xo Congresso Brasileira de Pri-
matologia: Amazonia A Oltima Fronteira. Sociedade
Brasileira de Primatologia, Belkm do Pari, 10 a 15 de
novembro de 2002. Authors M-W.

Maciel, E. M. B. & Cugnasca, P S. Sistematizaqao da
selecao de especimens de Saguinus bicolor para reprodudao
em cativeiro utilizando l6gica fuzzy, p. 135.
Maranho, M. C. G., Oliveira, M. M., Porffrio, S. &
Monteiro da Cruz, M. A. 0. Estado de conservacao das
populaoqes de Alouatta belzebul belzebul no nordeste
brasileiro, p.78.
Marques, A. A. de. Ecologia e comportamento de Alouatta
guariba (Humboldt, 1812), p.50.
Marques, A. A. de & Rylands, A. B. Dispersao de sementes
por Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera, 1940 no Parque
Estadual de Itapud, RS, p.37.
Marques, A. A. B. de, Schneider, M. & Alho, C. J. R.
Monitoramento por ridiotelemetria de Mico melanurus
(11. Geoffroy in Humboldt, 1812) translocados pelo
enchimento do Reservat6rio de Manso, Mato Grosso,
Martins, M. M. Censo de primates em fragments florestais
da Fazenda Barreiro Rico, Anhembi, SIo Paulo, p.60.
Martins, S. S., Ferrari, S. E & Silva, C. S. FragmentaqIo de
habitat e parasitismo em populao6es de Alouatta belzebul
(Platyrrhini, Atelidae) na Amaz6nia Oriental, p.55.
Melo, F. R., Fontes, D. F. & Rylands, A. B. Primatas do vale
Jequitinhonha, Minas Gerais, p. 56.
Melo, L. C. 0., Mendes Pontes, A. R. & Monteiro da Cruz,
M. A. 0. Infanticidio e canibalismo em Cdllith:..x jacchus
sagai-do-nordeste, p. 119.
Melo, L. C. 0., Silva, L. A. M. & Monteiro da Cruz, M.
A. 0. Atividade de forrageio na capture de press por
Callithrix jacchus em um fragmento de Mata AtlAntica
PE, p.120.
Melo, L. C. 0., Valenga-Montenegro, M. M., Souto, A.
S. & Monteiro da Cruz, M. A. 0. Selecao de recursos
alimentares por Cal/.rbr., jacchus sagiii-do-nordeste:
Um foco sobre a teoria de otimizaqio, p.96.
Melo, W. E & Pedroso, C. A. Estudo preliminary da
lateralidade do ato de cocar de um grupo de bugios
(Alouatta caraya) em ambiente natural, p.139.
Melo, W. F. and Santos, A. Levantamento de ocorrencia
do macaco Callicebus moloch donacophilus na area da Baia
Negra, no municipio de Ladario, MS, p.58.
Mendes, C. L. S. & Melo, F. R. Levantamento de
especies de primatas na RPPN Mata do Sossego e em
remanescentes florestais do municfpio de Manhuaqu,
Minas Gerais, p.92.

