Title: Neotropical primates
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098814/00038
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Title: Neotropical primates a newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCNSSC Primate Specialist Group
Abbreviated Title: Neotrop. primates
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
Conservation International
Center for Applied Biodiversity Science
Publisher: Conservation International
Place of Publication: Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Publication Date: April 2002
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Primates -- Periodicals -- Latin America   ( lcsh )
Primates -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Wildlife conservation -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: review   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Brazil
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Language: English, Portuguese, and Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Mar. 1993)-
Issuing Body: Issued jointly with Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, <Dec. 2004->
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General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 13, no. 1 (Apr. 2005).
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Neotropical Primates 10(1), April 2002


Jean Philippe Boubli

Presently, two species of Chiropotes are recognized:
Chiropotes albinasus and C. satanas. The latter includes
three subspecies, namely C. s. satanas, C. s. chiropotes and
C. s. utahicki (see Hershkovitz, 1985; Rylands et al., 2000;
Groves, 2001). C. albinasus is found to the south of the
Rio Amazonas between the Rios Xingu and Madeira, and
C. satanas is found to the east of the Rio Xingu, south of
the Rio Amazonas and to the east of the Rio AracA, north
of the Rio Solim6es, including most of the Guianas and
Southern Venezuela (Fig. 1).

During a long-term field study of the black-headed
uacari monkey, Cacajao melanocephalus melanocephalus, I
obtained strong evidence of bearded sakis (Chiropotes sp.)
occurring in the study area in the Pico da Neblina National
Park, Amazonas (Boubli, 1997, 1999). I first became aware
of the possibility of bearded sakis there in 1991 when I
noticed Yanomamis (the people that inhabit the park)

from Maturaca (a large Yanomami settlement and Salesian
Mission inside Pico da Neblina National Park, Fig. 2) wear-
ing decorative headpieces made from their tails. Inquiring
about the origins of the headpieces, I was told that bearded
sakis could be found throughout the national park. They
were, however, also reported to be rare in most areas of the
park, although relatively more abundant to the east of the
Rio Marauia, which marks the eastern limit of Pico da Neb-
lina National Park (Fig. 1). The Yanomamis I interviewed
said that although bearded sakis could be seen in monospe-
cific groups, they were more often found in mixed-species
aggregations with black-headed uacaris.

The presence of bearded sakis in the Pico da Neblina
National Park was confirmed on 23 May 1995, when my
two field assistants (locals from Sao Gabriel da Cachoeira,
Fig. 2) observed a single female carrying an infant within
my study site (marked as "Camp" in Fig. 2). I have since
carried out three surveys to locate bearded sakis in the
park. The first two were conducted in the Pico da Neblina
mountain range and then along the Rio Cauaburi (Septem-
ber 1995 and July 2001), and the third was restricted to
the Rio Marauia (November 2001). During these surveys,
I visited areas where Yanomami informants had reported
having seen bearded sakis. They included the region of the
mouth of the Rio Ia at a location known as "Tabuleiro", the
foothills of the Neblina mountains, along the Rios Preto
and Anta, along the head-waters of the Rio Cauaburi, and
along the lower Rio Marauia (Fig. 1).

Figure 1. Geographic distribution of the two species of Chiropotes (Chiropotes satanas in dark grey and C. albinasus in light grey) and
proposed western extension of the geographic distribution of the genus (hatched). The black box indicates the area of Figure 2.

Neotropical Primates 10(1), April 2002

--.-- Country border
--o Park boundary

Figure 2. Pico da Neblina National Park, Amazonas, Brazil.

Following a suggestion by Yanomamis from the lower Rio
Marauia, on my most recent survey, I took up my search
again for bearded sakis around a small settlement known
as "Sftio do Jose Maria", on the left bank of the lower
Rio Marauia (Fig. 1). There, on 11 November, Dr. Albert
Ditchfield (a biologist from Sao Paulo University), Doris-
mar and Adamor (locals hired as field assistants from the
town of Santa Isabel, Fig. 2), Chico and Miguel (Yanomami
guides), and I set up camp and began our search. Later that
same day, we found a mixed-species group of three adult
bearded sakis (Chiropotes cf. satanas) and five black-headed
uacaris (Cacajao melanocephalus melanocephalus), approxi-
mately 150 m north of camp (0o20'33"S, 6509'00"W).
One adult female bearded saki was collected for the Zool-
ogy Museum of Sao Paulo University (MUZUSP, #JPB 79,
Fig. 3).

The specimen collected was similar to Chiropotes satanas
chiropotes in that the head, limbs and tail were black, and
the back from the neck to the tail gradually changed from
a lighter brown in the center back between the shoulders to
darker brown on the sides and towards the tail. However, it
differed from C. s. chiropotes in that the brown coloration
of its dorsum was greenish brown (olive) as opposed to
light golden brown (Fig. 3). The body measurements were
comparable to that of C. satanas and C. albinasus (head
and body = 390 mm; tail = 400 mm; hind foot = 125.8

mm; ear = 28.7 mm; weight = 2400 g) (see Emmons,
1997; Hershkovitz, 1985). I am currently carrying out a
detailed morphological and molecular analysis to deter-
mine whether this is a new taxon or merely a color variant
of C. s. chiropotes.

The discovery of bearded sakis in the Pico da Neblina
National Park considerably extends the geographical dis-
tribution of the genus Chiropotes to the west. Similar speci-
mens have been collected further east of Pico da Neblina,
around the town of Barcelos, Amazonas (Museu Nacional
do Rio de Janeiro, MN59012 and MN59011).

Given the above evidence, I suggest that the geographic
distribution of this Pico da Neblina taxon of Chiropotes
may include the entire region bordered by the Rio Araca
in the east, the Rio Negro in the south and west and the
Rios Cassiquiari and Orinoco in the north, overlapping
totally with the geographical distribution of black-headed
uacaris (Fig. 1). Considering that I did not see bearded
sakis while conducting my surveys along the Rio Cauaburf
and that the Yanomami report them to be rare west of the
Rio Marauia, it is possible that bearded sakis are scarce in
this region, occurring at insignificant densities between the
Rios Cauaburf and Negro. This could result from intense
competition with black-headed uacaris in a habitat that
could possibly be better suited to the latter. Thus, even if

Neotropical Primates 10(1), April 2002

Figure 3. Chiropotes cf. satanas collected from the lower Rio Marauid, Amazonas.

the geographic distribution of Chiropotes is bounded to the
west by the Rio Negro, I believe that the ecological limit for
this taxon does not extend this far west, possibly only reach-
ing as far as the Rio Marauii. Future surveys of left bank
tributaries of the Rio Negro east of the Rio Marauii, such
as the Rios Darahi, Preto and Padauarf, will reveal where
the Chiropotes densities begin to increase relative to those
of Cacajao. Such surveys would help to mark the ecological
boundary between the two genera.

The discovery of a taxon of Chiropotes that co-occurs with
black-headed uacaris, and in particular that associates with
these primates in mixed-species groups, is intriguing in
the perspective of classic equilibrium ecology; bearded
sakis and uacaris are believed to occupy similar ecological
niches. Primates of these genera are phylogenetically very
close, have similar body weights, diets, group sizes and day-
ranges (Ayres 1986, 1989; Schneider et al., 1995; Boubli,
1999). Morphologically, they possess identical adaptations
to consume hard-husked fruits dentitionn and chewing
apparatus) (Kinzey and Norconk, 1993). The present find-
ing thus challenges the idea that the geographic distribution
of Cacajao and Chiropotes was determined by competitive
exclusion (Ayres 1986).


I would like to thank all the Yanomami for their invalu-
able help during my surveys and fieldwork, the Brazilian
Institute for the Environment (IBAMA) staff and the Bra-
zilian Army for logistical support. I am also most grateful
to Dr. Alan Dixson of the San Diego Zoological Society,
who kindly encouraged me to pursue my recent surveys,
and to Clair Stringer Boubli who prepared Figures 1 and
2 and edited this manuscript. Fieldwork in the Pico da
Neblina National Park was funded by grants from the
Louis Leakey Foundation, National Geographic Society,
National Science Foundation, New York Zoological Society
and World Wildlife Fund for Nature. Funding for survey-
ing was provided by the Zoological Society of San Diego,
USA, and by the Zoological Museum of Sao Paulo Univer-
sity (MUZUSP). Permission to collect wild primates was
obtained from IBAMA (License # 053/2001).

Jean Philippe Boubli, Departamento de Antropologia,
Museu Nacional / UFRJ, Quinta da Boa Vista s/n, Sao
Crist6vao, 20940-040 Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro,
Brazil, e-mail: , and Center for
Reproduction of Endangered Species, Zoological Society of
San Diego, PO Box 120551, San Diego, CA 92112-0551,


Ayres, J. M. 1986. The white uakaris and the Amazonian
forests. Ph.D. Dissertation, Cambridge University,
Cambridge, UK.
Ayres, J. M. 1989. Comparative feeding ecology of the
uacari and bearded saki, Cacajao and Chiropotes. J. Hum.
Evol. 18: 697-716.
Boubli, J. P. 1997. Ecology of the black uakari monkey,
Cacajao melanocephalus melanocephalus, in Pico da
Neblina National Park, Brazil. Ph.D. Dissertation,
University of California, Berkeley.
Boubli, J. P. 1999. Feeding ecology of black-headed
uacaris (Cacajao melanocephalus melanocephalus) in Pico
da Neblina National Park, Brazil. Int. J. Primatol. 20:
Emmons, L. H. 1998. Neotropical Rainforest Mammals: A
Field Guide. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate Taxonomy. Smithsonian
Institution Press, Washington, DC.
Hershkovitz, P. 1985. A preliminary taxonomic review
of the South American bearded saki monkeys, genus
Chiropotes (Cebidae, Platyrrhini), with the description of
a new subspecies. Fieldiana, Zool. (n.s.) 27: 1-46.
Hershkovitz, P. 1987. Uacaris, New World monkeys of the
genus Cacajao: A preliminary taxonomic review with a
description of a new subspecies. Am. J. Primatol. 12:
Kinzey, W. G. and Norconk, M. A. 1993. Physical and
chemical properties of fruit and seeds eaten by Pithecia
and Chiropotes in Surinam and Venezuela. Int. J. Primatol.
14: 207-227.
Rylands, A. B., Schneider, H., Langguth, A., Mittermeier,
R. A., Groves, C. P. and Rodrfguez-Luna, E. 2000. An


4 Neotropical Primates 10(1), April 2002

assessment of the diversity of New World primates.
Neotrop. Primates 8(2): 61-93.
Schneider, M. P. C., Schneider, H., Sampaio, M. I. C.,
Carvalho-Filho, N. M., Encarnaci6n, E, Montoya, E.,
and Salzano, F M. 1995. Biochemical diversity and
genetic distances in the Pitheciinae subfamily (Primates,
Platyrrhini). Primates 36: 129-134.


Jill D. Pruetz
Heather C. Leasor


As habitat destruction continues to threaten the existence
of tropical species, it becomes increasingly important to
document their numbers as a means of assessing their
survival potential. Surveys are a method commonly used to
document the status of species such as primates and often
serve as a preliminary step to long-term studies of primate
populations. Reports of non-human primate surveys are
common in the literature (for example, Agoramoorthy
and Lohmann, 1999; Cant, 1978; Gonzalez-Kirchner,
1996, 1999; Hashimoto, 1995; Johnson and Overdorff,
1999; Plumptre and Reynolds, 1996; Thomas, 1991;
Whitesides et al., 1988; Yamagiwa et al., 1992). However,
Peres (1999a) points out the lack of consistency in many
studies and makes suggestions for standardizing techniques
as a way to ensure the reliability of primate surveys between
sites. Many of Peres' (1999a) guidelines were adopted in
our study (See 'Methods').

Here we report a survey of the three primate species
inhabiting tropical lowland rainforest at La Suerte
Biological Field Station (LSBFS) in Costa Rica, and
address the difficulty in assessing primate densities using
brief contacts with surveyed groups. Although the site has
been the focus of numerous primate-oriented field courses,
systematic data are lacking on the densities of the primate
species occurring at LSBFS. This site provides an ideal
setting in which to examine the effects of reforestation
efforts on several primate species.


Study site
La Suerte Biological Field Station is approximately 20 km
from the Atlantic coast of Costa Rica, and is home to black-
handed spider monkeys (Ateles ..-rr.., i. mantled howling
monkeys (Alouatta palliata), and white-faced capuchins
(Cebus capucinus). The LSBFS was purchased by the Molina
family in 1987 and is characterized by lowland tropical rain-
forest, cropland (pineapple, coconut), marshland, and pasture
for cattle. The site is a government-protected area and has
functioned as a research and teaching facility since 1993.

The three forest fragments at La Suerte are all characterized
by some degree of disturbance due to logging. The Small
Forest is advanced secondary forest that was last logged in
the 1970s (Garber and Rehg, 1999). It was 15 ha in size
when the study was conducted but has since been reduced
by approximately one-seventh in an area not owned by
LSBFS (JDP, pers. obs.). The Large/German Forest was
approximately 100 ha in size, 30 ha of which is owned by
the LSBFS (Fig. 1). These forest patches are surrounded
by either pasture or croplands but are connected to one
another and to other forest patches by a narrow strip of
riparian habitat (<50 m width on average) that runs along
the La Suerte River. A forest fragment that was purchased
by LSBFS in 1998 is a 40 ha plot within a 180 ha area of
secondary growth, pasture and marshland, which had yet to
be surveyed properly at the time of our study. While howl-
ing monkeys were seen in this forest in August 1999 (JDP,
pers. obs.), based on the degree of disturbance and the lack
of many large trees it seemed unlikely that spider monkeys
occurred there, although it possibly supported capuchins.
A goal in progress is to establish corridors between the frag-
ments (Fig. 1).

The third forested area surveyed in this study was not
owned by LSBFS (Fig. 1: Logged Forest). It was included in
the survey because spider monkeys were observed, besides
the other primates, before it began to be logged very heav-
ily in 1998 (N. Mann, pers. comm. and JDP, pers. obs.).
It has been logged since 1997, a practice which continued



no \


\) i

Rlo Lo

Figure 1. Map of La Suerte Biological Field Station, Limon
Province, Costa Rica. 1 Small Forest, 2 Large Forest/German
Forest, 3 Logged Forest, 4 New Forest patch.

Neotropical Primates 10(1), April 2002
during our study and through July 2001 (K. Dingess, pers.
comm.). The Logged Forest was approximately 35 ha in
size, was adjacent to other forested areas that have not been
surveyed, and could be accessed by primates through one
or more riparian corridors. The extent and condition of
forested areas to the west of LSBFS (and of the Logged
Forest) is unknown.

The survey at LSBFS (8346'15"W, 1026'30"N) was con-
ducted from 21 June to 18 August 1999. Both line transects
and total count methods were used to assess the densities of
primates during 318 hours in the field. Primate groups were
encountered 152 times. During 98 hours on 19 days we
conducted concentrated searches along trails and transects,
including fruiting tree vigils at a Ficus tree (12 hours over
2 days). Twelve days were spent conducting systematic line
transect surveys. Compositions of groups noted during 51
hours of contact by JDP at LSBFS in January 1997 and
May-August 1997, as well as published data (Garber and
Rehg, 1999), provide some indication of group demo-
graphics over a short time-period.

From 21 June to 4 July, two observers (JDP and one inex-
perienced observer), prepared the survey areas by cutting
transects through areas previously not marked, marked all
transects at 25 m intervals (see Peres, 1999a) and began
sampling the vegetation [in prep.]. Existing trails that ran
in parallel were used as transects when possible to minimize
time spent clearing areas and disturbance of the forest areas,
given the narrow width of the fragments. Transects were
cut in parallel through most of the length of the German
Forest section of the Large/German Forest. Two of the
three established trails overlapped and crossed one another
at their beginning points, and the presence of natural bar-
riers such as swamps forced observers to place even new
transects in overlap in one case. The initial two-week time
period for site preparation gave the inexperienced observer
the opportunity to become familiar with the primate spe-
cies at LSBFS. A third observer (HCL), who was familiar
with primate behavior in the wild and had worked at this
site before, arrived at the field site on 5 July. We began line
transect surveys of the forests at LSBFS on 7 July 1999,
with three observers. Each of the three forest fragments was
surveyed four times. At least one day passed where transects
that had been recently cut were avoided by observers before
they were systematically surveyed (after Peres, 1999a).

All line transect surveys began between 0500 and 0600
hours. Observers started at the same time, using synchro-
nized watches, and walked slowly along marked transects
at a speed of approximately 1.5 km per hour (see Peres,
1999a). Observers stopped every 100 m to search the
surrounding area for a duration of two minutes before
proceeding. Surveys were not conducted on rainy days (see
Peres, 1999a). In the Large/German Forest, transect length
ranged from 2.7 to 3.7 km. Here, observers completed a
survey in one direction (NW-SE or SE-NW) during a
single morning. In the two smaller forest fragments, short

transect length (range: 663 m 1500 m) enabled observers
to complete two surveys of the same transect in one morn-
ing. Upon reaching the end of a transect observers back-
tracked to the starting point. In all forest patches observers
alternated the starting point of a survey each time a survey
was conducted. Observers surveyed a different transect each
time in order to minimize observer bias (Peres, 1999a). A
contact time with primate groups of 30 minutes was tar-
geted during line transect censuses because we reasoned
that a lengthier amount of time spent in contact with
primate groups would provide for more reliable counts.
The small areas surveyed enabled us to use such a contact
time without sacrificing survey time during periods when
primates were most active. Data recorded when primates
were encountered included: (1) location transectt and
meter marker), (2) species, (3) distance (m) from observer
to monkey, (4) perpendicular distance (m) from monkey
to transect, (5) height of monkey in the trees, (6) activity,
(7) habitat type, (8) mode of detection (sound or sight),
(9) number of individuals in group, (10) ages of individu-
als seen (adult, infant, other immature) and (11) sex and
(12) time of day. Infants were defined as those dependent
on adults for travel (i.e., carried). Observers were tested
for the reliability with which they recorded distances (see
Peres 1999a) by having each record their estimation of the
distance to the nearest half-meter between pairs of flags set
into the ground at varying distances apart (usually 20 pairs
per test, N=6 tests).

The Large/German Forest was the focus of concentrated
searches by JDP for spider monkeys. Once a primate group
was encountered, a total count (Srivastava et al., 2001) was
obtained. Intense searches were made in areas where spider
monkeys had been seen before. All primate species were
recorded during these searches.
We first analyzed the accuracy of observers' estimates of
group sizes recorded during line transect surveys by com-
paring these figures to known group sizes of primates in the
Small Forest. In the Small Forest, primate group sizes were
known from approximately 37 hours of contact time during
the study, and from conferring with teaching assistants and
instructors at LSBFS after our study. Since group sizes
were greatly underestimated during line transect surveys
(see Fernandez-Duque et al., 2001; Table 1), we decided
to use line transects mainly to establish group density and
not individual primate density (see Peres, 1999b). We also
examined the effect that the duration of contact time had
on group size counts using data from concentrated searches
in an analysis of variance test. Individual primate densities
were calculated using a combination of line transect surveys
and surveys concentrated in areas where groups had been
seen. Averages of group counts recorded during line tran-
sect surveys were used when a complete group count could
not be recorded.

The size and composition of approximately one-third of the
howling and capuchin monkey groups estimated to inhabit
LSBFS was known (n = 6 of 17-18 groups). The number

Neotropical Primates 10(1), April 2002

Table 1. Primate group sizes in Small Forest.
Species Average group size: line Known group sizes Difference
transect census
Alouattapalliata 6.5 (N= 6) range 4-10 12 individuals (Group 2) 46%
Cebus capucinus 6.5 (N=2) range 4-9 9 individuals 28%

of capuchins living in the Logged Forest was based on the
maximum number of individuals recorded during any
one observation, since we could only reliably say that one
capuchin group lived there (Table 1). For two of the three
howling monkey groups observed in the Logged Forest, the
discontinuity of the canopy allowed JDP to make reliable
group counts as individuals moved along a single pathway.
The size of the third group was based on the average size
of howler groups observed in this forest (i.e., 4.4 individu-
als, Table 1). Data on the howling monkey and capuchin
groups inhabiting the Small Forest that were collected in
this study, in 1997 by JDP and in 1995 by Garber and
Rehg (1999) were compared over a four-year period.

JDP was able to obtain a full count of the "big" howling
monkey group (n = 21 individuals) in the Large/German
Forest as the group entered and then left a large fruiting
Ficus tree during a tree vigil. For howling monkey groups
other than the "big" group in the Large/German Forest (n =
7), averages from line transect surveys were used to estimate
group sizes. This method was also used to estimate the sizes
of capuchin groups observed in the Large/German Forest
(n = 3). For spider monkeys, minimum community size
was based on data from simultaneous observations of A.
..-rr .., during sweep transect censuses.


Primate density and group sizes at LSBFS
Data on the number of primate groups inhabiting the dif-
ferent forest patches at LSBFS are presented in Table 2.

Contact time and individual primate densities
During concentrated searches, spider monkeys (n =
22 encounters) and capuchin monkeys (n = 19) were
encountered relatively more often per survey hour than
howling monkeys (n = 38), compared to line transect
surveys (n = 10, 10 and 53 times, respectively). Time
spent with primate groups averaged 31 minutes (range
1-210 minutes). On average, during group encounters
in concentrated searches, capuchins were observed for
30 minutes, and howling monkeys were observed for 38
minutes. For the 79 primate group contacts made during

searches, the duration of time with a group significantly
affected the number of individuals counted (ANOVA: F
= 12.9, df = 46, p<0.001). The number of individuals
increased along with duration of time spent with a group
up to 120 minutes.


In this study, systematic survey measures (i.e., line tran-
sects) were supplemented with data on primate group
size from total counts to calculate densities of the primate
population at LSBFS. Line transect surveys with multiple
observers were most useful in estimating the number of
primate groups inhabiting a forest patch. The location of
groups observed more or less simultaneously could be plot-
ted onto maps so that they could be found later for a more
thorough count. Concentrated searches using total counts
were instrumental in providing information on group size,
since observers were not restricted to a set contact time with
groups. The number of individuals counted increased sig-
nificantly with the time that an observer stayed in contact
with the group. Group size was significantly underestimated
using line transect surveys, compared to the known number
of howling monkeys in the Small Forest. Using data from
total counts, where observers spent varying amounts of
time with groups, at least two hours were necessary in order
to obtain a steady count (i.e., one that no longer increased
with time). However, increasing contact time with groups
during line transect surveys to such a duration would only
be feasible in areas of less than 40 ha in order to survey
when primates are most active. Nonetheless, we question
the reliability of density estimates for arboreal primates
using a 10-minute targeted contact time.

Capuchins and howling monkeys in the Small Forest
occurred at higher densities than at most other sites where
these primates have been studied (Freese and Oppenheimer,
1981; Freese, 1976). Capuchin numbers in the Large and
Logged forests at LSBFS were more similar to capuchin
densities elsewhere. Individual howling monkey density
was also extremely high per unit area in the Small Forest.
Using multiple surveys averaged over time, Chapman and
Balcomb (1998) showed that mantled howlers averaged

Table 2. Primate groups inhabiting forested areas at LSBFS.
Species Small Forest (15 ha) Logged Forest (35 ha) Large Forest (100 ha)
Indiv. Groups per Indiv. per Groups per Indiv. Groups per
per km2 forest km2 forest per km2 forest
Alouatta palliata 150 2 41 3 30 7-8
Cebus capucinus 60 1 11 1 15 3
Ateles. .0., 0 6 1 8-10 (min.) 1

Neotropical Primates 10(1), April 2002

Table 3. Primate group compositions in Small Forest, 1995-1999.
Group Year No. of individuals No. of males Reference
Tippy's howlers 1997 11 1
1999 10 2 JDP unpublished data; this study
2nd howler group 1997 10 2 JDP unpublished data; this study
1999 12 3
Small forest capuchins 1995 13 Garber & Rehg 1999; JDP unpubl.
1997 12 2-3 data; this study
1999 9 1-2

48.5 individuals per km2 (calculated from Table III:
Chapman and Balcomb, 1998). Based on these data,
howlers in the Logged and Large/German forest patches
at LSBFS approach, but fall below, average population
density of mantled howling monkeys, but Small Forest
howlers occur at a density approximately three times that
of the average (Chapman and Balcomb, 1998). Fashing and
Cords (2000) noted the possibility that recent deforestation
or other disturbance can result in primate populations that
are high in density due to crowding, but that may become
significantly lower as the effects of such disturbance become
evident. Given the high density of howlers in this forest
patch compared to other patches at LSBFS and at other
sites where howlers have been studied, this may indeed be
the case at LSBFS. Over short periods, howling monkey
and capuchin group size in the Small Forest was somewhat
stable, with the number of capuchins only slightly decreasing
during this time. Additionally, the size of howling monkey
groups here was similar to averages taken from a review by
Chapman and Balcomb (1998: 12.2 group size based on
averages of multiple censuses in different years). If the high
densities exhibited by howling and capuchin monkeys in
the Small Forest at LSBFS are due to crowding, detrimental
effects on group sizes have not become evident in five years.
Given the fact that these primate groups are often the focus
of study for several primate field courses per year, such
information could be gathered for comparison with our
data, as well as those from other sites (e.g., Santa Rosa and
La Pacifica, Costa Rica).

According to recorded sightings of spider monkeys in the
Large/German Forest, the spider monkey community is

Table 4. Groups and sizes recorded during line transect censuses.
Species Forest Average Average
patch group size no. groups
Alouattapalliata Small 6.3 1.75
Logged 4.0 3.75
Large 4.0 4.75
Cebus capucinus Small 6.5 0.25
Logged 3.0 0.5
Large 6.3 1.75
Ateles ., Small 0
Logged 2 0.25
Large 3.3 0.75

typical of those found elsewhere (Chapman, 1988; Estrada
and Coates-Estrada, 1996; Freese, 1976; Cant, 1978;
Gonzalez-Kirchner, 1999). The minimum number of
individuals in this community is 10, based on simultane-
ous sightings by observers during line transect surveys. A
single sighting of 15 individuals was reported in 1997 (L.
Winkler, pers. comm.), so that the size of the community
at LSBFS is similar to the mean number of individuals per
km2 observed at other sites (calculated from Gonzalez-
Kirchner, 1999; Chapman, 1988; Estrada and Coates-
Estrada, 1996; Freese, 1976; Cant, 1978: mean number of
individuals = 14.4).

