Title: Neotropical primates
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Title: Neotropical primates a newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCNSSC Primate Specialist Group
Abbreviated Title: Neotrop. primates
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 27 cm.
Language: English
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IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
Conservation International
Center for Applied Biodiversity Science
Publisher: Conservation International
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Publication Date: December 2002
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Subject: Primates -- Periodicals -- Latin America   ( lcsh )
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Wildlife conservation -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
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Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002


Douglas Brandon-Jones
Colin P Groves

Before 1961, it was customary to regard the validity of a
family-group name as determined by the recognizability
of its type genus. If the type genus was relegated to the
synonymy of another genus, a family-group name with a
stem derived from the senior generic synonym was substi-
tuted. The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature
was then amended to protect the stability of family-group
names from the potential effects of generic lumping. The
rationale appears to be that, by 1960, most family-group
names were well established, and most genus-group
junior synonyms had been identified as such and, where
appropriate, replaced. Groves (2001, p.126) correctly
stated that the valid family-group name is now the earli-
est one applied, but failed to appreciate that Article 40
of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature was
expressly introduced to prevent this amendment from dis-
rupting stability of scientific nomenclature. Article 40.2.1
not only allows, but insists that a family-group name "in
prevailing usage", replaced before 1961 because its type
genus was considered a junior synonym, should be main-
tained. This paper contends that, under the provisions of
Article 40.2.1, Alouattinae Trouessart, 1897 (1825) and
Aotidae Poche, 1908 (1865) are the correct family-group
names for their type genera, Alouatta Lacdpede, 1799 and
Aotus Illiger, 1811. We urge the retention of Saimiridae
Miller, 1912 (1900) to maintain its prevailing usage as
the family-group name for its type genus Saimiri Voigt,
1831 but note that, in this instance, the provisions of
Article 40.2.1 do not automatically ensure this preferred
outcome. We reason that Callitrichidae Gray, 1821 is the
correct family-group name for its type genus (
Erxleben, 1777.

In his book, Primate Taxonomy, Groves (2001) replaced
the family-group name Callitrichidae Thomas, 1903 with
Hapalinae Gray, 1821 for the marmosets and tamarins (as
a subfamily of the Cebidae). He replaced the family-group
name Alouattinae Elliot, 1904 with Mycetinae Gray, 1825
for the howler monkeys; the family-group name Aotidae
Poche, 1908 with Nyctipithecidae Gray, 1870 for the dou-
roucoulis, night monkeys or owl monkeys; and the family-
group name Saimirinae Miller, 1924 with Chrysotrichinae
Cabrera, 1900 for the squirrel monkeys (Table 1).

Groves (2001) stated he was quoting Article 40 from
the current (Fourth) edition of the International Code of

ZoologicalNomenclature (2000), and Rylands (2002, p. 122)
unfortunately omitted the key word "not" from section (a),
which should have read, "...that family-group name is not to
be replaced..." The Fourth edition, however, was not final-
ized when the manuscript of Groves' book was completed
and, unaware that the wording had changed, Groves (2001)
was therefore quoting from the previous (Third) edition of
the Code (1985). Although its message remains essentially
the same, to set the record straight, this is how Article 40
now reads in the current (Fourth) edition of the Code:

Article 40. Synonymy of the type genus.
40.1. Validity of family-group names not affected. When
the name of a type genus of a nominal family-group taxon
is considered to be a junior synonym of the name of another
nominal genus, the family-group name is not to be replaced
on that account alone.

40.2. Names replaced before 1961. If, however, a family-
group name was replaced before 1961 because of the
synonymy of the type genus, the substitute name is to be
maintained if it is in prevailing usage.

40.2.1. A name maintained by virtue of this Article retains
its own author but takes the priority of the replaced name,
of which it is deemed to be the senior synonym.

Recommendation 40A. Citation of author and date. If the
author and date are cited, a family-group name maintained
under the provisions of Article 40.2.1 should be cited with its
original author and date.. .followed by the date of its priority
as determined by this Article; the date of priority should be
enclosed in parentheses.

Groves (2001) contravened Article 40 in replacing at least
two of the above four family-group names, in that Simpson
(1945) had already replaced Nyctipithecinae by Aotinae
and Mycetinae by Alouattinae, and these names had come
into "prevailing usage".

Table 1. Platyrrhine family-group names employed by Groves
Family/Subfamily Genera
Cebidae Bonaparte, 1831
Hapalinae Gray, 1825 Cebuella, Mico, Callithrix,
Hapalnae Gray, 1825
Callimico, Leontopithecus, Saguinus
Chrysotrichinae Cabrera, Saimiri
Cebinae Bonaparte, 1831 Cebus
Nyctipithecidae Gray, 1870 Aotus
Pitheciidae Mivart, 1865
Pitheciinae Mivart, 1865 Pithecia, Cacajao, Chiropotes
Callicebinae Pocock, 1925 C(./ ,,n,
Atelidae Gray, 1825
Atelinae Gray, 1825 Ateles, Lagothrix, Oreonax,
Atelinae Gray, 1825 Bahte
Mycetinae Gray, 1825 Alouatta

Simpson (1945, p.65) cited Mycetina Gray, 1825 and
Alouatinae Trouessart, 1897 as synonyms of Alouattinae
Elliot, 1904; and Mycetes Illiger, 1811 as a synonym of
Alouatta Lacdpede, 1799. Article states that a
family-group name formed from an incorrect subsequent
spelling of a generic name is an incorrect original spelling
and must be corrected. Cited as it was from Lacdpede,
"Alouata" is a misspelling, not a new name. Even though
he misspelt it, Trouessart (1897, p.32) therefore should be
cited as the author of Alouattinae. Simpson (1945, p.64)
cited Nyctipithecinae Mivart, 1865 as a synonym ofAotinae
Elliot, 1913; and Nyctipithecus Spix, 1823 and Aotus "Hum-
boldt, 1811" as synonyms of Aotes "Humboldt, 1811". He
was therefore well aware of the earlier family-group names,
and his reason for replacing them is self-evident.

Using the recommended citation of author and date,
Alouattinae Trouessart, 1897 (1825), and Aotidae Poche,
1908 (1865), both unequivocally "in prevailing usage", are
thus the correct family-group names for their type genera,
and take priority over all other family-group names based
on those type genera and their synonyms. Groves (2001)
should not have used Mycetinae and Nyctipithecidae,
because in so doing he contravened Article 40. His prec-
edent should not be followed.

Simpson (1945, p.65) cited Callitricidae Gray, 1821, Cal-
lithricina Gray, 1825, Harpaladae Gray, 1821 and Hapali-
dae Wagner, 1840 as synonyms of Callitrichidae Thomas,
1903; and Hapale Illiger, 1811 as a synonym of (
Erxleben, 1777. Thomas (1903) discovered that (
was based on a marmoset and not (as previously thought)
on a titi monkey. He instigated the generic name ( ..-
for the titis, and replaced the then prevalent Hapale with
C .- for the marmosets, and the family-group name
Hapalidae with Callitrichidae. The family-group name
Callitricidae Gray, 1821, although misspelt, is clearly the
same family-group name as Callitrichina Gray, 1825. Com-
mencing with its vernacular name and ending with his con-
cept of the type species, Gray (1821, p.298) specified the
type genus as "Saimiri, Callitrix. Geoff. Simia sciurea. Lin".
Groves' (2001, p.127) inference that "Callitrichinae/-idae
Thomas 1903, for the marmosets and tamarins is preoccu-
pied by the same name of Gray, 1825, for the titis" is accu-
rate only if it can be demonstrated that (C .- Geoffroy
Saint-Hilaire, 1812 is a junior homonym of C .- Erx-
leben, 1777, rather than the same genus. Geoffroy (1812,
p.112) did not cite the authorship of ( .-' and it is
internally unclear whether he intended it as a new genus.
Geoffroy and Cuvier (1795, p.461), however, do cite Erx-
leben as the author, precluding (C .- Geoffroy, 1812
from being construed as a new name. That Gray (1821)
misidentified the type genus is immaterial as ultimately
the identity of a family-group name rests on the identity
of the holotype, lectotype or neotype of the type species of
the type genus of that family-group name. If the holotype,
etc. is a marmoset then the family-group name belongs to
marmosets, regardless of whether Gray (1821) applied it to
the squirrel monkeys.

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002
The type genus of Callitricidae Gray, 1821 was misidenti-
fied, but Thomas (1903) rectified that mistake, and the
family-group name Callitrichidae is now "in prevailing
usage" for the marmosets. The use of Hapalidae in W. C.
0. Hill's influential monograph series Primates: Compara-
tive Anatomy and Taxonomy" (Groves, 2001, p.127) does
not alone constitute "prevailing usage". Hill (1957, pp.vii,
281) himself subscribed to the view that the priority of the
type genus determines that of the family-group name, and
indeed later abandoned Hapalidae. Hill (1972, pp.56, 76,
79, 164) initially repeatedly cited the two family-group
names in tandem, but then formally recognized "Callithric-
idae" (p.164). Article 40.2.1 can be invoked to confirm
the priority of Callitrichidae Gray, 1821 over Harpalidae
Gray, 1821 or alternatively a First Reviser, such as Elliot
(1913, p.xvii) can be sought. Callitrichidae Gray, 1821 is
thus, after all, unequivocally the correct family-group name
for the marmosets. This spelling, not Gray's (1821) origi-
nal, accords with Article 29.3.1 (see International Code of
Zoological Nomenclature, Third edition, 1985, Appendix D
VII, Table 2, Part B, Greek noun genitive stem 24).

The case of Saimirinae is a little different. This name is at
least twelve years older than Groves (2001, p.156) stated,
and can be attributed as Saimiridae to Miller (1912, p.379).
It is unlikely to significantly predate Miller (1912), as the
priority of Saimiri Voigt, 1831 over Chrysothrix Kaup,
1835 was acknowledged only fifteen years earlier (Palmer,
1897). It cannot readily be conserved under the provisions
of Article 40.2.1 because, before 1961, few authors rec-
ognized it. Fewer still (perhaps none, other than Cabrera,
himself) seemed aware of the earlier name, Chrysothri-
chinae Cabrera, 1900. We have found no author before
1961 who specified or implied that he or she was replac-
ing Chrysotrichinae (the correct spelling) because its type
genus had become a junior synonym. But then again, as
such replacement was standard practice, most might have
felt no compulsion to justify their action. If Miller's (1912,
1924) awareness of the earlier name could be demonstrated,
such replacement could be taken as read because, although
including Saimiri in the subfamily Nyctipithecinae, Miller
and Rehn (1901, p.297) simultaneously commented: "This
name [Nyctipithecinae] is untenable since Nyctipithecus has
been replaced by Aotus". Should a senior synonym of Sai-
miriVoigt, 1831 be discovered, Saimiri can be maintained
under the provisions of Article 23.9. The only foreseeable
threat to the stability of Saimiridae Miller, 1912 therefore
is the strict application of the Law of Priority. Strictly inter-
preted, Article 40.2.1 demands a formal statement before
1961 of replacement of a family-group name because its
type genus has become a junior synonym, but the overrid-
ing aim of the Code is stability of scientific nomenclature.
If deemed necessary, this case could be referred to the
Commission for a ruling, but the axiom "maintain prevail-
ing usage" should suffice. Cabrera (1900), Anthony and
Coupin (1931) and Groves (2001) are probably the only
authors to employ Chrysotrichinae, so the approbation of
"prevailing usage" rests indisputably with Saimiridae. We
strongly advocate rejecting Chrysotrichinae as the family-

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002

group name for the squirrel monkeys in favour of Saimiri-
dae Miller, 1912 (1900).

We are grateful for helpful comments from Carol Gokce,
Peter Grubb and Anthony Rylands, but any errors or omis-
sions in this paper are entirely ours. Financial support to
DB-J was provided by Conservation International, thanks
to a grant from the Margot Marsh Biodiversity Founda-

Douglas Brandon-Jones, 32a Back Lane, Richmond
TW10 7LF, UK, e-mail: ,
and Colin P. Groves, School of Archaeology and Anthro-
pology, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT
0200, Australia, e-mail: .


Anthony, R. and Coupin, E 1931. Tableau resume d'une
classification gn&erique des Primates fossiles et actuels.
Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris (2)3: 566-569.
Cabrera Latorre, A. 1900. Estudios sobre una colleci6n de
monos americanos. Anal. Soc. Espanola Hist. Nat. Madrid
(2)9(29): 65-93.
Duncan, E M. 1937. On the dates of publication of the
Society's 'Proceedings,' 1859-1926. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond.
107: 71-84.
Elliot, D. G. 1913. A Review of the Primates. Monograph
Series, Volume 1, Lemuroidea: Daubentonia to Indris,
Anthropoidea: Seniocebus to Saimiri. American Museum
of Natural History, New York.
Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, [E.]. 1812. Tableau des
quadrumanes, ou des animaux composant le premier
ordre de la classes des mammiferes. Annls. Mus. Hist. Nat.
Paris 19: 85-122.
Geoffroy [Saint-Hilaire], E., and Cuvier, G. 1795. Histoire
naturelle des orangs-outangs. Magazine Encycl. 3: 451-
Gray, J. E. 1821. On the natural arrangement of vertebrose
animals. Lond. Med. Repository 15: 296-310.
Gray, J. E. 1825. An outline of an attempt at the disposition
of Mammalia into tribes and families, with a list of the
genera apparently appertaining to each tribe. Ann. Philos.
(new ser.) 10: 337-344.
Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate Taxonomy. Smithsonian
Institution Press, Washington, DC.
Hill, W C. 0. 1957. Primates. Comparative Anatomy and
Taxonomy III. Pithecoidea Platyrrhini (Families Hapalidae
and Ci//.ii/,,',./,h'. Edinburgh University Press,
Hill, W C. 0. 1972. Evolutionary Biology of the Primates.
Academic Press, London and New York.
Miller, G. S., Jr. 1912. List of North American land
mammals in the United States National Museum, 1911.
Bull. U. S. Natn. Mus. (79): i-xiv, 1-455.
Miller, G. S., Jr. 1924. List of North American recent
mammals 1923. Bull. U. S. Natn. Mus. (128): i-xvi, 1-

Miller, G. S., Jr. and Rehn, J. A. G. 1901. Systematic
results of the study of North American land mammals
to the close of the year 1900. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist.
30: 1-352.
Mivart, St. G. 1865. Contributions towards a more
complete knowledge of the axial skeleton in the primates.
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1865: 545-592. [Published in
October 1865, see Duncan (1937, p.72).]
Palmer, T. S. 1897. Notes on the nomenclature of four
genera of tropical American mammals. Proc. Biol. Soc.
Wash. 11: 173-174.
Rylands, A. B. 2002. Two taxonomies of the New World
primates a comparison of Rylands et al. (2000) and
Groves (2001). Neotrop. Primates 9(3): 121-124.
Simpson, G. G. 1945. The principles of classification and a
classification of mammals. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 85:
Thomas, 0. 1903. Notes on South-American monkeys,
bats, carnivores, and rodents, with descriptions of new
species. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7)12: 455-464.
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Berlin, Friedlander und Sohn, pt. 1.


Karen B. Strier, Jean Philippe Boubli
Vanessa 0. Guimardes, Sergio L. Mendes


The northern muriqui, Brachyteles arachnoides hypoxan-
thus, or B. hypoxanthus, is considered to be one of the
25 most critically-endangered primate taxa in the world
(CI/IPS/PSG, 2002). Fewer than 500 northern muriquis
are thought to survive today, distributed in small popula-
tions in the states of Minas Gerais and Espfrito Santo.
Although several new populations have been discovered
in recent years, the 890 ha forest at the Estacao Biol6gica
de Caratinga (EBC), in Minas Gerais is still the largest
population known, and the only one that is considered to
be viable (Rylands et al., 1998; Strier, 2000). In 2001, the
EBC was transformed from a privately-owned forest into a
federally-protected reserve, known as the RPPN Feliciano
Miguel Abdala (Castro, 2001). Yet, despite the forest's new
protected status, continued monitoring of the muriqui
population there remains an urgent conservation priority.
Long-term behavioral, ecological, reproductive, and demo-
graphic studies of the largest muriqui group at the EBC,
known as the Matao group, have been underway since 1982
(Strier, 1999a). During the past 20 years, this group has
more than tripled in size, increasing from 22 to 70 mem-
bers as a result of low mortality among all age-sex classes,
high fertility among females, which give birth at 3-year
intervals, and a female-biased infant sex ratio. Males in this
population remain in their natal groups for life, but females

routinely transfer out of their natal groups at a median age
of 73.5 months, prior to the onset of puberty (Printes and
Strier, 1999; Strier and Ziegler, 2000).

To date, all but two of the 28 natal females that survived
to six years of age have transferred out of the Matao group,
and until the late 1990s, the number of female emigrants
and immigrants was similar. By the late 1990s, however,
female emigrants from the Matao group began to out-
number female immigrants, which came from a second
large group, known as the Ja6 group, in this forest (Strier,
1999b). During the first systematic census of the EBC
primate community, conducted in August 1999, a total
of 73 muriquis were sighted in Ja6 (Strier et al., 1999).
This was substantially more than the 18 individuals previ-
ously known to inhabit the Ja6 region of the forest, and
confirmed prior suspicions that the entire population was
expanding at a comparable rate to that of the Matao group.
It also emphasized the importance of extending the EBC
muriqui project to include the Ja6 group, and the value of
maintaining long-term demographic records on the survi-
vorship and fertility of all females after they leave their natal

Here, we present an update on the EBC muriqui popula-
tion. We pool current data from the Matao study, which
is now in its 21st year, with data from the forest-wide
census conducted in August 1999 and new preliminary
demographic data from the Ja6 group, which has been
monitored since March 2002. Altogether, we estimate there
to be at least 171 individuals in the EBC population. We
also document the successful immigrations of 13 females,
originally from the Matao group, now fully integrated into
the Ja6 group, and confirm previous estimates on the age
of first reproduction in female muriquis that disperse from
their natal groups.


In August 1999, 16 experienced researchers who had
conducted long-term studies on the EBC primates joined
forces to survey the muriqui population and those of the
other three species of sympatric primates, ( .-' flavi-
ceps, Cebus nigritus, and Alouatta guariba. A brief descrip-
tion of the census can be found in Strier et al. (1999), and
a more detailed discussion of census methods and results
in the Matao region of the forest is currently underway
(Mendes and Strier, in prep.). Our priorities in the Ja6
region were focused on the muriquis there. Whenever
muriquis were heard or sighted, observers remained in the
area and searched until they obtained a complete count or
the group was lost to view. Age and sex classes were noted,
and familiar females, originally born in the Matao group
and still recognizable to prior researchers, were identified
whenever possible.

Between March-September 2002, 74 members of the Ja6
group have been followed systematically. An additional
seven individuals have recently been sighted, indicating

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002
that there are at least 81 individuals in Ja6. Like all mem-
bers of the Matao group, muriquis in the Ja6 group can
be individually recognized by their natural markings. They
have proved to be fairly easy to habituate, undoubtedly due
to the prohibition on hunting that has long been respected
in this forest, and to the fact that several of the adult
females presently in the Ja6 group had been previously
accustomed to the presence of human observers since their
births in the Matao group. Dates of births and emigrations
are known for all of the Matao females recently identified
in the Ja6 group. At least two of these familiar females were
seen carrying their first infants in August and September,
respectively, and therefore provide the first confirmation
of prior estimates of age at first reproduction in dispersing
female muriquis.


Muriqui Census, August 1999
At the time of the census, the Matao group was known
to contain 64 members. An additional seven adult males,
originally from Ja6, have been frequently sighted in the
Matao part of the forest and account for about 10-12%
of copulations involving Matao females (Strier et al., 1993;
Strier, 1997). A smaller group, thought to be a subset of the
Ja6 group and known as "Matao II" since the early 1990's
(Strier et al., 1993) was also known to use a small area of the
Matao forest. During the Matao census, a total of 13 indi-
viduals in the Matao II group were sighted. In addition, the
seven males from Ja6 are now thought to associate primar-
ily with the Matao II group. Together with the 64-member
Matao group and the seven Ja6/Matao II males, there were
at least 84 muriquis known in the Matao forest.

Muriquis were also sighted on the daily censuses in the Ja6
region. The total of 73 muriquis in Ja6 was based on the
largest number of each age-sex class sighted on any occa-

Table 1. Natal Matao females identified in the Ja6 group during
the 1999 census and the 2002 study period.
Female 1999 Ja6 Census 2002 Ja6 Study Period
Brh Present Present, 1t birth 08/02
Cat Present, with infant Present
Den Present Present, 1r birth 09/02
Fa Present Present, with infant 09/02
Hel Present Present, with infant 09/02
Ma Present Present, with infant
Nd Present, with infant Present
Pri Present Present
Rs Present Present
Nn Not sighted* Present
Bri Not sighted** Present, with infant
FI Emigrated 10/OtO Present
Kk Emigrated 04/02 Present
*Not sighted during the 1999 census, but was seen with the Ja6
group after she emigrated from the Matao group in November
1989 (Strier etal., 1993).
**Not sighted during the 1999 census, but was seen with the Ja6
group after her emigration in November 1995 (Printes and Strier,

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002
sion. Altogether, 20 different adult males, 28 adult females,
1 subadult female, 10 juveniles, and 14 infants were
counted. Combining the Ja6 census results with those from
the Matao side of the forest, we estimated the total EBC
muriqui population to be at least 157 individuals at that
time. Comparisons of the composition of the Matao and
Ja6 group indicated a higher proportion of adults in the Ja6
group and of immatures in the Matao group, but the adult
sex ratios in the two groups were similar (Fig. 1).

During the Ja6 census, nine females were observed which
were known to have been born in the Matao group and to
have subsequently emigrated (Table 1). Two of them (Cat
and Nd) were carrying dependent infants. Both of these
females, as well as others that were not associated with
infants, were known to have emigrated from the Matao
group prior to the onset of puberty (Strier and Ziegler,

The Jad Project
By September 2002, 74 members of the Ja6 group could
be recognized by trained observers. By this time, the Matao
group had increased to 70 members, and the age structures
of the two groups appear to have converged (Fig. 1). At least
seven additional muriquis have been sighted in Ja6, but
cannot yet be identified. All nine of the female immigrants
from the Matao group identified during the census were
still present, and an additional four natal Matao females
have been identified with the Ja6 group (Table 1). Two of
these females (Nn and Bri) were known to have immigrated
previously (Strier et al., 1993; Printes and Strier, 1999), but
were not sighted during the census. Two additional females
from the Matao group that emigrated after the census, in
October 2000 (Fl) and March 2002 (Kk), were also con-
firmed in Ja6.

Mato Ja61Mat5o II MatSo II J6 Mato Jao
August 1999-Cnsus September2002

Figure 1. Age-sex composition of the EBC muriqui population.
Matao and Ja6 groups shown during the August 1999 census
and during ongoing studies as of September 2002. Note that
the Ja6/Matao II males and the Matao II group are still present
as of 9/02.

Two of the immigrant females (Ma and Bri) from Matao
were confirmed to be carrying dependent infants during
the Ja6 study period (Table 1). Two additional females were
visibly nulliparous when they were sighted during early
months of the Ja6 study (Brh and Den), and gave birth to
what we know to be their first infants in late August and
early September 2002. Based on their birth records from
the Matao group, we know they were 108 and 111 months
of age at their first parturitions. These ages are remarkably
similar to the 106.3 months estimated for Ja6 females that
were assumed to have immigrated into the Matao group
at the same median age (73.5 months) at which Matao
females have emigrated (Strier and Ziegler, 2000).

Two additional female immigrants from Matao (Fa and
Hel) were observed with new infants in mid-late September
2002, when they were 123 and 131 months of age. If these
are their first infants, they raise the median age at first
reproduction for immigrants into Ja6 to 117 months (n
= 4), which is nearly a year older than that estimated for
immigrants into Matao. However, neither of these females
had been confidently classified as nulliparous prior to their
September parturitions, and it is therefore possible that
their September 2002 infants were not the first; possibly
their previous infants had died.


Our preliminary findings demonstrate the importance
of expanding the demographic monitoring of the EBC
muriquis to include the entire population, which we now
estimate to include at least 171 individuals. These findings
also provide insights into demographic processes that affect
the different groups. For example, four natal Ja6 females
have immigrated into the Matao group since the census,
while a fifth Ja6 female that temporarily associated with the
Matao group has since been sighted carrying a new infant
in the Matao II group.

Nine Matao females have disappeared from their natal
group since the August 1999 census. Of these, two were
identified in the Ja6 group, and four were <3 years of age
when they were last sighted. This is much younger than the
median age of 73.5 months (6.12 years) at which confirmed
emigrations have occurred (Strier and Ziegler, 2000), and
we assume that the disappearances of these females coin-
cided with their deaths. Previous analyses of mortality
patterns in the Matao group indicated a peak in mortality
at approximately 3 years of age, which is also when moth-
ers are pregnant with or carrying their next offspring (See
appendix in Strier, 1993/1994). Although the only two sus-
pected predations involved 13-month old infants (Printes
et al., 1996), the period during which mothers shift their
reproductive efforts to future offspring appears to represent
a particularly vulnerable time for young muriquis.

The remaining three Matao females that are presently unac-
counted for were last sighted with the Matao group when
they were about 5.5-6.65 years of age. It is possible that

they joined the Matao II group, or that they are present
in Ja6, but have not yet been identified. Ongoing efforts
in Ja6, and new efforts to periodically census the Matao II
group (e.g., Possamai and Strier, in prep.) may ultimately
provide confirmation of their whereabouts.

Monitoring the survivorship and subsequent fertility of
dispersing females from both the Matao and Ja6 groups
is clearly important for evaluating the long-term viability
of this population, and is therefore one of the primary
objectives of the expanded, long-term muriqui project at
this site. Although it has been possible to confirm female
emigrations from the Matao group by tracking them into
Ja6 (e.g., Strier et al., 1993; Printes and Strier, 1999), we
have previously lacked systematic data on the number of
natal females that leave the Ja6 group, but fail to immigrate
into the Matao group. As long-term demographic data on
the Ja6 group accumulate, we will be able to more accu-
rately assess the mortality rates of dispersing females in this

The ages at first reproduction that could be confidently
determined for the two females from the Matao group that
immigrated into the Ja6 group are similar to those previ-
ously estimated for females that immigrated into the Matao
group from Ja6 (Strier and Ziegler, 2000). However, if the
other two infants born to Matao emigrants in September
also represented first parturitions, the median age at first
reproduction of females dispersing into Ja6 would be older
than that of females dispersing into Matao. It is possible
that Ja6 females are older than natal Matao females when
they emigrate, or that ecological or demographic conditions
in the two groups are responsible for differences in the ages
at which immigrants first reproduce. Long-term monitor-
ing will be necessary to confirm the ages at which female
infants born in the Ja6 group emigrate, and to determine
whether there are differences in the ages at which female
immigrants in the two groups reproduce.

Our preliminary documentation of age at first reproduction
represents an important confirmation of a basic life history
variable, and provides further support for the idea that
female dispersal and delayed reproduction are associated
in this species (Strier and Ziegler, 2000). However, larger
sample sizes are still necessary to determine whether Ja6
females leave their natal groups at the same ages as Matao
females, and whether variation in age at first reproduction
differs more between groups or within groups. Continued
monitoring of the Ja6 group will permit us to evaluate the
ages at which other nulliparous females that join the Ja6
group give birth to their first infants. It will also provide
comparative perspectives on the life histories of Ja6 females
that remain and reproduce in their natal groups, as occa-
sionally occurs among natal Matao females (Martins and
Strier, submitted).

Like all long-term field studies, the demographic data on
the EBC muriquis will continue to increase in value over
time. It will be particularly important to monitor their

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002
demographic transitions and life history changes as the
growth that has characterized this population over the past
20 years begins to slow, and to accompany the effects of the
EBC's new protected status on the number of muriquis that
this forest can support.


The late ClAudio P. Nogueira and Jairo V. Gomes
were invaluable in their help with the habituation and
identification of the Ja6 muriquis. We are also indebted
to Eduardo M. Veado, Simone Veado, Italo Mourthe,
and Fabiana Couto for their help with the logistics and
fieldwork. KBS thanks the Brazilian government and
CNPq for permission to conduct research in Brazil, and E.
Veado, J. Gomes, E Mendes, J. Rfmoli, A. 0. Rfmoli, E
Neri, P. Coutinho, A. Carvalho, L. Oliveira, C. Nogueira,
S. Neto, W. Teixeira, R. Printes, M. Maciel, C. Costa, A.
Oliva, L. Dib, D. Carvalho, N. Bejar, C. Coelho, L. G.
Dias, W. P. Martins, J. C. da Silva, C. de Borba Possamai,
R. C. R. de Oliveira, E P. Paim, and M. E lurck for their
contributions to the long-term demographic data on the
Matao group. The 1999 census was funded by grants from
the National Geographic Society and the Margot Marsh
Biodiversity Foundation. Grants from the Liz Claiborne
and Art Ortenberg Foundation, the National Geographic
Society, the Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation, and
the Graduate School of the University of Wisconsin-
Madison support the ongoing Matao project. The Ja6
project is funded by the Zoological Society of San Diego,

Karen B. Strier, Department of Anthropology, University
ofWisconsin-Madison, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison,
WI 53796, USA, e-mail: , Jean
Philippe Boubli, Center for Reproduction of Endangered
Species, Zoological Society of San Diego, PO Box 120551,
San Diego, CA 92112, USA, e-mail:
and Departamento de Antropologia, Museu Nacional,
UFRJ, Quinta da Boa Vista s/n, 20940-040 Rio de
Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Vanessa 0. Guimaries,
Estacao Biol6gica de Caratinga, Caixa Postal 82, 36950-
000 Ipanema, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and S&rgio L.
Mendes, Departamento de Ciencias Biol6gicas CCHN,
Universidade Federal de Espfrito Santo, Av. Mal. Campos
1468, 29040-090 Marufpe, Vit6ria, Espirito Santo, Brasil,


Castro, M. I. 2001. RPPN Feliciano Miguel Abdala
A protected area for the northern muriqui. Neotrop.
Primates 9: 128-129.
CI/IPS/PSG. 2002. The 25 most critically endangered
primates. Report, Conservation International (CI),
International Primatological Society (IPS), IUCN/
SSC Primate Specialist Group (PSG). Web site:
releases/primates kit/primates report.pdf>.

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002

Martins, W. P. and Strier, K. B. Submitted. Age at first
reproduction in philopatric female muriquis (Brachyteles
arachnoides hypoxanthus).
Printes, R. C. and Strier, K. B. 1999. Behavioral correlates
of dispersal in female muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides).
Int. J. Primatol. 20: 941-960.
Printes, R. C., Costa, C. G. and Strier, K. B. 1996. Possible
predation on two infant muriquis, Brachyteles arachnoides,
at the Estagao Biol6gica de Caratinga, Minas Gerais,
Brasil. Neotrop. Primates 4: 85-86.
Rylands, A. B., Strier, K. B., Mittermeier, R. A.,
Borovansky J. and Seal, U. S. (eds.). 1998. Population and
Habitat Viability Assessment for the Muriqui (Brachyteles
arachnoides). IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding
Specialist Group (CBSG), Apple Valley, MN.
Strier, K. B. 1993/1994. Viability analyses of an isolated
population of muriqui monkeys (Brachyteles arachnoides):
Implications for primate conservation and demography.
Primate Conserv. (14-15): 43-52.
Strier, K. B. 1997. Mate preferences in wild muriqui
monkeys (Brachyteles arachnoides): Reproductive and
social correlates. Folia Primatol. 68: 120-133.
Strier, K. B. 1999a. Faces in the Forest: The Endangered
Muriqui Monkey of Brazil. Harvard University Press,
Strier, K. B. 1999b. Predicting primate responses to
"stochastic" demographic events. Primates 40: 131-142.
Strier, K. B. 2000. Population viability and regional
conservation priorities for muriquis (Brachyteles
arachnoides) in Brazil's Atlantic forest. Biotropica 32(4b):
Strier, K. B. and Ziegler, T. E. 2000. Lack of pubertal
influences on female dispersal in muriqui monkeys
(Brachyteles arachnoides). Anim. Behav. 59: 849-860.
Strier, K. B., Mendes, E D. C., Rfmoli, J. and Rfmoli, A.
0. 1993. Demography and social structure in one group
of muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides). Int. J. Primatol. 14:
Strier, K. B., Mendes, S. L., Braganga, A. M., Coelho, C.
C., Costa, C. G., Diaz, L. G., Dib, L. T., Gomes, J.,
Hirsch, A., Lynch, J. W., Nogueira, C. P., Odilia Rfmoli,
A., Oliva, A. S., Printes, R. C., Rfmoli, J. and Santos,
R. R. 1999. Census of the primate community at the
Estagao Biol6gica de Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Neotrop. Primates 7: 134-135.


Andrd Hirsch, Luiz Gustavo Dias
Waldney Pereira Martins, Simone Porfirio

On 1 December, 2001, we encountered a group of 13
Brachyteles arachnoides hypoxanthus in a forest in the Fazenda
C6rrego de Areia (18o26'S, 4225'W, altitude 388-805 m,
60 ha), municipality of Peganha, in the state of Minas Gerais
(Fig. 1). The forest was surveyed as part of a project examin-

ing primate populations and habitat fragmentation patterns
over the entire Rio Doce basin in Minas Gerais (Hirsch, in
prep.). The farm is in the Rio Suaquf Grande valley, 26 km
from the town of Peganha. The first author, accompanied by
personnel of the Minas Gerais State Forestry Institute (IEF/
MG), flew over the area in a helicopter the previous day to
estimate the extent of deforestation in this and a number of
protected areas in the region. During the overflight we were
able to identify an area of relatively well-preserved forest
occupying one of the hilltops on the farm.

Using information obtained from local inhabitants, Aguirre
(1971) concluded that B. a. hypoxanthus had been extinct
in the region of the headwaters of the Rio Suacuf Pequeno
since 1945/47. Kinzey (1982), following Aguirre (1971),
stated that B. a. hypoxanthus was formerly present in the
region of Peganha. However, in July 1981, 40 years on,
Russell A. Mittermeier, Andrew Young and Carlos Alberto
Machado Pinto found a population of eight individuals at
the Fazenda C6rrego de Areia (Mittermeier et al., 1987).
Rosa Lemos de SA (pers. comm. in Strier, 1992) attempted
to locate this group again in 1990, but without success.
In our two-days of fieldwork in 2001, we performed
five playback points (playing recordings of muriqui
vocalizations, spending 10 minutes at each: 5 minutes
playing the tape recording with a 5-minute pause). We
also made a detailed assessment of habitat structure at six
further points. However, due to technical problems, we
were unable carry out a full primate census of the Fazenda,
and this is planned for our next field trip.

We obtained a positive response of muriqui calls on the
third playback point. At this time, we were in a deep and
humid mountain gorge surrounded by some trees esti-
mated as being 30 m in height. The group we located was
composed of four adult males, one sub-adult male, one
juvenile male, two adult females each with a juvenile, one
adult female with an infant, and one juvenile female. We
stayed with the group for about 30 minutes till they moved
away. During this period, some of the individuals vocal-
ized frequently, several evidencing a certain degree of stress,
probably related to our presence, possibly exacerbated by
hunting pressure in the area. In the same gorge during the
fifth playback session, we also detected a group of Cebus
robustus of at least four individuals.

The forest in the Fazenda C6rrego de Areia covers only
60 ha, but during the helicopter overflight we were able
to obtain coordinates using a Garmin GPS III Plus, and
with a Landsat 5 TM satellite image and an Arc View GIS
8.1 geographic information system (ESRI, 2001), we were
able to estimate that it extends over 449 ha surrounding
the hilltop. For the habitat structure assessment, we used
the technique of Sample Points along a Transect. A circle
of 6 m in radius (113.2 m2) was demarcated at each of six
points at 300 m intervals along the transect (see Hirsch et
al., 1994; Hirsch, 1995, in prep.), the first placed 200 m
inside the forest to avoid "edge effects". In general terms,
the forest of Fazenda C6rrego de Areia can be considered

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002

Figure 1. Location of the Fazenda C6rrego de Areia and other forest fragments, municipality of Peganha, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Table 1. Habitat variable score of six points evaluated at Fazenda C6rrego de Areia and other selected areas from Minas Gerais State that
harbor Brachyteles arachnoides ', .. .'. p..p,.,1 ,.....

Fazenda C6rrego RPPN Feliciano Rio Doce State Park Fazenda
Variables de Areia Miguel Abdala (Campolina) Esmeralda
Pecanha Caratinga Marlidria Rio Casca
Area (ha) 449 957 35.976 56
Perimeter (kmin) 15.85 92.10 120.30 3.00
Ideal perimeter as a circle (km) 7.51 10.97 67.18 2.65
Deviation from ideal perimeter (%) 111.01 739.84 79.07 13.09
Average altitude (m) 597 550 310 348
Density of trees (trees/ha) 471.56 397.88 368.41 530.50
Tree DBH average (cm) 27.35 19.20 23.21 18.77
N of trees with DBH >10 cm 32 27 25 36
N of trees with DBH >75 cm 1 2 2 0
Tree height average (m) 14.17 14.65 12.74 11.91
N of trees with H >20 m 4 4 3 4
N of dead trees and branches 24 11 12 16
N of emergent trees 4 5 5 4
Canopy connectivity (0 to 3) 2 3 3 1
Presence of Euterpe edulis (yes/no) Yes Yes Yes No
Density of lianas (0 to 3) 1 1 2 3
Occurrence of gaps (Yes/No) Yes No No Yes
Occurrence of logging (Yes/No) Yes No No Yes
Occurrence of fire (Yes/No) Yes No No Yes
Source: Hirsch (in prep.).

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002 121

Table 2. Demographic variable scores of Brachyteles arachnoides '. ... F.... Fazenda C6rrego de Areia and other selected areas
from Minas Gerais State that harbor muriqui populations.
Fazenda C6rrego de RPPN Feliciano Rio Doce State Faena Emerala
Variables Areia Miguel Abdala Park Fzn s
Rio Casca
Peganha Caratinga a Marlidria
Area (ha) 449 957 35,976 56
Ecological density (ind./ha) 0.029 0.123 0.007 0.214
Total individuals 13 63 250b 12b
Adult males 4 14 na na
Adult females 3 19 na na
Juveniles 5 18 na na
Infants 1 12 na na
Sex ratio 1.33 0.74 na na
Reproductive rate (infants/females) 0.33 0.63 na na
Proportion young/adults 0.86 0.91 na na

Source: a Dias and Strier (in press); b Rylands et al. (1998); c

as seasonal semideciduous forest following the classifica-
tions of Brazil, IBGE (1993), located near to the contact
zone of the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado (bush savanna
of Central Brazil). It is the most northwesterly location
for the occurrence of B. hypoxanthus, 160 km from the
Feliciano Miguel Abdala Private Reserve (Caratinga Bio-
logical Station), 153 km from the Rio Doce State Park,
and 230 km from Belo Horizonte, the capital city of the
state of Minas Gerais.
Comparing the forest and the muriqui population at the
Fazenda C6rrego de Areia with three other muriqui sites -
two protected and one unprotected we can conclude that
it is of intermediate size, is far from ideal in its perimeter
and, thus, suffers a strong edge effect, has steep terrain,
a high density of large trees with many dead trees and
branches, a canopy with intermediate connectivity, and
suffers from logging and fires. The population density of
the muriquis is relatively low and, compared to the RPPN
Feliciano Miguel Abdala, the sex ratio is biased towards
males, and the reproductive rate is low (a low young/adult
ratio) (Tables 1 and 2).

The northern muriqui, Brachyteles hypoxanthus, is Criti-
cally Endangered (Hilton-Taylor, 2002). The finding of
this population at the Fazenda C6rrego de Areia exempli-
fies the widespread loss of its habitat through agricultural
encroachment and forest fragmentation, and also a serious
cause of threat to this species hunting. Protection of the
remaining small, privately-owned forests in the state of
Minas Gerais, such as those in the vicinity of Peganha, is
now an essential strategy for the conservation of the north-
ern populations of muriqui (Strier and Fonseca, 1996/
1997; Rylands et al., 1998). We were unable to ascertain if
this was the only group living in this forest, but there are
certainly no other forests that connect with it, and only
a few other areas in the headwaters of Suacuf Valley with
sufficient area and habitat requirements. Muriqui popula-
tions such as this one will suffer increasing genetic homo-
zygosity, and their future is dim (Strier, 2000).

only from Matao Group; na not available.

Acknowledgments. The authors are very grateful to WWF/
Brasil (Programa Natureza e Sociedade) and the Programa
Integrado de Ecologia / Pesquisas Ecol6gicas de Longa Dura-
cao (PIE/PELD) at the Federal University of Minas Gerais
for financial support; to the postgraduate program in Ecol-
ogy, Conservation and Wildlife Management, and the Brazil
Higher Education Authority (CAPES) for logistical support;
to the owner of the Fazenda C6rrego de Areia, Nicomedes
Carvalho, for his hospitality, and to Fabiano R. Melo and
Herm6genes Silva Neto, from the Instituto Estadual de
Florestas, Minas Gerais (IEF/MG) for logistic support with
the helicopter overflight; to Maria Cecilia M. Kierulff (Con-
servation International do Brasil, Bahia), for kindly allowing
us to use her playback equipment, and to Karen B. Strier for
her careful reading of the manuscript.

Andr6 Hirsch, Luiz Gustavo Dias, Departamento de
Zoologia, Instituto de Ciencias Biol6gicas, Universidade
Federal de Minas Gerais, 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, Minas
Gerais, Brazil, e-mail: , Waldney
Pereira Martins, Nicleo de Biodiversidade, Instituto de
Estudos S6cio-Ambientais do Sul da Bahia (IESB), Rua
Major Homem Del Rey 147, Cidade Nova, 45652-180
Ilhdus, Bahia, Brazil, and Simone Porfirio, Departamento
de Zoologia, Instituto de Ciencias Biol6gicas, Universidade
Federal de Minas Gerais, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas
Gerais, Brazil.


Aguirre, A. C. 1971. 0 Mono Brachyteles arachnoides (E.
C,. rr-. Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, Rio de Janeiro.
Brazil, IBGE. 1993. Mapa de Vegetaado do Brasil. Escala
1:5.000.000, Projegao Policonica. Fundacao Instituto
Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (IBGE), Rio de Janeiro.
Dias, L. G. and Strier, K. B. In press. Effects of group size
on ranging patterns in Brachyteles arachnoides hypoxanthus.
Int. J. Primatol. 24(2).