Monteiro da Cruz, M. A. 0. Fragmentacao das matas do
nordeste do Brasil e plasticidade social e ambiental do
Callithrix jacchus, p.48.
Montilha, E. 0. & Del-Claro, K. Germinaqao de sementes
de Nectandra cessiflora, defecados pelo bugio (Alouatta
guariba- Humboldt, 1812), p.115.
Montilha, E. 0., Cabral, D. D. & Del-Claro, K. Uso do
tempo por um grupo de bugios ruivos (Alouatta guariba
Humboldt, 1812) na region sudeste do Brasil, p. 108.
Montilha, E. 0., Cabral, D. D. & Del-Claro, K. Ocorrencia
de endoparasitas intestinais em um grupo de bugios
(Alouatta guariba Humboldt, 1812), em um fragmento
florestal, p.107.
Moura, R. C. R., Boere, V. & Ribeiro, R. C. J. Uma exceqao
nos primatas neotropicais: Macaco-prego nao e resistente
aos glicocortic6ides, p.159.
Muhle, C. B. & Bicca-Marques, J. C. Comportamento
de uma femea adulta de Alouatta guariba clamitans
antes e depois de sua transferencia para um recinto com
enriquecimento ambiental, no Parque Zool6gico de
Sapucaia do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, p.142.
Muniz, J. A. P. C. Centro Nacional de Primatas:
Equilibrando pesquisa biomedica e conservaqao, p. 13.
Nagamachi, C. Y., Barros, R. M. S., Muniz, J. A. P. C.,
Pissinatti, A., Muller, S., Neusser, M., Oliveira, E. H. &
Pieczarka, J. C. Filogenia cromoss6mica dos calitriquideos
(incluindo Callimico), utilizando dados de pintura
cromoss6mica multicor (FISH-M) e de bandeamentos
clAssicos, p.25.
Nascimento, E E, Bonvicino, C. R. & Seuinez, H.
N. Polimorfismo de citocromo B em Alouatta caraya
(Primates, Alouattinae): Um estudo populacional, p. 152.
Nogueira, C. P., Paglia, A. P., Pimenta, E A., Dias, R.
L., Martins, L. 0. & Cabral, W. L. Levantamento e
distribuicao de sauis, Callicebus nigrifrons, e sagiii-
de-tufos-pretos, Cdlith ..x penicillata em fragments
florestais na region de Lavras, MG, p.86.
Odalia-Rfmoli, A., Cazzadore, K. C. & Rfmoli, J.
Comportamento alimentar do sagiii-de-tufo-preto
(Cdlith/.v penicillata E. Geoffroy, 1812; Cebidae,
Callitrichinae, Primates) em um fragmento urbano de
cerrado, MS, p.95.
OdAlia-Rimoli, A., Gonoalves, J. D. & Rfmoli, J. Padrao de
atividades de um grupo de sagiiis-de-tufo-preto (Callithrix
penicillata 1. Geoffroy, 1812; Cebidae, Callitrichinae,
Primates) em um fragmento de cerrado, Campo Grande,
MS, p.83.
Oliveira, A. C. M. Dispersao de sementes por um grupo
de Saguinus midas niger (Callitrichinae, Primates) e seu
papel na regeneraqao de areas de florestas degradadas na
Amaz6nia Oriental, p.39.
Oliveira, E. G. R. de, Marques, A. A. B. de & Romanowski,
H. P. Tamanho de arvore e uso de recurso alimentar em um
bando de bugios-ruivos (Alouattafusca, E. Geoffroy, 1812)
no Parque Estadual de Itapua, Viamao, Brasil, p.127.
Oliveira, E. H. Filogenia do genero Alouatta baseada em
dados de FISH multicor, p.154.
Oliveira, E. H., Pieczarka, J. C., Nagamachi, C. Y., Muniz,
J. A. P. C., Neusser, M., Sbalqueiro, I. J., Muller, S.