At present, approximately 70 ha of the 100 ha forest frag-
ment surveyed in this study is owned by outside interests
(i.e., German Forest). The property was being logged in
June 2001 (K. Dingess, pers. comm.). The spider monkey
population currently inhabiting it is predicted to suffer
a loss in numbers. If clear-cutting occurred, the spider
monkey community would not survive, based on estimates
of minimum home range size of communities elsewhere.
For example, Fedigan et al. (1988) found the range size of
individual spider monkeys at Santa Rosa, Costa Rica, aver-
aged 62.4 ha, with a range of 37.4-97.9 ha. Four groups of
howling monkeys were recorded in this 70 ha area of the
Large Forest, as well as two groups of capuchins. The 30 ha
forest tract owned by LSBFS would be insufficient to sup-
port such numbers of capuchin and howling monkey. The
establishment of a corridor between the forest fragments
at La Suerte should be beneficial in facilitating dispersal
between the spider monkey communities encountered in
this study.


Densities of mantled howlers and white-faced capuchins
in the Small Forest at La Suerte Biological Field Station
are high compared to populations elsewhere. Densities of
these species in other forest patches at LSBFS were similar
to other sites. The black-handed spider monkey population
at LSBFS is similar in its average density when compared
to populations elsewhere. Using different survey methods
revealed that time spent in contact with primate groups by
observers significantly affected the number of individuals
counted. Counts of group members increased and then lev-
eled off after observers had been in contact with groups for
approximately 120 minutes. This suggests that standard,
short time-periods used to determine group size and com-

Neotropical Primates 10(1), April 2002

position during line transect surveys could result in unreli-
able density estimates for the primate species surveyed in
this study.


This project was reviewed and approved by the Insti-
tutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) at
Miami University. The authors wish to thank Matt Peachey
for data collection. Special thanks to the Molina family,
Paul Garber, Thomas LaDuke, Jen Wegehorst, Kim Ding-
ess, Nigel Mann, and Bill McGrew. Laura Baatz provided
the map of LSBFS, to which JDP made slight changes. The
American Society of Primatologists Conservation grant,
Miami University, Rebecca Jean Andrews Memorial Award,
and Howard Hughes Fellowship at Miami University pro-
vided funding for this project. The authors would also like
to thank four anonymous reviewers for their helpful com-
ments on this manuscript.

Jill D. Pruetz, Department of Zoology, Miami Univer-
sity, Oxford, Ohio 45056, USA, and Heather C. Leasor,
Department of Anthropology, California State University,
Fullerton, California 92834, USA. Correspondence to: Jill
D. Pruetz, Department of Anthropology, Iowa State Uni-
versity, 324 Curtiss Hall, Ames, Iowa 50011, USA.


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G(/c't:ro Silva-Ldpez
Enrique PI' II//.- Ochoa


Rain forest fragmentation is of particular concern where
entire regions are threatened by agriculture and other
human activities, constituting as they do some of the most
rapidly disappearing habitat on earth. An understanding
of processes allowing specific taxa to persist in fragmented
habitat is of great importance to conservation programs
(Silva-L6pez, 1996; Silva-L6pez et al., 1993a). Resources
from forest fragments may play a key role in the domestic
economies of local communities (Silva-L6pez et al., 1993b),
and community work is as important as research when con-
sidering specific conservation measures (Portilla-Ochoa, in
press). The management of forest fragments within systems
where public land is divided into lots needs to be carefully
incorporated into regional and local development plans,
and requires a knowledge of the political decisions and
socio-economic factors that determine their permanence or
state of conservation.

In 1983, recognizing the need to create a balance between
primate conservation and the development of rural areas,
the Charles A. and Anne Morrow Lindbergh Fund, Inc.,
decided to support GSL's project "Rainforest exploitation
and efforts to protect the endangered spider and howler
monkeys at Sierra de Santa Marta, Mexico." The study's
results not only helped to promote new research and ini-
tiatives on behalf of primate conservation in the area but,
most importantly, it stimulated the participation of biologi-
cal and social scientists alike to design new approaches to
support the conservation of the Sierra. This paper com-
ments on one such approach and represents a new stage in
our research program's vision of the problem. It deals with
the fact that campesinos have long recognized the agricul-
tural relevance of forest fragments, and examines some of
the ways they use these fragments in their daily lives.

The Sierra

Each portion of the Sierra has unique geographic, cultural
and biological characteristics. The eastern and southern
slopes exemplify this situation, which is closely linked to
the presence of the local, Zoque-popoluca people inhabit-
ing the area. This indigenous group is the fourth largest in

Veracruz, with about 29,000 people, of which about 60%
(some 23,000) inhabit the Sierra and neighboring areas.
Most of the Sierra and its area of influence is located in the
municipality of Soteapan, where the population density,
estimated at 52 inhabitants/km2, is nearly half of the 95.4
inhabitants/km2 average for the entire state (INEGI, 2000).
However, the annual population growth rate in Soteapan
has been estimated at 4.47%, almost twice that of the
state. Soteapan has more than 40 ejidos (public lands) and
agricultural communities, which combined represent about
98% of the municipality. Clearly, the Sierra's portion of
Soteapan, with its hilly relief marked by streams and small
valleys, its Zoque-popoluca population inhabiting ejidos
and its flora and fauna largely restricted to small forest frag-
ments, is an example of a unique environment.

Forest Fragmentation

The problems associated with, and derived from, forest
fragmentation have been studied by a number of authors
(Silva-L6pez, 1995; Kattan, 1993; Robinson, 1993; Kell-
man, 1993; Murcia, 1993; Harris and Silva-L6pez, 1992)
and are not discussed here. However, although we some-
times suggest that the clearing and fragmentation of a rain
forest is an irrational act, from the point of view of the
stakeholders involved, it is in fact only rarely so (Schelhas,
1993). Only with an understanding of the basis on which
an ejidatario (a family head of the ejido) makes decisions on
land use is it possible to change and influence the condi-
tions promoting destructive uses and create incentives to
promote sustainable uses.

An ejidatario who leaves one or more intact forest fragments
in his lot is not being irrational. Our joint study of 67 ejidal
lots and approximately 50 fragments suggests that these
forest remnants are a refuge for the impoverished flora and
fauna, including numerous tree species, palms, and spider
and howler monkeys, while also providing a number of
products for the local economy. A detailed study of the trees
in a 10-ha forest revealed that locals use some 12 species for
food, 15 as a source of medicinal products, 10 as a source of
construction materials and at least 20 for firewood. Com-
bined, they represent about 30% of the species, 40% of the
families and approximately 60% of the trees with a diam-
eter of 20 cm or larger in the fragment (Jimenez-Huerta et
al., 1993; Silva-L6pez et al., 1993). Fragments also provide
ecological services such as windbreaks, the reduction of ero-
sion levels in areas adjacent to cultivations and protection
of streams. More than 90% of these fragments are next to
rivers and streams on the Sierra's eastern slope.

There are severe land use restrictions in a hilly terrain such
as that prevailing in the Sierra. One of these is related to
climate. The strong winds from the south, locally known
as suradas (Portilla-Ochoa, 1995), are characteristic of the
dry season and can be extremely damaging. They may cause
fires started by cattle-ranchers to run out of control, result-
ing in severe and extensive forest fires. These runaway fires
are one of the main causes of forest destruction. The loss of

trees in forest remnants eliminates a natural barrier to these
fires and eventually promotes new fires which affect culti-
vations, firewood and timber reserves alike, as well as the
settlements themselves in the Sierra's upper portions. The
suradas have also caused the disappearance of the tapachol
practice (maize cultivation in the winter) and the cultiva-
tion of chili, one of the area's few marketable products.

The Management of Lots

In order to ameliorate these kinds of problems, a relatively
large number of ejidatarios from the ejido of Magallanes
have requested a management strategy for their lots (Por-
tilla-Ochoa, 1995), based on the consideration of physio-
graphic conditions limiting land-use. The ejidatarios use
the "lomos de las colinas" (hilltops) for pasture, precisely in
the places where the effects of suradas can be most harmful.
They use the "bajadas-contra" (leeward slopes, or slopes ori-
ented against the direction of the suradas) to cultivate maize
and other mixed cultivations, which include beans, yucca,
sweet potato, string beans and squash. Finally, they use the
pianoss" (small valleys between the hills) to cultivate maize
and some of the 10 banana varieties and/or to maintain
forest remnants. The exact system may vary somewhat, but
the general pattern is consistent.

Considerations for Ecological Planning at the Level
of Lots

We propose that a management strategy based on lots can
be used as a preliminary approach for the Sierra's ecological
planning. Land use patterns are not static, however. They
change in degree or characteristics from time to time due
to social, economic and political factors at local, state and
national levels. These changes require immediate actions on
behalf of the long-term conservation of landscape elements
as dynamic as forest fragments.

Forest fragments cannot be perceived as isolated elements
of the landscape. Ultimately, they have been, and are, social
spaces in the Sierra's rural environment. That is why, in the
application of any conservation measure, it is necessary to
distinguish the effects of fragmentation per se from the
effects of man upon fragments, which in most cases are
more deleterious and permanent in character. The products
and ecological services provided by fragments cannot be
guaranteed in the long-term unless the fragments them-
selves are the object of intensive management.

The immediate protection of fragments can be very cheap
but, in spite of the potential management costs, they must
form part of an integrated conservation strategy for the
Sierra. The key is to identify the most convenient type of
projects for management, which of necessity must involve
the participation of the locals, with the multiple use of
forest remnants as an end-product.

The establishment of general goals in these projects must
be carefully planned. Initially, projects may come from a

Neotropical Primates 10(1), April 2002
number of different organizations and approaches but,
in order to make them viable, they must contribute to a
balance which combines the role fragments play for the
conservation of forest diversity with an improvement in the
Zoque-popolucas' subsistence level in accordance with local
environmental conditions. From our point of view, the
achievement of this balance, to diversify the economic base
in the shortest period of time, is of critical importance.

To summarize, the preservation of forest fragments is only
one part of the conservation actions necessary in the Sierra.
The area's management must be oriented toward ecological
planning at the level of the lots, including traditional or
alternative cultivations, the grasslands, and the mainte-
nance and management of forest fragments offering prod-
ucts and ecological services to the ejidatario and habitat for
the native flora and fauna. In the scheme of a biosphere
reserve, this type of ecological planning will be critical to
prescribe actions for the buffer zone.

At present, a regional zonation has been made to define the
"Los Tuxtlas" Biosphere Reserve, including a nuclear and a
buffer zone, of which Santa Marta forms an integral part.
Four sub-zones have been distinguished inside the buffer
zone: (1) traditional use, (2) recovery, (3) sustainable use of
agroecosystems and (4) sustainable use of natural resources
(Portilla-Ochoa, 1999). By using this management strategy,
the approach to the management of lots is better defined
because, for each sub-zone, it has now become possible to
establish specific management guidelines combining con-
servation and the rational use of natural resources.


The authors acknowledge The Charles A. and Anne
Morrow Lindbergh Fund, the Program for Studies in
Tropical Conservation (University of Florida), the Centro
de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropologfa
Social-Golfo, the World Wildlife Fund-US Primate Pro-
gram, the International Primatological Society, Friedrich
Ebert Stiftung, Mexico's Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y
Tecnologfa (CONACYT, # 54800), Mexico's Secretary
of Public Education (SEP, #91-01-30-834), Smithsonian
Institution, Friends of the National Zoo (FONZ), the
Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), New York, and the
Universidad Veracruzana, for their support. This paper is a
contribution from the Area de Biologfa de la Conservaci6n
of the Instituto de Investigaciones Biol6gicas, Universidad

Gilberto Silva-L6pez and Enrique Portilla-Ochoa, Area de
Biologfa de la Conservaci6n, Instituto de Investigaciones
Biol6gicas, Universidad Veracruzana, Apartado Postal 294,
Xalapa, Veracruz 91000, Mexico, e-mail: .


Greenberg, R. 1993. Gallery forest protection in
Mesoamerica: A conservation priority for migratory birds.

Neotropical Primates 10(1), April 2002

In: Forest Remnants in the Tropical Landscape: Benefits and
Policy Implications, J. K. Doyle and J. Schelhas (eds.),
pp.3-4. The Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center,
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.
Harris, L. D. and Silva-L6pez, G. 1992. Forest
fragmentation and the conservation of biological diversity.
In: Conservation Biology: The Theory and Practice j '. .- .
Conservation, Preservation, and Management, P. L. Fiedler
and S. K. Jain (eds.), pp.197-238. Chapman and Hall,
New York.
INEGI (Instituto Nacional de Estadfstica, Geograffa e
Informatica). 2000. Principales Resultados del XII Censo
General de Poblacidn y Vivienda. INEGI. Mexico.
Jimenez-Huerta, J., Silva-L6pez, G. and Benftez-Rodrfguez,
J. 1993. Small rain forest fragments: What is there to
monkeys and to humans. In: Forest Remnants in the
Tropical Landscape: Benefits and Policy Implications, J. K.
Doyle and J. Schelhas (eds.), pp. 94. The Smithsonian
Migratory Bird Center, Smithsonian Institution,
Washington, DC.
Kattan, G. 1993. The effects of forest fragmentation on
frogs and birds in the Andes of Colombia: Implications
for watershed management. In: Forest Remnants in the
Tropical Landscape: Benefits and Policy Implications, J. K.
Doyle and J. Schelhas (eds.), pp.11-13. The Smithsonian
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Washington, DC.
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fragmentation: Lessons from tropical gallery forests. In:
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pp.30-32. The Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center,
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plant pollination in the Colombian Andes. In: Forest
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Implications, J. K. Doyle and J. Schelhas (eds.), pp.23-25.
The Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center, Smithsonian
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estrategia de uso parcelario en un ejido zoque-popoluca
de la Sierra de Santa Marta, Los Tuxtlas, Ver. In:
Agriculture de Laderas en Zonas Tropicales, P. Gerez and
H. Garcia Campos (eds.), pp.83-98. Friedrich Ebert
Stiftung, Mexico.
Portilla-Ochoa, E. 1999. Program de Manejo de la Reserva
de la Bi6sfera "Los Tuxtlas". Report final presentado al
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A.C. Institute de Investigaciones Biol6gicas, Universidad
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Robinson, J. G. 1993. Forest fragmentation and game
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Schelhas (eds.), pp.41-44. The Smithsonian Migratory
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Schelhas (eds.), pp.52-55. The Smithsonian Migratory
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and Toledo-Cardenas, M. R. 1993. Availability of resources
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Santa Marta, Mexico. Neotrop. Primates 1(4): 3-6.


David Munoz, Yasminda Garcia del Valle
Berenice Franco, Alejandro Estrada
Miguel Magana A.


Los monos aulladores (Alouatta spp.) se han caracterizado
por presentar patrons de baja actividad, descansando mas
de la mitad de su tiempo diurno, lo cual se atribuye a la
necesidad de procesar grandes cantidades de fibra vegetal
como resultado de una dieta rica en hojas (Milton, 1980).
Las variaciones en los patrons de actividad de este primate
parecen estar relacionados con el grado de dispersi6n del
alimento en el tiempo y espacio (Crockett y Eisenberg,
1987), con su densidad, y con variables abi6ticas como
el clima (Chivers, 1969; Glander, 1979; Ortfz-Martfnez
et al., 1999), asf como tambien con la edad y sexo de los
aulladores (Bicca-Marques y Calegaro-Marques, 1994). La
perturbaci6n antropogenica de los habitats naturales de este
primate tambikn tiene una influencia important sobre la
estrategia de asignaci6n de tiempo y energfa a las diferentes
actividades vitales (crecimiento, mantenimiento y repro-
ducci6n), pero hasta el moment existe poca informaci6n
al respect (Juan et al., 1999; Estrada et al., 1999).

El estado de Tabasco en el sur de Mexico resguarda pobla-
ciones representantes de las tres species de primates que
existen en Mexico: Alouatta palliata, A. pigra y Ateles geof-
froyi (Smith, 1970; Horwich y Johnson, 1986; Rylands
et al., 1995). Tabasco es el 6nico estado de Mexico, y la
dnica zona de la region Mesoamericana, en donde podemos
encontrar representantes de las tres species de primates y
resguarda la zona de transici6n entire A. palliata y A. pigra
en algunas localidades (Smith, 1970). Cerca del 60% de
la superficie del estado estaba originalmente cubierta por
selvas, pero como resultado de la actividad humana en
Tabasco, cerca del 80% de esta vegetaci6n ha desaparecido
a una tasa de 600 km2 6 ms al afino, siendo las tierras bajas
en donde ha ocurrido la mayor transformaci6n de la selva
a pastizales y otros agrosistemas (Masera, 1996; SEMAR-
NAP, 1999; INEGI, 1996).

Por otro lado, datos sobre los patrons de actividad de
monos aulladores constituyen informaci6n fundamental
acerca de la historic natural, ecologfa y comportamiento de
la especie involucrada. En el caso de los primates mexicanos,
poco es lo que se ha documentado acerca de estos aspects
y la informaci6n publicada hasta el moment, proviene de
studios realizados en Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz (Estrada, 1984;
Ortiz-Martinez et al., 1999; Estrada et al., 1999). Para el
caso del estado de Tabasco la informaci6n es inexistente. La
ausencia de datos basicos acerca de los patrons de actividad
en A. palliata en Tabasco y como varfan estos en el tiempo y
espacio en respuesta a oscilaciones en la disponibilidad del
alimento, dificulta la tarea de disefio y implementaci6n de
proyectos de conservaci6n y manejo de las poblaciones de
primates silvestres remanentes en el estado.

En este trabajo reportamos los resultados de un studio
parcial sobre los patrons de actividad en una tropa de
monos aulladores (Alouatta palliata) en el Parque Yumka
localizado en la parte central de Tabasco. Un trabajo ante-
rior report datos sobre el tamafio y aspects demograficos
de la poblaci6n de monos aulladores en este sitio (Estrada et
al., 2001) y otro trabajo report datos sobre la utilizaci6n de
plants como alimento (Garcia del Valle, 2001).


Sitio de studio
El Parque Yumka se localiza a 15 km al sur de la ciudad
de Villahermosa (17o45' y 1800'N, 92o45' y 93o00'0), la
capital del estado. Yumka es un parque pdblico que com-
prende una superficie de 101 ha, de las cuales, 33 ha pre-
sentan selva alta perennifolia, 47 ha son sabanas y el resto
lo conforma un lago (Fig.1); altura sobre el nivel del mar
es 15 m. El clima es calido-hdmedo con una precipitaci6n
media annual de 2159 mm y una temperature media annual
de 29.4C.

Neotropical Primates 10(1), April 2002
Tropa focal
Nuestro studio se bas6 en observaciones del comporta-
miento de una de las cuatro tropas de monos aulladores que
existen en el Parque (Estrada et al., 2001). Esta tropa estaba
formada por 28 individuos: 5 machos adults, 11 hembras
adults, 5 juveniles, 4 infants y 3 individuos cuyo sexo no
pudo ser determinado.

Observaciones de los monos aulladores
Las observaciones del comportamiento de los aulladores se
llevaron a cabo de Octubre 2000 a Abril 2001. Los aul-
ladores fueron observados, en promedio, durante 7 dfas en
cada mes de 07:00 a 17:00 horas. La ubicaci6n de la tropa al
inicio de las observaciones se simplific6 siguiendo la direc-
ci6n de las vocalizaciones emitidas por los machos adults
al amanecer. El mdtodo de muestreo empleado en las obser-
vaciones fue el de animal focal (Altmann, 1974). La dura-
ci6n de la muestra focal para individuos representantes de
cada clase de edad y sexo en la tropa machoss adults, hem-
bras adults, juveniles e infants) fue de una hora. Durante
la muestra focal se registry el tiempo dedicado a cada una
de las siguientes actividades: descanso, alimentaci6n, loco-
moci6n, interacciones sociales, viaje y bramidos. Cuando
el comportamiento fue alimentaci6n, se especifico la parte
consumida (hojas j6venes, hojas maduras, frutos j6venes,
frutos maduros y flores). La plant utilizada fue marcada y
identificada a nivel de especie. Cuando el comportamiento
fue viaje, aparte de la duraci6n de este, se midi6 la distancia
recorrida en metros.

Para determinar las variaciones en el uso del espacio dis-
ponible por parte de la tropa bajo studio, medimos el
tiempo de estancia de la tropa en sectors de 1.0 ha (100 x
100 m) en tamafio. La localizaci6n en el espacio de los Arbo-
les utilizados como fuente de alimento fue marcada en cada
sector. La diversidad mensual en la dieta de los aulladores
y la diversidad mensual en el uso de sectors por la tropa se
expresaron con el indice de diversidad de Shannon (H'). El
indice de Sorensen fue calculado para expresar la similitud
intermensual en el uso de sectors por parte de los aulla-
dores. El patr6n de dispersi6n espacial de los Arboles usados
por los aulladores como fuente de alimento se determine
por medio del indice de dispersi6n de Morisita (Franco et
al., 1989). Este permiti6 discernir si la distribuci6n espacial
de los Arboles utilizados por la tropa era al azar, uniform
o agregada.

La prueba no param&trica de Kruskal-Wallis (Mendenhall,
1994) se uso para probar la existencia de diferencias entire
meses en el patr6n general de actividades de los aulladores.
Usamos la prueba U de Mann-Whitney (Mendenhall,
1994) para determinar la presencia de diferencias signifi-
cativas en el tiempo invertido para cada actividad entire las
diferentes classes de edades y sexos representadas en la tropa
bajo studio. Este estadistico se us6 tambikn para probar la
existencia de diferencias mensuales en la distancia recorrida
por los aulladores entire meses. El coeficiente de correlaci6n
de Spearman (r) se utiliz6 para determinar las posibles rela-

Figura 1. Localizaci6n del Parque Yumki en la parte central del
estado de Tabasco (punto negro en el mapa del sur de Mexico). Las
lines paralelas son una carretera pavimentada y otra de terracerfa.
Las lines delgadas son veredas en el Area de selva del Parque.

Neotropical Primates 10(1), April 2002

cones entire el uso de sectors y el tiempo de alimentaci6n
en cada sector y el ndmero de Arboles usados por sector. El
nivel de significancia que se aplic6 en todos los casos fue de
< 0.05. Debido a que los datos para los meses de Diciembre
y Enero fueron escasos, ambos meses se combinaron como
una sola muestra. La ocurrencia de las actividades registra-
das fue expresada como el ndmero de minutes por hora
focal de observaci6n.


Durante los siete meses que dur6 el studio, se completaron
49 dfas efectivos observando el comportamiento de los
monos aulladores. Con relaci6n a los registros focales se
completaron 727 muestras focales distribuidos de la siguiente
manera entire los individuos de la tropa: hembras adults 383
focales (53%), machos adults 213 focales (29%), juveniles
101 (14%), infants 12 (2%) y adults para los que no fue
possible determinar el sexo 18 focales (2%). El tiempo total
acumulado de observaciones focales fue de 18,146 minutes
o 302 hrs, con un promedio de 2,592 minutes o 43 hrs por

Patrdn general de actividades
Las tasas medias mensuales para el patr6n general de activi-
dades fueron 44.9 min/hr para descanso, 7.9 min/hr para
alimentaci6n, 4.1 min/hr para locomoci6n, 2.1 min/hr
para viaje, 0.8 min/hr para interacciones sociales y 0.1
min/hr para bramidos. En general, el patr6n de actividades
registrado fue similar entire los diferentes meses del period
de studio, no existiendo diferencias significativas entire
estos (H = 0.52, g.l. = 5, P > 0.05) (Fig. 2). Las observa-
ciones del comportamiento de alimentaci6n indicaron que
los aulladores de la tropa estudiada invirtieron el 72% del
tiempo registrado de alimentaci6n en el consume de hojas.
De estas el 38% y 34% fue invertido en el consume de
hojas j6venes y hojas maduras respectivamente; los frutos
maduros aportaron el 10% y los j6venes el 5%. El consume
de flores contribuy6 al 13% del tiempo de alimentaci6n.

La mayor diversidad de species se encontr6 en el consume
de hojas maduras (17 species) y de hojas j6venes (12 espe-
cies), mientras que el numero de species utilizadas por los
aulladores para consumo de frutos y flores vari6 de 2 a 5
species (Garcia del Valle, 2001).

Patrdn general de actividades por edady sexo
La tasa para la actividad descanso fue mayor en los individ-
uos adults (46.7 min/hr) y menor en los infants (8.6 min/
hr). Los infants tuvieron tasas altas de alimentaci6n (13.3
min/hr), locomoci6n (14.7 min/hr) e interacci6n social
(23.4 min/hr) (Fig. 3). No encontramos diferencias signifi-
cativas entire machos adults y hembras adults para cada
una de las actividades generals registradas. Entre adults
y juveniles no se encontraron diferencias significativas en la
actividad alimentaci6n (U = 2, p>0.05) e interacciones soci-
ales (U = 11, p<0.05), pero la actividad descanso fue signifi-
cativamente mayor en los adults que en los juveniles (U =
0, p<0.01) y la locomoci6n fue significativamente mayor en
los juveniles que en adults (U = 3, p<0.05). Entre juveniles
e infants no se encontraron diferencias significativas en las
interacciones sociales (U = 3.8, p>0.05), pero la actividad
locomoci6n fue significativamente mayor en los infants
que en los juveniles (U = 1, p<0.05). La actividad descanso
fue significativamente mayor en juveniles que en infants
(U = 0, p<0.05) (Fig. 3).

Distribucidn de las actividades en el period diurno
En promedio las primeras actividades de los monos aulla-
dores en el dfa consistieron en locomoci6n, viaje y alimen-
taci6n, presentando la alimentaci6n durante este period el
mayor tiempo invertido en el dfa (29.9%) (Fig. 4). Trans-
curridas las primeras horas, estas actividades decrecieron,
incrementandose el descanso entire 09:00 y 13:00 horas,
disminuyendo en horas posteriores (Fig. 4). Entre 09:00
y 11:00 horas se present el mayor period de emisi6n de
bramidos. La actividad alimentaci6n present nivel bajos
entire las 11:00 yl3:00 horas, observandose un incremento
en esta actividad despues de las 17:00 horas. Las interaccio-


QI Locomocion 10-
E E f U Viaje
I a n o-^ Interaccion 5-
- c 0 0Z Brarnmido 0-
Oct Nov Dic 00- Feb Mar Abr
Ene 01

Figura 2. Perfiles mensuales del patr6n de actividad general de la
tropa de aulladores estudiada en el Parque Yumki.