ESRI. 2001. ArcView GIS v. 8.1. Environmental Systems
Research Institute (ESRI), Redlands, CA.
Hirsch, A. In preparation. Fragmentagao do habitat e
estrategias de conservagao de primatas na bacia do
Rio Doce, Minas Gerais, utilizando um Sistema de
Informacao Geografica. Doctoral thesis, Universidade
Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte.
Hirsch, A. 1995. Censo de Alouattafusca Geoffroy, 1812
(Platyrrhini, Atelidae) e Qualidade do Habitat em Duas
Areas com Remanescentes de Mata Atlantica em Minas
Gerais. Master's thesis, Universidade Federal de Minas
Gerais, Belo Horizonte.
Hirsch, A., Subira, R. J. and Landau, E. C. 1994.
Levantamento de primatas e zoneamento das matas da
regiao do Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca, Minas Gerais,
Brasil. Neotrop. Primates 2(3): 4-6.
Hilton-Taylor, C. 2002. 2002 IUCN Red List of Threatened
Species. Website: .
Kinzey, W. G. 1982. Distribution of some Neotropical
primates and the model of Pleistocene forest refugia.
In: Biological Diversification in the Tropics, G. T. Prance
(ed.), pp.45 5-482. Columbia University Press, New York.
Gazetteer. 53pp.
Mittermeier, R. A., Valle, C. M. C., Alves, M. C., Santos, I.
B., Pinto, C. A. M., Strier, K. B., Young, A. L., Veado, E.
M., Constable, I. D., Paccagnella, S. G. and Lemos de SA,
R. M. 1987. Current distribution of the muriqui in the
Atlantic forest region of Eastern Brazil. Primate Conserv.
(8): 143-149.
Rylands, A. B., Strier, K. B., Mittermeier, R. A., Borovansky,
J. and Seal, U. S. (eds.). 1998. Conserving Brazil's Muriqui:
Population and Habitat Viability Assessment Workshop
for the Muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides). IUCN/SSC
Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG), Apple
Valley, MN.
Strier, K. B. 1992. Faces in the Forest: The Endangered
Muriqui Monkeys of Brazil. Oxford University Press,
Strier, K. B. 2000. Population viabilities and conservation
implications for muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides) in
Brazil's Atlantic forest. Biotropica 32(4b): 903-913.
Strier, K. B. and Fonseca, G. A. B. da. 1996/1997. The
endangered muriquis in Brazil's Atlantic forest. Primate
Conserv. (17): 131-137.


Vanessa Barbisan Fortes


Uma ampla variedade de categories de interaqao adulto-
infante tem sido descrita na literature primatol6gica, desde
o cuidado parental e aloparental ate situagoes extremes de
agressao, como por exemplo o infanticfdio. Nicolson (1987)
classificou as interagoes femea-infante em duas principals

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002
categories: afiliativo (cuidado maternal e alomaternal) e
agressivo (abuso), destacando que a distingao entire elas
nem sempre e clara. De acordo com Clarke (1990), o rapto
ocorre quando o infante e forgadamente separado de sua
mae, sob protest de ambos. Outros dois modos pelos quais
infants deixam ou sao removidos de suas maes sao: tomada,
quando o infante e removido sem protest, e transferencia,
quando o infante voluntariamente agarra-se a outro animal.
Relaq6es adulto-infante e cuidado parental em Alouatta
sao bem documentados na literature (Altmann, 1959;
Baldwin and Baldwin, 1973; Bolin, 1981; Sekulic, 1983;
Neville et al., 1988), assim como relatos de adogao (Izawa,
1989; Clarke and Glander, 1981; Agoramoorthy and
Rudran, 1992). JA os relatos de rapto sao menos frequientes,
havendo registros para A. palliata (Clarke, 1990) e A. caraya
(Calegaro-Marques and Bicca-Marques, 1993). Raptos de
infants por individuos do mesmo grupo parecem ser mais
frequientes, havendo apenas um relato de rapto inter-grupo
(Glander, 1974). Um possfvel caso de rapto inter-grupo
em Alouatta guariba clamitans e apresentado por Marques
and Ades (2000) para um infante de cerca de dois meses de
idade, em que o macho envolveu-se no cuidado aloparental.
Na maioria dos casos, o context em que a troca de infante
ocorreu nao foi observado, havendo apenas observao6es
posteriores em que o infante encontrava-se com individuos
de outro grupo. A seguir sera descrito um caso de possivel
tentative de rapto de um infante de A. g. clamitans por um
bando vizinho, habitante de um fragmento de Floresta
Estacional Decidual no municipio de Santa Maria, Rio
Grande do Sul, Brasil.


O registro comportamental aqui apresentado foi obtido
durante um estudo da dieta e padrao de atividades de
Alouatta guariba clamitans (bugio-ruivo) no municipio
de Santa Maria (29o43'-29o44'S, 53o42'-53o44'W), Rio
Grande do Sul, Brasil (Fortes, 1999). A Area de estudo,
pertencente ao Ministr&io do Ex&rcito, 6 denominada
Campo de Instrugao de Santa Maria (CISM). 0 CISM
possui uma area total de 5,876 ha, com cerca de 20% de
florestas nativas (Floresta Estacional Decidual), distribufdas
em fragments de diferentes tamanhos entremeados por
vegetacao campestre. 0 grupo de bugios-ruivos estudado
habitava um trecho do maior fragmento florestal existente
na area, com cerca de 200 ha, no qual vArios grupos foram

Acompanhou-se um grupo de bugios-ruivos composto por
dois machos adults, um macho subadulto, tries femeas
adults e uma femeajuvenil no perfodo de janeiro a dezembro
de 1996. Uma das femeas deu a luz em janeiro, mas o infante
desapareceu antes do primeiro mes de vida. As outras duas
femeas deram a luz no mes de abril infantss observados pela
primeira vez em 24 de abril de 1996), sendo que os infants
sobreviveram ate o final do perfodo de estudos.

O relato a seguir decorre de observao6es feitas durante
um encontro entire dois grupos vizinhos, o qual resultou

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002

em uma aparente tentative de rapto de um dos filhotes.
O grupo principal de estudo e denominado GI e o grupo
vizinho, G2. Este 6ltimo era composto por um macho
adulto, dois machos subadultos, tries femeas adults e
quatro individuos juvenis.


Parte da area domiciliar de G1 apresentou sobreposijao corn
a area de G2. Os encontros entire os grupos eram freqiientes,
especialmente durante a primavera e o verao, quando varias
arvores na porgao sobreposta de suas Areas domiciliares
apresentavam frutos. Os dois grupos mostraram certa
tolerancia quanto a manutengao da proximidade entire
eles, sendo que em algumas ocasi6es chegaram a repousar
na mesma arvore. Em 16 de fevereiro de 1996, um macho
adulto e um macho subadulto de GI aproximaram-se
e deitaram na mesma drvore onde encontravam-se um
macho subadulto e uma femea adulta de G2 sem que estes
apresentassem qualquer reaqao agressiva. Em outras ocasi6es,
no entanto, os encontros desencadearam intensavocalizaqao,
com participacao de todos os membros do grupo.

No dia 2 de outubro de 1996, quando os infants tinham
cinco meses de idade, ocorreu um encontro entire os grupos
as 16h 20min. Um macho juvenile de G2 que deslocava-
se na periferia da Area domiciliar de GI passou para a
mesma Arvore onde as trees femeas adults e os infants
de GI encontravam-se em repouso. Aparentemente nao
havia percebido a presenga de GI no local. Ao detectar
as femeas adults de GI com seus filhotes, comecou a
saltar rapidamente entire os galhos e a morder ramos da
drvore onde se encontrava, atraindo a atengao dos tries
machos de GI, os quais deslocavam-se em direcao ao
local. Estes machos comegaram a vocalizar, afugentando
o juvenile de G2. Logo os demais individuos de G2 (que
nao estavam visiveis) aproximaram-se, e seguiram-se 10
minutes de interaqao agonistica entire os grupos, corn
intense vocalizaqao. Todos os membros de GI (exceto os
infants) integraram-se a esta atividade. Decorrido este
tempo, os dois grupos voltaram a alimentar-se e a realizar
pequenos deslocamentos em Arvores cujas copas tocavam-
se. As 16h 45min todos os individuos de G1 encontravam-
se em repouso, exceto os dois infants, que brincavam
juntos. Nesta atividade, os infants passaram para a Arvore
onde os individuos de G2 repousavam, aproximando-
se ate cerca de 3 m de uma femea adulta. Esta mostrou
interesse pelos infants, deslocando-se em direcao a eles e
deitando-se ao seu lado. Durante a brincadeira, um dos
infants repetidamente passava sobre o dorso desta femea.
Enquanto realizava os registros comportamentais do grupo
de estudo (GI), deixei de observer os infants por cerca de
5 minutes. Fui surpreendida pela repentina movimentadao
e fuga de G2 e pela insistente vocalizaqao (semelhante a
um choro) de um infante. Era um dos infants de GI
que havia sido levado no dorso da femea de com a qual
brincara anteriormente. Em resposta a vocalizaqao, a mae
deste infante deslocou-se rapidamente atras de G2, seguida
pelas outras duas femeas adults e pela femea juvenile.

Quando G2 ja havia se distanciado cerca de 60 m do
local do incident, a mae do infante investiu em direcao a
femea "raptora", sendo afugentada por um macho adulto,
uma femea adulta e um juvenile de G2. Pordm, o infante
conseguiu livrar-se e correu em direcao a sua mae durante
esta dispute. Os machos adults de GI nao se envolveram
na tentative de recuperar o infante, apenas deslocaram-se
uma curta distIncia, permanecendo parados na drvore
onde G2 estivera em repouso anteriormente. 0 epis6dio
encerrou-se por volta das 17hl0min.


O interesse das femeas, especialmente as mais jovens, por
filhotes de outras femeas e bastante freqiente. Calegaro-
Marques e Bicca-Marques (1993) registraram elevada
frequencia de comportamento alomaternal realizado por
femeas imaturas em Alouatta caraya. Tais comportamentos
entire individuos do mesmo bando poderiam ser explicados
pelo alto status social da mae, pelo parentesco entire a dfade
mae-filhote e a femea que exibe o cuidado alomaternal,
ou ainda pelo possfvel papel que este comportamento
desempenha no aprendizado do cuidado de filhotes por
futuras maes. A adogao de infants por individuos de
outros grupos encontra pouco suporte nas duas primeiras
explicaq6es. Uma causa mais plausivel seria a simples
curiosidade de femeas nulfparas em relacao aos infants
(Neville, 1972; Sekulic, 1983).

Agoramoorthy (1998) sugere como uma possfvel causa
de adogao/rapto intergrupo a competicao entire femeas,
pordm nao deixa claro em que circunstIncias ocorreria esta
competicao. Em Alouatta, tanto machos quanto femeas
emigram de seus grupos ao atingir a idade juvenile, e existe
several competigao para permanecer no grupo natal (Jones,
1980). No caso ora relatado, entende-se que as possfveis
vantagens para a femea "raptora", do ponto de vista
competitive, seriam a aquisigao de habilidades maternas e
a redugao do sucesso reprodutivo da outra femea (mae do
infante raptado).

Embora a femea adulta de G2 tenha carregado o infante
de GI consigo por cerca de 60m, nao e possivel afirmar
que o rapto foi intencional, embora seu interesse e
curiosidade pelos infants tenha ficado evidence quando
aproximou-se deles e permitiu o contato fisico. No entanto,
tambem e possivel que ela apenas tenha sido afugentada
pela movimentagao dos machos adults de GI e levado
acidentalmente o infante em suas costas. Baldwin and
Baldwin (1973) relatam que em tries ocasi6es uma femea
adulta de Alouatta palliata que nao era a mae levantou-se
e deslocou-se por certa distIncia levando agarrado a si um
infante que previamente brincava sobre seu corpo, e que o
mesmo retornou para sua mae na primeira oportunidade.
Pordm tratava-se de um infante mais novo e do mesmo

O afastamento do infante de seu bando ocorreu sob
protest dele pr6prio e de sua mae, com apoio das

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002

demais femeas adults. Nao houve propriamente uma
separaqao forgada entire o infante e sua mae, pressuposto
que caracteriza o rapto segundo a definicao dada por
Clarke (1990). 0 infante carregado pela femea de G2,
estando corn quase seis meses de idade, ji apresentava
grande independencia, permanecendo no dorso da mae
apenas durante os deslocamentos mais longos, tanto que
encontrava-se distant dela (inclusive em outra irvore)
quando ocorreu o suposto rapto. Aldm disso, o contato
com a femea de G2 ocorreu voluntariamente por parte
do infante. As situacoes de rapto descritas na literature
envolvem a remogao agressiva do filhote do venture da mae
e sao mais freqtientes durante as primeiras semanas de vida
dos infants, quando estes permanecem a maior parte do
tempo em contato corn suas maes e sao mais atrativos a
outras femeas e juvenis. Desta forma, o fato de os animals
de G1 terem "protestado" nao invalida a hip6tese de que
a femea de G2 tenha carregado o filhote sem intencao,
conforme ji comentado anteriormente.


Ao Comandante do Campo de Instrucao de Santa Maria,
por permitir o acesso a area de estudos; a amiga Mircia
Jardim, pelo incentive a escrever este relato; ao Jdlio Cesar
Bicca-Marques pelas critics e sugest6es.

Vanessa Barbisan Fortes, Centro de Ciencias Agro-
ambientais e de Alimentos, Universidade Comunitiria
Regional de Chapec6, Rua Senador Atflio Fontana 591E,
89.809-000 Chapec6, Santa Catarina, Brasil, e-mail:


Agoramoorthy, G. 1998. Intergroup infant transfer among
red howlers, Alouatta seniculus in Venezuela: Adoption or
kidnapping. Neotrop. Primates 6: 121-122.
Agoramoorthy, G. and Rudran, R. 1992. Adoption in
free-ranging red howler monkeys Alouatta seniculus of
Venezuela. Primates 33: 551-555.
Altmann, S. A. 1959. Field observations on a howling
monkey society. J. Mammal. 40: 317-330.
Baldwin, J. D. and Baldwin, J. I. 1973. Interactions
between adult females and infant howling monkeys
(Alouatta palliata). Folia Primatol. 20: 27-71.
Bolin, I. 1981. Male parental behavior in black howler
monkeys (Alouattapalliatapigra) in Belize and Guatemala.
Primates 22: 349-360.
Calegaro-Marques, C. and Bicca-Marques, J. C. 1993.
Allomaternal care in the black howler monkey (Alouatta
caraya). Folia Primatol. 61: 104-109.
Clarke, M. R. 1990. Behavioral development and
socialization of infants in a free-ranging group of howling
monkeys (Alouatta palliata). Folia Primatol. 54: 1-15.
Clarke, M. R. and Glander, K. E. 1981. Adoption of infant
howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata). Am. J. Primatol. 1:

Fortes, V. B. 1999. Dieta, atividades e uso do espago por
Alouattafusca clamitans (Primates: Cebidae) na Depressao
Central do Rio Grande do Sul. Dissertagao de Mestrado,
Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre,
Glander, K. E. 1974. Baby-sitting, infant sharing and
adoptive behavior in mantled howling monkeys. Am. J.
Phys. Anthropol. 41: 482.
Izawa K. 1989. The adoption of an infant observed in a
wild group of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus).
Field Studies of New World Monkeys, La Macarena,
Colombia 2: 33-36.
Jones, C. B. 1980. The functions of status in the mantled
howler monkey, Alouatta palliata Gray: Intraspecific
competition for group membership in a folivorous
Neotropical primate. Primates 21: 389-405.
Maestripieri, D. 1994. Influence of infants on female social
relationships in monkeys. Folia Primatol. 63: 192-202.
Marques, A. A. B. de and Ades, C. 2000. Male care in a
group of wild Alouattafusca clamitans in southern Brazil.
Folia Primatol. 71: 409-412.
Neville, M. K. 1972. Social relations within troops of red
howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus). Folia Primatol. 18:
Neville, M. K., Glander, K. E., Braza, F and Rylands,
A. B. 1988. The howling monkeys, genus Alouatta. In:
Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical Primates, Vol. 2, R.
A. Mittermeier, A. B. Rylands, A. E Coimbra Filho and
G. A. B. da Fonseca (eds.), pp.349-453. World Wildlife
Fund-US, Washington, DC.
Nicolson, N. 1987. Infants, mothers and other females.
In: Primate Societies, B. B. Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R. M.
Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham and T. T. Struhsaker (eds.),
pp.330-342. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Sekulic, R. 1983. Spatial relationships between recent
mothers and other troop members in red howler monkeys
(Alouatta seniculus). Primates 24: 475-485.


Eckhard W Heymann
Filomeno Encarnacidn C.
Pekka Soini

The recent review of the titi monkeys (Callicebus) by
Van Roosmalen and co-workers (2002) has expanded our
knowledge of the taxonomy and geographic distribution of
this genus, but has also shown that considerable gaps still
exist. Here we discuss some problems associated with the
diagnostic characters and geographic distribution of the
Peruvian titi monkeys.

Van Roosmalen et al. (2002) raised to species rank what
were considered subspecies of ( .... torquatus by

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002
Hershkovitz (1990). For one of these, ( .... lucifer,
orange hands are given as one of the diagnostic charac-
ters. Hershkovitz (1990) also considered orange hands as
distinguishing ( .... torquatus lucifer from ( ....
torquatus medemi. Observations made by us at different
localities in north-eastern Peru, however, cast some doubt
on the general validity of this character as a distinguishing
feature for this taxon.

In January 1982, EWH visited Mishana on the right bank
of the Rio Nanay (352.75'S, 7329.50'W; GPS position
in Raisnen et al., 1998), the site where Warren Kinzey and
his co-workers carried out their field studies oftiti monkeys
(see, for example, Kinzey, 1977). In the village of Mishana,
a hunter was carrying a juvenile titi monkey on his shoul-
ders (Fig. 1). It was easily identifiable as of the ( ..
torquatus group, the most prominent character being its
whitish-creamy hands.

In August 2000, FEC saw an infant/young juvenile titi
monkey kept as a pet in the village of Negro Urco, on the
right bank of the Rio Napo. The hands were white, only
the tips of the hairs had some dirty-yellowish coloration,
perhaps resulting from the animal walking on the earthen
floor. In the forest near Negro Urco, he saw three wild
titi monkeys at a distance of about 20 m. Observation of
the animals with a binocular showed that the hands were
whitish-creamy without any tendency towards yellow or

In May 2002, FEC visited Santa Marfa on the left bank of
the upper Rio Nanay, where he saw a juvenile titi monkey
kept as a pet. The hairs of its hands were whitish-creamy,
but the tips of the hair (which were partially sticking
together as if dirty) were a brownish-yellowish colour.

Our observations of whitish-creamy hands, particularly of
the pet in Mishana and the wild animals near Negro Urco,
clearly contrast with the orange hands listed as a diagnostic

Figure 1. A pet C.'// lucifer, Mishana, Rio Nanay, Loreto,
352.75'S, 7329.50'W, 7 February 1983. Photos Eckhard W.
Heymann. These photographs can be seen in colour at the fol-
lowing website: primates.htm>.

or distinguishing character by Van Roosmalen et al. (2002)
and Hershkovitz (1990). There are four possibilities to
account for this discrepancy. First, since the animals were
juveniles, it is possible that they had not yet attained fully
adult colouration. We are not aware of any information in
the literature on ontogenetic changes in the colouration
of titi monkeys. Second, hand colour might be variable
within species or subspecies. The individuals we have seen
might represent but one variety within the populations. No
information is available on the variability of hand colour
within populations of titi monkeys, although Pekka Soini
has observed titi monkeys with variably whitish, dirty white
and yellowish hair on the hands at Mishana and in areas
near to Iquitos (south of the Nanay). Third, the titi mon-
keys from the Rio Nanay and the Rio Napo could differ
from other populations of C. lucifer, and might perhaps
represent a new species or subspecies. This possibility can
only be explored by comparing representative specimens
from the different areas. Fourth, the titi monkeys seen by
us represent idiosyncratic forms, different from all other
animals of the respective population. People might have
captured these animals because they were different from
the rest of the population. If this were the case, one might
also suspect that "collections ... acquired by purchasing live
and dead animals from animal dealers who sent natives into
the bush" (Van Roosmalen et al., 2002, p.42) are biased
towards idiosyncratic individuals which attracted the hunt-
ers' attention. The observation of white hands in wild
individuals near Negro Urco is clear evidence against such
an explanation. Under any circumstances, our observations
suggests that orange hands cannot be taken as a diagnostic
character of C. lucifer until more information is available on
variation within and between populations and on whether
or not ontogenetic changes in hand colouration do occur.

There is also an inconsistency in the current literature with
regard to the geographic distribution of C. lucifer in Peru.
Hershkovitz (1990, p.83) gives the area "between the Rios
Putumayo, Nanay and Amazonas", and Aquino and Encar-
naci6n, (1994, p.30), following Hershkovitz, state "north
of the rivers Nanay and Amazonas to the Rio Putumayo".
The map provided by Van Roosmalen et al. (2002), how-
ever, does not include the area between the lower Napo and
the Nanay.

The presence of C. lucifer at Mishana and close to Iquitos
clearly indicates its distribution south of the lower Nanay,
contrasting with the information provided by Hershkovitz
(1990) and Aquino and Encarnaci6n (1994). Sightings at
Santa Maria and Negro Urco also provide clear evidence
of its presence on the left bank of the upper Nanay and
the right bank of the Napo. However, its presence in areas
between the Napo and Nanay is less clear. It was not seen
during brief surveys by FEC along the Rio Chambira, an
affluent of the left bank of the lower Nanay, and its afflu-
ent Rio Pintoyacu. People on these rivers did not report
the species to be present in the area, although they knew it
from the Nanay and from the Rio Mazin, an affluent of the
right bank of the lower Napo. Summarizing the available

information, one might suspect that C. lucifer has a patchy
distribution in Peru. Kinzey and Gentry (1979) had argued
that C. torquatus is restricted to white-sand forests, but
this hypothesis was convincingly rejected by Defler (1994)
for ( .... torquatuss) lugens. It would be premature to
speculate on any ecological or edaphic factors relating to
the distribution of C. lucifer in Peru until its full distribu-
tional range and the extent to which it may be patchy are

Eckhard W. Heymann, Abteilung Verhaltensforschung &
Okologie, Deutsches Primatenzentrum, Kellnerweg 4, D-
37077 Gbttingen, Germany, Filomeno Encarnaci6n C.,
Institute de Ciencias Biol6gicas Antonio Raimondi, Uni-
versidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Apartado 575,
Iquitos, Peru, and Pekka Soini, Proyecto BIODAMAZ,
Institute de Investigaciones de laAmazonfa Peruana (IIAP),
Apartado 454, Iquitos, Peru.


Aquino, R. and Encarnaci6n, F. 1994. Primates of Peru
- Los Primates del Perd. Primate Rep. 40: 1-127.
Defler, T. R. 1994. ( .... torquatus is not a white-sand
specialist. Am. J. Primatol. 33: 149-154.
Hershkovitz, P. 1990. Titis, New World monkeys of the
genus ( .... (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): A preliminary
taxonomic review. Fieldiana Zoology, N.S. (55): 1-109.
Kinzey, W. G. 1977. Diet and feeding behavior in
( .... torquatus. In: Primate Ecology: Studies of Feeding
and Ranging Behaviour in Lemurs, Monkeys and Apes, T.
H. Clutton-Brock (ed.), pp.127-151. Academic Press,
Kinzey, W. G. and Gentry, A. H. 1979. Habitat utilization
in two species of Callicebus. In: Primate Ecology: Problem-
Oriented Field Studies, R. W. Sussman (ed.), pp.89-100.
John Wiley & Sons, New York.
Rdisinen, M., Linna, A., Irion, G., Rebata Hernani, L.,
Vargas Huaman, R. and Wesselingh, E 1998. Geologfa y
geoformas de la zona de Iquitos. In: Geoecologiay Desarollo
Amazdnico: Estudio Integrado en la Zona de Iquitos, Pert,
R. Kalliola and S. Flores Paitan (eds.), pp.59-137. Turun
Yliopisto, Turku.
Van Roosmalen, M. G. M., Van Roosmalen, T. and
Mittermeier, R. A. 2002. A taxonomic review of the
titi monkeys, genus ( .... Thomas, 1903, with the
description of two new species, ( ... bernhardi
and ( .... stephennashi, from Brazilian Amazonia.
Neotrop. Primates 10(suppl.): 1-46.

(ALPERIN, 1993)

Ronaldo Alperin

Na 6poca da descrigao do material referente a ( -
argentata marcai (Alperin, 1993), as dnicas informao6es
disponfveis quanto sua localidade tipo, encontravam-se nas

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002
pr6prias etiquetas de material no Museu Nacional, Rio de
Janeiro: MN-2856 (hol6tipo, pele e cranio, macho adulto,
Comissao Rondon, 9 de abril de 1914), MN-2851 (paratipo,
sexo indeterminado, pele e crInio, Comissao Rondon, 10 de
abril de 1914), MN-2857 (paratipo, sexo indeterminado,
pele e crInio, Comissao Rondon, 08 de abril de 1914).

Foi no ano de 1914 que a Comissao Rondon integrou-se
a expedigao Norte-Americana do Presidente T. Roosevelt,
formando assim uma Comissao Mista. A expedigao Roos-
evelt-Rondon explorou naquele ano o rio da Ddvida e o rio
Juruena, via o formador rio Papagaio. 0 material coletado
de 1907 a 1914 pela Comissao Rondon foi destinado em
parte ao Museu Nacional da Universidade Federal do Rio
de Janeiro (UFRJ) e em parte ao American Museum of
Natural History, Nova torque.

Do material coletado pela referida Comissao, muitos
espccimes tinham etiquetas informando a origem como
sendo o rio Castanho. Na epoca, foram consultados
outros materials de primatas e mamfferos cujas localidades
referiam-se ao mesmo rio Castanho, mas muitas das vezes
citado como "Rio Castanho (= Rio Roosevelt)" videe
tambdm Hershkovitz, 1977).

Sendo assim a localidade tipo foi determinada como "Foz
do Rio Castanho (= Rio Roosevelt), afluente esquerda do rio
Aripuana, Estado do Rio Amazonas, Brasil" (Alperin, 1993).

Segundo as anotac6es do pr6pio Presidente Roosevelt, o
nome "Castanho" era somente conhecido pelos seringueiros
da regiao, sendo um nome completamente desconhecido
pelos ge6grafos, e na verdade tratava-se do principal aflu-
ente a esquerda do rio Aripuana. Tal magnitude pode ser
notado quando ele descreve: "Evidently the Castanho was,
in length at least, substantially equal, and probably supe-
rior, to the upper Aripuanan..." (Roosevelt, 2000).

Descreve a sua importIncia como rio, para a formacao do
que era conhecido como o baixo Aripuand: "The upper
Aripuanan, a river of substantially the same volume as the
Castanho, but broader at this point, and probably of less
length, here joined the Castanho from the east, and the
two together formed what the rubbermen called the lower

Uma das principals confuses que foram feitas quanto a
sua localizagao, muito provavelmente provdm desta mesma
epoca, conforme indica Roosevelt em seus escritos: "The
mouth of this was indicated, and sometimes named, on the
maps, but only as a small and unimportant stream."
A confusao do que seriam rios diferentes, como o Rio
Castanho, o Rio Aripuana, e Roosevelt, ao menos em
terms nomenclaturais, fica bastante claro quando a pr6pria
Expedigao Roosevelt nomeou o entao "rio Roosevelt": "set
forth the fact that we had now by actual exploration and
investigation discovered that the river whose upper portion
had been called the Ddvida on the maps of the Telegraphic
Commission and the unknown major part of which we had

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002

just traversed, and the river known to a few rubbermen,
but to no one else, as the Castanho, and the lower part
of the river known to the rubbermen as the Aripuanan
(which did not appear on the maps save as its mouth
was sometimes indicated, with no hint of its size) were all
parts of one and the same river; and that by order of the
Brazilian Government this river, the largest affluent of the
Madeira, with its source near the 13th degree and its mouth
a little south of the 5th degree, hitherto utterly unknown
to cartographers and in large part utterly unknown to any
save the local tribes of Indians, had been named the Rio

Rylands et al. (2000), pordm referencia a uma possfvel con-
fusao da nomenclatura da localidade tipo de Mico marcai:
"The type locality as described by Alperin is confused in that
the Rio Castanho is not a synonym of the Rio Roosevelt,
and is a left bank affluent of the Rio Roosevelt, not the Rio
Aripuand." (p.74). Rylands (in litt., 02 de setembro de 2002)
informou que a carta consultada indicava um pequeno iga-
rapd, afluente esquerda do rio Roosevelt logo acima da sua
boca, chamado Castanho. Pordm, nao tendo mais acesso a
carta consultada naquela &poca, fez nova consult a Carta do
Brasil ao Milionisimo (Brasil, Minist&rio do Planejamento e
Coordenaqao Geral, Fundacao IBGE, 1972). Nesse caso, o
igarapd Castanho e desenhado como um pequeno afluente
da margem esquerda do rio Aripuana (nao do rio Roosevelt),
um pouco abaixo da boca do Rio Roosevelt. Indica tambdm,
um vilarejo chamado Castanho na margem esquerda do Rio
Roosevelt, pouco acima de sua boca. 0 fato da exist&ncia
de um igarapd Castanho pertissimo da boca do rio Roos-
evelt (como afluente do rio Aripuana ou do rio Roosevelt),
fez com que Rylands indicasse que nao tratava-se de um
sinonimo do rio Roosevelt.

Figure 1. The type localities of Mico marcai (No. 1) and Mico
manicorensis (No.2). Shading indicates the possible distribution of M.

Pordm, para confirmar que Castanho e Roosevelt eram de
fato sinonfmos consultei na ocasiao alguns mastozo6logos,
como por exemplo o Dr. Mario de Vivo, e o pr6prio,
afirmou categoricamente que ambos os nomes tratavam-
se da mesma localidade. Da mesma forma, recentemente
tive a oportunidade de consultar a base de dados GEOnet
provide pela National Imagery and Mapping Agency e
Governo dos Estados Unidos (GEOnet Names Server, web
site: ), alim da base de
dados Alexandria Digital Library Gazetteer Server (Website:
Esses dois fontes informaram categoricamente que o rio do
Castanho e o rio da Divida sao sinonimos (variantes) do
nome rio Roosevelt.

Assim, e possivel concluir que a indicacao de Rylands et al.
(2000) vem de uma certa confusao de nomes ja na dpoca
de 1914, e uma pequena imprecisao em pelo menos uma
das cartas consultadas. Pordm, Rylands et al. (2000; A.
B. Rylands in litt.), nunca duvidaram que a informadao
disponfvel indicasse que a localidade tipo fica na margem
esquerda do rio Roosevelt, perto de sua boca, exatamente
como foi indicado por Alperin na sua descricao da especie
em 1993. 0 quefalta6 uma averiguacao da presenga de Mico
marcai nesse local e levantamentos para acertar a sua distri-
buigao -, .ii. i. entretanto, umarevisao geografica destes
primatas esta em preparacao (Alperin, em prep.). Nao se
sabe o limited sul da distribuigao de Mico manicorensis (Van
Roosmalen, Van Roosmalen, Mittermeier and Rylands,
2000), conhecido da Seringal Sao Luis, margem leste do rio
Madeira, perto da cidade de Manic6re (localidade tipo), e
do baixo rio Mariepaua. 0 mapa de distribuigao fornecido
por Van Roosmalen et al. (2000: Fig. 2, p.5) indica que M.
manicorensis se estende ate a margem esquerda do rio Roos-
evelt, ao leste do rio Manicord, cubrindo assim o localidade
tipo de M. marcai. Essa suposigao e evidentemente incor-
reta M. manicorensis terA uma distribucao mais restrita, e
serao necessarias mais pesquisas de campo nessa regiao tao
pouca conhecida para esclarecer a situaqao.

Agradecimento: 0 autor gostaria de agradecer ao Anthony
Rylands pelas informao6es, critics e principalmente incen-
tivos apresentados durante a confecqao deste trabalho.


Alperin, R. 1993. ( .- argentata (Linnaeus, 1771):
Considerao6es taxonomicas e descricao de subespecie
nova. Bol. Mus. Para. Emilio Goeldi, Sir. Zool. 9(2): 317-
Brasil, Ministerio do Planejamento e Coordenacao Geral,
Fundagao IBGE. 1972. Carta do Brasil ao Milionisimo.
Mapa No. 14 Purus. Fundagao Instituto Brasileiro de
Geografia e Estatistica (IBGE), Rio de Janeiro.
Roosevelt, T. 2000. Through the Brazilian Wilderness.
Cooper Square Press, New York.
Rylands, A. B., Schneider, H., Langguth, A., Mittermeier,
R. A., Groves, C. P. and Rodrfguez-Luna, E. 2000. An

assessment of the diversity of New World Primates.
Neotrop. Primates 8(2): 61-93.
Van Roosmalen, M. G. M., Van Roosmalen, T.,
Mittermeier, R. A. and Rylands, A. B. 2000. Two new
species of marmoset, genus ( .-' Erxleben, 1777
(Callitrichidae, Primates), from the Tapaj6s/Madeira
interfluvium, south central Amazonia. Neotrop. Primates
8(1): 2-18.


1 R. Konstant, RussellA. Mittermeier
Anthony B. Rylands, Thomas M. Butynski
Ardith A. Eudey, Jorg Ganzhorn
Rebecca Kormos

In January 2000, Conservation International and the
IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group released a report
- "The World's Top 25 Most Endangered Primates" a
list of threatened prosimians, monkeys and apes whose
survival beyond the present century will depend heavily on
actions taken now by our own species (Mittermeier et al.,
2000). The impetus for the original report came from two
realities, one being the lack of any documented primate
extinctions during the 20t' century a remarkable record
in light of recorded losses among other groups of animals
during the same period and the other being the results
of an assessment that identified approximately 120 of the
world's estimated 640 species and subspecies of primate as
being in serious danger of extinction within the next few
decades. The Top 25 named in 2000 were merely the tip
of the iceberg.

Two years later, we released a new report based on updated
information, especially with regard to Asian primates. Since
the 2000 report, the Species Survival Commission (SSC)
of IUCN The World Conservation Union launched a
program of ongoing conservation status assessments for
the world's threatened plant and animal species (Hilton-
Taylor, 2002). As many experts had feared, the number of
species threatened with extinction continues to rise despite
our best efforts to ensure their survival. This new report
considers preliminary results from primate workshops and
assessments that have recently been conducted in Coim-
batore, India for South Asia (Zoo Outreach Organisation
/ Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG) South
Asia, in prep.), Indonesia (Supriatna et al., 2002), Madagas-
car (Razanahoera-Rakotomalal et al., 2002), and Vietnam
(A Conservation Action Plan for the Primates of Vietnam:
2001-2006, in prep.), which recommend listing as many
as 195 primate species and subspecies as endangered or
critically endangered. New assessments indicate that, from
approximately 20% only a few years ago, more than 30%
- close to one in every three of all primates are "Endan-
gered" or "Critically Endangered". The increase from 120
taxa to almost 200 taxa largely reflects new information
available from Asian countries. It is not surprising, there-

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002
fore, that Asia now accounts for almost 45% only slightly
less than half- of the world's most endangered primates,
or not many less than the three other major regions where
primates occur (the Neotropics, Africa and Madagascar)
combined (Table 1).

Within these four regions, a total of 49 countries harbor
wild populations of the world's most endangered primates:
eight countries in the Neotropics, 24 in Africa, 16 in
Asia, and Madagascar (a major primate region as well as a
country). According to the most recent assessments, the top
10 nations, in terms of endangered primates, are shown in
Table 2.

Madagascar and Brazil have long led the list of countries
having the highest number of most endangered primates,
but both have now been overtaken by Indonesia. Included
on the new list of threatened primates are six endangered
tarsier species found only in Indonesia. Prior to the
Indonesian Conservation Assessment and Management Plan
(CAMP) workshop, none had been considered endangered.
However, all six of the newly-added species represent small,
isolated, island populations; three of the six are new to
science and as yet un-named. Firmly in the middle of the
pack of nations are China, India and Vietnam, each with 15
endangered primate species and subspecies. Such significant
levels of primate endangerment have been recognized for
China and Vietnam for a number of years, but India's
elevated standing stems from the Coimbatore CAMP
workshop in March 2002 (Zoo Outreach Organisation /
CBSG South Asia [affiliate of the IUCN/SSC Conservation
Breeding Specialist Group] in prep.). The results also placed
Sri Lanka on the Top 10 list, as the island nation's primates
are largely endemic, and nine are critically endangered or
endangered. Four Sri Lankan lorises, in fact, represent the
only members of the primate family Lorisidae that are
categorized as endangered at this time.
The larger primates, especially the colobines and small
apes, represent the majority of Asia's most threatened
species. Forty-eight members of the Asian colobine genera
Nasalis, Presbytis, P .-.'.* Rhinopithecus, Semnopithecus,
Simias and Trachypithecus are either endangered or critically
endangered, representing just over half of their 90 species
and subspecies. This situation parallels that of the gibbons,
of which 15 of 28 taxa are now considered among the
world's most endangered primates.

There are only three Asian great apes, the monotypic
Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii) found on the Indonesian

Table 1. Numbers of Critically Endangered (CR) and
Endangered (EN) primates (Hilton-Taylor, 2002).
Region CR EN Total
Neotropics 17 17 34
Africa 10 33 43
Madagascar 10 21 31
Asia 18 69 87
Totals 55 140 195

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002

Table 2. Top ten countries in terms of numbers of Critically
Endangered (CR) and Endangered (EN) primates (Hilton-Taylor,
Country CR EN Total
Indonesia 4 31 35
Madagascar 10 21 31
Brazil 10 9 19
China 5 10 15
India 2 13 15
Vietnam 5 10 15
Equatorial Guinea 0 11 11
Nigeria 1 9 10
Sri Lanka 1 8 9
Cameroon 1 7 8

island of Sumatra (reduced to as few as 2,500 individuals),
and two subspecies of Bornean orangutan (Pongopygmaeus),
but all are endangered. This also holds true for all 10 species
and subspecies of African apes the four subspecies of
common chimpanzee, the bonobo or gracile chimpanzee,
and five types of gorilla. We humans (Homo sapiens), by
contrast, represent the only species in the family Hominidae
that is not endangered (With a global distribution and a
population exceeding six billion, far from it!)

Our activities, in fact, are the principal cause for the
decline of our closest living relatives. We have long
cleared forests to support agriculture, degraded habitats
by collecting fuelwood, logged to extract valuable timber,
and hunted to provide meat for the table. Wild primate
populations as well as the populations of many other
species have suffered as a result. Live capture for the pet
trade and export for biomedical research have become
lesser concerns in recent decades, but still pose a threat to
some species. Today, however, the most insidious threat
is that of commercial hunting, which goes far beyond
the subsistence needs of rural populations to supply
major cities and international markets, where it fetches
a premium. In Central and West Africa, commercial
hunting is largely to supply food, and in Asia, especially
in Indochina and China, to produce salves, balms and
potions as well as food. In both cases, over-exploitation is
creating an "empty forest syndrome" and contributing to
the demise of wild primates in many countries.

We are not surprised, therefore, to find the overwhelming
majority of endangered and critically endangered primates
to be in the world's 25 biodiversity hotspots, that have
been identified by Conservation International as covering
merely 1.4% of Earth's land surface but holding more than
60% of all terrestrial plant and animal diversity (Myers
et al., 2000). Fifteen hotspots harbor populations of
non-human primates, and the 195 critically endangered
and endangered species and subspecies are in a dozen
of them (Brooks et al., 2002). Also, 48 (87%) of the 55
critically endangered primates and 124 (89%) of the 140
endangered primates are endemic to the hotspots, for a
total of 172 (88%) of the current 195. Of the hotspots, six

should be considered the highest priorities for the survival
of the world's most endangered primates Indo-Burma,
Madagascar, Sundaland, the Guinean Forests of West
Africa, the Atlantic Forest of Brazil, and the Western Ghats/
Sri Lanka. These hotspots cover approximately 500,000
km2 just over 0.3 % of Earth's land surface yet hold 137,
or roughly 70%, of the world's most endangered primates.

Information from this report will help to update the IUCN
Red List of Threatened Species, though we realize that our
assessment efforts to date have not examined all primate
habitat regions sufficiently and still probably underestimate
the number of threatened species, as well as their degree
of threat. We recognize that new information continues
to appear regarding the conservation status of threatened
taxa and we do not consider any single document to be the
final determinant of such a list. Also, we appreciate that
our ability to safeguard primate diversity will depend not
only on developing comprehensive lists of those species
and subspecies we consider to be threatened, but also on
drawing attention to those whose situation is most critical,
highlighting the kinds of efforts that are being undertaken
to save them, acknowledging both our successes and our
failures, and continually re-examining the situation on a
global scale so that we remain confident in establishing
priorities for action.

The World's Top 25 Most Endangered Primates 2002 is more
than a tally of those species with the fewest numbers of indi-
viduals remaining. We also recognize the importance of:
* Primate species recently discovered or rediscovered and
known from only a few localities;
* species whose populations may have been considered
stable only a few years ago but are now under severe
pressure, in rapid decline and under serious threat of
extinction; and
* varieties of primates that traditionally have not been
recognized as distinct but are likely to be so as the result
of ongoing genetic and field research.

In addition, it is important to remove species from the Top
25 list as their situation becomes less urgent or we feel that
sufficient efforts and resources are being directed to their
survival. While their conservation status and numbers
may not change appreciably because of our efforts, we

Table 3. Numbers of Critically Endangered (CR) and Endangered
(EN) primates (Hilton-Taylor, 2002) in six biodiversity hotspots
(Myers etal., 2000).
Hotspot CR EN Total
Indo-Burma 11 20 31
Madagascar 10 21 31
Sundaland 5 23 28
Guinean Forests 5 20 25
Atlantic Forest 8 3 11
Western Ghats/
Sri Lanka
Totals 41 96 137

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002

Table 4. The 25 Most Endangered Primates -2002 (listed in taxonomic order).
Prolemur simus1 Greater bamboo lemur Madagascar
Propithecus perrieri Perrier's sifaka Madagascar
Propithecus candidus Silky sifaka Madagascar
Leontopithecus caissara Black-faced lion tamarin Brazil
Cebus xanthosternos Buff-headed capuchin Brazil
Brachyteles 'i .. Northern muriqui Brazil
Procolobus badius waldroni Miss Waldron's red colobus Ghana and Cote d'lvoire
Cercopithecus diana roloway Roloway guenon Ghana and Cote d'lvoire
Cercocebus atys lunulatus White-naped mangabey Ghana and Cote d'lvoire
Cercocebus galeritus galeritus Tana River mangabey Kenya
Procolobus rufomitratus Tana River red colobus Kenya
Cercocebus galeritus sanjei Sanje mangabey Tanzania
Presbytis natunae Natuna banded leaf monkey Indonesia
Simias concolor Pig-tailed snub-nosed monkey Indonesia
Si. delacouri Delacour's langur Vietnam
i. poliocephalus2 Golden-headed langur, Cat Ba langur Vietnam
Si. leucocephalus2 White-headed langur China
Pygathrix nemaeus cinerea Gray-shanked douc Vietnam
Rhinopithecus avunculus Tonkin Snub-nosed monkey Vietnam
Rhinopithecus bieti Yunnan Snub-nosed monkey China
Rhinopithecus brelichi Guizhou Snub-nosed monkey China
Nomascus nasutus Eastern black crested gibbon China and Vietnam
Gorilla beringei beringei Mountain gorilla Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Uganda
Gorilla gorilla diehli Cross River gorilla Nigeria and Cameroon
Pongo abehi Sumatran orangutan Indonesia
1 Formerly in the genus Hapalemur.
2 The form leucocephalus is also considered to be a subspecies of T poliocephalus, in which case the nomenclature would be T 'i
poliocephalus poliocephalus and T poliocephalus leucocephalus.

may remove them in favor of other species to which we
feel more attention should be given, or whose situations
highlight conservation techniques or accomplishments that
need to be shared with broader audiences. To arrive at the
current list, we decided to drop species such as the golden
lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia), black lion tamarin (L.
chrysopygus), yellow-tailed woolly monkey (Oreonax flavi-
cauda) and golden-crowned sifaka (Propithecus tattersalli),
since we consider that good progress has been or is being
made to ensure the survival of each.