70 Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003

& Wienberg, J. Filogenia de Atelinae atrav&s de FISH
multicor, p.27.
Oliveira, L. C., CQjara, E. M. V. C., Alvarenga, R. M. &
Paschoal, A. M. 0. Nova ocorrencia de Callithrixgeoffroyi
(Primates: Callitrichidae) no Parque Nacional da Serra do
Cip6, p.84.
Oliveira, M. M. A necessidade do ordenamento de
informar6es para a conservacao dos primatas brasileiros,
Oliveira, M. M., Porffrio, S., Laroque, P., Canales, D. &
Langguth, A. Translocacao de um grupo de guaribas,
Alouatta belzebul, no nordeste brasileiro, p.133.
Oliveira, R. C. R., Coelho, A. S. and Nogueira, C. P.
Estimativa da densidade e tamanho populacional de
Callicebus nigrifrons (saud) em fragmento florestal em
regeneracqo na Zona da Mata mineira, Vigosa, Minas
Gerais, p.84.
Pieczarka, J. C., Nagamachi, C. Y., Barros, R. M. S. &
Oliveira, E. H. Citogendtica molecular na construqdo de
filogenias de primatas, p.26.
Pinheiro, E. C., Welker, A. E, Pianta, T F., Canale, G. R. &
Boere, V. Efeitos metab6licos do estresse psicol6gico em
sagUis (Callithrix penicillata), uma especie resistente aos
glicocortic6ides, p. 131.
Pinto, A. C. B. Variaqao diaria das atividades de quatro
especies de primatas neotropicais: Qual o melhor horirio
para localizA-los?, p.106.
Pinto, A. C. B., Azevedo-Ramos, C. & Carvalho Jr, 0.
Padrio de atividades, dieta e uso do espago por Alouatta
belzebul em floresta corn exploraqdo madeireira e nao-
explorada na Amaz6nia Oriental, p.49.
Pinto, A. C. B., Azevedo-Ramos, C. & Carvalho Jr., 0.
Cupinzeiros na dieta do Alouatta belzebul: Alguma reladao
corn a folivoria?, p.59.
Pinto, L. P Ecologia de Alouatta belzebul, o guariba-de-
maos-vermelhas, p.53.
Polegatto, C. M. & Amaral, J. M. J. Postura de macaco-
prego, Cebus apella, em diversas situaq6es do ambiente:
Implicaqoes morfol6gica e evolutiva, p. 168.
Porffrio, S., Camargo, C. C., Eloy, E. C. C. & Silva, T.
C. F. Levantamento de projetos e estudos relacionados a
conservacao de primates no Brasil, p.89.
Porffrio, S., Laroque, P., Oliveira, M. M. & Camargo, C. C.
Criacao de filhote de Alouatta belzebul em semi-cativeiro:
Um estudo de caso, p. 132.
Porffrio, S., Oliveira, M. M. & Laroque, P. Reintroducao
de um casal de guaribas, Alouatta belzebul, na Reserva
Biol6gica de Guaribas, Parafba, Brasil, p.134.
Port-Carvalho, M. & Ferrari, S. F. Uso do habitat por
Chiropotessatanas satanas e outras tr&s species de primates
em fragments florestais no oeste do Maranhao, p.70.
Port-Carvalho, M. & Ferrari, S. E Dieta e comportamento
do cuxid-preto (Chiropotes satanas satanas) em fragments
florestais antr6picos no oeste do Maranhao, p.76.
Possamai, C. B., Oliveira, R. C. R. & Dias, L. G. Observacao
de sexo oral em muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides
hypoxanthus) na Estaqgo Biol6gica de Caratinga Minas
Gerais, p.136.