E/13 1Viaje
E3 IInt social
/ Branmido
Machos Hembras Adultos J Lenlles Inrantes
adults adults

Figura 3. Perfil de actividad para individuos en las diferentes
classes de edad y sexo en la tropa de monos aulladores estudiada
en el Parque Yumki.

Neotropical Primates 10(1), April 2002

// Descanso
S 8 Viaje
S Q ,7 Int social
700 a 9 00 a 11 00 a 13 00 a 15 00 a
9.00 11.00 13.00 15.00 17.00

Figura 4. Perfil diurno de actividad para la tropa de monos
aulladores estudiada en el Parque Yumki, Tabasco, Mexico.

nes sociales fueron menos frecuentes a medio dfa (Fig. 4).
La actividad viaje present sus mayores niveles entire 15:00
y 17:00 horas (Fig. 4). El tiempo registrado en la emisi6n
de bramidos por los aulladores se reparti6 de la siguiente
manera: 10% de 07:00 a 09:00, 44 % de 09:00 a 11:00,
24% de 11:00 a 13:00, 4 % de 13:00 a 15:00 y 18% de 15:
00 a 17:00 (Fig. 4).

Uso del espacio
Durante el period de studio los aulladores usaron para
sus actividades un 40 % de la superficie disponible (Fig. 5).
El tiempo total de estancia cada sector de 1.0 ha vari6 de
8.9 a 3994 min. En el mes de Enero los aulladores usaron
para sus actividades nueve sectors 6 el 19% de la super-

ficie disponible (Fig. 5). El mayor ndmero de sectors (N
= 18; 38% de la superficie disponible) utilizados por los
aulladores fue registrado en el mes de Febrero. (Fig. 5). El
coeficiente de similitud de Sorensen, calculado para deter-
minar el grado de traslapo en el uso de sectors de un mes a
otro vari6 de 0.40 (Enero y Marzo) a 0.67 (marzo y Abril).
Para los meses Febrero-Marzo y Febrero-Abril el indice de
similitud fue de C = 0.50.

Se encontr6 una asociaci6n positive entire las veces en que
fueron usados los sectors por mes y el tiempo invertido en
la actividad de alimentaci6n por sector (r = 0.62, p<0.05).
Tambidn se encontr6 una relaci6n positive entire las veces en
que fueron usados los sectors por mes y los Arboles usados
por sector (r = 0.81, p<0.001) y una tercera asociaci6n
positive fue detectada entire la diversidad (H') mensual en
la dieta de los aulladores y el ndmero de sectors utilizados
en cada mes (r = 0.94, p = 0.02). Estas estadisticas sugieren
una estrecha relaci6n entire los patrons de uso del espacio
observados, la disponibilidad de los recursos alimentarios y
la diversidad diet&tica manifestada por los aulladores. En el
caso de las particular alimentarias ingeridas por los aulla-
dores, encontramos una asociaci6n positive entire el ndmero
de sectors usados por mes y el porciento de tiempo inver-
tido por los aulladores en el consume de hojas maduras (r =
0.94, p = 0.02). En el caso de las hojas j6venes, la asociaci6n
fue negative, pero no significativa (r = 0.71, p = 0.13).
Para los frutos maduros la asociaci6n no fue significativa (r
= 0.10, p = 0.44).

La dispersi6n en el espacio de los Arboles utilizados por los
aulladores como fuente de alimento durante los meses de
Enero a Abril present, de acuerdo al indice de Morisita,
un patr6n agregado (IdA= 1.35, IdB = 1.59, Idc = 1.02, IdD
= 1.13). La distancia promedio recorrida por dfa por los

Figura 5. Variaciones mensuales en el uso del espacio por la tropa de monos aulladores estudiada en el Parque Yumki. Los
sectors son Areas de 1.0 ha en extension. Los ndmeros en cada cuadro indican el porcentaje de tiempo de estancia en cada

Neotropical Primates 10(1), April 2002
monos aulladores en los events de viaje fue de 125.8 +95.0
m. El mes con la mayor distancia promedio recorrida fue
Febrero con 150 m y el mes con la menor distancia media
recorrida fue Enero con 44 m.


Los monos aulladores balancean la limitada energia que
obtienen de una dieta rica en hojas con el despliegue de
un gran repertorio conductual que les permit conservarla.
Estas conductas incluyen: (1) un patr6n regular de
inactividad diaria, (2) el uso de los alimentos con alto
valor energ&tico cuando estan disponibles, (3) un sistema
de localizaci6n de alimento extremadamente eficiente, (4)
posturas del cuerpo para conservar o disipar el calor, y (5)
una divisionn de labores" entire machos adults y hembras
adults, lo cual podrfa reducir las demands energ&ticas
de las hembras y permitirles invertir mas energfa en la
reproducci6n (Milton et al., 1979). Los patrons de
actividad de A. palliata observados en el Parque Yumka
son consistentes con estas aseveraciones. Por ejemplo,
la dieta de los aulladores durante el period de studio
estuvo dominada por el consumo de hojas y la actividad
descanso sobresali6 mensualmente en el patr6n general de
actividad, ocupando mas de tres cuartas parties del tiempo
diurno, lo que indica un modo de vida de poca actividad o
conservador de energfa (Milton, 1980).

Comparando con otros studios, las altas tasas de descanso
asf como los niveles de las tasa de alimentaci6n y el patr6n
de movimiento de los aulladores, son consistentes con
aquellas reportadas para el genero Alouatta en otras locali-
dades en Centro y Sud Am&rica (Altmann, 1959; Bernstein,
1964; Chivers, 1969; Richard, 1970; Mittermeier, 1973;
Glander, 1975; Smith, 1977; Schlichte, 1978; Milton,
1980; Gaulin y Gaulin, 1982; Mendes, 1989; Ortfz-Mar-
tfnez et al., 1999).

El perfil de actividad de los aulladores en el parque Yumka
fue consistent en su manifestaci6n de mes a mes durante el
period de studio. Actividades como descanso y aliment-
aci6n covariaron negativamente a traves del ano, ocupando
siempre el descanso la mayor parte del tiempo diurno. La
persistencia de estos patrons sugiere la necesidad constant
de compensar los beneficios energ&ticos obtenidos por la
alimentaci6n con la conservaci6n de energfa a traves del
descanso para lograr el mantenimiento de la homeostasis.
Las actividades locomoci6n, viaje e interacciones sociales
siempre ocurrieron en un tercer plano con respect al des-
canso y la alimentaci6n. Estos patrons fueron evidentes en
los dos sexos y en las diferentes classes de edad, except por
los infants. Es interesante notar que una vez que los aul-
ladores dejan de ser lactantes (despues del ano de edad),
la dieta rica en hojas los lleva a adoptar un modo de vida
conservador de energfa.

Para las actividades locomoci6n y viaje se detect la exis-
tencia de un patr6n bimodal a traves del period diurno,
dato consistent con lo reportado por otros autores para

estas actividades en A. palliata en Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz
(Ortfz-Martfnez et al., 1999; Estrada et al., 1999), en
Centro Amtrica (Bernstein, 1964; Mittermeier, 1973), en
A. seniculus (Gaulin y Gaulin, 1982) y en A. fusca (Mendes,
1989; Bicca-Marques, 1993; Chiarello, 1993). Nuestros
resultados indican que la mayor tasa de alimentaci6n se
present en las primeras horas del dfa. Gaulin y Gaulin
(1982) sugieren que esto es debido a una respuesta a la
necesidad de satisfacer requerimientos metab61licos despues
del largo perfodo nocturno de privaci6n de alimento. Estos
autores sugieren ademAs que una tasa alta de alimentaci6n
por la manana puede ser una estrategia que prev6 cambios
en las condiciones de clima, que podrian interrumpir esta
actividad por perfodos de tiempo impredecibles. El viaje y la
locomoci6n estan relacionados a la busqueda del alimento y
por lo tanto covarfan a traves del period diurno (Gaulin y
Gaulin, 1982; Mendes, 1989; Bicca-Marques, 1993).

Las interacciones sociales tambien se presentaron de
manera bimodal a traves del dia, un period de actividad
a media manana y otro a media tarde, despues del period
de alimentaci6n matutino y durante el vespertino. Cabe
senalar que durante los periods de descanso los juveniles
e infants tenfan periods breves de juego y exploraci6n,
involucrando en algunas ocasiones a los adults.
El descanso diurno de los aulladores present tasas altas
despues de los perfodos de mayor movimiento y aliment-
aci6n, un patr6n observado tambikn para A. fusca (Mendes,
1989) y para A. palliata (Ortiz-Martinez et al., 1999). Asi,
el descanso se increment6 despues de las primeras horas del
dfa presentando su tasa mayor a media manana. Las prim-
eras actividades de los monos aulladores se realizaron con la
salida del sol. El reacomodo de la tropa en el Arbol durante
este perfodo indic6 una busqueda de sitios con mejor
exposici6n a los rayos solares, observaci6n descrita tambikn
por Mendes (1989). Las actividades de locomoci6n y viaje
de la tropa se incrementaron paralelamente al aumento de
la temperature ambiente. Pero, a media manana, cuando la
temperature ambiente fue mayor, como efecto de la inci-
dencia mas direct del sol sobre la Tierra, los aulladores des-
cansaron mas, y la postura mas comtn fue acostado ventral,
una postura adecuada para disipar calor.

Se ha descrito que las distancias que recorren los aulladores
a traves de su area de suministro puede ser un buen indica-
dor de la dispersi6n espacial y temporal de los recursos
alimenticios (Estrada, 1984). Los Arboles de las species
usadas por los aulladores del Parque Yumka presentaron
un patr6n de dispersi6n espacial agregado, indicando una
alta dispersi6n en el espacio de los recursos preferidos. Los
aulladores respondieron a estos aspects de sus recursos
viajando distancias variables cada dia, que los llevaron a dis-
tintas secciones dentro de su area de suministro. Durante el
period de studio la tropa estudiada utiliz6 un 40% de la
superficie selvatica disponible o 19 ha, pero este uso vari6
mensualmente de 6 a 18 ha.

Aun cuando la presencia de otras tropas puede influir
tambikn en las variaciones observadas en el uso del espacio,

nuestros datos sugieren que es muy probable que estas
variaciones mas bien estuvieron relacionadas a la diversidad
diet&tica mensual, a la dispersi6n espacial de los Arboles
utilizados y a la fenologfa de las parties de las plants que
les sirven de alimento. En este dltimo caso, los aulladores
incrementaron, en el caso de las hojas maduras, no s6lo
el ndmero de species utilizadas pero tambi&n el espacio
utilizado, invirtiendo mis tiempo y recorriendo mais
distancias en su b6squeda. Los comportamientos arriba
indicados se dieron a pesar de la mayor predecibilidad de las
hojas maduras en la selva. Esto 6ltimo pudo ser el resultado
del alto contenido de fibra, poca energfa y presencia de
compuestos secundarios en estas parties de las plants y de
la necesidad de los aulladores de balancear, a traves de una
diversificaci6n en sus fuentes de hojas maduras, su dieta
y minimizar la ingesti6n de fibra y compuestos t6xicos
(Glander, 1975; Milton, 1977, 1979, 1980; Braza et al.,
1981; Gaulin y Gaulin, 1982; Estrada, 1984).

Uno de los problems basicos que deben ser resueltos por
todos los organismos vivientes es el de obtener suficiente
energfa apropiada en el moment oportuno y a un costo
minimo. La repartici6n que hace un organismo de sus
recursos (tiempo/energfa) entire varias demands conflicti-
vas es de interns fundamental, ya que determine la manera
en que el organismo se conforma a los diversos aspects de
su ambiente y por lo tanto nos indica much acerca de su
nicho ecol6gico y plasticidad de respuesta a las presiones
ambientales. Los monos aulladores del Parque Yumka, en
Tabasco, parecen haber tenido dxito en esta direcci6n y una
buena prueba de ellos es la persistencia y crecimiento de la
poblaci6n en el lugar por ya cerca de cinco d&cadas (Estrada
et al., 2001). Esto significa que el studio de su compor-
tamiento y caracterizaci6n de aquellos rasgos del entorno
ecol6gico en el que existen, nos permitira comprender la
manera en que responded a la disponibilidad de los recur-
sos, al espacio disponible y al crecimiento demografico. Esta
informaci6n nos puede dar herramientas metodol6gicas,
te6ricas y empiricas para crear models de conservaci6n
que promuevan la conservaci6n de poblaciones aisladas de
estos primates en otras localidades en Tabasco y en otras
zonas de Mesoamerica.


Se agradece el apoyo del Lincoln Park Scott Neotropic
Fund y de la Universidad Nacional Aut6noma de Mexico.
Se agradece el apoyo logistico y autorizaci6n por parte de
los Directores del Parque Yumka para llevar a cabo estos

David Munioz, Divisi6n de Ciencias Biol6gicas, Universi-
dad Juarez Aut6noma de Tabasco, Villahermosa, Tabasco,
Mexico, e-mail: , Yasminda
Garcia del Valle, Divisi6n de Ciencias Biol6gicas, Univer-
sidad Juarez Aut6noma de Tabasco, Villahermosa, Tabasco,
Mexico, e-mail: Berenice
Franco G., Divisi6n de Ciencias Biol6gicas, Universidad
Juarez Aut6noma de Tabasco, Villahermosa, Tabasco,

Neotropical Primates 10(1), April 2002
Mexico, e-mail: , Alejan-
dro Estrada, Estaci6n de Biologfa Los Tuxtlas, IB-UNAM,
Apartado 176, San Andres Tuxtla, Veracruz, Mexico,
e-mail: , y Miguel Magafia
A., Divisi6n de Ciencias Biol6gicas, Universidad Juarez
Aut6noma de Tabasco, Villahermosa, Tabasco, Mexico.


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Sinara Lopes Vilela
Ddris Santos de Faria


0 mico estrela ou sagui-do-cerrado (C .-: penicillata)
d a menor especie de primata no Brasil Central, pesando
entire 350 e 500 gramas (Stevenson e Rylands, 1988; Faria,
1989). No bioma Cerrado e encontrado em matas de
galeria (Lacher et al., 1981, 1984; Rylands, 1984; Faria,
1984a, 1986, 1989; Queiroz, 1991; Passamani, 1996),
cerrad6es e cerrado propriamente dito (Fonseca e Lacher,
1984; Passamani, 1996; Miranda, 1997; Vilela, 1999).

A alimentacao do C. penicillata baseia-se em frutos, insetos,
nectar (Faria, 1986, 1989; Miranda, 1997, Vilela, 1999) e
exsudatos de plants (Faria, 1984b, 1986, 1989; Fonseca e
Lacher, 1984; Lacher et al., 1984; Rylands, 1984; Santee e
Faria, 1985; Goldizen, 1986; Stevenson e Rylands, 1988;
Passamani, 1996). 0 exsudato e um important recurso
alimentar para o genero ( .-' (Passamani, 1996;
Ferrari, 1988), pois e rico em carboidratos e serve como
fonte de energia especialmente em epocas de escassez de
alimentos (Coimbra-Filho e Mittermeier, 1977). 0 nectar
se assemelha ao exsudato em terms de valores nutricionais,
pordm com valor energetico mais baixo. Parece ser uma
fonte alimentar sazonal, especialmente em habitats onde
exsudatos sao mais escassos (Ferrari e Strier, 1992).
Muitos primatas complementam sua dieta com nectar,
principalmente em epocas de menor disponibilidade de
alimentos (Terborgh, 1983; Prance, 1985; Ferrari e Strier,
1992; Miranda, 1997; Vilela, 1999).
Apesar da dieta deste pequeno primata ter sido bem
estudada em matas de galeria (Faria, 1984, 1986, 1989;
Santee e Faria, 1985; Stevenson e Rylands, 1988; Castro et

al., 1997), poucas ainda sao as informao6es existentes sobre
a mesma no cerrado (Fonseca e Lacher, 1984; Passamani,
1996; Miranda, 1997; Vilela, 1999; Miranda e Faria,
2001). Sabe-se que os saguis gastam cerca de 70% do seu
tempo em alimentacao, sendo o consumo de exsudatos a
atividade predominante (Fonseca e Lacher, 1984). Miranda
(1997) estudando os mesmos grupos de C. penicillata
descritos neste trabalho, observou que frutos de especies
ex6ticas tambem fazem parte da dieta. 0 autor verificou

Neotropical Primates 10(1), April 2002

que os frutos do jamelao, Syzygium jambolana ('. 1 1 r ,
uma especie ex6tica comum foram os mais consumidos.
Alkm disso, estes animals complementam a dieta com
nectar das flores de Mabea fistulifera, Cecropia spp. (ver
Miranda e Faria, 2001), Styraxferrugineus (Miranda, 1997)
e Caryocar brasiliense (Vilela, 1999). Outras fontes de
alimento incluem gafanhotos (Orthoptera), pupas, louva-
a-deus (Mantodea), bulbos de Cyrtopodium sp. (Vilela,
1999; Miranda e Faria, 2001), ovos de pissaros e aranhas
(Araneae) (Miranda, 1997).

Tabela 1. Famflias estudadas, formas de vida e drea de ocorrencia, relacionadas corn a 6poca de consumo e o tipo de
item alimentar utilizado pelos micos na Reserva Ecol6gica do IBGE. Novembro de 1997 a setembro de 1998.

Estagao chuvosa (meses) Esta}io seca (meses)

Familias formaa de vida e Area) N D J F M A M J J A S

Vochysia rufa (B, 2)
Vochysia elliptica (B, 1, 2)
Vochysia thyrsoidea (B 1, 2)
Qualea parviflora (B, 1, 2)
Qualea grandiflora (B, 1, 2)
Qualea multiflora (B, 1)
Sclerolobium paniculatum (B, 1)
Hymenaea stigonocarpa (B, 1)
Enterolobium gummiferum (B ,1)
Inga sp. (B, 1)
S" : macrocarpum (B, 1, 2)

Caryocar brasiliense (B, 1, 2)
Styraxferrugineum (B, 1, 2)
Miconiaferruginata (B, 1, 2)
Miconia albicans (A, 2)
Syzygium jambolana (B, 1)
Brosimum gaudichaudii (A, 1)
Alibertia concolor (A, 2)
Erythroxylum exaltatum (A, 1)

















F = consumo de frutos
N = consumo de nectar
E = consumo de exsudato

A = arbusto
B = irvore

1 = cerrado denso
2 = cerradao

Neotropical Primates 10(1), April 2002
Este trabalho teve como objetivo descrever as especies
arb6reas e arbustivas utilizadas como recurso alimentar pelo
C. penicillata no bioma cerrado, identificando as varia6oes
ocorridas no tipo de item consumido entire as fisionomias
de cerrado e cerradao nas estaq6es chuvosa e seca, alim de
descrever outras fontes de alimento utilizadas pelos saguis.


O trabalho foi realizado na Reserva Ecol6gica do IBGE
(1557'S, 4753'W) localizada a 35 km de Brasilia. Ha
duas estaq6es bern definidas, uma chuvosa (outubro a abril)
e uma seca (maio a setembro). A precipitacao mddia annual e
de 1600 mm e a temperature varia de 18 a 22C. Os meses
de setembro e outubro sao os mais quentes (20 a 22C) e o
mes de julho o mais frio (16 a 18C) (SEMATEC, 1994).

De novembro de 1997 a setembro de 1998, dois grupos
de ( .-'. penicillata foram acompanhados em uma
Area de cerrado denso e outra de cerradao, durante oito
dias por mes (4 dias em cada Area), do amanhecer ao por-
do-sol, totalizando cerca de 12 horas diarias, variando
com a disponibilidade de luz existente durante o dia.
Neste perfodo foi feito um registro qualitative diArio das
especies arb6reas e arbustivas utilizadas como alimento em
cada Area, e o tipo de item consumido por estes pequenos
primatas nas duas estaq6es climaticas.


Em ambas as Areas foram observadas um total de 19 especies
de plants arb6reas e arbustivas utilizadas por C. penicillata,
sendo o exsudato consumido em 11 especies, frutos em
seis especies e nectar em duas especies (Tabela 1). Apesar
do consumo de alimentos acontecer em todos os estratos,
desde especies com 0,60 m de altura como Brosimum
gaudichaudii (Moraceae), parece haver uma preferencia dos
micos por especies de maior porte, como Vochysia thyrsoidea
(Vochysiaceae), SI,,'f,',:. macrocarpum (Araliaceae) e
Syzygium jambolana ('.I) i r'i. com aproximadamente
7 a 10 m. de altura.

Foram observadas variao6es no tipo de item alimentar
consumido durante as estaq6es do ano. Houve maior uso
de exsudato na estacao seca, e um maior consumo de
frutos na estacao chuvosa, apesar de Miconia ferruginata
(Melastomataceae) e Brosimum gaudichaudii (Moraceae)
terem frutificado tambem na seca, abril a julho e julho/
agosto, respectivamente. De todas as especies frutiferas
cujos frutos foram consumidos, a dnica utilizada em
todos os meses da estacao chuvosa foi o jamelao, Syzygium
jambolana (Myrtaceae), uma plant ex6tica present no
cerrado denso estudado, a qual apresenta frutificaqao
somente na estacao chuvosa. Outra especie ex6tica tambem
bastante utilizada de janeiro a abril foi a fruta de pomba,
Erythroxylum exaltatum (Erythroxylaceae).

Como mostra a tabela, algumas esp&cies arb6reas foram
consideradas exsudatfferas permanentes, sendo consumidas


em ambas as estaqoes, como e o caso de Vochysia thyrsoidea,
SI' 'f ,:. macrocarpum e Qualea spp. No entanto, apesar
dos dados indicarem Vochysia rufa e Vochysia elliptica como
exsudatfferas sazonais, e possivel que sejam permanentes e
que outros fatores estejam envolvidos em sua utilizacao,
como proximidade espacial com outras esp&cies. Esp&cies
da famflia Leguminosae foram utilizadas somente na estacao seca.

Um fato important registrado neste estudo foi o consume
por ( penicillata de n&ctar de Caryocar brasiliense
(Caryocaraceae) e Styrax ferrugineum (Styracaceae). A
alimentacao foi complementada com ingestao de animals
invertebrados como gafanhotos (Orthoptera), louva-a-deus
(Mantodea) e cupins (Isoptera). 0 consumo de Orthoptera
e Mantodea ocorreu em ambas as estaq6es sendo registrado
o consumo de Isoptera apenas uma dnica vez na estadao
seca (julho).


O uso de exsudato de Vochysiaceae e Araliaceae tamb6m
na estacao chuvosa pode ser devido a alta densidade de
individuos destas esp6cies nas Areas de vida dos grupos
(Miranda e Faria, 2001) e, consequentemente, maior
facilidade de acesso e uso das mesmas. Alguns autores
relatam que a preferencia por determinadas esp6cies
vegetais esta relacionada a abundancia das mesmas nas Areas
de vida (Lacher et al., 1984; Fonseca e Lacher, 1984) e ao
tamanho dos individuos, pois troncos com maior dimensao
apresentam mais feridas produzidas pelos micos quando
comparados com individuos de menor porte (Passamani,
1996). Esp&cies da famflia Vochysiaceae parecem ser as mais
exploradas (Faria, 1984b; Fonseca e Lacher, 1984).

O elevado consumo de frutos de Syzygium jambolana,
observado tanto neste trabalho como no de Miranda
(1997), deve-se provavelmente a alta disponibilidade dos
mesmos durante a estacao chuvosa, 6poca de frutificaqao
dessa esp6cie, e a facilidade de acesso. VArios individuos
desta esp6cie foram plantados ao redor do pr6dio onde
funciona o refeit6rio da Reserva e se ligam a um corredor
de Arvores nativas que estao inseridas na Area de vida do
grupo do cerrado denso, oferecendo alimento fAcil e sem
grandes custos. Faria (1986) observou que as Areas mais
freqiientadas na estacao chuvosa eram as que possufam mais
esp6cies frutiferas e, na estacao seca, as que possufam mais
esp6cies gomiferas. Apesar de nao haver dados quantitativos
pensamos acontecer o mesmo com os grupos de saguis
no cerrado. 0 nectar das flores de Styrax ferrugineum
(Styracaceae) e Caryocar brasiliense (Caryocaraceae) foi
utilizado na Area do cerradao, em ambas as estaqoes,
provavelmente para suprir a falta de recursos ocasionados
pelas queimadas que ocorrem a cada dois anos nesta Area.
Estas duas esp6cies apresentaram floraqao tanto na estadao
chuvosa como na estacao seca. Invertebrados tamb6m
foram de suma importIncia na alimentacao desses grupos
de primatas, sendo uma fonte de recursos continues e
abundantes durante todo o ano.

Neotropical Primates 10(1), April 2002


A Coordenaqao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel
Superior (CAPES) pelo apoio financeiro. A diregao da
Reserva Ecol6gica do IBGE pela realizacao do trabalho
em suas dependencias. Ao Sr. Diassis Alvarenga pela
identificaqao das especies vegetais. Ao amigo Jair Maia pela
ajuda nas coletas e Ernesto Sambuichi pelas opini6es. Ao
Prof. Raimundo P. B. Henriques pela valiosa contribuicao
na redacao deste trabalho. Ao amigo Saulo M. A. Abreu
pelas traduc6es e por todo o apoio oferecido.

Sinara Lopes Vilela e D6ris Santos de Faria, Instituto
de Biologia, Departamento de Ecologia, Universidade
de Brasilia, Caixa Postal 04631, 70919-970 Brasilia, DF,
Brasil. E-mail: . Enderepo atualde Sinara
Lopes Vilela: Diretoria de Fauna e Recursos Pesqueiros,
Coordenaqao de Protecao de Especies, Instituto Brasileiro
do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renoviveis
(Ibama), SAIN Avenida L4 Norte s/no, Edificio Sede,
70800-200 Brasilia, DF, Brasil.


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Tecnologia, Convenio CODEPLAN/SEMATEC, Brasilia.
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J. R. 1997. Influencia da distribuicao espaco-temporal
de frutos na dieta e no padrao de uso da irea do
sagui ((C jacchus). Em: Resumos V Congresso
Brasileiro de Primatologia, VReunido Latino-Americana de
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eating and tree-gouging in marmosets. Nature 262: 260.
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Faria, D. S. de. 1984 b. Uso de irvores gomfferas do cerrado
por Callitrhix jacchus penicillata. Em: A Primatologia
no Brasil, M. T. de Mello (ed.), pp.83-96. Sociedade
Brasileira de Primatologia, Brasilia.
Faria, D. S. de. 1986. 0 estudo de campo do "mico estrela"
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121. EDICON/EDUSP, Sao Paulo.
Faria, D. S. de. 1989. 0 grupo social em (
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Estudo realizado na floresta de galeria do c6rrego
Capetinga, Brasilia- DF. Tese de Doutorado, Universidade
de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo.
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headed marmoset, C .- f .. O. Thomas, 1903).
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fistulifera nectar by marmosets ((C .- flaviceps) and
muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides) in south-east Brazil. J.
Trop. Ecol. 8: 225-239.