The original World's Top 25 Most Endangered Primates was
well received. We have seen cases where a species' pres-
ence on the list has been used effectively by conservation
organizations to raise funds to put researchers in the field,
to train and supply forest guards, to conduct local public
awareness campaigns, and to create new parks and reserves.
In fact, the Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation, estab-
lished in 1995, has rapidly become one of the world's most
important sources of support for primate conservation, and
actively solicits and supports proposals that focus on species
appearing on this list.

The World's Top 25 Most Endangered Primates 2002 is
presented in conjunction with the International Primato-
logical Society (IPS), which recently held its 19' Congress
in Beijing, China. The list was discussed during a special
session at the Congress. Among the participants were
many of the dedicated individuals whose work contrib-
utes to the continued survival of these species and subspe-
cies, and other threatened primates worldwide. The full
report, dated 7 October 2002, with profiles of each of the
taxa, is available as a pdf file at: xp/CIWEB/newsroom/press_releases/100702>.

William R. Konstant, Russell A. Mittermeier, Anthony
B. Rylands, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, and
Thomas M. Butynski, Conservation International, 1919
M Street NW, Suite 600, Washington, DC 20036, USA,
Ardith A. Eudey, 164 Dayton Street, Upland, California
91786-3120, USA, Jbrg Ganzhorn, Zoological Institute
and Zoological Museum, Martin Luther King Platz,
D-320146 Hamburg, Germany, and Rebecca Kormos,
Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation
International, 1919 M Street NW, Suite 600, Washington,
DC 20036, USA.

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002

Brooks, T. M., Mittermeier, R. A., Mittermeier, C. G.,
Fonseca, G. A. B. da, Rylands, A. B., Konstant, W. R.,
Flick, P., Pilgrim, J., Oldfield, S., Magin, G. and Hilton-
Taylor, C. 2002. Habitat loss and extinction in the
hotspots of biodiversity. Conserv. Biol. 16(4): 909-923.
Hilton-Taylor, C. 2002. 2002 IUCN Red List of Threatened
Species. The World Conservation Union (IUCN), Species
Survival Commission (SSC), Gland, Switzerland, and
Cambridge, UK. URL: .
Mittermeier, R. A., Konstant, W. R. and Rylands, A. B.
2000. The World's Top 25 most endangered primates.
Neotrop. Primates 8(1): 49.
Myers, N., Mittermeier, R. A., Mittermeier, C. G., Fonseca,
G. A. B. da and Kent, J. 2000. Biodiversity hotspots for
conservation priorities. Nature 403: 853-858.
Razanahoera-Rakotomalal, M., Glander, K., Miadana
Harisoa, F., Rabesihanaka, S., Hawkins, F., Katz, A.,
Byers, 0. and Seal, U. S. (eds.). 2002. Evaluation et Plans
de Gestion pour la Conservation (CAMP) de la Faune de
Madagascar: Lemuriens, Autres Mammiferes, Reptiles et
Amphibiens, Poissons d'eau douce. Rapport du Groupe
Lemuriens. Version Finale. IUCN/SSC Conservation
Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG), Apple Valley, MN.
Supriatna, J., Manansung, J., Tumbelaka, L., Andayami,
N., Indrawan, M., Darmawan, L., Leksono, S. M., Seal,
U. S. and Byers, 0. (eds.). 2001. Conservation Assessment
and Management Plan for the Primates of Indonesia: Final
Report. IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist
Group (CBSG), Apple Valley, MN.


Stephen E Ferrari

Line transect surveying has been an extremely fruitful
method for the study of platyrrhine populations, especially
in the Amazon (Peres, 1997; Pontes, 1997; Lopes and Fer-
rari, 2000; Ferrari et al., 1999, 2000, 2002), but also in the
Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Cullen Jr. et al., 2001; Chiarello,
2002). Survey data provide useful information on species
diversity and population density, in addition to comple-
mentary data on behavioral and ecological parameters.
Reliable estimates of both diversity and population density
are dependent on good sampling, i.e. number of sightings
(Buckland et al., 1993; Peres, 1999; Ferrari et al., 2002),
which is determined by transect length. Most recent surveys
have been based on a total transect length of at least 100
km, and almost invariably involve repeated walks of tran-
sects of less than 10 km in length.

Magnusson (2001) questioned the validity of this proce-
dure, arguing that a short transect will sample an inade-
quately small area in most cases, and that repeated walks are
not only relatively vulnerable to factors such as non-random
ranging behaviour, but also constitute a form of pseudorep-
lication. The author recommends walking transects only

once, which would require establishing and measuring 100
km of trails for a 100 km transect. Whatever the validity of
the theoretical basis for this recommendation, there are a
number of reasons for supporting the procedure in which a
single short transect is walked repeatedly until total transect
length is reached.

The principal reason for the repeated sampling of short
transects is a practical one. To begin with, the preparation
of a single kilometre of transect, which includes selection,
orientation, trail clearance, marking and measurement,
typically requires at least a day, depending on the avail-
ability of manpower and logistics (primarily, the distance
from camp sites). Setting up a 100 km transect line would
thus require a period of approximately four to five months,
and the investment of financial resources rarely available
for studies of this type. In addition, depending on the
characteristics of the study site, it may be either impossible
to accommodate a trail system of this size, or impractical due
to logistic considerations. In any case, a transect of 100 km
may not provide an adequate number of sightings for some
or even all species, depending on the study area (Ferrari et
al., 2002).

Given these questions, the repeated sampling of short tran-
sects is virtually unavoidable for the collection of samples
of adequate size, although this does not necessarily mean,
as Magnusson (2001) implies, that researchers are unaware
of its theoretical limitations. It also does not mean that this
type of procedure is inadequate for the collection of reliable
data on primate abundance, especially in relation to the
objectives of most studies. On the contrary, the standard
method currently used in primate surveys would seem to
provide more reliable data, overall, than a single transect, as
will be argued below.

The independence of samples appears to be the fundamen-
tal question here. Whatever the length of the transect, a
basic assumption is that it will be located randomly in rela-
tion to the distribution of primates and their movements
at the study site. At any given moment, then, the location
of a surveyor on the transect should be random in rela-
tion to that of the resident primates. When repeating the
same transect, what is crucial is the maintenance of an
adequate interval of time between walks, to guarantee
the independence of the samples. Any field primatolo-
gist will know that individuals of even the most sedentary
species rarely remain at the same location in the forest for
more than two or three hours, even if that location is a
large fruit-bearing tree, which Magnusson (2001) identi-
fies specifically as a major problem in the repeated-walks

The random placement of transects relative to the spatial
distribution of primates, and the use of adequate intervals
between walks should guarantee the reliability of the data
collected using the "repeated-walks" procedure. As the pri-
mates will have a different distribution on each occasion,
repeated walks do not constitute sampling replication, but

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002

rather a means of accumulating a sample of adequate size.
The only significant foreseeable problem with this proce-
dure is that different habitat types within the study area may
not be sampled adequately, although this will depend on a
variety of factors, such as habitat heterogeneity. However,
while the "single-transect" procedure might overcome this
problem, it also has potential shortcomings. For example,
if a species is both rare and patchily distributed at a study
site, the chances of an encounter on a single walk of a long
transect may be significantly reduced in comparison with
repeated walks of a shorter transect, assuming that this tran-
sect traverses an area occupied by members of that species.

Despite whatever theoretical limitations it might have,
repeated sampling of a transect may also provide informa-
tion that would be unavailable from a single long transect.
Repeated encounters with resident groups will almost
invariably provide more accurate information on group
composition and size, for example, an important parameter
for the calculation of density estimates. In addition, more
reliable data may be collected on variables such as habitat
preferences, vertical stratification, and feeding ecology.

On balance, then, while the principal reason for adopting
the repeated-walks procedure may be a practical one, it
would seem to provide more reliable data than a single long
transect. In fact, as long as walks are separated by an ade-
quate interval of time, there appears to be no good reason
for assuming that they are not independent samples of pri-
mate abundance. Perhaps the best support for the procedure
comes from the multiple-site surveys that have provided
important insights into both zoogeographic patterns (Peres,
1997; Ferrari etal., 2000) and the effects of habitat fragmen-
tation or hunting pressure (Lopes and Ferrari, 2000; Cullen
Jr. et al., 2001; Chiarello, 2002; Ferrari et al., 2002). In all
these cases, the application of the repeated-walks procedure
permitted the surveying of many more sites than would have
been possible using single transects, permitting a more sys-
tematic analysis of among-site variation.
Acknowledgments: My recent survey work was supported
by the Brazil Science Council (CNPq), PROBIO/MMA/
BIRD/GEF, and the Kapok Foundation.

Stephen F. Ferrari, Departamento de Gen&tica, Univer-
sidade Federal do Para, Caixa Postal 8607, 66.075-900
Belkm, Para, Brazil, e-mail: .


Buckland, S. T., Anderson, D. R., Burnham, K. P and Laake,
J. L. 1993. Distance Sampling: Estimating Abundance of
Biological Populations. Chapman & Hall, London.
Chiarello, A. G. 2002. Primates of the Brazilian Atlantic
Forest: The influence of forest fragmentation on survival.
In: Primates in Fragments, L. K. Marsh (ed). Plenum
Press, New York. In press.
Cullen Jr., L., Bodmer, R. E. and Valladares-Padua, C.
2001. Ecological consequences of hunting in Atlantic
forest patches, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Oryx 35: 131-137.

Ferrari, S. F., Emfdio-Silva, C., Lopes, M. A. and Bobadilla,
U. L. 1999. Bearded sakis in southeastern Amazonia
back from the brink? Oryx 33: 346-351.
Ferrari, S. E, Iwanaga, S., Messias, M. R., Ramos, E. M.,
Ramos, P. C. S., Cruz Neto, E. H. and Coutinho, P. E. G.
2000. Titi monkeys (( .... -pp, r, lid, t: Platyrrhini)
in the Brazilian state of Rondonia. Primates 41: 191-196.
Ferrari, S. E, Iwanaga, S., Ravetta, A. L., Freitas, E C.,
Sousa, B. A. R., Souza, L. L., Costa, C. G. and Coutinho,
P. E. G. 2002. Dynamics of primate communities along
the Santardm-Cuiaba highway in southern central
Brazilian Amazonia. In: Primates in Fragments, L. K.
Marsh (ed.). Plenum Press, New York. In press.
Lopes, M. A. and Ferrari, S. F 2000. Effects of human
colonization on the abundance and diversity of mammals
in eastern Brazilian Amazonia. Conserv. Biol. 14: 1658-
Magnusson, W. 2001. Standard errors of survey estimates:
What do they mean? Neotrop. Primates 9: 53-54.
Peres, C. A. 1997. Primate community structure at twenty
western Amazonian flooded and unflooded forests. J.
Trop. Ecol. 12: 381-405.
Peres, C. A. 1999. General guidelines for standardizing
line-transect surveys of tropical forest primates. Neotrop.
Primates 7: 11-16.
Pontes, A. R. M. 1997. Habitat partitioning among
primates in Maraca Island, Roraima, northern Brazilian
Amazonia. Int. J. Primatol. 18: 131-157.


Thais Leiroz Codenotti, Valeska Martins da Silva
VagnerJosi de Albuquerque, Eduardo Vagner Camargo
Rose Mari Martins Silveira


Dados sobre a distribuicao e a densidade de populao6es
de bugios ainda sao escassos na literature, assim como de
suas areas de ocorrencia e uso do espaco. Alouatta caraya,
contudo, possui uma vasta distribuicao geografica, que se
estende desde o nfvel do mar ate alcancar os 3.200 m de
altitude (Giudice e Ascunce, 1998), e tern sido abordada
e confirmada em diversos estudos cientfficos, mostrando
uma extensa area de dispersao. A especie vive nas florestas
imidas, nos bosques semi-deciduais corn clima estacional,
nas florestas de inundacao, adaptando-se aos diferentes
ambientes alterados pelo home (Giudice e Ascunce,
1998). Habitam biomas como o Cerrado, a Caatinga e o
Chaco, em ambientes com dados mddios anuais de temper-
atura de 21.45C, alcangando uma mddia de precipitadao
de 1.116 mm (Pastor Nieto e Williamson, 1998).

Eisenberg e Redford (1999) comentaram a distribuicao de
A. caraya localizando a especie no sul do Brasil, norte da
Argentina e leste do Paraguai, vivendo em habitats florestais,

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002
enquanto que, na regiao do Chaco, ocorre, geralmente, nas
matas de galeria ao long dos rios Paraguai e Picomayo, assim
como de pequenos rios que escoam no Chaco (Stallings,
1985). Pode tambem ser encontrada, esporadicamente, em
toda a extensao de Areas florestais mais xerofiticas, vizinhas
do Chaco. Na Bolivia ocorre na porcao sul, estendendo-se a
regiao centro-sul do Brasil (Cabrera, 1939; Olrog, 1984).

Kinzey (1982) mostrou sua ocorrencia na porcao oriental
do Brasil, nos estados da Bahia, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais,
Goias, Sao Paulo e Rio Grande do Sul. Enfatiza que a especie
e encontrada no leste do rio Parana e no leste do rio Sao Fran-
cisco, que nao constituem uma barreira para sua dispersao.
Bicca-Marques (1990) descreveu a ocorrencia de A. carayano
estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, situando o limited de sua
distribuicao no municipio de Alegrete (2956'S, 5559'W).
O present artigo objetiva mostrar dados recentes sobre a
distribuicao da especie, seu status de conservacao, o limited
de ocorrencia e o ponto de encontro de A. caraya e Alouatta
guariba clamitans, obtidos pelo projeto: "Mapeamento,
avaliaqao do status de conservacao e abundancia populacio-
nal de primatas no Rio Grande do Sul", desenvolvido pela
Equipe de Primatas (EPRIM) da Universidade de Passo
Fundo, cuja finalidade e a conservacao dos primatas e a
preservacao de seus habitats naturals.


Area de estudo
O estado do Rio Grande do Sul apresenta ecossistemas
heterogeneos, devido ao grande ndmero de tipos de solos
e a variaqao de altitude e de clima, refletindo-se na diver-
sidade da composicao floristica das diferentes comunidades
vegetais. Estao representadas tries tipos florestais: a) Bosques
pluviais subtropicais da bacia do rio Uruguai, b) Encosta
Atlantica, c) Floresta de AraucArias. Estas florestas, unidas
aos bosques capeses, a Mata Ciliar (de galeria) e as forma-
o6es de pastagem (140.000 km2) completam a fisionomia
florestal do Rio Grande do Sul. A vegetacao represent uma
interessante transicao entire os bosques subtropicais 6midos,
a flora continental do Gran Chaco do Paraguai e as estepes
do Uruguai e da Argentina (Schultz, 1957).

0 Planalto Medio Rio-grandense e uma Area elevada, que
inclui toda a porcao do estado ao norte da Depressao Cen-
tral e da Campanha. Originalmente o Planalto era consti-
tufdo de uma mistura bem equilibrada de campos abertos,
que ocupavam a maior parte dos terrenos altos entire as
bacias dos rios e as florestas. 0 home, porem, alterou
drasticamente a paisagem (Belton, 1994). A regiao fito-
ecol6gica na qual enquadra-se o Planalto Medio Rio-gran-
dense denomina-se Floresta Ombr6fila Mista. Ocupa uma
superficie de 21.213 km2 caracterizando-se por possuir o
pinheiro-brasileiro, Araucaria angustifolia, como exemplar
vegetal de destaque, corn relevant importIncia fitogeogrA-
fica e commercial (uso da madeira, extraqao da celulose, etc.)
(Brasil, IBDF, 1983). Salienta-se que o clima predominante
para esse tipo fitoecol6gico e o super 6mido, com as curvas
ombrot&rmicas verificadas sempre positivas (Brasil, IBGE /

Projeto RADAM-BRASIL, 1986). De toda a Area existente
apenas 3.166 km2 possuem cobertura florestal original, rep-
resentando somente 14,9% da superficie total.

Ao sul, onde ocorre a transicao para a Depressao Central,
as florestas latifoliadas ocupam a borda do Planalto, numa
faixa que se estende de Jaguari, passando por Mata, Sao
Pedro do Sul, Santa Maria, seguindo ate o vale do rio Jacuf.
Os principals municipios dessa regiao sao: Carazinho, Cruz
Alta, Espumoso, IbirubA, Ijuf, Julio de Castilhos, Marau,
Nao-me-Toque, Panambi, Passo Fundo, Santa BArbara do
Sul, Soledade, Tapejara, Tapera e Tupancireta (Fortes, 1959;
Reitz etal., 1983).

A regiao das Miss6es, caracterizada pela Floresta Estacional
Decidual, abrange uma Area de 31.326 km2, situando-se entire
os rios Ibicuf, Uruguai e Ijuf (Fortes, 1959; Brasil, IBGE /
Projeto RADAM-BRASIL, 1986). Esta localizada na encosta
occidental do Planalto Rio-grandense. Predomina geologica-
mente o basalto da Serra Geral e aluvi6es ao long dos rios.
Apresenta altitudes de 450 m, onde e bem perceptive, mais
para o sul, na borda da serra, com altos contrafortes revesti-
dos de formaqoes matosas. Na porcao junto ao rio Uruguai
cai para 60-80 m (Brasil, IBDF, 1983). Possui arbustivos
que acompanham os tributarios desse rio, com vegetacao de
galeria. Ao norte verifica-se uma vegetacao do tipo selvAtico,
corn matas densas. Entretanto, a vegetacao predominante e
a dos campos, corn ocorrencia de capes de mata. Ao long
dos grandes rios hA extensas florestas altas, iguais is florestas
latifoliadas do Alto Uruguai (Brasil, IBDF, 1983).

O projeto teve inicio em janeiro de 2001, corn carAter
permanent, e corn a intenqao de investigar a ocorrencia
de especies de primatas no estado do Rio Grande do Sul e
seu status de conservacao, bem como pesquisar a situaqao
dos habitats onde fossem encontradas. Num primeiro
moment foram enviados questionArios is Secretarias
Municipais de Agricultura e Meio Ambiente dos 497
municipios do estado, inquerindo sobre a ocorrencia desses
mamfferos no ambito municipal, com a devida localizacao
das Areas de ocupacao na regiao, e corn a possivel identifi-
caqao dos mesmos.

Ap6s obtidas 60% de respostas iniciou-se a tabulacao dos
dados. Os municipios que responderam afirmativamente,
foram envolvidos segundo as regi6es fisiogrAficas a que
pertencem, tomando como crit&rio para agrupar as regi6es,
a extensao de cada uma delas, aldm do ndmero de locais
onde previamente fora detectada a presenca de primatas.
As especies citadas foram plotadas no "Mapa de Municipios
e Regi6es FisiogrAficas" do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul,
escala 1:50.000. Efetivou-se, entao, novos contatos corn as
prefeituras, e atraves delas, com proprietArios de fazendas
particulares e gerentes de Parques e Reservas, municipals
e estaduais, para localizacao dos primatas, dando-se infcio
ao trabalho de campo, corn a busca direta dos bandos, nos
bosques e nas matas de galeria.

Os bandos encontrados eram entao registrados, censando-
se os animals, considerando o tamanho e a composihao
sexo-etAria do grupo: adults machoss e femeas), sub
adults, juvenis e infants; as caracteristicas morfol6gicas
da especie (coloraqao da pelagem e tamanho) e alguns sinais
de comunicaqao (vocalizao6es), registrando-se tambem o
comportamento que realizavam. Coletou-se dados sobre
habitat, tamanho da Area, relevo, condio6es de preservadao
e tipo de floresta, alum de verificar as ameacas antr6picas
aquela populacao: fogo, caca, pesticides, derrubadas de
mata, etc. Nos locals de ocorrencia foram marcadas as coor-
denadas geogrAficas (latitude e longitude), utilizando-se um
GPS (Garmin-12 canais). Todos os bandos encontrados
e seus respectivos ambientes florestais foram filmados e
fotografados. Procurou-se identificar os limits das Areas
de vida das especies encontradas e a possivel simpatria corn
A. g. clamitans, considerando tambem as barreiras naturals,
que limitam os deslocamentos dentro do estado e para os
estados limftrofes com o Rio Grande do Sul.

Adotou-se dois mtodos para os censos: Transectos Lineares
(MTL), para as Areas com mais de 10 ha, e para os fragmen-
tos muito pequenos de mata (menos de 10 ha) os censos
foram livres, rastreando toda a Area, mais de uma vez,
contando a totalidade dos individuos residents. Estimou-
se a densidade dividindo-se o ndmero total de individuos
do grupo (n), pelo tamanho da Area, media em hectares.


De acordo com os resultados da enquete realizada junto
aos municipios gadchos, 193 confirmaram a ocorrencia
de Alouatta spp. (48,61% das respostas) sendo 29 as locali-
dades em que, ate o moment, obteve-se informaqao segura
de ocorrencia de Alouatta caraya.

O primeiro registro de A. caraya foi casual, pois a equipe
de pesquisa esperava encontrar bandos de A. g. clamitans.
O encontro deu-se numa propriedade particular, no
municipio de Fortaleza dos Valos. Esse bando, composto
entao por 11 individuos, vive numa mata de 7 ha, isolado
de outros bandos, que habitam bosques mais extensos (50 e
80 ha) na mesma propriedade. Decidiu-se entao pesquisar
quais outros municipios abrigavam populao6es dessa esp&-
cie, e quais os limits de encontro e de separacao das duas
especies de bugios citadas para o Rio Grande do Sul.

Atd o moment, realizou-se 28 expedigoes is Areas de
estudo e foram visitados e registrados 13 municipios, que
abrigam populagoes isoladas de A. caraya, vivendo adapta-
dos em fragments muito pequenos de mata, nas regi6es
fisiogrAficas do Planalto Medio e das Miss6es. 0 tamanho
medio das Areas estudadas foi de 15,17 ha, sendo o menor
fragmento de 1, e o maior de 300 ha, sem contar a extensao
das matas ciliares (Tabela 1).

HA municipios com apenas uma populacao de A. caraya,
e outros com mais de dez, distanciadas umas das outras. A
Tabela 1 mostra a densidade populacional ate o moment reg-

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002
istrada, em diferentes Areas de ocorrencia da especie, sem nen-
huma possibilidade de encontro desses bandos. Exibe tambem
quatro propriedades, onde foram encontrados dois bandos em
cada uma, vivendo em fragments de tamanhos diferentes,
distantes uns dos outros. Os indfcios sao de que os bandos
formam uma s6 population, em cada uma dessas areas.

Na porcao do Planalto onde se localizam os municipios de
Fortaleza dos Valos, Boa Vista do Incra, Cruz Alta, Julio
de Castilhos, Tupancireta e Jari nao ocorre o pinheiro-
brasileiro (Araucaria angustifolia) e a fisionomia aparente
Sa de extensas Areas cultivadas. HA poucos bosques, reser-
vados is propriedades rurais, corn vegetacao diferente da
caracteristica floresta ombr6fila mista, ainda que apresen-
tem algumas esp&cies arb6reas tipicas do Planalto (Tabela
2). Trata-se de Areas de transicao, em alguns municipios ja
classificadas como Savana (Tabela 1).

No municipio de Cruz Alta foi localizada uma populaiao
que ocorre em bosques de mata continue de vArias peque-
nas propriedades rurais. 0 bando (n=27 individuos) e
frequentemente avistado numa delas, com 20 ha de mata
preservada. 0 riacho que atravessa a mata desAgua no rio
Ivaf. Outra populagao observada transit nas matas de gale-
ria do rio Ivaf, no ponto em que passa por esse municipio,
estacionando, entretanto, numa mata ripAria, bastante
preservada, corn 5 ha, no municipio de Tupancireta.

Tupancireta foi um dos municipios mais expressivos, ate o
moment visitado, onde registrou-se dez populao6es de A.
caraya, localizadas em diferentes pontos; ha informao6es de
outras localidades no municipio onde ocorrem bandos. A
EPRIM estA investigando se constituem populao6es isola-
das ou se sao bandos pertencentes a uma dnica populacao.
O municipio d o maior produtor de soja do estado, e os
dnicos bosques nativos sao os de resting, e mata ciliar
que acompanha os rios. Tupancireta e um divisor de Aguas
das bacias dos rios Jacuf, Ivaf, Ibicuf, Ijuf, Toropi e do rio

Bozano e um pequeno municipio, recentemente emanci-
pado do municfpio de Ijuf. Situa-se ao sul do rio Ijuf (Bacia
do Uruguai). Foi notificada a presenca de um bando de A.
caraya num capao de mata de 5 ha de uma pequena proprie-
dade rural, muito pr6xima das matas ciliares do rio Ijuf. A
cidade conta com uma Area verde de 80 ha, onde os antigos
moradores dizem que ouviam o "ronco do bugio", pordm a
Agua e escassa no local, e a diversidade faunfstica e pobre.
0 rio Ijui caracteriza o limited corn o municipio de Ajuri-
caba, e nesse ponto tem mais de 100 m de largura. Nesse
municipio foi declarada a existencia de uma populacao de
A. caraya numa propriedade rural, entretanto com dados
imprecisos sobre o tamanho do grupo.

Em Boa Vista do Incra, antigo Distrito de Cruz Alta foi
atestado pelo orgao official, que ha uma populacao deslo-
cando-se na mata ciliar que acompanha o rio Ingaf, o qual
despeja suas Aguas na Represa Passo Real (Fig. 1), e em
matas recuperadas de propriedades particulars. Os rios

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002



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Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002

Tabela 2. Lista dos principals representantes arb6reos do Planalto Medio Rio-grandense.
Nome Comum Familia Especie
Pinheiro Brasileiro Araucariaceae Araucaria angustifolia
Guamirim Myrtaceae Myrceugenia euosma
Camboim Myrtaceae Myrciaria tenella
Aragi Myrtaceae Psidium cattleianum
Erva Mate Aquifoliaceae Ilex paraguaiensis
Camboati Vermelho Anacardiaceae Cupania vernalis
Camboati Branco Sapindaceae Matayba eleagnoides
Bracatinga Mimosaceae Mimosa scabrella
Guajuvira Boraginaceae Patagonula americana
Angico Mimosaceae Parapiptadenia rigida
Ariticum Annonaceae Rollinia mucosa
Cedro Meliaceae Cedrela fissilis
Amorinha Selvagem Rosaceae Rubus spp.
Guabiroba Myrtaceae Campomanesia xanthocarpa
Agoita Cavalo Tiliaceae Luehea divaricata
Cogao Erythroxylaceae Erythroxylum pelleterianum
Canela Preta Lauraceae Nectandra megapotamica
Aroeira Mansa Anacardiaceae Schinus terebinthifolius
Carrapicho Asteraceae Xanthium spp.
Aragazeiro-do-Mato Myrtaceae Myrcianthes gigantea
Canela Amarela Lauraceae Nectandra nitudula
Cabretiva Fabaceae Myrocarpusfrondosus
Grapid Caesalpinaceae Apuleia leiocarpa
Jabuticabeira Myrtaceae Myrciaria trunciflora
Louro Boraginaceae Cordia trichotoma
Pessegueiro-Brabo Rosaceae Prunus sellowii
Taruma Verbenaceae Vitex megapotamica
Vassourao Branco Compositae Piptocarpha angustifolia
Ipe Amarelo Bignoniaceae Tabebuia chrysotricha
Mamica de Cadela Rutaceae Zanthoxylum rhoifolium
Butia Palmae Butia eriospatha
Pitangueira Myrtaceae Eugenia uniflora
Uvaia Myrtaceae Eugenia pyriformis
Coqueiro ou Jerivd Palmae Syagrus .
Uva-do-Japao Rhamnaceae Hovenia spp.
Sete Capotes Myrtaceae Britoa selowiana
Timb6 Mimosoideae Ateleia glazioviana
Vacum Sapindaceae Allophyllus guaraniticus
Pimenteira Anacardiaceae Schinus mole
Cerejeira Myrtaceae Eugenia involucrata
Canela Pururuca Lauraceae Cryptocarya cryptocarya
Limao Bravo Phytolaccaceae Segueiria .. ,
Cafezinho-do-Mato Flacourtiaceae Casearia sylvestris
Caroba Bignoniaceae Jacaranda micrantha
Paineira Bombacaceae Chorisia speciosa
Farinha Seca Fabaceae Machaerum stipitatum
Rabo de Bugio Leguminosae Lonchocarpus muehlbergianus

Fonte: EPRIM (2001). Resultado das andlises fitossociol6gicas realizadas no Parque Municipal de Sertao,
e numa das dreas de uso de A. caraya, no municfpio de Fortaleza dos Valos, RS.

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002

Jacuizinho, Ivai e Ingaf sao afluentes que pertencem a bacia
do rio Jacuf. Nesse municipio, ate o moment, registrou-se
quatro popula6oes (Tabela 1).

Em Julio de Castilhos foi registrado um pequeno bando
vivendo num capao de mata de 9 ha, totalmente cercado, na
Fazenda Coxilha Bonita (Tabela 1). 0 arroio Japep6 atravessa
a mata e desigua no rio Ivaf. Ao que parece os bugios podem
alcancar a mata ciliar com facilidade. As arvores ocupam o
estrato mddio inferior e superior, demonstrando um bom
estado fitossanitario. Aldm de varios representantes da flora
arb6rea do Planalto, chama a atenqao a presenca de varios
exemplares de podocarpos (Podocarpus lambertii), bastante
antigos e bioindicadores da preservacao desse bosque.

Campos Borges e um municipio situado na margem direita
da Represa Passo Real, e abriga uma populacao de A. caraya
(Tabela 1), que transit entire os bosques de propriedades
particulares e a mata de galeria do rio Jacuizinho. Faz-se
notar que, no distrito de Dep6sito distante 28 km de
Campos Borges) j Afoi registrada pela EPRIM, a presenca de
dois bandos de A. g. clamitans, locomovendo-se em ambas
as margens do rio Jacuizinho, confirmando simpatria dessas
esp&cies ao long desse rio (Fig. 1). Sup6e-se que antes de
formada a Represa Passo Real, no ano 1972, bandos de
ambas as esp&cies podiam deslocar-se pelos campos onde
apareciam pequenos capes de mata, com presenca de
Araucaria angustifolia, entire Fortaleza dos Valos e Campos
Borges, guardando a devida distIncia entire si. Acredita-se
que foram as populagoes de A. caraya que ficaram confi-
nadas na margem direita da Represa, pois a fitofisionomia
da floresta ombr6fila mista, com a presenga de Araucaria
condiz mais com o habitat de A.g. clamitans.

Foi aplicado o MTL em busca de uma populagao de A.
caraya no municipio de Jari, vivendo num bosque alterado
de 40 ha, numa propriedade particular, sem que fosse pos-
sfvel visualizA-los. Nas matas de galeria do rio Jaguari, que
corre a oeste da cidade de Jari, distant 45 km do municfpio
de Jaguari hA relatos da presenga de uma populagao de A. g.
clamitans e outra de A. caraya, ainda nao confirmada visual-
mente pela equipe de pesquisa. Entretanto, acredita-se que
haja simpatria entire essas esp&cies, ao long desse rio, como
apontam os resultados obtidos na regiao das Miss6es.

J6ia d o 6ltimo municipio do Planalto situado a oeste
da regiao, que tem limited com municipios da regiao
fisiogrAfica das Miss6es. Nas duas propriedades visitadas
pela Equipe de pesquisa foi possivel encontrar e registrar
bandos de A. caraya com bom numero de individuos.
Os proprietarios, assim como os donos de outras granjas,
afirmaram que oferecem protegao aos animals. A situadao
dos bandos e confortAvel, visto que o seu hAbitat estA bem
preservado, com arvores atingindo o estrato superior e
subosque bem desenvolvido. Sobressaem exemplares de
acucarA (Gleditschia amorphoides), cujas folhas adocicadas
sao muito apreciadas pelos bugios. No interior da mata de
300 ha corre uma sanga grande, com bom volume de Agua,
ainda engrossada pelos c6rregos da vizinhansa, desaguando

no rio Chumi. No fragmento de 8 ha um c6rrego garante a
umidade no interior do capao de mata.

A regiao das Miss6es tem caracteristicas semelhantes a dos
pampas gadchos, com grandes extens6es de terra e poucos
bosques, caracterizando-se mais como campo nativo, com
menor ndmero de lavouras. Foram localizadas populagoes
de A. caraya em Bossoroca, Santiago, Sao Francisco de Assis
e em Sao Miguel das Miss6es (Tabela 1), com referencias
de pequenas populagoes vivendo em pontos distantes umas
das outras, nos municipios de Sao Borja, Santo Antonio das
Misses, Unistalda, Manoel Viana, MagambarA, Itacurubi
e Eugenio de Castro, que ainda estao sendo investigados
pela EPRIM.

Em Bossoroca, somando-se a populagao encontrada hA
relatos da presenga de outros bandos de A. caraya nas matas
de galeria do rio Piratinim. Os bandos observados e relata-
dos no municipio de Garruchos tambdm locomovem-se
ao long das matas ciliares dos rios Piratinim, Apochim e
Uruguai (Fig. 1). HA relatos de que o bugio-preto ocorre
em toda a extensao de mata de galeria que margeia o rio

Em Santiago, aldm da populagao estudada, a equipe local,
participate do projeto, encontrou no municipio, cinco
bandos, em pontos opostos uns dos outros, totalizando 39
indivfduos. Evidenciou-se a presenga de A. g. clamitans e
A. caraya no Distrito de Ernesto Alves, na porcao oriental

CB Campos Borges
FV Forieata do VaIO
BVI Boa Visli do Inca
JC Jllo de Castiho
Boz Bozo
Aj -AJuicaba
Tu Tuponctred
Jo J61a
Ja Ja

Figura 1. Municipios e principals Bacias do Rio Grande do Sul,
corn registro de ocorrencia de populag6es de Alouatta caraya (Fonte:
IBDF, 1983, modificada por Thals Leiroz Codenotti, 2002).

do rio Jaguarizinho (coordenadas UTM: 6.746.000 m N;
720.000 m E), afluente do rio Jaguari.

Sao Francisco de Assis, curiosamente abriga na praca cen-
tral da cidade uma familiar de bugios-pretos, composta por
tries individuos. Segundo informao6es, ap6s a morte de
um macho adulto, que ali vivia solitArio, foram retirados
da mata um macho e uma femea, que se reproduziram em
2001. A prefeitura declarou que existed bandos nas regioes
interioranas do municipio.

Sao Miguel das Miss6es e um municipio que recebe tur-
istas durante todo o ano, pois conserve as famosas ruinas
das misses jesufticas, sendo uma refer&ncia no estado,
visto serem as dnicas edificaq6es de pedra, que resistiram
a guerra e ao tempo. Foram visitadas duas fazendas, corn
6 e 80 ha de matas preservadas, registrando-se um bando
no fragmento menor. No "mato grande", como e chamado,
nao foi possivel localizar o bando, que segundo o propri-
etArio e numeroso. Dentro das matas aparecem apenas
pequenos arroios. A vegetacao desse municipio conserve
muito das caracteristicas arb6reas do Planalto, sobressaindo
nos bosques exemplares de guabiju (Myrcianthes pungens),
alecrim (Holocalyx spp.), branquilho (Sebastiania klotzschi-
ana), ipe-roxo (Tabebuia ipe Mart.) e de pente-de-macaco

No municipio de Jaguari, o rio Jaguarf atravessa a zona
urbana da cidade, e foi registrada a presenca de um bando
de A. g. clamitans, na mata de galeria, ocorrendo em peque-
nos bandos noutros ponto da mata, ao long do mesmo
rio, e nas encostas elevadas de exuberante vegetacao, que
fazem parte da fisionomia da regiao. A. caraya nao ocorre
nesse ponto do rio. As especies nao sao simpAtricas. A. g.
clamitans, encontra-se confinada entire populao6es de A.
caraya, que vivem ao long desse rio, estabelecendo assim
um limited de uso de Area entire as duas especies. Ainda nao
se sabe onde estaciona A. caraya, e porque A. g. clamitans
nao avanca da mesma forma.

Mais ao sul do estado, na regiao da Campanha, foi con-
firmada a presenca de A. caraya habitando a APA Federal
Rural do Ibirapuita, criada pelo Decreto 529, de 20 de
maio de 1992. Localizada no sudoeste do estado esta defin-
ida geograficamente, de acordo com 9 pontos marcados ao
long de seus 260 km de perimetro, entire as coordenadas:
3014'18"S, 5529'36"W limitede norte), 30o51'48" S,
5539'30"W limitede sul), 3050'12"S, 5534'12"W limitede
leste) e, 3005'42"S, 55o47'24" W. Possui 318.767 ha de
Area, percentualmente distribuidos entire quatro municipios:
Alegrete (15,22% da Area), Quaraf (12,22%), RosArio do
Sul (15,75%) e, Santana do Livramento, que possui a maior
parte dessa APA, correspondent a 56,81% da Area total. A
especie ocorre tambem na Reserva Biol6gica do Ibirapuita
(Decreto n 31.788 de 27-06-1982), compreendida entire as
coordenadas (de 29o54' a 2957'S e de 55o45' a 5548'W),
corn uma Area de 351,42 ha, localizada no municipio de
Alegrete, na margem direita do rio Ibirapuita, a 18 km da
zona urbana. Trata-se da 6nica Area de proteqao integral no

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002
estado, a preservar poro6es de campos nativos e mata ciliar,
onde ocorre o bugio-preto (SEMA RS, 2002. 0 levan-
tamento de fauna realizado por Marinho e Cunha (2001)
confirm a presenca da especie. A distancia entire a Reserva
e a APA e de apenas 7 km, o que esta levando o Ibama e a
Prefeitura de Alegrete a pensarem num corredor ecol6gico,
para ligar as duas areas, o que seria de grande valia para a
conservacao de A.caraya.

Os bandos de A. caraya encontrados pela equipe (n = 25)
sao pequenos, com no minimo 3 e no maximo 13 indi-
viduos (n = 156). Considerando a composicao sexo-etaria
dos bandos, a media de individuos foi a seguinte: machos
adults 1,71 (n = 36); femeas adults 3,04 (n = 70); juvenis
1,64 (n = 18) e infants 1,45 (n= 16). Machos sub adults
nem sempre foram registrados nos bandos estudados, x
= 1,45 (n = 16). As composio6es de bandos mais estra-
nhas foram: um, composto por quatro machos adults,
um macho sub adulto, dois juvenis e apenas duas femeas
adults (sup6e-se que podera haver ruptura nesse bando,
quando os machos disputarem entire si pela conquista das
femeas); outro com tries machos adults e nove femeas
adults, fugindo ao padrao de tamanho de bando, com-
pativel com o tamanho da area de uso. A presenca de dois
ou mais machos adults no mesmo bando s6 foi observada
e registrada recentemente.

Numa propriedade rural, na beira da estrada, no municipio
de Tupancireta foram avistados dois individuos isolados
(uma femea adulta e um juvenile alimentando-se no alto
de uma paineira (Chorisia speciosa St. Hill), no acostamento
da BR 158. A 150 m de distancia, aproximadamente, ha
um bosque fragmentado de 2 ha, separado de outro maior
por uma extensa lavoura de rotacao de cultures, que esta
conectado com a mata de galeria do rio Ivaf. Acredita-se que
o restante do bando estivesse pr6ximo, numa dessas matas.

Os animals estudados demonstram uma condigao fisica
muito boa, com evidence massa corporal, nas matas com
riqueza e exuberancia de vegetacao. Apenas um bando, em
Tupancireta, mostrou sinais de debilidade fisica animalss
magros) e de tamanho corporal menor, que os anterior-
mente encontrados. Esses animals (n = 8) vivem em 2 ha de
mata alterada e pobre em diversidade de especies vegetais,
no quintal de uma propriedade rural que, segundo os mora-
dores estao ali ha mais de 20 anos, deslocando-se pela mata
ciliar pr6xima e retornando a propriedade. Comentaram
que o bando era maior, pordm animals jovens e infants
nao alcancam a idade adulta. Ap6s nove meses da primeira
visit a essa propriedade, foi possivel observer novamente
esse bando, agora corn 13 individuos, residindo de forma
permanent no sitio. Demonstravam mais vitalidade,
devido ao enriquecimento alimentar (corn frutas), que
os proprietarios, por iniciativa pr6pria, oportunizaram ao
bando durante o inverno. Nesse grupo estao presents 3
machos adults, convivendo em harmonia. Foi observado
na ocasiao, que os bugios alimentavam-se de folhas de euc-
alipto (Eucalyptus sp.)!

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002
Um dos resultados mais expressivos da pesquisa foi deter-
minar o limited e o ponto de encontro de A. caraya, em sim-
patria corn A. g. clamitans, no municipio de Santiago, na
regiao das Miss6es, habitando as matas de galeria na poriao
oriental do rio Jaguarizinho, considerado um important
afluente do rio Jaguari, da bacia do rio Uruguai. No Plan-
alto Medio as duas especies estao em simpatria ao long
do rio Jacuizinho, afluente da bacia do rio Jacuf, entire os
municipios de Espumoso e Campos Borges.

Dos resultados ate o moment obtidos e das informao6es
prestadas pelas Secretarias de Agricultura e Meio Ambiente,
estabeleceu-se os limits de ocorrencia de A. caraya no Rio
Grande do Sul: ao sul ocorre na area da APA, correspon-
dente ao municipio de Santana do Livramento (309'S,
555'W), na regiao da Campanha, vivendo nas matas de
galeria do rio Ibirapuita; o limited oeste, nas matas ciliares
ao long dos rios Piratinim, e Uruguai, municipio de Gar-
ruchos (282'S, 556'W), na regiao das Miss6es. 0 limited
norte, no municipio de Ajuricaba (282'S, 537'W), apare-
cendo populao6es nas matas que acompanham os afluentes
do rio Ijuf e o limited leste, no municipio de Campos Borges
(2853'S, 5259'W), em bosques de propriedades particu-
lares e nas matas de galeria, ao long do rio Jacuizinho.
Ambos os limits na regiao fisiografica do Planalto Medio
Rio-grandense (Fig. 1). As altitudes ocilam, de norte a sul,
entire 350m no municipio de Ajuricaba, e 208 m em San-
tana do Livramento.


Embora Alouatta caraya nao seja considerada uma esp&cie
em extingao (Emmons and Feer, 1990; Rylands etal., 1995),
no Rio Grande do Sul encontra-se vulneravel (Marques et
al., 2002). Os velozes, continues e abusivos desmatamen-
tos, para uso agropecuArio e para a construcao de barragens
em suas areas de uso, vem reduzindo drasticamente seu
habitat e empurrando as populao6es residents para Areas
muito pequenas, cada vez menores, e cada vez mais pobres
em esp&cies vegetais. Alim do corte abusivo de Arvores, o
grande impact sobre as matas d a presenga continue do
gado, e de rebanhos de ovinos e suinos, que buscam abrigo
no interior dos bosques, protegendo-se dos rigores do
inverno, pisoteando a vegetacao rasteira e inviabilizando a
recuperaqao natural do estrato inferior. Por tratar-se de uma
especie arboricola, que depend da floresta para sobreviver,
pode-se dizer que A. caraya esta ameagada pelos fortissimos
impacts que vem sofrendo, e se essa situaqao continuar,
e previsfvel a inviabilizaqao dessas populao6es, afetando a
especie num curto espago de tempo.