Printes, R. C., Liesenfeld, M. V. A. & Jerusalinsky, L. Novo
limited sul para a distribuigao de Alouatta guariba clamitans
e dos primates neotropicais, p.63.
Queiroz, J. S. G. & Arruda, M. E Partilha de alimento
em filhotes de Callithrix jacchus corn restrigao de acesso
a fonte, p.145.
Ravetta, A. L. Distribuigao e abundancia do coati-da-testa-
branca (Ateles marginatus) no baixo rio Tapaj6s, Pari,
Rfmoli, J. & Ferrari, S. E Ecologia de macacos-prego, Cebus
apella nigritus (Goldfuss, 1809), na Estaqgo Biol6gica de
Caratinga (MG): Implicao6es para a conservacao de
fragments de Mata Atlintica, p.32.
Rfmoli, J., Fernandes Jr., 0. & Odalia-Rfmoli, A.
Comportamento social em um grupo de sagiiis-de-tufo-
preto (Callithrix penicillata V. Geoffroy, 1812) em um
fragmento de cerrado em Campo Grande, Mato Grosso
do Sul, p.88.
Rfmoli, J., Geacopello, L., Corsino, 0. & Oddlia-Rfmoli,
A. Padrao de atividades de um grupo de macacos-pregos-
paraguaios (Cebus libidinosusparaguayanus Fischer, 1829)
em um fragmento florestal em Mato Grosso do Sul: Uma
analise preliminary, p.75.
Rfmoli, J., Valdivino, E. M. 0. & Odalia-Rfmoli, A.
Orqamento de atividades de um grupo de bugios-pretos,
Alouatta caraya (Humboldt, 1812), em um fragmento de
floresta em Terenos (MS), p.82.
Rosa-Filho, A. F. & Bobadilla, U. L. A importancia dos
cip6s na dieta do bugio-ruivo (Alouatta guariba clamitans)
em um fragmento de Mata AtlAntica do Rio Grande do
Sul, p.61.
Robl, E, Hirano, Z. M. B., Souza, J. C., Costa, A.,
Guerra Jr., J. C. V. & Silva, H. H. Indices bioqufmicos
e hematol6gicos de Alouatta guariba clamitans, mantidos
em cativeiro cientffico no Centro de Pesquisas Biol6gicas
de Indaial SC, p.143.
Rocha, S. A. A. & Mendes, F. D. C. Predagao de caixa de
marimbondo por Cebus libidinosus, p.121.
Rosas Ribeiro, P E, Soares, M. L., Barroza, M. S. L. &
Mendes Pontes, A. R. Abundancia de sagiiis, CaGdllri'
jacchus (Callitrichidae, Primates) em fragments urbanos:
Um estudo de caso, p.57.
Ruiz-Miranda, C. R. Conservacgo do mico-ledo-dourado:
Uma estrategia multidisciplinar, multi-institucional e
international de long prazo, p. 14.
Ruiz-Miranda, C. R. Fragmentagdo do habitat e seus efeitos
na condigao ffsica dos animals e no comportamento
social, p.47.
Sampaio, R., Pedrosa, J. M., Santos, W. E, Hirano, Z. M.
B. & Gomes, H. L. Rela6oes de espagamento em um
grupo de bugios pretos Alouatta caraya de uma mata
urbana em Ribeirao Preto, p.128.
Santamaria, M. Biologia e ecologia do guariba vermelho,
Alouatta seniculus, p.52.
Santamaria, M. & Rylands, A. B. Dieta e padrao de
atividade de Alouatta seniculus durante a estagao seca na
Amaz6nia Central brasileira, p. 102.
Santos, R. R. & Ferrari, S. F. Padrao de atividades
e comportamento alimentar de Chiropotes satanas

Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003

(Primates: Pitheciidae) em uma paisagem fragmentada da
Amazonia Oriental, p.22.
Schiel, N., Bezerra, M. B., Souto, A. & Huber, L. Um novo
m&todo de identificaqdo individual do Callithrix jacchus
(Primates: Callitrichidae), p. 123.
Schneider, H. A primatologia na Amaz6nia historic e
perspectives, p. 12.
Schneider, M. P. C., Ferrari, S. F., Gonoalves, E. C.,
Menezes, E. V., Coutinho, P. E. G. & Silva, A.
Variabilidade gen&tica de populaqoes de Mico argentatus
em habitat fragmentado da Amaz6nia Oriental, p.28.
Silva, A., Schneider, I. & Schneider, M. P C. Evolucao do
gene prion cellular em primates do Novo Mundo, p.18.
Silva, B. A., Guedes, P. G. & Boubli, J. P. Microscopia de
luz e descriqio preliminary dos pelos-guarda de atelfdeos
brasileiros (Platyrrhini, Primates), p.167.
Silva, C. I. B. & Serbena, A. L. Padres de locomoqao
em urn grupo de muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides) em
ambiente de cativeiro, p.147.
Silva, J. A. G., Rego, P. S., Sampaio, M. I. C. & Schneider,
H. Relaq6es filogen&ticas de Saguinus (Primates,
Callitrichidae) atravis do gene mitocondrial rRNA 16S,
Silva Jr., J. S. A primatologia no Museu do Parn, p.17.
Silva Jr., J. S. Sistemitica dos macacos-prego e caiararas,
genero Cebus Erxleben, 1777 (Primates, Cebidae), p.35.
Silva Jr., J. S. & Figueiredo, W. M. B. Revisdo sistemitica
dos cuxids, genero Chiropotes Lesson, 1840 (Primates,
Pitheciidae), p.21.
Silva, M. M., Villar, D. N. A., Leio, G. S. & Silva, E. M. A.
Ocorrencia de uma populaqao de Brachyteles arachnoides
(Primates: Atelidae) na Serra da Mantiqueira SIo
Francisco Xavier, SIo Josa dos Campos SP, p.62.
Silva, S. S. B. & Ferrari, S. F Comportamento e dieta
de um grupo silvestre de Saguinus midas niger em um
fragmento de floresta do Centro Nacional de Primatas,
Ananindeua Para, p.67.
Silva, S. S. B. & Ferrari, S. F. Resultados preliminares de
um estudo comportamental do cuxit-preto (Chiropotes
satanas satanas) no Lago de Tucuruf Para, p.68.
Silva, V. M. & Codenotti, T. L. Ocorrencia de primatas em
diferentes municfpios do Rio Grande do Sul, p.64.
Siqueira-Filho, E., Coser, L. A. S., Barra, C. A. S.,
Carvalh&do, A. S. & Boere, V. Estudo preliminary da
citologia vaginal e observaqao comportamental em femeas
de mico-leao-de-cara-dourada (Leontopithecus chrysomelas)
em cativeiro, p. 141.
Soares, E., Pissinatti, A., Seuinez, H. N., Tanuri, A.
& Shares, M. A. Evoluqgo do gene do receptor de
quimiocina do tipo 5 (ccr5) em primatas do Novo Mundo
(Platyrrhini, Primates): Implicaq6es na susceptibilidade a
lentivfrus, p.149.
Sousa, A. L. P., Pieczarka, J. C., Barros, R. M. S.,
Nagamachi, C. Y. & Rodrigues, L. R. Anilise cariotfpica
de Callicebus sp. (Cebidae: Primates) da regido de
Santarem PA e comparaqao corn Callicebus moloch de
Tucuruf- PA, p.150.
Sousa, M. B. C., Silva, H. P. A. & Leao, A. C. Diferengas
entire g&neros na resposta comportamental e no cortisol

fecal no context de privaqao social em sagiii comum,
Callithrixjacchus, p. 148.
Souza, C. A., Mendes, F. D. C. & Jorge da Silva Jr., N.
Utilizaqio de ferramentas por Cebus apell libidinosus de
dispersIo livre, p.69.
Souza Jr., J. C., Hirano, Z. M. B., Cardoso, E., Robl. F. &
Costa, A. Avaliaqio do estado clinico general de bugios
ruivos (Alouatta guariba clamitans) cativos no Centro de
Pesquisas Biol6gicas de Indaial SC (CEPESBI), p.162.
Spironelo, W. Composiqio da dieta, abundancia e
distribuiqao dos recursos mais utilizados, e comportamento
de uso da area: Requerimentos bisicos para a conservadao
do macaco-prego (Cebus apella), p.33.
Torres, V. P., Sim6es-Mattos, L., Mattos, M. R. F. &
Frutuoso, M. S. Presenqa de ascarfdeos por ocasido
de necropsia em sagiiis (Callithrix jacchus) na region
metropolitan de Fortaleza, CearM (Brasil), p. 144.
Valenqa-Montenegro, M. M., Melo, L. C. 0., Valle, Y. B.
M. & Monteiro da Cruz, M. A. 0. Riscos associados
a urbanizacio de uma irea de ocorrencia natural de
Callithrix jacchus, p.90.
Valenqa-Montenegro, M. M., Valle, Y. B. M., Melo, L. C.
0. & Monteiro da Cruz, M. A. 0. T&tano em Callithrix
jacchus de vida livre: Relato de caso, p.163.
Valle, R. R., Guimaraes, M. A. B. V., Barnabe, R. C. V.,
Muniz, J. A. P. C. & Vale, W. G. Caracteristicas ffsicas
e morfol6gicas do semen de Alouatta caraya (Humboldt,
1812) mantidos em cativeiro, p.172.
Vilanova, R., Silva Jr., J. S., Grelle, C. E. V., Marroig, G.
& Cerqueira, R. Limites climAticos e vegetacionais das
distribuigoes de Cebus nigritus e C robustus (Cebinae,
Platyrrhini), p.72.
Werdenich, D. & Huber, L. Social factors determine
cooperation in marmosets, p.130.