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feeding by ( .-' jacchus penicillata in semideciduous
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Castro, B. 1981. Exudate-eating, scent-marking, and
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in the cerraddo and dense cerrado of the Brazilian Central
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Neotropical Primates 10(1), April 2002


Maria Bernardete Cordeiro de Sousa
Maria Carla Nascimento Lopes
Ana Claudia S. R. Albuquerque


The development of techniques to determine steroids in
feces has made it possible to obtain data on the biology of
reproduction for different species living in natural condi-
tions (Clarke etal., 1991; Van Schaik, 1991; Shideler etal.,
1994, 1995; Ziegler et al., 1994; Strier and Ziegler, 1997,
among others) with considerable repercussions on the study
of endangered species. For ( .-' jacchus, the use of fecal
steroids to study the reproductive conditions of females was
validated by Ziegler et al. (1996), while the diurnal varia-
tion in progesterone and cortisol but not for estradiol
- in feces was demonstrated by Sousa and Ziegler (1998).
In order to establish the use of fecal sampling as a routine
procedure for common marmosets, the habits of defecation
of the animals, as well as the influence of physiological and
environmental variables interfering with sampling, need to
be known in order to prevent discontinuity of hormonal
monitoring. The aims of this paper therefore are to investi-
gate if parturition and environmental changes such as tem-
perature and rainfall could interfere with the timing of the
first fecal discharge in females living in free-ranging groups.


Feces were systematically collected from six adult females of
two groups: QT (n = 4) and PB (n = 2). The composition
of the QT group changed during the two periods of fecal
collection, ranging from 12 to 15 individuals of different
ages (adults, subadults, juveniles and infants). See Table 1
for details about the groups.

Only the time of first defecation was recorded and con-
sidered for statistical data analysis. However, since we
were monitoring hormone levels in these females, when
the observer was unable to collect the first fecal discharge,
the second or third sample was collected, as long as it was
excreted before 0900 h.

Another important cautionary measure taken when collect-
ing feces from wild marmosets was the need to monitor
where the animals slept the night before fecal collection. In
order to collect the first sample, the observer must already
be waiting under the sleeping tree when the animals wake
up. The observer must be attentive because the animals
usually defecate at the beginning of their active phase, and
he/she must continue to observe the animals closely until
the first defecation occurs. During the first period of fecal
collection from the QT group (August, 1996 to November,
1997) the animals slept in the same tree during the entire

period, whereas in the second period (April, 1998 to June,
1999) they used five different trees for sleeping.

The other group monitored was the PB group, which used
six trees during the period of fecal sampling (December,
1997 to April, 1999). Only two females were monitored
at the same time in each group by one observer since they
defecated almost at the same time and the observer needed
to be aware of where the feces fell. Fecal material was usu-
ally collected under the tree where the animals slept, but on
some occasions the observer had to use a ladder to pick up
feces caught on leaves.

Statistical analysis
The Student t test was used to compare the time of first
defecation of females living in the wild before and after par-
turition. The Pearson test was performed to correlate the
time of first defecation with the variation in temperature
and rainfall. In both tests the p value was set at 0.05.


In the natural environment, fecal collection was not always
possible due to the interference of environmental conditions
such as heavy rainfall, high trees or a high density of leaves,
which sometimes impaired the identification of the animal or
the localization of the fecal matter. In fact, during the fruiting
season, feces were composed almost entirely of seeds, with the
consequent difficulty in obtaining enough fecal material to
make up the minute amount of 0.1 g required for the tech-
nique. Another problem faced was when the animals changed
the tree where they slept, their presence being detected only
when they had already defecated from a nearby tree. In these
cases, the animals were followed until they produced another
sample, while using 0900 h as a time limit for collection.
There was relation between the time the animals left the
sleeping tree and the time the samples were collected (n = 79;
r2 = 0.033; p = 0.110).

For three females living in the natural environment, the
time of first defecation in the morning changed slightly,
being late on the day before or the day after parturition.
However, these changes were evidently not associated only
with parturition, since they occurred independently of this
activity. Statistical analysis using the t test did not show any
differences when the time of sample collection was com-
pared two weeks before and after the birth of the infants (t
= 2.87; p = 0.61). We monitored seven parturitions, three
from dominant reproductive females and one from a sub-
ordinate (probably daughter) female of the QT group, and
two from the dominant female and one from a subordinate
female of the PB group (Figure 1).

A weakly negative correlation was found between the time
of first fecal discharge and environmental temperature for
both groups (QT: r2 = -0.267; p = 0.000; PB: r2 = -0.213;
p = 0.018). On the other hand, a positive correlation was
detected between rainfall and first defecation, but only for the
QT group (r2= 0.150; p = 0.006; PB: r2 = 0.060; p = 0.506).

Discussion activities which are very frequent at this time. According
to Alonso and Langguth (1989) common marmosets begin
The results of this study demonstrate that there is homoge- the day eating fruits, followed by foraging of animal prey.
neity in the time of first defecation in common marmosets, Camarotti and Monteiro da Cruz (1997), studying the
a fact that facilitates long-term hormonal monitoring using activity patterns of common marmosets, found that around
fecal material from wild animals. This finding is similar 30% of the time was spent in foraging and feeding during
to that obtained by Sousa and Ziegler (1998) for captive two hours immediately before the groups went to the sleep-
females, and the highest frequency of defecation at the ing tree and two hours after leaving the sleeping tree.
beginning of the day is probably associated with feeding

Table 1. Free-ranging group compositions of Callithrixjacchus in the beginning of fecal collection of females.

Animal Sex Agehs Relatedness Birth month Period of fecal collection
QT group 1 GRE F >24 Reproductive female 10/08/96 20/09/97
GOE M >24 Reproductive male
GIO F >18 21/08/96 12/11/96
GAB F >18
GUS M >18
GRA F >18 04/09/96 24/09/97
GILD F 17 Offspring of GRE/GOE Apr/95
GAR F 17 Offspring of GRE/GOE Apr/95
GIG F 11 Offspring of GRE/GOE Oct/95
GIS F 6 Offspring of GRE/GOE Mar/96
GER F 6 Offspring of GRE/GOE Mar/96
GIOV M >1 Offspring of GRE/GOE Aug/96
GEO M >1 Offspring of GRE/GOE Aug/96
GOD M Offspring of GRE/GOE Jul/97
QT group 2 GRE F >40 Reproductive female 20/04/1998 04/06/99
GOE M >40 Reproductive male
GUS M >18
GER F 25 Offspring of GRE/GOE Mar/96 20/04/98 08/05/99
GIS F 25 Offspring of GRE/GOE Mar/96 16/12/98 15/02/99
GIOV M 20 Offspring of GRE/GOE Aug/96
GEO M 20 Offspring of GRE/GOE Aug/96
GOD M 9 Offspring of GRE/GOE Jul/97
GIL M 4 Offspring of GRE/GOE Dec/97
GIB M 4 Offspring of GRE/GOE Dec/97
GAB M Offspring of GRE/GOE Jun/98
GLE F Offspring of GRE/GOE Jun/98
GED M Offspring of GRE/GOE Jan/99
F2 ? Offspring of GRE/GOE Jan/99
F3 ? Offspring of GER Feb/99
F4 ? Offspring of GER Feb/99
PB group PAT F >24 18/12/1997 06/10/98
PAL F >24 24/12/97 01/08/98
11/10/98 08/04/99
PIT F >18
PLA M >18
PIT M >18
PTO M 1 Offspring of PAT Nov/97
PAM F 1 Offspring of PAT Nov/97
Fl ? Offspring of PAT Mar/98
F2 ? Offspring of PAT Mar/98
PIA M Offspring of PAT Apr/98
POP M Offspring of PAT Apr/98
PLI M Offspring of PAT Feb/99
PIN M Offspring of PAT Feb/99


Neotropical Primates 10(1), April 2002

Neotropical Primates 10(1), April 2002

Parturition QT group
S9 1996: 1997 1997
S850 /iGRE
5 750 GRE

55 0 ,





Parturition PB group

o 750
5 50
1- 450

1998 1999

A^ ^



Figure 1. Mean time [+ SEM] of the first fecal discharge of
females 2 weeks before and after parturition of females living
in free-ranging groups. Arrows indicate the day of parturition.
For group QT three parturitions were of female GRE (dominant
female) and one of GERT (subordinate female). For group PB,
the two first parturitions were of female PAT and the last one of
PAL (subordinate female).

Torii et al. (1998) stated that the selection of the sampling
method for hormonal studies is essential, and they suggest
urine collection from common marmosets as an excellent
source of endocrinological data. However, for studies in
the wild it is not possible to collect urine because these
animals are small and the voided urine usually drops on the
branches or cannot be collected because it is rubbed during
scent-marking behavior. Common marmosets are small
primates and use the middle strata of the forest (Stevenson
and Rylands, 1988), preventing the systematic collection
of urine. As such, fecal sampling is the best alternative for
monitoring endocrine parameters in small primates for
extended periods. During this study, we were able to collect
feces from common marmosets living in an experimental
plantation area or on forest edge. Feces are more difficult to
collect in closed forest areas.

Delay in the first defecation is related to a drop in envi-
ronmental temperature and rain. Although day length does
not vary in the tropics as it does in temperate regions, it has
been found to affect activity patterns in these marmosets
(Moreira et al., 1996; Sousa et al., 1999; Menezes et al.,
2000), and environmental cues may be influencing the
expression of physiological functioning (Moore-Ede et al.,
1982), in this case defecation patterns. Besides lower tem-
peratures and rain, defecation may be slightly advanced or

g 2 m

delayed during the peri-parturition interval, but not to the
extent that it interferes with extended data monitoring in
free-living common marmoset females.

In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that fecal collec-
tion can be used for long-term endocrinological studies on
free-ranging common marmosets females. This method is
useful for small primates, and can contribute to hormonal
monitoring in species which are difficult to maintain in
captivity, and for endangered species contributing to an
understanding of reproduction and reproductive patterns,
vital for demographic management.


This research was financed by grants from the Brazil
Science Council (CNPq) Projeto Nordeste, Proc. No.
521186/97-6 and proc. No. 301.309/84-1 to MBCS and
PIBIC. We would like to thank H. M. Santos for help with
fecal collection in wild.

Maria Bernardete Cordeiro de Sousa, Maria Carla
Nascimento Lopes and Ana Claudia S. R. Albuquerque,
Departamento de Fisiologia, Universidade Federal do Rio
Grande do Norte, Caixa Postal 1511, 59078-070 Natal, Rio
Grande do Norte, Brazil, e-mail: .


Alonso, C. and Langguth, A. 1989. Ecologia e
comportamento de ( .-' jacchus (Primates:
Callitrhichidae) numa ilha de floresta Atlantica. Rev.
Nordestina Biol. 6: 105-137.
Camarotti, E L. M. and Monteiro da Cruz, M. A. 0.
1997. Fatores ecol6gicos e comportamentais implicados
na selegao e uso dos locais de pernoite de grupos de
( .-' jacchus em ambiente natural. In: A Primatologia
no Brasil 6, M. B. C. de Sousa and A. A. L. Menezes
(eds.), pp.27-42. Editora da Universidade Federal do Rio
Grande do Norte, Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia,
Clarke, M. R., Zucker, E. L. and Harrison, R. M. 1991.
Fecal estradiol, sexual swelling, and sociosexual behavior
of free-ranging female howling monkeys in Costa Rica.
Am.J. Primatol. 24: 93-101.
Menezes, A. A. L., Macedo, J. P. and Magalhaes, K. M.
2000. Variagao sazonal no ritmo de atividade locomotora
no sagiii, ( .-' jacchus. Livro de Resumos da XV
Reunido Anual da Federafdo de Sociedades de Biologia
Experimental, 23 a 26 de agosto, Caxambu, MG, Brasil,
Moore-Ede, M. C., Sulzman, F M. and Fuller, C. A.
1982. Characteristics of circadian clocks. In: The Clock
That Times Us, pp.31-112. Harvard University Press,
Cambridge, MA.
Moreira, L. E S., Menezes, A. A. L. and Marques, M.
D. Activity onset of ( .- jacchus shows seasonal
variation in an equatorial region. Abstracts of the XVIP
Congress of the International Primatological Society and

XIXZh Conference of the American Society of Primatologists,
# 341, 1996.
Shideler, S. E., Savage, A., Ortuno, A. M., Moorman, E. A.
and Lasley, B. L. 1994. Monitoring female reproductive
function by measurement of fecal estrogen and
progesterone metabolites in the white-faced saki (Pithecia
pithecia). Am. J. Primatol. 32: 95-108.
Shideler, S. E., Munro, C. J., Johl, H. K., Taylor, H. W.
and Lasley, B. L. 1995. Urine and fecal sample collection
on filter paper for ovarian hormone evaluations. Am. J.
Primatol. 37: 305-315.
Sousa, M. B. C. and Ziegler T. E. 1998. Diurnal variation
in the excretion patterns of steroids in common marmoset
(C .-- jacchus) females. Am. J. Primatol. 46:105-
Sousa, M.B.C., Silva, H.P.A. andVidal J.E 1999. Litter size
does not interfere with fertility in common marmoset,
C .- jacchus. Folia Primatol. 70: 41-46.
Stevenson, M. F and Rylands, A. B. 1988. The marmosets,
genus ( .-' In: Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical
Primates, Vol. 2, R. A. Mittermeier, A. B. Rylands, A. E.
Coimbra-Filho and G. A. B. da Fonseca (eds.), pp.131-
222. World Wildlife Fund, Washington, DC.
Strier, K. B. and Ziegler, T. E. 1997. Behavioral and
endocrine characteristics of the reproductive cycle in
wild muriqui monkeys, Brachyteles arachnoides. Am. J.
Primatol. 42: 299-310.
Torii, R., Moro, M., Abbott, D. H. and Nigi, H. 1998.
Urine collection in the common marmoset ((
jacchus) and its applicability to endocrinological studies.
Primates 39: 407-417.
Van Schaik, C. P., Vannoordwijk, M. A., Vanbragt, T.
and Blankenstein, M. A. 1991. A pilot-study of the
social correlates of levels of urinary cortisol, prolactin,
and testosterone in wild long-tailed macaques (Macaca
fascicularis). Primates 32: 345-356.
Ziegler, T. E., Snowdon, C. T., Abbott, D. H. and Scheffler,
G. 1994. The value of fecal steroids for estimating the
timing of ovulation in New World primates. Am. J.
Primatol. 33: 254.
Ziegler, T. E, Scheffler, G., Wittwer, D. J., Schultz-
Darken, N. J., Snowdon, C. T. and Abbott, D. H. 1996.
Metabolism of reproductive steroids during the ovarian
cycle in two species of callitrichids, Saguinus oedipus and
( .- jacchus, and estimation of the ovulatory period
from fecal steroids. Biol. Reprod. 54: 91-99, 1996.


Bernardo Urbani

This bibliographic review was compiled after the introduc-
tion of the word "Ethnoprimatology" by Leslie E. Sponsel
(1997). I am including papers which take in Sponsel's con-
cept, all of them restricted to the Neotropics. In annotating
these reference, the following entries are included: Ethnic
groups) / Primate species / Key words) / Locality(ies) /

Neotropical Primates 10(1), April 2002
and Country(ies). The selected works are only those which
have ethnoprimatology as a central theme, other ethno-
zoological studies which mention primates among other
mammals are not listed.
Antolfnez, G. 1944. El senor de los araguatos llorones [The
lord of crying howler monkeys]. Newspaper El Universal
(Caracas), 18' November. Reprinted in: ElAgujero de la
Serpiente (Arqueologia, Folklore, Etnologia, y Mitologia de
Venezuela y Sudamerica). Obras Vol. II. 1998. Barreto 0.
(eds.), pp.154-156. Ediciones La Oruga Luminosa, Casa
de las Letras "Gilberto Antolfnez", San Felipe, Venezuela.
Tupi, Carib, Aztec / Alouatta sp. / Cosmology / Amazonia,
Carabobo state, Central Mexico / Brazil, Venezuela,
Baker, M. 1992. Capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) and
the Ancient Maya. Ancient Mesoamerica 3: 219-228.
Prehispanic Mayas / prehispanic Alouatta palliata,
Alouatta pigra, Ateles .nrr ..i Cebus capucinus / History,
Archaeology, Linguistic / Mayan area / Belize, Guatemala,
Honduras, Mexico.
Bierhorst, J. 1986. The monkey's haircut and other stories
told by the Mayas. Morrow, New York, USA.
Mayas / Alouatta sp., Ateles .. r .. / Folktale / Yucatin
peninsula / Mexico.
Braakhuis, H. E. M. 1987. Artificers of the days:
Functions of the howler monkey gods among the Mayas.
Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land-, en Volkenkunde 143. Floris
Publications, Dortrech, The Netherlands.
Prehispanic Mayas / prehispanic Alouatta sp./ Cosmology,
Archaeology / Mayan area / Mexico.
Bray, T. L. 1998. Monos, monstruos y mitos: Conexiones
ideol6gicas entire la Sierra Septentrional y el Oriente del
Ecuador [Monkeys, monsters and myths: ideological
connections between the Northern Mountains and
Eastern Ecuador]. In: Intercambio y Comercio entire Costa,
Andes y Selva. Arqueologia y Etnohistoria de Suramerica,
F Cardenas-Arroyo and T. L. Bray (eds.), pp. 135-154.
Universidad de Los Andes, Bogoti, Colombia.
Equatorial Amerindians / Aotussp., Ateles sp. / Cosmology
/ Equadorian Andes / Ecuador
Castro, N., Revilla, J. and Neville, M. 1975. Carne de monte
como una fuente de protefnas en Iquitos, con referencia
especial a monos [Bushmeat as protein source in Iquitos,
with special reference to monkeys]. Rev. Forestal del Pert.
5(1-2): 19-32. Reprinted in: La Primatologia en el Pert,
1990, N. Castro-Rodrfguez (ed.), pp.17-35. Proyecto
Peruano de Primatologfa, Lima, Peru.
Peruvian Amerindians and Creoles / Lagothrix lagothricha,
Alouatta seniculus, Cebus j ... Cebus 7.j, '//1,, Ateles sp.,
Pithecia monachus / Bushmeat / Iquitos and vicinity /
Cormier, L. A. 1999. Cultural implications for neotropical
primate conservation on the Caru Indigenous Reserve,
Maranhao, Brazil. Am. J. Primatol. 49(1): 45-46.
Guajai Alouatta belzebul, Chiropotes satanas, Cebus ./I//.7,
Cebus olivaceus kaapori, Aotus infulatus, Saimiri sciureus,
Saguinus niger / Conservation, cultural construction /
Maranhao / Brazil.

Neotropical Primates 10(1), April 2002

Cormier, L. A. 2000. The ethnoprimatology of the Guajai
indians of Maranhao, Brazil. Ph.D. Dissertation, Tulane
University. Louisiana, USA. p.345. Abstract reprinted
as "The ethnoprimatology of the Guaji indians of
Maranhao, Brazil." Diss. Abst. Int. 2000. A61(4): 1494.
Guaji/ Alouatta belzebul, Chiropotes satanas, Cebus a.i//17,
Cebus olivaceus kaapori, Aotus infulatus, Saimiri sciureus,
Saguinus niger I/ Conservation, cannibalism recreation,
cultural construction / Maranhao / Brazil.
Cormier, L. A. 2000. Cultural practices benefiting primate
conservation among the Guaji of Eastern Amazonia.
Neotrop. Primates 8(4): 144-146.
Guaji / Alouatta belzebul, Chiropotes satanas, Cebus .a .c//,
Cebus olivaceus kaapori, Aotus infulatus, Saimiri sciureus,
Saguinus niger / Conservation, cultural construction /
Maranhao / Brazil.
Cormier, L. A. In press. Monkey as food, monkey as child:
Guaji symbolic cannibalism. In: Primates Face to Face:
Conservation Implications of Human and Nonhuman
Primate Interconnections, A. Fuentes and L. D. Wolfe
(eds.), in press. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,
Guaji / Alouatta belzebul, Chiropotes satanas, Cebus a.i//17,
Cebus olivaceus kaapori, Aotus infulatus, Saimiri sciureus,
Saguinus niger I/ Conservation, cannibalism recreation,
cultural construction / Maranhao / Brazil.
Fleck, D. W., Voss, R. S., and Patton, J. L. 1999. Biological
basis of saki (Pithecia) folk species recognized by the
Matses Indians of Amazonian Peru. Int. J. Primatol.
20(6): 1005-1028.
Matses / Pithecia albicans / Ethnoclasification / Rio
Gilvez / Peru.
Garcfa del Cueto, H. 1989. Acerca de la connotaci6n
simb61lico-ritual del mono en la sociedad prehispinica
(Altiplano Central) [On the monkey symbolic-ritual
meaning in the prehispanic society (Central Highlands)].
In: Primatologia en Mexico: Comportamiento, Ecologia,
Aprovechamiento y Conservacidn de Primates, A. Estrada,
R. L6pez-Wilchis and R. Coates-Estrada (eds.), pp.144-
159. Universidad Aut6noma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa.
Mexico, DF.
Prehispanic Central Mexican amerindians / prehispanic
Alouatta sp., Ateles sp. / Cosmology / Central Mexican
Highlands / Mexico.
Gonzalez-Kirchner, J. P. and Sainz de la Maza, M. 1998.
Primates hunting by Guaymi amerindians in Costa Rica.
Hum. Evol. 13(1): 15-19.
Gonzilez-Zamora, A. 2001. Reflexiones sobre la relaci6n
hombre-mono en las diferentes cultures [Thoughts about
the relationship human-monkey in different cultures]
Lab. Prim. Newsl. 40(1): 18.
Mesoamerican Amerindians / Alouatta sp., Ateles sp. /
Cultural construction / Mesoamerica / Mexico.
Guaymi / Ateles ..r . Alouatta palliata, Cebus capucinus,
Saimiri oerstedii I Hunting, conservation / Costa Rica.
Hernindez-Camacho, J. and Cooper, R. W. 1976. The
nonhuman primates of Colombia. Appendix: Some
vernacular primate names used by various indian tribes
in Colombia. In: Neotropical Primates. Field Studies

and Conservation, R. W. Thorington Jr. and P. G.
Heltne (eds.), pp.67-68. National Academy of Sciences,
Washington, DC.
Colombian Amerindians / Alouatta sp., Aotus sp., Ateles
sp., ( .... torquatus, Cebus sp., Lagothrix lagothricha,
Saguinus sp., Saimiri sciureus I/ Ethnoterminology / High
and Lowland Colombia / Colombia.
Karadimas, D. 1999. La constellation des quatre
signes. Interpretation ethno-archdoastronomique
des motifs de "El Carchi-Capulf" (Colombie,
equator) [The constellation of the four monkeys.
Ethnoarchaeoastronomical interpretation of the "El
Carchi-Capulf" motifs (Colombia, Ecuador)]. J. de la Soc.
desAmericanistes 85: 115-145.
Mirafia, Pre-Columbian Amerindians / Ateles sp., Aotus
sp. / Cosmology, ethnoastronomy / Colombian and
Equatorial Andes and Amazonia / Colombia, Ecuador.
Lizarralde, M. In press. Ethnoecology of monkeys among
the Barf of Venezuela: perception, use and conservation.
In: Primates Face to Face: Conservation Implications of
Human and Nonhuman Primate Interconnections, A.
Fuentes and L. D. Wolfe (eds.), in press. Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, UK. Presented as
F.' ....'. of Monkeys among the Bari of Venezuela:
Perception, Use and Conservation, at the symposium
"What are we doing watching monkeys? Anthropological
Perspectives and The Role of Nonhuman Primate
Research." 1997. American Anthropological Association
meeting, Washington, DC.
Barf / Alouatta seniculus, Ateles belzebuth, Aotus lemurinus,
Ateles hybridus, Cebus ,.. I Cultural construction /
Sierra de Periji / Venezuela.
Mittermeier, R. A. 1991. Hunting and its effect on
wild primate populations in Suriname. In: Neotropical
'1 --j. Use and Conservation, J. G. Robinson and K. H.
Redford (eds.), pp.93-107. The University of Chicago
Press, Chicago. Spanish edition: Mittermeier, R. A.
1997. La cacerfa y su efecto en poblaciones silvestres de
primates de Surinam. In: Uso y Conservacidn de la Vida
Silvestre Neotropical. J. G. Robinson K. H. Redford, and
J. Rabinovich (eds.), pp.123-139. Fondo de Cultura
Econ6mica, Mexico DE
Tirio, Caribes / Alouatta seniculus, Ateles panicus,
Chiropotes satanas, Cebus ,'.c/la, Cebus olivaceus, Pithecia
pithecia, Saimiri sciureus, Saguinus midas / Bushmeat /
Tirio Sipaliwini-Pouso Region / Suriname.
Preuss, K. T. 1901. Der Affe in der mexikanischen
Mythologie [The monkey in the Mexican mythology].
Ethnologisches Notizblatt. II(2): 66-76.
Prehispanic Amerindians / Alouatta sp., Ateles sp. /
Cosmology, Archaeological classification / Mexican
Central and Southern regions / Mexico.
Queiroz, H. L. de and Kipnis, R. 1991. Os indios
Guaji e os primatas da Amazonia Maranhense: um
caso de sustentabilidade de caca? [The Guaji Indians
and the primates of Amazonia Maranhense: a case of
sustainability?]. In: A Primatologia no Brasil 5, S. F.
Ferrari and H. Schneider (eds.), pp.81-94. Sociedade
Brasileira de Primatologia and Universidade Federal do

Neotropical Primates 10(1), April 2002

Para. Belkm, Brazil. Presented as Os Indios Guajd e os
Primatas da Amazonia Maranhense. 1991, XVI Congresso
Brasileiro de Zoologia. Bahia, Brazil.
Guaja/ Alouatta belzebul, Chiropotes satanas, Cebus ,''cI//,
Cebus olivaceus kaapori, Aotus infulatus, Saimiri sciureus,
Saguinus niger / Conservation, cultural construction /
Maranhao / Brazil.
Shepard, G, Jr. In press. Primates in Matsigenka subsistence
and worldview. In: Primates Face to Face: Conservation
Implications of Human and Nonhuman Primate
Interconnections, A. Fuentes and L. D. Wolfe (eds.), in
press. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Presented as Monkey Hunting with the Machiguenga:
Medicine, Magic, Ecology, and Cosmology at the symposium
"What are we doing watching monkeys? Anthropological
perspectives and the role of nonhuman primate research."
1997. American Anthropological Association Meeting,
Washington, DC.
Machinguenga / Ateles panicus, Alouatta seniculus,
Aotus trivirgatus, ( .... moloch, Cebus sp., Lagothrix
lagothricha, Pithecia monachus, Saimiri sciureus / Mand
region / Peru.
Sponsel, L. E. 1997. The human niche in Amazonia:
Explorations in ethnoprimatology. In: New World
Primates. Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, W. G. Kinzey
(ed.), pp.143-165. Aldine de Gruyter. New York.
Amazonian Amerindians / Amazonian primates /
Ethnoprimatological definition / Lowland South America
/ Amazon basin countries.
Townsend, W. R. and Ramfrez, V. M. 1995. Cultural
Teachings as an Ecological Data Base: Murui (Witoto)
Knowledge About Primates. Center for Latin
American Studies, University of Florida, Gainesville.
Witoto / Alouatta seniculus, Ateles belzebuth, C ....
torquatus, Callimico goeldii, (. pygmaea, Cebus
,/,lla, Saguinus fuscicollis, Saimiri sciureus, Lagothrix
lagothricha, Pithecia monachus / Ethnoclassification / Rio
Caqueta / Colombia.
Urbani, B. and Gil, L. 2001. Consideraciones sobre restos
de primates de un yacimiento arqueol6gico del Oriente
de Venezuela (Am&rica del Sur): Cueva del Guacharo,
estado Monagas [Considerations on primate remains
in an archaeological site in Eastern Venezuela (South
America): Guacharo Cave, Monagas state] Cave Munibe
(Antropologia-Arkeologia). 53: 135-142. Presented at the
V Jornadas Venezolanas de Espeleologfa 1999, Caracas,
Venezuela and abstract printed as "Consideraciones sobre
restos de primates de un sitio arqueol6gico del Oriente
de Venezuela: Cueva del Guacharo (Mo. 1), estado
Monagas." Bol. de la Soc. Venezolana de Espeleologia 2000,
34: 70.
Carib / prehispanic Alouatta seniculus / Archaeological
interpretations / Guacharo Cave / Venezuela.
Valadez-Azda, R. 1989. Vision de los monos
mesoamericanos por las cultures prehispanicas [Perception
of the Mesoamerican monkeys by the prehispanic
cultures]. In: Primatologia en M&eico: Comportamiento,

Ecologia, Aprovechamiento y Conservacidn de Primates, A.
Estrada, R. L6pez-Wilchis and R. Coates-Estrada (eds.),
pp.160-175. Universidad Aut6noma Metropolitana-
Iztapalapa, Mexico, DE
Prehispanic Mexican Amerindians / prehispanic Alouatta
sp., Ateles sp. / Cosmology, archaeology / Central and
Southern Mexico / Mexico.
Valadez-Azda, R. and Childs-Rattray, E. 1993. Restos
arqueol6gicos relacionados con monos mexicanos
encontrados en "El Barrio de Los Comerciantes" de la
antigua ciudad de Teotihuacan [Archaeological remains
related to Mexican monkeys found at "El Barrio de Los
Comerciantes" in the antique city of Teotihuacan]. In:
Estudios Primatoldgicos en Mexico. Vol. 1, A. Estrada,
E. Rodrfguez-Luna, R. L6pez-Wilchis and R. Coates-
Estrada (eds.), pp. 215-229. Asociaci6n Mexicana de
Primatologfa and Biblioteca Universidad Veracruzana.
Xalapa, Mexico.
Xolalpan people / prehispanic Alouatta palliata /
Archaeological interpretation / Teotihuacan city /
Van Akkeren, R. 1998. The monkey and the black heart.
Polar North in Ancient Mesoamerica. In: Memorias del
Tercer Congreso Internacional de Mayistas. A. L. Izquierdo
(ed.), pp.165-185. Universidad Nacional Aut6noma de
Mexico, Mexico, DF
Prehispanic Mexican Amerindians / prehispanic Alouatta
sp, Ateles sp. / Cosmology, Archaeology / Mexican
highlands and Mayan area / Mexico.

Acknowledgments: Special thanks to Loretta A. Cormier,
Robert S. Voss, Manuel Lizarralde and Leslie E. Sponsel
for their contributions, and to Tania Urquiza-Haas for her

Bernardo Urbani, Departamento de Biologfa de Organis-
mos, Universidad Sim6n Bolivar, Apartado 47.028, Cara-
cas 1041-A, Venezuela, e-mail: .


Bernardo Urbani

The discovery of New World fossil primates has recently
begun to be noticed by primatologists and speleologists,
because of its interesting implications in both disciplines.
The papers in this bibliography are only those printed in
speleological publications, most still practically unknown
among the primatological community. The listed entries
considered are Primate species / Key words / Locality(ies)
/ Country(ies).

Gutierrez-Calvache, D., Jimenez-Vasquez, 0. and Jaimez-
Salgado, E. 1995. El registro f6sil de platirrinos en las
Antillas. Situaci6n actual y perspective [The platyrrhine
fossil record in the Antilles. Current status and

Neotropical Primates 10(1), April 2002

perspectives]. Actas del Congreso Internacional y Primera
Reunidn Iberoamericana por el LV Aniversario de la Soc.
Cubana de Espeleologia, La Habana. p.63-64.
General Antillean extinct primates / General review /
Cueva de Berna, Central Cuban caves, Jamaican caves /
Dominican Republic, Cuba, Jamaica.
Jaimez-Salgado, E. 1995. Primate 2000: Un proyecto
paleontol6gico de perfil amplio a largo plazo [Primate
2000: A long-term paleontological project]. Actas del
Congress Internacional y Primera Reunidn Iberoamericana
por el LVAniversario de la Soc. Cubana de Espeleologia, La
Habana. p.64.
Cuban quaternary primates / Project overview / Sistema
Cavernario de Constantino / Cuba.
Jaimez-Salgado, E., Gutierrez-Calvache, D., MacPhee, R.
D. and Gould, G. C. 1992. The monkey caves of Cuba.
Cave Science. 19(1): 25-28. Abstract printed as "The
monkey caves of Cuba." Actas del Congreso Internacional y
Primera Reunidn Iberoamericana por el LVAniversario de la
Soc. Cubana de Espeleologia, La Habana. 1995, p.63.
Paraloulatta varonail Research account / Cueva del Mono
F6sil, Cueva Alta / Cuba.
Lobo-Martins, P. A. C. 1997. Como foi a descoberta dos
macacos [How were the monkeys discovered] 0 Carste,
Publicaado do Grupo Bambui de Pesquisas Espeleoldgicas,
Brasil. 9(1): 16-18.
Caipora bambuiorum / Description of finding / Toca de
Boa Vista/ Brazil.
Lobo-Martins, P. A., Cartelle, C., Hartwig, W. and
Rubiolli, E. L. 2000. Caipora bambuiorum. Uma espera
milenar. 7' expedicao, 26/12/92 a 13/01/93 [Caipora
bambuiorum. A millenial wait. 7th expedition, 12/26/92
a 01/13/93]. 0 Carste, Publicacdo do Grupo Bambui de
Pesquisas Espeleoldgicas, Brasil. 12(3): 116-117.
Caipora bambuiorum / Description of finding / Toca de
Boa Vista/ Brazil.
MacPhee, R. D. 1997. Vertebrate Paleontology of Jamaican
caves. In: Jamaica Underground. The Caves, Sinkholes and
Underground Rivers of the Island, A. G. Fincham (ed.),
pp.47-56. The Press University of the West Indies,
Kingston, Jamaica.
Xenothrix mcgregori, undescribed platyrrhine species A,
undescribed platyrrhine species B / General review / Long
Mile Cave, Somerville Cave, Drum Cave, Skeleton Cave,
Coco Ree Cave North, Sheep Pen Cave, Lloyd's Cave /
Perera, M. A. 1976. Notas sobre una excavaci6n en la Cueva
del Guicharo (Mo.1), estado Monagas, Venezuela. Bol. de
la Soc. Venezolana de Espeleologia 7(14), 249-267.
Prehispanic Alouatta seniculus / Archaeological research /
Guicharo Cave / Venezuela.
Senna-Horta, L. 1997. Caipora bambuiorum. Um novo
genero de macaco extinto encontrado na Toca de Boa
Vista, Campo Formosa Bahia [Caipora bambuiorum.
A new extinct primate genus found in the Toca de Boa
Vista, Campo Formosa Bahia]. 0 Carste, Publicaado
do Grupo Bambui de Pesquisas Espeleoldgicas, Brasil 9(1):

Caipora bambuiorum / Description of finding / Toca de
Boa Vista / Brazil.
Trias, M., Ottenwalder, J. A., Jaume, D. and Alcover, J.
A. 1997. Una campafia en la Repdblica Dominicana.
Resultados preliminaries [A campaign in the Dominican
Republic. Preliminary results]. Endins, Publicacid
d'Espeleologia de la Federacid Balear d'Espeleologia, Espaia
21: 63-74.
A- ..- bernensis / Collection report / Jaragua
National Park caves / Dominican Republic.
Urbani, B. and Gil, L. 2001. Consideraciones sobre restos
de primates de un yacimiento arqueol6gico del Oriente
de Venezuela (Am&rica del Sur): Cueva del Guicharo,
estado Monagas [Considerations on primate remains
of an archaeological site in Eastern Venezuela (South
America): Guicharo Cave, Monagas state] Cave Munibe
(Antropologia-Arkeologia). 53: 135-142. Presented at the
V Jornadas Venezolanas de Espeleologfa 1999, Caracas,
Venezuela and abstract printed as "Consideraciones sobre
restos de primates de un sitio arqueol6gico del Oriente
de Venezuela: Cueva del Guicharo (Mo. 1), estado
Monagas." Bol. de la Soc. Venezolana de Espeleologia 2000,
34: 70.
Prehispanic Alouatta seniculus / Archaeological
interpretations / Guacharo Cave / Venezuela.

Reprints are available using the "Interlibraries photocopies
service" of the Union Internationale de Spildologie
(UIS-Commission de Bibliographie) at the following
speleological libraries, affiliated to the UIS:
Biblioteca "Dr. Emilio Maury," Grupo Espeol6gico
Argentino (GEA), Heredia 426 (C1427CNF), Buenos
Aires, Argentina.
National Speleological Society (NSS), Library, 1, Cave
Avenue, Huntsville, Alabama 35810, USA.
Biblioteca de la Sociedad Venezolana de Espeleologfa
(SVE), Apartado 47.334, Caracas 1041-A, Venezuela.

Acknowledgments. Special thanks to Khalil Ghneim,
librarian of the Sociedad Venezolana de Espeleologfa
(SVE). To Tania Urquiza-Haas for her comments.

Bernardo Urbani, Departamento de Biologfa de
Organismos, Universidad Sim6n Bolivar, and SVE,
Apartado 47.028, Caracas 1041-A, Venezuela, email:



As part of Conservation International's (CI) Rapid Assess-
ment Program (RAP), a RAP Training Course was held
at Mabura Hill Township, West Pibiri Creek, Guyana

at the Tropenbos Ecological Station (500'40.9"N,
5836'50.0"W) from 4-18 September, 2001. Located in
the interior of central Guyana, West Pibiri Creek was previ-
ously an active logging concession operated by Demerara
Timbers Limited (DTL) for the selective extraction of valu-
able hardwoods such as greenheart. The population of the
Mabura Hill Township is estimated to be about 700. The
research staff of the Tropenbos-Guyana Programme (TGP)
living there make up only 3% of the population.

I observed primates on a number of occasions while set-
ting up a grid of camera traps to record large mammals and
terrestrial birds. All observations were within 8 km of the
research station. For most of the primate sightings I was in
the forest, although some were seen from logging roads. I
observed red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus) once and
heard their loud and long (30 seconds or more) pre-dawn
chorus every day. Black spider monkeys (Ateles paniscus)
were seen daily. A single, male white-faced saki (Pithecia
pithecia) was observed clearly for several minutes. Golden-
handed tamarins (Saguinus midas) were seen from the log-
ging road. Common squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus),
wedge-capped capuchins (Cebus olivaceus), tufted brown
capuchins (C. ,c'//l), and a group of approximately 23
bearded sakis (Chiropotes satanus) were also observed.

We conducted our RAP study from 21-29 September,
2001 at the beginning of the dry season at Pobuwau Creek
(316'3.1"N, 5846'42.7"W) located on the Kwitaro River
(a tributary of the Rewa River, which in turn runs into the
Rupununi, an affluent of the Essequibo), in Region 9 in
southern Guyana, and at Cacique Mountain (311'29.5"N,
5848'42.0"W) six miles southwest of Pobuwau Creek.
Both sites were approximately 130 m elevation and vegeta-
tion was lowland, seasonally inundated, evergreen tropical
forest. River was at high water but dropping rapidly, and
fell approximately 1.5m during our brief visit. Also while
deploying camera traps, I observed black spider monkeys
(A. paniscus) daily, common squirrel monkeys (S. sciureus),
tufted brown capuchin (C. ,,c//I,), three golden-handed
tamarins (S. midas), and bearded saki monkeys (C. satanus).
Red howler monkeys (A. seniculus) were heard just before
dawn each day, as regular as an alarm clock.

Darien, Panama

The last week of December, 2001, I1 visited Darien National
Park, Darien, Panama (7o48'N, 77o40'E). The park head-
quarters, located near a grass airstrip, were reached by
a small chartered airplane after a 45-minute flight from
Panama City. I observed two red-naped or Geoffroy's
tamarins (Saguinus rr-.. i from the park headquarters.
I also observed white-throated capuchin (Cebus capucinus),
and small groups (2-3 individuals) of brown-headed spider
monkeys (Ateles fusciceps) daily. Mantled howler monkeys
(Alouatta palliata) were heard every day for much of the
day, but the chorus was much shorter and weaker than the
dramatic calls of the red howler monkeys in Guyana.

Neotropical Primates 10(1), April 2002
Jim Sanderson, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science,
Conservation International, 1919 M Street NW, Suite 600,
Washington, DC 20036, USA, e-mail: ervation.org>.


Increased contact between wild primates and humans
through hunting and the butchering of animals, wildlife
tourism, and through animals losing their shyness and
becoming "pests" provides increasing opportunities for the
mutual transmission of pathogens. Such transmission is of
both conservation and public health concern (Ferner, 2000;
Peeters et al., 2002; Wallis and Lee, 1999). The origin of
human AIDS (Gao et al., 1999) probably provides the most
severe example of the dramatic consequences of pathogen
transmission from wild primates to humans.

In a recent paper in the journal Emerging Infectious Diseases,
Silvana Favoretto from the Instituto Pasteur, Sao Paulo,
and her colleagues reported eight fatal cases of rabies'
transmission from common marmosets, ( .-' jacchus,
to humans (Favoretto et al., 2001), and a high number of
patients who sought rabies prophylaxis after having been
bitten by marmosets and other primates in the Brazilian
state of Ceara. In the fatal cases, transmission occurred
through unprovoked bites from free-ranging individuals
and from pets, or when people tried to capture wild mar-
mosets. The genetic and phylogenetic analyses by Favoretto
et al. provided evidence that the rabies virus transmitted
by the marmosets "represents a unique and independent
endemic rabies cycle" (p.164). The paper left open the
question as to whether C. jacchus acts as a natural reservoir
for rabies or whether their infection and transmission to
other hosts is only occasional. This question can only be
answered through the regular screening of wild popula-
tions. However, the findings of Favoretto et al. should make
us aware of the potential risks associated with the close con-
tact and handling of wild primates during field research.
This is a risk not only with the Old World monkeys and
apes which are phylogenetically closer to humans, but also
with our more distant relatives, the New World monkeys. I
recommend all New World primate field workers read and
take note of the implicit warnings in the published study of
Favoretto et al. (2001).

Eckhard W. Heymann, Abteilung Verhaltensforschung
& Oekologie, Deutsches, Primatenzentrum GmbH,
Kellnerweg 4, D-37077 Gbttingen, Germany. E-mail:


Favoretto, S. R., Mattos, C. C. de, Morais, N. B., Alves
Aratjo, E A. and Mattos, C. A. de. 2001. Rabies in
marmosets (( .- jacchus), Ceara, Brazil. Emerg.

Neotropical Primates 10(1), April 2002

Infect. Dis. 7: 1062-1065. [http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/
Ferber, D. 2001. Human diseases threaten great apes.
Science289: 12-13.
Gao, F, Bailes, E., Robertson, D. L., Chen, Y., Rodenburg,
C. M., Michael, S. E, Cummins, L. B., Arthur, L. 0.,
Peeters, M., Shaw, G. M., Sharp, P. M. and Hahn, B. H.
1999. Origin of HIV-1 in the chimpanzee Pan trogolodytes
troglodytes. Nature 397: 436-441.
Peeters, M., Courgnaud, V., Abela, B., Auzel, P., Pourrut,
X., Bibollet-Ruche, F, Loul, S., Liegeois, E, Butel, C.,
Koulagna, D., Mpoudi-Ngole, E., Shaw, G. M., Hahn,
B. H. and Delaporte, E. 2002. Risk to human health
from a plethora of Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses in
primate bushmeat. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8. 451-457. [http:
Wallis, J. and Lee, D. R. 1999. Primate conservation: The
prevention of disease transmission. Int J. Primatol. 20:


Jose de Sousa e Silva Jr. defended his doctoral thesis on
the taxonomy of capuchin monkeys in July, 2001, at the
Department of Genetics of the Federal University of Rio de
Janeiro, Brazil. His supervisor was Professor Rui Cerqueira,
and the study was supported by the Department of Zool-
ogy of the Museu Paraense Emflio Goeldi, Belkm, and the
Brazil Science Council (CNPq). The following is a liberal
English translation of the abstract.

The genus Cebus has been considered to be one of the most
confused taxonomic groups of the Neotropical mammals.
According to those who have studied the diversity of this
genus, the principal source of confusion is their consider-
able polymorphism. Although there are ontogenetic changes
and sex differences, the variation is mostly individual, even
within the same populations. The separation of Cebus into
tufted and untufted species' groups was generally accepted
following the 1949 publication of Hershkovitz. According
to him, the tufted group, even with considerable polymor-
phism, was represented by just one species, Cebus .jc//li,
and the untufted group by three species, Cebus capucinus,
Cebus j .. and Cebus nigrivittatus, with five, 13 and
five subspecies, respectively. This taxonomic arrangement
was widely accepted despite the poor resolution of numer-
ous biological and nomenclatural aspects.

The aim of this study was to examine the diversity amongst
the numerous taxa described in this genus to establish a
definition of natural groupings. The basic evolutionary unit
used was the species, although a subgeneric differentiation
was also considered convenient. A total of 2,369 museum
specimens were examined, along with more than 1,000 live
animals in both captivity and the wild, and 1,558 registers
of localities were used to determine geographic distribu-

tions. A preliminary analysis of morphological characters
using a transect method was used to examine the validity
of the taxa, resulting in hypotheses about differentiation
within the genus which were then tested with a new tran-
sect analysis using all the characters and specimens avail-
able. The consistency of the results was evaluated through
morphometric analyses using analysis of variance and, in
the tufted capuchin group, a discriminant analysis within
each sex. Information on karyotypes was obtained through
published studies. Data on the cytochrome oxidase II gene
resulting from a parallel study at the Federal University of
Pard were also taken into account. Behavioral, ecological
and life history data were obtained from the literature and
from direct observation of live animals.

The results showed that the majority of characters differen-
tiated the forms of Cebus, with abrupt transitions of each
state at the limits to their geographic distributions. Patterns
of variation and differentiation were concordant within the
different groupings to a greater or lesser degree. As such,
the characterization of the taxa was multidisciplinary, being
defined by data sets which were hypothetically indepen-
dent. The tufted and untufted groups were provisionally
elevated to at least subgeneric status due to considerable
differentiation in numerous biological aspects, their geo-
graphic distributions and the detection of probable species'
groups within each. The nominate subgenus, Cebus, is
referable to the untufted group, and Sapajus Kerr, 1792, is
the name available for the tufted capuchins. The species of
each subgenus have peripatric or parapatric distributions,
and the principal differences between them are easily seen.
The subgenus Cebus was divided into four species: Cebus
(Cebus) capucinus (Linnaeus, 1758), Cebus (Cebus) p, j ..
(Humboldt, 1812), Cebus (Cebus) olivaceus Schomburgk,
1848, and Cebus (Cebus) kaapori Queiroz, 1992. The
subgenus Sapajus was divided into seven species: Cebus
(Sapajus) .J,''//, (Linnaeus, 1758), Cebus (Sapajus) macro-
cephalus Spix, 1823, Cebus (Sapajus) libidinosus Spix, 1823,
Cebus (Sapajus) cay Illiger, 1815, Cebus (Sapajus) xanthoster-
nos Wied, 1820, Cebus (Sapajus) robustus Kuhl, 1820, and
Cebus (Sapajus) nigritus (Goldfuss, 1809).

Jos6 de Sousa e Silva Jr., Departamento de Zoologia, Museu
Paraense Emflio Goeldi, Caixa Postal 399, 66040-170
Belkm, Para, Brazil, e-mail: .


Hershkovitz, P 1949. Mammals of northern Colombia.
Preliminary report No. 4: Monkeys (Primates), with
taxonomic revisions of some forms. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.
98: 323-427.
Silva Jr. J. de S. 2001. Especiacao nos macacos-prego
e caiararas, genero Cebus Erxleben, 1777 (Primates,
Cebidae). Doctoral thesis, Universidade Federal do Rio
de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro. 377pp.


In May 2000, Karen L. Bales defended her doctoral thesis
on aspects of monogamy, dominance, hormones and
maternal care in wild golden lion tamarins. It was presented
to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University
of Maryland, College Park. Her supervisor was James M.
Dietz of the Department of Biology, and the research,
carried out in the Pogo das Antas Biological Reserve from
June 1996 to March 1999, was supported by the National
Science Foundation, the University of Maryland Graduate
School, Sigma Xi, TransBrasil Airlines and Friends of the
National Zoo. The following is an abstract of the thesis.

Studies of mammalian monogamy focus on three different
areas: mating exclusivity (monogamy as a mating pattern);
pair-bonds (monogamy as a social relationship); and bipa-
rental care (monogamy as a rearing pattern) (Gubernick,
1994). In this dissertation I used golden lion tamarins
(Leontopithecus rosalia) to address questions examining the
interrelationships between these three areas. In chapter one
I presented the results of an experimental test to determine
which animal in each group had priority access to a prized
food resource. Rather than being determined by female
energetic state, access to food was determined by which
animal had founded the group ("territory ownership"). Dis-
covery of this new system for determination of intersexual
dominance raised questions about the costs and benefits of
living in male- vs. female-founded groups, which I exam-
ined in the second chapter. Female-founded groups were
predominant in the population and appeared to be more
stable, while male-founded groups were less common and
more transitional. Females in female-founded groups had
higher inclusive fitness, lower levels of stress hormones, and
received more grooming behavior. Males in male-founded
groups showed the lowest levels of sociality and were per-
haps seeking extra-group copulations or other resources.
Females in male-founded groups received increased survi-
vorship benefits compared to floaters, but did not receive
any of the other benefits gained by females in female-
founded groups. In the third chapter, I explored one of the
other central concepts of monogamy; biparental care. In a
social system where females have the option of relinquish-
ing all infant care except lactation to other group members,
what factors affect their decision about how much to invest
in each infant? I examined hormonal, social and functional
variables which are hypothesized to affect maternal invest-
ment. Prenatal investment (measured by birth weight) was
predicted by litter size, cortisol levels and estrogen levels.
Post-natal investment (measured by maternal carrying and
nursing) was predicted by maternal condition, group size,
litter size and provisioning status of the mother. Callitrichid
mothers provide extra care for their infants either because
they have to (because of small group size), or because they
can (because of good condition).

Neotropical Primates 10(1), April 2002
Karen L. Bales, Department of Psychiatry, 1601 W. Taylor
Street, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois
60612, USA, e-mail: .


Bales K. L. 2000. Mammalian Monogamy: Dominance,
Hormones, and Maternal Care in Wild Golden Lion
Tamarins. Doctoral dissertation, Department of Biology,
University of Maryland, College Park.
Gubernick D. J. 1994. Biparental care and male-female
relations in mammals. In: Infanticide and Parental Care,
S. Parmigiani and E S. vom Saal (eds.), pp.427-463.
Harwood Academic Publishers, Langhorne, PA.


Kimran E. Miller defended her doctoral thesis in December
2001: a study of olfactory communication, feeding
behaviors and energy budgets of wild golden lion tamarins
(Leontopithecus rosalia). It was presented to the Faculty of
the Graduate School of the University of Maryland, College
Park. Her supervisor was James M. Dietz of the Department
of Biology. The research was carried out from May 1993 to
May 2000, supported by grants from NSF (SBR-9727687),
the Eugenie Clark Foundation, NSF Research Training
Grant (BIR-9602266), Latin American Studies Center,
Friends of the National Zoo and Copenhagen Zoo. The
following is an abstract of the thesis.

Studies on cooperative breeding have examined issues
including why many cooperative breeders are philopatric
and why some species are singular breeders, while others
are plural breeders. The direction of studies on cooperative
breeding has moved from how dominant animals reproduc-
tively suppress subordinates to the degree of reproductive
skew and costs associated with reproduction. In this dis-
sertation, I examined several topics related to cooperative
breeding, ecological constraints and costs associated with
reproduction in wild golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus
rosalia, GLTs), in Pogo das Antas Biological Reserve, Brazil.
In the first chapter, I tested four hypotheses relative to the
function of scent marking. GLTs appear to use scent mark-
ing for the purpose of marking food resources, but not for
territory defense. Reproductive females seemingly use scent
marking in intergroup communication, while reproductive
males use scent marking in intragroup communication.
Reproductive females may use scent marking to protect
their position in their group from immigrating females,
thereby maintaining singular breeding. In the second chap-
ter, I tested the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors
on time spent feeding on plant matter, feeding on animal
prey and searching for prey. Intrinsic factors are associated
with characteristics of the individual, while extrinsic fac-

Neotropical Primates 10(1), April 2002
tors are associated with the environment. Factors including
time spent traveling, day length, group size and age influ-
ence feeding in wild GLTs. In the third chapter, I tested
two hypotheses regarding the way in which females may be
energetically constrained during reproductive events. Both
a reduced energy intake and increased energy expenditure
seem to constrain females that are pregnant or lactating.
This study suggests that reproductive females may in part
maintain their singular breeding through scent marking.
Also, the influence of ecological factors such as rainfall, in
addition to high costs associated with reproduction, may
influence birth seasonality. Births may occur only after
females have consumed sufficient energy to offset costs
associated with reproduction and food resources that are
potentially temporally unstable.

Kimran E. Miller, Biology Department, University of
Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA, e-mail:


Miller, K. E. 2002. Olfactory Communication, Feeding
Behaviors and Energy Budgets of Wild Golden Lion
Tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia). Doctoral dissertation,
University of Maryland, College Park.


In September 2001, Ana Alice Biedzicki Marques defended
her doctoral thesis comparing seasonal variation in the
ranging behavior, activity patterns and diet of groups of
the brown howling monkey, Alouatta fusca, in two forests
on the Sul-RioGrandense plateau in southern Brazil. It was
presented to the postgraduate course on Ecology, Conser-
vation and Wildlife Management of the Institute of Bio-
logical Sciences at the Federal University of Minas Gerais,
Belo Horizonte. Part of the comparative analysis was made
possible through previous studies of howling monkeys at
the Aracuri Ecological Station for her Master's degree,
under the supervision of C&sar Ades of the University of
Sao Paulo. Her supervisor was Anthony B. Rylands, and
her research was supported by the US Fish and Wildlife
Service, the Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation, the
Fundacao 0 Boticario de Protecao a Natureza, the Brazil
Science Council (CNPq) and the Brazilian Higher Educa-
tion Authority (CAPES). The following is a summary of
her thesis.

Brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba) occupy varied
habitats along the Atlantic forest, from Bahia to Rio
Grande do Sul. A. guariba clamitans groups were studied
at two localities in Rio Grande do Sul. The first was the
Aracuri Ecological Station on the Southern Plateau. The

climate there is temperate, and there are two main two
types of forest: broad leaved forest and Araucaria pine
forest. The second site was the Itapua State Park, on the
coast where the climate is subtropical. Forest types there are
more varied and include mesophytic hillside forest, moist
forest and sandy soil scrub forest restingga. The data were
collected by scan sampling, with 5 minutes of observation
at 15 minute intervals. The study at Aracuri was carried
out from August 1993 to August 1994, and at Itapua
between April 1999 and March 2000. Information was
collected on the influence of air temperature and habitat
on the diet, activity patterns and use of space of one group
of howlers at each site. The study group at Aracuri ranged
in size from 10 to 13 individuals and that at Itapua, from 7
to 10 individuals. At Aracuri, the howler's diet was largely
folivorous (55%), with fruits comprising 16% and flowers
10%. The most important species was Araucaria angustifolia
(27% of the diet). At Itapua, fruits comprised 47% of
the total feeding records, followed by leaves (34%), and
flowers (12%). Fruits of Syagrus .. :.-tr and Ficus
organensis made up 26% of the records. Resting was the
most frequent behavioral category in both groups, but they
showed significant seasonal differences. At Aracuri, moving
and resting differed significantly between seasons. Moving
was more frequent in the autumn, while the howlers
spent more time resting in the spring. In Itapua, the only
seasonal difference was in feeding, which was less frequent
in springtime. Over the year, the home range of the Aracuri
group was 13.51 ha, and the largest seasonal home range
(12.36 ha) was in the autumn from March to June. At
Itapua, the home range over the year was 8.56 ha, and the
largest seasonal home range (8.23 ha) was in the summer,
from December to March. The daily ranges of the Aracuri
group were also larger on average (957.6 m as opposed to
768.7 m at Itapua). Although influencing activity patterns,
with extreme cold during the winter at Aracuri and higher
temperatures in the summer at Itapua, climatic stress was
found to be less important in the determination of the use
of the space than the dispersion, type and availability of
food resources.

Ana Alice Biedzicki de Marques, PPG em Biologia,
Diversidade e Manejo de Vida Silvestre, Universidade do
Vale do Rio dos Sinos UNISINOS, Centro 2, Av. Unisinos,
950, Caixa Postal 275, 93022-000 Sao Leopoldo, Rio
Grande do Sul, Brazil. E-mail: .


Marques, A. A. B. 2001. Variao6es Sazonais do Uso
de Espaco por Alouatta fusca (Primates Cebidae) em
Duas Areas de Mata com Araucaria no Planalto Sul-
RioGrandense. Doctoral thesis, Instituto de Ciencias
Biol6gicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo
Horizonte. 148pp.

Neotropical Primates 10(1), April 2002


A field course on the "Ecology of New World Primates"
was held from 17 October to 6 November 2001 at the
Estaci6n Biol6gica Quebrada Blanco (EBQB), Reserva
Comunal Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo, in north-eastern Peru. The
course was supported by a grant from the Margot Marsh
Biodiversity Foundation and represented a follow-up to the
theoretical course held at the Universidad Nacional de la
Amazonfa Peruana (UNAP) in Iquitos in October 2000 (see
Neotropical Primates 8: 120-121, 2000). The field course
was directed by Eckhard W. Heymann from the Deutsches
Primatenzentrum (DPZ, German Primate Center) as part
of research and teaching activities in the framework of the
memorandum of understanding between DPZ and the
Faculties of Forestry Engineering and Biological Sciences
of UNAP. 10 students and one staff member from UNAP
participated in the course. Activities carried out during the
field course included:

[ Observations on the ecology and behaviour of two
species of tamarin monkeys;
[ habitat sampling (vegetation plots; transects);
[ phenological observations of primate feeding trees;
[ collection and examination of primate fecal samples;
[ experiments on secondary seed dispersal and seed
[ evening lectures by doctoral students and alumni from
DPZ (Maren Huck, Janna Kirchhof, Petra Lbttker,
Em&rita R. Tirado Herrera) and a counterpart student
from UNAP (Marcos R. Oversluijs Vasquez); and
[ opportunistic observations on ecological phenomena
in a tropical rain forest.

The course also provided ample opportunity to become
familiar with practical problems associated with
primatological field studies and with problems of primate

Un curso de campo sobre "Ecologfa de Primates
Neotropicales" se realize entire el 17 de octubre y el 06 de
noviembre 2001 en la Estaci6n Biol6gica Quebrada Blanco
(EBQB), Reserva Comunal Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo, nor-
oriente peruano. Este curso representaba una extension del
curso te6rico realizado en octubre 2000 vasee Neotropical
Primates 8: 120-121, 2000) y fue subvencionado por una
beca de la Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation. El curso
fue dirigido por Eckhard W. Heymann del Deutsches
Primatenzentrum (DPZ, Centro Aleman de Primates) y
se realize como parte de las actividades de investigaci6n
cientifica y de ensefianza, realizadas en el margen de la carta
de entendimiento entire DPZ y las Facultades de Ingenierfa
Forestal y de Ciencias Biol6gicas de la UNAP. Participaron
11 estudiantes y un docente de la UNAP en el curso.

Actividades realizados durante del curso comprendfan:

[] Observaciones ecol6gicos y comportamentales de
dos species de Saguinus;
[ muestreo de habitat (parcelas de muestreo de
vegetaci6n; transectos)
[ observaciones fenol6gicas de Arboles alimenticias de
[ recolecci6n y examinaci6n de muestras fecales de los
[ experiments sobre dispersi6n secundaria y depre-
daci6n de semillas;
[ charlas por estudiantes de doctorado y alumni del
DPZ (Maren Huck, Janna Kirchhof, Petra Lbttker,
Emerita R. Tirado Herrera) y de un estudiante
contraparte de la UNAP (Marcos R. Oversluijs
Vasquez); y
U observaciones oportunfsticas de fen6menos
ecol6gicos en un bosque tropical.
El curso tambidn daba la oportunidad de familiarizarse
con los problems practices asociados con studios
primatol6gicos de campo y problems de conservaci6n
de primates.

Eckhard W Heymann, Abteilung Verhaltensforschung
& Okologie, Deutsches Primatenzentrum, Kellnerweg
4, D-37077 Gbttingen, Germany.


The Fundaci6n Puerto Rastrojo
PUrMto Rasgtroj is pleased to present the CD-
L, ROM "Atlas of the Colom-
bian Amazon." A consultative tool, the Atlas contains
information about different aspects of the Colombian
Amazon, including the physical environment, public
services, colonization processes, economy, indigenous
settlements, National Parks and institutional presence
(amongst others). The Atlas contains more than 35
interactive maps, as well as a database with 47.000 spe-
cies localities and a collection of 112 photos illustrating
the variety of landscapes, ways of life and activities of
the Colombian Amazon. We hope that this multimedia
application will be useful for researchers, students, public
and private institutions and the general public. The use
of the maps, photos, data and texts included in the CD-
ROM is free of restriction, as long as reference is made
to the source. Fundaci6n Puerto Rastrojo is a Colombian
NGO which has spent the last 20 years working in the
Colombian Amazon carrying out conservation, research
and training programmes.

The Atlas is available in Spanish. For more information
please contact Fundaci6n Puerto Rastrojo(FPR), Cra. 10
No. 24-76, Of. 1201, Bogota, Colombia, Tel: (57 1) 284-
9010, 560-7054, Fax: (57 1) 560-7055, e-mail: @uolpremium.net.co>.

Neotropical Primates 10(1), April 2002

The mission of the European Association of
Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA), Chairman Mikl6s
Persanyi, Director Koen Brouwer, is to pro-
mote co-operation for furthering wildlife
conservation, particularly through interna-
tionally-coordinated breeding programmes of wild animals,
through the European Endangered Species Programmes
(EEP); to promote education, in particular environmental
education; to promote regional collection planning activi-
ties; to contribute to relevant meetings and discussions of
the supra-international organizations, such as the United
Nations, The World Conservation Union IUCN, the
European Union, and the Convention of International
Trade in Endangered Plant and Animal Species (CITES);
and to advise, as required, the European Union, or other
representative committees such as the European Parliament
and the European Council.

At their annual conference in Prague in September 2001,
the EAZA, through its Conservation Committee, chaired
by Jo Gipps, Bristol Zoo, launched a major, two-year,
fund-raising campaign in support of the conservation of
the threatened fauna and flora of the endangered Atlantic
forest of Brazil, eastern Paraguay and northern Argentina
(2001-2002). The Atlantic rain forest was chosen because
of its status as a priority area for the World Association of
Zoos and Aquaria (WAZA), and focuses particularly on the
conservation programs for the four lion tamarin species,
Leontopithecus. The zoo community worldwide has played
a fundamental role in the overall conservation programs for
these species in terms of behavior research, reintroduction,
translocation, metapopulation management, scientifically-
managed captive-breeding, and their participation in the
international lion tamarin committees and support for
conservation efforts in the field (see Mallinson, 1996;
Kleiman and Mallinson, 1998). Most zoos keeping one
or more of the species also use them as flagships for their
conservation efforts. The goals of the campaign are to raise
awareness about the conservation needs and conservation
programmes in the Atlantic rain forest, and to raise money
for the Lion Tamarins of Brazil Fund, established in 1991
by the founder of the Jersey Zoo, Gerald Durrell, as a
mechanism targeting specifically the institutions holding
lion tamarins in captivity to mobilize financial support
for ongoing field conservation and research efforts, and to
launch critical new initiatives (Mallinson, 1994).

The Campaign Planning Group includes: David Field
(Dublin Zoo, Ireland), Bengt Holst (Copenhagen Zoo,
Denmark), Kristin Leus (Antwerp Zoo, Belgium), Jeremy
J. C. Mallinson (until recently of the Durrell Wildlife
Conservation Trust, Jersey) and, as Liaison for the EAZA
Executive Office, Corinne Bos (Amsterdam Zoo, The
Netherlands). It is hoped that the EAZA Rainforest

Campaign will have a long-lasting effect through a better
understanding of the existing conservation programmes
and a more direct involvement of the European zoo world.
The campaign will thus contribute to the fulfillment of the
accepted obligation of zoos "to contribute to animal con-
servation." It will continue until the 2002 EAZA Annual
Conference (see l., n[iip").


Kleiman, D. G. and Mallinson, J. J. C. 1998. Recovery and
Management Committees for lion tamarins: partnerships in
conservation planning and implementation. Conserv. Biol.
12: 1-13.
Mallinson, J. J. C. 1984. Survival reservoirs for endangered
species: The conservation role of the modern zoo. The
Biologist 31(2): 79-84.
Mallinson, J. J. C. 1986. The Wildlife Preservation Trusts'
(J.W.P.T./W.P.T.I.) support for the conservation of the
genus Leontopithecus. Dodo, Journal of the Jersey '1 ,
Preservation Trust23: 6-18.
Mallinson, J. J. C. 1994. Saving the World's richest
rainforest. The Biologist 41(2): 56-60.
Mallinson, J. J. C. 1996. The history of golden lion
tamarin management and propagation outside of Brazil
and current management practices. Zool. Garten N.E 66:


O pesquisador brasileiro Laury Cullen Jr, do IPE Instituto
de Pesquisas Ecol6gicas, Nazard Paulista, Sao Paulo, recebeu
no dia 14 de margo de 2002, o premio Whitley Gold
Award, das maos da princess Anne, da Inglaterra, na Royal
Geographical Society, em Londres. Trata-se de um dos
premios internacionais de conservacao mais conceituados,
atribufdo pela Fundacao Whitley Laing, dos milionarios
ingleses Edward Whitley, escritor de biografias best-sellers,
e John Laing, empresario de estradas de ferro.

O premio reconhece os conservacionistas, que melhor
conciliam a preservacao ambiental, com a pesquisa
biol6gica e projetos sustentaveis de desenvolvimento.
Cullen Jr trabalha no Pontal do Paranapanema, no oeste
paulista, com diversos projetos inovadores, envolvendo as
esp&cies protegidas no Parque Estadual do Morro do Diabo,
incluindo o mico-ledo-preto (Leontopithecus chrysopygus), e
os assentamentos e fazendas ao seu redor. Ele coordena,
por exemplo, o projeto "Detetives Ecol6gicos", que
rastreia oncas e antas para determinar os melhores locais
para os corredores de fauna. Tambdm faz treinamento dos
assentados para instalacao de pequenos bosques dentro
das glebas (Projeto Bosques Trampolim) e com todos os
vizinhos do parque, para aumentar as areas de mata em
torno dos limits da unidade de conservacao (Projeto
Abraco Verde).

Neotropical Primates 10(1), April 2002

Junto com o brasileiro, tambem foram premiados Carlos
Soza, da Guatemala, com o premio "Populacao e Meio
Ambiente"; John Mauremootoo, das Ilhas Maurfcio, com o
"Conservagao da Natureza Internacional" e Lourdes Mujica
Valdes, de Cuba, com o "Conservagao de Aves". Cada um
recebera 25 mil libras. Silas Kpanan, da Lib&ria, ganha o
premio de "Direitos Humanos e Meio Ambiente", no valor
de 20 mil libras.

Laury Cullen Jr recebe 50 mil libras em reconhecimento
por seu "comprometimento com sua causa e habilidade no
lobby junto a governantes, agricultores e fazendeiros, em
prol da protegao de um ambiente ameagado, que abriga 7%
da biodiversidade mundial", diz a nota distribufda pelos
organizadores do event.

A Fundacao Whitley Laing ainda concede premios de
continuidade a cinco grandes vencedores de anos anteriores,
cada um no valor de 20 mil libras. Entre eles, esta Claudio
Padua, fundador do IPL, que recebeu o Whitley Gold
Award em 1997. 0 dinheiro foi investido no fortalecimento
institutional da entidade e em despesas com professors do
seu Centro de Treinamento, em Nazard Paulista.


Treze anos ap6s a morte de Chico Mendes, o Governo
Federal do Brasil decidiu reconhecer o trabalho de quem
luta pelo desenvolvimento sustentavel da Amazonia.
Inspirado pelo ambientalista, o ministry do Meio
Ambiente, Jose Sarney Filho, langou no dia 20 de dezembro
de 2001, o premio Chico Mendes de Meio Ambiente, que
distribuira R$100 mil para comunidades, organizao6es
nao-governamentais e pesquisadores que contribuem para
preservar a floresta amazonica. De acordo com a Secretaria
da Amazonia, Mary Allegretti, o objetivo e dar visibilidade
as propostas de desenvolvimento sustentavel que surgiram a
partir das iddias de Chico Mendes. "E hora de recompensar
as pessoas que produzem boas noticias nesta drea", disse
Dra. Allegretti que chegou a trabalhar por sete anos com
o ambientalista em Xapuri, no Acre. From: Didrio de
Pernambuco, Recife, 21/12/2001.


Foi anunciada no dia 19 de novembro de 2001 a criaqao da
RPPN- Reserva Particular do Patrim6nio Nacional do Iguacu
I, com um total de 5.151 ha. A Reserva e de propriedade
da Araupel S.A., companhia sediada no municipio de
Quedas do Iguaqu, sudoeste do Estado do Parana, com 28
anos de atuaqao nos stores de reflorestamento, produdao
de papel e celulose e produtos em madeira. Foi criada
atraves do reconhecimento official do president do Ibama
- Institute Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos
Naturals RenovAveis, Hamilton Casara. Ela d a quinta
reserve federal deste tipo criada no Parana, sendo a maior

dentre as RPPNs existentes no estado. Sua area, coberta
por pinheiros do Parana (araucAria), abrange terras dos
municipios de Nova Laranjeiras e Rio Bonito do Iguaqu.
A criaqao da Reserva Particular do Iguaqu I represent uma
esperanga na conservacao do pouco que ainda resta da Mata
Atlantica paranaense. A nova Reserva localiza-se na Area
onde aconteceu o maior desmatamento em Area continue
de Mata Atlantica dos 6ltimos cinco anos, segundo o Atlas
dos Remanescentes Florestais da Mata Atlantica, divulgado
pela Fundagao SOS Mata Atlantica e INPE Instituto
Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais.


Despite decades of conservation action, there is no com-
prehensive effort underway to track large-scale changes in
tropical forest ecosystems. Consequently, the conservation
community has been significantly handicapped in its ability
to identify, design and implement successful interventions.
In order to build biodiversity conservation programs that
are based on science, a guiding principle for Conservation
International (CI) is that scientists and conservationists
must be armed with current data that has been collected
over time using standardized scientific methods. With this
up-to-the minute information in hand, researchers and
planners can distinguish the effects of human disturbance
from the natural ebb and flow of biological processes and
design conservation actions to address the most urgent and
real conservation needs.

The Tropical Ecology, Assessment and Monitoring (TEAM)
initiative, created by CI's Center for Applied Biodiversity
Science (CABS), is now positioned to become a catalyst for
achieving conservation goals worldwide. Specifically over
the next ten years, TEAM will be establishing a network
of field stations in tropical biodiversity hotspots and
major wilderness areas. Existing field stations will be the
foundation for this network, drawing on the expertise and
infrastructure of of partner organizations.

The TEAM network will provide the conservation and
scientific communities with the first standardized set of
data on biodiversity collected at key sites across tropical
forest ecosystems, effectively becoming the first global-level
system to track the behavior of biodiversity over time. The
TEAM network will complement CABS' Remote Sensing
Monitoring Program to establish the first fully operational
early warning system for global biodiversity that will iden-
tify emerging threats to populations, species, and commu-
nities, as well as changes in ecosystems before key areas for
biodiversity are severely altered.

Because of its global coverage, and the quality of the data
that will be collected through standardized scientific meth-
ods, the TEAM effort will become one of the most impor-

Neotropical Primates 10(1), April 2002
tant research endeavors ever conducted on the ecology,
assessment, and monitoring of tropical ecosystems. Partici-
pating institutions will be strengthened by being part of the
network, in part by becoming respected sources of expertise
regarding conservation of biodiversity and sustainable eco-
nomic development in the tropics.

TEAM advantages
Institutions participating in the TEAM initiative will
receive funding for data collection that will contribute to
global biodiversity monitoring. TEAM stations will serve as
central locations for training and building the capacity for
local conservation efforts, and will receive further support
for building their technical and computational capabilities,
which in turn will enhance their ability to add to the global
database resource. In addition, staff at TEAM stations will
receive support to participate in regional and international
workshops on biodiversity monitoring and conservation
planning, and stations will be eligible to receive block
grants to enhance infrastructure or other self-determined

Joining the TEAM initiative
Field stations interested in participating in the TEAM
network must submit a proposal in response to a Request
for Proposals (RFP) that outlines a set of basic criteria that
each station in the network will have to meet. These criteria
range from specifics about the station's scientific and edu-
cational capabilities to broader parameters concerning, for
example, the conservation status and ecological importance
of the sites where the station is located. A panel of experts
will review each proposal and select stations to become part
of the TEAM network on a competitive basis.

TEAM member obligations and responsibilities
Field stations that are part of the TEAM network will
include in their operations the use of standardized proto-
cols for collecting, assessing and monitoring biodiversity.
The data collected through these efforts will become part
of the global database that will be available to scientists
and conservation practitioners. Each year, a team of CABS
scientists will analyze the collected data, looking for short-
term trends in indicators and identifying possible cycles in
these indicators. TEAM data will always be available to the
member stations, and summaries of analyzed data will be
made available to the scientific community through the
web and other means.

Team Initiative Oversight Committee: Edward 0. Wilson
(Chairman), Sandy Andelman, David Clark, Gustavo Fon-
seca, Adrian Forsyth, Claude Gascon, Thomas E. Lacher
Jr., Elizabeth Losos, Dan Martin and Russell A. Mitter-
meier. TEAM Initiative Staff. Gustavo Fonseca (Senior V.P.
for Science CI and Executive Director of CABS), Thomas
E. Lacher, Jr. (Senior Director), Jim Sanderson (Research
Scientist), Puja Batra (Program Manager), Caroline Kue-
bler (Project Coordinator), Ariel Bailey (Administrative

To receive more information about the TEAM initiative or
how to apply to become part of the TEAM network, please
see the CABS website at or
e-mail: .


O IPL Instituto de Pesquisas Ecol6gicas anuncia o Curso
de Ecologia Quantitativa (Bioestatfstica) Aplicada A Biologia
da Conservagao, 14 a 23 de outubro, 2002. A formacao e
capacitagao de profissionais atualizados para trabalhar com
Biologia da Conservagao sempre foram prioridades do
Centro Brasileiro de Biologia da Conservagao (CBBC).
O curso serA ministrado pelo IPL Instituto de Pesquisas
Ecol6gicas, em parceria com o Dr. Paulo de Marco Jr.
(Universidade Federal de Vigosa) e Dr. Adriano Pereira
Paglia (Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais), no Centro
Brasileiro de Biologia da Conservagao (IPE), municipio
de Nazard Paulista, pr6ximo a cidade de Sao Paulo. 0
objetivo geral e abordar os conceitos de estatistica e a
aplicaqao dos testes estatisticos em trabalhos desenvolvidos
pelos pr6prios participants alem de gerar uma discussao
profunda sobre metodologia cientifica, assegurando aos
participants as bases filos6ficas necessArias para uma
postura critical em relagao aos m&todos. Ao lado desta
abordagem te6rica busca-se tambem dar aos participants
um domfnio dos software mais comuns na Area, de
forma a facilitar seu trabalho e encurtar o caminho entire
a coleta de dados em ecologia, hist6ria natural e biologia
da conservagao e sua publicaqao em peri6dicos cientificos
e de divulgagao. SerA dado tambem um cuidado especial
a aspects da comunicaqao cientifica, o que auxiliarA os
alunos na produgao de seus trabalhos, inclusive teses de
mestrado e doutorado. Ao final do curso, acompanhados
dos professors, todos os alunos irao redigir um artigo
cientifico sobre seus trabalhos, visando a praticidade e
a forma correta de apresentar os resultados e as anAlises
estatisticas em trabalhos cientificos. Prazo de inscrifdo: 24
de setembro de 2002. Vagas. 18 participants. Candidatos.
Profissionais relacionados a conservagao jA desenvolvendo
pesquisa em campo e alunos envolvidos em programs de
mestrado e/ou doutorado em Areas afins. I. ; .. _.; .
Os interessados deverao enviar uma carta de intengoes com
dados pessoais para contato e uma descrigao sucinta do seu
projeto de pesquisa, dando maior enfase na descrigao dos
dados que deseja analisar durante o curso (mAximo uma
pigina). Prepo: R$ 500,00 (quinhentos reais) a vista, ou R$
555,00 (quinhentos e cinqiienta e cinco reais) divididos
em 3 parcelas de R$ 185,00. Encaminhar pelo e-mail
ou pelo correio: IPE- Instituto de Pesquisas Ecol6gicas,
Caixa Postal, 47, Nazard Paulista, 12960-000 Sao Paulo,
Brasil, Tel: (011) 4597-1327 ou (011) 9831-2187, e-mail:
. Site: .


O IPE- Instituto de Pesquisas Ecol6gicas, a Smithsonian
Institution e o Instituto Florestal de Sao Paulo, anunciam o
III Curso Latino-Americano em Biologia da Conservagao e
Manejo daVida Silvestre, 4 de novembro a 6 de dezembro,
2002. 0 curso serA oferecido em portugues e sua parte
introdut6ria serA realizada no Centro Brasileiro de Biologia
da Conservagao do IPL, localizado no municipio de Nazare
Paulista, pr6ximo a cidade se Sao Paulo. Grande parte de
seu conteddo serA abordado no Parque Estadual do Morro
do Diabo, localizado no Pontal do Paranapanema, oeste do
Estado de Sao Paulo. Entre os representantes das diversas e
integras fauna e flora do Morro do Diabo ainda existe o raro
e endemico mico-ledo preto (Leontopithecus chrysopygus)
bem como a maioria dos carnfvoros e ungulados brasileiros,
como a onca pintada, a onca parda, a jaguatirica, a anta,
veados, queixadas e caetetus. Todos os participants
apresentarao um seminario de 30 minutes sobre seus
trabalhos especificos na area de conservacao da natureza.
Os participants usarao tambem seus conhecimentos
adquiridos durante o curso para a elaboraqao de projetos
de pesquisa de campo sobre os t6picos abordados durante
o curso. Para maiores informafoes, acessar o site do IPE:
ou pelo e-mail:

Clarice Bassi, IPL Instituto de Pesquisas Ecol6gicas,
Caixa Postal 47, Nazare Paulista, 12960-000 Sao Paulo,
Brasil, Tel/Fax: 55 (11) 4597-1327.


Dr. Melissa Gerald is the new Scientist-in-Charge of Cayo
Santiago and Assistant Professor in the Department of
Medicine at the University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sci-
ences Campus. She received her BA in Anthropology and
Psychology at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, in
1991. She pursued graduate training in the Department of
Anthropology at UCLA and received her MA in 1994, and
a PhD in 1999. For her doctoral research she experimen-
tally investigated the social functions and proximate mecha-
nisms underlying scrotal color in vervet monkeys at UCLA
and the Barbados Primate Research Center. Following the
completion of her PhD, Gerald received a Post-Doctoral
Intramural Training Research Award at the National Insti-
tutes of Health, National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and
Alcoholism, where she examined the relationships between
neuroendocrine activity and reproductive performance in
rhesus macaques. On Cayo Santiago, she will be collecting
hormonal, behavioral and demographic data to investigate
sexual selection and variability in female reproductive suc-
cess on a longitudinal basis. Dr. Gerald expresses an interest
in welcoming new and returning researchers to Cayo San-
tiago, and is accepting proposals at this time.

Neotropical Primates 10(1), April 2002
Melissa S. Gerald, Cayo Santiago, Caribbean Primate
Research Center, P.O. Box 906, Punta Santiago, PR
00741USA, For FED EX: 20 Calle Marina, Punta Santiago,
PR 00741, Phone: 787-285-1201 or 787-852-0690 FAX:
787-852-0690, e-mail: .


The Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity
(CBD) adopted in plenary the Global Plant Conservation
Strategy on 19 April, 2002. This is a much-awaited result
and included a lot of work by many people, including many
SSC members. It means that for the first time Govern-
ments have agreed to contribute to a set of global targets
aimed at plant conservation, which will result in increased
activity on this very fundamental and urgent need. The
final plant strategy is to be posted on the CBD website. To
see what was discussed and the draft Plant Conservation
Strategy go to . For
details of the strategy please see the IUCN/SSC website

Wendy Strahm, IUCN Plants Officer, Species Programme,
Rue Mauverney, 28, CH-1196 Gland, Switzerland,
Tel: +41 22 999.0157, Fax: +41 22 999.0015, e-mail:


The Laboratory for Conservation Genetics has assembled
a reference database of literature related to Conservation
Genetics. This database is searchable on the web (http:
//www.rareDNA.com), and references (usually complete
with abstracts) can be downloaded to personal citation
management software. We plan to update the database
approximately monthly, adding to the over 1700 references
already in the database. Please let us know if you find the
database useful, and let us know if there are particular refer-
ences that are not included that you think should be.

Phil Morin and Karen Chambers, Laboratory for Con-
servation Genetics, Max Planck, Institute for Evolution-
ary Anthropology, Inselstrasse 22, D-04103 Leipzig,
Germany, e-mail: , Web: //www.rareDNA.com>.


AZA's Conservation Endowment Fund, established in
1984, provides financial support for regional and inter-
national field conservation programs, the improvement
of training opportunities for zoo professionals and other
key programs related to the Association's mission. Since
its inception, the CEF has awarded over $2 million to 138

Neotropical Primates 10(1), April 2002
projects benefiting wildlife worldwide. Last year, thanks to
donations from AZA members and supporters, the CEF
was able to fund 17 projects ranging from field efforts for
the Puerto Rican crested toad to a study on breeding strate-
gies used in AZA conservation programs.

Please consider giving generously to this vital AZA fund for
member grants. What you give is invested for members and
their conservation efforts a gift to the collective mission
of the zoo profession. If you are not an AZA member but
would like to contribute to the CEF, please contact Stacey
Goldsamt, Assistant Director of Development and Market-
ing at or 301-562-0777 x244.


The Society for Conservation Geographic Information Sys-
tems (SCGIS) works to assist conservationists worldwide in
using GIS through communication, networking, scholar-
ships and training. Membership is open to any individual
seeking assistance in the achievement of personal or organi-
zational conservation goals. As a non-profit, SCGIS uses a
fee-based membership to provide services directly to mem-
bers. Currently, SCGIS provides services to its members
in three primary ways: (1) an annual SCGIS Conference
held in tandem with the ESRI User Conference, (2) schol-
arships and fee waivers to the SCGIS Conference, and (3)
networking and professional development services, includ-
ing the CONSGIS listserv, SCGIS web site, hard copy and
electronic newsletters. In addition, SCGIS has a strategic
partnership with the ESRI Conservation Program and the
Conservation Technology Support Program (CTSP) to
provide fee waivers for hardware, software, training, and
technical assistance. Website: .


O X Congresso Brasileiro de Primatologia acontecerA em
Belkm, ParA, entire os dias 10 a 15 de novembro de 2002.
O Congress serA o primeiro do mil&nio e o primeiro
a ser realizado na Amaz6nia, bioma que abriga a maior
parte das especies de primatas brasileiros. Alim de suas
riquezas naturais, temos, na cidade de Belkm, uma grande
concentraqao de primat6logos brasileiros, distribuidos em
tries instituio6es de pesquisa: a Universidade Federal do
ParA, o Museu Paraense Emflio Goeldi e o Centro Nacional
de Primatas. Estes cientistas atuam em praticamente
todos os campos de pesquisa relevantes a Primatologia,
desde a ecologia e a conservacao ate a gen&tica e a
biomedicina. Esperamos, entao, que o Congresso ofereqa
aos participants uma oportunidade dnica de conhecer a

diversidade dos primatas amazonicos, as florestas e a cultural
local, como tambem as novas fronteiras e a excelencia em
pesquisa primatol6gica sendo desenvolvidas na regiao.

O Congress esta estruturado em palestras, mesas-redondas,
mini-cursos e visits cientificas, abordando temas variados,
que abrangerao amplas areas de pesquisa corn primatas.
Os trabalhos serao apresentados na forma de paineis e de
apresentac6es orais. Varias emin&ncias cientfficas estarao
presents e sua participagao vira a se somar para engrandecer
em importancia o event. HaverA visits cientificas e um
concurso de fotografias com o tema "Primatas brasileiros".
Estamos consultando aos s6cios da SBPr sobre a pauta de
t6picos jA delineados, aceitando sugest6es e novas propostas,
pelo enderego eletronico: .

Os Mini Cursors Principios de anAlise filogen&tica usando
dados moleculares; Criaqao e reproducao de esp&cies
ameacadas em cativeiro; Escola Experimental de Primatas
(cognicao para iniciantes); Citogen&tica de primatas
neotropicais; Paleontologia da Platyrrhini; M&todos em
conservacao e manejo; Comunicaqao vocal e quimica;
Visao de cores; Bases anatomicas e neuroquimicas da
mem6ria e emoqoes em primatas; e Fisiologia do Estresse e

Palestras.Abordagens para estudos da cognihao; A floresta
amazonica; Centro Nacional de Primatas: equilibrando
pesquisa biomedica e conservacao; Educaqao Ambiental:
umavisao amazonica; Gen&tica de populao6es e conservacao;
Museu Goeldi: 135 anos de pesquisa e divulgacao; Papel
dos ester6ides no comportamento de primatas; Pitecineos:
uma 6ltima fronteira amazonica; Proteinas prionicas em
primatas nao-humanos; Ecologia Cognitiva de Primatas

Mesas Redondas. Citogen&tica de primatas neotropicais;
Diversidade gen&tica em primatas neotropicais; Ecologia
de bugios, guaribas e barbados: todos iguais ou totalmente
diferentes?; SistemAtica de Alouatta; Macaco-prego na
natureza; Filogenia de Platyrrhini: integrando molkculas
e morfologia; Fragmentacao de hAbitat e manejo de
populao6es; Dispersao de sementes; Cognicao em Cebus
.7iill.; Bem-estar de primatas em cativeiro; Colonias auto-
sustentadas: utopia e viabilidade; Pesquisa na Amazonia:
abrindo a fronteira.

Comissdo Organizadora: Stephen F Ferrari (Presidente),
Vanner Boere (Secretirio), Jose Rimoli (Tesoureiro).
Maiores detalhes da programaqao, instruo6es para os
autores, ficha de inscrihao e valores, serao veiculados na
pAgina eletronica e no impresso da 2a. circular. Por favor, os
interessados em divulgar em sua area de trabalho o cartaz do
X Congress, queiram remeter a solicitacao.

A pagina eletronica da SBPr esta sendo reestruturada.
Convidamos aos s6cios que enviem sugest6es, noticias,
links, imagens e material que possam enriquecer este
poderoso meio eletronico de divulgacao da primatologia

no Brasil. Informaroes- ou
Secretaria Geral: Vanner Boere, CFS/IB, Universidade de
Brasilia, 70910-900 Brasilia, DF, Brasil, Tel: (0)61 3072294/
3072887, Fax: (0)61 2741251, e-mail: .
Para os interessados em se associar a Sociedade Brasileira
de Primatologia (SBPr), o valor e de R$40,00 a serem
depositados no:Banco Real, Agencia 0085, Campo Grande-
Dom Aquino, Conta nimero: 5 025340 0. Solicitamos
que o comprovante seja enviado via fax ou correio a: Josd
Rimoli, Rua Claudia 498, Giocondo Orsi, 79022-070
Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Solicitamos,
ainda, a todos os s6cios da SBPR que atualizem seus
enderecos junto a comissao organizadora.

Vanner Boere Souza, Comissao Organizadora,
Laboratorio de Neurobiologia, CFS/Instituto de Biologia,
Universidade de Brasilia, 70910-900 Brasilia, DF, Brasil.


The Italian Association of Primatology was formed in 1982
in Rome, Italy. The aims of the Association are: a) to pro-
mote research on nonhuman primates, and to facilitate the
cooperation between primatologists; b) to preserve and pro-
tect the interests of primatological studies, in the context of
teaching and scientific research; c) to be actively involved in
the protection of nonhuman primates, with special effort
focused on those in danger of extinction; d) to promote the
creation of breeding centers for nonhuman primates, under
adequate scientific status; and e) to watch over scientific
protocols involving nonhuman primates, with the aim of
avoiding unnecessary suffering and to defend the life of
species in danger of extinction.

API organizes regular meetings for its members (approxi-
mately every 18 months). Fifteen have been held since its
founding in 1982. API is a regular member of the European
Federation of Primatology, and the abstracts from its meet-
ings are published in Folia Primatologica. A prize is given
at each for the best student presentation. At 18-month
intervals, API is also able to offer a small grant for research,
conservation, and education projects. In 2004 the Society
will be hosting the XXth Congress of the International Pri-
matological Society (IPS), in Torino.

The present officers are as follows: President- Augusto Vitale
(Istituto Superiore Sanith, Roma); Vice President Gemma
Perretta (CNR Istituto Medicina Sperimentale, Roma); Sec-
retary-treasurer- Daniele Formenti (Dip. Biologia Animale,
Pavia); Council members: Cristina Giacoma (Dip. Biologia
Animale e dell'Uomo, Universita di Torino), Paola Bigatti
(Dip. Biologia Animale e dell'Uomo, Universita di Torino)
and M. Cristina Riviello (Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie
della Cognizione del CNR, Roma).

For more information, please contact the Secretary-Trea-
surer, Daniele Formenti, Dip. Biologia Animale, Piazza

Neotropical Primates 10(1), April 2002
Botta 10, 27100 Pavia, Italy, Tel: +39 0382 506324,
Telefax: +39 0382 506325, e-mail: .
Please visit the API web page: webbio/api/api.htm>.

Augusto Vitale, Istituto Superiore Sanita, Lab. di
Fisiopatologia, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Roma, Italy,
e-mail: .


. The 7th Workshop of the EMRG will be held
on October 14-16"' 2002 in Paris. The work-
shop is funded by the European Commission
as a "High-Level Scientific Conference" for up to 100 par-
ticipants, and there will be an emphasis on graduate and
postdoctoral training in callitrichid biology and biomedical
science. Topics of discussion and presentations will include:
Brain structure, function and disease; Development and
aging; Genetics and Colony management; Ecology and
social organization. A substantial number of European
Commission and EMRG training grants are available. For
details of abstract (lecture and poster) submission, grant
application and registration, please see the web page /www.dpz.gwdg.de/emrg/emrgcons.htm> or contact Chris-
topher Pryce via e-mail .


The Primate Society of Great Britain (PSGB) is compiling
the 2002 edition of their guide to primate field projects:
Current Primate Field Studies (a supplement to their news-
letter Primate Eye). The guide will be compiled in col-
laboration with the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research
Center (WRPRC), and will also be available electronically
on the Field Studies section of the International Directory
of Primatology website idp/index.html>. This will produce a single comprehensive
global database that will maximise accessibility and mini-
mize redundancy for both users and contributors alike.

We invite all those who are currently carrying out pri-
mate field studies, or who completed a field study during
2000-2002, to submit their project details to this scheme.
Submissions should be made before 1 September 2002,
either electronically or by hard copy. In the first instance,
submissions can be made on the electronic form found on
the International Directory of Primatology, website //www.primate.wisc.edu/pin/idp/scope.html> (those who
already have an electronic entry in the IDP can use the on-
line form for updating). If submissions are made by hard
copy (a form is enclosed with this journal to help facilitate
this option), the following information should be included:

Neotropical Primates 10(1), April 2002
(1) title of field study project, (2) country and location,
(3) project start and end dates, (4) research objectives, (5)
species studied (list Latin names), (6) other primate species
found at site, (7) positions for field workers/volunteers,
(8) sponsoring institutions, (9) name of project director
together with their institution, address, city, state/province
(not abbreviated), mailing code, phone number, fax
number, e-mail address and website address, (10) the names
of other research personnel on the project (including the
contact person for these project details: if same as director,
please list as same), (11) keywords that best describe the
field study, and (12) miscellaneous comments (optional).
Submissions by hard copy should be mailed to: Eluned
Price, 2 La Grange, La Rue de Cambrai, Trinity, Jersey JE3
5AL, Channel Islands, Great Britain, e-mail: d.freeserve.co.uk>.


O Museu Paraense Emflio Goeldi, em Belkm, Brasil,
langou em fevereiro de 2002 o peri6dico Fauna da
Amazonia Brasileira. E uma sdrie destinada a catalogar
os diversos grupos de animals terrestres e de Agua doce
da Amazonia Legal Brasileira, mostrando o "estado da
arte" e a porcentagem de species em relacao ao Brasil
ou a regiao Neotropical. Espera, a medio prazo, oferecer
um quadro atualizado do conhecimento que se tem da
fauna amazonica, revelando quais grupos taxonomicos
sao menos conhecidos, as deficiencias das coleo6es, a falta
de especialistas, etc., possibilitando para o future alguma
agao integrada para sanar essas dificuldades. A sdrie nao
terA periodicidade certa, nem obedecerA a qualquer
arranjo sistemAtico. As contribuio6es, que poderao ser
escritas em portugues, espanhol, frances ou ingles, serao
publicadas em seqiiencia, assim que foram aprovadas
pelo Conselho Cientifico da revista. Cada ndmero deve
tratar de uma familiar individual. Todavia, dependendo
da riqueza especifica do grupo taxonomico, outros nfveis
supragenericos, supra- ou subfamiliares, poderao ser usados.
Os editors responsaveis sao Nelson Papavero e William
Leslie Overal. C6pias da Fauna podem ser solicitadas na
Biblioteca do Museu Goeldi, Caixa Postal 399, 66040-170
Belkm, ParA, Brazil, e-mail: .

In February, 2002, the Museu Emilio Goeldi, Belkm, Para,
Brazil, launched a new scientific publication series, Fauna
da Amazonia Brasileira. It is devoted to the cataloguing of
the diverse terrestrial and freshwater animal groups from
the Brazilian Legal Amazon, showing the "state of the art"
and the percentage of species in relation to Brazil or to the
Neotropical Region. Hopefully, in a reasonable time, a
relevant picture of our knowledge of the Amazonian fauna
can be obtained, revealing which taxonomic groups are
less known, the deficiencies in term of collections, lack of
specialists, etc., promoting future integrated action to cope
with those difficulties. The series will not be published

with a fixed periodicity, nor will it obey any systematic
arrangement. Contributions, which may be written in
Portuguese, Spanish, French or English, will be published
sequentially, as soon as they are approved by the Scientific
Council of the journal. Each number should treat an
individual family. However, depending on the species-
richness of the taxonomic group, other suprageneric levels,
either supra or subfamiliar, may be used. The editors are
Nelson Papavero and William Leslie Overal. Copies of
Fauna can be requested from the Biblioteca, Museu Emflio
Goeldi, Caixa Postal 399, 66040-170 Belkm, Para, Brazil,
e-mail: .


The Red Book: The Extinction Crisis Face to Face was
launched at a ceremony led by David Anderson, Minis-
ter of the Environment, Canada, on 4 December 2001
at the Museum of Nature in Ottawa. ISBN 968 6397 64
7. The book, published through a collaboration between
The World Conservation Union (IUCN) Species Survival
Commission (SSC), CEMEX, SA, one of the world's
largest cement companies, and Agrupaci6n Sierra Madre,
SC, a Mexican conservation organization, is an extraordi-
narily beautiful book. There are more than 100 stunning
photographs from world-renowned photographers. It was
produced by Patricio Robles Gil (General Direction),
Ram6n P&rez Gil (Coordination) and Antonio Bolivar
(Editorial Direction). The text was written by Amie Brau-
tigam and Martin D. Jenkins. David Brackett (Chairman
of the IUCN/SSC) wrote the foreword (pp.18-19), and
special contributions were provided by George B. Rabb
("Facing the Challenge" pp.29-30), Gerardo Ceballos and
Paul R. Erhlich (Population Extinction: A Critical Issue",
pp.86-89), Arthur E. Bogan ("Extinction in the Making",
pp.138-139) and Holly T. Dublin ("On Humans and Afri-
can Elephants", pp.204-205). A dramatic face of Cacajao
calvus covers the book. It is available from the IUCN
bookstore (http://www.iucn.org/bookstore/index.html).
For further information see: redbook/>.


Formerly the IUCN Bulletin, Volume 32, Number 3
(32pp.), 2001, of World Conservation is dedicated to the
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The editor is Nikki
Meith, and contributing editors for this issue were Craig
Hilton-Taylor and Anna Knee. It is divided into three
parts: Lifeline for Biodiversity, Profiles in Red and Red
List in Action. Without listing all articles, a flavor of this
excellent review of the Red List, and the enormous efforts
that go into documenting the threatened status of species
worldwide, is given by the following sample. In the first
section, A wake-up call [background to the Red List] C.
Hilton-Taylor, p.3; A tool for conservation action [purpose

and facts and figures] A. Knee, p.4; The Colonel's card
files make Red List history [origin of the Red List] J.
Burton, p.4; A conservation roadmap [review process and
categories] G. Mace, p.5; Partnerships: A new era [about
the joint venture partnership of IUCN/SSC with the
Center for Applied Biodiversity Science at Conservation
International, BirdLife International, NatureServe, and
the Ocean Conservancy] D. Brackett, S. Stuart, A. Stat-
tersfield, B. A. Stein & D. E. Guggenheim, pp.6-7. The
second section has a number of essays on birds, mammals
(including a short article on the Atlantic forest primates by
A. B. Rylands, R. A. Mittermeier and W. R. Konstant),
plants and marine species, and the groups which have been
targeted for particular attention in the near future with
regard to expanding the numbers of species assessed, such
as alligators, iguanas, amphibians and molluscs. The final
section includes: Taking off: New directions for the Red
List C. Hilton-Taylor, p.27; Biodiversity indicators S.
Mainka, p.27; and essays on regional expansion of the Red
List assessments, through the Conservation Assessment and
Management Plans (CAMPs) of the Conservation Breeding
Specialist Group (CBSG) (Onnie Byers), in Latin America
(Mariano Gimenez-Dixon), Southern Africa (Janice Gold-
ing), South and South-east Asia (Vidhisha Samarasekara)
and Viet Nam (Phil McGowan). The last essay is written by
Achim Steiner, Director General of the IUCN, reviewing
the global significance of the Red List and its role within
the work, general philosophy and objectives of the IUCN.

An annual subscription to World Conservation (3 issues
a year, ISSN 1027-0965) costs US$45.00 (incl. air-
mail postage). For subscription information contact:
IUCN Publishing Division, Gland, Switzerland, e-mail:


Lessons from Amazonia: The Ecology and Conservation of a
Fragmented Forest, edited by Richard 0. Bierregaard Jr.,
Claude Gascon, Thomas E. Lovejoy and Rita Mesquita.
2001, 478pp. Yale University Press, NY. ISBN 0-300-
08483-8 (Cloth). Price: $65.00. The foreword is by Edward
0. Wilson, and prologue by Eneas Salati. This book presents
the results of the longest-running and most comprehensive
study of forest fragmentation ever undertaken, the Biologi-
cal Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (BDFF), north
of Manaus, in central Amazonia, run jointly by the Smith-
sonian Institution and the National Institute for Amazon
Research (INPA). Forest fragmentation is one of the big-
gest research fields in tropical conservation biology, and
this book provides a remarkable overview of many of the
key issues, presenting the experimental research, invento-
ries and long-term monitoring of biotic and abiotic aspects
of forest fragments of different sizes since 1979 when the
project was begun. It is divided into five parts: 1. Theory
and overview (4 chapters); 2. Forest ecology and genetics
(4 chapters); 3. Fragmentation effects on plant communi-
ties (5 chapters), on invertebrate communities (5 chapters),

Neotropical Primates 10(1), April 2002
and on vertebrate communities (4 chapters); 4. Manage-
ment guidelines (6 chapters), and 5. Synthesis (1 chapter
on principles of forest fragmentation and conservation in
the Amazon). There are two very interesting chapters on
primates: Primates in a fragmented landscape: Six species
in Central Amazonia Kellen A. Gilbert & Eleonore Setz,
pp.262-270; The brown capuchin monkey (Cebus a'//i):
Ecology and home range requirements Wilson R. Spiro-
nello, pp.271-283. Available from: Yale University Press, in
the US (toll-free) Tel: 1-800-405-1619, Fax: 1-800-406-
9145, e-mail: ; in Canada,
Mexico, South America, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, or
Australia Customer Service Dept., Tel: 401-531-2800,
Fax: 401-531-2801; in the United Kingdom, Europe,
Africa, or Asia London office, Tel: 44-207-431-4422, Fax:
44-207-431-3755, e-mail: . Web site:

Nouragues: Dynamics and Plant-Animal Interactions
in a Neotropical Rainforest, edited by Frans Bongers,
Pierre Charles-Dominique, Pierre-Michel Forget,
and Marc Thery, 2001, Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Price: US$115.00. ISBN 1-4020-0123-1 (hardbound).
Nouragues is a tropical forest research station in French
Guiana. It was established in 1986 for research on natural
mechanisms of forest regeneration. Twelve years after the
creation of the Nouragues field station, this book provides
an overview of the main research results, and focuses on
plant communities, vertebrate communities and evolu-
tionary ecology, frugivory and seed dispersal, and forest
dynamics and recruitment. Contents. Part I. Introduction.
1. The field station P Charles-Dominique; 2. Geography
and climate M. Grimaldi & B. Riera; 3. Scales of ambient
light variation E Bongers, P J. van der Meer & M. Thery.
Part II: Plant Communities. 4. The lowland high rainforest:
structure and tree species diversity 0. Poncy, D. Sabatier,
M.-E Prevost & I. Hardy; 5. The low forest (Nouragues
Inselberg) D. Larpin; 6. Plant communities on a granitic
outcrop C. Sarrhou; 7. Palaeoclimates and their conse-
quences on forest composition P Charles-Dominique, P.
Blanc, D. Larpin, M.-P Ledru, B. Riera, T. Rosique, C.
Sarthou, M. Servant & C. Tardy. Part III. Vertebrate Com-
munities and Evolutionary Ecology. 8. Diet and population
densities of the primate community in relation to fruit sup-
plies B. Simmen, C. Julliot, F Bayart & E.Pages-Feuil-
lade; 9. Comparative positional behaviour of five primates
- D. Youlatos and J.-P Gasc; 10. The bat community
- A. Brosset, P. Charles-Dominique & A. Cocide; 11. The
marsupial community M.-L. Guillemin, M. Atramento-
wicz & D. Julien-Laferriere; 12. The avian community: an
overview of species composition and guild structure; J.-M.
Thiollay, M. Jullien, M. Thery & C. Erard; 13. The adap-
tive significance of flocking in tropical understorey forest
birds: the field evidence M. Jullien and J.-M. Thiollay;
14. Habitat selection, ambient light and colour patterns in
some lek-displaying birds M. Thery & J. A. Endler; 15.
Distribution and life histories of amphibians and reptiles
- M. Born and P. Gaucher; 16. Fishes of the Arataye river
and their space-time organization F J. Meunier & T.

Neotropical Primates 10(1), April 2002
Boujard. Part IV. Frugivory and Seed Dispersal. 17. Rela-
tionships between seed dispersal and behavioral ecology
- P. Charles-Dominique; 18. Frugivory and seed dispersal
by three neotropical primates: impact on plant regenera-
tion C. Julliot, B. Simmen & Shuyi Zhang; 19. Frugivory
and seed dispersal by bats P. Charles-Dominique & A.
Cockle; 20. Frugivory and seed dispersal by Kinkajous D.
Julien-Laferriere; 21. Frugivory and seed dispersal by ter-
restrial mammals E Feer, 0. Henry, P.-M. Forget & M.
Gayot; 22. Vegetarian species in the bird community with
an emphasis on frugivory and seed dispersal C. Erard &
M. Thery. Part V. Forest Dynamics and Recruitment. 23.
Tree-falls and canopy gaps: patterns of natural disturbance
- P. J. van der Meer and E Bongers; 24. The dispersal and
recruitment of Cyclanthaceae and Philodendron (Araceae)
understorey root-climbing vines A. Cockle; 25. Post-dis-
persal seed removal in four frugivore-dispersed tree species
- P.-M. Forget, F Feer, S. Chauvet, C. Julliot, B. Simmen, F
Bayart & E. Pages-Feuillade; 26. Scatterhoarding and tree
regeneration P. A. Jansen & P.-M. Forget; 27. Effects of
tree height and light availability on plant traits at different
organisation levels; F J. Sterck, T. Rijkers and F Bongers.
Appendices: 1. Floristic Checklist of the Nouragues area- P.
Belbenoit, 0. Poncy, D. Sabatier, M.-E Prevost, B. Riera,
P. Blanc, D. Larpin & C. Sarthou; 2. Practical guide to the
palms J.-J. de Granville; 3. Mammals of the Nouragues
and Lower Arataye areas F Feer and P. Charles-Domi-
nique; 4. Bird species (from Nouragues inselberg to Ara-
taye River) J.-M. Thiollay, M. Jullien, M. Thery & C.
Erard; 5. Amphibian and reptile species at the Nouragues
Nature Reserve M. Born & P. Gaucher; 6. Fishes of the
Arataye river; E J. Meunier & T. Boujard. Available from:
Kluwer Academic Publishers, Order Department, P.O.
Box 358, Accord Station, Hingham, MA 02018-0358,
USA, Tel: (781) 871-6600, Fax: (781) 871-6528, e-mail <
kluwer@wkap.com>, website: .

African Forest Biodiversity: A Field Survey Manual for
Vertebrates, edited by Glyn Davies. Earthwatch Institute
(Europe), Oxford. 2002, c.160pp. Authors: Leon Bennun,
Glyn Davies, Kim Howell, Helen Newing and Matthew
Linkie. The manual is designed to be carried into the field
to guide survey work, and enable the user to consider the
full range of vertebrates, excluding fish, found in African
forests. It explains the basic techniques and basic stan-
dards needed for the development of essential inventory
and monitoring programmes, and is particularly aimed
at: people carrying out short reconnaissance surveys and
expeditions; undergraduate and graduate students car-
rying out project and thesis work; research departments
of forest, wildlife and national parks departments; forest
and wildlife managers and technicians with responsibility
for monitoring biodiversity. For more information: Julian
Laird, Director of Programmes, Earthwatch Institute
(Europe), 57 Woodstock Road, Oxford, OX2 6HJ, UK,
Tel: +44 (0)1865 318800 Fax: +44 (0) 1865 311383,
e-mail: . Website: www.earthwatch.org/europe>.

The New Encyclopaedia of Mammals, edited by David W.
Macdonald, Assistant Editor Sasha Norris. 2001. Oxford
University Press, Oxford. 930pp. ISBN 0 19 850823 9.
Price 35.00. Unsurpassed in the breadth and depth of its
text and the scope of its illustrations, this book treats every
living species of mammal from aardvark to antechinus and
from zebra and zorros, and all of the primates besides. Each
entry gives a systematic account of a species' or group's
form, diet, distribution, behavior, natural history and
conservation status. The very latest discoveries of new spe-
cies are also included, making this the most comprehensive
and up-to-date resource available. The text is augmented
by numerous illustrations which combine the best of
wildlife photography with superb detailed color artwork.
'Factfile' panels with distribution maps and scale drawings
give readers an instant overview of key data. It is the com-
pletely revised successor to The Encyclopaedia .j 11
published in 1984 (George, Allen and Unwin, London).
The book itself claims to be the definitive reference work
on mammals for the 21st Century and nobody could
argue with that right now. It is a spectacular book and an
extremely valuable, essential I would say, reference for any
zoologist. Its price is accessible it is a great bargain. The
advisory editors were Hans Kruuk (Centre for Ecology and
Hydrology, Banchory, UK), Richard Connor (University of
Massachusetts, Dartmouth, USA), John Harwood (Gatty
Marine Laboratory, University of St. Andrew's, UK), Guy
Cowlishaw (Institute of Zoology, London, UK), John du
Toit (Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria,
South Africa), Jerry 0. Wolff (University of Memphis,
Tennessee, USA), Christopher R. Dickman (University of
Sydney, Australia) and Gareth Jones (University of Bristol,
Bristol, UK). The artwork is by Priscilla Barrett, Denys
Ovenden, Malcolm McGregor, Michael R. Long and
Graham Allen. The primates are given worthy entries as
follows: Primates G. Cowlishaw & T. H. Clutton-Brock,
pp.290-301; Why primates have big brains: The role of
neocortex size in social interactions R. I. M. Dunbar,
p.302; Seeing in color: The evolution of trichromatic
color vision Gerald H. Jacobs, pp.304-305; Grooming
and family life: Exchanging services among female mon-
keys L. Barrett & P. Henzi, pp.306-307; Strepsirhines
- P. Honess pp.308-309; Lemur diversity P. Kappeler,
p.309; Typical lemurs P. Kappeler, pp.310-313; The
bygone wealth of Malagasy lemurs J. I. Pollock, p.313;
Typical lemur species R. D. Martin & P. Kappeler, p.313;
Sportive lemurs P. Kappeler, pp.314-315; Dwarf and
mouse lemurs P. Kappeler, pp.318; Dwarf and mouse
lemur species R. D. Martin & P. Kappeler, p.318; Lemur
dialects Elka Zimmermann, p.319; Indri, sifakas, and
woolly lemurs P. Kappeler, pp.320-321; Aye-aye P.
Kappeler, pp.322-323; Bush babies, lorises and pottos P.
Honess, pp.324-327; Bush baby, loris and potto species
- P. Honess, pp.328-329; Monkeys and tarsiers G.
Cowlishaw & T. H. Clutton-Brock, pp.330-331; Tarsiers
- C. Niemitz, pp.332-333; Marmosets and tamarins A.
B. Rylands, pp.334-338, Marmoset and tamarin species
- A. B. Rylands, pp.339-341; On the brink of extinction:
Saving the lion tamarins of Brazil D. G. Kleiman & R.

A. Mittermeier, pp.342-343; Capuchin-like monkeys C.
H. Janson, pp.344-349; Monkeys in the moonlight P.
C. Wright, p.349; Capuchin-like monkey species C. H.
Janson, pp.350-353; Leafeaters of the New World: Diet
and energy conservation in howler monkeys K. Milton,
pp.354-355; Guenons, macaques, and baboons R. I. M.
Dunbar &T. E. Rowell, pp.356-359, 362-365, 368-371;
Friendships between the sexes: Forming enduring relation-
ships in an olive baboon troop B. Smuts, pp.360-361;
Just like us? The limits of the human-monkey analogy R.
Seyfarth & D. Cheney, pp.366-367; Guenon, macaque,
and baboon species R. I. M. Dunbar & T. E. Rowell,
pp.374-375; A male-dominated society: The Hama-
dryas baboons of Cone Rock, Ethiopia H. Kummer,
pp.376-377; Monkeys in the snow X. Domingo-Roura,
pp.378-379; Colobus and leaf monkeys D. Brandon-
Jones, pp.380-387; China's endangered monkeys F E.
Poirier, p.387; Colobus and leaf monkey species D. Bran-
don-Jones, pp.388-391; Why primates kill their young:
Incidences of infanticide in monkey and ape species R.
Palombit, pp.392-393; Fruitful cooperation: Interspecies
associations in an African forest R. Noe & R. Bshary,
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- D. J. Chivers, pp.398-403; Defense by singing: Great
calls and song bouts of the gibbons G. Cowlishaw,
pp.404-405; Chimpanzees D. Watts & R. W. Wrang-
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marketplace J. E. Fa, p.413; Gorillas A. H. Harcourt,
pp.414-419; Orangutans C. P. van Schaik &J. MacKin-
non, pp.420-423; Last chance for the orang, pp.424-426.
Available from: Direct Sales Department, Oxford University
Press, Saxon Way West, Corby, Northamptonshire NN18
9ES, UK. By e-mail: . Website:


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Neotropical Primates 10(1), April 2002

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Palacios, E. and Rodriguez, A. 2001. Ranging pattern and
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Vallortigara, G. and Bisazza, A. 2002. How ancient is brain
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Gros-Louis, J. J. 2001. Food associated calls in white-faced
capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus): Different functions

from the perspective of the signaler and the recipient.
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capuchins (Cebus capucinus): Male-bonding and evolution
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Abbott, D. H. 2001. Reproductive suppression and
reproductive competition in female common marmosets:
Effects of an unrelated male. Am. Zool. 41(6): 1575.

Selected abstracts from the meeting "Sexual Selection
in Primates: Causes, Mechanisms, Consequences",
Deutsches Primatenzentrum. G6ttingen, Germany, 11-
14 December, 2001. In: Primate Report, Special Issue
60-1, 2001.

Barton, R. The evolution of sexual displays in primates,
Clutton-Brock, T. H. Sexual selection in primates, p. 18.
Gowaty, P. A. Sexual selection, sexual conflict, and variation
in offspring viability, p.23.
Heymann, E. W. Scent marking and sexual selection in
Neotropical primates, p.24.
Johnstone, R. Models of reproductive competition, p.26.
Lindenfors, P. Sexually antagonistic selection on primate
size, p.28.
Manson, J. H. Nonfecundable matings as a test of male
"quality" in primates, p.29.
Plavcan, J. M. Intersexual selection and dimorphism in
primates, p.34.
S~nchez, S., Fidalgo, A., Morcillo, A., Gil-Biirmann, C.
and Peliez, F. Infant carrying as a male sexual strategy of
cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus), pp.37-38.
Silk, J. B. Sex ratios and sexual selection in primate groups,
Snowdon, C. T. Sexual selection and communication,
Sterck, E. H. M. Sex differences in reproductive skew: an
effect of differences in reproductive potential, p.42.
Tullberg, B. and Lindenfors, P. Phylogenetic analyses
of primate size evolution: the consequences of sexual
selection, p.44.
Van Schaik, C. P. Intersexual conflict and primate social
behavior, pp.45-46.

Selected abstracts from the XVIIth Annual Meeting of
the Australasian Primatological Soiciety, December 3-5
1999, Taronga Zoo, New South Wales. In: Australasian
Primatology 14(4), 2000.

Andrew, P. Captive goals and taxon characteristics, pp.7-8.
Hill, N. and Rogers, L. J. Changes in cortisol levels assessed
in the common marmoset, p.5.
Pan, R. Reproductive strategies of non-human primates
and humans, pp.5-6.
Pines, M. and Rogers, L. Behavioural responses of captive
marmosets to environmental enrichment, p.2.
Oxnard, C. E. A commentary on a hoary old problem: Size
and shape in studies of primates, p.4.

Neotropical Primates 10(1), April 2002

Shuster, G. and Rogers, L. J. Hemispheric specialization for
perception of vocalizations by the common marmoset,
( .- jacchus, pp.11-12.

Selected abstracted from Advances in Ethology 2001 (36).

Ades, C. and Diego. V. H. 2001. The influence of posture
on manual preferences of golden-headed and black lion
tamarins, p. 113.
Agoramoorthy, G. Strategies and counterstrategies of
infanticide in red howler monkeys, p.109.
Box, H. 0. 2001. Gender differences among marmosets
and tamarins in response to environmental challenges:
Implications for studies of innovation, pp.34-35.
Day, R. L. and Laland, K. N. Innovation and social learning
in callitrichid primates: Applications for reintroduction
techniques, p. 141.
Oliveira, C. R. de and Ruiz-Miranda, C. R. Do golden lion
tamarin juveniles minimize the costs of play, p.69.
Faria, G. V., Ruiz-Miranda, C. R., Stoinski, T. S. and Beck,
B. B. Foraging success of captive born reintroduced
golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) and their
wild-born offspring, p. 151.
Fujita, K. How do capuchin monkeys (Cebus .''//Ia)
complete occluded figures? p.158.
Ghazanfar, A. A., Smith-Rohrberg, D. and Hauser, M. D.
Temporal cues in the antiphonal long calling behavior of
cotton-top tamarins, pp.15-16.
Hammerschmidt, K. and Fichtel, C. 'Call pitch' as an
indicator of the intensity of affective states, p. 16.
Juergens, U. Neurobiology of primate vocal communication,
Kuroshima, H., Fujita, K., Fuyuki, A., Masuda, T., Adachi,
I. and Iwata, K. Understanding of the relation between
seeing and knowing by capuchin monkeys (Cebus .'//,),,
Miller, C. T. and Hauser, M. D. Selective phonotaxis by
cotton-top tamarins, pp.217-218.
Phillips, K. A. and Newton, K. R. Extractive foraging
in white-fronted capuchin monkeys (Cebus albifrons),
Rothe, H. and Thiess, A. 2001. Temporary cooperative
polyandry in the common marmoset (C. jacchus), p.255.
Saito, A., Ueno, Y., Kawamura, S. and Hasegawa, T. Food
search behavior of trichromatic and dichromatic capuchin
monkeys (Cebus. .c//,), p.256-257.
Schradin, C., Reeder, D. M., Mendoza, S. P. and
Anzenberger, G. Prolactin and paternal care in New
World monkeys, p.260.
Voelkl, B. and Huber, L. Movement imitation in monkeys,
Yamamoto, M. E., Alencar, A., Aradjo, A., Albuquerque,
F, Albuquerque, A. C. and Sousa, M. B. C. Breeding
strategies in captive and wild C .- jacchus, pp.290-

Selected abstracts from the First Meeting of the Asociaci6n
Primatol6gica Espaniola (APE) and First European

Workshop on Primate Research, Madrid, 16-19 October,
1996. In Folia Primatologica 72(6), 2001.

Box, H. 0. 2001. New developments in studies of
callitrichid primates, pp.346-347.
Garcia. E, Ponsa. M., Nogues, C. Egozcue, J. and Garcia,
M. Constitutive heterochromatin heterogeneity in
primates, pp.353-354.
G6mez-Marin, E J. and Ve1, J. J. Etho-ecology of the howler
monkey (Alouatta palliata mexicana) in a disturbed forest
patch in Los Tuxtlas, Mexico, p.356.
Guillkn-Salazar, F and Pons-Salvador, G. Primate behaviour
research in Spain: An analysis of the scientific articles
published between 1960 and 1996, pp.356-357.
Heymann, E. W. and Holighaus, K. Effect of animal
technicians on the behaviour of a family group of cotton-
top tamarins, Saguinus oedipus (Primates: Callitrichidae),
Kaumanns, W. The European primate populations and
their potential for research and captive propagation,
Queralt, A., Vex, J. J. and Diaz, A. Parental behaviour in
Cebuella pygmaea and Saguinus oedipus, p.364.
Sanchez, S. and Pelaez, F Reduction of mother's
reproductive costs in the cooperative breeding system of
cotton top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus oedipus), p.365.
Teixidor, P. and Byrne, R. W. The function of the whinny in
spider monkeys (Ateles ...rr .., i a food call or a locational
call, p.367.
Visalberghi, E. A comparison of the cognitive abilities of
capuchin monkeys and chimpanzees, p. 370.
de Vleeschoouwer, K., Chapoix, G. and van Elsacker, L.
van. Male-female investment in the development of
sociosexual relationships in golden-headed lion tamarins,

II Simp6sio de Ecologia Comportamental e de Interao6es,
I Workshop A Ecologia de Interao6es no Centro-Oeste
do Brasil, 5-6 de julho de 2002. Institute de Biologia
Universidade Fereral de Uberlandia. Contato: II Simp6sio
de Ecologia Comportamental e Interao6es.A/C Prof. Dr.
Kleber Del Claro, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade
Federal de Uberlandia UFU, Caixa Postal 593, 38400-
902 Uberlandia, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Web site: //seci.intersimple.com/>.

16th Annual Meeting of the Society for Conservation
Biology, 14-18 July, 2002, Canterbury, England at the
University of Kent's campus. The theme of this meeting
will be "People and Conservation" and will be co-hosted
by the Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology
(DICE), based in the Department of Anthropology at the
University, and the British Ecological Society. For more
information contact: Nigel Leader-Williams, SCB2002

Neotropical Primates 10(1), April 2002
Program Chair, e-mail: or Andrew
Pullin, BES, e-mail: . Web site:

American Veterinary Society of Animal Behavior, 15 July,
2002, Nashville, Tennessee, USA. This meeting will be held
in conjunction with the annual meeting of the American
Veterinary Medical Association. The meeting format will
include presentations, question and answer sessions and a
poster session. Deadline for submitting abstracts is Decem-
ber 1, 2001. Authors will be notified by January 15, 2002.
For more information contact: Dr. Margaret Duxbury, 1299
South Shore Drive Amery, WI 54001. Tel: (715) 268-9900,
Fax: (715) 268-2691, e-mail: .

Ecological Society of America 87th Annual Meeting joint
with the Ecological Society of Mexico, 4-8 August, 2002.
Arizona, USA. Details from: ESA, 1707 H St., NW, Suite
400, Washington, DC 20006, USA, Tel: + (202) 833 8773,
Fax: +(202)833 8775, e-mail:

XIXth Congress of the International
S S Primatological Society, 4-9 August
2002, Beijing, China. Organized
by the Mammalogical Society of
China and the Institute of Zoology,
Chinese Academy of Sciences. The venue will be the Beijing
International Convention Center, No. 8 Beichen Dong
Road, Beijing 100101, China websitee ).
The theme of the Congress is "Caring for Primates",
focusing on the progress and prospects of primatology
and the conservation of non-human-primates. Deadline
for symposium and workshop titles: 31 August, 2001.
Deadline for submitting abstracts is the 31 March, 2002.
On-Line registration will be available after 1 December,
2001. Contact address. Prof. Fuwen Wei, Secretary General,
19' Congress of the International Primatological Society,
c/o Institute of Zoology. Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19
Zhongguancan Lu, Haidian, Beijing 100080, China, Fax:
(86-10) 82627388, e-mail: .
Home page: .

Annual Meetings of the IUCN/SSC Conservation Breed-
ing Specialists Group (CBSG) 10-13 August, 2002, The
World Zoo Organization (WZO), 13-17 August 2002,
and The International Association of Zoo Educators
(IZE), 17-22 August, 2002, Hofburg Palace, Redoutensale,
Vienna. Hosted by the Schoenbrunn Zoo. For more infor-
mation: Austropa Interconvention, Conference Office,
Friedrichstrasse 7, A-1010 Vienna, Austria, Fax: +43 1 315
56 50, e-mail: .

The International Association of Zoo Educators, 17-
22 August, 2002, Redoutensale, Vienna. Hosted by the
Schoenbrunn Zoo. For more information contact: Aus-
tropa Intercovention, Conference Office, Friedrichstrasse
7, A-1010 Vienna, Austria. Fax: +(43) 1-315-56-50, e-
mail: .


The American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA)
Annual Conference, 10-14 September 2002, Fort Worth
Zoological Park, Fort Worth, Texas. The conference pro-
gram is geared toward the many disciplines in the zoologi-
cal profession directors, animal curators, keepers, society
members, scientists, gift shop merchandisers and practi-
tioners in public relations, development, education and
government affairs will all find something of interest. Most
of the AZA committees and special interests groups meet in
conjunction with the Annual Conference. For more infor-
mation: .

19th Annual Conference of the European Association
of Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA), 17-22 September 2002.
Hosted by Barcelona Zoo, Spain. The European Taxon
Advisory Group (TAG) Chairs will meet on 17 September,
2002. The main theme of the Conference will be Central
and South America, with emphasis on their current fund-
raising and awareness campaign the Atlantic forest of
Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay. Registration and accom-
modation: The deadline for early registration to the Confer-
ence is 30 June 2002. The registration and hotel booking
forms can be downloaded from the Resource Centre in the
Member Area of the website (below). Alternatively they can
be obtained on request from the EAZA Executive Office:
. Accommodation has been reserved in
eight different hotels and three economically priced student
residences. As Barcelona is a popular tourist destination,
hotel booking before 30 June 2002 is necessary. Residences
should be booked before 14 April 2002. The meetings will
be held in the Pompeu Fabra University, next to Barcelona
Zoo. Website: .

III Congresso Brasileiro de Unidades de Conservacao,
22-26 de setembro de 2002, Centro de Convenq6es Edson
Queiroz, Fortaleza, Ceara. Realizaqao; Rede Nacional
Pr6-Unidades de Conservacao, Fundacao 0 Boticario de
Protegao a Natureza e Associaqao Caatinga. Patrocinio: The
Nature Conservancy. 0 event esta organizado de maneira
a permitir a apresentacao e discussao de grandes temas do
manejo de unidades de conservacao atraves de conferencias,
palestras e das sess6es paralelas: seminarios e apresentagao
de trabalhos tecnicos-cientfficos. Informao6es sobre
Inscrio6es: Rowam Eventos, Telefax: 0** (41) 342-9078,
e-mail: <3cbuc@brturbo.com>.

VIII Congreso Latinoamericano y II Congreso
Colombiano de Botinica, 13-18 de octubre de 2002,
Cartagena de Indias, Colombia. "Nuestros conocimientos
al servicio de la sociedad". Informes: Enrique Forero,
e-mail: , o ncias.unal.edu.co>. Website: eventos/congrbot/>.

Colloque 2002 Soci&t6 Francophone de Primatologie,
23-25 October, 2002, Dou&la-Fontaine. This 14' annual
meeting of the Francophone Primate Society has the theme
of "Reproduction of Primates", but also regular sessions

on paleontology, anthropology, conservation, medical
research, ethology and ecology, as well as a round table
on animal ethics. For more information visit the web
site: fontaine.htm>. For further information on the society visit:

X Congress Brasileiro de Primatologia, 10-15 November
2002, Universidade Federal do Para, Belem. Hosted by the
Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia (SBPr). For more
information: Stephen Ferrari, Departamento de Psicologia,
Universidade Federal do Para, Campus do Guama, Caixa
Postal 8607, 66075-150 Belkm, Para, Brazil, e-mail:
. Note: On 8th July 2002, the organizing
commission informed that the Congress had been moved
forward to November from the previously announced dates
of 25-30 August, 2002.

Foro de Primatologia 2002 Estaci6n de Biologia "Los
Tuxtlas," 21-22 de noviembre, 2002, Instituto de Biologfa
"Los Tuxtlas", Universidad Nacional Aut6noma de Mexico.
El objeto de esta reuni6n es actualizar e intercambiar infor-
maci6n acerca de investigaciones en curso con primates
nativos (Alouatta palliata, A. pigra y Ateles ..-rr . I en el
sureste de Mexico y revisar los problems de conservaci6n
de las poblaciones. Esto permitira determinar cual es el
estado de conocimiento acerca de la distribuci6n actual
de las poblaciones y su estado de conservaci6n, asf como
conocer los tipos de investigaciones basicas y aplicadas que
se llevan a cabo actualmente con primates silvestres en el sur
de Mexico. Tres areas son de interns especifico: Poblacion
y ecologia reconocimientos demogrificos relaciones pri-
mate-planta: recursos alimenticios, dispersi6n de semillas,
otros; Conducta ecologfa del comportamiento, conduct
social; y Conservacidn distribuci6n actual de las espe-
cies, estado de conservaci6n de las poblaciones, impact
demografico de la fragmentaci6n del habitat, destrucci6n
y fragmentaci6n del habitat, cacerfa y trafico, proyectos de
conservaci6n. Se desea participar, comunicarse al correo
6 al fax + (294) 942-4668. Indi-
car si participaci6n es como asistente o como presentaci6n
de trabajo. Si es lo segundo, enviar resdmen (max 250 pal-
abras) antes del 5 de Noviembre, indicando si se trata de
presentaci6n oral o tipo cartel. Ndmero de asistentes al foro
sera limitado, por lo que se sugiere comunicar su partici-
paci6n con suficiente anticipaci6n. Los participants serin
hospedados en las instalaciones de la Estaci6n de Biologfa
Los Tuxtlas. A los asistentes cuyos trabajos sean aprobados
para presentaci6n se les cubriran gastos de estancia y ali-
mentaci6n en la Estaci6n Los Tuxtlas del IB-UNAM.

Primate Society of Great Britain (PSGB) Winter Meeting
2002, 29 November, 2002, Zoological Society of London,
Regent's Park, London, UK. The theme is "Primate
Evolution and Adaptation". For information: Dr Sarah
Elton, Department of Anthropology, University of Kent
at Canterbury, Canterbury CT 2 7NS, Kent, UK, Tel:
+44 (0)1227 823232, Fax: +44 (0)1227 827289, e-mail:

Neotropical Primates 10(1), April 2002
Dynamics and Conservation of Genetic Diversity in
Forest Ecosystems, 2-5 December, 2002, Strasbourg,
France. The conference will be divided into two main
parts: Part A, processes and mechanisms promoting genetic
diversity in forest ecosystems and Part B, implementations
in conservation strategies. Speakers will be presenting
information on forest trees and other short generation spe-
cies. A webpage for the conference is available at: //www.pierroton.inra.fr/genetics/Dygen/>. For further
information contact: DYGEN conference secretariat,
Dr. Marie-Pierre Reviron, INRA BP 45, 33610 Cestas,
France, Tel: +33 5 57 12 28 32, Fax: +33 5 57 12 28 81,
e-mail: .

XXIth Annual Conference of the Australasian Primate
Society, 6-8 December, 2002, Melbourne Zoo, Melbourne,
Australia. Organizers are Amanda Embury (Royal Mel-
bourne Zoological Gardens) and Debbie Williams (CSL).
For more details and to download a registration form,
please visit , or contact: Amanda
Embury, APS Conference Organizer, c/o Melbourne Zoo.
Australia, e-mail: .


4th European Congress of Mammalogy, 27 July 1
August, 2003, Brno, Czech Republic. Hosted by the
Institute of Vertebrate Biology, Academy of Sciences of the
Czech Republic. Information and the pre-registration form
are available on the website . Any ques-
tions about organization should be directed to Jan Zima,
Organising Committee, e-mail: . The first
information and the pre-registration form are now available
on the website: < http://www.ivb.cz>.

VI Congress Internacional en Gesti6n de Recursos
Naturales, 20 el 24 de enero de 2003, Hotel Villa del Rio,
Valdivia, Chile. Este event esta siendo organizado por el
Centro de Estudios Agrarios &Ambientales (CEA) y cuenta
con el auspfcio de importantes organizaciones nacionales e
internacionales. Este VI Congreso esta estructurado en sim-
posios: VIII Simposio de Manejo de Vida Silvestre y Con-
servaci6n de la Biodiversidad, VI Simposio Iberoamericano
de Educaci6n y Comunicaci6n Ambiental y VI Simposio
de Desarrollo Sustentable, I Simposio de Humedales y
Recursos Hidricos y I Simposio de Sistemas de Informaci6n
Geograficos en la Gesti6n de Recursos Naturales. Toda la
informaci6n relacionada con objetivos, program, estadia,
inscripciones, auspicios etc., esta en Internet en la direc-
ci6n: http://www.ceachile.cl/congresoVI.html>. Claudia
Gil Cordero, Comite Organizador VI CIGRN, Casilla 164,
Valdivia. Chile, Tel: 56-63-215846, Fax: 56-63-299065, e-
mail: o . Visite
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