Foram observados pelos proprietArios de fazendas compor-
tamentos agressivos por parte do macho, maltratando as
femeas e eliminando os filhotes. Possivelmente trata-se de
uma estrategia de protegao ao grupo, procurando manter
o tamanho 6timo, de acordo com a capacidade de carga
da Area, resultado da disponibilidade de alimento, para a
manutengao dos individuos do bando.

Sendo herbfvoros generalistas, predominantemente folfvo-
ros, em muitas circunstIncias, os animals nao conseguem
ser suficientemente seletivos, devido a pobreza dos frag-
mentos onde vivem. Considerou-se que, se as barreiras
para o deslocamento de A. caraya constituem verdadeiros
impedimentos, a tendencia pode ser a reducao no tamanho
do grupo, como estrategia de sobrevivencia. Milton (1980)
afirma que o padrao geral de utilizaqao de vegetais obser-
vado para Alouatta compreende a ingestao de grande quan-
tidade de poucas esp&cies vegetais e pequenas quantidades
de muitas especies. Assim, atraves da seletividade obtem
uma dieta equilibrada, de acordo corn suas necessidades

Por outro lado A. caraya possui uma alta capacidade de
adaptacao fisica e comportamental, para viver em dificeis
condio6es ecol6gicas. Bicca-Marques (1994) consider que a
presenya da especie em habitat marginal born indicativo de
seu grau de adaptabilidade a condio6es extremes. Entretanto,
constatou-se que em alguns dos locals estudados, as popu-
lacoes apenas resistem, vivendo em fragments minimos de
mata, e em bandos muito isolados uns dos outros.
O apelo a sobrevivencia e intense e forte, e esses primatas
continuam reproduzindo-se, pordm podem estar gerando
filhotes frageis, enfraquecendo as possibilidades vitais das
populao6es. Um risco evidence e a consangilinidade, que
pode corroborar diretamente para o desaparecimento
dessas populao6es. Embora sejam capazes de se loco-
moverem tambem no chao, atravessando Areas cultivadas,
para alcancar bosques pr6ximos, a extensao das lavouras em
determinadas regi6es e absurda, inviabilizando a troca de
habitats e, consequentemente, isolando esses animals, que
ficam impedidos de buscar parceiros sexuais noutras matas,
diferente do que foi observado por Calegaro-Marques e
Bicca-Marques (1996), em que animals jovens safam do
grupo familiar original dirigindo-se a outras Areas, para
former novos bandos.

A ocorrencia de populao6es de A. caraya expandindo-se e
povoando Areas de florestas ripArias e matas de galeria no
Rio Grande do Sul, pode indicar o rompimento dessas bar-
reiras, e estar corroborando com a melhoria do seu status de
conservacao. Kinzey (1982) mostra, claramente, uma sepa-
raqao entire as populao6es de A. caraya e A. g. clamitans, que
ocorrem no centro e no leste dos estados brasileiros, sem
referencias as populao6es do Sul do Brasil. Um dos aspects
relevantes dos resultados obtidos foi a possibilidade de esta-
belecer limits de separaqao de A. caraya e A. guariba clami-
tans, no Rio Grande do Sul, deixando, entretanto, clara a
possibilidade de haver ocorrido simpatria das duas especies,
em diferentes regi6es do estado, antes da fragmentacao e da
destruigao das florestas originals.


Dos resultados obtidos ate o moment pode-se concluir
que o status de conservacao da especie no Rio Grande do
Sul e s&rio, mas ainda ha possibilidade de reverter o quadro
apresentado. Postulamos que:

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002

- A simpatria entire A. caraya e A. g. clamitans pode ser
um indicative important de preservacao ambiental, e de
riqueza de vegetacao arb6rea, sem que haja competiiao
agressiva entire os grupos de especies diferentes, na busca
de alimento;
- a presenga de A. caraya em areas de municipios contfguos,
no Rio Grande do Sul, deslocando-se em pequenos bandos,
e assim tragando uma rota de distribuigao, antes desconhe-
cida, possa ser a chave para a sua conservacao;
- onde houver restrio6es as suas estrategias de sobrevivencia,
as populao6es estarao fadadas ao desaparecimento;
- ao6es conjuntas e determinadas, como medidas diretas de
recuperaqao de areas alteradas pelo home, como reposio6es
florestais criteriosas, podem favorecer a conservagao das
populao6es dessa especie no Rio Grande do Sul.


Agradecemos a Fundacao o Boticirio de Protegao a
Natureza pelos dois anos de aporte financeiro ao projeto. A
Universidade de Passo Fundo pelo apoio logistico, que per-
mitiu os indmeros deslocamentos da EPRIM pelo estado.
Aos senhores Secretirios Municipais de Agricultura e Meio
Ambiente do Rio Grande do Sul, e aos proprietirios de
Fazendas, por apoiarem o projeto e garantirem protegao aos
primatas que habitam as matas de suas terras. Aos Tecnicos
Agricolas que acompanharam a Equipe em expedigoes a
campo, ao engenheiro agr6nomo, Dairton Ramos Lewan-
dowski e a todos os integrantes das equipes locals, pela
excepcional participagao no projeto. Agradecemos tambem
ao IBAMA e a Patrulha Ambiental da Brigada Militar, dos
virios municipios, pela colaboracao e participagao direta no
projeto. Ao professor, doutor Anthony Rylands pelo apoio
e incentive. A bi6loga Deborah Giolo Dal Moro (EPRIM),
ao bi6logo Leonildo Betanin e ao professor Edarcf Michelin
(GRUPO NHANDU), pelo auxflio na coleta de dados. A
todos os membros da EPRIM, bolsistas e voluntirios, pelo
esforgo, dedicaqao e trabalho arduo, em prol da conservagao
dos primatas e da preservagao de seus habitats naturals.

Thais Leiroz Codenotti, Valeska Martins daSilva, Vagner
Jos6 de Albuquerque, Eduardo Wagner Camargo, e Rose
Mari Martins Silveira, Equipe de Primatas (EPRIM),
Institute de Ciencias Biol6gicas, Universidade de Passo
Fundo, Caixa Postal 611, 99070-680 Passo Fundo, Rio
Grande do Sul, Brasil. E-mail: ,


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Nativas Rio Grande do Sul. Minist&rio da Agricultura,
Institute Brasileiro de Desenvolvimento Florestal (IBDF),
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Brasil, IBGE, 1983. Recursos Naturais e Meio Ambiente:
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Brasil, IBDF. 1983. Inventdrio Florestal Nacional. Florestas
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Brasil, IBGE / Projeto RADAM-BRASIL. 1986.
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de Janeiro.
Cabrera, A. 1939. Los monos de la Argentina. Physis 16:
Calegaro-Marques, C. e Bicca-Marques, J. C. 1996.
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Eisenberg, J. F. and Redford, K. H. 1999. Mammals of the
Neotropics. The Central Neotropics. Volume 3. Ecuador,
Peru, Bolivia, Brazil. The University of Chicago Press,
Emmons, L. H. and Feer, F. 1990. Neotropical Rainforest
Mammals. A Field Guide. The University of Chicago
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Fortes, A. B. 1959. G... F Fisica do Rio Grande do Sul.
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Prance (ed.), pp.459-482. Columbia University Press,
New York.
Marinho, J.R. e Cunha, A. S. 2001. Mamfferos da Reserva
Biol6gica do Ibirapuita, RS, Brasil. Resumos do I Congresso
Brasileiro de Mastozoologia. Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil. p.
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ameagada de extingdo no Rio Grande do Sul. Decreto no
41.632 de 11 de junho de 2002. FZB/MCT PUCRS/
PANGEA, Porto Alegre. 52 p.
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A Study in Primate Economics. Columbia University Press,
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Argentina. Vol I. Centro Editor de America Latina,
Buenos Aires.
Pastor Nieto, R. e Williamson, D. K. 1998. The effect
of rainfall seasonality on the geographic distribution of
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Grande do Sul. Companhia Rio-Grandense, Porto Alegre.
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Alba Lucia Morales-jimenez


En las 6ltimas d&cadas la abundancia de primates no
humans ha declinado rapidamente a lo largo del
Neotr6pico (Stoner, 1994) y por esto se hace necesario
realizar censos y monitoreos de las poblaciones de
diferentes species de primates, con el fin de documentary
la disminuci6n de las poblaciones y plantear acciones para
su conservaci6n a largo plazo (Chapman, 1988 en Stoner,
1994; Thorington y Heltne, 1976).

En Colombia la destrucci6n del bosque andino ha lle-
gado a un punto critic (Cavelier y Etter, 1995; Van der
Hammen, 1995;) mas del 90% del bosque subandino ha
desaparecido (Cavelier, 1993), y es muy poco lo que con-
ocemos de los primates que habitan este tipo de bosques.
Aunque el mono aullador (Alouatta seniculus) es una espe-
cie de amplia distribuci6n y no se encuentra en peligro de
extinci6n (Hilton-Taylor, 2002), las poblaciones andinas
pueden estar en peligro debido a la destrucci6n de sus

Los monos aulladores se encuentran generalmente en
los bosques de galeria de los llanos orientales, bosques
tropicales deciduos y bosques lluviosos (Hernandez-
Camacho y Cooper, 1976), sin embargo tambidn pueden
encontrarse en zonas de bosques frios y htmedos hasta los
3200 m de altitude (Hernandez-Camacho y Cooper, 1976;
Gauliny Gaulin, 1982). A. seniculushasido principalmente
estudiada en bosques de zonas bajas y es muy poco lo que
se conoce sobre su ecologia en bosque subandino y andino
(Cabrera 1994; Gaulin y Gaulin, 1982).

En este articulo se present la estimaci6n de la densidad de
los monos aulladores en el Santuario de Fauna y Flora Otun
Quimbaya. usando el m&todo de triangulaci6n de aullidos
propuesto por Brockelman y Ali (1987) y Sutherland (1996).

Zona de Estudio

El Santuario de Fauna y Flora Otun Quimbaya se encuen-
tra en la Vereda La Suiza, Municipio de Pereira, Depar-
tamento de Risaralda, Colombia (4o43'N, 75o34'0)
(Herrera y Sanchez, 1996). EstA ubicado sobre el flanco
occidental de la Cordillera Central entire los 1850 y 2250
m de altitude. Abarca 489 ha de las cuales 30 se encuentran
reforestadas con species ex6ticas como Fraxinus chinensis
y Pinus patula. Se caracteriza por presentar un regimen
de lluvias bimodal, con lluvias entire marzo-mayo y sep-
tiembre-diciembre. El promedio annual de precipitaci6n es
de 2535 mm y la temperature promedio es de 15,31 C
(CENICAFE, 1999). Esta Area corresponde a un bosque
subandino (Rangel, 1991).


Para estimar la densidad de monos aulladores se utiliz6
el m&todo de triangulaci6n de aullidos propuesto por
Brockelman y Ali (1987) y Sutherland (1996). El
metodo consiste en la elaboraci6n de un mapa mediante
la triangulaci6n de las vocalizaciones escuchadas por
tres personas en el Area de muestreo. La ubicaci6n
de los investigadores se hizo por medio del registro
de las coordenadas geogrAficas usando un Sistema de
Posicionamiento Global o GPS por sus siglas en inglks.
Cada investigator, cuando escucho un aullido, registry la
hora de inicio del mismo, la direcci6n con ayuda de una
brdjula y cualquier caracteristica vocal que pudiera ayudar
en la diferenciaci6n de los grupos.

El area de escucha estuvo delimitada por los limits naturales
de las montanas y los valles, y por el alcance de escucha de
los investigadores. El punto en el que se cruzaron los datos
de los tres observadores indic6 la presencia de un grupo de
aulladores, es decir que grupos que s6lo eran escuchados
por una o dos personas eran considerados fuera del Area de
escucha. Los datos colectados fueron ubicados en un mapa
de la zona y en una fotograffa area. El muestreo se realize
durante 30 dias entire julio y agosto de 1999. Los datos se
tomaron entire las 5:00 y las 9:00 am.; horas en las que los
aullidos son mAs frecuentes.

Para estimar la densidad de grupos se utiliz6 la formula pro-
puesta por Brokelman y Ali (1987), D = fn/A. Donde D es
la densidad estimada, n es el ndmero de grupos escuchados
en un period de muestreo A es el Area de escucha y fes el
factor de correcci6n que corrige el hecho de que no todos
los grupos vocalizan durante un period de muestreo Este
factor es igual a l1p(m), donde p(m) es la proporci6n de
grupos que se espera vocalicen en un period de muestreo
de m dfas.

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002

Despuas de obtener el ndmero de grupos en el Area de
escucha, se procedi6 a buscarlos con el fin de determinar el
ndmero de individuos por grupo y asf estimar la densidad
de individuos por km2.


El Area de escucha calculada fue de 116 ha. La densidad
estimada fue de 5,2 grupos/km2. Durante los recorridos se
encontraron 6 grupos dentro del Area de escucha con un
promedio de 6 individuos por grupo, con un rango entire 3
y 9 (Tabla 1). La densidad de individuos dentro del Area de
escucha fue 31,3/km2. Los grupos estaban conformados en
su mayorfa por individuos adults (73,3%) y la proporci6n
de machos y hembras encontrada fue de 1:1 (X2 0.05, 1 gl
= 0.1428).


La densidad de monos aulladores estimada para el Santuario
de Fauna y Flora Otdn Quimbaya durante el mes de
muestreo se encuentra dentro de los valores registrados
para la especie (Tabla 2) en otras zonas. No obstante, la
comparaci6n de ese valor con el o calculado para otro
bosque subandino colombiano en la Finca Meremberg, a
2300 metros de altitude, (Gaulin y Gaulin, 1982) muestra
que la densidad obtenida en este studio dobla su valor.
Este hecho podria indicar que el Santuario esta mejor
conservado o que su bosque es de mejor calidad y por lo
tanto puede sostener mas monos aulladores. Por otra parte
se debe tener en cuenta que ese dato corresponde a un s6lo
mes del afio (6poca con menor precipitaci6n), lo cual puede
estar influyendo en el resultado obtenido. Es possible que la
densidad de esta especie varfe a lo largo del afio.

Al comparar la densidad de los monos aulladores de los dos
studios realizados en bosques subandinos con la registrada
para zonas bajas, podemos ver que la densidad tiende a ser
mas baja en zonas de mayor altitude. La densidad promedio
en zonas de baja altitude fue de 69,59 individuos/km2,
mientras que las obtenidas en este studio y en la Finca
Meremberg fueron de 31,33 individuos/km2 y de 15
individuos/km2 (calculado de los datos de Gaulin y Gaulin,
1982) respectivamente. Esta diferencia podria sugerir que
los bosques en zonas altas podrian sostener menos monos
aulladores que los bosques en zonas de baja altitude, lo

que concuerda con lo encontrado por Durham (1971 en
Gaulin et al., 1980) para Ateles paniscus. Ese autor hall
que la densidad de alimento, especialmente de frutos, esta
inversamente correlacionada con la altitude, y asf mismo,
con el tamafio de los grupos de Ateles paniscus.

Aunque Alouatta seniculus es una especie altamente folivora
(Milton, 1993; Rockwood y Glander, 1979) no se debe igno-
rar la cantidad de frutos que ingieren (Chiarello y Galleti,
1994; Julliot, 1997). Los frutos pueden representar entire el
25,5% y el 42,3% de la dieta (Gaulin y Gaulin, 1982; Gil-
bert, 1994; Julliot y Sabatier, 1993). Si la densidad de frutos
es menor en zonas altas, los grupos tendran que recorrer
mayores distancias para suplir sus requerimientos energ&-
ticos, ocuparan Areas de acci6n mas grandes, sus grupos tal
vez seran de menor tamafio y sus densidades menores.

Se ha encontrado que la densidad es una variable dependi-
ente de la disponibilidad y distribuci6n de recursos como
alimento, agua y lugares seguros para el descanso (Dunbar,
1988; Gaulin y Gaulin, 1982; Gaulin et al., 1980; Krebs
y Davies, 1984; Mace et al., 1984; Stevenson y Quifiones,
1993). La dispersi6n espacial de los consumidores puede
estar limitada por la distribuci6n de un recurso critic (Alt-
mann, 1974 en Krebs y Davies, 1984), su calidad y disper-
si6n influencia el tamafio de los grupos en una gran variedad
de species. Un Area con una baja calidad y/o cantidad de
recursos alimenticios puede sostener menos consumidores,
a diferencia de uno de buena calidad (Greenwood y Swing-
land, 1984; Krebs y Davies 1984;).

Aunque el tamafio de los grupos esta dentro de lo registrado
para la especie (Tabla 2), el promedio para zonas bajas fue
de 7,5 individuos por grupo, en tanto que, y para zonas
altas fue de 6,8. Esto podria apoyar la hip6tesis de que a
mayor altitude menor densidad y/o calidad de los recursos
alimenticios para esta especie, y por lo tanto, menor
densidad de consumidores.

La sugerencia de que la densidad de monos aulladores en
zonas andinas es mas baja que en zonas de menor altitude,
es un dato important a ser considerado en la realizaci6n
de planes de manejo y conservaci6n de estas poblaciones,
ya que sus requerimientos en este tipo de bosque son
diferentes a los de otras altitudes. Es important seguir
realizando studios poblacionales, de monitoreo de la

Tabla 1. Composici6n de los grupos de monos aulladores (Alouatta seniculus) en el Santuario de Fauna y Flora Otin Quimbaya.

Grupo Machos Adultos Hembras Adultas Machos Henbras Infantiles Total
Juveniles Juveniles
1 3 4 1 0 1 9
2 2 2 0 1 1 6
3 2 3 1 1 0 7
4 2 1 0 0 0 3
5 1 2 1 1 0 5
Promedio 2 2,4 0,6 0,6 0,4 6
Desviaci6n estAndar 0,71 1,14 0,55 0,55 0,55 2,24

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002

densidad poblacional y de requerimientos de habitat de
esta especie en un ecosistema tan amenazado como los
bosques andinos, con el fin de proteger sus poblaciones
a largo plazo.


Los mis sinceros agradecimientos a las personas e insti-
tuciones que me colaboraron en la financiaci6n y desar-
rollo de este proyecto. A Idea Wild, The Explorers Club,
Fundaci6n Ecoandina, La Unidad de Parque Naturales
Nacionales y El Instituto de Ciencias Naturales por la
financiaci6n y ayuda logistica. A los funcionarios del
Santuario de Fauna y Flora Otun Quimbaya por su
colaboraci6n y apoyo. Al Doctor Alberto Cadena por sus
ensefianzas y por abrirme un espacio en su laboratorio.

Alba Lucia Morales-Jim6nez, Instituto de Ciencias
Naturales, UniversidadNacional de Colombia, A.A. 7495,
Bogota, Colombia, e-mail: .


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Tabla 2. Densidad y tamafio promedio de grupos de los monos aulladores (Alouatta seniculus) en bosques Neotropicales.

Localidad Tipo de Bosque Densidad Tamafio promedio Altitude Autor
Localdad po de Bos(ind./km2) de grupo (m)

Bolivia Bosque siempre verde 120 7,4 Freese et al. (1982)
Neville (1972), Sekulic
Venezuela, Area occidental Hato Bosque abierto semi- Neville (1972), Sekulic
Masaguaral deciduo 83-118 8,46 73-100 (1982), Crockett y Eisen-
Masaguaral deciduo b (187
Trinid, B u Bh B Bosque estacional siem-
Trinidad, Bosque Bush Bush preverde 114 7,5 Hasta 940 Neville (1972)
Venezuela, Area oriental y cen- Bosque de galerfa semi- 108 9,6 73-100 Neville (1972)
tral, Hato Masaguaral deciduo
Venezuela, Hato El Frfo Bosque de galerfa 54 6,3 Braza etal. (1981)
Bosque de galerfa semi- Crockett y Eisenberg
Venezuela, Hato Masaguaral deciduo 50 8,3 73-100 Crockett y Eisenberg
deciduo (1987)
Peri, Pacaya-Samiria Bosque himedo tropical 36 5,5 Soini (1986)

Peri, Rio Samiria 29,5 5 Freese (1975)

Peri, Rio Samiria Bosque Inundable 9.5 Aquino etal. (2001)

Peri, Cocha Cashu (Mand) 24 5 Freese (1975)

Colombia, La Macarena Bosque himedo tropical 10 7,5 350-450 Stevenson (1991)

Colombia, Finca Meremberg Bosque montano siem c.15 9 2300 Gaulin y Gaulin (1982)
Colombia, SFF Otin Quimbaya Bosque Subandino 31,3 6 1850-2250 Presente studio

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002

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Gaulin, S. y Gaulin, C. 1982. Behavioral ecology of
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in Alouatta group size and food availability on Barro
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Gilbert, K. 1994. Endoparasitic infection in red howler
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Greenwood, P. J. y Swingland, I. R. 1984. Animal
movement: Approaches, adaptations and constraints. En:
The Ecology of Animal Movement, I. R. Swingland y P.
J.Greenwood (eds), pp. 1-6. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
Hernindez-Camacho, J. y Cooper, R. 1976. The non-
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Herrera, J. D. y Sinchez, G. 1996. Propuesta para el
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monkeys Alouatta seniculus on the seedling population in
the understorey of tropical rain forest. J. Ecol. 85: 431-440.
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(Alouatta seniculus) in French Guiana. Int. J. Primatol. 14:
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An Evolutionary Approach. 2a. ed. Blackwell Scientific
Publications, Oxford.
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Vertebrate home-range size and energetic requirements.
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howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus) in Trinidad and
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Clara B. Jones


Behavioral displays are thought to have arisen for the inter-
individual assessment of information to resolve conflicts of
interest and to avoid the risks of serious injury that may
result from costly fights (Krebs and Davies, 1993). Displays

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002

are considered to represent stereotyped or ritualized inten-
tion movements, ambivalent responses, or redirected acts
(Tinbergen, 1952). The stereotyped and ritualized behav-
iors of mantled howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata) have
been noted by several authors (Carpenter, 1934; Crockett
and Eisenberg, 1987; Jones, 1980, 2000), although most
reports are anecdotal. This brief report provides empiri-
cal data on stereotyped genital displays of adult male and
female mantled howlers, concluding that they represent ele-
ments of compound, condition-dependent displays.


Study site and animals
The study (Jones, 1980, 1985, 2000 and references) was
conducted in 1976 and 1977 at Hacienda La Pacifica,
Cafias, Guanacaste, Costa Rica (1018'N, 8507'W).
Marked animals (Scott et al., 1976) in two A. palliata
groups were studied in two habitats (Frankie et al., 1974)
of seasonal tropical dry forest (riparian habitat, Group 5:
three adult males, 15 adult females, 401 h observation;
deciduous habitat, Group 12: two adult males, eight adult
females, 114 h observation).

In Group 5, Y male was highest-ranking, G male, second-
ranking, and R male, lowest-ranking. The sub-adult, LT
male, entered the hierarchy in 1977. In Group 12, S male
was dominant, and Z male subordinate. In previous reports
(e.g., Jones, 1980), Z male was labeled "R12", but to avoid
confusion with R male of Group 5, this Group 12 male
has been re-labeled "Z." Procedures for determining domi-
nance hierarchies may be found in Jones (1980). Group
12 was followed by radio-tracking (AVM SM-1 sending at
296 Mhz with a model LA 12 receiver [AVM Instrument
Company, U.S.A.]).

Results are based upon randomized focal and ad libitum
observations (Altmann, 1974). Modal social organization
of mantled howlers is multimale-multifemale, yielding a
polygynandrous mating system (Carpenter, 1934; Glander,
1980; Jones, 1980, 1985, 2000; Jones and Cortes-Ortiz,
1998; Crockett and Eisenberg, 1987). Mantled howler
males are characterized by a predominantly white scrotum
against dark pelage (Jones, 1999), and the females' labia are
a variegated mix of black and white pigmentation (Jones,
1997). Cycling females exhibit genital swelling and color
change (Glander, 1980; Jones, 1985), presumably corre-
sponding to cycle stage.

In this short report, "display" means one event. Genital dis-
play by males (GDM) signifies an adult male exposing his
scrota to another individual, usually with the tail extended
vertically. Genital display by females (GDF) indicates an
adult female exposing her genital region to another indi-
vidual, usually with her tail in a vertical position. These
postures were considered to be "stereotyped" or "ritualized"
because, when expressed, the animal's behavior appeared
to "freeze" (Lorenz, 1951 quoted in Eibl-Eibesfeldt, 1970)

and to occur with "typical intensity" (Morris, 1957). The
initiation and termination of a GDM or a GDF event was
determined by the beginning and ending, respectively, of
the frozen posture. The recipient (the "receiver") of the
display's signal was presumed to be the nearest neighbor
of the displaying individual (the "sender"). "Copulation"
means dorso-ventral mounting with intromission, with
or without ejaculation. "Displacement" means that one
animal (sender or receiver) moved at least 1 m away from
the other (sender or receiver). Two males were judged to
be in coalition against a third if the two were observed to
cooperatively displace the third (Jones, 1980, 2000).

Data analysis
The non-parametric Chi square (Z2) "goodness of fit" test is
employed with alpha set at 5%. All tests are two-tailed.


In Group 5, 42 GDMs were displayed by Y male, 47 by
G male, 26 by R male, and four by LT male (Z2 = 37.8, df
= 3, ps0.001). Thus, males of this group were not likely
to display equally, and Y and G males were most likely to
exhibit GDMs. GDMs occasionally escalated; six times to
displacements and four times to chases, but never to fights.
GDMs occurred in association with sexual behavior ("lin-
gual gestures" [Carpenter, 1934; Jones, 1985], sexual solici-
tations [Jones, 1985], herding, copulation [Jones, 1985]:
n = 18), vocalizations (see Jones, 1980, 2000: n = 26),
"branch-break" displays (Glander, 1975; Jones, 2000: n =
12), urination (Glander, 1975, 1980; Jones, 2002, 2003:
n = 4), and branch marking (Glander, 1975: perineal or
chin marking: n = 3). Thus, GDMs may be components of
"compound displays" (Bradbury and Vehrencamp, 1998)
including visual, auditory, and olfactory signals. Females
who were the recipients of GDMs or who were associated
with displaying males were noted to be cycling on 14 occa-

Y male displayed 13 times to G, eight times to R, four times
to LT, 10 times to G and R males in coalition against Y,
and six times to females (Z2 = 5.96, df = 4, p>0.05). Thus,
Y male displayed equally to his recipients. The recipient of
one GDM by Y male was undetermined. G male exhibited
GDMs 17 times to Y male, 15 times to R, three times to LT,
three times to Y and R in coalition against G, once to R and
LT in coalition against G, once to an adult male of another
group (Group 10), once to a transient, subadult male, and
six times to females (Z2 = 50.14, df= 7, ps0.001). G male,
then, was most likely to display to Y and R males. R male
displayed eight times to Y, 11 times to G, twice to LT, and
five times to females (Z2 = 6.94, df= 3, p>0.05). Thus, R
male was equally likely to display to his recipients.

In Group 12, GDMs by S male occurred 37 times, by Z
male, 18 (Z2 = 6.56, df = 1, ps0.02). Thus, the dominant
male, S, was more likely than the subordinate, Z, to display.
S male exhibited GDMs 19 times to Z and 16 times to
females (Z2 = 0.26, df = 1, p>0.05). The dominant male in

Group 12, then, is equally likely to display to his recipients.
Z male exhibited GDMs eight times to S and nine times to
females (X2 = 0.06, df= 1, p>0.05). Thus, Z male, also, was
equally likely to display to his recipients. The recipient of
one GDM by Z was undetermined.

Females of Group 5 exhibited 42 GDFs, nine times to Y
male, 15 times to G male, eight times to R male, once to
LT male, three times to G and R males in coalition against
Y, twice to Y and R males in coalition against G, and four
times to other females (X2= 24.68, df= 6, ps0.001). Thus,
females were most likely to display to G male. GDFs
occurred in association with female-female displacements
(n = 11), vocalizations (n = 1), chasing (Jones, 2000: n =
2), fighting by females (Jones, 2000: n = 1), genital inspec-
tion by males (n = 4), urination (Jones, 2002, 2003: n =
3), copulation (n = 1), grooming (Jones, 1979: n= 1), and
huddling (Glander, 1975; Jones, 1980: n= 1). As for males,
then, GDFs may be components of "compound displays."
Females (either sender or receiver) were noted to be cycling
on three occasions.

Females of Group 12 exhibited GDF's nine times, twice
to S male, three times to Z male, and four times to other
females (X2 = 0.66, df= 2, p>0.05). Females of Group 12,
then, are equally likely to display to their recipients. In this
group, GDF's by one female to another occurred in asso-
ciation with copulation (Jones, 1985: n = 2) or fighting (n
= 1), and these displays were exhibited on four occasions
when either the displaying female, the receiver, or both
were cycling. Vocalizations were noted to accompany GDFs
on one occasion in Group 12.


Similar to patterns of marking (Eisenberg, 1981), genital
displays by adult mantled howlers are most likely to be
derived from "simple movements of elimination." While
it is possible that genital displays function as "contact-pro-
moting behavior" (Eisenberg, 1981), less likely, as appease-
ment, I have observed these displays by mantled howlers in
Panama (A. p. aequatorialis) and Mexico (A. p. mexicana),
as well as Costa Rica (A. p. palliata), and, in all cases, genital
displays appear to be used to control other individuals (see
Jones, 1980, pp.394-395) and, possibly, to communicate
threat. Supporting the latter view is the finding that GDMs
and GDFs sometimes escalate to agonistic behavior(s),
although wounds have never been observed on the scrota
of male mantled howlers (N. J. Scott, Jr., pers. comm.; C.
B. Jones, pers. obs.) or on the perineal area of females (C.
B. Jones, pers. obs.).

In Groups 5 and 12, high-ranking males were most likely
to exhibit GDMs. If genital displays are costly to males
in time, energy, exposure to predation, and/or risks from
fights, they may represent reliable ("honest") displays of
quality which only high-ranking males can afford (see
Andersson, 1994). Males of both groups displayed to
their recipients with equal frequency with the exception

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002
of Group 5's second-ranked male, G, who was most likely
to display to Y and R males. This pattern may reflect the
complexity of interactions which results when the number
of males in a group increases as well as G's reliance upon a
display unlikely to escalate in his competitive relations with
other males. G's employment of genital displays, then, may
reflect a safe strategy in highly competitive conditions.

Supporting the interpretation that G's displays to other
males reflected male-male competition is the finding that
females of Group 5 were most likely to exhibit GDFs to G
male, although females of Group 12 were equally likely to
display to S and Z. The "skew" in copulations in Group 12,
however, was much higher than in Group 5 (Jones, 1985),
possibly demonstrating, again, the complexity of interac-
tions with an increase in male numbers. The present results
support the view that GDMs and GDFs reflect interindi-
vidual competition since they occurred in association with
sexual behavior as well as displacements, chases, and related
agonistic responses. GDMs and GDFs appear to be condi-
tional signals dependent upon phenotype or environment
("best of a bad situation rules": Brockmann, 2001), which
are likely to be displayed for purposes of assessment when
individual quality varies over time (e.g., because of nutri-
tional state, fatigue, cycling stage, health: see Payne and
Pagel, 1996). Future research is required to further docu-
ment stereotyped and ritualized responses (including vocal-
izations) and their functions in howlers, and to assess the
relative significance of elements of "compound displays" in
A. palliata, other members of this genus, and, particularly,
adults of other polygynandrous primates (see, for example,
Smuts and Watanabe, 1990).


I am grateful to N. J. Scott, Jr. (U.S. Fish and Wildlife
Service) for marking the animals and providing the
technology and training for radio-tracking Group 12,
and to the W. Hagnauer family for permitting me to
conduct studies at Hacienda La Pacifica from 1973-
1980. The research reported here was funded by the Ford

Clara B. Jones, Livingstone College, Salisbury, NC 28144,
USA, and Community Conservation, Inc., Gays Mills, WI
54631, U.S.A. Correspondence to: Clara B. Jones, Depart-
ment of Psychology, School of Liberal Arts, Livingstone
College, Salisbury, NC 28144, USA, e-mail: ngstone.edu>, .


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Jones, C. B. 1979. Grooming in the mantled howler
monkey, Alouatta palliata Gray. Primates 20: 289-292.
Jones, C. B. 1980. The functions of status in the mantled
howler monkey, Alouatta palliata Gray: Intraspecific
competition for group membership in a folivorous
Neotropical primate. Primates 21: 389-405.
Jones, C. B. 1985. Reproductive patterns in mantled
howler monkeys: Estrus, mate choice and copulation.
Primates 26: 130-142.
Jones, C. B. 1997. Subspecific differences in vulva size
between Alouatta palliata palliata and A. p. mexicana:
Implications for assessment of female receptivity. Neotrop.
Primates 5: 46-48.
Jones, C. B. 1999. Testis symmetry in the mantled howling
monkey. Neotrop. Primates 7: 117-119.
Jones, C. B. 2000. Alouatta palliata politics: Empirical and
theoretical aspects of power. Prim. Rep. 56: 3-21.
Jones, C. B. 2002. How important are urinary signals in
Alouatta? Lab. Prim. Newsl. 41: 15-17.
Jones, C. B. 2003. Urine-washing behaviors as condition-
dependent signals of quality by adult mantled howler
monkeys (Alouatta palliata). Lab. Prim. Newsl. 42: 12-
Jones, C. B. and Cortes-Ortiz, L. 1998. Facultative
polyandry in the howling monkey (Alouatta palliata):
Carpenter was correct. Bol. Primatol. Latinoamericano 7:
Krebs, J. R. and Davies, N. B. 1993. An Introduction to
Behavioural Ecology. Blackwell Scientific Publications,
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problem of ritualization. Behaviour 11: 1-12.

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Capturing and marking howler monkeys for field
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Smuts, B. B. and Watanabe, J. M. 1990. Social relationships
and ritualized greetings in adult male baboons (Papio
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Tinbergen, N. 1952. "Derived" activities: Their causation,
biological significance, origin, and emancipation during
evolution. Quart. Rev. Biol. 27: 1-32.


Ingrun Vogel, Brigitte G ..
Isabelle Saint Pierre, Franpoise Bayart
Hugues Contamin, Benoit de Thoisy


Rehabilitation can be an effective conservation tool (Klei-
man, 1989). Although controversial (Soave, 1982; Har-
court, 1987), some experiences are undoubtedly positive
(Rijksen, 1974; McGrew, 1983; Dillon Morin, 1994;
Nogueira et al., 1994; Ades, 1998; Harding, 1998). One of
the difficulties of rehabilitation attempts is the lack of avail-
able referenced case studies, whatever their success. Since
the late seventies, the Pasteur Institute of French Guiana has
used the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) as an experimen-
tal model for the study of human malaria. In addition to the
captive colony, the Institute managed an island where 150
wild monkeys originating from French Guiana and Suri-
name were introduced in 1981 (de Thoisy and Contamin,
1998). To date, the resident population totals approximately
100 animals (de Thoisy et al., 2002). The initial aim of this
study, requested by the manager of the colony of the Pasteur
Institute, was to conduct a rehabilitation experiment with
a group of common squirrel monkeys in order to assess the
reliability of this management option for unwanted indi-
viduals, either post-experimental or old breeders.

Basic recommended rules, as indicated for any primate
transfers (Konstant and Mittermeier, 1982), concern (i)
the release area: suitability of the habitat, availability of
feeding resources for both the resident population and the
introduced animals, (ii) the candidate animals' potential
for successful rehabilitation: ability to support the inherent
stress, ability to feed according to needs, and (iii) the release
protocol: methodology, accounting for ecological features
such as seasonality and phenological patterns (for instance,
fruiting patterns in the area). Since optimal conditions
were indicated for this case study, this attempt also aimed
to contribute to the knowledge of the ability of primates to
be rehabilitated.


The release area was a 56-ha island offshore from Cayenne
(454'N, 5212'W), French Guiana. The island is covered
with dense secondary forest. The resident squirrel monkey
population was studied prior to the release (de Thoisy et
al., 2002) and is organized in four permanent troops, each
comprising 23 to 25 individuals. No other primates are
present, nor any perceived competitors and predators of the
squirrel monkeys.

Rehabilitation protocol: The release animals
A group of 14 monkeys was formed, consisting of post-
experimental and old breeders. The group included three
males and nine females, two of them pregnant. Males were
born in the colony from wild-born parents and were 9 to 12
years old; six of the females were wild-born (they had been
caught in the wild between 1986 and 1988, for the estab-
lishment of the colony); the others were captive-born.

Rehabilitation protocol: Chronology
November 1998 to February 1999: the 14 animals were put
together in an isolated cage in the Pasteur Institute colony.
During this period, the two pregnant females gave birth.
Monkeys were fed with their customary pellets.
February 1999 to May 1999: the monkeys were transferred
to the island, and maintained in a large enclosure (6 m x
4 m x 4 m) in an area unoccupied by resident monkeys.
There were small trees in the cage. During the first two
months, monkeys were fed ad libitum with pellets, fruits
from the forest and insects. During the following two
months, artificial food was reduced. To train the squirrel
monkeys, food was irregularly thrown in the cage, and
artificial sprinkling reproduced rain. The scan-sampling
method (Altmann, 1974) was used to assess their behavior,
for a total of 78 hrs of observation.

May 1999: the enclosure was opened. Follow-up observa-
tions lasted 15 weeks (247 hrs). The following behaviors
were noted: feeding, foraging, rest, locomotion, and social
interactions. Feeding items were: fruits, flowers, insects,
and leaves. Ranging was recorded by noting the individuals'
presence in 14-ha grid cells. Vertical use of the forest was
recorded by height categories: level 1 ground, level 2 less
than 3 m high, level 3 from 3 to 10 m, level 4 10 to 20
m, and level 5 upper canopy.


First stage: Prior to release
As soon as the troop reached the enclosure on the island,
strong differences were noticed between wild- and captive-
born monkeys. For example, captive-born monkeys feeding
mainly on pellets, spent 40% of their time foraging, vs.
65% for wild-born, which fed much more on insects. In the
same way, the captive-born animals spent over 70% of their
time on the ground vs. only 25% for wild-born. During the
two months in this cage, no improvement was observed in
captive-born monkeys, and two males died from starvation.

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002

By contrast, the wild-born monkeys continuously increased
their locomotion and foraging efficiency.

Second stage: Post- release
Behavioral differences increased between the wild-born
and captive-born monkeys. After one month, captive-born
individuals were feeding on the ground on fallen fruits
and leaves, and mushrooms. The wild-born animals, on
the other hand, increased their diet diversity. For instance,
only one fruit species was consumed during the first week,
four after the second week, and nine after six weeks. They
became increasingly efficient in their foraging and hunting
of arthropods, larvae, bird's eggs, and lizards, and in approx-
imating the foraging patterns observed in the residents (de
Thoisy et al., 2002; E Bayard et al., unpubl. data).

While wild-born monkeys spent 75% of their time in the
upper levels, the captive-born spent only 47% of the time
up to 10 m high, and during 25% of the activity time they
were on the ground. No progress was perceptible in their
feeding behavior. After one month, the decision was taken
to stop the re-introduction of the captive-born section;
the animals were caught and brought back to the colony.
The study then focused on the wild-born monkeys which
remained. During the two first months, the group exhibited
an intense exploratory behavior resulting in the regular use
of 7 ha; during the second part of the follow-up, their range
size remained stable at 9.5 ha for the entire study period.

Contacts with resident squirrel monkeys were rare, and
recorded only 12 times during the 15 weeks of follow-up.
Although no aggressive interactions were observed, we
believe that a male of the re-introduced group was killed by
residents. In the 11th week two males which came from the
resident population entered the rehabilitated group.


Release of captive primates in the wild, once accepted for
conservation (see for instance Beck et al., 1991), political,
or ethical reasons (Harcourt, 1984), has to deal with a
number of problems. They include certifying the suitability
of the habitat and making sure it is protected (Konstant and
Mittermeier, 1982), besides training to give the animals the
necessary skills to live in the forest. The use of islands
may help to increase the success rate of rehabilitation
(Agoramoorthy and Hsu, 1999). In our case, previous stud-
ies confirmed the suitability of the release site (de Thoisy et
al., 2002) in terms of the habitat and the lack of predators
(Beck et al., 1991). The two main difficulties facing the
squirrel monkeys were the search for food, and the neces-
sary socialization to form a coherent group (Rijksen, 1974;
Kessel and Brent, 2001). In our study case, the pre-release
period was long, and we focused on these two critical
points: we conclude that our protocol and methods allowed
for a successful rehabilitation of the wild-born females and
their offspring. Their capacity to locate feeding resources
and forage efficiently reemerged successfully despite 10 to
15 years spent in captivity. The status of the reproductive

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002

females may also have contributed to this success, allowing
these introduced animals not to be rejected by residents
(Agoramoorthy, 1995). After four months, however, the
diet diversity was still lower than that of the residents, and
the home range was smaller (de Thoisy et al., 2002), but
the constant improvement in their ranging and foraging,
and the fact that two resident males had entered the group,
allow us to predict an optimistic outcome.

By contrast, the rehabilitation attempt was definitively a
failure for the captive-born individuals. Despite the fact
that they were in a group with wild-born animals, their
incapacity to learn from them was notable. Aveling and
Mitchell (1981) emphasized that a captive existence in the
infant and early juvenile stages severely restricts the chances
of learning to adapt fully to a free-ranging life. Greater
efforts may be required, but costs of such rehabilitation
programs may be incompatible with their effectiveness in
conservation terms.

This experiment showed that (i) with current procedures,
rehabilitation cannot be considered as a management
option for the captive-born component of the colony; (ii)
at least in the case of such a highly adaptable species as the
common squirrel monkey, rehabilitation can be surprisingly
successful for wild-born animals, with an adequate train-
ing pre-release period, knowledge of the release area and
knowledge of the ecoethological patterns of the resident
population; (iii) even with optimized conditions, primate
rehabilitation has its own limitations: costs and conserva-
tion relevance have to be evaluated and confronted prior to
undertaking such controversial and risky programs.

Acknowledgments. The study was funded by the Institut
Pasteur de la Guyane and by the Kwata NGO.

Ingrun Vogel, Brigitte Glbwing, Isabelle Saint Pierre,
Association Kwata, BP 672, 97335 Cayenne cedex, French
Guiana, France, e-mail: , Fran9oise
Bayart, Laboratoire d'Ecologie Gn&drale, MNHN/CNRS-
UMR 8571, 4 avenue du Petit Chateau, 91800 Brunoy,
France, Hugues Contamin, Centre de Primatologie, Insti-
tut Pasteur de Guyane, BP 6010, 97306 Cayenne cedex,
French Guiana, France, and Benoit de Thoisy, Association
Kwata, BP 672, 97335 Cayenne cedex, French Guiana,
France, e-mail: .


Ades, G. W. J. 1998. Wildlife rescue and management of
Kadoorie farm rescue and rehabilitation center in Hong
Kong. Zoos'Print 13: 9-13.
Agoramoorthy, G. 1995. Red howling monkey (Alouatta
seniculus) reintroduction in a gallery forest of Hato Flores
Moradas, Venezuela. Neotrop. Primates 3: 9-10.
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Altmann, J. 1974. Observational study of behavior:
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Aveling, R. and Mitchell, A. 1981. Is rehabilitating orang-
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de Thoisy, B. and Contamin, H. 1998. The squirrel monkey
breeding colony of the Pasteur Institute, Cayenne, French
Guiana. Neotrop. Primates 6: 14-18.
de Thoisy, B., Louguet, 0., Bayart, F and Contamin, H.
2002. Behavior of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) 16
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Phuket, Thailand. Asian Primates 4: 3-8.
Harcourt, A. H. 1987. Options for unwanted or confiscated
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Harding, J. L. 1998. The first stages of rehabilitation of a
family of white-handed gibbons Hylobates lar. Australasian
Primatol. 12: 2-8.
Kessel, A. and Brent, L. The rehabilitation of captive
baboons. J. Med. Primatol. 30: 71-80.
Kleiman, D. G. 1989. Reintroduction of captive mammals
for conservation. BioScience 39: 14-16.
Konstant, W. R. and Mittermeier, R. A. 1982. Introduction,
reintroduction and translocation of Neotropical primates:
Past experiences and future possibilities. Int. Zoo Yearb.
22: 69-77.
McGrew, W. C. 1983. Chimpanzees can be rehabilitated.
Lab. Prim. Newsl. 22: 2-3.
Nogueira, P., Carvalho, A. R., Oliveira, L. P., Veado, E.
M. and Strier, K. B. 1994. Recovery and release of an
infant muriqui, Brachyteles arachnoides, at the Caratinga
Biological Station, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Neotrop. Primates
2: 3-5.
Rijksen, H. D. 1974. Orang-utan conservation and
rehabilitation in Sumatra. Biol. Conserv. 6: 20-25.
Soave, 0. 1982. The rehabilitation of chimpanzees and
other apes. Lab. Prim. Newsl. 21: 3-8.


In the wake of the World Summit on Sustainable
Development, with the state of the environment fresh in
the minds of the global community, on 8 October, 2002,
IUCN released its updated Red List of Threatened Species,
one of the key tools used to determine the status of the
Earth's biodiversity. It marks the first of what will be annual
updates to the List. The figures will change each year as new
species assessments are included, currently-listed species
are re-assessed, and species undergo taxonomic revisions.
An information package is available on the SSC website
in English, French and Spanish,
including a news release outlining several significant
additions to the Red List and notable shifts in status.

There are a number of significant changes to the List since
the release of the last edition in September 2000. Over
400 new species assessments have been included, 124 of
these entering one of the threatened categories: Critically
Endangered (CR), Endangered (EN), or Vulnerable (VU)
(see definitions). There have also been nearly 200 re-assess-
ments of species already listed. There are now 11,167
species threatened with extinction, an increase of 121
since 2000 with several new additions to the Red List and
notable shifts in status.

In 2000, there were 5,611 plants assessed as threatened
(1,014 CR, 1,266 EN, 3,331 VU). With the addition of
Mexican and Brazilian cactus assessments, the figure is
now 5,714 (1,046 CR, 1,291 EN, 3,377 VU) but there is
much 'catching up' to do in plant assessments. With only
approximately 4% of the world's described plants evaluated,
the true percentage of threatened plant species is much
higher. Most of the plant species listed are trees, since these
have been relatively thoroughly assessed.

A total of 811 species are now assessed as Extinct and
Extinct in the Wild, with seven additions to these catego-
ries since 2000, including the sea mink (Mustela macrodon)
last seen in 1860, the Rdunion Island sheldgoose (Mas-
carenachen kervazoi) extinct around 1710, and two hippo
species (Hippopotamus lemerlei and H. madagascariensis)
extinct around 1500 AD. Since 2000, two species previ-
ously assessed as Extinct have been rediscovered the Lord
Howe Island stick insect (Dryococelus australis) and the
Bavarian pine vole (Microtus bavaricus).

A major analysis of the Red List will be conducted approxi-
mately every four years with the next one due in 2004.
As stated in 2000, Indonesia, India, Brazil and China are
among the countries with the most threatened mammals
and birds, while plant species are declining rapidly in South
and Central America, Central and West Africa, and South-
east Asia.

Habitat loss and degradation affect 89% of all threatened
birds, 83% of mammals, and 91% of threatened plants
assessed. Habitats with the highest number of threatened
mammals and birds are lowland and montane tropical rain-
forest. Freshwater habitats are extremely vulnerable with
many threatened fish, reptile, amphibian and invertebrate

Major analyses of the Red List were produced in 1996 and
2000. The 1996 List revealed that one in four mammal spe-
cies and one in eight bird species face extinction, while the
2000 List confirmed that the global extinction crisis is as bad
or worse than believed. Dramatic declines in populations of
many species, including reptiles and primates were reported.

Numbers of threatened species on the Red List change from
year to year, not only because new species are added to the
list. Research scientists working around the world bring

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002
a constant flow of new information and this improved
knowledge can result in species being upgraded to a higher
threat category or, in cases where the situation is more
optimistic than previously realized, downgraded to a lower
threat category. Other changes may be the result of taxo-
nomic revisions such as a species being re-classified as a sub-
species and vice-versa. However, some species have moved
into a different category as a result of a genuine change in
conservation status.

The IUCN Red List includes extinctions that have
occurred since 1500 AD. For the 2002 Red List, a revision
of the extinctions list resulted in 15 species being removed
because they are considered to have become extinct before
1500 AD. Also, as with the threatened categories, species
can sometimes move out of the Extinct category as a result
of taxonomic changes or uncertainties, such as the marbled
toadlet (Uperoleia marmorata).

The Red List is based on information supplied by IUCN's
Species Survival Commission (SSC), a network of 7,000
experts on plants, animals and conservation issues, and
data from a number of partner organizations. All bird
data are supplied by BirdLife International. Collectively,
this network holds what is the most complete scientific
knowledge base on the biology and current conservation
status of species.

As the Red List expands to include complete assessments
for the various taxonomic groups, a more detailed analysis
of the statistics every four to five years will allow better
comparison between years and a better understanding of
the general trends in biodiversity over time. Targets have
been set to assess all amphibians by 2003 (approximately
5,000 species); reptiles by 2005 (approximately 8,000 spe-
cies); freshwater fish by 2005 (approximately 10,000 spe-
cies), sharks, rays and chimaeras by 2004 (approximately
1,000 species); freshwater molluscs by 2004 (approximately
5,000 species). Plants, invertebrates and marine species will
follow. By 2008 it is hoped that a worldwide biodiversity
assessment will be possible.

To help meet these ambitious targets, a Red List consor-
tium has been formed involving IUCN and its Species Sur-
vival Commission, BirdLife International, Conservation
International's Center for Applied Biodiversity Science,
The Ocean Conservancy, and NatureServe. This consor-
tium aims to raise US$20 million to strengthen and expand
Red Listing activities.

Species Information Service SIS
The Red List is produced by the IUCN Species Survival
Commission (SSC) a network of some 7,000 species
experts working in almost every country in the world and
data from a number of partner organizations. Collectively,
this network holds what is probably the most complete
scientific knowledge base on the biology and current con-
servation status of species. All data underlying the Red List
will eventually be maintained in a series of databases that

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002

Table 1. The Neotropical primates listed in the 2002 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. CR = Critically Endangered, EN = Endan-
gered, VU = Vulnerable, and DD = Data Deficient. Criteria used for the assessment are those of IUCN (1994) (Version 2.3).

Species Common name Status Criteria
Aotidae (6)
Aotus hershkovitzi Hershkovitz's night monkey DD
Aotus lemurinus Lemurine night monkey VU Bl+2c
A. lemurinus brumbacki Brumback's night monkey VU Bl+2c
A. lemurinus griseimembra Grey-legged night monkey EN Bl+2abcde
A. lemurinus lemurinus Colombian night monkey VU Bl+2c, C2a
A. lemurinus zonalis DD
Aotus miconax Andean night monkey VU Alc, Bl+2c
Atelidae (20)
Alouatta belzebul ululata Red-handed howling monkey CR Bl+2abcde, C2a
Alouatta guariba Brown howler VU Alc
A. guariba clamitans Southern brown howling monkey VU Alc
A. guariba guariba Northern brown howling monkey CR Bl+2abcde, C2a, D
Alouatta seniculus amazonica Red howling monkey DD
Alouatta seniculusjuara Red howling monkey DD
Alouatta seniculuspuruensis Red howling monkey DD
Ateles belzebuth White-bellied spider monkey VU Alc
Ateles .. .., fusciceps Brown-headed spider monkey CR Bl+2abcde, C2a
Ateles .. .., grisescens Hooded spider monkey EN Bl+2abcde, C2a
Ateles .. ..' rufiventris Colombian spider monkey VU Alc, Bl+2c
Ateles hybridus Variegated spider monkey EN Bl+2abcde
A. hybridus brunneus Brown spider monkey EN Bl+2abcde
A. hybridus hybridus Variegated spider monkey EN Bl+2abcde
Ateles marginatus White-whiskered spider monkey EN Bl+2abcde
Brachyteles arachnoides Southern muriqui CR Bl+2abcde, C2a
Brachyteles .. .'. Northern muriqui CR Bl+2abcde, C2a
Lagothrix cana VU Al c
L. cana cana Geoffroy's woolly monkey VU Alc
L. cana tschudii VU Alc
Lagothrix lugens Colombian woolly monkey VU Alc+2c
Lagothrixpoeppigii VU Alc
Oreonaxflavicauda Yellow-tailed woolly monkey CR Bl+2abcde, C2a
Callitrichidae (20)
Callimico goeldii Goeldi's monkey VU Alc
Callithrix aurita Buffy-tufted-ear marmoset EN Bl+2abcde, C2a
Callithrixflaviceps Buffy-headed marmoset EN Bl+2abcde, C2a
Callithrix ... Geoffroy's tufted-ear marmoset VU Bl+2b, C2a
Callithrix saterei Satere marmoset DD
Leontopithecus caissara Black-faced lion tamarin CR Bl+2abcde, C2a, D
Leontopithecus chrysomelas Golden-headed lion tamarin EN Bl+2abcde, C2a
Leontopithecus chrysopygus Black lion tamarin CR Bl+2abcde, C2a
Leontopithecus rosalia Golden lion tamarin CR Bl+2abcde, C2a
Mico chrysoleucus Golden-white tassel-ear marmoset VU Bl+2c
Mico leucippe Golden-white bare-ear marmoset VU Bl+2c
Mico marcai Marca's marmoset DD


152 Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002
Table 1. continued
Mico nigriceps Black-headed marmoset VU Bl+2c
Saguinus bicolor Pied tamarin EN Bl+2abcde, C2a
Saguinusfuscicollis crandalli Crandall's saddleback tamarin DD
Saguinusfuscicollis cruzlimai Cruz Lima's saddleback tamarin DD
Saguinus imperator imperator Black-chinned emperor tamarin VU Alc, Bl+2c
Saguinus leucopus Silvery-brown bare-face tamarin VU Alc, Bl+2c, C2a
Saguinus nigricollis hernandezi Hernindez-Camacho's black mantle tamarin VU Alc, Bl+2c
Saguinus oedipus Cotton-top tamarin EN Bl+2abcde, C2a
Cebidae (17)
Cebus j adustus Brown-faced capuchin DD
Cebus .. aequatorialis Ecuadorian capuchin DD
Cebus .. cesarae Shock-headed capuchin DD
Cebus .. cuscinus DD
Cebus .. leucocephalus DD
Cebus .. malitiosus DD
Cebus .. trinitatis Trinidad white-fronted capuchin CR Bi+2abcde, C2a
Cebus .. versicolor Varied capuchin DD
Cebus .. yuracus Andean white-fronted capuchin DD
Cebus apella margaritae Margarita Island capuchin CR Bi+2abcde, C2a
Cebus apella robustus Robust tufted capuchin VU Bl+2c
Cebus capucinus curtus Gorgona white-fronted capuchin VU Bi+2c
Cebus olivaceus kaapori Ka'apor capuchin VU Alc, Bl+2c
Cebus xanthosternos Buff-headed or yellow-breasted capuchin CR Bl+2abcde, C2a
Saimiri oerstedii Central American squirrel monkey EN Bl+2abcde, C2a
S. oerstedii citrinellus Grey-crowned Central American squirrel monkey CR Bl+2abcde, C2a
S. oerstedii oerstedii Black-crowned Central American squirrel monkey EN Bl+2abcde, C2a
Saimiri vanzolinii Vanzolini's squirrel monkey VU Bl+2c, C2a
Pitheciidae (17)
Cacajao calvus Bald uakari VU Alcd
C. calvus calvus White bald-headed uacari EN Bl +2abcde
C. calvus novaesi Novaes' bald-headed uacari EN Bl+2abcde
C. calvus rubicundus Red bald-headed uacari EN Bl +2abcde
C. calvus ucayalii Ucayali bald-headed uacari VU Alc
(.id ,'n:, barbarabrownae Northern Bahian blond titi CR Bl+2abcde
(./i ,;,: coimbrai Coimbra-Filho's titi CR Bl+2c, C2a
(.// ,:, medemi Medem's collared titi VU Bl+2c, C2a
(.i ,,'n melanochir Southern Bahian masked titi VU Alc
(.n ,i ,;:, nigrifrons Black-fronted titi VU Alc
(.'/ ii ,,;: oenanthe Andean titi monkey VU Bl+2c
(.diii ,;:, olallae Beni titi monkey DD
C.'/ ,,;: ornatus Ornate titi monkey VU Alc, Bl+2c
(.ni 1,,,,:, personatus Northern masked titi VU Alc, Bl+2c
Chiropotes satanas satanas Black saki EN Bl +2abcde
Chiropotes satanas utahicki Uta Hick's bearded saki VU Al c
Pithecia monachus miller Miller's monk saki VU Alc, Bl+2c
Pithecia monachus napensis Napo monk saki DD

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002

make up the SSC's emerging Species Information Service
(SIS). This is a major initiative that aims to make the vast
amount of information held by the SSC network easily and
quickly accessible to users around the world.

Taxonomic standards have been adopted and all species on
the IUCN Red List should conform to these by the year
2003. Adherence to the documentation and taxonomic
standards will bring greater credibility and transparency
to listings, and allow better analyses of the findings. Status
assessments included in the IUCN Red List are also open to
formal challenge. Petitions may be made against particular
listings but only on the basis of the Red List Categories
and Criteria and in reference to supporting documentation
accompanying the listing. Petitions may not be made for
political or economic reasons.

Neotropical Primates
Table 1 shows the threatened and data deficient (DD)
Neotropical primates as they are listed in the 2002 IUCN
Red List of Threatened Species. They total 80: Aotidae 6;
Atelidae 20; Callitrichidae 20; Cebidae 17; Pitheciidae
- 17. Of these, 15 are ranked as Critically Endangered
(CR), 15 are Endangered (EN), 31 are Vulnerable (VU)
and 19 are Data Deficient (DD).

In 2003, this list will be revised, adjusting the taxonomy
to take into account recent revisions, and also to adapt the
status assessments to the new 2000 IUCN criteria (Version
3.1) (IUCN, 2001). We would be most grateful for any
information on these or other species and subspecies, which
would contribute to their re-assessment using the new
criteria. Correspondence concerning this should be sent to
Anthony B. Rylands (address below).

Craig Hilton-Taylor, Red List Program Officer, IUCN/
SSC UK Office, 219c Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3
ODL, UK, e-mail: , and Anthony B.
Rylands, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Con-
servation International, 1919 M Street, NW, Washington,
DC 20036, USA, e-mail: .


IUCN. 1994. IUCN Red List Categories. IUCN Species
Survival Commission. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
IUCN. 2001. IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria.
Version 3.1. IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN,
Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.


With an area of 21,000 km2 and 6.3 million inhabitants,
El Salvador is the smallest country in Central America, and
the only one lacking an Atlantic coast. It is divided into
14 departments in three zones: West, Central and East.

The black-handed spider monkey, Ateles ,... .,. is the
only non-human primate occurring there, but very little
is known of its populations and habitats. Spider monkeys
are mentioned in the 19th century travel book "Incidents
of Travel in Central America, Chiapas and Yucatan", writ-
ten by J. L. Stephens and illustrated by E Catherwood
(1841). A. ..rr .., was also included in a general list of
the country's mammals in a study conducted by Burt and
Stirton in 1926 (published in 1961). Mayan artefacts from
the Classic Period (300 AD 1000 AD) which represent
animal figures, include spider monkey shapes, as well
as other monkeys that are now locally extinct (David J.
Guzman, National Museum, San Salvador, El Salvador).
Here I report on a population survey of A. ...r .., that I
will be carrying out in two protected areas. This is the first
study of this species in El Salvador.

Study sites
The two areas included in the study will be Chaguantique
and El Tercio, in the Department of Usulutan in the south-
east of the country. They are part of El Salvador's System of
Protected Areas SISAP (SEMA, 1994), but management
plans necessary for the protection of the monkeys are lacking.
Rangers now control subsistence hunting and the exploita-
tion of the forests for fuelwood and commercial wood
products practiced in the past, and local communities have
changed their attitudes towards the forests and the wildlife,
now recognizing the potential for eco-tourism in these areas.

In Chaguantique, cattle were also a problem, entering the
forest and trampling and grazing on the undergrowth,
preventing natural regeneration. The Community Coop-
erative, however, recently donated materials to fence it
off, a measure which, besides benefiting the forest, was
advantageous to local farmers who would spend many
hours searching for their livestock. Villagers still go through
the forest on bicycles to reach the plantation fields where
they work. By comparison, the El Tercio forest has suffered
less impact because the local community is 8 km away, and
rangers (four of them) have been working there for longer.
Their presence has prevented people from destroying the
forest and disturbing the monkeys and other wildlife, and
has resulted in increased natural forest regeneration.

The two areas are surrounded by agricultural land; sugar
cane is the main crop in El Tercio and maize in Chaguan-
tique. The use of herbicides and pesticides has affected the
soils, the forests and the wildlife, as has the burning of crop
residues and the use of fire to clear land, which has resulted
in some forest fires in the past. Residents of both communi-
ties suffer from extreme poverty, and firewood especially is
a vital resource. They are now interested in conserving the
forests and the wildlife, however, and are receptive to devel-
oping alternative plans to lessen their impact on them.

Aims of the project
The main objective is to estimate the spider monkey
populations and densities in Chaguantique and El Tercio,
comparing the two areas, carrying out a preliminary habitat

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002

assessment, and identifying the tree species they use for
food. Aspects of their behaviour will also be recorded and
compared. The wildlife of El Salvador has suffered greatly
from the destruction of its natural vegetation, due not only
to rapid population growth but also natural phenomena
such as hurricanes and earthquakes. The aim is to achieve
a full assessment of each area in terms of its effectiveness in
protecting the spider monkeys that occur there.

The surveys will be done by direct observations from estab-
lished trails (White, 1986) with the help of two local guides
from each community. Daily observation data sheets will
include weather conditions, time of contact, the identifica-
tion of the spider monkeys encountered, and their behaviour
patterns at the time of their detection (feeding, locomotion,
resting). Densities will be estimated using repeat transect sur-
veying (NRC, 1981). Leaves, flowers and fruits eaten by the
monkeys will be identified and collected when necessary.

Other spider monkey populations in the country
Spider monkeys still occur in forests in Nancuchiname,
La Normandfa and Cerro El Mono in the Department of
Usulutan, in Conchagua in the Department of La Uni6n
(East zone) (L6pez-Zepeda, 1999), and also in Montecristo
National Park in the Department of SantaAna in the north-
west (J. Latin, 2002, pers. comm.). Surveys are needed to
identify other areas where spider monkeys still occur.

Acknowledgments. This study is supported by the University
of El Salvador (UES), the Ministry of Environment and
Natural Resources of El Salvador (MARN) and the people
of the communities of Chaguantique and ElTercio. Funding
has been kindly provided by the Margot Marsh Biodiversity
Foundation and Primate Conservation, Inc., and I am also
receiving support from Alaska Biological Research. Special
thanks are due to Robert Horwich (Director of Community
Conservation, Inc.), my advisor, and to Anthony Gasbarro
(University of Alaska, Fairbanks), Jim LaBau (Environmen-
tal and Natural Resource Institute, University of Alaska,
Anchorage), Robin Brockett (Director of the Wildlife Care
Center, Belize), Gilberto Silva-L6pez (Instituto de Investiga-
ciones Biol6gicas, Universidad Veracruzana, Mexico), Juan
Carlos Serio (Departamento de Ecologfa Vegetal, Instituto
de Ecologfa, Veracruz, Mexico), Kymberly Snarr (Toronto
University, Canada), and Justin Hines (Australian National
University, Canberra), for their advice and support.

Karenina Morales-Hernmndez, Escuela de Biologfa,
Universidad de El Salvador, Casilla Postal 326, Santa
Ana, El Salvador. E-mail: ,


Burt, H. W. and Stirton, R. A. 1961. The Mammals of El
Salvador. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool., Univ. Michigan, Ann
Arbor 117: 1-69.

Latin, J. 2002. Wildlife Biologist, Director of Montecristo
National Park, Santa Ana, El Salvador.
L6pez-Zepeda, E. 1995. Plan de Manejo de la Reserva
Natural Estricta de Conchagua. Ministerio de Obras
Pdblicas, Direcci6n General de Caminos. San Salvador,
El Salvador.
NRC. 1981. Techniques for the Study of Primate Population
Ecology. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
SEMA. 1994. Sistema Salvadoreno de Areas Protegidas
(SISAP). Secretaria del Medio Ambiente de El Salvador
(SEMA), San Salvador.
Stephens, J. L. 1996. Incidents of Travel in Central America,
Chiapas and Yucatdn (1841). Smithsonian Institution
Press, Washington, DC.
UICN. 1999. Listas de Fauna de Importancia para la
Conservacidn en Centro America y Mexico, 1999. Uni6n
Mundial para la Natureleza (UICN), San Jose, Costa Rica.
White, F. 1986. Census and preliminary observations on
the ecology of the black-faced black spider monkey, Ateles
paniscus chamek, in Manu National Park, Peru. Am. J.
Primatol. 11: 125-132.


Pierre Gay of the Parc Zoologique de Dou6 La Fontaine,
France, EEP Studbook Keeper and EEP Coordinator for
the Colombian black spider monkey and the variegated
spider monkey, has released the 2001 (Number 7) stud-
book for the European populations of spider monkeys. It
includes a complete historical listing for captive Ateles fus-
ciceps robustus and listings of all living individuals and their
ancestors for A. belzebuth, A. chamek, A. ..-rr ..i light
phase, A. ..rr ..' dark phase, A. hybridus, A. paniscus
and Ateles hybrids, along with recommendations regarding
management of the populations for 2002-2003.
The studbook records (up to 31 December 2001) a total of
370 spider monkeys in European collections; an increase of
13 from 31 December 2000. This was due to the addition
of records of an Ateles hybridus population (2.3.0) in the
Thuringer Zoo Park, Germany, and ofAtelesfusciceps robus-
tus from Singapore Zoological Gardens (3.9.0).

There are very few captive A. belzebuth, with six individu-
als (3.3.0) in four institutions in Europe, just one female
in a North American zoo, one male in New Zealand, and
two individuals in Brazilian zoos. The studbook concludes
that there is no future for a breeding program in Europe.
The black-faced black spider monkey, A. chamek, is being
kept in nine European institutions, totaling 12 animals
(8.3.1). The recommendation is to explore the possibilities
of reinforcing the stock through Brazilian zoos, where 42
A. chamek are registered in 15 institutions, and at least four
groups are breeding.

There is a large population of A. fusciceps robustus in
Europe: 181 animals (68.105.8) in 42 institutions. There
were 11 infants born in 2000, 10 of which survived.
Another 131 A. f robustus are living in 37 institutions in

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002
the North American region. Studbooks for Colombian and
Ecuadorian A. f robustus will be published in 2002. This
year, the Parc Zoologique de Doue La Fontaine initiated a
6-month survey project for A. f fusciceps in Ecuador, which
is being managed by Diego Tirira, an Ecuadorian biologist
working with Ecociencia and Simbioe. The last survey was
carried out by Madden and Albuja in 1986. The zoo is also
supporting the construction of rehabilitation enclosures
in collaboration with ECOLOMBIA, an NGO based in
Medellin. They are being built on an estate called La Pin-
tada, south of Medellin, and will house both A. f robustus
and A. hybridus. In June 2001, there were 12 A. f robustus
and six A. hybridus housed there. Doue La Fontaine is also
hoping to initiate surveys for A. f robustus in the Parque
Nacional Farallones de Cali, in collaboration with the Cali
Zoo, Colombia.

The Mesoamerican spider monkeys are separated only in
terms of their having darker or lighter pelage. Light phase
A. ,..rr .., is being kept in 12 institutions in Europe (47
animals 19.26.2). There are many more in North Amer-
ica (323 animals in 1996) and Australia (73 animals in
1996). In North America, the studbook is now distinguish-
ing subspecies. Dark phase A. .. rr .., is scarcer in Europe
- 25 (11.14.0) in nine institutions. In 1996, there were 65
dark phase A. .. rr .., in North America, and a further 27
in Australia. The recommendation in the European stud-
book is to avoid new imports because the population is too
small to be managed.

At the end of 2001, A. hybridus numbered 36 animals
(11.25.0) in seven European institutions. Individuals in
the Thuringer Park Zoo, Germany, were karyotyped and
found to be pure A. hybridus. There are rather fewer var-
iegated spider monkeys in North America (29 [2.17.0] in
11 institutions at the end of 1999), but they are numerous
in Colombian and Venezuelan zoos. and the recommenda-
tion in the studbook is to pursue possibilities of reinforc-
ing the European stock with the imminent publication of
studbooks for these regions. In 2001, Doue La Fontaine
supported a survey of A. hybridus in a forest close to the Rio
Magdalena (La Finca Arizona, municipality of La Dorada,
Department of Caldas), which had been undergoing defor-
estation. Four species were still surviving there (Alouatta
seniculus, Saguinus leucopus, Aotus lemurinus and Cebus
capucinus), but evidently no spider monkeys remained.
Local people reported that they liked to boil spider monkey
bones to produce a soup which was effective in treating
malaria, and this was considered to be an aggravating factor
in their disappearance, besides forest destruction.

The red-faced black spider monkey, or Guiana spider
monkey, Ateles paniscus, was recorded from six institutions,
totaling 22 animals (11.11.0). Only three A. paniscus are
kept in North American zoos. The Brazilian studbook
for this species counted 39 individuals in 16 institutions,
including three breeding groups. Some of the oldest indi-
viduals in Europe had died in 2001, making the population
easier to manage and the decision as to whether to persist

with breeding this species was considered to be dependant
on the holding institutions transferring animals and the
reinforcement of the stock through exchanges with Bra-
zilian zoos. The Doue La Fontaine Zoo initiated a census
of A. paniscus in French Guiana in 2001, sponsored by
"La Vallke des Singes" Primate Park in Romagne, France,
and the Association Kwata "Etude & Conservation de la
Faune de Guyane", based in Cayenne. A short report on
the survey by Benoit de Thoisy, which covered 15 sites, is
included in the studbook.

The final section in the studbook lists the hybrid spider
monkeys in European zoos, 41 in all (15.25.1) at the end
of 2001, with the recommendation that, while maintaining
them in social groups, they should not be allowed to breed.
The studbook includes a guide for collecting blood samples
for chromosome analysis for species identification, and
addresses of where they can be sent for analysis.

Pierre Gay, Parc Zoologique de Doue La Fontaine, BP
105, 49700 Doue La Fontaine, France. Tel: +33 2 41 59 18
58, Fax: +33 2 41 59 25 86, e-mail: .


Madden, R. H. and Albuja, L. 1986. The conservation
status of Ateles fusciceps fusciceps in the Reserva Ecologica
Cotacachi-Cayapas, northwestern Pacific lowlands,
Ecuador, South America. Unpublished report, World
Wildlife Fund-US, Washington, DC, 79pp.
de Thoisy, B. 2002. Primates conservation status in French
Guiana: A preliminary assessment. In: European Regional
Srdblook for the Spider Monkeys Ateles ssp. Ateles fusciceps
robustus E.E.P., Ateles hybridus E.E.P. No. 7, P. Gay
(compiler), European Association of Zoos and Aquaria
(EAZA), Parc Zoologique de Doud La Fontaine, Doud La
Fontaine, France.
Gay, P. (compiler). 2002. European Regional S'udbook'afin rt/c
Spider Monkeys Ateles ssp. Ateles fusciceps robustus E.E.P.,
Ateles hybridus E.E.P. No. 7. European Association of
Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA), Parc Zoologique de Doud La
Fontaine, Doud La Fontaine, France. As of 31 December
Johnson, L. 2002. A study to investigate the effects that
various feeding enrichments have on the behavioral
diversity of a colony of spider monkeys (Ateles fusciceps
robustus) housed at Chester Zoo. BSc dissertation abstract
in: European Regional rulldbook for the Spider Monkeys
Ateles ssp. Ateles fusciceps robustus E.E.P, Ateles hybridus
E.E.P No. 7, P. Gay (compiler), European Association of
Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA), Parc Zoologique de Doud La
Fontaine, Doud La Fontaine, France.
Watson, A. M. 2002. The social behaviour and interactions
of captive Colombian black spider monkeys, Ateles
fusciceps robustus. BSc dissertation abstract in: European
Regional ruldhbook for the Spider Monkeys Ateles ssp. Ateles
fusciceps robustus E.E.P., Ateles hybridus E.E.P No. 7,
P. Gay (compiler), European Association of Zoos and

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002

Aquaria (EAZA), Parc Zoologique de Doue La Fontaine,
Doue La Fontaine, France.


In August 2001, Marcelina Souza de Oliveira success-
fully defended her Doctoral thesis, "Sexual inhibition,
inbreeding avoidance and mate monopolisation in captive
common marmosets (( .- jacchus)", at the University
of Zurich, Switzerland. Marcelina graduated at the Federal
University of Rio Grande do Norte in 1992, and completed
her Master's thesis (a comparison of activity patterns and
infant carrying in ( .-'. jacchus and Leontopithecus
chrysomelas) there in 1996. Her supervisor for her doctoral
thesis was Prof. Robert Martin, formerly Director of the
Institute of Anthropology of Zirich University, but cur-
rently at the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago.
The study was supported by the Brazil Science Council
(CNPq) and the A. H. Schultz Stiftung. The basic design of
the study owed a great deal to the extensive knowledge and
skills of Dr. Gustl Anzenberger. The animal management
staff of the primate station (Universitat Ziirich-Irchel),
with their skilled care and maintenance of the marmosets,
were most supportive, and Dr. Ann-Kathrin Oerke kindly
assisted with the ultrasonography tests. The following is a
summary of the thesis.

One of the most fascinating and challenging topics aris-
ing from the essentially monogamous breeding system
of common marmosets (( .-', jacchus) concerns the
mechanism by which reproduction is inhibited in socially
subordinate individuals. However, within established social
groups of common marmosets, it is not possible to distin-
guish whether an "incest taboo" (Abbott, 1984) results
"passively" from the mechanism of sexual suppression or
"actively" from avoidance of mating with close kin.

The two possible mechanisms countering inbreeding,
namely sexual suppression and familiarity, can be separated
to some extent by means of an experimental approach as
performed in this study. The study investigated the follow-
ing questions in a series of experiments. 1) Whether adult
daughters in normally developed family groups would show
signs of ovarian activity (assessing also whether there were
differences in testosterone levels from fathers and adult
sons in normally developed family groups). 2) What are the
effects of external encounters with partitioned unfamiliar
opposite-sexed conspecifics (i.e., potential sexual partners)
on the behaviour and endocrinology of adult daughters
and sons which are otherwise still kept in contact with
their families? 3) Whether adult brother-sister dyads taken
from their families and subsequently housed as single het-
erosexual pairs would alter their behaviour and endocrinol-
ogy during encounters with single unfamiliar conspecifics
of the same sex. 4) Whether previously subordinate adult
males and females taken from different families and subse-
quently housed as single heterosexual pairs would alter their

behaviour and endocrinology, and whether previously sub-
ordinate adult males derived from different families would
respond with mate monopolisation during encounters with
single unfamiliar conspecifics of the same sex.

The study involved 12 adult common marmosets, six
daughters and six sons, from the colony of the Anthropo-
logical Institute at Zurich University, initially living in three
family groups. Subjects were housed successively under one
of the following social conditions: 1) in contact with the
family group; 2) removed from the family but housed with
a sibling of the opposite sex; and 3) paired with an unfa-
miliar conspecific of the opposite-sex. Encounter tests were
conducted under all three conditions. Urinary hormone
levels oestrogenn, pregnanediol and testosterone) were all
measured by immunoassay in addition to the collection of
behavioral data.

The results clearly showed that reproductive impairment of
subordinate offspring, a keystone of the social structure of
captive common marmosets, fully applies to all daughters
and sons not only when in contact with the family group
but also when kept as brother-sister pairs. Adult males and
females did not reproduce in the family group or brother-
sister dyad context even when males did not show evidence
of physiological suppression and females presented sporadic
cycles. In contrast to pairs of related adults, the formation
of isolated unrelated male-female pairs rapidly led to court-
ship, mate monopolisation, sexual behaviour and breed-
ing. All members of unrelated pairs were seen performing
tongue-flicking behaviour, copulating regularly after pair-
ing, and performing behaviours to exclude the proximity
of the partner to unfamiliar same-sex individuals (rivals). In
the brother-sister dyads, none of the six females performed
tongue-flicking solicitation or received attempted or actual
mounts from their brothers, and mate monopolisation
behaviours were mild or absent.

Altered and reduced levels of ovarian hormones in subor-
dinate females housed in family groups or with a brother
do not explain the reduction or lack of expression of sexual
behaviour by the females. Kendrick and Dixson (1983)
showed that hormonal deficits in ovariectomised female
marmosets do not abolish either proceptive or receptive
behaviour. In the case of males, excreted levels of testoster-
one were sufficient to maintain sexual interest and copula-
tory behaviour from the first experimental phase onwards.
Certainly, there was in most cases no difference between
fathers and non-breeding adult sons in testosterone levels.
However, sexual behaviour and pregnancy occurred only
in the last phase, when individuals were paired with unfa-
miliar animals. Furthermore, the lack of previous sexual
experience cannot account for the absence of copulatory
behaviour, because all the sexually inexperienced males (n =
6) and females (n = 6) copulated as soon they were paired
with unfamiliar individuals.

The results revealed that brother-sister pairs of adult male
and female common marmosets show impaired reproduc-

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002
tive performance compared to pairs of unrelated males and
females, strongly suggesting inbreeding avoidance. It can
be concluded that the individuals were opting to wait and
breed only with unfamiliar animals.

Marcelina Souza de Oliveira, Anthropologisches Institut
und Museum, Universitat Ztirich-Irchel, Winterthurer-
strasse 190, CH-8057 Zirich, Switzerland, e-mail: celina_souza de oliveira@yahoo.com>.


Abbott, D. H. 1984. Behavioral and physiological
suppression of fertility in subordinate marmoset monkeys.
Am. J. Primatol. 6: 169-186.
Kendrick, K. M. and Dixson, A. H. 1983. The effect of
the ovarian cycle on the sexual behaviour of the common
marmoset (C .- jacchus). Physiol. Behav. 30: 735-742.
Oliveira, M. S. de. 2002. Sexual inhibition, Inbreeding
Avoidance and Mate Monopolisation in Captive
Common Marmosets ((C .- jacchus). Doctoral thesis,
University of Zurich, Zurich. 187pp.


No dia 22 de outubro de 2002, Conservation International do
Brasil e o Museu Paraense Emiflio Goeldi lancaram o Projeto
BIOTA-PARA. Esta iniciativa tern como objetivo consolidar
as informao6es sobre a biodiversidade do Estado do Pard
visando orientar corn base cientifica as decis6es politicas
sobre a conservagao e o uso sustentivel da biodiversidade
do segundo mais extenso estado brasileiro. No seu primeiro
ano, o projeto gerarA dois produtos principals: (a) a lista de
especies ameacadas de extincao no Estado e (b) o diagn6stico
da biodiversidade do Centro de Endemismo Belkm, o setor
mais desmatado de toda a Amazonia Brasileira.

A lista de especies ameacadas de extincao no Estado e
um dos instruments bAsicos previstos na Lei 6.462, que
disp6e sobre a Polftica Estadual de Florestas, sancionada
pelo Governador Almir Gabriel em 4 de julho de 2002.
Esta sera a primeira vez que o Pard elaborarA a sua lista de
especies ameacadas de extincao, mas sabe-se que atualmente
muitas especies deveriam constar, especialmente aquelas
que sao exploradas pelo home e aquelas corn distribuidao
restrita. Entre as espdcies/subespdcies que ocorrem no Pard e
que estao listadas na atual lista official de animals brasileiros
ameagados de extincao estao o sagtii-branco (Mico leucippe),
o sagtii-de-Santardm (Mico humeralifer), o cuxid-de-nariz-
branco (Chiropotes albinasus), o cuxid-preto (Chiropotes
satanas), o guarA (Eudocimus ruber), a arara-azul-grande
(Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus), o mutum-pinima (Crax
fasciolata pinima) e a ararajuba (Guarouba guarouba).
0 process de elaboracao da lista de especies consistirA
de tries etapas: (a) preparat6ria, com a formaqao de uma

lista de especies candidates obtida a partir de indicaq6es
de especialistas; (b) decis6ria, corn a realizacao de uma
reuniao de trabalho para definir quais as especies que
deverao integrar a lista; e (c) final, corn a preparaqao e
encaminhamento da lista ao 6rgao responsavel para a sua
homologacao. A lista estara pronta ate setembro de 2003.

A elaboraqao da lista de especies ameagadas de extindao
no Pard e um instrument essencial para direcionar as
agoes de conservagao no Estado e assim evitar a perda das
especies e dos ecossistemas nos quais elas vivem. "A parceria
entire o Museu Paraense Emflio Goeldi e a Conservation
International do Brasil e muito important, pois as duas
instituio6es compartilham a visao de que o estudo e
a conservagao da biodiversidade devem ser uma parte
important de todas as polfticas p6blicas do Para", comenta
o Dr. Peter Mann de Toledo, Diretor-Geral do Museu
Paraense Emflio Goeldi.

O ParApossui 1.253.164 km2 deextensao.Aproximadamente
16% (c. 200.000 km2) das suas florestas e campos jA foram
alterados pela atividade humana. Segundo os dados do
INPE, a taxa annual de desmatamento entire 1998 e 2000 no
Pard foi de 6.700 km2/ano, ou seja, cerca de 4.589 campos
de futebol por dia. 0 desmatamento e a principal ameaga
as especies de plants e animals, especialmente aquelas
que possuem distribuicao muito reduzida e vivem em
densidades populacionais muito baixas.

A Amazonia nao e homogenea, pois cada setor deste
enorme bioma possui o seu pr6prio conjunto de espucies
endemicas, ou seja, especies que nao ocorrem em nenhuma
outra regiao do planet. As areas que possuem duas ou
mais especies endemicas sao denominadas de centros
de endemismo. Um dos mais bern marcados centros de
endemismo da Amazonia brasileira e o de Belkm, no
extreme leste do bioma, e incorporando todas as florestas
e ecossistemas associados a leste do rio Tocantins e toda a
Amazonia Maranhense. Este centro foi identificado corn
base em estudos de plants, aves e borboletas florestais.
"Esta regiao e o setor mais ameagado da Amazonia Brasileira,
pois cerca de 60% das suas florestas ji foram desmatadas e as
poucas florestas que restam continual sob grande pressao",
comenta Ima Cdlia Vieira, Coordenadora de Pesquisa e
P6s-Graduaqao do Museu Paraense Emflio Goeldi e que
desenvolve pesquisas nesta regiao por mais de 10 anos.
Um estudo recent, feito por Jdlio Roma (Universidade de
Brasilia), Josd Maria C. da Silva (Conservation International
do Brasil) e David Oren (The Nature Conservancy do
Brasil) corn as aves, indicou que das 531 especies registradas,
cerca de 116 (22%) estavam ameagados de extinado local.
A situaqao da biota do centro de endemismo de Belrm e
similar a situaqao da biota da Floresta Atlantica e se nada for
feito urgentemente, poderemos ter uma extingao em massa,
a primeira deste tipo a atingir a Amazonia desde a entrada
do home na regiao.

0 Museu Goeldi e a Conservation International do Brasil
estarao elaborando um diagn6stico da biodiversidade do

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002

centro de endemismo de Belkm para, junto com outras
organizagoes, governor estadual, governor municipals,
liderangas indfgenas e comunidades locals, desenvolver um
plano emergencial de consenso para garantir a conservagao
da biodiversidade da regiao. "Uma reuniao com todos os
stores envolvidos sera realizada em agosto de 2003 para
definirmos um conjunto de agoes concretas, mas, desde
ja, podemos antecipar que entire estas estarao inclufdas a
implementagao efetiva das unidades de conservagao que ja
foram criadas na regiao e o estabelecimento de corredores
ecol6gicos, atraves da criacao de reserves privadas (RPPNs)
e da restauracao de florestas em Areas crfticas e que hoje
estao degradadas", comenta Tereza Cristina Avila Pires,
pesquisadora do Museu Goeldi e coordenadora do
Program BIOTA-Pari.

Jos6 Maria Cardoso da Silva, Diretor para a Amazonia,
Conservation International do Brasil, Av. Nazard 541/Sala
310, 66035-170 Belkm, Para, Brasil, e-mail: ervation.org.br>.


The Committee for the Conservation and Management
of the yellow-breasted capuchin, Cebus xanthosternos, and
the robust tufted capuchin, Cebus robustus, (sensu Silva
Jr., 2001) met on 23-24 October, 2002, in Ilhdus, Bahia,
Brazil. Cecilia Kierulff, of Conservation International do
Brasil, is the new Chair for this Committee, which serves
in an advisory capacity to the Instituto Brasileiro do Meio
Ambiente e de Recursos Naturais RenovAveis (IBAMA), the
Brazilian wildlife authority. IBAMA sponsored and funded
the meeting.

Attending the meeting were state and federal IBAMA
officials, and representatives from the local NGO Instituto
de Estudos S6cio-Ambientais do Sul da Bahia (IESB), the
State University of Santa Cruz (UESC), the Rio de Janeiro
Primate Center (FEEMA/CPRJ), and the Brazilian, Euro-
pean, and North American zoo communities. The meeting
agenda included discussions of the current status of these
two endangered Atlantic Forest taxa in the wild, field
research priorities, strategies for dealing with animals held
in rescue centers or private hands, and the management of
the captive population.

Andrew J. Baker, Philadelphia Zoological Garden, 3400
West Girard Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA, e-mail:
, and Maria Cecilia M. Kierulff,
Conservation International do Brasil, a/c IESB, Rua Major
Homem Del Rey 147, Cidade Nova, 45650-000 Ilhdus,
Bahia, Brazil, e-mail: .


Silva Jr., J. de S. 2001. Especiaydo nos macacos-prego

e caiararas, genero Cebus Erxleben, 1777 (Primates,
Cebidae). Doctoral thesis, Universidade Federal do Rio de
Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro. 377pp.


The Mountains of Tumucumaque National Park of 3.8
million ha, the largest strictly protected area for tropical
forest in the world, was created on 22 August 2002.
Occupying an estimated 26.5% of the Brazilian state of
Amapa and a small part of Pard (west of the Rio Jari),
it lies along the frontier of Brazil with French Guiana,
bounded by the upper Rio Jarf in the west, and by the
headwaters of the Rio Araguari in the east. It includes
the headwaters of the Rios Oiapoque, Jari and Araguari,
covering a remote and very largely untouched region of
montane Amazon forests along the Serra do Tumucumaque
and Serra Lombarda, which Fearnside and Ferraz (1995)
indicated as one of the most poorly represented vegetation
formations in Amazonian protected areas. The region was
targeted as of top priority in the Workshop "Biological
Priorities for Conservation in Amazonia", held in Manaus
in 1990 (Area 57 Suriname Guiane Frangaise Amapi;
Rylands et al., 1991) and the 1999 workshop in Macapi,
Amapa, "Avaliacao e Identificacao de Ag6es Prioritarias
para a Conservagao, Utilizagao SustentAvel e Repartigao
de Beneficios da Biodiversidade na Amazonia Brasileira"
(EGO19 Alto Rio Jari-Tumucumaque, EGO12 Medio
Oiapoque; Silva et al., 2001; Verissimo et al., 2001). The
Park lies within the Guianas Tropical Forests Ecoregion
(NT0125; Ferreira et al., 2001) and also covers parts of
the Pleistocene refuge areas proposed by Prance (1973) for
plants (Guiana), by Haffer (1969) for birds (Guiana), and
by Brown (1975, 1977) for forest butterflies (Oyapock).

The land was transferred from the Institute of Colonization
and Agrarian Reform (INCRA) to the Brazilian Institute
for the Environment (IBAMA) as a compensatory measure
exempting them from forests unduly destroyed in agro-
extractivist reserves and colonization projects established in
other parts of Amazonia. Legislation in Brazil's Forest Code
(C6digo Florestal, Lei No.4.771, 15 de setembro de 1965)
limits the extent of deforestation permissible on any property
(maintenance of the so-called "Legal Reserve"). Legislation
established in 2001 (Medida Provis6ria 2.166/01, Artigo 44,
Inciso III, ParAgrafo 40) allowed, under certain conditions,
for the "Legal Reserve" to be established in a region outside
of the property. This resulted in a number of areas being
transferred from INCRA to IBAMA, and the creation, in
August 2001, of the Barreiro das Antas Extractivist Reserve
(107,000 ha), the Rio Cautario Extractivist Reserve and the
Serra da Cotia National Park (283,000 ha), all in the state
of Rondonia, and three National Forests (Mulata in Para,
Pau Rosa in Amazonas, and Santa Rosa dos Purus in Acre),
totaling 1.29 million ha.

The creation of the Mountains of Tumucumaque National
Park consolidates a highly significant section of a planned

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002
ecological corridor for the forests of the Guayana Shield, the
"Guayana Shield Tropical Wilderness Corridor", a major
program of Conservation International and its regional Gui-
anas and Brazil programs. The corridor comprises a series
of protected areas of various categories from Brazil, through
French Guiana, Suriname and Guyana. Tumucumaque is
contiguous with a large Indigenous Area (Tumucumaque
Indigenous Park) to the west, which links to Sipaliwini
Natural Reserve in southern Suriname (an Important Bird
Area [IBA] identified by BirdLife International; Wege and
Long, 1995), and two proposed protected areas, also in
southern Suriname in the regions of Orange Gebergte and
Tiri6, which in turn would link with the Central Suriname
Natural Reserve of 1,600,000 ha (see Mittermeier, 1999).
Tumucumaque abuts a large reserve under consideration
in southern French Guiana on the border with Brazil and,
as can be seen in Figure 1, connects with a series of other
protected areas in Brazil, including the Waiapi Indigenous
reserve, the State Sustainable Development reserve of
Iratapuru, the Jari Ecological Station, the Amapi National
Forest and the Rio Cajari Extractivist Reserve. The primates
protected in the Mountains of Tumucumaque National
Park include (according to their geographic distributions):
Saguinus midas, Saimirisciureus sciureus, Cebusa ,Il'/, Cebus
olivaceus, Pithecia pithecia pithecia, Chiropotes sagulatus (see
Silva Jr. and Figueiredo, 2002), Alouatta seniculus (Alouatta
..... ., sensu Groves, 2001) and Ateles paniscus.

Anthony B. Rylands, Center for Applied Biodiversity Sci-
ence at Conservation International, Jos6 Maria Cardoso da
Silva, Director for Amazonia, Conservation International do
Brasil, Av. Nazar6 541/Sala 310, 66035-170 Belkm, Pardi,

Brasil, e-mail: , and Russell
A. Mittermeier, Conservation International, 1919 M Street
NW, Suite 600, Washington, DC 20036, USA.


Brown Jr., K. S. 1975. Geographical patterns of evolution
in Neotropical Lepidoptera. Systematics and derivation
of known and new Heliconiini (Nymphalidae:
Nymphalinae). J. Entomol. 44(3): 210-242.
Brown, Jr. K. S. 1977. Centros de evolugao, refdgios e
conservagao de patrim6nios geneticos na regiao tropical:
Padres de diferenciacao em Ithomiinae (Lepidoptera:
Nymphalidae). Acta Amazonica 7(1): 75-137.
Fearnside, P. M. and Ferraz, J. 1995. A conservation gap
analysis of Brazil's Amazonian vegetation. Conservation
'..'.. 1134-1147.
Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate Taxonomy. Smithsonian
Institution Press, Washington, DC.
Haffer, J. 1969. Speciation in Amazonian forest birds.
Science 165: 131-137.
Mittermeier, R. A. 1999. The Central Suriname Nature
Reserve. Neotrop. Primates 7(2): 59-60.
Rylands, A. B., Huber, 0. and Brown, K. S., Jr. 1991.
Workshop-90, Biological Priorities for Conservation in
Amazonia. Map. Scale 1:5,000,000. Institute Brasileiro
do Meio-Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renoviveis
(IBAMA), Brasflia, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas
da Amaz6nia (INPA), Manaus, and Conservation
International, Washington, DC.
Silva Jr., J. S. and Figueiredo, W. M. B. 2002. Revisao
sistemitica dos cuxids, genero Chiropotes Lesson, 1840

Figure 1. Location of the Mountains of Tumucumaque National Park, northern Brazilian Amazonia.

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002

(Primates, Pitheciidae). In: Livro de Resumos: X0 Congresso
Brasileira de Primatologia: Amazonia A Ultima Fronteira,
p.21. Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia, Belkm, 10-15
November, 2002.
Silva, M. N. E da, Rylands, A. B. and Patton, J. L. 2001.
Biogeografia e conservacao da mastofauna na floresta
amazonica brasileira. In: Biodiversidade na Amazonia
Brasileira: Avaliafdo e Afes Prioritdriaspara a Conservafdo,
Uso Sustentdvel e Repartiado de 1 j. .., A. Verissimo, A.
Moreira, D. Sawyer, I. dos Santos, L. P. Pinto & J. P.
R. Capobianco (eds.), pp.110-131, 471-475. Institute
Socioambiental, Estacao Liberdade, Sao Paulo.
Verissimo, A., Moreira, A., Sawyer, D., Santos, I. dos, Pinto,
L. P. and Capobianco, J. P. R. (eds.). 2001. Biodiversidade
na Amazonia Brasileira: Avaliafdo e Afoes Prioritdrias para
a Conservafdo, Uso Sustentdvel e Repartifdo de 1. *j. ..
Institute Socioambiental, Estacao Liberdade, Sao Paulo.
Wege, D. C. and Long A. J. 1995. Key Areas for
Threatened Birds in the Neotropics. BirdLife International
Conservation Series, No. 5, Cambridge.


The EAZA Rainforest Campaign for
the Atlantic forest and the four lion
tamarin species was officially ended
during the annual EAZA Conference
in Barcelona, 17-22 September 2002.
The Campaign Planning Group, David Field (Dublin Zoo,
Ireland), Bengt Holst (Copenhagen Zoo, Denmark), Kristin
Leus (Antwerp Zoo, Belgium), and Jeremy J. C. Mallinson
(until recently of the Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust,
Jersey), arranged for a special plenary symposium on lion
tamarins during the conference to celebrate the success of
the two-year campaign. Kristin Leus, David Field and Bengt
Holst presented the results of the campaign. Fabiana Prado
(IPl Institute for Ecological Research, Brazil), leader of
the conservation education project for the black-faced lion
tamarin, talked of her successful work with the women in
the local communities on the island of Superagiii, who are
making puppets, masks, embroidered towels and suchlike
for sale to tourists and, while considerably increasing
their income, producing an awareness and pride of the
lion tamarins occurring there and the need to protect
the island's fragile natural ecosystems. Anthony Rylands
(Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation
International, USA) summarized the status of the four
species and highlighted the importance of the four lion
tamarin conservation programmes for the conservation of
the Atlantic rainforest in general. He showed how the four
lion tamarin conservation programmes were comprised
of multiple and complementary components coordinated
by the Lion Tamarin Conservation Committee, and how
zoos contribute to all both directly and indirectly. ClAudio
Valladares-Padua (founder and Director of IPL), shared
his vision of future conservation efforts for the Atlantic
Rainforest. Corridors not only between forest fragments
but also connecting protected areas on a big scale can

ensure the conservation of biodiversity to a much higher
degree than considering all protected areas as separate units.
The presentation was supported by a video about the use of
corridors in conservation programmes. Last, but not least,
the General Coordinator for Fauna and Flora in Brazil and
representative of IBAMA (the Brazilian Environmental
Agency), Maria lolita Bampi, officially closed the campaign
and conveyed the gratitude of the Brazilian Government
to all participants. She stressed the significant impact of
the campaign, not only on existing conservation projects,
but also on future conservation activities in the region. She
encouraged a strengthening of the ties between European
zoos and ongoing conservation projects in the Atlantic
Rainforest in the future.

What did we achieve?
The campaign far exceeded the goals set in 2001. Ninety
EAZA zoos from 20 different countries participated in the
campaign with activities ranging from poster exhibits to a
total transformation of the zoo into a South American land-
scape. Some of these activities were described in the last two
issues of EAZA News, and some can be seen on the websites
of the zoos in question. But common to all activities, they
were launched with tremendous enthusiasm and all had
a significant impact. Fund-raising was extremely success-
ful. By the 16 September 2002, the campaign had raised
Euro 145.876,99, but this only covered contributions from
around 60% of the participants, and we expect to exceed
Euro 200,000 at the end of 2002, when most zoos finish
the official part of their campaign. Naturally, it is difficult to
measure the increase in public awareness about the Atlantic
Rainforest. However, PR activities have been comprehen-
sive in all countries, and the message has thus been widely
spread. Links were established between European zoos and
Brazilian zoos, and between European zoos and conservation
projects, and it is now up to the zoos involved to keep up the
momentum. Conservation is not made by single contribu-
tions. Conservation relies on long-term commitment. It is
our sincere hope that the participating zoos will continue
their support in the years to come. Only through such long-
term commitment can we be sure to make a difference.

Bengt Hoist, Vice Director, Copenhagen Zoo, Sdr.
Fasanvej 79, DK-2000 Frederiksberg, Denmark, e-mail:


EAZA Husbandry Guidelines for the (, ,.,

The Callitrichidae Taxon Advisory Group of the European
Association of Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA) launched its
first edition of the EAZA Husbandry Guidelines for the
Callitrichidae at its recent meeting held in September 2002
in Barcelona, Spain.

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002
The Guidelines were multi-authored, with nine contribu-
tors. We set out to report on our understanding of best
practice rather than attempt to present a review of all the
husbandry practices undertaken by European zoos. All of
the authors have considerable hands-on experience of the
husbandry and management of captive marmosets and
tamarins. We also reviewed the biology of the callitrichids,
which, of course, underpins good husbandry practice.

The Guidelines are divided into two major sections. Sec-
tion 1 is on the Callitrichidae in the wild and comprises
species accounts, giving a very brief overview of distribu-
tion, CITES status, Red List status, and status in the EAZA
Regional Collection Plan for Callitrichidae. Section 2 is
on Callitrichidae in captivity and contains seven chapters.
These cover marking and registration, capture and trans-
port, housing, social behaviour and management of social
groups, reproduction and hand-rearing, control of breeding,
nutrition, and veterinary care. They contain a considerable
amount of background information on social behaviour,
nutrition, and reproduction based on reviews of relevant
literature. The authors are Eric Bairrao Ruivo (Lisbon Zoo,
Portugal), Tine Griede (Independent Zoo Consultant,
Netherlands) Ken Gold (Independent Zoo Consultant,
USA), Warner Jens (Apenheul, Netherlands), Stewart Muir
(Shaldon Wildlife Trust, Devon, UK), Gabor Gozi (Zoo
Szeged, Hungary), Thierry Petit (Zoo La Palmyre, France),
Kristin Leus (Antwerp Zoo, Belgium) and Bryan Carroll
(Bristol Zoo, UK), who also edited the Guidelines.

We now plan to translate the Guidelines into Spanish and
Portuguese, so that they can be made available to non-Eng-
lish speakers in South America. We also hope that in time
the Guidelines will be available through the EAZA website
and through the ISIS/WAZA Studbook Library. In the
meantime they are available in English on CD Rom from
Bryan Carroll at Bristol Zoo Gardens. The cost is 5.00

T rGuidelines for
Edited by JBC S

_'. f

Figure 1. Cover page of the EAZA Husbandry Guide-
lines for the Callitrichidae, by Stewart Muir (Shaldon
Wildlife Trust, Devon, UK).

sterling (+ postage and packing), and the money raised is
being put towards the production of CD Rom versions in
Spanish and Portuguese which, when produced, will be
donated to South American zoos.

EAZA Regional Collection Plan for the ,.

The Regional Collection Plan (RCP) for the Callitrichidae
was developed at a meeting of the Callitrichidae Taxon
Advisory Group (TAG) in Amsterdam in March 2002.
This was the first mid-year meeting of the TAG following
the division of the EAZA Primate TAG into five smaller
TAGs, namely the Ape TAG, the Old World Monkey TAG,
the Cebid TAG, the Callitrichid TAG and the Prosimian
TAG. The Callitrichidae RCP was developed through
review of the relevant section of the EAZA Primate RCP
(1996). The RCP is comprised of three tables:

Table 1 is entitled 'Taxa recommended for EAZA manage-
ment', and shows (highlighted in blue) all the species for
which EAZA management is recommended. There are
three levels of management. The highest level is the EEP
(European Endangered Species Programme) in which a
studbook is held and a nominated species co-ordinator
makes recommendations for population management
based on the studbook and on predefined genetic and
demographic goals. The second level of management is the
ESB (European Studbook) in which a studbook is main-
tained and the studbook keeper may advise on pairings and
other aspects of population management. The third level
of management is 'Monitor' in which a designated person
monitors the species' population trends on behalf of the
TAG. This may be done through surveys but does not nec-
essarily involve the development of a full studbook. Most
of the species recommended for management are already
present in the region. Some are not, but considering their
status in the wild, the immediate establishment of a man-
aged programme is recommended should animals come
into the region.

Table 2 is entitled 'Taxa present in EAZA collections not
currently recommended for EAZA management'. It lists
the callitrichid species held in EAZA zoos for which no
management programme is currently recommended. They
are highlighted in red.

Table 3 is entitled 'Taxa not present in EAZA collections
not currently recommended for EAZA management'. It
lists the species not held in EAZA zoos for which at this
time no programme is recommended. They are also high-
lighted in red.

The EAZA Regional (. ...- .... Plan will be reviewed annu-
ally by the TAG, and it is likely that recommendations for
certain species will change over the years as a result of either
a change of status in the wild, or of changes affecting their
status in captivity.


Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002

J. Bryan Carroll, Chair EAZA Callitrichidae TAG,
Deputy Director, Bristol Zoo Gardens, Clifton, Bristol,
BS8 3HA, UK, Tel: +44 (0)117 974 7300, Fax: +44 (0)117
973 6814, e-mail: . Website:


Number 7, September 2002, of Icaro, the magazine of the
Panamanian Asociaci6n Nacional para la Conservaci6n de
la Naturaleza (ANCON) websitee: )
is dedicated to the Island of Coiba. Coiba is in the Gulf
of Montijo off the Pacific coast of Panama, and has two
primates: the white-faced capuchin monkey, Cebus capuci-
nus imitator, known locally as "cariblanco", and the Coiba
Island howling monkey, Alouatta coibensis coibensis, or "el
mono kun-kun", endemic to Coiba and the smaller neigh-
bouring island of Jicar6n. It is an excellent review, including
beautifully illustrated articles on the natural history of the
island, its flora (c.1450 species in lowland tropical forest,
premontane tropical forest, swamp forest and mangroves)
and fauna (36 species of mammals, including an endemic
agouti, Dasyprocta coibae, 147 species of birds, and 39
amphibians and reptiles) and the immensely rich coral reefs
(claimed to be the second largest in the eastern American
Pacific), and its history (which includes a penal colony
currently being closed down). Pedro Mendez Carvajal
and Ivelisse Rufz B. provide a short text and photos of the
Coiba howling monkey (pp.28-30). Coiba was declared a
National Park of 270,125 ha in 1992 (Resoluci6n J. D. No.
021 of 17 December, 1991), which covers the islands of
Coiba, Rancheria, Jicar6n, Jicarita, Canal de Afuera, Uva,
Contreras, Pijaros and Brincanco, as well as a large area of
the continental platform. Coiba Island itself is 53,528 ha,
of which about 60% is forested. Jicar6n, the largest of the
eight islands around Coiba, is 2,002 ha. A management
plan was prepared during 1993/1994 and approved by the
Instiituto de Recursos Naturales Renovables INRENARE
(today the Autoridad Nacional del Ambiente ANAM) in
1996. A Biological Station for research, inventories, moni-
toring and management is being set up on the north part of
the island. The future of the park is currently under discus-
sion and threatened, with pressure from the government to
allow for its development as a tourist resort.

Pedro G. Mendez Carvajal, Sociedad Mastozool6gica de
Panama, Comisi6n de Primatologfa, Instituto Smithsonian
de Investigaciones Tropicales, Apartado 797, Panama zona
1, Repdblica de Panama. E-mail: .


Melayos, M., Monge, C., Posse, F and Castroviejo,
S. 1997. Guia de Campo del Parque Nacional de Coiba
(Panama). Agencia Espanfola de Cooperaci6n Internacional
(AECI), Spain. 215pp.


Uma comemoracao dos vinte anos de criacao do Parque
Estadual Carlos Botelho, administrado pelo Instituto
Florestal de Sao Paulo, foi realizada no dia 15 de setembro
no Centro de Visitantes Marco Antonio dos Santos, em Sao
Miguel Arcanjo (SP). E uma das mais importantes unidades
de conservagao do Estado de Sao Paulo, abrigando uma
populagao significativa do muriqui, Brachyteles arachnoides.
O parque, corn uma area de 37.644 ha, se localiza na regiao
sudoeste do estado, estendendo-se pelos municipios de Sao
Miguel Arcanjo, Capao Bonito, Sete Barras e Tapiraf. A
sua criacao se deu corn a unificacao, por meio do Decreto
Estadual no 19.499, de 10 de setembro de 1982, de quatro
reserves florestais denominadas Carlos Botelho, Capao
Bonito, Travessao e Sete Barras, na Serra de Paranapiacaba.
O nome Carlos Botelho u uma homenagem ao mddico
urologista que foi secretario da Agricultura, Viacao e Obras
Pdblicas do Estado em 1904, na gestao de Jorge Tibirigi.
Nascido em Piracicaba, em 1855, e falecido em 1947, foi
considerado o pioneiro da urologia no Brasil. Junto corn
outras unidades de conservagao da regiao, o parque integra
desde 1991 a Zona Ndcleo da Reserva da Biosfera da Mata
Atlantica. Em 30 de novembro de 1999, foi reconhecido pela
UNESCO como Sftio do Patrim6nio Mundial Natural.

No Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho esta em
desenvolvimento o projeto de long prazo Ecologia
e Comportamento de Muriquis do Sul (Brachyteles
arachnoides). Em desenvolvimento ha 16 anos, represent a
continuidade dos esforgos iniciais de Karen B. Strier, para o
estabelecimento de um sftio de pesquisas corn muriquis em
uma floresta corn minimo grau de perturbacao antr6pica.
Coordenado por Mauricio Talebi Gomes desde 1996, no
present moment recebe suporte logistico do Instituto
Florestal do Estado de Sao Paulo SP e da Associadao
Pr6-Muriqui. Este projeto possui por estudo principal a
pesquisa de Doutorado de Maurfcio Talebi Gomes pelo
Departamento de Ciencias Biol6gicas da Universidade de
Cambridge, UK, sob orientagao da Dra. Phyllis C. Lee.

Este estudo, entitulado "Fatores que afetam a escolha
do alimento em muriquis do sul" aborda a selegao do
alimento em suas variaveis qufmicas macronutrientes
(proteina total, FDA, FDN, lipfdeos e energia) e compostos
secunddrios (taninos e fen6is) e fisicas (reflectancia, ph,
geometria e dureza), atraves do Kit para analise fisico-
qufmica do alimento de primatas em campo (Lucas et
al., 2001). Suas hip6teses principals explorarao quais
sao as variaveis melhores predictoras da escolha do
alimento, e de que forma a composicao de grupo e o
sucesso reprodutivo sao influenciados de acordo corn as
variacoes sazonais na disponibildade dos items alimentares
no ambiente de Floresta Sub Tropical de Montana. As
agencies financiadoras sao: 0 Conselho Nacional de
Pesquisa CNPq, Processo 200256-998; WWF do Brasil;

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002

e o Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation atraves do
Primate Action Fund, Conservation International, USA.
O Departamento de Anatomia da Universidade de Hong
Kong, gentilmente cedeu o equipamento para as analises
citado na referencia. Maiores informagoes sobre este projeto
podem ser encontradas no site da Associacao Pr6-Muriqui:

Mauricio Talebi Gomes, Primate Behavior and Conserva-
tion Research Group, Department of Biological Anthropol-
ogy, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3DZ, UK, e Parque
Estadual de Carlos Botelho, Associacao Pr6-Muriqui, Caixa
Postal 37, Sao Miguel Arcanjo 18230-000, Sao Paulo,
Brasil. E-mail: .


Lucas, P. W., Beta. T., Darvell. B. W., Dominy, N. J.,
Essackjee, H. C., Lee, P. K., Osorio, D., Ramsden, L.,
Yamashita, N. and Yuen, T. D. B. 2001. Field kit to
characterize physical, chemical and spatial aspects of
potential primate foods. Folia Primatol. 72: 11-25.


A 3-week field course on the "Ecology of New World
Primates" was held from 11 September to 5 October
2002 at the Estaci6n Biol6gica Quebrada Blanco (EBQB),
Reserva Comunal Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo, in north-eastern
Peru. This course was part of a series initiated in 2000
within the framework of cooperation between the Faculties
of Forestry Engineering and Biological Sciences of the
Universidad Nacional de laAmazonfa Peruana (UNAP) and
the Deutsches Primatenzentrum (DPZ, German Primate
Center) (see NeotropicalPrimates8: 120-121, 2000, and 10:
32, 2002). Five Peruvian forestry and biology students from
UNAP and five German biology students from the Justus
Liebig-Universitat Giessen (JLU) participated in the course,
which was directed by Eckhard W. Heymann from DPZ.

The students observed groups of well-habituated
moustached and saddle-back tamarins (Saguinus mystax,
Saguinus fuscicollis) and joined PhD student Britta Miller
from DPZ in her comparative ecological-parasitological
study. They also carried out habitat sampling with plots and
using plotless methods. Activities of frugivores other than
tamarins were examined during focal tree observations.
There was ample opportunity for "natural history"
observations in the tropical rain forest environment.
A highlight, which unfortunately only a minority of
participants could experience, was an encounter with a
large troop of red uakaris (Cacajao calvus ucayalii) traveling
through the study area. The course was also a forum for
Peruvian and German students to meet and exchange their
views of the world and learn about their different cultures.

The amicable atmosphere and the friendships that built up
during the course were a great experience for everybody.

The course was supported by the Deutsche Akademische
Austauschdienst (DAAD, German Academic Exchange
Service) which provided support for the German students,
and the Forderkreis des Deutschen Primatenzentrums
("Association of Supporters of DPZ"), the Deutsch-Ibero-
Amerikanische Gesellschaft (DIAG) and the Margot Marsh
Biodiversity Foundation, which provided support for the
Peruvian students. We are most grateful to these organisa-
tions. We are also very thankful to Olympus Deutschland
who sponsored a digital camera, and to Kodak Deutschland
and Karstadt AG Giessen who sponsored films.

Un curso de campo sobre "Ecologfa de Primates
Neotropicales" se realize entire el 11 de setiembre y el
05 de octubre 2002 en la Estaci6n Biol6gica Quebrada
Blanco (EBQB), Reserva Comunal Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo,
nor-oriente peruano. Este curso fue el punto culminante
de una series de cursos iniciados en octubre 2000 en el
margen de cooperaci6n entire las Facultades de Ingenierfa
Forestal y de Ciencias Biol6gicas de la Universidad
Nacional de la Amazonfa Peruana (UNAP) y el Deutsches
Primatenzentrum (DPZ, Centro Aleman de Primates)
vasee Neotropical Primates 8: 120-121, 2000, y 10: 32,
2002). Cinco estudiantes de ingenierfa forestal y de biologfa
de la UNAP y cinco estudiantes de biologfa de la Justus
Liebig-Universitat Giessen (JLU) participaron en este curso
que fue dirigido por Eckhard W. Heymann del DPZ.

Los estudiantes observaban manadas muy bien habituadas
de los "pichicos barba blanca" y "pichicos comunes"
(Saguinus mystax, Saguinus fiuscicollis) y acompanaron a
la estudiante de doctorado Britta Muller, del DPZ, en su
studio comparative ecol6gico-parasitol6gico. Ademas,
realizaban muestreos de la estructura de vegetaci6n
mediante de metodos de cuadrantes y de "plotless
methods". Observaciones de "arboles focales" presentaban
oportunidades para examiner las actividades de otros
frugfvoros. Finalmente, habia amplia oportunidad de hacer
observaciones de historica natural" en el ambiente de un
bosque tropical.

El colmo del curso que infelizmente solamente una minoria
de los participate podfa experimentar era el encuentro con
una gran manada de huapos rojos (Cacajao calvus ucayalii),
pasando por la zona de studios. El curso tambidn era una
oportunidad para el encuentro entire estudiantes peruanos y
alemanes, para el intercambio de sus experiencias personales
y para conocer a una cultural diferente. El ambiente
amistoso y el crecimiento de amistades durante el curso era
una experiencia muy positive para todos los participants.

El curso fue subvencionado por el Deutsche Akademische
Austauschdienst (DAAD), el Fbrderkreis des Deutschen
Primatenzentrums ("Asociaci6n de Fomento del DPZ"),
the Deutsch-Ibero-Amerikanische Gesellschaft (DIAG,
Sociedad Alemana-Ibero-Americana) y la Margot Marsh

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002

Biodiversity Foundation. Estamos muy agradecidos a
estas organizaciones. Tambfen estamos muy agradecidos
a Olympus Deutschland por la donaci6n de una camera
digital, y a Kodak Deutschland y Karstadt AG Giessen por
la donaci6n de pelfculas fotograficas.

Eckhard W Heymann, Abteilung Verhaltensforschung &
Okologie, Deutsches Primatenzentrum, Kellnerweg 4, D-
37077 Gdttingen, Germany, e-mail: .


The University of Surrey Roehampton, UK, is offering a
one-year Master of Research (MRes) degree programme
starting in September 2003. This programme provides a
unique opportunity to study primate biology in depth.
It will teach original research and place findings into a
theoretical context, providing preparation for advanced
research (PhD and consultancy work). It combines
theoretical investigation with laboratory and field work
on a range of topics. Practical investigations will be carried
out in zoos, local habitats, museums and laboratories. After
the first semester the emphasis is on independent study,
with all students carrying out an in-depth piece of original
research. This is written up as a dissertation and a paper in
a form suitable for publication in a peer-reviewed scientific
journal. The key areas of study are:
* Ecology and behaviour: Methods used in surveying and
gathering biological information, methods of recording
behaviour in the field.
* Diet and foraging: Observing and investigating behav-
ioural and physical dietary adaptations, field and labora-
tory techniques for gathering data, analysing nutritional
and foraging data from wild and captive primates.
* Life-history evolution: Allometry, reproductive life his-
tory variables, comparative analysis of life-history and
brain size evolution.
* Reproduction: Laboratory techniques for gathering data
and analysing reproductive hormone data in wild and
captive primates. The evolution of mating strategies.
* Zoos and museums as a resource for the study of primates
and the ethics of studying captive primates.
* Methods of analysing physical and behavioral adapta-
tions (e.g. locomotion, sensory systems). Phylogenetic
reconstructions and interpretations of adaptations.

For further details, contact: School of Life and Sport Sciences,
University of Surrey Roehampton, West Hill, London SW15
3SN, UK, Tel: 020 8392 3524, e-mail: hampton.ac.uk>, URL: prospectus/postgraduate.asp ?file=primatology>.


A mixed Workshop/Symposium "Canopy Biology, Tree
Climbing Strategies and Primate Ecology" was held during
the XIXth International Primatological Society Congress in
Beijing, China, August 4-9, 2002. It explored the ecology
of the canopy from a primate's point of view. The first
part of the half-day gathering presented communications
for better understanding the primate canopy (field study
and modelling). The second part focused on both tree
climbing techniques and canopy access strategies. Each
tree is now accessible, regardless of its height, size, shape
and complexity. Canopy access is safe and provides the
exceptional advantage of complete autonomy to the
researcher (individual trees can be climbed on a needed
basis). The first section of the Workshop was used by
experienced climbers to present and exchange ideas on
techniques, tricks, gears and strategies. A teaching lesson was
provided to interested volunteers. Alain Houle presented a
proposal to the Council of the International Primatological
Society (IPS) for the production of a guide to techniques
and safety precautions for climbing trees. The Symposium
that he and Emmanuelle Grundmann organized during
the IPS Congress included the following themes: habitat
and microhabitat description such as physical milieu, light
availability, food (color vision, distribution in crowns,
biomass, quality, density and defendability), foraging
efficiency (the concept of "giving-up density"), sleeping
sites, nest building and nesting behavior of apes, lemurs
and galagos galagoss and nests of galagos were accidentally
found within chimpanzee nests in Kibale), DNA analyses
derived from hairs collected in nests, information sharing
(visual scan from adjacent and emergent trees), and physical
anthropology (branch structures and strength, limited
number of paths). Accessing the canopy contributes to our
knowledge of primates by bringing original information
otherwise unavailable.

Alain Houle, Departement des Sciences Biologiques, Uni-
versit6 du Quebec a Montreal, C.P. 8888, Succ. Centre-
Ville, Montreal, Canada H3P 3C8, e-mail: etrotter.net>, and Emmanuelle Grundmann, Laboratoire
de Conservation des Especes Animales/Laboratoire d'Aco-
anthropologie, Museum d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris, 57
rue Cuvier, 75005 Paris, France, e-mail: dmann@wanadoo.fr>.


The Species Information Service (SIS) aims to become a
worldwide species information resource (with interlinked
databases of species-related information managed by SSC's
network of Specialist Groups). The latest in a series of
activity reports related to its development is now available.
For an update on the progress during 2002, visit: //www.iucn.org/themes/ssc/sis/sis7.html>.

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002


The Chicago Zoological Society makes annual grants to SSC
Specialist Groups from its Chicago Board of Trade Endan-
gered Species Fund for small projects identified in Action
Plans or other group priority-setting exercises. There are
two grant cycles a year, the first with awards in May and the
second with awards in October. Proposals for the first round
are due by e-mail by 22 March, 2003 and should be for work
to be conducted in 2003. The Fund supports small projects,
usually up to $5,000, and considers proposals on a specific
threatened (or near threatened) species, or a specific habitat
that is of high value or also threatened. Priority is given to
projects that are clearly of critical need for the species or habi-
tat that are likely to provide immediate results. Education
and communications projects are welcome. Strict biological
research projects are not a priority unless there can be a direct
application of the results. Projects that have been identified in
published or pending Action Plans take priority. The Special-
ist Group Chair (or other officer of the group) must endorse
any proposal submitted on a Group's behalf. Proposals and
requests for more detailed guidelines should be submitted by
e-mail to: Tim Sullivan at: .


During the budget year 2001-2002, the L. S. B. Leakey
Foundation awarded 62 research grants to the tune of
$646,830 and ranging from $2,650 to $20,000. Those
concerned with Neotropical primates included: Early
Miocene primates and other mammals of southern Pata-
gonia Fabian Marcelo Tejedor; Evolution of brachiation
in atelines: A phylogenetic comparative study Andrea
Jones; Golden-backed uacari foraging ecology: Dietary
specialists in Amazonian seasonal swamp forests Adrian
Barnett; Socioecology and population genetics of monoga-
mous primates in Eastern Ecuador Anthony DiFiore; The
vexing question of trichromacy in Brachyteles and Lemur
catta Nathaniel Dominy; Behavioral dimorphism in
monogamous owl monkeys of the Gran Chaco Eduardo
Fernandez-Duque. Deadline for grant applications: 5 Janu-
ary 2003. For information on grants and membership of
the L. S. B. Leakey Foundation: The Leakey Foundation,
P. 0. Box 29346, San Francisco, CA 94129-0346, USA.
Webpage: . Source: Anthro-
Quest (14), Fall 2002.


Roger Williams Park Zoo accepts proposals for the Sophie
Danforth Conservation Biology Fund of the Rhode Island
Zoological Society. Annual awards of up to $1000 are
granted to conservation programs that protect threatened
wildlife and habitats worldwide. Field studies and other

projects that demonstrate a multi-disciplinary approach to
biodiversity and ecosystem conservation, as well as projects
that involve in-country collaborators, receive highest
funding priority. Environmental education programs,
development of techniques that can be used in a natural
environment, and captive propagation programs that stress
an integrative approach to conservation are also appropriate.
Deadline for submissions is May 31. Grant recipients will
be notified by September 3. Proposal guidelines and
additional information are available on the Roger Williams
Park Zoo website at: , in
the Conservation section, or may be acquired by contacting
Stacia Martin at .


The director and staff of the Smithsonian Institution's
Monitoring and Assessment of Biodiversity Program are
pleased to announce the international biodiversity con-
servation curriculum for 2003. The two complementary
courses that form this year's curriculum offer a complete
and essential program for conservation biologists, ecolo-
gists, resource managers and environmental leaders. The
Biodiversity Assessment and Monitoring for Adaptive
Management course guides you through the process of
designing and implementing local and regional biodiver-
sity monitoring programs. The Environmental Leadership
course emphasizes communication skills to facilitate your
interaction with managers, decision-makers and resource

Biodiversity Assessment and Monitoring for Adaptive Man-
agement, 30 April 2 June, 2003. This intensive five-week
SI/MAB course is a must for resource managers, ecologists,
biologists, environmental educators and consultants. It is
led by more than 40 internationally recognized instructors
and speakers. The course is divided into eight modules, the
first of which provides a framework for biodiversity assess-
ment and monitoring, strengthened by a basic background
in Geographical Information Systems and statistics. Six
modules follow on assessment and monitoring of vegeta-
tion, aquatic systems, arthropods, amphibians and reptiles,
birds, and mammals. The final module integrates the pre-
ceding seven and focuses on developing site-based multi-
taxa monitoring for adaptive management. Investment.
US$4,500 covers your tuition, lodging, meals, local trans-
portation, and course materials. Airfares are not included.

The Smithsonian Environmental Leadership Course, 7-19 Sep-
tember, 2003. Strong leadership skills are essential for effec-
tive conservation. The communication skills and strategies
of exceptional leaders are taught in this course in a friendly
learning environment. The Smithsonian Environmental
Leadership course includes the exploration of topics such as
Foundation Skills for the Environmental Leader, Negotiation
and Conflict Resolution Strategies, Creating Compelling
Futures, and Impactful Environmental Communication.
The learning structure of the course is composed of demon-

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002

stations, background information, and personal and group
exercises. Speakers and numerous case-specific examples
are presented. Investment: US$2,750 covers your tuition,
lodging, meals, local transportation, and course materials.
Airfares are not included. At the moment, we have limited
scholarships for Latinos. We hope to increase the number
and scope of scholarships we can offer in the near future.
For more information, contact- Geri Philpott, Smithsonian
Institution, MAB Program, PO Box 37012, Attn: MRC
705, Washington, DC 20013-7012, Tel: 202.357-4793,
Fax 202.786-2557, e-mail: . WWW
address: .


The tenth congress of the Brazilian Primatology Society
(SBPr) was held at the Universidade Federal do ParA
(UFPa) in Belkm in the second week of November, 2002.
The event represented a number of landmarks for the
society, including its first meeting of the millennium, and
the first to be held in the Amazon. Attendance was down
from that of the previous meeting in 1999, but it exceeded
the organizers' expectations, given practical considerations
such as problems with the scheduling of the event and the
distance of Belkm from most other urban centres. In fact,
the two hundred or so participants represented no less than
eighteen of Brazil's 26 states, and all five major geographic
regions, as well as a small handful of foreign countries. The
event was also well attended by local students, most of
whom rarely have an opportunity to interact directly with
scientists from other parts of the country.

The opening ceremony was marked by a moment's reflection
on the recent loss of Cliudio Nogueira, an upcoming
young primatologist from Sao Paulo whose absence from
the congress was as unexpected as it was tragic. ClAudio
attended all the recent SBPr meetings, and was familiar to
many of those present in Belkm, who remembered him for
his high spirits and his enthusiasm as a scientist.

The opening lecture was given by Dr. Horacio Schneider,
ex-president of the SBPr and a pioneering geneticist who
has made a significant contribution to our knowledge
of platyrrhine phylogeny. His talk on the history of
primatology in Brazilian Amazonia, with predictable
emphasis on genetics, was well received, and set the tone for
the rest of the meeting.

Invited talks during the congress covered most fields of
primatology, with a predominantly local flavour. To begin
with, Josd Augusto Muniz presented an overview of research
at the National Primate Centre, Belkm. The history and
current research perspectives of the Goeldi Museum and
its primatologists were covered, respectively, by Peter Mann
de Toledo and Josd de Sousa e Silva Jr., while research at

UFPa was represented by Artur Silva (the prion gene) and
Olavo Galvao (cognitive studies). From further afield,
Carlos Ruiz-Miranda (UENF) presented an update from
the Golden Lion Tamarin Association, and Andrd Hirsch
(UFMG) explained the nuts and bolts of his research team's
geographic database, BDGEOPRIM. Even further afield,
Adrian Barnett (Roehampton) presented an entertaining
talk on his many experiences as a scientific journalist.

Round tables were just as diverse, beginning with
cytogenetics and genetic applications for conservation
chaired by local geneticists Cleusa Nagamachi and Maria
Paula Schneider, respectively. Capuchins, howler monkeys
and the pitheciines were the subjects of discussions
organised by Josd Rfmoli (UCDB), Ana Alice Marques
(UNISINOS) and Josd S. Silva Jr. Carla Castro (UFRN)
chaired an interesting table on seed dispersal, and outgoing
president, Stephen Ferrari (UFPa) allowed himself a
doubleheader of "current research in the Amazon" and
"habitat fragmentation and population management".
Round tables had between three and five participants, and
often resulted in lively discussion.

Oral presentations and posters were organised into
four main groups: Conservation and ecology, ethology
and management, genetics and biomedical studies, and
morphology and phylogeny. Around a hundred papers were
presented in all, of which more than two thirds reported on
field studies.

The volume of abstracts includes 167 titles. A limited
number of volumes are still available for a small handling
fee (contact ).

"Extracurricular" activities included five mini-courses and
excursions to both the Goeldi Museum and the National
Primate Centre. The mini-courses covered a variety of
topics, from molecular phylogeny (Horacio Schneider
and Iracilda Sampaio, UFPa) to observational studies
(Dida Mendes, PUC-GO and Gustavo Canale, UFGO).
Muniz, Rodrigo Valle and Francisco Alves dealt with the
captive management of endangered species at the National
Primate Centre, while psychologists Olavo Galvao and
Romariz Barros presented their experimental "school" for
capuchins at UFPa. Last but not least, Ana Alice Marques
covered techniques in conservation and management. Visits
to the zoological collection of the Goeldi Museum and the
Primate Centre were perhaps the high point of the meeting
for many participants, who had the chance to observe at
close quarters many species and specimens rarely, if ever
seen outside the Amazon.

As in previous years, the general assembly of the SBPr
was held at the end of the meeting, and the society's new
president, Jilio Cesar Bicca-Marques, and his officers,
all from southern Brazil, were elected unanimously. The
outgoing president (Stephen Ferrari) and treasurer (Josd
Rfmoli) accepted responsibility for publication of the
proceedings (volume 9 of the series A Primatologia no

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002

Brasil), which they hope will be ready before the end of
2003. A number of members also took the opportunity
to express their satisfaction with the event, which was
especially gratifying to the organizers, given the many
setbacks faced during the preceding months. All in all,
the large number, variety and scientific excellence of the
papers presented reflected very favourably on the evolution
of Brazilian primatology in all of the country's geographic
regions and biomes.

Acknowledgments. The congress was made possible by a
grant from CNPq and the support of UFPa. Special thanks
are due to Jose Rfmoli for his management of finances.
The organising committee was formed by Gustavo Canale,
Ita Oliveira, Taissa Pianta and Vanner Boere, and Socorro
Prado and her team were responsible for the smooth run-
ning of the event.

Stephen F. Ferrari, Departamento de Genetica, Univer-
sidade Federal do Para, Caixa Postal 8607, 66.075-900
Belkm, Para, Brazil, e-mail: .


The following were elected as officers of the Brazilian
Primatological Society (SBPr) during a general meeting held
during the Society's Xth Congress held at the Universidade
Federal do Para, Belkm, 10-15 November 2002: President.
Jdlio Cesar Bicca-Marques (Pontificia Universidade
Cat61lica do Rio Grande do Sul PUCRS); Vice-president.
Cristina Santos (Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina
- UNISUL); 1st Secretary: Marcia Maria de Assis Jardim
(Parque Zool6gico de Sapucaia do Sul PZ/FZBRS);
2nd Secretary: Marcos de Souza Fialho (Instituto Brasileiro
do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renovaveis
- IBAMA); 1st Treasurer Ana Alice Biedzicki de Marques
(Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos UNISINOS); 2nd
Treasurer. Urbano Lopes Bobadilla (Universidade Luterana
do Brasil ULBRA). All Society members are encouraged to
contact the 1st Treasurer, Ana Alice Biedzicki de Marques,
to check on any annuities due. Brazilian primatologists who
are not members of the Society should take measures to
correct the situation!

Julio Cksar Bicca-Marques, Faculdade de Biociencias/
PUCRS, Avenida Ipiranga, 6681 Pd. 12A, 90619-900
Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, Tel: (55) (51)
3320-3545 ext. 4742, Fax: (55) (51) 3320-3612, e-mail:
and Ana Alice Biedzicki de Marques,
Centro de Ciencias da Sadde/UNISINOS, Av. Unisinos
950, 93022-000 Sao Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil,
Tel: (55) (51) 3366-8092, email: or


SThe conservation community is increas-
ingly recognizing that effective conserva-
tion of nonhuman primates requires the
leadership of scientists and trained pro-
fessionals from primate-habitat countries.
The XIXt Congress of the International Primatological
Society, held in Beijing, China, in August 2002, provided
an ideal setting in which to hold an intensive 3-day training
workshop in primate conservation techniques for the future
leaders of conservation around the globe. Workshops of this
type have been held at previous IPS Congresses; in 1994
(Indonesia), in 1996 (USA), and in 1998 (Madagascar).
Participants at these workshops have spoken strongly of
their value for younger primatologists working in regions
with few opportunities for scholarly exchange of this type.

IPS brought together 22 conservationists from 11 primate
habitat countries (Colombia, Malaysia, India, Nepal,
Gabon, Kenya, Nigeria, Democratic Republic of Congo,
Uganda, Vietnam, China) for the 2002 IPS pre-congress
workshop entitled, "Developing Successful Conservation
Initiatives for Primates: From Field Science to Conserva-
tion Programs." Andrds Link Ospina, investigator at the
Centro de Investigaciones Ecol6gicas La Macarena in the
northwestern Amazon, Colombia, and currently studying
the feeding behavior and diet of spider monkeys, Ateles bel-
zebuth, was the single representative from South America.

The overall goal of the workshop was to enhance the poten-
tial of young professionals and students from primate-habi-
tat countries around the globe to develop and/or improve
in situ conservation programs. This goal was met by pro-
viding participants with training in appropriate skills and
problem-solving methods, and by developing supportive
professional relationships with peers and with more senior
conservationists. Our specific objectives outlined below
provided the students with clear expectations and the
opportunity to work with and learn from our instructors
and each other. The objectives were:
* To provide a forum in which participants have ample
opportunity to exchange information and ideas on pri-
mate conservation.
* To develop conservation initiatives into long-term sus-
tainable programs.
* To understand what makes field conservation programs
* To understand what tools are available to assist in devel-
oping a program.
* To provide young professionals with mentored prac-
tice in fund-raising and communication with relevant
institutions, such as NGOs and governmental bodies,
that influence the development and implementation of
conservation policy.

We were very pleased to have assembled an extremely
knowledgeable cadre of instructors that represented a
diverse background in global conservation issues. Our eight
instructors, Mukesh Chalise (Natural History Society of
Nepal), Bill Konstant, (Conservation International), Rob
Lee (Wildlife Conservation Society, Indonesia), Colleen
McCann (Wildlife Conservation Society, New York), Clau-
dio Padua (IPL Instituto de Pesquisas Ecol6gicas, Brazil),
Anthony Rylands (Conservation International), Hanta
Rasamimanana (University of Antananarivo, Madagascar),
and Anne Savage (Proyecto Titf, Colombia, and Disney's
Animal Kingdom, Florida) provided lectures on: 1) Devel-
oping Conservation Programs; 2) Developing a Conserva-
tion Management Plan for the Species; 3) Education and
Community Based Programs; 4) Economic Alternatives to
Assist Communities in Protecting Species/Habitat; 5) Influ-
encing Decision Makers about Conservation; 6) Resources
and Funding Opportunities; and 7) Program Evaluation.
Students were given journal assignments and small group
activities throughout the workshop in an effort to integrate
this new information into their existing programs.

Course evaluations indicated 100% satisfaction with
the workshop and the students benefited greatly by
meeting new colleagues. We have produced a web page
(, linked to the IPS
web page) to highlight the accomplishments and provide
the students with access to the lecture material presented
during the workshop. This web page will allow the students
and instructors to remain in communication with one
another and provide us with a forum to continue to update
everyone on significant events.

This workshop would not have been possible without the
generous support of the Margot Marsh Biodiversity Fund,
Disney Wildlife Conservation Fund, American Society of
Primatologists, Conservation International's Primate Action
Fund, Primate Conservation, Inc., and the Primate Society
ofJapan. Fuwen Wei (Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy
of Sciences), General Secretary for the XIXth IPS Congress,
was immensely supportive and helpful in assisting with the
logistical aspects of hosting the workshop in China. Ren
Baoping, Zhou Jiang, Zhang Peng, and Zhou Qihai were also
most kind, providing support throughout the workshop.

Continuing the support of pre-congress workshops is a pri-
ority for IPS. They provide an opportunity to bring indi-
viduals together for a cultural exchange that addresses the
development of sustainable conservation programs for the
future. Comments by the students such as "This experience
has increased my confidence on resolving local problems I
had earlier thought were restricted to my case only," and "I
have learned to think differently on what was previously a
one-way view of situations," clearly demonstrate the impact
and the benefit this type of training has in developing future
leaders in conservation.

A similar workshop will be held in conjunction with the
XXth IPS Congress in Torino, Italy, in August of 2004.

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002
Please see the IPS web page pin/ips.html>, for upcoming information.

Anne Savage, Disney's Animal Kingdom, Conservation
Station Administration, PO Box 10,000, Lake Buena
Vista, FL 32830, USA, Cliudio Valladares-P;dua, IPL
- Institute de Projetos e Pesquisas Ecol6gicas, Caixa Postal
47, 12960-000 Nazard Paulista, Sao Paulo, Brazil, Colleen
McCann, The Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx Zoo,
Bronx, New York, NY 10460, USA, and Dorothy M.
Fragaszy, Department of Psychology, University of Geor-
gia, Athens, GA 30602-3013, USA.



Members of the European Marmoset
Research Group (EMRG) share a common
scientific interest in callitrichids, covering a
broad range of scientific disciplines, result-
ing from the study of the marmosets and

tamarins in laboratories as well as in natural
habitats. The EMRG coordinating committee is comprised
of the following researchers: Christopher Pryce, President
and Newsletter Editor; Christian Schnell, Treasurer; Leah
Scott, Liaison/Promotion; and Michael Schwibbe, Web-
page Manager (at ).

The EMRG promotes informal and formal meetings,
and produces a newsletter, edited by Christopher Pryce.
Number 6 was distributed in March 2002. Most EMRG
activity is concentrated into workshops, which provide a
forum for intensive information exchange. Workshop dele-
gates are united by the animal species with which they work
rather than the subject area. The aim is to bring together as
many basic and applied life science disciplines as possible,
with the rationale that the information exchange across dis-
ciplines will improve the quality of callitrichid husbandry
and veterinary care, improve the quality of science within
disciplines, and foster collaboration across disciplines.

Regional representatives are responsible for coordination of
EMRG membership and activity in their respective coun-
tries and, across the Atlantic, continents. Three regional
representatives have stood down from their posts recently.
Anthony Rylands (Center for Applied Biodiversity Science,
Conservation International, Washington DC), former Rep
for South America, has been replaced by Stephen F Ferrari.
Stephen has close to 20 years of experience in studying cal-
litrichids in their natural habitats, including detailed stud-
ies of social organization, feeding and activity patterns, as
well as the discovery and description of callitrichid species
new to science. Anne-Dominique Degryse and Isabelle
Allmann were EMRG Reps for France and Switzerland,
respectively, for several years. They are both veterinarians
by training with considerable experience in the health man-
agement of marmoset colonies. The new Rep for France
is Guillaume Chevalier and that for Switzerland is Patricia
Gerber. Annette Domeney retired as EMRG Secretary from

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002
1999-2001. She contributed significantly in the prepara-
tion of the grants, organization of the first workshop, and
in promoting the importance of EMRG with colleagues in
industry. She is now working as an independent consultant
in the biotechnology industry. The current regional rep-
resentatives are as follows: France Guillaume Chevalier;
Germany Susanne Rensing; Italy Augusto Vitale; The
Netherlands- Bert 't Hart; Scandinavia- Tomas Ljungberg;
Switzerland Patricia Gerber; United Kingdom Peter
Pearce; U.S. and Central America David Abbott; South
America Stephen Ferrari.

The March newsletter of the EMRG (No. 6) provided a
report on the meeting held at the University of Manchester,
25-26 July 2001, which was chaired by Peter Pearce and
attended by more than 40 people, including representa-
tives from academia, industry and the Royal Society for the
Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA). The last meet-
ing, the second to be funded by the European Commission
High-Level Scientific Conference Fund, was in Paris on
October 14-16th, at the Forest Hills Hotel, Paris, France.

The March newsletter also contains information on the
activities of the European Federation of Primatology (EFP).
The President of the EFP is Peter Kappeler, and Bertrand
Deputte is the Treasurer. Christopher Pryce, President of
EMRG, is the country representative for Switzerland. The
EMRG are also considering republishing the 1997 Hand-
book j I ... and Tamarins in Biological and Biomedi-
cal Research, which covers basic issues such as husbandry
and veterinary care as well as more applied subjects.

Christopher Pryce, Behavioural Neurobiology Laboratory,
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Schoren-
strasse 16, CH-8603 Schwerzenbach, Switzerland, Tel: +41
1 655 7386, Fax: +41 1 655 7203, e-mail: iol.ethz.ch>. Website: .

AWARDs 2002

The Conservation Committee of the
A3 ? American Society of Primatologists,
chaired by Randall Kyes, gave their 2002
Conservation Award to Pierre Kakule Vwirasihikya who
works with the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International,
in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Conservation
Small Grants (up to $1,500) were awarded to 11 people.
Projects from the Neotropics included: "The brown howler
monkey, Alouatta guariba clamitans, in a fragmented
landscape in south Brazil" Soraya Ribeiro; "Habitat
fragmentation and genetic variability of populations of
Alouatta pigra (Primates: Cebidae) in the Yucatan Penin-
sula, Mexico: Implications for conservation" Monica A.
Pimenta; "Assessment of primate populations at the Purd
River, Colombian Amazon" Erwin Palacios; and "Forest
destruction effects on a population of black-and-gold
howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) in northern Argentina"

- Gabriel E. Zunino. For information on ASP Conser-
vation Small Grants, contact: Gabriele Lubach, e-mail:

Neotropical primatology shone at the 25' Annual Meet-
ing of the ASP at Oklahoma University, Oklahoma, 1-4
June, 2002. The following students were given awards by
the Education Committee. Outstanding Paper Presentation:
Sarah Henkerson "The alarm reactions of neighboring
groups have long-term effects on marmosets", co-authored
with Kimberly Short, Kimberlee Bachand and Nancy
Caine. Honorable mention: John Ruys "Differences in
personality and neuroendocrine responses to pharmaco-
logical treatment in adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca
mulatta)", co-authored with John Capitanio and Sally
Mendoza. Outstanding Poster Presentation: Michael Ruksta-
lis "Social context affects vocal structure in a callitrichid
primate ((C .- kuhlii)", co-authored with Jeffrey Fite
and Jeffrey French. Honorable mention: Pablo Stevenson
- "Weak relationships between dominance and forag-
ing efficiency in Colombian woolly monkeys (Lagothrix
lagothricha) at Tinigua Park". From: ASP Bulletin 26 (2/3),
August/September 2002.


n* p The President of the American Society of
A MI Primatologists (2002-2004) is Jeffrey A.
French (Department of Psychology, Uni-
versity of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE 68182, e-mail:
), the President-Elect is Steve
Schapiro (UTMDACC, Bastrop, Texas, e-mail: @mdanderson.org>), and the Executive Secretary is Toni
Zeigler (University of Wisconsin-Madison, Wisconsin, e-
mail: ). The following people
have been elected as Chairs of the various ASP Commit-
tees. Program Committee Marilyn Norconk, Department
of Anthropology, Kent State University, 236 Lowry Hall,
Kent, OH 44242, e-mail: ; Awards
and Recognition Committee- Gabriele Lubach, Harlow Pri-
mate Lab, University of Wisconsin, 22 N. Charter Street,
Madison, WI 53715-1239, e-mail: .edu>; Research andDevelopment Committee- J. Dee Higley,
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, NIH
Animal Center, PO Box 529, Bldg 112, Room 205, Pooles-
ville, MD 20837-0529, e-mail: v>; Education Committee- Susan Howell, Primate Founda-
tion of Arizona, PO Box 20027, Mesa, AZ 85277-0027,
e-mail: ; Conservation Committee
- Janette Wallis, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral
Science, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center,
PO Box 26901, Oklahoma City, OK 73104-5020, e-mail:
; and Membership and Finance
Committee Evan Zucker, Department of Psychology,
Loyola University, New Orleans, LA 70118, e-mail:
. ASP website: < http://www.asp.org/
>. From: ASP Bulletin 26 (2/3), August/September 2002.


The Conservation Working Party of the Primate Society of
Great Britain (PSGB) is involved with all aspects of primate
conservation and in addition administers the PSGB Con-
servation Grants. These are awards, typically in the region
of 500, to assist research of benefit to primate conserva-
tion and primate conservation education. There are two
application rounds per year and the next deadline is 28th
February 2003. Application materials and further informa-
tion are available at , under Conservation
Working Party.

Anna T. C. Feistner, Convenor, PSGB Conservation
Working Party, Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust, Les
Augres Manor, Trinity, Jersey JE3 5BP, British Isles, Tel:
+44 (0)1534 860000, Fax: +44 (0)1534 860001, e-mail




Thomas M. Butynski (Senior Editor) and Debra L. Forth-
man (Editor) are pleased to announce the publication of a
combined issue of Volume 4, numbers 1 and 2 (1999-2000)
of the Journal and Newsletter of the Africa Section of the
PSG, African Primates. A bumper issue of 107 pages with
excellent articles, notes and news items. The articles include
the following: A survey of nocturnal prosimians at Moca
on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea L. Ambrose & A.
W. Perkin, pp.4-10; Primates of the Comod National Park,
Ivory Coast F Fischer, M. Gross & B. Kunz, pp.10-15;
The endemic primates of the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanza-
nia- Carolyn Ehardt, pp. 15-26; Conservation ofThollon's
red colobus Piliocolobus ri/,//o',, Democratic Republic of
Congo J. A. M. Thompson, pp.27-32; Increasing threats
to the conservation of endemic endangered primates and
forests of the lower Tana River, Kenya J. Wieczkowski
& D. N. M., Mbora, pp.32-40; Darting, individual rec-
ognition, and radio-tracking techniques in grey-cheeked
mangabeys Lophocebus of Kibale National Park,
Uganda W. Olupot, pp.40-50; Survey of the Angolan
black-and-white colobus monkey Colobus angolensis pal-
liatus in the Diani Forests, Kenya E. M. Kanga & C. M.
Heidi, pp.50-54; Anti-predator behavior of male hamadryas
baboons Papio hamadryas in Eritrea D. Zinner, F Pelatz
& D. Berhane, pp.54-58; Death of a chimpanzee Pan trog-
lodytes schweinfurthii in a trap in Kasokwa Forest Reserve,
Uganda- J. Munn & G. Kalema, pp.58-62.

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002
African Primates is produced in collaboration with Con-
servation International, Washington, DC, and the IUCN
Eastern African Regional Office, Nairobi, Kenya. It is on
Primate Info Net (PIN) at newslett.html>. For more information: Debra L. Forth-
man, Editor African Primates, Zoo Atlanta, 800 Cherokee
Avenue SE, Atlanta, Georgia 30315-1440, USA.


Recently published was a combined issue of Asian Primates,
Volume 8, numbers 1 (June 2002) & 2 (September 2002).
Edited by Ardith A. Eudey, Vice-chairwoman for Asia of the
PSG, it has a nice color photo of Nycticebus pygmaeus (by
H. Fitch-Snyder) on the front and includes seven articles.
A preliminary survey oflorises (Nycticebus spp.) in northern
Vietnam H. Fitch-Snyder &Vu NgocThanh, pp. 1-3; The
gray-shanked douc: Survey results from Tien Phouc, Quang
Nam, Viet Nam L. K. Lippold and Vu Ngoc Thanh, pp.3-
6; Assessment of the sale of primates at Indonesian bird
markets N. Malone, A. R. Purnama, M. Wedana and A.
Fuentes, pp.7-11; Diet and feeding behavior of Assamese
macaque (Macaca assamensis) S. Mitra, pp.12-14; Sleeping
trees ad survival of langurs in Kumbhalgarh Wildlife Sanc-
tuary in Aravalli Hills, India A. K. Chhangani, pp.14-17;
Massive habitat loss for primates in Assam's Sonitpur Dis-
trict A.. Choudhury, pp.18-20; The primates of China:
Biogeography and conservation status Zhang Yongzu,
Chen Liwei, Qu Wenyuan and C. Coggins, pp.20-22.

Besides news items, reviews and information on funding
sources and meetings, this issue also includes a report on
the Orang Re-introduction and Protection Workshop, held
15-18 June 2001 at Balikpan, East Kalimantan, Indonesia,
and news of developments at the Javan Gibbon Rescue and
Rehabilitation Center. For more information: Ardith A.
Eudey, Editor Asian Primates, 164 Dayton Street, Upland,
CA 91786-3120, USA, e-mail: .


Number 38 of Species, the newsletter of the Species Survival
Commission of IUCN, is available on the web. It has a
special feature that will benefit all those working in the field
of conservation: Lessons learned in fundraising! Several of
the IUCN/SSC Specialist Groups offer advice and share
their experiences on how to effectively source funding
to continue their important work. With an introductory
message from SSC Chair David Brackett, news stories from
the network, and updates from the Specialist Groups and
SSC Programmes, Species 38 is well worth a read to stay
tuned with the happenings within the Commission. The
current issue, along with back issues of Species, is available at

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002


The Rapid Assessment Program (RAP) of the Center for
Applied Biodiversity Science at Conservation International,
Director, Leeanne Alonso, has published the final report
from their expedition to the Eastern Kanuku Mountains, on
the lower Kwitaro River in Guyana, 20-29 September 2001.
Collaborators in this expedition included the Guyana Regional
Office of Conservation International, the Environmental Pro-
tection Agency (EPA) of Guyana, the Centre for the Study of
Biological Diversity, Greater Georgetown, Guyana, and Tro-
penbos International, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

The Kanuku Mountain Range is located in the Rupununi
region of southwestern Guyana, and the RAP survey concen-
trated on the lowland seasonally inundated and terra firme
evergreen tropical rainforest along the lower Kwitaro and
Rewa Rivers (affluents of the Essequibo) at the eastern edge
of the Eastern Kanuku range. In some years, flooding in the
surrounding savannahs mixes with Brazil's Rio Branco savan-
nahs to combine biological elements of both the Guayana
Shield and Amazon catchments. High biodiversity and low
human habitation makes this area a key target for conserva-
tion initiatives. The Kanuku Mountains are under no legal
protection status, although scientific surveys have already
documented a high regional vertebrate diversity, healthy
populations of many threatened species, diverse habitats,
from swamp forest and savannah along the Rupununi River
to cloud forest on the Kanuku Mountains, and high tree
species richness of plant communities typical of both the
Amazon basin and the Guayana Shield. In 1993, there was
a RAP expedition to the western part of the Kanuku range
and the Rewa River, and the results suggested that the east-
ern range would be even richer in biodiversity. The 2001
RAP confirmed this. The number of mammal species was
high (52 recorded on the expedition). The results of the bat
survey brought the total species for the region to 89, and
overall about 70% of the mammals and 53% of all the birds
known to occur in Guyana were found there. The Rupununi
River contains one of the richest fish faunas on Earth, and
the results from this short survey showed that the Kwitaro
and Rewa Rivers follow this trend. Plant communities were
confirmed to be among the most diverse in Guyana and
showed little sign of human disturbance. The RAP expedi-
tion resulted in a number of new records for the Eastern
Kanuku range 40 species of plants, 63 species of birds, 113
species of fish (the fish fauna had not been surveyed before!),
and five mammals. All of the eight primates of Guyana
occur there. Non-volant mammals were studied by Jim
Sanderson (Conservation International, Washington, DC)
and Leroy Ignacio (Shulinab Village, Region 9, Guyana)
and the bats by Burton K. Lim (Royal Ontario Museum,
Toronto, Canada) and Zacharias Norman (Wowetta, Region
9, Guyana). Appendices include gazetteers of the localities,
and species lists for plants, fishes, birds and mammals.

For copies of this report, please write to: RAP Program,

Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation
International, 1919 M Street NW, Suite 600, Washington,
DC 20036, USA. Website: .


Dario Maestripieri (Committee on Evolutionary Biology,
The University of Chicago) and Peter Kappeler (Deutsches
Primatenzentrum, Gbttingen) were the guest editors for a
special issue of the International Journal off' -.'. . Vol.
23(4), August 2002, dedicated to "Evolutionary Theory
and Primate Behavior". According to Maestripieri and
Kappeler "the specific goal... is to examine some of the best
known evolutionary theories of behavior and discuss criti-
cally whether the findings of primate behavioral research are
consistent with them." They conclude that not all hypoth-
eses derived from evolutionary theory have been consis-
tently supported by primate data, but that the adaptationist
program of Ernst Mayr (Am. Nat. 121: 324-333, 1983) has
been of enormous heuristic value for primate behavioral
research. The contributions of this volume pay tribute to
the fact that the evolutionary hypotheses have stimulated
a great deal of research and have produced a significant
amount of new knowledge on the behavioral biology of
nonhuman primates. "Such research and knowledge have
often led to formulation of new and more sophisticated
evolutionary hypotheses and a better appreciation of the
degree to which the behavior of primates is adapted to their
ecological and social environment." The editors hope that
the articles in the special issue will encourage more prima-
tologists to seriously consider tests of adaptive hypotheses
as part of their research, so that the gap with mainstream
evolutionary biology will eventually be closed.

The issue includes the following articles. Evolution of pri-
mate social systems P. M. Kappeler & C. P. van Schaick,
pp.707-740; Avoiding predators: Expectations and evi-
dence in primate antipredator behavior C. B. Stanford,
pp.741-757; Competition for resources and its behav-
ioral consequences among female primates A. Koenig,
pp.759-783; Modelling primate behavioral ecology R.
I. M. Dunbar, pp.785-819; Primate communication: By
nature honest? By experience wise? H. Gouzoules & S.
Gouzoules, pp.821-848; Kin selection in primate groups
- J. B. Silk, pp.849-875; Sexual selection and mate choice
- A. Paul, pp.877-904; Sex-biased parental investment in
primates E Bercovitch, pp.905-921; Parent-offspring
conflict in primates D. Maestripieri, pp.923-951.


Lion Tamarins: Biology and Conservation, edited by Devra
G. Kleiman and Anthony B. Rylands, 2002. 422pp.
Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. Zoo
and Aquarium Biology and Conservation Series. ISBN

1-58834-072-4. Price: US$45.00, 34.50. Awareness of
the plight of the lion tamarins, small primates endemic to
the widely decimated tropical forests of eastern Brazil, was
incipient in the 1960s, but the 1970s galvanized multina-
tional efforts to save them through captive breeding and,
later, major programs to protect them and their forests in
the wild. Thirty years on, this book records the history of
the conservation efforts for the four species; the golden,
golden-headed, black and black-faced lion tamarins the
last discovered only in 1990 and summarizes the main
fields of research on their physiology, demography, genet-
ics, diseases, behavior and ecology. Protecting the small
fragments of forest remaining in their already diminutive
ranges has demanded the commitment of governments as
well as non-governmental organizations and, not least, local
communities which, at the end of the day, hold the key to
the fate of these animals. Remarkable over the years has
been the collaborative and groundbreaking efforts on the
part of zoos, initially supporting research and pioneering an
exemplary global breeding program providing as such the
wherewithal for their re-introduction to the wild and lat-
terly contributing significantly to monitoring and studies of
their life in their natural habitats. Saving species demands
the application of many disciplines well illustrated here
by the diversity of talents and areas of expertise of the 50
authors who have contributed. The story of the lion tama-
rins is a case study highlighting the conservation role of
zoos, the essential element of research for endangered spe-
cies programs, and above all the need for dedication and
endurance in the most difficult task of all the protection
of natural habitats. The book is dedicated to Adelmar F
Coimbra-Filho. Contents. Foreword by R. A. Mittermeier;
Introduction and Acknowledgments D. G. Kleiman &
A. B. Rylands. Part I. The History and Status of Lion Tama-
rins. 1. A history of lion tamarin research and conservation
- A. B. Rylands, J. J. C. Mallinson, D. G. Kleiman, A. E.
Coimbra-Filho, R. A. Mittermeier, I. de G. Camara, C. B.
Valladares-Padua & M. I. Bampi, pp.3-41; 2. Distribution
and status of lion tamarins A. B. Rylands, M. C. M. Kier-
ulff & L. P. de S. Pinto, pp.42-70; 3. The role of non-gov-
ernmental organizations and the International Committee
for the Conservation and Management of Leontopithecus
in Lion Tamarin Conservation D. M. Rambaldi, D. G.
Kleiman, J. J. C. Mallinson, L. A. Dietz & S. M. Padua,
pp.71-94; 4. History, management and conservation role
of the captive lion tamarin populations J. D. Ballou,
D. G. Kleiman, J. J. C. Mallinson, A. B. Rylands, C. B.
Valladares-Padua & Kristin Leus, pp.95-114. Part II. The
Biology of Lion Tamarins. 5. Genetics and evolution of lion
tamarins H. N. Seuanez, A. DiFiore, M. A. M. Moreira,
C. A. da S. Almeida & F C. Canavez, pp.117-132; 6.
Lion tamarin reproductive biology J. A. French, K. de
Vleeschouwer, K. Bales & M. Heistermann, pp.133-156;
7. Behavioral ecology of lion tamarins M. C. M. Kierulff,
B. Raboy, P. Proc6pio de Oliveira, K. Miller, F C. Passos &
E Prado, pp.157-187; 8. Mating system and group dynam-
ics in lion tamarins A. J. Baker, K. Bales & J. M. Dietz,
pp.188-212; 9. Infant care in lion tamarins S. D. Tardif,
C. V. Santos, A. J. Baker, L. van Elsacker, A. T. C. Feistner,

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002
D. G. Kleiman, C. R. Ruiz-Miranda, A. C. de A. Moura, E
C. Passos, E. C. Price, L. Rapaport & K. de Vleeschouwer,
pp.213-232; 10. Conspicuousness and complexity: Themes
in lion tamarin communication C. R. Ruiz-Miranda and
D. G. Kleiman, pp.233-254; 11. Diseases of lion tamarins
-A. Pissinatti, R. J. Montali & E Simon, pp.255-268. Part
III. Conservation and Management in the Wild. 12. Reintro-
duction and translocation as conservation tools for golden
lion tamarins; M. C. M. Kierulff, P. Proc6pio de Oliveira,
B. B. Beck & A. Martins, pp.271-282; 13. The effects of
pre-release environments and post-release management on
survivorship in reintroduced golden lion tamarins B. B.
Beck, M. I. Castro, T. S. Stoinski & J. D. Ballou, pp.283-
300; 14. Metapopulation management for the conserva-
tion of black lion tamarins C. B. Valladares-Padua, J. D.
Ballou, C. S. Martins & L. Cullen Jr., pp.301-314; 15. In
situ conservation education and the lion tamarins S. M.
Pidua, L. A. Dietz, D. M. Rambaldi, M. das G. de Souza
& G. R. dos Santos, pp.315-335; 16. Lion tamarin biology
and conservation: A synthesis and challenges for the future
- D. G. Kleiman & A. B. Rylands, pp.336-343. Available
from: USA Smithsonian Institution Press, P 0. Box 960,
Herndon, VA 20172-0960, Tel: (800) 782-4612, (703)
661-1599, Fax: 703 661-1501. Asia East-West Export
Books, 2840 Kolowalu St., Honolulu, HI 96822, Tel:
(808) 956-8830, Fax: (808) 988-6052. Webpage: //www.sipress.si.edu/books/titles_books/1-58834-072-

The Primate Fossil Record, edited by Walter Carl Hartwig,
Cambridge Studies in Biological and Evolutionary Anthro-
pology 33, 2002. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,
UK. 540pp. ISBN: 0-521-66315-6. Price: $175.00,
120.00 (hardback). The Primate Fossil Record is the first
comprehensive treatment of primate paleontology in more
than 20 years. Profusely illustrated and up to date, it cap-
tures the complete history of the discovery and interpreta-
tion of primate fossils. The chapters range from primate
origins to the advent of anatomically modern humans.
Each emphasizes three key components of the record of
primate evolution: history of discovery, taxonomy of the
fossils, and evolution of the adaptive radiations they repre-
sent. The Primate Fossil Record summarizes objectively the
many intellectual debates surrounding the fossil record and
provides a foundation of reference information on the last
two decades of astounding discoveries and worldwide field
research for physical anthropologists, paleontologists and
evolutionary biologists. Includes chapters on: The origin of
primates D. T. Rasmussen, pp.5-9; The origin and diversi-
fication of anthropoid primates M. Dagosto, pp.125-132;
Platyrrhine paleontology and systematics: The paradigm
shifts A. L. Rosenberger, pp.151-159; Early platyrrhines
of southern South America J. G. F1, J, & M. E Tejedor,
pp.161-173; Miocene platyrrhines of the northern Neo-
tropics W. C. Hartwig & D. J. Meldrum, pp.175-188;
Extinct Quaternary platyrrhines of the Greater Antilles
and Brazil R. D. E. MacPhee & I. Horovitz, pp.189-200.
Despite the price evidently indispensable. Available from:
Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002

York, NY 10011-4211, USA, Tel: 1-800-872-7423, Fax:
914-937-4712, e-mail: .
Web site: .

Eat or Be Eaten: Predator Sensitive Foraging Among Primates,
edited by Lynne E. Miller, 2002. 306pp. Cambridge Uni-
versity Press, Cambridge. ISBN 0 521 80451 5 (hardback),
0521 01104 3 (paperback). Price: 75.00 (hardback),
27.00 (paperback). Predator sensitive foraging represents
the strategies that animals employ to balance the need to
eat against the need to avoid being eaten. Ecologists work-
ing with a wide range of taxa have developed sophisticated
theoretical models of these strategies, and have produced
elegant data to test them. However, only recently have
primatologists begun to turn their attention to this area
of research. This book brings together primary data from
a variety of primate species living in both natural habitats
and experimental settings, and explores the variables that
may play a role in their behavioral strategies. Eat or Be Eaten
encourages further discussion and investigation of the sub-
ject. Contentsr 1. An introduction to predator sensitive for-
aging L. E. Miller. Part I. Biological Variables. 2. Dangers
in the dark: Are some nocturnal primates afraid of the dark?
- S. K. Bearder, K. A. I. Nekaris & C. A. Buzzell; 3. Preda-
tion sensitive foraging in captive tamarins M. J. Prescott
& H. M. Buchanan-Smith; 4. Seeing red: Consequence of
individual differences in color vision in callitrichid primates
- N. G. Caine; 5. Predator sensitive foraging in Thomas
langurs E. H. M. Sterck. Part II Social Variables. 6. The
role of group size in predator sensitive foraging decisions for
wedge-capped capuchin monkeys (Cebus olivaceus) L. E.
Miller; 7. Group size effects on predation sensitive foraging
in wild ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) M. E. Sauther;
8. Species differences in feeding in Milne Edwards' sifakas
(Propithecus diadema edwardsi), rufous lemurs (Eulemur
fulvus rufus), and red-bellied lemurs (Eulemur rubriven-
ter) in southern Madagascar: Implications for predator
avoidance D. J. Overdorf, S. G. Strait & R. G. Seltzer;
9. Evidence of predator sensitive foraging and traveling in
single- and mixed-species tamarin groups P A. Garber &
J. C. Bicca-Marques; 10. Predator insensitivee foraging in
sympatric female vervets (Cercopithecus aethiops) and patas
monkeys (Erythrocebus patas): A test of ecological models of
group dispersion L. A. Isbell & K. J. Enstam; 11. Preda-
tion risk and antipredator adaptations in white-faced sakis,
Pithecia pithecia T. M. Gleason & M. A. Norconk. Part
III. Environmental Variables. 12. Foraging female baboons
exhibit similar patterns of antipredator vigilance across two
populations R. A. Hill & G. Cowlishaw; 13. Foraging and
safety in adult female blue monkeys in the Kakamega Forest,
Kenya M. Cords; 14. Predicting predation risk for forag-
ing, arboreal monkeys A. Treves; 15. Predator sensitive
foraging in ateline primates -A. Di Fiore; 16. Antipredatory
behavior in gibbons (Hylobates lar, Khao Yai / Thailand)
- N. L. Uhde & V. Sommer. Available from: Cambridge
University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-
4211, USA, Tel: 1-800-872-7423, Fax: 914-937-4712,
e-mail: . Web site: //www.cambridge.org>.

Infanticide by Males and Its Implications, edited by Carel P.
van Schaik and Charles H. Janson, 2002. Cambridge Uni-
versity Press, Cambridge UK. 584pp. ISBN 0 521 77295
8 (hardback), 0 521 77498 5 (paperback). Price: 80.00
(hardback), 29.95 (paperback). Male primates, carnivores
and rodents sometimes kill infants that they did not sire.
Is this bizarre behavior a pathological aberration, or does
it instead reflect an adaptive strategy for males in certain
circumstances? In this unique comparative study of the
dark side of social relationships, particularly in primates,
including humans, the extent to which social organization
and reproductive behavior reflect evolved countermeasures
against the threat of infanticide is explored. Contentsr Fore-
word S. B. Hrdy; Preface C. P. van Schaik & C. Janson;
Part I Introduction: 1. The holy wars against infanticide:
Which side are you on and why? V. Sommer; 2. Infan-
ticide by male primates: The sexual selection hypothesis
revisited C. P van Schaik; 3. Vulnerability to infanticide
by males: Patterns among mammals C. P. van Schaik; Part
II. Infanticide by Males: Case Studiesr 4. Infanticide in red
howlers: Female group size, male composition and a pos-
sible link to folivory C. M. Crockett & C. H. Janson; 5.
Infanticide in Hanuman langurs: Social organization, male
migration and weaning age C. Borries & A. Koenig; 6.
Male infanticide and defense of infants in Chacma baboons
- R. A. Palombit, D. L. Cheney, J. Fischer, S. Johnson, D.
Rendall, R. M. Seyfarth & J. B. Silk; 7. Infanticide by males
and female choice in wild Thomas's Langurs R. Steenbeek;
8. The evolution of infanticide in rodents: A comparative
analysis D. T. Blumstein; 9. Infanticide by male birds J.
P. Viega; Part III. Behavioural Consequences of Infanticide
by Males- 10. Prevention of infanticide: The perspective of
infant primates A. Treves; 11. Infanticide and the evolu-
tion of male-female bonds in animals R. A. Palombit; 12.
The other side of the coin: Infanticide and the evolution of
affiliative male-infant interactions in Old World primates
- A. Paul, S. Preuschoft & C. P van Schaik; 13. Female
dispersal and infanticide avoidance in primates E. H. M.
Sterck and A. H. Korstjens; 14. Reproductive patterns in
eutherian mammals: Adaptations against infanticide M.
A. van Noordwijk & C. P van Schaik; 15. Paternity confu-
sion and the ovarian cycles of female primates C. P. van
Schaik, J. K. Hodges & C. L. Nunn; 16. Social evolution in
primates: The relative roles of ecology and intersexual con-
flict C. L. Nunn & C. P. van Schaik; Part IV. Infanticide
by Females- 17. Infanticide by female mammals: Implica-
tions for the evolution of social systems L. Digby; 18.
'The hate that love generated' sexually selected neglect of
one's own offspring in humans E. Voland & P Stephan;
Part V Conclusion: 19. The behavioral ecology of infanti-
cide C. H. Janson and C. P. van Schaik. Available from:
Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New
York, NY 10011-4211, USA, Tel: 1-800-872-7423, Fax:
914-937-4712, e-mail: .
Web site: .

Primate Dentition: An Introduction to the Teeth of Non-
human Primates, by Daris R. Swindler, 2002. Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, UK. Price: 55.00. ISBN:

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002

0 521 65289 8. 312pp. Primate dentitions vary widely
both between genera and between species within a genus.
This book is a comparative dental anatomy of the teeth of
living non-human primates that brings together informa-
tion from many disciplines to present the most useful and
comprehensive database possible in one consolidated text.
The core of the book consists of comparative morphologi-
cal and metrical descriptions with analyses, reference tables
and illustrations of the permanent dentitions of 85 living
primate species to establish a baseline for future investiga-
tions. The book also includes information on dental micro-
structure and its importance in understanding taxonomic
relationships between species, data on deciduous denti-
tions, prenatal dental development and ontogenetic pro-
cesses, and material to aid age estimation and life history
studies. Primate Dentition will be an important reference
work for researchers in primatology, dental and physical
anthropology, comparative anatomy and dentistry as well
as vertebrate paleontology and veterinary science. Contents:
Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Dental anatomy; 3. Dental
development; 4. The deciduous dentition; 5. Superfamily
Lemuroidea; 6. Family Cebidae; 7. Family Cercopitheci-
dae; 8. Hylobatidae; 9. Pongidae; Odontometric appendix;
Dental eruption appendix; Glossary. Available from: Cam-
bridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York,
NY 10011-4211, USA, Tel: 1-800-872-7423, Fax: 914-
937-4712, e-mail: . Web
site: .


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Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002

Rodrigues, F. H. G., Silveira, L., Jacomo, A. T. A.,
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Tejedor, M. F. 2002. Primate canines from the early
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Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002

of FSH levels in natural cycles, prostaglandin F-2 alpha-
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Selected abstracts from the American Journal of Physi-
calAnthropology 34 (suppl.) 2002.
Ackermann, R. R. What can morphological variation tell us
about phylogenetic divergence, p.35.
Bezanson, M., Garber, P. A., Rutherford, J. & Cleveland,
A. Patterns of subgrouping, social affiliation and social
networks in Nicaraguan mantled howler monkeys
(Alouatta palliata), p.44.
Bicca-Marques, J. C. & Garber, P. A. The use of visual,
olfactory, and spatial information during foraging in wild
nocturnal and diurnal anthropoids: A comparison among
Aotus, ( .... and Saguinus, p.45.
Boinski, S. Does group size reflect a trade-off between
predation risk and within-group food competition? p.46.
Bossuyt, E Natal dispersal of titi monkeys (( ....
moloch) at Cocha Cashu, Manu National Park, Peru,
Campbell, C. The influence of a large home range on the
social structure of free ranging spider monkeys (Ateles
..nrr .., i on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, pp.51-52.
Clarke, M. R. & Glander, K. Female immigration patterns
in mantled howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata) on La
Pacifica, Guanacaste, Costa Rica, p.54.
Collins, A. Identification of species specific, maternal
lineage in spider monkeys, p.56.
Cunningham, E., Swartz, K. & Janson, C. Experimental
evidence of long-term memory for resource locations in
Pithecia pithecia, p.59.
Dew, J. L. How specialized are ripe fruit specialists? Dietary
selection in the face of sympatric competitors and shifting
fruit abundance, p.63.
Di Fiore, A. Molecular perspectives on dispersal in lowland
woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotrichapoeppigii), p.63.
Ford, S. M. Biogeography of platyrrhine communities
across the northern tier of South America, p.71.
Garber, P. A. & Brown, E. Experimental field study of tool
use in wild capuchins (Cebus capucinus): Learning by
association or insight? pp.74-75.
Goldberg, A., Wildman, D., Schmidt, T., Huttemann, M.,
Goodman, M., Weiss, M. & Grossman, L. COX8H is
expressed in strepsirrhine and platyrrhine primates, but
not in humans, pp.76-77.

Grafton, B. & Norconk, M. Spatial and genetic
differentiation in an isolated tropical tree population:
Reconstructing primate seed dispersal, pp.77-78.
Hanna, J. & Schmitt, D. Galloping kinetics of primates
vs. non-primates: Implications for understanding primate
locomotor evolution, pp.81-82.
Jack, K. & Fedigan, L. Life history of male white-faced
capuchins (Cebus capucinus), Santa Rosa National Park,
Costa Rica, p.89.
Kostrub, C. Inter-group variation in ranging patterns in
golden-mantled tamarins, Saguinus tripartitus, p.97.
Kowaleski, M., Alvarez, C., Pereyra, D., Violi, E. &
Zunino, G. A preliminary study of positional behavior in
Alouatta caraya in northern Argentina, p.97.
Meltz, K. Effect of ecological conditions on the daily
activity budget of adult male mantled howler monkeys
(Alouattapalliata) living in a forest fragment at Bocas del
Toro Province, Republic of Panama, p.112.
Mitchell, K., Floyd, J. & Winkler, L. Adaptive strategies
and resource utilization of the mantled howling monkey
(Alouattapalliata) in a small forest fragment in Nicaragua,
Newell, E. A. & Guatelli-Steinberg, D. Distribution of
linear enamel hypoplasia in Ceboidea, p.118.
O'Malley, R. & Fedigan, L. Variation in foraging and food
processing techniques among white-faced capuchins
(Cebus capucinus) in Santa Rosa National Park, Costa
Rica, pp.119-120.
Panger, M. What does an ability to use tools tell us about
'cognition'? p.122.
Raichlem, D. E & Shapiro, L. Swing phase and the use of
diagonal sequence gait in primates, pp. 128-129.
Smith, T., Burrows, A., Dumont, E. & Bonar, C. Gross,
histological and CT scan investigation of the maxillary-
pre-maxillary suture and upper incisors in primates,
Suarez, S. The response of white-bellied spider monkeys to
the vocalizations of sympatric frugivores, p. 151.
Welker, B. Patterns of use in leaf source species by mantled
howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata), p.163.
Williams-Guillen, K. & McCann, C. M. Ranging behavior
of Nicaraguan howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata) as
evidence for within group competition, p.166.
Winkler, L. A., Janney, E., Peter, G., Sohn, R. & Croskey,
J. A comparison of fission-fusion patterns in two
communities of mantled howling monkeys (Alouatta
palliata), p. 167.

Selected abstracts from the 13'h Annual Meeting of
La Soci6t6 Francophone de Primatologie. In: Folia
Primatologica 73(2-3), 2002.
Bordier, M., Barnaud, A., Bourreau, E. & Contamin, H.
Epidemic due to Klebsiella pneumoniae in a colony of
squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), p.151.
Couette, S. Quantitative characterisation of the cranial
development in Cebus 7j,.//1, and Alouatta seniculus
(Primates, Platyrrhini): The contribution of geometrical
morphometric studies, pp.152-153.

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002

Loget, 0. The marmoset ( .- jacchus) in drug safety
studies, p.158.

Selected abstracts from the 25' Annual Meeting of the
American Society of Primatologists, Oklahoma City,
1-4 June, 2002, in: American Journal of Primatology
57(suppl. 1), 2002.
Baker, A, J. & Dietz, J. M. Natal dispersal in golden lion
tamarins, p.34.
Bales, K. Maternal care in wild golden lion tamarins
(Leontopithecus rosalia): from first solid food through
weaning, p.57.
Bentley-Condit, V. K. Workshop: Teaching the
undergraduate primate course: Tips, techniques and
strategies, pp.32-33.
Bernstein, I. The study of things I have never seen, pp.22-
Brosnan, S. F. & de Waal, F. B. Social learning about value
in brown capuchin monkeys, Cebus ,I//ll, pp.79-80.
Burns, J. L. & Koenig, A. Female dominance relationships
and hierarchies: A cross taxa comparison, p.24.
Buzzell, C. A. & Norconk, M. A. Strange and familiar
scents: Responses to conspecific scents in captive white-
faced sakis (Pitheciapithecia), pp.71-72.
Caine, N. G., Surridge, A. K. & Mundy, N. I. Dichromatic
and trichromatic marmosets (( .-'. P :...rr ..i i differ in
relative foraging ability for red-green color-camouflaged
and non-camouflaged food, p.73.
Clarke, M. A. & Teaford, M. F. Preliminary study on
hormone measurements in dried feces of free-ranging
howling monkeys (Alouattapalliata) in Costa Rica, p.67.
Evans, T. A., Judge, P. G., Holzworth, C. L. & Vyas, D.
K. Judging relative numerousness in captive capuchin
monkeys (Cebus j,/c'I/i), p.62.
Feged, A., Wolovich, C. & Evans, S. Food sharing in owl
monkeys, p.26
Fite, J. E., Patera, K. J., French, J. A., Hopkins, E. C.,
Rukstalis, M. & Ross, C. N. Sleep, nighttime behavior,
and infant care in marmosets (( .-' kuhlii), pp.56.
French, J. A. & Charlin, L. Food sharing with offspring
varies by sex and food quality in marmosets, pp. 25-26.
Grafton, B. W., Norconk, M. A. & Raghanti, M. A. Seed
dispersal by the white-faced saki (Pithecia pithecia), a
neotropical seed predator, p.42.
Hankerson, S. J., Short, K., Bachand, K. & Caine, N. G.
The alarm reactions of neighboring groups have long
term effects on marmosets, pp.75-76.
Kinnally, E. L. & French, J. A. Serotonergic function and
social behavior in Wied's black tufted-ear marmosets
(C .- kuhlii), pp.26-27.
Kovacovsky, S. Proximity patterns of adult female mantled
howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata): Evidence for female
bonding, pp.24-25.
Kyes, R. International primate programs: Considerations
and challenges of working in habitat countries, p.58.
Marsh, L. Wild zoos: Endangered primate survival in
fragmented tropical forests, p.36.
Miller, L. Is there life during graduate school? A roundtable
discussion on how to survive the challenges of higher

education (sponsored by the ASP Education Committee),
Miller, L. Bringing primatology into the classroom: A
workshop for K-12 teachers (sponsored by the ASP
Education Committee), p.85.
Norconk, M. A., Grafton, B. W. & Parolin, P. A
comparative study of edge effects on stem survival, plant
species diversity, and primate feeding trees in Lago Guri,
Venezuela, pp.35-36.
Porter, L. M. Habituation of wild Goeldi's monkeys
(Callimico goeldii) at San Sebastian, Departamento
Pando, Bolivia, p.80.
Phillips, L. M., Shauver Goodchild, L. M., Haas, M. E. &
Petro, S. What sensory cues do capuchins use to locate
embedded invertebrates? pp.73-74.
Raboy, B. E. & Dietz, J. M. Habitat use by golden-headed
lion tamarins in Bahia, Brazil, pp.34-35.
Raghanti, M. A., Phillips, K. A., Norconk, M. A. &
Marcinkiewicz, J. L. Brown capuchins (Cebus i'c'//i) and
salivary cortisol: Response to isolation and correlations
with dominance, p.43
Ribeiro, C. T., Andrade, M. R., Silva, V. E, Molinaro, E.
M., Goncalves, M. B., Marques, M. A., Cabello, P. &
Leite, J. P. Biologic data of non-human primates held in
captivity, p.60.
Ross, C. N., Orti, G. & French, J. A. Genetic chimerism in
callitrichids ((C .- kuhlii), p.77.
Rukstalis, M., Fite, J. E. & French, J. A. Social context
affects vocal structure in a callitrichid primate (C
kuhlii), p.69.
Sackett, G. & Ruppenthal, G. Workshop on nursery rearing
of nonhuman primates in the 21 t Century, p.22.
Savage, A. Proyecto Titi: A multidisciplinary approach to
the conservation of the cotton-top tamarin in Colombia,
Schapiro, S. J. Characteristics of the membership of the
American Society of Primatologists: 2001, p.61.
Spurlock, L. B. Behavior and reproductive physiology of
captive pygmy marmoset daughters, pp.37-38.
Stevenson, P. R. Weak relationships between dominance
and foraging efficiency in Colombian woolly monkeys
(Lagothrix lagothricha) at Tinigua Park, p.68.
Stoinski, T. S., Allard, S. & Beck, B. B. Seasonal differences
in the behavior of golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus
rosalia rosalia), p.75.
Suarez, S. A. Behavioral ecology of the white-bellied spider
monkey (Ateles belzebuth belzebuth) in eastern Ecuador,
Tardif, S. D., Smucny, D. A. & Layne, D. G. Can marmoset
mothers count to three? Effect of litter size on mother
infant interactions, p.53.
Villers, L. What is an SSP? pp.38.
Williams, L. & Gibson, S. Neurobehavioral assessment of
nursery reared infant squirrel monkeys, pp.57-58.
Zucker, E., Clarke, M. & Glander, K. Habitat mediates
relationships between age and interbirth intervals
in Costa Rican mantled howling monkeys (Alouatta
palliata), p.33.

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002

Selected abstracts from: Abstracts XIXth Congress of
the International Primatological Society "Caring for
Primates", Beijing, China, 4-9 August, 2002, Mamm-
alogical Society of China, Institute of Zoology, Chinese
Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China, 2002, 376pp.
Adessi, E. & Visalberghi, E. Acceptance of novel foods in
tufted capuchin monkeys: The role of social influences,
Aguiar, J. M. & Lacher, Jr., T. E. Patterns of morphological
variation in the genus ( .-'. in relation to landforms
and protected areas, pp.298-299.
Bassett, L., McKinley, J., Buchanan-Smith, H. M. & Smith,
T. E. Effects of training in relation to welfare and coping
with routine husbandry procedures, pp.184-185.
Bicca-Marques, J. C., Garber, P. A. & Azevedo-Lopes, M.
A. de 0. Individual foraging strategies in free-ranging
groups of emperor and saddle-back tamarins (Saguinus
imperator and S. fuscicollis) under changing feeding patch
quality, p.91.
Bbhm, J., Martin, F & Niemitz, C. Grasping for different
sized food: Unexpected hand preferences of captive Cebus
nigrivittatus, pp.331-332.
Boubli, J. P. Primary productivity, floristics and primate
community structure: A contrast between vdrzea and
white-sand soil forests of Amazonas, Brazil, pp.306-307.
Bowman, K. Can conservation values be understood and
nurtured cross culturally, pp.138-139.
Box, H. 0. Female priority to food an assessment of
evidence, pp.90-91.
Box, H. 0. & Yamamoto, M. E. Sex differences in
marmosets and tamarins (callitrichines), p.89.
Buchanan-Smith, H. M., Smith, A. C., Surridge, A. K.,
Prescott, M. J., Osorio, D. & Mundy, N. I. The effect of
colour vision phenotype on foraging success in tamarins
(Saguinus spp.), pp.245-246.
Carretero P., X. &Ahumada, J. P. Asociaci6n Saimirisciureus
Cebus ,pc/'/l en La Macarena, Colombia, p.322.
Davis, N., Smith, T. E. & Schaffner, C. M. The impact
of zoo visitors on hormonal indices of stress in spider
monkeys (Ateles ..-rr .., fusciceps), p.65.
Deputte, B. L. Intermodal equivalence of visual and
acoustical information in primates in relation to the
emergence of language, p.157.
De Ruiter, J. R. Genetics in primatology: Elucidating
evolution and behavior, pp.4-5.
De Ruiter, J. R. & Ming Li. Molecular ecology and social
structure, p.106.
De Ruiter, J. R. & Ming Li. Molecular genetic techniques
and related statistics to study primate populations,
Dittwald, L., Matzke, 0., Martin, F & Niemitz, C. Lateral
preferences of the prehensile tail of Ateles paniscus in
locomotion and positional behaviour, pp.327-328.
Dixson, A. E Sexual selection and the evolution of
reproductive anatomy, physiology, and behavior, pp.3-4.
Feistner, A. & Hill, D. Promoting primate conservation -
The Conservation Working Party of PSGB, pp.343-344.

Feistner, A., Durbin, J., Rakotoniana, J. & Lewis, R.
Developing multi-disciplinary capacity for species-led
primate conservation, pp.76-77.
Ferreira, R., Lee, P. & Izar, P. Alpha female death:
Implications on social dynamics of a Cebus ,a'i'c// group,
Fragaszy, D., Landau, K. & Leighty, K. Inducing traditions
in captive capuchins: Part I, pp.317-318.
Fuentes, A. & Wolfe, L. Human and nonhuman primate
interconnections: Evolution, commensalism and conflict,
Garcia, S. Adult play fighting in howler monkey males
(Alouatta palliata mexicana), p.210.
Groves, C. P. The what, why and how of primate taxonomy,
Hiramatsu, C., Takenaka, 0., Saito, A. & Kawamura, S.
Color-vision typing of new World monkeys by examining
DNA from fecal samples, pp.358-359.
Hladik, C. M. The evolution of primate taste sensitivity,
Hosey, G. The role of theory in understanding captive
primate behaviour, pp.63-64.
Houle, A. Tree-climbing strategies and ecological methods
for estimating fruit bioproductivity and quality, patch
depletion and foraging efficiency, p.102.
Houle, A. & Grundmann, E. Canopy biology, tree-
climbing strategies and primate ecology, p. 101.
Jones-Engel, L. & Wallis, J. Bi-directional pathogen
transmission between humans and wild non-human
primates: Implications for primate conservation and
human health, p.57.
Jiirgens, U. & Wienicke, A. Psychoacoustic measurements
in the squirrel monkey, p.364.
Kahan, J., Becker, M. & Brown, C. Gross anatomy and
histology of the squirrel monkey vocal tract, pp.359-360.
Kaplan, G. & Rogers, L. J. Headcocking as a form of
exploration in the common marmoset (C .-'. jacchus
jacchus), pp.239-240.
Kawamura, S., Hirai, M., Takenaka, N., Hiramatsu, C.,
Radlwimmer, E B., Yokoyama, S. & Takenaka, 0. Y-
chromosomal red-green visual pigment genes of nocturnal
New World monkey, Aotus trivirgatus, p.295.
Kholkute, S. & Puri, C. Effects of antiprogestin lilopristone
on implantation, early pregnancy, and mid-pregnancy
and its mode of action in common marmosets, p.276.
Kirkpatrick, R. C. Conservation, trade and primates,
Kirkpatrick, R. C., Rose, A. & Boonratana, R. The global
trade in primates, p.135.
Knapp, L. A. Primate molecular systematics and
conservation genetics, pp.45-46.
Konstant, W. R. Support for primate conservation
priorities, p.13.
Konstant, W. R. Conservation International's Primate
Action Fund: Small-scale projects with long-term
benefits, p.78.
Lau, J. & Ryder, 0. A. Characterization of microsatellite
loci in the owl monkey (Aotus), p.344.

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002

Laule, G. E., Bloomsmith, M. A. & Schapiro, S. J. The use
of positive reinforcement training techniques to enhance
the care, management, and welfare of laboratory primates,
Link, A. Cost and behavioral effects of breeding twins
in free-ranging Ateles belzebuth belzebuth in Colombia,
Magaldi-Lara, P., Romero-Callejas, E., Garcia-Ordufia, E,
Canales-Espinosa, D. Presence of Trypanoxyuris spp. and
Strongyloides spp. in wild population of spider monkey
(Ateles ..-rr ..i vellerosus) and howler monkey (Alouatta
palliata mexicana) in the Santa Marta, Los Tuxtlas,
Veracruz forest, p.310.
Martin, E & Niemitz, C. Preliminary 3D-kinematics of
prehensile tail movements in a captive Ateles ...rr ..
during locomotion, p.243.
Martinez-Contreras, J. & P&rez-Ruiz, A. L. Problems on
identification of primate species and varieties in early
history of primatology, p.363.
McCann, C. & Taylor, S. Primates in peril: Captive
primates in situ, p.162.
McKinley, J., Buchanan-Smith, H. M. & Morris, K.
Training common marmosets (( .-'. jacchus) to co-
operate during routine laboratory procedures: Reliability
and time investment, pp.183-184.
Melfi, V. The appliance of science to the lives of zoo-housed
primates, pp.62-63.
Melfi, V. & Hosey, G. Primates in zoos: Integrating welfare
and conservation, p.62.
Mittermeier, R. A. Primate conservation in the first decade
of the 21st Century, p.3.
Mittermeier, R. A., Konstant, W. R. & Rylands, A. B.
Priorities for primate conservation in the first decade of
the 21st Century, p.7.
Moura, A. C. de A. Tool use by wild groups of Cebus ,,rc//,t
libidinosus living in the dry caatinga forest of northeastern
Brazil, pp.244-245.
Panger, M. & Perry, S. The role of social influences on
cross-site differences in food processing techniques used
by free-ranging white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus)
in Costa Rica, p.156.
Perez-Ruiz, A. L. & Mondrag6n-Ceballos, R. Variations
in the affiliative behavior between males in a community
of spider monkeys (Ateles .. r ..r I in the Montes Azules
Reserve, Mexico, pp.214-215.
Pines, M. K., Kaplan, G. & Rogers, L. J. Comparison
of behaviour changes and cortisol levels of common
marmosets ((C .- jacchus jacchus) to indoor and
outdoor enclosures, p.267.
Prescott, M. J. Ideal goals for training of laboratory
personnel to work with primates, p.185.
Prescott, M. J. & Buchanan-Smith, H. M. Training
primates, p.180.
Resende, B. D. & Ottoni, E. B. Ontogeny of nutcracking
behavior in a semifree-ranging group of tufted capuchin
monkeys, pp.319-320.
Riviello, M. C. & Wirz, A. Reproductive management of
captive Cebus ,''//i: The effect of Medroxyprogesterone

acetate (Depo-Provera) on the weight and on several
haematological parameters, p.351.
Rodas, A. Z., Canales, D., Diaz, V., Brousset, D., Campos,
G., Flores, H., Esquivel, C. & Swanson, W. F Evaluation
of testicular function and seasonality in captive black-
handed spider monkeys (Ateles .-rr ..i vellerosus), p.348.
Rogers, L. J., Pines, M. & Kaplan, G. Cortisol levels and
fear responses differ in left- and right-handed marmosets,
C .- jacchus, p.241.
Rylands, A. B. Primate conservation in the Atlantic forest
hotspot, pp.12-13.
Saito, A., Ueno. Y., Kawamura, S. & Hasegawa, T. Adaptive
significance of trichromatic color vision among capuchin
monkeys, pp.330-331.
Savage, A. & Rasamimanana, H. Developing successful
conservation programs for primates: Field initiatives,
education programs, and influencing decision-makers,
Savage, A., Giraldo, H., LaRotta, C., Soto, L. & Garcia,
E Proyecto Titf: A successful long-term conservation
education program for the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus
oedipus), pp.79-80.
Savage, A., Giraldo, L. H., Soto, L., Garcia, E &
Rodriguez, G. M. A comparison of factors influencing
group composition, dispersal, and reproduction in wild
cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) in Colos6 and
Santa Catalina, Colombia, p.93.
Schapiro, S. J., Bloomsmith, M. A. & Laule, G. E. Positive
reinforcement training as a technique to alter non-
human primate behavior: A quantitative assessment of
effectiveness, pp.181-182.
Scott, L. A. M., Pearce, P C., Fairhall, S., Muggleton, N.
G. & Smith, J. N. Training non-human primates to co-
operate with scientific procedures in applied biomedical
research, p.183.
Shimooka, Y. Association pattern in grouping of wild spider
monkeys in La Macarena, Colombia, pp.211-212.
Snowdon, C. T. Sex differences in communication in
callitrichids, pp.89-90.
Snowdon, C. T. & Campbell, M. W. Multimodal
communication and crossmodal perception: A route to
language? p. 160.
Soltis, J., Wegner, E, Ziegler, T. & Newman, J. D. Prolactin
is positively correlated with mothering and allo-mothering
in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), pp.290-291.
Sousa, M. B. C. de, Silva, H. P. A., & Leo, A. C. Sexual
differences in behavior and fecal cortisone using the
separation paradigm in common marmosets, C
jacchus, p.94.
Spinozzi, G., De Lillo, C. & Truppa, V. The effects of
element proximity on the global and local processing of
hierarchical stimuli in tufted capuchins (Cebus ,/',la),
Stevenson, P. R. & Link, A. A new methodology to measure
fruit production in tropical forests, p.212.
Taylor, S. I. & McCann, C. Laws, guidelines and
recommendations for the care of captive primates, p. 168.
Urbani, B. Food-washing behavior by wedge-capped
capuchin monkeys (Cebus olivaceus), pp.318-319.

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002

Urquiza-Haas, T. & Serio-Silva, J. C. Nutritional
composition of Ficus perforata fruit (pulp, seeds, and
animal matter) consumed by howler monkeys (Alouatta
palliata mexicana), p.349.
Van Roosmalen, M. G. M. Conservation status of primates
in the Brazilian Amazon, pp.11-12.
Visalberghi, E. Food for thought: Experiments on social
biases on feeding behavior in tufted capuchins, p. 154.
Visalberghi, E. & Adessi, E. Food acceptance, diet selection
and feeding techniques: The role of social influences on
individual learning, p. 152.
Visalberghi, E. & NIel, C. Weight and sound are used as
cues by tufted capuchins (Cebus. ,'I//,0i to choose between
full and empty nuts, p.232.
Vitale, A., Queyras, A. & Puopolo, M. Possible effects of
different social contexts in the response to a manual task
by the common marmoset ((C .- jacchus), p.238.
Voelkl, B., Rainer, S. & Huber, L. Limited understanding
of tools in marmosets, pp.336-337.
Wallis, J. Disease transmission in the wild: Assessing our
progress and future goals, pp.60-61.
Yamamoto, M. E., Albuquerque, E da S., Guilhermina, B.,
Santos, A. C. dos & Lopes, N. de A. Differential infant
care in captive and wild common marmosets (C
jacchus), p.92.
Yamamoto, M. E., Lopes, F de A. & Leite, T. S. Effect
of removal from the family group on food ingestion in
captive ( .-' jacchus, pp.155-156.
Ziegler, T. E. Sex differences in parental hormones and
behaviors in cotton-top tamarins, pp.92-93.

Abstracts from: Livro deResumos.X oCongresso Brasileira
de Primatologia: Amazonia A iltima Fronteira. Socie-
dade Brasileira de Primatologia, Bel6m do Para, 10 a 15
de novembro de 2002. Part 1. Authors A-L.
Aguiar, L. M., Reis, R. N., Rocha, V. J. & Ludwig, G.
Area de uso de Alouatta guariba (Humboldt, 1812) no
remanescente florestal Mata Doralice, Ibipor Paranai,
Aguiar, L. M., Reis, R. N., Rocha, V. J. & Ludwig, G. Area
de uso de Cebus a.II//.r (Linnaeus, 1758) no remanescente
florestal Mata Doralice, Ibipora- ParanA, p.100.
Almeida, L. M. I., Melo, 0. D. S. & Boere, V. Observao6es
sobre o comportamento alimentar do sagiii ((
penicillata) em uma arvore de goma de mata mesofitica de
interflivio, no Jardim Botanico de Brasilia, DF, p.124.
Alonso, A. C., Pfeifer, I. & Jerusalinsky, L. Ocorrencia e
distribuigao do bugio-ruivo (Alouatta guariba clamitans)
no Morro do Osso: Implicaq6es para a conservacao,
Alves, F A., Sato, M. K., Valle, R. R. & Muniz, J. A. P.
C. Parametros de temperature corporal de um grupo da
especie Saimiri sciureus (Linnaeus, 1758), mantidos em
cativeiro, p.170.
Amaral, J. M. J., De Jong, D. & Sim6es, A. L. Uso de
iniciadores dirigidos a microssatdlites humans na
detecqao de STRS em Cebus j,r//.,i, p.156.

Aradjo, A. Volume testicular, idade e status reprodutivo
em ( .-' jacchus (Callitrichidae, Primates) selvagens,
Arruda, M. E., Aradjo, A., Sousa, M. B. C., Albuquerque,
E A., Albuquerque, A. C. S. R. & Yamamoto, M. E.
Reproducao occasional de femeas subordinadas silvestres
de ( .-' jacchus. Monogamia ou poliginia? p.129.
Azevedo, R. B. & Bicca-Marques, J. C. Termorreguladao
comportamental em Ateles chamek (Humboldt, 1812),
no Parque Zool6gico de Sapucaia do Sul, Rio Grande do
Sul, p.138.
Bardier, G. & Cardoso, N. A. Nota sobre sagiiis C
kuhlii (Primates: Callitrichidae) que habitam pragas
p6blicas no sul da Bahia, p.105.
Barnett, A. A. Trial by microphone: 20 years of working at
the science-journalism interface, p. 15.
Barnett, A. A. Preliminary observations of the golden-
backed uacari (Cacajao melanocephalus ouakary) in Jad
National Park, Amazonas, Brazil, p.23.
Barnett, A. A. & Ross, C. Metachromism and primate
taxonomy: A critical test using Neotropical Cebidae,
Belmarmino, M. G., Grelle, C. E. de V. & Vieira, M.
V. Tamanho do corpo e dieta nos generous de primates
neotropicais (Primates: Platyrrhini), p.71.
Belarmino, M. G., Grelle, C. E. de V. & Cerqueira, R.
Fatores determinantes das distribuigoes geograficas de
Alouatta caraya e Alouatta guariba (Primates: Atelidae),
Bicca-Marques, J. C. Ecologia e comportamento do bugio-
preto (Alouatta caraya), p.51.
Borges, B. N. & Harada, M. L. Filogenia dos primatas do
Novo Mundo baseada no gene nuclear FUT1, p.153.
Boubli, J. P White-sand soil forests of the Rio Negro
basin, Amazonas, Brazil, and the black uakaris (Cacajao
melanocephalus), p.24.
Boubli, J. P., Guimaraes, V. 0., Couto, F R., Mourthe, I.
M. C. & Strier, K. B. Population ecology of muriquis
(Brachyteles arachnoides hypoxanthus) at Estacao Biol6gica
de Caratinga, MG, Brazil: The Ja6 Project, p.104.
Bouer, A., Werther, K. & Machado, R. Z. Pesquisa de
anticorpos anti- Toxoplasma gondii e anti-Neospora
caninum em primatas neotropicais mantidos em cativeiro:
Comparaqao entire os testes de imunofluorescencia
indireta e Elisa, p.158.
Brito, H. 0. & Castro, C. S. S. Educaqao ambiental:
Instrumento para conservacao do sagiii ((C .- jacchus)
e do seu habitat original, a Mata Atlantica, p.93.
Bruno, S. E Sobre a presenga de Leontopithecus chrysomelas
(Primates: Callitrichidae) na Reserva Ecol6gica Darcy
Ribeiro Niter6i, RJ, p.81.
Camargo, C. C., Langguth, A. & Porfirio, S. Variaq6es
dos padres de atividades diarias do guariba, Alouatta
belzebul, de acordo com a precipitacao e ap6s intervalo de
13 anos, p.113.
Canale, G. R., Braga, A., Gondim, L. C. & Santee, D. P. A
gomivoria em ( .-' penicillata, p.122.
Canale, G. R., Gondim, L. C. & Santee, D. P. Observadao
de marcaqao esternal em ( .-' penicillata, p.94.

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002

Canale, G. R., Santee, D. P., Gondim, L., Pianta, T. F.,
Sampaio, D., Almeida, L. M., Silva, I. 0. & Boere, V.
Novos registros de ( .-'. penicillata (Callitrichidae,
Primates) na regiao sudoeste de Goias, p.74.
Cardoso, E., Pereira-da-Cruz, Souza, J. G. & Costa, C.
Comparao6es eletrocardiograficas de Alouatta guariba
clamitans e Rattus norvegicus submetidos a anestesia corn
Tiletamina/Zolazepam combinados, p.161.
Carvalho Jr., 0. Efeitos do fogo florestal nas populagoes de
primates da Amaz6nia Oriental, p.44.
Carvalho Jr., 0. Exploracao madeireira conventional e
de impact reduzido: Que diferenga isto faz para os
primates? p.79.
Carvalho, L. J. M., Alves, E A., Oliveira, S. G., Bianco,
C., Valle, R. R., Soe, S., Theisen. M., Muniz, J. A. P C.,
Druilhe, P & Daniel-Ribeiro, C. T. Immunogeneity and
efficacy of a hybrid MSP3/GLURP recombinant protein
of Plasmodium falciparum in squirrel monkeys, Saimiri
sciureus, p. 169.
Cassimiro, R. A., Freitas, N. & Aradjo, A. Influencia das
atividades diarias na utilizagao de Area de uso em grupos
de ( .- jacchus (Primates, Callitrichidae), p.125.
Castro, C. S. S. T&cnicas de germinacao utilizadas em
sementes dispersadas pelo sagiii (( .-' jacchus), num
fragmento de Mata Atlantica, p.36.
Cavalcanti, K. C. S., Lisboa, M. & Aradjo. A. Influencia do
tipo de ambiente sobre a ingestao de alimentos em grupos
de ( .- jacchus (Callithrichidae, Primates), p. 112.
Codenotti, T. L., Silveira, R. M. M., Silva, V. M.,
Albuquerque, V. J. & Camargo, E. V. Distribuigao e
densidade populacional de Alouatta caraya (Humboldt,
1812) (Primates, Atelidae) no Rio Grande do Sul, p.73.
Correa, H. K. M., Coutinho, P E. G. & Ferrari, S. E Dieta
de grupos de Mico argentatus em fragments naturals de
Alter do Chao, Santarsm, Para, p.46.
Coser, A. C., Barra, C. A. S., Siqueira-Filho, E. & Boere,
V. Biometria testicular e analise seminal em mico-ledo-
de-cara-dourada (Leontopithecus chrysomelas) criado em
cativeiro, p. 173.
Costa, C. G., Ferrari, S. E & Strier, K. B. As dinamicas
das relagoes sociossexuais no mono-carvoeiro (Brachyteles
arachnoides Geoffroy 1806), na Estagao Biol6gica de
Caratinga, Minas Gerais, p.65.
Cunha, F A. & Ferrari, S. F Ecologia comportamental
de um grupo de macaco-de-cheiro (Saimiri sciureus,
Playtrrhini, Cebidae) em ambiente semi-natural Jardim
BotInico Bosque Rodrigues Alves, Belkm, Para, p.116.
Dias, L G. & Strier, K. B. Efeito do tamanho de grupo
no padrao de deslocamento de Brachyteles arachnoides
hypoxanthus, p.126.
Dornelles, S. S. & Pires, J. S. R. Densidade populacional de
tries esp&cies de primates nas Estao6es Ecol6gica de Jataf e
Experimental de Luiz Antonio, Sao Paulo, p.91.
Dudeque, M. C., Pereira, T. S., Hirano, Z. M. B. & Robl, E
Interacao mae-filhote em dois grupos de bugios Alouatta
guariba (Humboldt, 1812) em ambiente natural, p. 137.
Erbesdobler, E. D., Ruiz-Miranda, C. R. & Scardua, S.
S. Habilidade de manuseio do alimento pelo mico-ledo-

dourado (Leontopthecus rosalia) na Reserva Biol6gica
Uniao RJ, p.111.
Faulkes, C. G., Arruda, M. E & Monteiro da Cruz, M. A.
0. Genetic structure within and among populations of
the cooperatively breeding common marmoset, C
jacchus, p.30.
Ferrari, S. E, Iwanaga, S., Ravetta, A. L, Freitas, E C.,
Sousa, B. A. R., Souza, L. L., Costa, C. G. & Coutinho,
P. E. G. Dinamica de comunidades de primatas frente a
fragmentacao antr6pica de habitat ao long da rodovia
Santardm-Cuiaba, na Amazonia Central, p.45.
Ferrari, S. F, Pereira, W., Santos, R. R. & Viega, L. M.
Ataque fatal de uma jib6ia (Boa sp.) em um cuxid
(Chiropotes satanas utahicki), p.66.
Fogaca, P. D. & Prado, P. I. Conhecimento sobre o muriqui
(Brachyteles arachnoides) pela populacao entorno do
Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho SP, p.77.
Freitas, C. H., Gobbi, N., Aradjo, A. R. B. & Setz, E. Z.
F Dieta do macaco-prego (Cebus .'i//,) em fragments
e corredores de mata ciliar no nordeste do estado de Sao
Paulo, p. 117.
Galvao, 0. E Uma abordagem para estudo de cognicao em
primatas nao-humanos, p.16.
Godoy, K. C. I., Odilia-Rimoli, A. & Rimoli, J. Primeiras
informao6es sobre infestacao por endoparasitas em grupo
de bugios-pretos (Alouatta caraya (Humboldt, 1812);
Primates, Atelinae) no estado de Mato Grosso do Sul,
Gomes, D. E. & Bicca-Marques, J. C. Reproducao de Cebus
,.c/' l/ em cativeiro no Brasil ao long de um gradiente
latitudinal, p.160.
Goncalves, E. C., Ferrari, S. F, Menezes, E. V., Silva, A.
& Schneider, M. P. C. Impacto na diversidade gen&tica
e viabilidade a long prazo de populao6es de Alouatta
belzebul (Primates, Platyrrhini): Uma analise ap6s 17
anos da construcao da Usina Hidrelktrica de Tucuruf
(Para), p.31.
Gondim, L. C., Alvarenga, A. B. B., Canale, G. R., Santee,
D. P. & Mendes, E D. C. Gomivoria em imaturos de
( .-' penicillata, p.110.
Gordo, M. Estudos de ecologia e gen&tica para a conservagao
do macaco Saguinus bicolor, p.43.
Grativol, A. & Cooper, A. DNA antigo e gen&tica da
conservagao do mico-ledo-dourado (Leontopithecus
rosalia), p.29.
Guedes, P. G. & Filgueiras, M. S. Anilise da seqiiencia de
erupcao dos dentes definitivos em Cebus (Platyrrhini,
Primates), p.175.
Guedes, P. G. & Salles, L. 0. Morfologia dentaria dos
primatas do Novo Mundo e o status filogen&tico
de Caipora bambuiorum e Protopithecus brasiliensis
(Platyrrhini, Primates), p. 164.
Hirano, Z. M. B. & Ferreira dos Santos, W. Secregao
epid&rmica colorida em Alouatta guariba clamitans,
Hirano, Z. M. B., Ferreira dos Santos, W., Tramonti, R.
& Rodrigues, R. B. GlIndula epid&rmica de Alouatta
guariba clamitans, p. 176.

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002

Hirano, Z. M. B., Robl, E & Bruning Silva, M. Introdugao
de folhas da flora silvestre brasileira na dieta dos bugios
rufvos (Alouattaguariba clamitans) mantidos em cativeiro
no Centro de Pesquisas Biol6gicas de Indaial SC,
Hirano, Z. M. B., Robl, E, Moser, A., Martins-Silveira,
R., Moreira, D. L., Guilherme, M. S., Leitao, G. G. &
Leitao, S. G. Influencia de metab61litos secundarios na
escolha de especies vegetais por Alouatta guariba clamitans
em cativeiro, p. 118.
Hirano, Z. M. B., Theis, P. & Robl, E Posturas adotadas
por um casal de bugios reintroduzidos, durante suas
atividades diarias, p.109.
Hirano, Z. M. B., Theis, P., Robl, E & Rosa, G. N. Estudo
do comportamento de um casal de bugios (Alouatta
guariba clamitans) reintroduzidos no Parque Sao Francisco
de Assis Blumenau, p.114.
Hirsch, A., Dias, L. G., Martins, L. de 0., Campos, R.
F, Landau, E. C. & Resende, N. A. T. BDGEOPRIM
database of georeferenced localities of Neotropical
primates: Structure and use, p.20.
Iwanaga, S., Durigan, C. C., Borges, S. H. & Silva Jr., J. S.
Resultados preliminares sobre a diversidade e abundancia
de primatas diurnos no Parque Nacional do Jad, estado do
Amazonas, Brasil, p.54.
Izar, P. Ecologia de Cebus j,/'I,, em duas areas de Mata
Atlantica, Parque Estadual Intervales e Parque Estadual
Carlos Botelho, SP, p.34.
Izar, P. Dispersao de sementes por Cebus ,7/,'',r e Brachyteles
arachnoides em area de Mata Atlantica, Parque Estadual
Intervales, SP, p.38.
Jerusalinsky, L., Bonatto, S. L. & Freitas, T. R. 0. Aspectos
evolutivos de Alouatta guariba por diversidade em
seqiiencias do DNA mitochondrial e suas conseqiu ncias
para a conservagao da esp&cie, p. 151.
Laroque, P., Porffrio, S. & Oliveira, M. M. Adaptagao
de rAdio transmissor para macho de Alouatta belzebul,
Lima, E. M. Ecologia do macaco-de-cheiro (Saimiri
sciureus) na Amaz6nia Oriental, p.42.
Lima, E. M. & Ferrari, S. E Dinamica social em um grupo
silvestre de macacos-de-cheiro (Saimiri sciureus) na
Amazonia Oriental, p.97.
Lira, R. E., Bellini, B. C., Carreiro Jr., E. P & Silva Neto,
E. J. Analise morfom&trica de intestinos em cinco generos
de primatas neotropicais (Alouatta, Callicebus, C
Cebus e Leontopithecus), p.177.
Lira, R. E., Bellini, B. C., Carreiro Jr., E. P & Silva Neto,
E. J. Estudo comparative de figado em cinco generos de
primatas neotropicais (Alouatta, Callicebus, C
Cebus e Leontopithecus), p.178.
Lopes, M. A. 0 estudo da dispersao de sementes e de seus
efeitos na estrutura de populagoes e comunidades vegetais:
Avangos recentes e perspectives futuras, p.40.
Ludwig, G., Reis, R. N., Rocha, V. J. & Aguiar, L. M.
Dieta sazonal de Cebus, 7.,,IIl (Linnaeus, 1758) (Primates,
Mammalia) no remanescente florestal Mata Doralice,
Ibipora- Parana, p.99.

Ludwig, G., Reis, R. N., Rocha, V. J. & Aguiar, L. M. Dieta
sazonal de Alouatta guariba (Humboldt, 1812) (Primates,
Mammalia) na Mata Doralice, Ibipora- ParanA, p.101.

Primer Congreso Mesoamericano de Areas Protegi-
das, 10 al 14 de marzo del 2003, Hotel Intercontinental,
Centro de Convenciones, Managua, Nicaragua. Objetivos:
Actualizar y dar a conocer el estado actual de manejo de
los sistemas nacionales de Areas protegidas de Mesoam&rica;
proporcionar a los gobiernos e instituciones administra-
doras de Areas protegidas de la Regi6n, una plataforma de
diAlogo y posicionamiento para el Congreso Mundial de
Parques; sensibilizar a la opinion p6blica y a los tomadores
de decision, acerca de la importancia de las Areas protegidas
como instrument para el desarrollo social y econ6mico
de la region; definir mecanismos de cooperaci6n regional
e international que contribuyan al fortalecimiento de la
gesti6n de las Areas protegidas. Informaciones- Comit6
Organizador Primer Congreso Mesoamericano de Areas
Protegidas, Ministerio del Ambiente y los Recurso Natu-
rales MARENA, Km. 121/2 Carretera Norte. Managua,
Nicaragua, Tel: (505) 2 33 00 78, Fax: (505) 2 33 00 78,
e-mail: .

Primer Congreso Internacional de Conservaci6n de
Vida Silvestre, 19-22 de marzo de 2003, Hotel Dann Carl-
ton, Medellin, Colombia. Organizadores: Departamento
Administrative del Medio Ambiente de Antioquia, La
Fundaci6n Ecolombia, Corantioquia, el Area Metropoli-
tana de Medellin, la Universidad de Antioquia, el Jardfn
Botanico, el Wildlife Center of Virginia y el Zool6gico
Santa F6. Areas TemAticas: Rehabilitaci6n y restauraci6n,
Conservaci6n, Participaci6n y educaci6n en la conserva-
ci6n, Sociedad y conservaci6n, Estrategias financiers para
la conservaci6n, Desarrollo Sostenible y Conservaci6n.
Algunos de los conferencistas son: Philippe Cousteau (Con-
servaci6n de ecosistemas marines); Anne Savage (Proyecto
Titf), y Juan Mayr (Ex-ministro del Medio Ambiente La
guerra y sus efectos en la conservaci6n). Para obtener mayor
informaci6n: e-mail: .

Student Conference on Conservation Science, 26 28
March, 2003, Conservation Biology Group, Department
of Zoology, University of Cambridge. "Building links
among young conservation scientists and practitioners".
Plenary lectures: Elizabeth Bennett (Wildlife Conserva-
tion Society), Andrew P. Dobson (Princeton University),
Bob Pressey (New South Wales National Parks and
Wildlife Service) and Achim Steiner (Director-General,
IUCN World Conservation Union). Web site: //www.zoo.cam.ac.uk/sccs/index.html>.

Primate Society of Great Britain (PSGB) Spring Meet-
ing 2003, 10-11 April, 2003, School of Psychology, Uni-
versity of St. Andrews, Fife, Scotland. Abstracts for oral

presentations, deadline: 10 January, 2003. Plenary talks
will be on Primate Cognition. Invited speakers include;
Andrew Whiten, Hannah Buchanan-Smith, Kevin Laland
and Debbie Custance. For more information: Dr. Klaus
Zuberbuhler, e-mail: , or Gillian
Brown, e-mail: .

II Congress Brasileiro de Mastozoologia, 26-29 June,
2003, Pontificia Universidade Cat61lica de Minas Gerais,
Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The second congress of the Socie-
dade Brasileira de Mastozoologia (SBMz), organized by a
team from the Museu de Ciencias Naturais at the univer-
sity, along with the Fundagao Biodiversitas, Conservation
International do Brasil, and the Federal Universities of
Vigosa and Minas Gerais. Three major areas: "Ecology,
conservation and behavior", "Systematics, morphology and
genetics", and "Biogeography, paleontology and evolution".
Offers to give mini-courses: deadline 7 February 2003.
President of the Organizing Committee: Edeltrudes M.
V. C. Camara (PUC/MG). Coordinator of the Scientific
Committee: Gisele M. L. Del Giudice (UFV). For more
information: .

17th Annual Meeting of the Society for Conservation
Biology, 28 June 2 July 2003, Duluth, Minnesota, USA.
For more Information: Kris Lund, University of Minne-
sota Duluth, Continuing Education, 251 Darland, 1049
University Drive, Duluth, MN 55812-3011, USA, Tel:
218-726-7810, Fax: 218-726-6336, e-mail: <2003@cons
ervationbiology.org>, Web site: biology. org/2003>.

4th European Congress of Mammalogy, 27 July 1
August, 2003, Brno, Czech Republic. Hosted by the Insti-
tute of Vertebrate Biology, Academy of Sciences of the
Czech Republic. Information and the pre-registration form
are available on the website . Any ques-
tions about organization should be directed to Jan Zima,
Organising Committee, e-mail: . Informa-
tion and pre-registration form available on the website: <

7th World Multi-Conference on Systemics, Cybernet-
ics and Informatics, 27-30 July, 2003, Sheraton World,
Orlando, Florida, USA. Organized by The International
Institute of Informatics and Systemics (IIIS). The emphasis
of this meeting will be Environmental Conservation Sys-
tems. Deadline: Submission of abstracts/paper drafts and
invited session proposals 18 December, 2002. Program
Committee Chair William Lesso; General Chair Nagib
Callaos, e-mail: ; Organizing
Committee Chair Belkis Sanchez. Conference Secre-
tariat, e-mail: . Web page: //www.iiisci.org/sci2003/>.

26th Meeting of the American Society of Primatolo-
gists, 30 July 2 August, 2003, hosted by the Depart-
ment of Anthropology, University of Calgary, Alberta.
Proposals for symposia, contact Marilyn Norconk, e-mail:

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002
. Deadline for abstracts: 1 March
2003. Conference materials are now available at: //www.asp.org/asp2003/index.html>.

9th Congress of the European Society for Evolutionary
Biology, 18-24 August, 2003, Leeds, UK. For more infor-
mation, website: .

28th International Ethological Conference, 20-27
August 2003, Costao do Santinho Resort, Florianopolis,
Brazil. On behalf of the International Council of Etholo-
gists and hosted by the Brazilian Society of Ethology. Dead-
line for submission of symposia: 31 January 2003. Dead-
line for submission of abstracts, financial aid applications,
and standard reduced registration rate: 20 February 2003.
For more information on the conference contact: Professor
Kleber del Claro, e-mail: , or on the sci-
entific program, contact Professor Regina Macedo, e-mail:
. Web site: home.htm>.

VI Congress de Ecologia do Brasil, 9 a 14 de novembro
de 2003, Fortaleza, Ceara. Tema: "Ecossistemas brasileiros:
manejo e conservacao". Realizaqao: Sociedade Brasileira de
Ecologia e a Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC). Doze
principals simp6sios tematicos: 1) Floresta Pluvial Tropi-
cal Amazonica, 2) Floresta Pluvial Tropical Atlantica, 3)
Floresta Temperada com Araucaria, 4) Florestas Estacio-
nais, 5) Cerrado, 6) Caatinga, 7) Complexo do Pantanal,
8) Ecossistemas Aquaticos continentais e marinhos, 9)
Biodiversidade, Unidades de Conservagao, Bioindicado-
res ambientais, 10) Ecologia da Paisagem, 11) Educadao
ambiental, 12) Ensino de Ecologia. Maiores informagoes:
, .

4t Gbttinger Freilandtage Cooperation in Primates
and Humans: Mechanisms and Evolution, 9-12 Decem-
ber 2003, an international conference hosted by the
German Primate Center (DPZ), Gbttingen, focusing on
cooperation in primates and humans. Invited speakers will
summarize and evaluate recent empirical and theoretical
work dealing with mechanisms and evolutionary conse-
quences of cooperation, including altruism, reciprocity, kin
selection, nepotism, game theory, market models, coopera-
tive hunting, cooperative breeding, food sharing, reconcili-
ation, coalitions, group selection and culture. Confirmed
invited speakers include F. Aureli, L. Barrett, C. Boesch,
B. Chapais, T. Clutton-Brock, E. Fehr, P. Hammerstein, B.
Kbnig, M. Milinski, J. Mitani, R. Noe, C. van Schaik, J.
Silk, R. Trivers and E de Waal. We cordially invite you to
submit abstracts for relevant oral (15 minute) and poster
contributions. The conference is also open to guests with-
out presentations. Deadline for submission of abstracts for
spoken papers or posters is 1 August, 2003. Guests must
also register in advance by 15 October, 2003. Additional
details available from Peter Kappeler (pkappel@gwdg.de)
and the conference web site: voe_page/GFT2003/index.htm>.

Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002 185

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Neotropical Primates 10(3), December 2002 187

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