28t International Ethological Conference, 20-27 August
2003, Costdo do Santinho Resort, Florianopolis, Brazil. On
behalf of the International Council of Ethologists and hosted
by the Brazilian Society of Ethology. Deadline for submis-
sion of symposia: 31 January 2003. Deadline for submission
of abstracts, financial aid applications, and standard reduced
registration rate: 20 February 2003. For more information
on the conference contact: Professor Kleber del Claro, e-
mail: , or on the scientific program, con-
tact Professor Regina Macedo, e-mail: .
Website: .

Vth World Parks Congress 2003 Benefits Beyond
Boundaries, 8-17 September, 2003, Durban, Republic
of South Africa. The World Conservation Union (IUCN),
World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA). Pre-
liminary registration by 30 April 2003, but attendance

72 Neotropical Primates 11(1), April 2003

by invitation only. Contact: Peter Shadie, World Parks
Congress 2003, IUCN, The World Conservation Union,
Rue Mauverney 28, CH-1196 Gland, Switzerland. Web-
sites: and

16th Congress of the Soci&t6 Francophone de Primatolo-
gie, 22-25 October, 2003, Bruxelles, Belgium. The congress
is held in conjunction with the Institut royal des Sciences
naturelles de Belgique, and its focus will be on evolution
in primates. Deadline for abstracts: September 20, 2003.
Registration fees: SFDP members 80 euros, students 40
euros, others 110. For more information, contact Regine
Vercauteren at <106514.41@compuserve.com> or visit
the Congress website at ancolloque.html>.

16t Congress of the Associazione Primatologica Italiana,
28-30 October, 2003, Convento dell'Osservanza, Radicon-
doli (Siena), Italy. Held with: Centro Studi Etologici. Focus:
Recent trends in Italian primatological research. Registra-
tion: no fees; deadline June 30, 2003. Abstract deadline July
15, 2003. Contact: Daniele Formenti, Dip. Biologia Ani-
male, Piazza Botta 10, 27100 Pavia, Italy, Fax: +39/0382/
0431140, e-mail: , website: //www.unipv.it/webbio/api/congl 6/congl 6.htm>.

XXI Encontro Anual de Etologia, III Simposio de Eco-
logia Comportamental e de Intera6es, 31 de outubro a
02 de novembro de 2003. Sociedade Brasileira de Etologia e
Institute de Biologia da Universidade de UberlAndia, Minas
Gerais, Brasil. Comissio Organizadora, Coordenaqdo Geral
- Kleber Del-Claro, email: ; Coordena-
dora Ana Paula Korndorfer, e-mail: com>. Data final para inscriqoes: 07 de setembro de 2003.
Website: .

VII Congreso de la Sociedad Mesoamericana para la
Biologia y la Conservaci6n, 3-7 de noviembre, 2003.
Tuxtla Gutidrrez, Chiapas, Mexico. Fechas limite para el
envfo de: Propuestas de conferencistas centroamericanos 1
de abril 2003; Propuestas preliminares de simposios, cursos
y talleres 15 de abril 2003; Propuestas completes de sim-
posios, cursos y talleres 30 de junio 2003; Resumenes de
presentaciones orales o en cartel (afiche) 30 de junio 2003;
Respuesta de aceptaci6n o rechazo de resumenes 15 de
agosto 2003; Pago de inscripci6n temprana 30 de septiem-
bre 2003. Website: ev.php>.

XVIII Jornadas Argentinas de Mastozoologia, La Rioja,
4 al 7 de noviembre de 2003. Ciudad Universitaria de la
Cienciay laThcnica. Av. LapridayVicente Bustos, La Rioja
(Capital), Argentina. Organizan: Instituto parael Desarrollo
Socioecon6mico de Los Llanos de La Rioja (INDELLAR)
y Catedra de Fauna Silvestre, Sede Chamical Universidad
Nacional de La Rioja. Disertantes: Dr. Mauricio Lima
Arce, Departamento de Ecologia, Pontificia Universidad
Cat6lica de Chile, y el Dr. Milton H. Gallardo, Instituto

de Ecologfa y Evoluci6n, Universidad Austral de Chile.
Nos encontramos realizando gestiones para contar con la
participaci6n de investigadores en Paleontologia, Ecologfa,
Comportamiento, Biogeograffa, Conservaci6n y Manejo,
Parasitologfa, Fisiologfa, Histologfa, Anatomfa, Gen&ica,
Taxonomia, Sistemitica, Morfologia y Colecciones de
mamfferos. Fechas importantes: Lfmite propuestas de simpo-
sio, mesas redondas, talleres 19/7/03; Limite presentaci6n
de restumenes 1/8/03. Informes: Dra. Victoria R. Rosati,
Comisi6n Organizadora Local, XVIII Jornadas Argentinas
de Mastozoologfa, INDELLAR Sede Chamical Uni-
versidad Nacional de La Rioja, Castro Barros 557-5380,
Chemical, La Rioja, Argentina, Tel: 54-3826-422011, Fax:
54-3826-422012, e-mail: .

VI Congress de Ecologia do Brasil, 9 a 14 de novembro
de 2003, Fortaleza, Ceari. Tema: "Ecossistemas brasileiros:
manejo e conservacqo". Realizacgo: Sociedade Brasileira de
Ecologia e a Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC). Doze
principals simp6sios temiticos: 1) Floresta Pluvial Tropi-
cal Amaz6nica, 2) Floresta Pluvial Tropical Atlintica, 3)
Floresta Temperada com Araucdria, 4) Florestas Estacio-
nais, 5) Cerrado, 6) Caatinga, 7) Complexo do Pantanal,
8) Ecossistemas AquAticos Continentais e Marinhos, 9)
Biodiversidade, Unidades de Conservacao, Bioindicado-
res Ambientais, 10) Ecologia da Paisagem, 11) Educacqo
Ambiental, 12) Ensino de Ecologia. Maiores informagoes:
ou .


VI International Conference on Wildlife Management
in Amazonia and Latin America, 5-10 September 2004,
Iquitos, Peru. Hosted by The National University of the
Peruvian Amazon (UNAP), the Durrell Institute of Con-
servation and Ecology (DICE) and the Wildlife Conser-
vation Society (WCS). Discussions and presentations will
look at the advances made for conservation, and the lessons
learnt in the design, development, implementation, meth-
ods, and management plans for wildlife in Amazonia and
Latin America. For further information about the confer-
ence, submission of abstracts, workshops, and courses,
and information on registration and hotels, please visit the
conference website at ,
or contact the conference organizers by e-mail at


XI Congress Brasileiro de Primatologia, 6 a 11 de
fevereiro de 2005, Pontificia Universidade Cat6lica do Rio
Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.
Website: .


The journal/newsletter aims to provide a basis for conservation
information relating to the primates of the Neotropics. We
welcome texts on any aspect of primate conservation, including
articles, thesis abstracts, news items, recent events, recent publica-
tions, primatological society information and suchlike.


Please send all English and Portuguese contributions to:
John M. Aguiar, Conservation International, Center for Applied
Biodiversity Science, 1919 M St. NW, Suite 600, Washington,
DC 20036, Tel: 202 912-1000, Fax: 202 912-0772, e-mail:
, and all Spanish contributions to:
Ernesto Rodrfguez-Luna, Instituto de Neuroetologfa, Universi-
dad Veracruzana, Apartado Postal 566, Xalapa 91000, Veracruz,
Mexico, Tel: 281 8-77-30, Fax: 281 8-77-30, 8-63-52, e-mail:


Manuscripts may be in English, Spanish or Portuguese, and should
be double-spaced and accompanied by the text on diskette for
PC compatible text-editors (MS-Word, WordPerfect, Excel, and
Access), and/or e-mailed to (English,
Portuguese) or (Spanish). Hard
copies should be supplied for all figures (illustrations and maps)
and tables. The full name and address for each author should be
included. Please avoid abbreviations and acronyms without the
name in full. Authors whose first language is not English should
please have texts carefully reviewed by a native English speaker.

Articles. Each issue of Neotropical Primates will include up to
three full articles, limited to the following topics: Taxonomy,
Systematics, Genetics (when relevant for systematics), Biogeogra-
phy, Ecology and Conservation. Texts for full articles should not
exceed about 20 pages in length (1.5 spaced, and including the
references). Please include an abstract in English, and (optional)
one in Portuguese or Spanish. Tables and illustrations should be
limited to six, excepting only the cases where they are fundamental
for the text (as in species descriptions, for example). Full articles
will be sent out for peer-review.

Short articles. These are usually reviewed only by the editors.
A broader range of topics is encouraged, including such as
behavioral research, in the interests of informing on general
research activities which contribute to our understanding of
platyrrhines. We encourage reports on projects and conservation
and research programs (who, what, where, when, why, etc.) and
most particularly information on geographical distributions,
locality records, and protected areas and the primates which
occur in them. Texts should not exceed 10 pages in length
(1.5 spaced, including the references).

Figures and maps. Articles may include small black-and-white
photographs, high-quality figures, and high-quality maps and
tables. Please keep these to a minimum. We stress the importance
of providing maps which are publishable.

News items. Please send us information on projects, field sites,
courses, recent publications, awards, events, activities of Primate
Societies, etc.

References. Examples of house style may be found throughout this
journal. Please refer to these examples when listing references:

Journal article
Stallings, J. D. and Mittermeier, R. A. 1983. The black-tailed
marmoset (Callithrix argentata melanura) recorded from Paraguay.
Am. J. Primatol. 4: 159-163.

Chapter in book
Brockelman, W. Y. and Ali, R. 1987. Methods of surveying and
sampling forest primate populations. In: Primate Conservation
in the Tropical Rain Forest, C. W. Marsh and R. A. Mittermeier
(eds.), pp. 23-62. Alan R. Liss, New York.

Napier, P. H. 1976. Catalogue of Primates in the British Museum
(Natural History). Part 1: Families Callitrichidae and Cebidae.
British Museum (Natural History), London.

Wallace, R. B. 1998. The behavioral ecology of black spider
monkeys in north-eastern Bolivia. Doctoral thesis, University of
Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.

Muckenhirn, N. A., Mortensen, B. K., Vessey, S., Frazer,
C. E. 0. and Singh, B. 1975. Report on a primate survey in
Guyana. Unpublished report, Pan American Health Organization,
Washington, DC.

Neotropical Primates is produced in collaboration
with Conservation International, Center for Applied
Biodiversity Science, 1919 M St. NW, Suite 600,
Washington, DC 20036, USA.

Printed on New Leaf 80# Reincarnation Matte Cover and 70# Reincarnation Matte text
paper (100% recycled/50% post-consumer waste), and bleached without the use of chlorine
or chlorine compounds. For this issue, using 450 pounds of post-consumer waste instead
of virgin fiber saved...
3 Trees
245 Pounds of solid waste
269 Gallons of water
351 Kilowatt hours of electricity
445 Pounds of greenhouse gases
2 Pounds ofHAPs, VOCs, and AOX combined
1 Cubic yard of landfill space


University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs