A Journal and Newsletter of the
Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC
Primate Specialist Group
CON LK f I VAV iti l"
A Journal and Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group
Center for Applied Biodiversity Science
1919 M. St. NW, Suite 600, Washington, DC 20036, USA
ISSN 1413-4703 Abbreviation: Neotrop. Primates
Anthony B. Rylands, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International, Washington, DC
Ernesto Rodriguez-Luna, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Mexico
Jennifer Pervola, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International, Washington, DC
Hannah M. Buchanan-Smith, University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland, UK
Adelmar F. Coimbra-Filho, Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Liliana Cortns-Ortiz, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Mexico
Carolyn M. Crockett, Regional Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
Stephen E Ferrari, Universidade Federal do Para, Beldm, Brazil
Eckhard W. Heymann, Deutsches Primatenzentrum, Gottingen, Germany
William R. Konstant, Conservation International, Washington, DC
Russell A. Mittermeier, Conservation International, Washington, DC
Marta D. Mudry, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina
Horacio Schneider, Universidade Federal do Para, Beldm, Brazil
Karen B. Strier, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
Maria Emilia Yamamoto, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Brazil
Primate Specialist Group
Chairman Russell A. Mittermeier
Deputy Chairs Anthony B. Rylands & William R. Konstant
Co-Vice Chairs for the Neotropical Region Anthony B. Rylands & Ernesto Rodriguez-Luna
Vice Chair for Asia Ardith A. Eudey
Vice Chair for Africa Thomas M. Butynski
Vice Chair for Madagascar Jorg U. Ganzhorn
Glenda P. Fibregas, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International, Washington, DC.
Kim Meek, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International, Washington, DC.
Photo, Ateles geoffroyi geoffroyi, courtesy of Vince Sodaro, Primate Department, Brookfield Zoo, Brookville, Illinois, 60513, USA.
This issue of Neotropical Primates was kindly sponsored by the Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation, 432 Walker Road, Great Falls, ,,-:,r., _, ". '. USA,
the Houston Zoological Gardens Conservation Program, General Manager Rick Barongi, 1513 North MacGregor, Houston, Texas 77030, USA, and the Los
Angeles Zoo, Director Manuel Mollinedo, 5333 Zoo Drive, Los Angeles, California 90027, USA.
Neotropical Primates 9(2), August 2001 37
TAXONOMIC STATUS OF AoTus HERSHKOVITZI: ITS RELATIONSHIP TO AOTUS LEMURINUS
Thomas R. Defler', Marta Lucia Bueno2 and Jorge I. Hernaindez-Camacho3
1Instituto Amazdnico de Investigaciones, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Apartado Aereo 215, Leticia (Amazonas), Colombia.
2Departamento de Biologia, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Apartado Aereo 144900, Santa Fe de Bogotd, Colombia.
3Fundaci6n Biocolombia, Santa Fe de Bogotd, Colombia.
We analyze various taxonomic problems ofnorthern Aotus and describe the phenotype and karyotype of specimens, which have
been called Aotus hershkovitzi since their discovery. Karyotypes from Panama with a diploid number of 2n = 55-56 had been
referred to as Aotus lemurinus lemurinus but actually belong to Aotus lemurinus zonalis, a taxon found throughout the Pacific
lowlands of Colombia, extending to Panami and the Rio Sint on the Caribbean coast of Colombia. Aotus lemurinus zonalis
is different phenotypically and karyologically from that of the Colombian Andes population (Aotus lemurinus lemurinus).
We correct Hershkovitz' designation of the Quindio Pass as an amended type locality for Aotus lemurinus. There are no solid
grounds to reject the vicinity of Santa Fe de Bogota as type locality, and this should be listed as the correct type locality. We
then point out that as the karyotype of Aotus lemurinus lemurinus has not been described and as the specimens called Aotus
hershkovitzi are phenotypically within the range of other Aotus lemurinus lemurinus, that Aotus hershkovitziis a synonym for A.
lemurinus lemurinus, which should now be recognized as having a diploid karyotype of 58 as well as the highest Fundamental
Number (76) known for the genus. This interpretation is supported by the discovery of an Aotus (the Murrillo specimen)
with 2n = 58 from the Cordillera Central. We suggest further that the karyotypes published for Aotus lemurinus griseimembra
need to be confirmed with specimens from known collection sites and that, in fact, Aotus from lowland sites of the Caribbean
coast may be another taxon, yet to be described. Furthermore, we clarify the unwarranted assumption that the origin of the
"Quindio specimen" described karyologically by Torres et al. (1998) is from this region, but may represent an undescribed
species from an as yet unidentified locality. Finally we suggest that in fact the "subspecies" of Aotus lemurinus may in fact be
full species in light of their karyological differences. In order to clarify the Aotus species it is important to do specific systematic
research, including the collection of specimens from specific localities.
Key words: Aotus lemurinus lemurinus, Aotus hershkovitzi, Aotus taxonomy, New World monkeys, Platyrrhini, Cebidae, night
monkey, owl monkey
Se analizan various problems taxon6micos de los Aotus del norte y se describe el fenotipo y cariotipo de ejemplares
que han sido denominados Aotus hershkovitzi desde su descubrimiento. Los Aotus de Panami con cariotipos (2n
= 56-55) designados como A. lemurinus lemurinus, correspondent a Aotus lemurinus zonalis, taxon que puede ser
diferenciado tanto en fenotipo como en cariotipo de las poblaciones andinas Colombianas de Aotus lemurinus
lemurinus. A. 1. zonalis esti present en las zonas bajas del pacifico desde Panama hasta Colombia extendidndose
hasta el valle del rio Sindi en la costa Caribe de Colombia. Proponemos una correcci6n de la localidad tipica de
A. lemurinus. Para Hershkovitz, la localidad tipo de esta especie fue restringida a el "Paso de Quindio." Nosotros sugerimos
que no hay arguments solidos para efectuar esta restrici6n en la localidad tipo de esta especie por lo cual proponemos que
la localidad tipo correct para este taxo debe ser "Santa fe de Bogota." Seg6n nuestro criterio, el cariotipo del verdadero
Aotus lemurinus lemurinus aun no ha sido descrito, y los ejemplares conocidos como Aotus hershkovitzi correspondent en
fenotipo y en rango de distribuci6n a los Aotus lemurinus lemurinus, por lo cual Aotus hershkovitzi es un sin6nimo de Aotus
lemurinus lemurinus, que debe ser reconocido por el numero cromos6mico (N = 58) y numero fundamental (NF = 76), los
mas altos para el genero entire los cariotipos hasta hoy descritos. Esta interpretaci6n esta basada en el hallazgo de un ejemplar
(espdcimen de Murillo) de 2N = 58 en la cordillera Central de los Andes. Es necesario determinar el numero cromos6mico
de Aotus lemurinus griseimembra a partir de ejemplares colectados en lugares cercanos a su localidad tipo, en la costa Caribe,
que pueden conformar una entidad taxon6mica diferente aun no evaluada. Con respect al ejemplar del "Quindio" descrito
cariol6gicamente por Torres elal. (1998) creemos que sin duda corresponde a un nuevo taxon que debe ser descrito, y definida
su distribuci6n. Finalmente, sostenemos que las "subespecies" deAotus lemurinus, por sus diferencias caril6gicas y fenotipicas,
correspondent a species. Es indispensable para clarificar el estado real de la diferenciaci6n especifica de los Aotus, realizar un
studio sistematico, con colecciones de ejemplares en localidades especificas.
Palabras claves: Aotus lemurinus lemurinus, Aotus hershkovitzi, Taxonomfa deAotus, Primates del nuevo mundo, Platyrrhini,
Cebidae, Mico de noche.
38 Neotropical Primates 9(2), August 2001
Hershkovitz (1949: 400) first considered Aotus as a
monotypic genus in his account of northern Colombian
Primates, although he recognized several subspecies for A.
trivirgatus (Humboldt, 1812). This scheme was followed by
many authors (for example, Hill, 1960: 169-179; Cabrera,
1958). Thorington and Vorek (1976), however, pointed
out that the subspecific classification of night monkeys
had probably hampered any understanding of the complex
geographic variation in Aotus. The discovery of karyotypic
polymorphism in Aotus by Brumback et al. (1971) has
made it necessary, during the past few years, to recognize
several species of Aotus. Brumback (1973) recognized Aotus
griseimembra Elliot (1912: 36; type locality, Hacienda
Cincinnati [also known as Valparaiso] southeast of Santa
Marta, on the northwestern slope of the massif of Sierra
Nevada de Santa Marta, Magdalena, Colombia; 1,480 ft.) as
a full species from northern Colombia, and he treated night
monkeys from Perd as A. trivirgatus, although this definition
of Aotus trivirgatus is no longer preserved in present
day taxonomy according to Hershkovitz (1983). Later,
Brumback (1974) distinguished a third karyotype, which he
assigned to A. azarae (Humboldt, 1812; type locality: right
bank of Rio Paraguay in north-east of Argentina). However,
Hershkovitz (1983: 217-223) later described this taxon as
a new species Aotus brumbacki, and redetermined the type
locality as the Villavicencio region, Department of Meta,
Work by Ma et al. (1976a, 1976b, 1977, 1978, 1980)
described various other karyotypes of captive Aotus, resulting
in the recognition of the polymorphic 2n = 55, 56 for animals
said to be "Panamanian" and 2n = 46 for upper Amazonian
specimens. They clarified the karyotype of Aotus nigriceps
Dollman (1909: 200; type locality: Chanchamayo, Peru,
3000 ft) and Aotus boliviensis Elliot (1907: 189; type locality:
Provincia of Sara, Bolivia), which had been described by de
Boer (1974), although they continued using Aotus trivirgatus
as a species including all members of the genus (Ma et al.,
Hershkovitz (1983) described two new species, A. brumbacki
and A. nancymai, and he attempted to bring order out of
the chaos that had been Aotus taxonomy by proposing a
scheme whereby a total of nine species were recognized.
These were represented by the so-called "red-necked" species
group, distributed almost entirely south of the Amazon
River and including A. azarae, A. infulatus, A. miconax and
A. nancymai, and the "gray-necked" species group, occurring
almost entirely north of the Amazon River and including
the species A. brumbacki, A. lemurinus (which he defined
as including populations from Panama and northern and
Andean Colombia), A. trivirgatus and A. vociferans.
Ford (1994) published an extensive morphometric study of
the skulls of 193 Aotus specimens and pelage characteristics
of 105 adult Aotus. This analysis showed "mixed variation"
across almost the entire range of Aotus. She interpreted
the cline of northern Colombian Aotus lemurinus (which
Hershkovitz  defined as including populations
from Panami as well as northern and central Colombia),
A. brumbacki and A. vociferans as one clinal species, with
A. trivirgatus being strongly separable from this clinal "Aotus
lemurinus" (sensu Ford, 1994).
In 1981 Jairo Ramfrez-Cerquera and Jaime Umafia collected
four specimens of Aotus in the upper valley of the Rio
Cusiana (vereda [1, notes at end of paper] of Corinto in the
Cusiana river valley, Departament of Boyaci), Colombia,
in the putative geographic range of Aotus lemurinus (sensu
Hershkovitz, 1949: 408, fig 58; sensu Hernindez-Camacho
& Cooper, 1976:46, fig. 6) or Aotus brumbacki (cf.
Hershkovitz, 1983: 218, Fig. 2) . Ramfrez-Cerquera and
his collaborator Marta L. Bueno studied the four specimens
for karyotype. Ramfirez-Cerquera (1983) reported the
diploid number (2n = 58) for all of the four animals, the
highest number yet reported for the genus, and he referred
to these animals as Aotus hershkovitzi for the first time in the
Giraldo et al. (1986) included Aotus hershkovitzi in their
study of northern Colombian Aotus karyotypes, which they
referred to as Aotus sp. They showed that all but four of the
chromosomes were homologous with A. lemurinus (KII,
KIII & KIV, sensu Ma et al., 1976a, which correspond to
populations of A. 1. griseimembra). Hershkovitz (verbatim)
initially thought that the four Cusiana animals represented
a new karyotype for Aotus lemurinus griseimembra. Later,
Hershkovitz (verbatim) changed his mind and suggested
that this material represented a new species and urged the
publication of a description of the new species, which Jairo
Ramfirez-Cerquera (1983:146) proposed be named Aotus
hershkovitzi in a paper read at the Primate Symposium of the
IX Latin American Congress of Zoology at Arequipa, Perd.
Ramfrez-Cerquera briefly recorded the origin of the original
four specimens, giving as distinguishing characters long hair,
low sensibility to experimental infection with Plasmodium
falciparum as compared to Aotus brumbacki and Aotus
vociferans and a unique diploid number. Only the diploid
number of 58 was diagnostic, distinguishing the taxon
from any other known karyotypic number for the genus.
He mentioned, furthermore, the possibility that the species
seemed to be phylogenetically closer to the populations of
Aotus from the lowlands of eastern Colombia than to Aotus
lemurinus from the highlands and inter-Andean valleys
of Colombia, perhaps based on Aotus hershkovitzis lack of
sensibility to Plasmodiumfalciparum.
The name Aotus hershkovitzihas become generally recognized
by the scientific community (Rylands et al., 1995, 2000) and
was listed in the taxonomic reference book Mammal Species
of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference by the
author of "The Primates" (Groves, 1993: 256; type locality,
department of Meta, east side of Cordillera Oriental)  as
Neotropical Primates 9(2), August 2001
a full species, Aotus hershkovitzi Ramfrez-Cerquera 1983.
In this article we analyze the validity of A. hershkovitzi
from a nomenclatural and taxonomic point of view, and
its relationship with the Andean population of Aotus (Aotus
lemurinus lemurinus, sensu strict) and Aotus brumbacki.
We analyzed the nomenclatural and taxonomic aspects
of Andean populations of Aotus lemurinus and Aotus
hershkovitzi including phenotypic and karyotypic variation.
In the description of pelage coloration particular attention
was given to Aotus hershkovitzi, and we used the color
nomenclature of Ridgway ("1912"=1913), capitalizing
the initial letters. Standard measurements based on fresh
material were taken from the specimen label.
Chromosome preparations were obtained by M. L. Bueno
using standard methods for lymphocyte culture (Moorhead
et al., 1960). Blood samples were taken with heparinized
syringes (Liquemine, Roche). Peripheral blood was cultured
in Minimal Essential Medium (MEM, Sigma) with 20% of
bovine fetal serum, 10% of Penicillin-streptomycin, Sigma.
As mitogens, 0.35 mls P-Phytohemaglutinin (Difco, at 1:16
dilution) were used. A duplicate culture with a crude extract
of Vicia faba lectin (the procedure of Arango and Moreno,
1977) gave the best preparations. Optimum culture time was
QFQ, GTG and CBG banding were carried out as described
by Capersson et al. (1970), Seabright (1971) and Summer
(1972) respectively. Late DNA replication patterns (RBG)
were observed after a 5-bromodeoxyuridine (Budr) terminal
pulse (see Camargo and Cervenka, 1980). CBG banding
was accomplished using preparations previously analyzed
with QFQ banding. Nucleolar organizer regions (NORs)
were located by the procedure of Goodpasture and Bloom
The following acronyms have been used:
AMNH American Museum of Natural History, New
BMNH British Museum (Natural History) London.
FMNH Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago.
ICN Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Museo de Historia
Natural, la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Santa F6 de
INDERENA Instituto Nacional de los Recursos Naturales
Renovables y del Medio Ambiente, Ministerio de Agricultura,
Santa F6 Bogotai.
IVH Instituto de Investigaciones de Biodiversidad
Alexander von Humboldt, Ministerio del Medio Ambiente,
Villa de Leyva, Boyaci, Colombia.
MCZ Museum of Comparative Zoology, University of
Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
MNHP Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
UNIFEM Unidad Investigativa Federico Medem
(INDERENA), Santa F6 de Bogoti.
USNM National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian
Institution, Washington, DC.
Aotus lemurinus lemurinus
(I. Geoffroy-St. Hilaire, 1843)
Synonymic history: N[yctipithecus] lemurinus I. Geoffroy-
Saint Hilaire, 1843: Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci., Paris 16:
1151 (original description of taxon).
Nyctipithecus lemurinus I. Geoffroy-Saint Hilaire, 1844:
Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris 4: 24, pl.2.
'.j ..- /..-I. c /,. *' J. E. Gray, 1847: 6 (original description;
type locality: Santa F6 de Bogoti).
Nyctipithecus hirsutus J. E. Gray, 1870: 58 (nomen nudum;
lapsus colanit for hirsutus).
Aotus lanius G. Dollman, 1909: 202 (original description;
holotype BMNH 1818.104.22.168, adult female, skin and skull,
collected by White, "Tolima Mountains," 220'N, 6000
feet, now Department of Huila, Colombia). D. G. Elliot,
1913: 12-13 (type locality: "Tolima Mountains," Rio Toche,
Aotus aversus D. G. Elliot, 1912: 251 (original description;
Fusagasugi, Cundinamarca, Colombia).
Aotus pervigilis D. G. Elliot, 1912 (La Candela, Huila,
Aotus vociferans (non Nyctipithecus vociferans Spix, 1823)
D. G. Elliot, "1912"[=1913]: 15-16 (partim; "mountains of
Tolima"; Nyctipithecus lemurinus (original series examined;
regarded as synonym).
Aotus lemurinus J. A. Allen, 1916, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat.
Hist. 35: 234 (Fusagasugi, type and topotype of aversus
D. G. Elliot; A. vociferans Elliot, non Nyctipithecus vociferans
von Spix, 1823, = lemurinus I. Geoffroy-St. Hilaire, 1843).
Groves, 1993, Primates, in Mammal Species of the World:
A Taxonomic and G,o, i1 Reference, p.25 (listed type
locality as Department of Caldas, Quindio, Colombia).
Aotus trivirgatus Groves and Pulido, 1982: 226 (partim).
Aotus lemurinus lemurinus Hershkovitz, 1983, Am. J.
Primatol. 4(3): 209, 211, 214 (fig. 2), 233 (partim; Andean
Colombian populations, comparisons with other taxa of
Aotus). Rylands et al., 1995, Neotrop. Primates 3(suppl.):
119, 122, 127, 132, 138, 149 (partim; Andes, Colombian
populations; Neotropical primate classification and
conservation). Rylands et al., 2000, Neotrop. Primates 8(2):
62, 65, 69, 75 (partim; Andean Colombian populations
Neotropical Primates 9(2), August 2001
Aotus trivirgatus lemurinus Hershkovitz, 1949, Proc. U. S.
Natl. Mus. 98(3232): 405 taxonomicc revision). Hernandez-
Camacho and Cooper, 1976, Neotropical Primate Field
Studies and Conservation, pp.35-69. Thorington and Vorek,
1976, Lab. Anim. Sci. 26(6): 1006-1021 (review of skeletal
development and pelage color and patterns).
Aotus hershkovitzi Ramirez-Cerquera, 1883, IX Congr.
Latinoamer. Zool (abstracts): 146 (first published mention
of intention to name the taxon; brief diagnosis). Groves,
1993, Mammal Species of the World, Primates: 256 (reference
to species; type locality incorrectly recorded as "Department
of Meta"). Rylands et al, 1995, Neotrop. Primates 3(suppl.):
119, 122, 127, 138, 149 (species listed according to
conservation status and IUCN Mace-Lande system). Torres
et al., 1998, Am.]. Primatol. 44(4): 268, figs. 8a-b (recognize
a different karyotype group for this species). Rylands et al.,
2000, Neotrop. Primates 8(2): 62, 65, 69, 75 (Neotropical
diversity). Groves, 2001, Primate Taxonomy, p. 164.
Aotus "hershkovitzi" Defler, 1994, Trianea, 5: 265 (species
conservation). Defler, 1996, Neotrop. Primates 4(3): 77
(IUCN classification of Colombian primates).
[Aotus sp.] L1, L2, L3 and L4, Espinal et al., 1984, Amer. J.
Trop. Med. andHyg. 33: 777-781, Table 1-2, Fig. 1-2 (report
on serology and malariology of this species as compared to
A. lemurinus and A. vociferans). Giraldo et al., 1986,
Biomedica 6(1-2): 11-12, fig. 6 (brief description of
karyotype, included in a new group "X" following the system
of Ma etal., 1976a, 1978).
[Aotus sp.] Mittermeier et al., 1988, Ecology and Behavior of
NeotropicalPrimates, Vol. 2: 34 (reference to Ramirez's desire
to name a new species of Aotus for Philip Hershkovitz).
Type locality: A problem with Aotus lemurinus is the lack
of precision of the type locality for the species, which was
first listed as "Nouvelle Gr6nade" by I. Geoffroy-St. Hilaire
(1843: 1151), who did not designate a type specimen. In
the following year the same author listed the type locality
as "Santa F6 de BogotA" (I. Geoffroy-St. Hilaire, 1844: 58).
Rode (1938: 38) selected as holotypee" (= lectotype) an adult
(?) male skin (mounted with skull no. 102a), purchased from
Parzudaki, and another specimen designated as allotype (=
lectoparatype), also purchased from Parzudaki in 1842.
Designations made by Rode are fully valid, according to the
International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. I. Geoffroy-
St. Hilaire's (1844: 58) restriction of the type locality to
"Santa FR de BogotA" did not take into consideration the
material collected by Justine Goudot in the "Quindiu" [=
Quindio region] already existing in the Paris Natural History
Museum. This strengthens the case for I. Geoffroy-St.
Hilaire's choice of the Bogoti region as specimens for the
type series . For further details about the lectotype see
Hershkovitz (1949: 406).
Despite Geoffroy-St. Hilaire's designation of Santa F6 de
BogotA as type locality, Hershkovitz (1949: 407) restricted
the type locality to the Quindio Pass (Cordillera Central),
remarking that "this is the only authentic locality for
specimens of the original series" and, further, "as Aotus does
not occur in the BogotA region proper, which is savanna,
the type locality is here restricted to that of the Goudot
specimens." Obviously the "Bogoti region proper" should
include an area surrounding the city of Santa F6 de Bogota
in the Eastern Cordillera of the Andes. In a comparatively
short distance from this city a wide variety of ecological
conditions occur, including humid subtropical [sub-Andean]
and temperate forest, as well as edaphically and climatically
determined semi-arid conditions , so that the BogotA
region cannot be regarded as natural savanna as a whole. At
the time, Hershkovitz (1949) was not acquainted personally
with the Bogota region. He probably was influenced by the
fact that Chapman (1917) had classified the Bogota plateau
in the "arid temperate zone." He did not consider the fact
that most of the mountains surrounding the so-called
"savanna de BogotA" actually were originally covered by
humid forest where Aotus occurred. Furthermore, available
precise records for this species include localities such as
the forest adjoining the Pedro Palo lake (about 2,100 m.),
Subia (ca. 1,700-2,500 m.), Cuchilla de Cruz Grande
above Fusagasuga (2,000 m.) and the Fusagasuga type
locality of Aotus aversus Elliot (a synonym for A. lemurinus).
Consequently, since the original restriction "Santa Fd de
BogotA" as type locality for A. lemurinus and localities such as
those mentioned are separated by distances that were covered
in a 1-2 day mule ride, we believe that the authenticity of
Santa F6 de Bogota interpreted in a broad sense can be
regarded as a valid designation of the type locality, and could
be restricted even more precisely to the neighborhood of
Fusagasuga (1,700-2,000 m.).
Specimens examined: Phenotypic analysis forAotuslemurinus
is based on an examination by JIH-C of almost all
Colombian specimens held within the country (ICN, IVH
= INDERENA), the United States of America (AMNH,
FMNH, MCZ and USNM) as well as from the MNH
(Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris) and the
BMNH (British Museum of Natural History, London)
totaling about 130 specimens of geographically referenced
Aotus lemurinus collected from sites spread throughout the
northern part of Colombia. A map of the origins of these
specimens can be seen in Defler (in press).
Characters: According to Hershkovitz (1949: 407)
distinctive characters are the following: (1) on average this
is the darkest of the subspecies and (2) pelage of Aotus
lemurinus lemurinus is extremely coarse , long and lax
and "the majority of the specimens from the interior of
Colombia are of higher altitudes than those of the coast and
show, consequently, larger, coarser and laxer pelage. Beyond
this, no single character serves to unite individuals here
held to represent lemurinus in an assemblage distinct from
all others. Variability in color and character of pelage is so
great among these night monkeys that two discrete family
groups of the same locality are apt to differ more from each
other than either of them from a series of any other locality
Neotropical Primates 9(2), August 2001 41
in the Colombian Andes." Thorington and Vorek (1976:
1013-1014) concur that phenotypic variation is so great
as to not be useful for subspecific differentiation and that
among northwestern South American Aotus "there is greater
east-west differentiation than there is north-south."
There are two types of phenotypic variation within the area
inhabited by Aotus lemurinus lemurinus. The first type is
intrapopulational and involves more grey and less reddish
and the opposite, and the development of a dark, middorsal
stripe is quite variable. The second character is clinal and
involves a progressive lightening of the dorsal surface of
the hands and the feet and begins on the west slopes of the
Cordillera Occidental and on the west slope of the Cordillera
Central in the upper Magdalena valley, where the hands and
feet are darkest, while on the east slope of the Cordillera
Central a tendency is seen which continues south along
the slope to the western slopes of the Cordillera Oriental
and involves a gradual change of the hands and feet from
darker to lighter. This culminates on the western slopes of
the Cordillera Oriental and is due to the increasing width of
the un-pigmented basal hair band.
Distribution: Hershkovitz (1949: 407; fig. 58) defined the
distribution of Aotus lemurinus lemurinus as "forested parts
of the Colombian Andes, exclusive of the northern half of
the Sierra de Periji." This distribution included the lowlands
of the middle and upper Magdalena river valley and parts
of the departments ofAntioquia, Santander, Boyaca, Caldes,
Cundinamarca, Tolima and Huila. Hershkovitz (1983: 214;
fig. 2) amended this distribution to include the lowlands
of the middle and upper Magdalena river valley as the
distribution for Aotus lemurinus griseimembra. Although
material is scarce for the area, phenotypes tend to support this
interpretation (despite his assertion that the two subspecies
were not separable phenotypically). In reality, it should
be pointed out that there are no valid specimens from
the highlands of the department of Norte de Santander,
Santander, Boyacd or western Arauca, even though these areas
were included by Hershkovitz (1949: 407, fig. 58; 1983: fig.
2) in the geographic distribution of lemurinus. Hershkovitz
(1949: 407) included the eastern slope of the Cordillera
Oriental in the range of his Aotus trivirgatus lemurinus, but
in 1983, the discovery of A. brumbacki modified his original
view. Finally, it is important to note that Hershkovitz (1949:
fig. 58) included the highlands of the department of Narifio
in the range of Aotus lemurinus lemurinus, despite the fact
that there are no records for that region or for that matter for
the entire department.
Hill (1960: 174) gives the distribution of this taxon precisely
the same as Hershkovitz (1949: 407), but Hill (1960: map
2 between p.166-167), in his much more inaccurate map,
included not only the highlands of the Andes of Narifio
but also those of northern Ecuador and the piedmont
on the eastern slope of the Ecuadorian Andes. Curiously
there is no evidence whatsoever for the presence of Aotus
in the Ecuadorian Andes. In this article we maintain that
A. 1. lemurinusis basically restricted to the Andean highlands
of Colombia. Lowland Pacific coastal Aotus as well as the
Panamanian and Urabi populations are Aotus lemurinus
zonalis (see map, Defler, in press).
Supposed Aotus lemurinus lemurinus karyotype: An
additional problem having to do with the source of the Aotus
lemurinus karyotype is that Hershkovitz (1983: 211, Table I)
chose karyotypes determined from specimens maintained in
Panama, that were collected from two known Panamanian
sites and one unknown site (see Ma et al., 1978: 147), as
representative of Aotus lemurinus lemurinus. We believe that
material definitely from PanamA represents another, generally
unrecognized taxon Aotus lemurinus zonalis (Goldman, 1914)
(cf. Hernindez-Camacho and Cooper, 1976: 45-46) which
Hershkovitz (1949) decided not to recognize. Aotus lemurinus
zonalis is made up of populations of the Colombian Pacific
coast, NW Antioquia and C6rdoba as well as Panamanian
animals, all of which show darker dorsal hands and feet than
griseimembra in northern localities. The dark dorsal surface
of the hands and feet is an agouti effect due to the brownish
tips and light bases of the hairs (Hernandez-Camacho and
Cooper, 1976: 47). These are the animals which Hershkovitz
(1983: 211, Table I; 214, fig. 2) decided to include with
Aotus lemurinus lemurinus. Karyotypes for authentic Andean
Aotus lemurinus lemurinus were unknown until now.
Aotus lemurinus griseimembra karyotype: The problem
of the karyotype of Aotus lemurinus griseimembra is that
the karyotypes ascribed to this taxon came from a group
of animals of uncertain origin imported from Barranquilla
(department of Atlantico, Caribbean coast, Colombia)
and studied by Ma et al. (1976b). Barranquilla at the time
was a center of a widespread animal trade which gathered
together primates from a wide area of northern Colombia,
most coming from Magange in northern Bolivar, which also
traded in animals from many regions of southern Bolivar
and southern Magdalena. However, primates came from
as far away as Leticia in Amazonas. Photographs were taken
of all of these "Barranquilla" primates and their designated
"phenotype B" was identified by Hershkovitz as coming
from northern Colombia from a population ascribed by
him to griseimembra Elliot (1912: 33; type locality Hacienda
Cincinatti, formerly known as Valparaiso, on the west
slope of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, department of
Magdalena, Colombia, 1,480 m). As we pointed out earlier,
Hershkovitz (1983: 215) stated that the then recognized
subspecies of A. lemurinus could only be distinguished "by
karyotype alone," contradicting his action of identifying
griseimembra by photo, as reported by Ma etal. (1976).
Since the karyotyped animals ascribed to Aotus lemurinus
griseimembra were imported into the United States from
Baranquilla, where Aotus specimens from many parts of
Colombia arrived for the animal trade (cf. Cooper and
Hernindez-Camacho, 1975; Thorington and Vorek, 1976),
there is no reason to accept that these animals necessarily
correspond to this taxon, nor to accept that lowland Aotus
of north central and northwestern Colombia have the same
karyotype as highland forms, as suggested by Hershkovitz
42 Neotropical Primates 9(2), August 2001
(1983: 215). The lowland and highland populations are
referable to several separate taxa, and Hershkovitz (1983:
215) himself has stated, "there is no certainty that the
specific name lemurinus, based on a high-Andean night
monkey of unknown karyotype, is also applicable to the
Panamanian Aotus with known karyotype, and the holotype
of griseimembra and its representatives from the type region
in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta region of northern
From the above analysis we have concluded that Aotus
lemurinus lemurinus is distributed only throughout the
Andean region of Colombia (and perhaps Venezuela) and
that the Aotus karyotypes used by Hershkovitz (1983) to
define Aotus lemurinus lemurinus actually are karyotypes
for Aotus lemurinus zonalis. This conclusion has important
implications for the following description of Aotus
Aotus hershkovitzi Ramirez-Cerquera, 1983
Holotype: Adult female, skin and skull, ICN no. 8880
(original field numbers L-2 of the Instituto Nacional de
Salud and conforming to the probable mother of L-3 and
L-4); collected December, 1981, by Jairo Ramirez Cerquera
and Jaime Umafia from a family group of four individuals.
The skull of this specimen has fully erupted third molars,
the basilar suture is closed (but not obliterated) and the skin
exhibits staining of the hairs of the post-anal glands, all of
which indicate that the specimen is an adult.
Type locality: Right bank of Cusiana River, upper Cusiana
River valley, district (vereda) of Corinto, municipality of
Pajarito, Boyaci department, east slope of the Cordillera
Oriental de los Andes, Colombia, 525'35"N, 7242'45"W,
1750 m (Fig. 1). Groves (1993: 256) incorrectly lists the
type locality as "Department of Meta, east side of Cordillera
Paratopotype: Subadult female, skin and skull, INDERENA
4140 (No. L-4 Instituto Nacional de Salud), deposited
in collection of Instituto de Investigaci6n de Recursos
Biol6gicos "Alexander von Humboldt" with same number as
INDERENA, collected December, 1981, by Jairo Ramfrez-
Cerquera and Jaime Umafia from the same family group as
the holotype. Entire body with stomach preserved separately
from skin in 70% alcohol.
Distribution: Known with certainty only from the type
locality. Karyotypes 2n = 58 have been found from two other
unpreserved specimens, one of them from an unspecified
locality in the department of Casanare (possibly the Cusiana
river valley) and the other said to be a captive animal from
Murillo on the eastern slope of the Cordillera Central de los
Andes, Tolima. If the latter locality is indeed correct, this
would imply sympatry of A. hershkovitzi with A. lemurinus.
Etymology: The name Aotus hershkovitzi first was suggested
by Jairo Ramfrez Cerquera to honor Philip Hershkovitz
Figure 1. Map of type locality of Aotus hershkovitzi.
for his many contributions to Colombian and Neotropical
primatology and mammalogy and for the support and
friendship which he offered to many of us during his
Diagnosis: A highland Aotus belonging to the gray-necked
species group (sensu Hershkovitz, 1983: 211-212); white
orbital ring of hairs interrupted by the temporal dark
stripe, continuous with the lateral canthus of the eye (as in
A. lemurinus lemurinus); broad stripe of agouti-patterned
hairs below; malar stripe absent (as in A. lemurinus lemurinus);
dark temporal stripes faintly convergent posteriorly without
merging; sagittal stripe widened and fan-shaped behind
and mixed with agouti-patterned hairs (as in A. lemurinus
lemurinus); mid-dorsal stripe absent; hands and feet agouti
mixed with some black hairs; buffy-yellow of throat extends
to chin (in contrast to A. lemurinus lemurinis, which is duller
and lighter with less yellow and with dark hair tips); diploid
number 58 and fundamental number 76, higher than any
other known for the genus.
Description of holotype: (Figs. 2, 3 a-e, 4) Dorsum with
rich reddish brown (Cinnamon Rufous) wash extending
halfway down tail; typical agouti pattern (Hershkovitz,
1977: 90-91) hairs proximal 2/3 (19 mm) dark brown
(Light Grayish Olive), distal 1/3 as follows (8 mm Cinnamon
Buff bands, 5-6 mm dark Benzo Brown bands, 2-3 mm
Cinnamon Rufous bands) mixed with some black (Sepia)
guard hairs giving overall appearance of Cinnamon Rufous;
sides of neck and body Cinnamon Buff to Cinnamon Rufous
agouti, paler than back; upper arms paler Pinkish Buffagouti
than sides of body; upper legs agouti Pale Pinkish Buff and
slightly more reddish than arms; dorsum of hands slightly
more reddish than arms with black hairs throughout; dorsum
of feet slight reddish wash on brown agouti with long black
hairs throughout; neck and chest like belly dull; Pinkish Buff,
hairs proximal half Pinkish Buff, distal half Pinkish Buff,
throat becomes slightly darkened due to admixture Sepia
tipped Pale Pinkish hairs vibrissaee); ventrum of arms slightly
lighter agouti Pale Pinkish Buff, skin of hands dark pink
Neotropical Primates 9(2), August 2001
(Salmon Buffy-Seashell Pink) with blackened digits; ventrum
of legs dull Pale Pinkish Buffand White on upper thighs with
shorter and sparser hair than other parts of body; longer and
darker agouti Pinkish Buffaround ankles, although the base
of the hairs are Light Grayish Olive, skin of feet dark blackish
pink; digits generally darker; ventrum of tail with Fuscous-
Black distal hair extending closer to body (1/2 tail) than on
dorsum of tail; proximal halfventrum of tail rich Ochraceous-
Orange with Fuscous Black-tipped hairs mixed, giving black
wash effect; dark tar-like staining of hairs by post-anal glands
in ellipsoid 19 mm by 10 mm; head with narrow distinct
temporal stripe on right side, extending convergent towards
midline of crown to position over ear; left convergent
temporal stripe less distinct, more diffuse; doesn't reach ear
and the two don't unite; crown same rich Cinnamon Rufous
as back; two distinct supraocular patches of cream-colored
hair with greatest length 17 mm tending towards Pale Pinkish
Buffat outer points so that patch turns into wedge of lighter
Cartridge Bufffur between temporal stripe and the forehead
patch of basally (Light Grayish Olive), dark-tipped agouti
hair showing black (Fuscous Black) patch, which extends in
narrow thread down between the eyes; malar stripe absent;
pelage at mid-back 26 mm length; pelage upper tail dorsum
23-24 mm length; pelage midway on sides 34 mm length;
no interscapular whorl or crest.
Comparisons: Distinguished from all other known Aotus
karyotypes by 2n = 58 (Table 1 shows two such comparisons);
differentiated from all members of red-necked group by side
of neck brownish agouti like side of trunk; from A. vociferans
of the gray-necked group by absence of interscapular crest or
whorl of hairs; from A. trivirgatus (which has no interscapular
crest or whorl) by an absence of a strongly contrasting mid-
dorsal stripe; from A. lemurinus mainly by 2n = 58 and FN
= 76 although in specimens examined, in contrast to A.
lemurinus, the hershkovitzi have virtually no admixture of
dark hairs in gular region. Phenotypic differences between
the holotype and the paratopotype are generally slightly
lighter tonalities in the paratopotype as compared to the
holotype. Length of hair of holotype and paratopotype
are within the ranges of that measured from specimens of
A. lemurinus (ICN 01, 02, 03, and 04) so that two color
phases are identifiable (light and dark). The hershkovitzi,
which is the dark phase, is quite comparable to the darker
A. lemurinus de Fusagasugi. Measurements included sternum
(32 mm/33 mm), interscapular (36 mm/36 mm), dorsum of
tail (23-23 mm/unmeasured because of poor state), end of
tail (51 mm/unmeasured because of poor state) and flanks
(43 mm/44 mm); listed here with first measurement for ICN
8880 and second measurement INDERENA 4140.
Figure 2. Holotype, lateral and frontal views of A. hershkovitzi, Ramirez-Cerquera, 1983.
44 Neotropical Primates 9(2), August 2001
II 12 1t 1 5Ig ii =
2n II IR ?I 1P
U |II Pill 11 11* 31 he
!I iiI 'ISi aI i II i n *It
iiII fi It *u ge U n 3' s
.15 II t f fl Zc i, ii, 2? 3'
Figure 4. GTG band karyotype of L1, a male Aotus (2n = 58) from
the Cusiana River, Boyaci, Colombia.
Description of paratopotype: Dorsum rich Cinnamon
Rufous wash extending halfway down tail but slightly lighter
than holotype; interscapular hairs 21 mm Light Grayish Olive
+ 8 mm Cinnamon Buffy band + 4 mm dark Light Grayish
Olive band + 2-3 mm Cinnamon Rufous band = 36 mm in
length; overall impression of Cinnamon Rufous; intensifying
down the tail to mid-tail; side of neck and body Cinnamon
Buffy, paler than dorsum; upper arms paler Pinkish Buff
agouti than sides of body; upper legs agouti brown about
same tone as arms; dorsum of hands slightly more reddish
than arms with black hairs throughout; dorsum of feet
slight Pinkish Buffwash on brown agouti with black hairs
throughout; neck and chest like belly dull Pinkish Buff,
color hairs half Pale Pinkish Buff proximally, half Pinkish
Buffdistally; throat same color throughout; ventrum of arms
lighter than dorsal of arms; dried skin of hands Salmon Buff-
Seashell Pink with blackened digits; ventrum of legs lighter
than dorsal of legs; upper thighs naked of hair (perhaps due
to preparation), skin yellowish cast; feet dark yellowish skin
coloration; digits black; some dark hairs around ankles;
ventrum of tail Fuscous Black distal hair extends two-thirds
up; proximal hair one-third tail rich Ochraceous Orange;
no staining of the hairs of the post-anal gland evident and
no admixture of black-tipped hairs; head with very faint
temporal stripes, darker at corner of eyes and more evident
fading out to slight wash and convergent to midline with
left stripe slightly more pronounced; crown mixture of
agouti brown and black-tipped hairs filling in area between
temporal stripes with slight reddish wash; base of hairs same
Light Grayish Olive color as black hairs + Cinnamon Buffy +
Cinnamon Rufous or alternatively blackish band; two distinct
supraocular patches of creamy white hairs tending slightly to
more buff posteriorly; dark hairs extend down from forehead
to more pronounced black between supraocular patches, no
dark malar patch on either cheek; pelage at mid-back 33-35
mm length; pelage upper tail dorsum 22 mm length; pelage
midway on sides 30-33 mm length; no interscapular whorl
or crest evident.
Crests and whorls: No crests or whorls were detected on the
two specimens (sensu Hershkovitz, 1977: 81; 1983: 213).
Measurements: See Table 1 for measurements.
Figure 3. Holotype skull: a) frontal view; b) lateral view; c) dorsal;
d) ventral view of the holotype skull; e) dorsal view of lower
Neotropical Primates 9(2), August 2001
Table 1. Homologous chromosomes in 3 taxa of Aotus.
otus L Aotus
lemurinus Aous L grseimembra brunbacki
2n=58 2n= 54 2n=50
P.R. Ma et aL Yunis et aL Yunis et aL
(1976) (1977) (1977)
1 A4 9 13
2 A5 10p-
4 A6 11 -
5 B7 1 1
6 B12 4 3
7 B9 3 2
9 Bl 6 6
12 B13 23 15
13 B14 24 -
14t B10 12p+ 10log
15 B16 16p+ 19p+
16 B18 14 17
17 B17 15p+ 18p+
18 B15 13 16
19t A2q 8q 21
20t A3q 5q 5q
21 B24 19 22
22 B21 20 -
23 B19 18 9
25t A2p 8p 10p_
27 B26 26 -
28t A3p 5p 5p
X X X X
P.R.: Present report.
t = Chromosomes involved in different Robertsonian translocations
in other Aotus species.
+/-: Differences between homologues due to additions or deletions
p, q : short and long arm of chromosome, respectively. Spaces
are left empty whenever chromosome homology cannot be
I 3 1 ": *Lw1t]
I I t I F*
ZI It is, a t .l1
Figure 5. RBG band karyotype of a male Aotus (2n = 58) from the
Cusiana River, Boyaci, Colombia. The two X chromosomes from
a female specimen are shown inside the box; one X chromosome
(right) shows a late replication pattern.
Karyology: The karyotype was previously superficially
described by Giraldo et al. (1983) and placed in a new
"karyotype 10 or X" according to a system defined by Ma
etal. (1976a, 1978, 1980). Torres et al. (1998: 298-270) on
the other hand referred to this karyotype as "karyomorph
8" (KM) of their own system and further described some of
In both members of the series we found a diploid number
of 58 chromosomes and fundamental number (FN) of 76
(Figs. 4-8 a and b). This is the highest diploid number and
fundamental number known for the genus (see Hershkovitz,
1983: 211, Table 1). The autosomes were arranged in order
of decreasing size (Figs. 4, 5) according to the large groups
(A and B) defined by Ma et al. (1976). Group A is composed
of four pairs of metacentric chromosomes (Pairs 1-4).
Chromosome 1 is a marker chromosome with an achromatic
region in the long arm, a common finding in Aotus and a
frequent one in many Cebidae, being the only chromosome
containing a NOR (Fig. 6). Group B with pairs 5-10 is
conformed of six pairs of submetacentric chromosomes.
Short arms of pairs 8 and 10 are entirely heterochromatic.
Pairs 11-28 are acrocentric and include a range of size from
large to small. Chromosome X is metacentric and very
similar to those found in other species of the genus. The
holotype female (L2) showed a large telomeric block at the
short arm of both X chromosomes; this region is absent in
the X chromosome of male LI but present in L3 (a male
juvenile specimen) and confirms the mother-son relationship
The distribution ofconstitutive heterochromatin is essentially
centromeric. A distinct heteromorphism in the centromeric
region of chromosome 3 was observed in one specimen
(LI) (Fig. 7). In addition to centromeric heterochromatin,
telomeric heterochromatin blocks were observed at the
short arm of chromosomes 2, 5, 7, 9 and at the long arm of
chromosome 25, while the short arm of pairs 8 and 10 were
Figure 6. Nucleolar Organizing Region (NOR) in Aotus (2n = 58)
from the Cusiana River, Boyaci, Colombia. Arrows point to silver
precipitated regions on chromosome No.1.
shows a sin
band 2 mad
b, A- I-
Figure 7. Partial karyotype with C-Band (CBG) showing the uanu naive
polymorphism of pair 3 and X Chromosome of mother (L-2) and gamma-glob
son (L-3). Arrows point to the heterochromatic polymorphic region stripe in bot]
on chromosomes X and 3.
completely heterochromatic. Interstitial heterochromatin than 5% aft
regions were found in the long arm of chromosomes 20 and Aotus lemuri.
27. The Y chromosome was metacentric and the smallest specimens fr
of the chromosome complement but was the longest Y to Aotus lem
of the karyomorphs described by Torres et al. (1998). two had low
All chromosomes show an exact homology of complete (Espinal et a.
chromosomes and chromosome arms to karyotypes known
for Aotus lemurinus griseimembra except for the 4 pairs The system
of extra chromosomes which had no apparent homology Colombia is
(Giraldo et al., 1986). complexity,
The first co
Q-and G-band karyological comparisons between the record of L
specimens studied and two other previously described species dindensis) d
of Colombian Aotus are shown in Table 2. Comparison is 11.8-13.5 m
limited to euchromatic regions of karyotype II (K-II) of 1987), altho
A. 1. griseimembra (2n = 54; Ma et al., 1976), which agrees Mohanimico
with the one described by Yunis et al. (1977) for the same Madden (1I
taxon and the karyotype assigned to A. t. trivirgatus (2n = maintain the
50) by Yunis et al., (1977), later recognized as A. brumbacki
(Hershkovitz, 1983). Not only
Specimens examined: 2. COLOMBIA. Holotype ICN no. is high, incl
8880 (skin and skull); paratype IVH (INDERENA) no. and light) (I
4140 (stuffed skin; body preserved apart in 70% alcohol). and Cooper,
Two other specimens from the original series, the adult male coat color ha
and the infant male were not preserved. Also examined for tool, as there
Aotus lemurinus 4. COLOMBIA. ICN 001, 002, 003, 004 good genetic
from Fusagasugi and from Pedro Palo. (1976). Thi,
Table 2. Aotus lemurinus lemurinus (=A. hershkovitzi). Measurements in millimeters.
No. 8880 286 325 88
No. 4140 302 320 86
No. 8880 33.8
No. 8880 18.9
31 60.8 4/.5
17.2 13.8 6.4 10.7
Neotropical Primates 9(2), August 2001
lectrophoretic analysis of the serum proteins
gle "fast" type of albumin band not seen in
lemurinus specimens. Additionally a demarcated
e up of three well-marked alpha-globulin bands
. Although three types including this type of
id have been identified for A. 1. griseimembra
et al. (1979), three well-marked alpha-globulin
lot been observed in any other taxon. Beta- and
ulin were found as an undifferentiated wide
h these specimens and Aotus lemurinus.
: The specimens exhibited low susceptibility to
falciparum. This resulted in parasitemias of less
er 14-18 days of infection. Animals referred to
nus griseimembra showed high susceptibility. Six
om the middle Magdalena River and referred
urinus lemurinus showed mixed susceptibility:
susceptibility and four had high susceptibility
tics of Aotus is still far from being resolved, and
particularly difficult because of its topographic
which has surely influenced the genus' evolution.
nfirmed appearance of the genus in the fossil
a Venta (Huila, Colombia, described as Aotus
rates back to at least the Middle Miocene of
million years B. P. (Setoguchi and Rosenberger,
ugh Kay (1990) has suggested synonymy with
hershkovitzi described by Luchtehand, Kay and
)86); Rosenberger et al. (1990) continue to
fossil to be Aotus.
are contemporary phenotypes unusually
to distinguish, but variation within populations
uding two color phases in A. lemurinus (dark
Hershkovitz, 1949, 1983; Hernandez-Camacho
1976; Thorington and Vorek, 1976). Actually
Ls already proven to be unreliable as a diagnostic
e are many differences which probably are not
markers, as observed by Thorington and Vorek
s does not seem surprising since the species
, there are no strong selective pressures for
*Datum for the weight of the adult female ICN 8880 written on the ticket of the specimen chosen as the holotype (ICN 8880)
seems to be incorrect, since the weight is given as 615 g, far below the weight of a typical adult female. It seems likely that either the
weight was not registered correctly or the weight belongs to the subadult female INDERENA(IVH) 4140 and was incorrectly
ascribed to ICN.
rvi.,Au c(MAW " vnw,
Neotropical Primates 9(2), August 2001
differences in coat color. We should look to vocalizations,
behaviors and pheromones to provide isolating mechanisms.
Complicating all of this, we describe here how the taxonomic
descriptions defining Aotus lemurinus lemurinus, Aotus
lemurinus griseimembra and Aotus brumbacki (see below)
have historic problems relating to the adequacy of the type
specimens and associated karyotypes (which were described
independently) to define the taxon.
In the case of this genus, karyology has become an
indispensable tool for defining each species group, and it
is particularly disappointing that so little is being done
from that viewpoint to address the issues that need to be
resolved. Since karyotypes used to define Aotus 1. lemurinus
and Aotus 1. griseimembra were taken from animals obtained
independently and matched by Hershkovitz to phenotypes
representing the taxa, there is no certainty that high altitude
Aotus lemurinus and the population of the holotype (if it
still exists) exhibits this karyotype number (Hershkovitz,
1983: 215; Ma et al., 1976a, 1978). Part of the importance
of the hershkovitzi material is that here we have a karyotype
from a known geographic locality associated with a known
phenotype, a situation which has been quite rare in the
history of this genus.
Other "local" karyotypes: A karyotype prepared by MLB
from an animal in captivity in Armero and said to be from
Murillo from the eastern slopes of Nevado de Rufz (Tolima)
also had 2n = 58. The animal perished with the village of
Armero when the eruption of the Nevado de Rufz Volcano
caused the death of 20,000 inhabitants, including Jairo
Ramfrez-Cerquera. Another karyotype prepared by MLB
from an animal in the Cali Zoo and said to have come from
the department of Casanare had 2n = 58 and a phenotype
resembling the two hershkovitzi. It could have come from the
Cusiana valley in eastern Casanare. The animal died and the
skin was discarded. Neither of these karyotypes was further
analyzed, but if these animals were of the same taxon then
the geographic distribution of hershkovitzi might eventually
prove to be throughout the eastern and Central Cordillera of
the Andes, sympatric with Aotus lemurinus, and probably at a
higher altitude than that of Aotus brumbacki on the east slope
of the Eastern Cordillera.
Aotus brumbacki karyotype: Aotus brumbacki is well-
founded, since Yunis et al. (1977) described a karyotype
from animals purportedly from the Villavicencio area,
which Hershkovitz (1983: 217) referred to Aotus brumbacki.
Brumback (1974) had described the karyotype 2n = 50 as
being from a Paraguayan animal and identified as A. azarae,
but this was amended by Hershkovitz (1983: 218) as being
from the area around Villavicencio (Meta, Colombia), due
to the phenotype which was "gray-necked" and his assertion
that "The paratype, a member of the gray-neck groups
(AMNH 143756) from the Villavicencio region, Colombia,
resembles the photograph of the holotype closely enough
to serve equally well as phenotypic model of the species.
It cannot be identified with any other species of Aotus."
Nevertheless, we still need additional verifying karyotypes
and phenotypes from known geographic collection sites for
this species as well.
Ford's (1994) conclusion that northern taxa in the gray-
necked group are represented by the well-differentiated
species Aotus trivirgatus and a clinally variable Aotus
vociferans (including A. lemurinus, A. brumbacki and A.
vociferans, sensu Hershkovitz, 1983) while provocative, seems
to us to be premature in view of the extensive variability
in karyomorphs and karyotypes that would be involved
in such a "species," varying from 2n = 46 to 2n = 58 and
FN = 58 to FN = 76. Additionally, besides chromosome
variability, Aotus social groups and behaviors seem more
likely to result in closed populations than in broad gene
flow across great distances. The added factor of a complexly
formed topography consisting of lowlands separated by
various high mountain ranges and wide rivers would have
provided many opportunities for isolation of populations
with subsequent speciation. Lack of mobility in a small
organism distributed across a mountainous terrain is not a
situation that would lend itself to a clinal population of such
magnitude as suggested by Ford (1994). And yet, her results
of several clinal cranial and pelage characteristics require
some explanation and future analysis.
One partial explanation might be that the clinal variation
that homogenized all of the specimens analyzed for Colombia
may have an uncertain origin, as Ford herself recognized. In
her analysis, 33 of the specimens were clumped as being from
"Baranquilla," the principal port of exportation for animal
traffic for Colombia for many years. Extensive experience
of one of us (JIH-C) in animal traffic control in Colombia
allows us to confirm that Aotusfrom many parts of Colombia
could easily have been included in this group, since it was
common for animals even from as far away as Leticia,
Amazonas, to arrive in Barranquilla, where they were sent by
Leticia's leading animal trafficker. Nevertheless, the problem
of clinal characteristics bears further analysis in the future,
given that the karyotypic differences are so pronounced.
Some of the karyotypic problems mitigating against the
recognition of Ford's (1994) clinal species are the five
different karyomorphs described from the elements which
would make up Ford's Aotus vociferans. These karyomorphs,
four of which were previously known and which correspond
to the four species lumped into Ford's clinal A. vociferans, and
a fifth karyomorph taken from the Pereira Zoo (department
of Quindfo) called "Quindfo" with 2n = 50, strongly suggest
that reproductive barriers would exist between each of these
populations of Aotus due to their ample karyomorphic
differences (Torres et al., 1998). The "Quindio" specimen
actually may represent a new Colombian species, since its
fundamental number (FN = 72), number of metacentric (9),
submetacentric, and acrocentric (12) chromosomes are so
different from A. brumbacki, the other northern species with
48 Neotropical Primates 9(2), August 2001
a diploid number of 50. Unfortunately the location of the
"Quindfo" specimen's capture is unknown, so that further
study will have to await the discovery of its range. The
skin and skull were preserved in the Instituto de Ciencias
Naturales of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia
(specimen no. ICN 14023), but a recent search for this
material revealed it to be missing from the collection.
Relationship of karyotype to different species: Marks
(1987) makes the interesting case that to some extent,
chromosome divergence among species may be a reflection
of the social system and demographic characteristics of
the group. A more closed type of social group, including
monogamous relationships and territorial defense, would
tend to favor random inbreeding and should favor elevated
genetic drift. He used the case of the six species of gibbons
(Hylobates), which illustrate an elevated cytogenetic diversity
with 2n = 38, 44, 50, 52 and exhibit a more closed social
system, including territorial defense, reduced vagility and
monogamy as compared to 26 papionine monkey species
(macaques [Macaca 12 spp.], baboons [Papio 5 spp.;
Theropithecus 1 spp.], mandrills [Mandrillus 2 spp.] and
mangabays [Cercocebus 4 spp.; Lophocebus 2 spp.]), which
generally exhibit a comparably more open social system
including large and mobile groups that are not pair-bonded
and are usually polygynous with a very uniform karyotype
(2n = 42) throughout the group (Napier and Napier, 1967:
409-410). The example using Hylobatesspp. could have been
Aotus, with their elevated cytogenetic diversity. Furthermore,
although we do not know many of the details of their social
system, it is apparently more socially closed and philopatric,
with pair monogamy where members of a small group do not
move far and defend a small territory (Wright, 1978, 1981;
Mittermeier et al., 1999).
Callicebus would also fit into this model of elevated
chromosome diversity and small, semi-closed, monogamous,
philopatric groups. Although we know less about
chromosome diversity in Callicebus, it is evident that there are
wide differences. For example, Callicebus torquatus (2n = 20)
has the lowest diploid number known for primates as
compared to Callicebus moloch (2n = 48), C /... 1. cupreus
(2n = 46) and Callicebus donacophilus(2n = 50) (Hershkovitz,
Relation ofA. hershkovitzikaryotype to other congeneric
species: The A. hershkovitzi karyotype shows the highest
diploid number (2n = 58) so far recorded in the genus. It
contains a high number of acrocentric chromosomes (nos.
14, 19, 20, 25, 28), which, in other Aotus species, correspond
to arms of biarmed chromosomes of different Robertsonian
translocations. Table 1 shows the homology between the
chromosomes of A. hershkovitzi and the karyotypes of KII.
Chromosome A-2 from KII is derived from A. hershkovitzi
nos. 25 and 19 (Fig. 8b) and KII chromosome A-3 from
A. hershkovitzi nos. 20 and 28. A. hershkovitzi and
A. brumbacki share 15 pairs of similar chromosomes, but
differ by the presence of two Robertsonian translocations.
The first one involves Aotus hershkovitzi nos. 14 and 25
to form the chromosome 10 of A. brumbacki. The second
one involves Aotus hershkovitzi nos. 20 and 28, to form
chromosome 5 in A. brumbacki. Interestingly, A. hershkovitzi
chromosome no. 25 is involved in two different types
of Robertsonian translocations (Figs. 8a and b), either
with chromosome 14 (resulting in chromosome 10 of
A. brumbacki) or with chromosome 19, resulting in
chromosome A2 in the KII, KIII and KIV karyotypes (see
Ma et al., 1976). This type of translocation is characteristic
of Aotus from northern Colombia.
Comparisons between chromosomes 2, 11, 14, 15 and 17 of
the A. hershkovitzi karyotype and their counterparts in the
other species of Aotus (Table 1) show differences in short arm
size, probably resulting from variable amounts of constitutive
heterochromatin. These variations have been found to occur
in different groups that have undergone drastic chromosome
shuffling during radiation (Sousa Barros et al, 1990). Two
different types of polymorphic variation have been found by
us in this taxon affecting pair no. 3 and the X chromosome.
When comparing the A. hershkovitzi karyotype with the
K-IX karyotype of "Panama" (Ma et al., 1978), 24 pairs
were shared between them. This finding indicated that
the A. hershkovitzi and "Panamanian" Aotus (A. Z. zonalis)
are karyotypically more similar to each other than to the
other Colombian Aotus suggesting a close relationship of
A. hershkovitzi to the Panamanian Aotus material studied by
Ma metal. (1978).
Our findings also indicate that fusions have been prominent
in the karyotypic evolution of Aotus, resulting in reduction
of diploid number. The alternative mechanism, viz fission,
has been postulated by other authors (Galbreath, 1983) to
& h" stfl
AJiusmliw. K II
Figure 8. Presumptive chromosome rearrangements involving
chromosome no. 25 of Cusiana specimens a) Robertsonian
translocation between chromosome 25 and 14 of Cusiana Aotus
resulting in chromosome 10 in A. brumbacki (QFQ banding);
b) Robertsonian translocation between chromosomes 25 and 19
of Cusiana Aotus resulting in chromosome A2 of Aotus lemurinus
griseimembra (karyotype KII). (GTG banding).
Neotropical Primates 9(2), August 2001
explain the occurrence of diploid numbers higher than 54,
a diploid number considered by these authors to have been
present in the common ancestor of the group. We suggest
that the Aotus hershkovitzi karyotype is likely to be more
similar to the ancestral karyotype because it contains at
least one acrocentric chromosome that is involved in two
different rearrangements, each of them being present in
The sympatry of 2n = 58 individuals with Aotus lemurinus
and their phenotypic similarity strongly suggests that the
A. hershkovitzi described here represent Andean Aotus
lemurinus lemurinus and not a separate species. Additionally,
we believe that karyological differences between the
hershkovitzi specimens or autocthonous Aotus lemurinus
lemurinus and the other two Aotus lemurinus subspecies
to which it was compared here may produce reproductive
barriers between them, and that any potential hybrids may
be infertile. The implication here is that the three subspecies
of Aotus lemurinus may actually more correctly be considered
separate species. More detailed cytogenetic analyses with
high resolution banding, hybridization in situ and other
molecular markers might also be needed for detecting
complex rearrangements of sinteny groups which might
allow us to recognize the real homology between these
karyomorphs. Further karyological studies and analyses
of other Aotus lemurinus are urgently needed to confirm
We wish to dedicate this paper to two people, Philip
Hershkovitz and Jairo Ramfrez Cerquera. A first attempt
at describing A. hershkovitzi was begun by Ramirez C.
et al. (mss.) in an effort to name the taxon after Philip
Hershkovitz. The effort was abandoned by the authors when
Jairo was killed by the Nevado de Rufz Volcano disaster. The
present manuscript is a completely new paper, written with
the desire to finally clarify the new taxon's position.
Philip Hershkovitz was well-known to many Colombians
including the authors of this paper. He began field-work in
Colombia with a two-year collecting trip to the Santa Marta
region from 1941 to 1943. In 1948, after the Second World
War, while employed by the Field Museum of Natural History
in Chicago, he moved his family to Bogoti and worked in
Colombia until he was obliged by his museum duties to
return to Chicago in 1952. All of these collections became
the heart of his subsequent work at the Field Museum,
where he worked with most mammalian orders, describing
many species and revising many groups of Neotropical
mammals, focusing his work on their evolutionary origin,
dispersal, classification, nomenclature and systematics. His
impact on primatology was immense, resulting in many
important revisions such as those for Chiropotes, Pithecia,
Saimiri and Callicebus. Other notable achievements include
his classic volume 1 of New World Monkeys (Platyrrhini) on
the Callitrichidae and his effort to make sense out of the
difficult genus Aotus (Hershkovitz, 1949, 1977, 1979, 1982,
1983, 1984, 1985, 1987a, 1987b, 1988, 1990). Because of
Philip Hershkovitz' readiness to help and encourage all of us
who work on some aspect of Neotropical mammalogy, Jairo
Ramirez wanted to honor him using Hershkovitz's name as a
species name for this taxon.
Jairo Ramirez-Cerquera first studied biology at the
Universidad Nacional de Colombia, where he was a
companion of one of us (MLB). He began his studies in
primatology when he was hired as biologist of the Aotus
colony of the Colombian National Institute of Health in
Bogotd. Because of his interest in beginning a reproductive
program with the animals, part of the colony was moved to
the Biology Station of INS in Armero, Tolima, necessitating
his move to Armero. Tragically he, along with his wife and
children, were among the more than 20,000 missing in the
avalanche of lahar which enveloped the town of Armero
in 1985. We close this memorial with a quote from Russell
Mittermeier and Adelmar Coimbra-Filho (1988: 34):
"Jairo Ramirez, a rising star in Colombian primatology, had
apparently discovered yet another species in the Colombian
Andes, which because of his untimely death was never
described. Ramirez' intention was to name the species after
Hershkovitz in recognition of his many contributions to
Neotropical primate taxonomy." It was the intention of
the authors of this paper to complete Jairo's wish and at the
same time honor the memory of these two men, but further
analysis of the problem obliged us instead to synonymize the
taxon with Aotus lemurinus lemurinus.
We would like to acknowledge all those who have been
interested in this problem previously, particularly the
authors of the first manuscript written in the effort to
formally describe Aotus hershkovitzi, especially Jaime A.
Umafia, Marleney Montilla M., Carlos A. Espinal T. and
Alejandro Giraldo. We would also like to thank Alberto
Cadena (Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Museo de Historia
Natural, Universidad Nacional de Colombia) and Yaneth
Munioz (Instituto para la Investigaci6n de la Biodiversidad
"Alexander von Humboldt") for lending us the holotype
and paratopotype for this hypothetical species and for other
support they have given over the years towards the solution
of this and other taxonomic problems. We would also like
to thank Juan Manuel Renjifo for the photography of skin
and skull and the National Institute of Health where the
collection and preparation of the material was supported.
We are grateful to Margarita Nieto for the color plate of the
 Subdivision of municipality in Colombia.
 Hill (1960: map 2) locates A. lemurinus throughout
the region, which includes A. hershkovitzi and part of
A. brumbacki and also includes northern Ecuador. We have
found, however, that in general his distribution maps are
Neotropical Primates 9(2), September 2001
so full of distributional and geographic errors that they
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 The type location identified by Groves (1993: 256) is in
error, since it is located in the Department of Boyaci and not
 From a series of animals preserved in the MNHP. Elliot
(1913: 14) did not fix a lectotype but commented that "The
type of N[yctipithecus] lemurinus I. Geoffroy in the Paris
Museum has been examined [by the author], but it is so
faded from exposure to light that it is impossible to recognize
its original coloring and I could only guess at it."
 On the plateau.
 Apparently a lapsus, since all Aotus lemurinus of the
Cordilleras are fine-haired and not course.
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Neotropical Primates 9(2), August 2001 53
STANDARD ERRORS OF SURVEY ESTIMATES: WHAT
Do THEY MEAN?
William E. Magnusson
Few journals would accept an estimate ofdensity or population
size without a corresponding measure of variability, and most
computer programs that provide estimates of population size
also provide estimates of standard errors. It is part of the
prevailing scientific culture to demand "error" estimates even
when they do not aid communication (Magnusson, 2000a).
In my experience, most students and many professionals
do not understand what those "errors" represent or the
relationship between the question and the sampling design.
Primatologists often use "standardized" survey techniques
that depend on repeated sampling of the same transect and
the use of line transect methods to estimate population size
(Peres, 1999). I will show below that these provide standard
errors with extremely limited utility. Wildlife courses should
spend more time explaining what standard errors mean and
less time showing how to calculate them.
The terms "standard error" (SE) and "standard deviation"
(SD) were originally synonymous. However, SE is currently
used to indicate an estimate of the standard deviation of a
parameter such as the mean, or total population size, and SD
is used to describe the primary data. The SE gives an estimate
of the variability expected if many independent estimates
of the parameter were made using the same methodology.
Usually, only one estimate of the parameter is made, and
the SE estimated from statistical theory based on variability
among the observations.
In the simplest case, the SE relates to the expected variability
caused by sampling only a small proportion of the area
occupied by the population. Sampling units are spread
randomly over the area and all of the target organisms are
counted within each sampling unit (Pielou, 1984). If some
of the targets in each unit are counted, the SE may give a
useful index of the variability expected if the methodology
is repeated, but the SE does not relate to the uncertainty in
the estimate of population size. In many cases, the trend in
population size, rather than the absolute value of population
size, is not of interest, and it may be more efficient to use
regularly spaced sampling units. This results in smaller SEs
(Caughley and Sinclair, 1994).
Alternatively, the whole area may be surveyed and corrections
made for the number of animals not seen. This is the basis of
the mark-recapture and line-transect methods. Line-transect
methods depend on the construction of a sighting function
that estimates the relationship between the number of targets
recorded and the distance from the transect line. Mark-
recapture methods estimate the mean proportion of targets
registered over the whole area. The SE of these methods
relates to the uncertainty in the proportion of targets seen.
The two types of methods can be combined with incomplete
sampling of individual sampling units that do not cover the
whole area of interest. If the correction for targets missed
within the sampling units is unbiased, then the SE of the
estimate based on geographical variation effectively includes
the variability due to incomplete counts within the sampling
units. It is best to seek help from a statistician before using
these hybrid methods because the standard errors for density
corrections may not be symmetrical (Caughley and Sinclair,
1994). Students often do not realize that the "expected value"
of a parameter for a statistician is the mean of a very large
number of estimates of that parameter. If the distribution
of estimates is asymmetrical, then the "expected value" may
be far from the values you expect to obtain from most
samples. Other sources of variability, such as seasonal or
random fluctuations in population density, may contribute to
variability, but our model is already sufficiently complicated.
Let us consider the standard method suggested by Peres
(1999), which is similar to standard methods recommended
by many primatologists. Two 4.5 km transects are placed at
90 to each other, forming an "L" shape. Each transect is
surveyed many times until a minimum number of primate
groups is recorded, or a minimum distance covered. Peres
(1999) suggested that more than 300 km should be walked.
A computer program such as DISTANCE (Buckland et al.,
1993) is used to estimate population density and its SE.
This estimate relates to the area effectively sampled by the
transects, which depends on vegetation density. However, in
most forests, it is unlikely that mammals can be detected at
more than 50 m from the transect line. Therefore, the area
effectively surveyed would be of the order of 90 ha or less.
Population estimates obtained by line-transect methods are
greatly affected by the sighting function. The distribution of
primates around a 300 km transect should give a reasonably
precise idea of the sighting function for that region. However,
if the sighting function is based only on repetitions of the
same 9 km, then it may depend on the behavior of a few
groups of monkeys. A large fruiting tree near the transect line
that regularly attracts primates will result in a very different
sighting function than a similar large tree further from the
transect line. When no large trees are fruiting, the sighting
function for the same area will change again as the same
monkeys do not accumulate in the same place on different
days. Line-transect methods were designed for analyzing
independent observations. Sampling 100 km of transects
(e.g., 10 separate 10 km or 20 separate 5 km transects)
once would give a much more accurate estimate of primate
density and its SE than repeatedly walking along the same
9 km of trails until a total of 300 km is attained. It is very
unlikely that the time gained by not cutting extra transects
compensates for the uncertainty in what the SEs represent.
Densities are used to compare sites, habitats or areas subject
to different disturbances, such as hunting. If the units being
Neotropical Primates 9(2), August 2001
compared are of similar size to the transects, then the SEs
are meaningful and can be used to calculate 95% confidence
intervals (95% CI). If the areas are much larger, as they
usually are, it is impossible to estimate the SE of the density
based on a single dog-leg transect; there is no replication.
The SE calculated, which may relate to uncertainty in the
absolute density in that transect, gives no information as
to likely variation in other transects. However, given that
the line-transect methods give unbiased density estimates for
transects, the SE based on between-transect variability would
effectively include variability due to incomplete sampling
within transects. Therefore, it is not usually necessary to
calculate the SEs for densities in individual transects, and
meaningful conclusions can be made without consideration
of the within transect uncertainty (e.g., Peres, 1997).
Hurlbert (1984) alerted biologists to the dangers of
pseudoreplication decades ago. However, university courses
do not prepare students to deal with practical sampling
problems. At the most basic level, this just means stating
clearly what is being sampled. Editors should require that
authors clearly state what is being studied on three distinct
scales. The first scale is the universe of interest. A researcher
may be interested in "big" questions such as the mortality
patterns of a species over its entire range, or the physiology
of all species within a family. The reader should know this,
but it is almost always impractical to carry out studies at
that scale. Therefore, authors should state their sampling
universe, the second scale, which will generally be something
smaller, such as mortality patterns in Wisconsin or all species
in the family that occur in Mexico. The greater the overlap
between the sampling universe and the universe of interest,
the greater the generality, but only a pedant with no field
experience would require that the whole universe of interest
be sampled in every study.
The level of interest in relation to pseudoreplication is
the sampling universe. Sampling units (the third scale) are
usually best distributed randomly (or at least uniformly or
arbitrarily) over the whole sampling universe. The greater the
coverage of the sampling universe, the greater the generality.
Variability among sampling units affects the accuracy of
parameter estimates for the sampling universe, and this is
reflected in the SEs. Variability within sampling units (as
given by line-transect SEs) does not allow evaluation of
accuracy or precision of parameters.
I have focused on problems in surveying primates, but the
same problems of linking the questions to the analyses and
avoiding pseudoreplication are general for wildlife studies
(e.g., Magnusson, 1999). Courses in wildlife management,
and biology in general, need to give more emphasis on
the basic concepts of sampling design, and less on the
mathematical manipulations (Magnusson, 2000b).
William E. Magnusson, Coordenacao de Pesquisas em
Ecologia, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amaz6nia,
Caixa Postal 478, Manaus 69011-970, Amazonas, Brazil,
Buckland, S. T., Anderson, D. R., Burnham, K. P. and Laake,
J. L. 1993. Distance Sampling: Estimating Abundance of
Biological Populations. Chapman and Hall, London.
Caughley, G. and Sinclair, A. R. E. 1994. WildlifeEcology and
Management. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.
Hurlbert, S. H. 1984. Pseudoreplication and the design of
ecological field experiments. Ecological Monographs 54:
Magnusson, W. E. 1999. Spatial independence: the impor-
tance of the question. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27: 1112-1113.
Magnusson, W. E. 2000a. Error bars: Are they the king's
clothes? Bull. Ecol. Soc. Am. 81: 147-150.
Magnusson, W. E. 2000b. Statistical iatrogenesis: Cure it or
prevent it? Bull. Ecol. Soc. Am. 81: 198-201.
Peres, C. A. 1997. Primate community structure at twen-
ty western Amazonian flooded and unflooded forests.
J. Trop. Ecol. 13: 381-405.
Peres, C. A. 1999. General guidelines for standardizing
line-transect surveys of tropical forest primates. Neotrop.
Pielou, E. C. 1984. The Interpretation of Ecological Data.
Wiley, New York.
PRIMATAS DA REGIAO DO RIO TAPAJOS, PARA,
Sergio Maia Vaz
Varios naturalistas visitaram o Tapaj6s, porim, foi Henry W.
Bates, no s&culo XIX, quem melhor descreveu a regiao. Na
obra The Naturalist on the River Amazons (Bates, 1863), ele
dedicou um capftulo inteiro a descrigio de uma excursio que
fez ao local, entire junho e outubro de 1852.
Alfonso M. Olalla continue sendo o responsavel pela maior
e mais important colecao de mamfferos jy formada na
Area de Tapaj6s. As coletas feitas, entire 1931 e 1971,
rednem exemplares de diversas localidades de ambas as
margens, principalmente, Santarem (junho-julho de 1934),
Caxiricatuba (maio de 1931; janeiro-setembro de 1935;
marco, maio, novembro e dezembro de 1936; janeiro,
fevereiro, setembro, novembro e dezembro de 1937),
Piquiatuba (maio de 1931; maio-agosto e dezembro de 1936;
marco de 1937), Marai, Tapaiuna, Aveiro e Fordlandia, entire
outras. No Brasil, o material colecionado pelo Sr. Olalla
encontra-se depositado no Museu Nacional/Universidade
Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) e no Museu de Zoologia/
Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP).
Em 1938, aproveitando a aberturade Areas paraaimplantacao
de seringais pela Companhia Ford Industrial do Brasil, em
Belterra e Fordlandia, o Minist6rio da Educacao e Sadde,
atravds do Servico de Estudos e Pesquisas sobre a Febre
Amarela (SEPSFA), corn a coopera9qo da Divisdo de Sadde
da Fundacao Rockefeller, realizou investigaq6es envolvendo
Neotropical Primates 9(2), August 2001
a coleta de mamiferos. Os especimes obtidos em Belterra
foram colecionados por A. Rebello, entire maio e outubro.
Esse material esta depositado no Museu Nacional/UFRJ.
Aldm das coleq6es do Sr. Olalla e do Servigo da Febre
Amarela, e digno de nota o material reunido pelo Instituto
Evandro Chagas, em Belterra, no ano de 1978. Os espdcimes
estao conservados no Museu Paraense Emflio Goeldi.
Material e Metodos
Area de Estudo
Este estudo foi desenvolvido, em parte, na Area da antiga
concessao da Companhia Ford Industrial do Brasil (Ford
Motor Company), localizada na margem direita do rio
Tapaj6s, municipio de Belterra, estado do Pari, delimitada
pela Ponta do Pindobal (0234'S, 5458'W) e a Ponta
Sao Joao, na enseada de "cachiriquituba" (= Caxiricatuba)
(03o02'S, 5506'W) (Fig. 1).
Atualmente a quase totalidade dessa Area encontra-se inserida
nos limits da Floresta Nacional do Tapaj6s, administrada
pelo Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos
Naturals Renoviveis (IBAMA). A regiao estudada abrange
dois planaltos: o Planalto Rebaixado da Amaz6nia (MWdio
Amazonas) e o Planalto Tapaj6s-Xingu, cuja altitude varia
de 120 a 170 metros ao nivel do mar (Brasil, Projeto
RADAMBRASIL, 1975). 0 clima e quente e timido,
enquadrando-se no tipo Amw da classificaqao de Koppen.
Na regiao de Belterra, tomando-se como referenda a estadao
meteorol6gica local e os dados references ao period de 1980
a 1993, a temperature mddia mensal varia de 23.6 a 27.8C.
As temperatures mAximas e minimas mensais variam de
28.30 a 33.9'C e 17.80 a 23.8'C, respectivamente. Setembro,
outubro e novembro sao os meses mais quentes e junho e
julho correspondem aos mais amenos. A estaaio chuvosa
vai de fevereiro a maio e o period de menor precipitacao
ocorre de agosto a novembro. A precipitaqao pluviomrtrica
apresenta um total annual que varia de 1113.8 a 2232.4 mm.
A umidade relative sempre superior a 80%.
A vegetacao predominante d a Floresta Ombr6fila Densa
que reveste a regiao desde os locals mais altos ate a margem
do Tapaj6s. Sao comuns especies como a seringueira Hevea
brasiliensis, a castanheira Bertholletia excelsa, o cumaru
Dipteryx odorata, a itatiba Silvia itauba, o tachi Sclerobium
sp., o pau-jacard Laetia procera, o freij6 Cordia goldiana,
o piquid Caryocar villosum, a jarana Holopyxidium jarana,
entire outras. HA tambem manchas da Floresta Ombr6fila
Aberta, corn a presenca de palmeiras, notadamente do
babaqu Orbignya martiana. Desmatamentos e queimadas sao
frequientes para a formacao de roqas de subsistencia.
Durante dois perfodos, compreendidos entire dezembro de
1991 e janeiro de 1992 e dezembro desse mesmo ano e janeiro
de 1993, foram realizados levantamentos de campo objetivando
verificar a ocorrencia de mamiferos, especialmente primatas,
nas localidades de Belterra (0235'S, 5458'W), Cajutuba
(02o40'S, 5500'W), Aramanaf (0243'S, 55'00'W), Maguarf
(02o47'S, 5501'W) e Piquiatuba (03o03'S, 55o06'W). A
identificacao das espdcies foi conseguida atraves de observaco
pessoal e contou corn o auxflio de moradores locals. Corn
a finalidade de complementary as informao6es obtidas foram
examinados especimes conservados no Museu Nacional/
UFRJ (MNRJ), no Museu de Zoologia/USP (MZUSP) e no
Museu Paraense Emflio Goeldi (MPEG).
As pesquisas permitiram constatar a ocorrencia de oito
especies de primatas na area estudada: Callitrix argentata
(Linnaeus, 1771), Alouatta belzebul discolor (Spix, 1823),
Aotus infulatus (Olfers, 1818), Ateles marginatus E. Geoffroy,
1809, Callicebus moloch (Hoffmannsegg, 1807), Cebus apella
(Linnaeus, 1758), Chiropotes albinasus (I. Geoffroy e Deville,
1848) e Saimiri ustus I. Geoffroy, 1843 (Tabela 1).
Essas mesmas especies foram encontradas na regiao do rio
Iriri, afluente da margem esquerda do rio Xingti, por Martins
et al. (1988). Pesquisas de campo envolvendo primatas na
Area do Tapaj6s foram realizadas por Ayres e Milton (1981),
Branch (1983) e George et al. (1988), no Parque Nacional
da Amaz6nia (03o41'-4o50'S; 56'00'-5721'W). Das oito
especies de macacos que ocorrem na area, uma (Chiropotes
albinasus) figure na Lista Oficial de Especies da Fauna
Figura 1. Localiza~io da Area estudada. A Ponta do Pindobal, B -
Ponta S. Joao; 1 Belterra, 2 Iruganga, 3 Cajutuba, 4 -Aramanaf,
5 Maguari, 6 Piquiatuba.
Neotropical Primates 9(2), August 2001
Tabela 1. Lista das species de primatas que ocorrem na drea estudada.
Esp&ie/Localidade Belterra Iruaanga Cajutuba Aramanaf Maguari Caxiricatuba Piquiatuba
Callithrix argentata (41) x x a x (28) (8)
Alouatta b. discolor x x x x x (11) (5)
Aotus infulatus x x x x x (1) (1)
Ateles marginatus Extinto, b Extinto x Extinto x (7) (7)
Callicebus moloch (1) x x x x (16) (9)
Cebus apella x x x x x (13) (1)
Chiropotes albinasus Extinto Extinto x Extinto x (3) (1)
Saimiri ustus x x x x x (8) (2)
_- - 1 \ - -.' A .;- ; . 1,0;^ ^ ^ ^fXTDT \lDf -~ kl7YTTQD
Brasileira Ameafadas de Extincao (Brasil, IBAMA, 1989). 0
coat ou coamba, Ateles marginatus, e o cuxid, C. albinasus, jd
foram bastante frequentes na regiao do Tapaj6s. De Santarem
ao Rio Cururdi (0745'S, 57o30'W) existed diversos registros
de coletas. Atualmente e admitida a extincao de ambos
nos arredores de Belterra, Irucanga, Cajutuba e Aramanaf.
Informac6es de moradores locais ddo conta da ocorrencia
dessas especies no trecho compreendido entire Maguarf e
As demais formas sao relativamente comuns. 0 sauim Callithrix
argentata e o macaco prego Cebus apella foram observados
diversas vezes sendo criados como animals de estimacqo.
Os bandos avistados de C. argentata eram normalmente
compostos de 2 a 3 indivfduos. 0 guariba Alouatta belzebul
discolor& um animal bem conhecido, principalmente devido
ao som caracteristico produzido pelos machos. A suposta
raridade do macaco da noite Aotus infulatusse deve ao fato de
se tratar de uma espdcie corn hibitos noturnos. 0 Sr. Ollala
teve a oportunidade de coletar espdcimes em Marai e Aveiro,
alm de Caxiricatuba e Piquiatuba (Lonnberg, 1941), como
tambem em Fordlandia (MZUSP).
Durante as pesquisas foi possivel observer que a caga e uma
atividade bastante frequent na area estudada. Entrevistas
corn moradores locals possibilitaram levantar que existe
conscidncia que a falta de crit&io para o abate dos animals
silvestres (idade premature dos esp&cimes, nlo respeito
a 6poca de reproducao ou amamentacao, etc.) e a quase
ausencia de fiscalizaqao estao contribuindo para diminuir
ou mesmo extinguir as populayoes de varias especies. Nesse
particular se inclui nao s6 primatas (Ateles marginatus,
Chiropotes albinasus), mas formas como o tatu-canastra
Priodontes maximus, o queixada Tayassu pecari, a anta Tapirus
terrestris, entire outros.
Aos doutores Jose Candido de Melo Carvalho (in
memorial), Suely A. Marques (MPEG), Heraldo Britski
e Mario de Vivo (MZUSP), Joao A. Oliveira (MNRJ) e
Luciano Carlos Tavares Marques (CPATU/EMBRAPA).
Aos senhores Josie Santos Freitas e nlcio (Belterra), Francisco
Paulo dos Santos (Irucanga), Ernesto Moraes (Cajutuba),
Almiro Almeida Rodrigues (Maguarf) e Taumaturgo Castro
das Neves (Piquiatuba).
Sergio Maia Vaz, Museu Nacional (UFRJ), Secqo de
Mamiferos. Quinta da Boa Vista, Sio CristovIo, 20940-040
Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil, e-mail: .
Alperin, R. 1993. Callithrix argentata (Linnaeus, 1771):
considerac6es taxon6micas e descriqio de subespdcie nova.
Bol. Mus. Para. Emilio Goeldi, Ser. Zool. 9(2): 317-328.
Avila-Pires, E D. 1969. Taxonomia e zoogeografia do genero
Cl/dLth..x Erxleben, 1777. Rev. Brasil. Biol. 29(1): 49-64.
Ayres, J. M. e Milton, K. 1981. Levantamento de primatas e
habitat no Rio Tapaj6s. Bol. Mus. Para. Emilio Goeldi, Zool.
Bates, H. W. 1863. The Naturalist on the River Amazons.
J. Murray, London.
Branch, L .C. 1983. Seasonal and habitat differences in the
abundance of primates in the Amazon (Tapaj6s) National
Park, Brazil. Primates 24(3): 424-431.
Brasil, Projeto RADAMBRASIL. 1975. Folha AS 21
Santarem; Geologia, Geomorfologia, Pedologia, Vegetacdo, Uso
Potential da Terra., Levantamento de Recursos Naturais. 10.
pp.5-10. Ministerio das Minas e Energia. Departamento
Nacional de Produgqo Mineral. Rio de Janeiro.
Brasil, IBAMA. 1989. Lista Oficial das Especies da Fauna
Brasileira Ameacadas de Extincao. Portaria 1.522, de
19 de dezembro de 1989. Didrio Oficial da Uniao, 22
de dezembro de 1989. Institute Brasileiro do Meio
Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renoviveis (IBAMA),
George, T., Marques, S. A., de Vivo, M., Branch, L. C.,
Gomes, N. e Rodrigues, R. 1988. Levantamento de mamf-
feros do ParnaTapaj6s. Brasil Flor. 63: 33-41.
Hershkovitz, P. 1977. Living New World Monkeys (Platyrrhini)
with an Introduction to Primates, Vol. 1. University of
Chicago Press, Chicago.
Kellogg, R. e Goldman, E. A. 1944. Review of the spider
monkeys. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 96: 1-45.
Neotropical Primates 9(2), August 2001
Lbnnberg, E. 1941. Notes on members of the genera
Alouatta and Aotus. Ark. Zool. 33A, 10: 1-44.
Martins, E. S., Ayres, J. M. e do Valle, M. B. R. 1988. On the
status of Ateles b. marginatus with notes on other primates
of the Iriri river basin. Primate Conservation (9): 87-91.
BODY WEIGHTS BEFORE AND AFTER FIRST
PREGNANCIES OF IMMIGRANT ADULT FEMALE
MANTLED HOWLING MONKEYS (ALOUATTA PALLIATA)
IN COSTA RICA
Evan L. Zucker
Margaret R. Clarke
Kenneth E. Glander
For female primates, as in other mammals, successful
reproduction depends upon the proper sequencing of
endocrine events (e.g., hypothalamic, pituitary, and ovarian
hormone secretions), as well as the physical capacity to
support, energetically, the developing fetus (or fetuses)
through gestation and lactation (see Bercovitch, 1987;
Bercovitch et al., 1998; Serio-Silva et al., 1999; Tardif and
Jaquish, 1997). Ontogenetically, one physical requirement
for viable first pregnancies appears to be the attainment of a
minimum total body weight (Bercovitch and Berard, 1993)
or amount of body fat (Schwartz et aL, 1988). For mantled
howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata), these ontogenetic,
physical requirements for successful reproduction are in
addition to the social challenges facing females, who emigrate
from their natal groups as juveniles, and following a period
of time as solitary individuals (one month to two years),
immigrate into other groups as young adults (Clarke and
Glander, 1984; Glander, 1980, 1992; Jones, 1980; Scott et
al., 1978). In order to remain as permanent members in new
groups, these immigrant females must become dominant
to resident females, a process that can take up to one year
(Jones, 1980; Zucker and Clarke, 1998).
Immigrant female howling monkeys give birth to their first
offspring, on average, after 19.7 months of residency in a
new group (Zucker et al., submitted), meaning they do not
conceive their first infant until they are in the group for
nearly 14 months (gestation length = 186 days; Glander,
1980). One hypothesized explanation for this apparent
delay in reproduction is that they are not fully physically
mature at the time of immigration. To assess this hypothesis,
we present here (a) the body weights of immigrant female
mantled howling monkeys, (b) comparisons of immigrants'
weights with the weights of adult female residents, and (c)
the body weights of immigrants before and after their first
pregnancies. As immigrants are younger than residents, their
weights were expected to be less, initially, than the residents.
Thus, we are examining the body weights of female mantled
howling monkeys from soon after their immigrations (pre-
pregnancy) until after their first births (post-pregnancy).
Howlers were weighed after capture for morphometric,
physiological and dental microwear studies at Hacienda La
Pacifica, Guanacaste Province, Costa Rica (see Glander et
al., 1991; Teaford and Glander, 1996). Body weights for
13 immigrant females, who entered Groups 2, 7 and 19
between 1978 and 1992, were extracted from these records.
Group 2 inhabits upland forests, while Groups 7 and 19
inhabit riverine forest. Group 2 has been observed since 1985
(Zucker and Clarke, 1998), Group 7 since 1970 (Glander,
1980), and Group 19 since 1980 (referred to as "Cabina"
group by Clarke et al., 1986; see Figure 1 in Glander, 1992,
for the locations of these groups on the ranch). Body weights
for 36 females resident in these groups were obtained at
approximately the same time as were the weights for these
immigrants. While secondary dispersal occurs, it is rare
(see Glander, 1992). Thus, it can be assumed that nearly all
immigrant females are nulliparous. During this time span,
three pregnant females entered these groups and another
entered with a dependent infant (Zucker et al., submitted);
data for these females are not included here.
Body weights for 8 of these 13 females were obtained after
the births of their first infants, approximately two years after
their capture and weighing as immigrants. Changes in weight
were assessed with a correlated samples t-test. Comparison of
immigrants' weights with residents' weights was done with
an independent groups t-test. Changes in body weights also
are expressed in terms of percent increase or decrease.
Immigrants vs. Residents
The 13 immigrants had a mean weight of 4.22 kg (s.d. =
0.30), whereas the 36 resident females of these groups had a
mean weight of 5.00 kg (s.d. = 0.65). The immigrants were
significantly lighter than the residents (t = 4.16, df = 47,
p<0.001). Their weights were approximately 85% of those of
the older residents. The weights of immigrants and residents
are presented in Table 1. For nine of the 13 immigrants, the
body weights of all other adult females in the group were
available. In 7 of these 9 cases, the immigrant female was
lighter than all other females in the group.
Pre- and Post-Pregnancy Weights of Immigrants
Body weights were obtained for eight of the immigrants
soon after they gave birth to their first infants, approximately
two years after joining their respective groups. These females
showed a significant increase over their pre-pregnancy weights
(mean = 4.99 kg; t = 3.84, df= 7, p = 0.003, one-tailed test;
see Table 1). Post-pregnancy weights were 16.25% higher
than pre-pregnancy weights (range 11% to 32%). One of the
eight females, however, weighed less after her first pregnancy
than before, losing 5% of her pre-pregnancy weight (see
Table 1). This was the only pregnancy and birth this female
was known to have. Comparison of the post-pregnancy
weights of the eight immigrant females with the weights of
58 Neotropical Primates 9(2), August 2001
resident females indicated no significant difference (t = 0.18,
df= 43, p>0.05).
These data show that soon after the time of their
immigration, female mantled howling monkeys were
significantly lighter than resident females, supporting the
hypothesis that they were not fully mature, physically, at this
stage of their lives, and that they were competing for group
membership at a physical disadvantage. However, within
two years, and after their first infants were born, females who
had competed successfully for group membership increased
their body weights by approximately 16%, and their weights
were no longer significantly different from those of resident
females. Post-partum female Anubis baboons (Papio anubis)
lose weight during lactation, weighing 7% less than cycling
females (Bercovitch, 1987). If mantled howlers experience
patterns of weight changes similar to the baboons, then the
post-pregnancy weights reported here for howlers would
actually be lower than what these females would weigh when
lactation ceases and estrous cycles resume. Bercovitch (1987)
further suggested that females might need to surpass a post-
lactational weight threshold before estrous cycles resumed
and subsequent pregnancies occurred.
Bercovitch etal. (1998), in their study of captive, provisioned
rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), found that body weights
of young, nulliparous females were predictive of first
conceptions: those that conceived weighed significantly
more than those that did not. This difference in body weight
persisted for at least another year, until these females were
four years old, although their subsequent weight did not
differ as a function of parity; primiparous females increased
their weight by an average of 31% over the next year, while
nulliparous females increased their weight by an average of
25% (Bercovitch et al., 1998). The average weight gains
by both subsets of rhesus females were greater than those
noted for mantled howlers at La Pacifica (16%), but the
overall patterns of weight gain were similar. The difference
in the amount (or percentage) of weight gained likely
reflects species and ecological (management) differences.
Rhesus monkeys are seasonal breeders, unlike mantled
howlers, so nulliparous females would have until the onset
of the next breeding season to increase their weights before
the energetic demands of gestation occurred. Primiparous
females, likewise, would have longer to reach the weight
needed for post-lactational ovulation. Low estrogen levels
during periods of acyclicity would also contribute to higher
body weights in these rhesus (e.g., Kemnitz etal., 1989). The
magnitude of the difference between mantled howlers and
rhesus monkeys might also stem from ecological differences;
while conceptions could occur at any time of the year for
howlers, they face greater seasonal variations in food and
nutrient availability than would the provisioned rhesus
monkeys studied by Bercovitch et al. (1993). The howler
body weight data obtained and used here were not controlled
for possible seasonal differences (wet vs. dry).
Comparative growth and development data for New World
monkeys are not as readily available as they are for Old
World monkeys. Pre- to post-pregnancy body weights of
captive, primiparous squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus;
N = 16), a New World species, also increased significantly
(L. Williams, unpubl. data), although the magnitude
of the average increase (6.6 %) was not as large as seen
in mantled howlers or rhesus monkeys. For this sample
of squirrel monkeys, the range of increase was 3.7%
to 23.9%, but four of the monkeys showed decreases
in their pre- to post-pregnancy weights (losses of 0.5%
to 6.0%). While a decrease was noted in one howling
monkey, these limited data indicate that post-lactational
Table 1. Immigrant females' body weights, weight gains and residents' mean weights
Pre- Post- Group No. of
Female Group Entry year pregnancy pregnancy % change mean Group s.d. resident
weight (kg) weight (kg) weight (kg) females
APRICOT 7 1978 4.05 4.74 17 4.34 0.99 5
LILAC 7 1989 4.50 5.00 11 5.40 0.28 2
FIONA 7 1990 4.00 5.25 32 4.85 0.58 6
CLEO 7 1990 4.40 4.20 -5 4.75 0.64 6
ARUBA 7 1992 4.80 5.00 4 5.25 0.73 9
OREG 2 1986 3.80 N/A N/A 4.15 0.16 4
JQ 2 1989 4.00 N/A N/A 4.60 0.46 3
WISTERIA 2 1991 4.30 N/A N/A 4.60 0.49 2
SAGE 2 1991 4.20 N/A N/A 4.60 0.42 2
AZALEA 2 1992 3.90 N/A N/A 4.80 ----- 1
RUBY 19 1980 4.06 5.11 26 4.22 ----- 1
GARNET 19 1989 4.70 5.90 26 5.20 0.89 3
LAPIS 19 1989 4.20 5.00 19 5.40 0.61 3
Mean 4.22 4.99 16.25
S.d. 0.30 0.44 12.40
Notes Group me. a weight refers to t.he resident femaleis' mean weights obtained at the same time as the immigrant' weights; number
nf riAfqlntc ,nntrihl-tin tn thl- moan l nAmreA ln th rihf mo |mnc t ilmn 0- "N/A" Aenntsc -nntn avarT| l,-
Neotropical Primates 9(2), August 2001
weight loss in squirrel monkeys might be a more common
Successful reproduction is obviously necessary for sustaining
wild populations of nonhuman primates. While the
conservation status ofhowlers is "low risk" (Crockett, 1998),
the structure of the La Pacifica population of howlers has
changed over the past decade. The total number of monkeys
has remained essentially unchanged, but the number of
groups has increased; thus, average group size has declined
(Clarke and Zucker, 1994; Clarke et al., submitted). In
contrast, the protected mantled howler population at
Santa Rosa National Park (also in Guanacaste Province)
has increased over the comparable time period (Fedigan
et al., 1998). For several groups at La Pacifica, emigration
and immigration routes appear to have been affected by
deforestation and associated canal construction. In one
group that has been studied extensively (Group 2), and
whose immigrants were included in the present study,
the incidence of immigration has decreased (Clarke et
al., in press). With the habitat changes, it might take
immigrating howler females longer to reach the necessary
minimum weight for successful reproduction (or threshold
for resumption of cycling post-partum), thus decreasing
their potential lifetime reproductive success and reducing
the actual number of offspring produced by lengthening
interbirth intervals. Applying this scenario to any primate
species, decreased habitat quantity or quality could have
detrimental effects on reproduction by slowing the rates
at which females attain threshold weights necessary for
This research was supported, in part, by NIH Grant
RR00164 to the Tulane Regional Primate Research Center.
Sources of support for the dental microwear work can be
found in Teaford and Glander (1996). We thank Mark
Teaford for his contributions to the study of the La Pacifica
howlers and Jennifer Conkerton for assistance with the
tabulation of body weight data. Larry Williams (University
of South Alabama's Squirrel Monkey Breeding and Research
Resource) kindly provided unpublished pre- and post-
pregnancy body weight data for squirrel monkeys. We also
thank the management of La Pacifica for their continued
support and permission to work at this site. Some of
these data were included in a poster presentation at the
1998 meeting of the American Association of Physical
Anthropologists, Salt Lake City, UT (USA).
Evan L. Zucker, Department of Psychology, Loyola
University, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118, USA, e-mail:
, Margaret R. Clarke, Department of
Anthropology, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana
70118, USA, e-mail: , and Kenneth
E. Glander, Department of Biological Anthropology and
Anatomy, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708,
USA, e-mail: .
Bercovitch, E B. 1987. Female weight and reproductive
condition in a population of olive baboons (Papio anubis).
Am.]. Primatol. 12: 189-195.
Bercovitch, E B. and Berard, J. D. 1993. Life history costs
and consequences of rapid maturation in female rhesus
macaques. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 32: 103-109.
Bercovitch, E B., Lebron, M. R., Martinez, H. S. and
Kessler, M. J. 1998. Primigravidity, body weight, and
costs of rearing first offspring in rhesus macaques. Am. J.
Primatol. 46: 135-144.
Clarke, M. R., Collins, D. A. and Zucker, E. L. In press.
Responses to deforestation in a group of mantled howlers
(Alouatta palliata) in Costa Rica. Int. J. Primatol.
Clarke, M. R., Crockett, C. M., Zucker, E. L. and Zaldivar,
M. submitted. Changes in the mantled howler population
of Hacienda La Pacifica, Costa Rica, between 1991 and
Clarke, M. R. and Glander, K. E. 1984. Female reproductive
success in a group of free ranging howling monkeys
(Alouatta palliata) in Costa Rica. In: Female Primates:
Studies by Women Primatologists, M. E Small (ed.), pp.111-
126. Alan R. Liss, New York.
Clarke, M. R. and Zucker, E. L. 1994. Survey of the howling
monkey population at La Pacifica: A seven-year follow-up.
Int. J. Primatol. 15: 61-73.
Clarke, M. R., Zucker, E. L. and Scott, N. J., Jr. 1986.
Population trends of the mantled howler groups at La
Pacifica, Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Am. J. Primatol. 11:
Crockett, C. M. 1998. Conservation biology of the genus
Alouatta. Int. J. Primatol. 19: 549-578.
Fedigan, L. M., Rose, L. M. and Morera Avila, R. 1998.
Growth of mantled howler groups in a regenerating Costa
Rica dry forest. Int. J. Primatol. 19: 405-432.
Glander, K. E. 1980. Reproduction and population growth
in free-ranging mantled howling monkeys. Am. J. Phys.
Anthrop. 53: 25-36.
Glander, K. E. 1992. Dispersal patterns in Costa Rican
mantled howling monkeys. Int. J Primatol. 13: 415-436.
Glander, K. E., Fedigan, L. M., Fedigan, L. and Chapman, C.
1991. Field methods for capture and measurement of three
monkey species in Costa Rica. Folia Primatol. 57: 70-82.
Jones, C. B. 1980. The functions of status in the mantled
howler monkey Alouatta palliata Gray: Intraspecific
competition for group membership in a folivorous
Neotropical primate. Primates 21: 389-405.
Kemnitz, J. W., Gibber, J. R., Lindsay, K. A. and Eisele, S.
G. 1989. Effects of ovarian hormones on eating behaviors,
body weight, and glucoregulation in rhesus monkeys.
Horm. Behav. 23: 235-250.
Schwartz, S. M., Wilson, M. E., Walker, M. L. and Collins,
D. C. 1988. Dietary influences on growth and sexual
maturation in premenarchial rhesus monkeys. Horm.
Behav. 22: 231-251.
Scott, N. J., Jr., Malmgren, L. A. and Glander, K. E. 1978.
Grouping behavior and sex ratio in mantled howling
60 Neotropical Primates 9(2), August 2001
monkeys. In: Proceedings of the Sixth Annual International
Congress of the International Primatological Society, D. J.
Chivers and W. Lane-Petter (eds.), pp.183-185. Academic
Serio-Silva, J. C., Hernandez-Salazar, L. T. and Rico-Gray,
V. 1999. Nutritional composition of the diet of Alouatta
palliata mexicana females in different reproductive states.
Zoo Biol. 18: 507-513.
Tardif, S. D. and Jaquish, C. E. 1997. Number of ovulations
in the marmoset monkey (Callithrixjacchus): Relation to
body weight, age and repeatability. Am. J. Primatol. 42:
Teaford, M. E and Glander, K. E. 1996. Dental microwear
and diet in a wild population of mantled howling
monkeys (Alouatta palliata). In: Adaptive Radiations of
Neotropical Primates, M. A. Norconk, A. L. Rosenberger
and P. A. Garber (eds.), pp.433-449. Plenum Publishing,
Zucker, E. L. and Clarke, M. R. 1998. Agonistic and
affiliative relationships among adult female mantled
howlers (Alouatta palliata) in Costa Rica over a four-year
period. Int.]. Primatol. 19: 433-449.
Zucker, E. L., Clarke, M. R. and Glander, K. E. submitted.
Latencies to first births by immigrating adult female
howling monkeys (Alouattapalliata) in Costa Rica.
FOOD RESOURCES AND THE SURVIVAL OF A GROUP OF
HOWLER MONKEYS (ALOUATTA PALLIATA MEXICANA)
IN DISTURBED AND RESTRICTED HABITAT AT Los
TuxTLAs, VERACRUZ, MEXICO.
F Gdmez-Marin, J. J. Ved
E. Rodriguez-Luna, F Garcia-Ordufia
D. Canales-Espinosa, M. Escobar and N.Asensio
In recent decades, a gradual transformation and
disappearance of primate habitat has taken place world-
wide, placing an increasing number of species in danger
of extinction. Mexico, at the northern limit of Neotropical
primate distribution, is one of the areas where primates are
potentially under the greatest threat. At present, researchers
have only a very general idea of the distribution, biology and
ecology of the Mexican primates Ateles geoffroyi vellerosus,
A. g. yucatanensis, Alouatta palliata mexicana and A. pigra.
There is still a great deal to be learnt (Rodrfguez-Luna et al.,
Primates are profoundly affected by growing pressure
from human activity, as well as the implementation of
inappropriate development policies that largely ignore
environmental consequences. The main pressures affecting
the primates and their habitat in south-eastern Mexico
are "slash and burn" farming techniques to create cattle
pasture (Guevara et al., 1997) or agricultural land for
crops (for example, sugar cane and maize), fires, logging
and the construction of rural and urban infrastructure
(such as dams and highways). The hunting of primates for
food and their capture for sale as pets also threaten groups
surviving in increasingly small forest fragments (Pare et al.,
1992; Peres, 1997). These small groups remaining in forest
patches may also be more susceptible to disease and genetic
problems. These threats have led to a recent reassessment of
the conservation status of the four Mexican primate taxa,
prompting the World Conservation Union (IUCN) to list
two of them (Alouatta palliata mexicana, Ateles geoffroyi
yucatanensis) as threatened species (Hilton-Taylor, 2000).
As new field studies are developed, it will be necessary
to revaluate the Mexican primates to determine their
conservation status more accurately.
In the Los Tuxtlas region A. palliata is found in San Martin
Tuxtla Volcano, in Sierra Santa Marta, in San Martin
Pajapan and in the fragments of forest surrounding these
three areas (Fig. 1). These areas make up the core of
the recently established Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reserve
(Presidential Decree in Diario Oficial de la Federacidn,
23 November 1998). The A. palliata population is in
numerous isolated groups in this area. Besides the destruction
and fragmentation of their habitat, the main threat is
hunting, and although still surviving, there is an urgent need
for plans and conservation measures to ensure the long-term
survival of these groups (Rylands et al., 1996/1997). To
address this, a Conservation Assessment Management Plan
(CAMP) workshop was held (Rodrfguez-Luna et al., 1996a)
at Puebla (M6xico). Its recommendations led to a Population
and Habitat Viability Assessment (PHVA) for Alouatta
palliata mexicana, which included a simulation of the
survival of populations using ecological and demographic
parameters (Rodriguez-Luna et al., 1996b).
Factors which must be considered in the conservation and
management of primates in fragmented habitats include
population densities, home range boundaries and foraging
strategies (e.g., minimum foraging area required to maintain
a group). A number of estimates for the minimal forest
area required have been suggested for both continuous and
fragmented habitat (Estrada and Coates Estrada, 1996).
These data are useful when estimating the carrying capacity
of a particular habitat, but values may vary according to the
characteristics of each and the pressures from indirect and
direct human activities such as hunting (Neville et al., 1988).
These variations explain the different estimates obtained in
this study, and it is therefore difficult to define the carrying
capacity of any given habitat and/or the minimum area
required by a group of this species, as small changes in
environmental conditions and anthropogenic pressure can
cause significant differences in the demography of primate
groups. The incidence of illness and other factors (injuries,
loss of variability, genetic defects, behavioral abnormalities)
in population regulation also remains unclear, especially in
fragmented habitats (Jones, 1994).
Estrada and Coates Estrada (1994) showed the negative
effects of habitat fragmentation on the viability and size
of the monkey groups living in areas of dense vegetation
Neotropical Primates 9(2), August 2001
in Los Tuxtlas. The distance between fragments and the
time they have been isolated has a negative effect on the
survival chances of monkeys and other groups of animals.
Estrada and Coates Estrada (1994) give an estimate of the
requirements for a group of 10 howler monkeys as between
30 and 60 hectares of rainforest.
In a demography study of howler monkeys in the San Martin
Volcano area carried out in 1995 (Garcia-Ordunia, in prep.),
the sizes of the forests where monkeys were found ranged
from 15 ha (not including the fragment in the present study)
to 300 ha, with the one exception being the fragment or
central core of the San Martin Volcano of approximately
4,000 ha where several groups were observed. There was
no correlation (r = 0.5, p = 0.1749) between the number
or density of individuals and the area of the fragment, and
therefore its particular history, which would make ecological
differences between the fragments less significant. There was
an approximate mean ecological density of 8.48 howlers/km2
(SD 6.76, n = 10) for the fragments occupied by A. palliata,
an average group size of 3.36 animals (SD 2.38; range 1-
8), and an average composition, following Clarke's (1990)
classification, of 1.27 adult males, 1.45 adult females, 0.09
young and 0.53 infants. Another case observed by the authors
that demonstrates a capacity to adapt to restricted habitats
was in the Sierra de Santa Marta, where groups of howler and
spider monkeys numbering more than 10 individuals each
were found in a fragment of less than 10 ha (Garcia-Orduna,
1996). Further examples of the howler monkey's ability to
survive in very disturbed or small areas are given by Rodriguez
Luna etal. (1987), Silva-L6pez etal. (1988) and Estrada etal.
(1996). Estimates of the minimum area required resulting
from these studies range from 30-60 ha for a group of 10
howlers (Estrada and Coates Estrada 1984). However, howler
monkeys can survive in the long-term in even smaller areas.
Perhaps the most striking example of this is a troop of howlers
released on Agaltepec Island in Lake Catemaco, which is only
8.3 ha. At the beginning of 1998 the island had a population
of over 70 howler monkeys, originating from a group of 10,
introduced during 1988-89 (Rodrfguez-Luna and Cortds-
Ortiz, 1994; Rodrfguez-Luna, unpubl. data). The resources
on the island seem not only to be sufficient for present needs,
but it is also probable that they have yet to be fully exploited
(Serio-Silva, 1992). It remains to be seen, however, how these
groups fare in the long term.
Here we present an extreme case of survival of a group
of seven howler monkeys (one male, five females and one
juvenile) in an area of 1.3 ha near Arroyo Liza, north of the
San Martin Tuxtla Volcano. This group was of interest for
three reasons: 1) it was probably not introduced and is at
the northernmost limit of the species' original distribution,
proposed by Hall (1981); 2) it has adapted to an extremely
small and isolated area; and 3) it has remained in the area for
at least eight years.
The forest fragment near Arroyo Liza is located at 18 41' 16"
N; 952 pt 11' 12" W, altitude 60-100 m above sea level. It is
Figure 1. Region of Los Tuxtlas. Dark areas represent remaining forest. Forest fragment near, is located at 180 41' 16" N, 95
11' 12" W.
62 Neotropical Primates 9(2), August 2001
within the buffer zone of the Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reserve
(Fig. 1). The climate is of type Am: warm and humid, with
summer rains and monsoon influence, a mean annual
temperature of 24-26 C and a mean annual precipitation
of 3,000-4,000 mm, distributed seasonally, with a relatively
dry period from March to May. The maximum temperature
is 36 C and the minimum is 16C (Soto, 1997). The soil
is volcanic in origin and made up of plioquaternary volcanic
rocks (Martin-del Pozo, 1997). The original vegetation was
predominantly evergreen rainforest, although it has for
the most part been degraded and fragmented by human
activities, particularly the creation of pasture for extensive
cattle farming. Land ownership in the Arroyo Liza area
consists of private ranches and the communal properties of
sharecroppers, parcels of which have been recently privatized.
Most is given over to extensive cattle farming and some small
areas are used for maize (milpas) and chili, among other cash
Although the original vegetation was evergreen rainforest,
today there is only a small corridor left of 350 m in length
bordering a permanent stream (Fig. 2). The maximum width
is around 100 m at the highest point of the fragment in
the south-west. The forest there, although disturbed, is the
most conserved and has the highest species diversity, with
trees between 15 and 25 m tall. Further downhill there is a
strip of trees bordering grassland (Bursera simaruba, Ficus sp.
and Sapium sp.) which contains a small area of secondary
Figure 2. Map of the Arroyo Liza forest fragment.
growth. This area in turn extends to a patch of trees, mainly
Bursera simaruba, ending in a group of six large trees in the
pasture, with 10 coconut palms and three other trees near by.
The nearest woodland is over 100 m away; it is a fragment
totally surrounded by meadows used for pasture, with only
Potential Food Resources for Howlers in the
We observed a group of seven A. palliata, at what is probably
the northernmost limit of their distribution, in conditions
of extreme habitat reduction and disturbance. According to
local people, the group has lived in these conditions for at
least eight years. The monkeys appeared physically normal
and healthy when we first observed them (1 December
1997). The group is occasionally harassed by the locals, and
individuals are occasionally captured (probably infants) for
the pet trade. On our second visit (2 December 1998) nine
individuals were found two adult males, five adult females
and two juveniles demonstrating the group's capacity for
survival and reproduction.
The forest is approximately 1.3 ha.The vegetation is disturbed
both in terms of species composition and forest layers. Lists
of the plant species identified can be found in Tables 1 and
2. One hundred ninety-eight trees were registered; 182 were
identified as belonging to 43 genera and 48 different species.
As can be seen in Table 1, 37 to 39 of the species identified
(77.7% to 81.25%,) provide food for Alouatta palliata in
other places where the species has been studied (see references
in the table). As such, 81.32% to 83.52% (n = 152-162) of
the trees in the Arroyo Liza fragment are potentially edible
for the howlers. A total of 86 of these trees are important
in the howlers' diet (marked Yes* in Table 1); this category
includes species (n = 13) reported by other authors as among
the ten most important in their studies, and those that in
our view may make significant seasonal contributions to
their diet. These account for 47.25% of the total number of
identified trees in the fragment.
Little attention has been paid to lianas and vines in most
studies on the diet and foraging of A. palliata. Few are
identified or even observed. However, Rodriguez-Luna
(2000) showed that the number of species consumed is
comparable to tree species and some may even be more
important in the diet. Habitat disturbance favors growth
of vines and lianas, owing to their greater proliferation in
areas of light and at the edges of the rainforest or on slopes.
This potentially increases the diversity of species available as
a resource for the howlers and possibly the biomass (although
it may diminish the resource potential of the trees supporting
them due to competition for nutrients, light and space). Tree
species that are not a potential food source for the howlers
may support vines or creepers they use, thus increasing
the food sources available. For example, an increase in the
howler population on Agaltepec Island was correlated with
an increase in the use of lianas and vines as food sources. In
1990, lianas and vines comprised 12.2% of the time a group
Neotropical Primates 9(2), August 2001 63
Table 1. Potential feeding resources for A. palliata at the Arroyo Liza, Los Tuxtlas, Mexico.
Number of Potential
Species individuals Habit resource References Family
Albizia purpusii 1 Tree Yes 8 Mimosaceae
Alchornea latifolia 1 Tree Euphorbiaceae
Annona glabra 3 Tree Yes 8 Annonaceae
Aspidosperma megalocarpon 1 Tree Yes* 10 Apocynaceae
Brosimum alicastrum 2 Tree Yes* 2,3,4,5,6,8,9,10,12,13 Moraceae
Bursera simaruba 45 Tree Yes* 1,2,3,5,6,7,8,9,11,12,13 Burseraceae
Castilla elastica 1 Tree Yes 3 Moraceae
Cecropia obtusifolia 2 Tree Yes* 1,2,4,5,6,8,9,11,12,13 Cecropiaceae
Citrus sinensis 2 Tree Yes 8 Rutaceae
Coccoloba hondurensis 3 Tree Yes 1,6,8,12 Polygonaceae
Cocos nucifera 10 Palm Arecaceae
Conostegia xalapensis 1 Shrub Yes 8,9 Melastomataceae
Cordia alliodora 1 Tree Yes 6, 7, 8, 10 Boraginaceae
Crataeva tapia 2 Tree Yes 6,13 Capparaceae
Croton pyramidale 1 Tree Yes 4 Euphorbiaceae
Croton schiedanus 5 Tree Yes 4,8 Euphorbiaceae
Cupania glabra 2 Tree Yes 6,11 Sapindaceae
Dendropanax arboreus 1 Tree Yes 2,3,11 Araliaceae
Eugenia acapulcensis 1 Tree Yes 1,6,8 Myrtaceae
Ficus lundellii 2 Tree Yes* 8 Moraceae
Ficus petenensis 2 Tree Yes* 8 Moraceae
Ficus sp. 14 Tree Yes* All references Moraceae
Ficus yoponensis 3 Tree Yes* 8,10 Moraceae
Gliricidia sepium 1 Tree Yes 1,7,11 Fabaceae
Guarea grandifolia 1 Tree Yes 7 Meliaceae
Hampea nutricia 1 Tree Malvaceae
Bernoulliaflammea 2 Tree Bombacaceae
Nectandra colorata 11 Tree Yes Lauraceae
Omphalea oleifera 2 Tree Yes 6 Euphorbiaceae
Pimienta dioica 1 Tree Myrtaceae
Piper sanctum 1 Shrub Yes 13 Piperaceae
Pleuranthodendron lindenii 2 Tree Flacourtiaceae
Posoqueria latifolia 1 Tree Rubiaceae
Poulsenia armata 4 Tree Yes* 6,8,9,10 Moraceae
Pouteria sp. 1 Tree Yes 2,5,6,8,13 Sapotaceae
Psychotriaflava 1 Tree Rubiaceae
Pterocarpus rohrii 3 Tree Yes* 6,8,9,10 Fabaceae
Robinsonella mirandae 1 Tree Yes 6 Malvaceae
Rollinia mucosa 5 Tree Yes 6,8 Annonaceae
Sapium sp. 13 Tree Yes 6 Euphorbiaceae
Spondias radlkoferi 4 Tree Yes* 1,2,6,8,10,12,13 Anacardiaceae
Tabernaemontana arborea 3 Tree Yes 10 Apocynaceae
Tetrorchidium rotundatum 6 Tree Yes 6 Euphorbiaceae
Trichilia mariana 1 Tree Yes? 1,7,10 Meliaceae
Trichospermum galeottii 7 Tree Yes 9 Tiliaceae
Trophis mexicana 1 Tree Yes 10,11 Moraceae
Zanthoxylum caribaeum 1 Tree Yes* 1,2,6,11,13 Rutaceae
Zanthoxylum kellermanii 2 Tree Yes 6, 8 Rutaceae
Other unidentified species 16 Tree
Total: 49 Species 198 trees 37-39 species 27 Families
References: 1. Glander (1981); 2. Gaulin etal. (1980); 3. Chapman (1987); 4. Silva-L6pez (1982); 5. Estrada & Coates-Estrada (1984);
6. Estrada (1984); 7. Glander (1975); 8. G6mez-Marin (in prep.); 9.Jiminez (1992): 10. Milton (1980); 11. Serio (1992); 12. Estrada
et al.(1984); 13. Estrada & Coates-Estrada (1986). See text for explanation.
64 Neotropical Primates 9(2), August 2001
Table 2. Potential food resources (vines and lianas).
Species Habit Potential References Family
Salacia megistophylla Vine ? Hippocrataceae
Ipomoeaphillomega Vine/climber Yes 2 Convolvulaceae
Philodendron radiatum Climber Yes 2, 3 Araceae
Philodendron scandens Climber Yes 2 Araceae
Pisonia aculeata Vine ? Nyctaginaceae
Syngonium podophyllum Climber Yes 2 Araceae
Smilax aristolochiifolia Vine Yes 1 Smilacaceae
References. 1. Estrada (1984); 2. G6mez-Marin (in prep.); 3. Milton (1980).
of 10 howlers spent feeding (Serio 1992). In 1997 this had
increased to 22% in a group of 57 (Rodriguez-Luna 2000).
At Arroyo Liza we noted seven species of vines and lianas, all
potentially eaten by howlers, but we were not able to compile
a more complete list (Table 2).
Forest loss and fragmentation lead to a greater proportion of
trees being located on the forest edge where they are more
exposed to wind, solar radiation and dry microclimates,
increasing tree mortality and causing changes in fruit
and leaf production. (Gascon et. al., 2000). This may be
disadvantageous, but more leaves falling due to wind and/or
drying may be followed by the production of new shoots
and young leaves which howlers favor (as we have observed
in other fragments of the region). The majority of these
trees are shorter and have less foliage than trees found in
less disturbed areas, and it is possible that the trees in this
fragment provide fewer resources (when available) than taller
trees of mature undisturbed forests.
Estrada and Coates-Estrada (1994) and Estrada et al. (1994)
showed that there is a positive correlation between the
size of a forest fragment and the number of monkeys that
live there. This is reasonable due to the greater quantity
and diversity of food sources in larger fragments, greater
opportunities to escape from humans (which increases
the difficulty of hunting the monkeys), greater chances of
surviving occurrences such as fires and a reduced incidence of
genetic or demographic problems, among others. However,
according to Garcia-Ordufia (in prep.), no such correlation
was observed in the San Martin Volcano area, and we did
not observe this correlation with the Arroyo Liza group of
nine in 1.3 ha. This indicates that the amount of direct or
indirect human activity in a forest fragment, such as monkey
harassment or fire setting, may influence the presence
and number of monkeys more decisively than ecological
characteristics and the size of the fragment.
On the other hand, the presence or absence of monkeys in a
fragment depends on whether or not they were already there
at the time of isolation. Undoubtedly, a large fragment will
have a better probability of containing monkeys than a small
fragment. Estrada et al. (1994) found that the distance to the
nearest fragment is negatively correlated to the number of
monkeys that can inhabit it because of fewer opportunities
for migration and fewer opportunities for escape from
catastrophes such as fires and large-scale disturbances.
Howler monkeys appear reluctant to cross pasture and areas
with little vegetation local people reported seeing monkeys
moving from one fragment to another, crossing up to 150
m of pasture. There are also instances where males have
been seen to remain isolated for long periods of time while
only 150 m away from other monkeys in another fragment
(authors' observation). Factors contributing to why monkeys
remain in a fragment or decide to leave include: resource
availability in both fragments; health of the individuals;
knowledge of the destination (acquired prior to isolation);
distance and availability of trees for locomotion; presence
and composition of other groups at the destination; and
degree of attachment to the home range. To date, we do not
know if the Arroyo Liza group has ever left their fragment.
Howler monkeys appear to adapt well to adverse conditions.
These and other examples in the region (Rodriguez-Luna
et. al., 1987, Garcia-Ordufia, 1996) prompt us to question
whether fragmentation, disturbance, isolation and reduction
and loss of habitat diversity are the most influential factors
affecting the disappearance of howler monkeys within
a fragment (Estrada et al, 1994, 1996). Milton (1985)
suggested that seasonal factors or weather conditions can
restrict the availability and abundance of resources, and
may be causal factors in nutritional stress, contributing to
mortality. According to Milton, the most probable mortality
factor is parasitism, especially botfly infestation (Alouattamya
baer and Dermatobia hominis). In Los Tuxtlas, mortality
and/or poor health, especially in infants, has been observed
as a result of these infestations (G6mez-Marfn, pers. obs.;
Stuart et. al., 1998; Canales-Espinosa, 1992). However,
Coelho et al (1976), in their study of resource availability
and nutritional requirements of Alouatta pigra in Tikal,
indicated a superabundance of available resources and
suggested that the concept of resource limitation is a myth
among primatologists. However, we believe the results and
conclusions of Coelho et. al. to be premature, as the study
was limited to a mere three months (June-August 1973), and
a seasonal and/or annual superabundance of resources cannot
be ruled out. In other years or during certain times, there are
limited resources which affect the size of the population, as
Neotropical Primates 9(2), August 2001 65
seen at Barro Colorado, Panama (Milton, 1985).
This study and others of monkeys living at high densities
in small rainforest fragments demonstrate that the values
obtained for ecological density in less restricted areas are
not universally suitable for estimating survival and densities
in fragments. Habitat carrying-capacity parameters used in
the PHVA simulations (Rodrfguez-Luna et al., 1995), which
give only short-term viability for groups in very fragmented
habitats, need to be reviewed.
Priority measures for the conservation of howler monkeys,
as in other species (Laborde, 1996, Guevara, 1997), should
take account of small areas (often the only available), such
as gallery forests, forest patches and remnant hillside forests.
The establishment of corridors and the maintenance of
appropriate habitat mosaics which can allow for dispersal
could create conditions for a functional demographic
connection for otherwise isolated groups (Forman and
Godron, 1986). In the llanos, red howlers (A. seniculus)
occupy and regularly move through grassland and swamps
between very small forest patches (Braza et al., 1983), and
there is no reason to suppose that A. palliata could not do
the same. We would argue that the key factor influencing the
survival of primates in fragmented habitats is hunting. This
obviates the need for environmental awareness campaigns
and measures which can reduce the pressure on the primate
populations. Future projects need to comply with the
recommendations of the CAMP workshop (Rodriguez-
Luna et al., 1995) which recommend integrated rural
development, alternatives and improvements in land use
and natural resources and a strengthening of legal and penal
measures on the hunting, capture, trafficking and ownership
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FEMALES AND ALLO-NURSING
OF MOUSTACHED TAMARINS
Andrew C. Smith
Emdrita R. Tirado Herrera
Hannah M. Buchanan-Smith
Eckhard W Heymann
Callitrichines show flexible social organization and mating
patterns (Goldizen, 1988; Ferrari and Lopes Ferrari, 1989).
Instances of multiple breeding females have been reported
in all genera (Table 1) except Cebuella and seem to be
the rule in Callimico (Christen, 1998; Encarnaci6n and
Heymann, 1998). Except for Callimico, this circumstance
has been observed to result in reduced offspring survival
or live births for one of the breeding females. However,
allo-nursing, a highly co-operative behavior, has also been
reported in C // .-I jacchus, C aurita and C. flaviceps
groups with multiple breeding females (Table 1). Here, we
present observations of two female Saguinus mystax breeding
simultaneously and the subsequent allo-nursing of the
Data were collected ad libitum on a group of S. mystax
during on-going studies at the Estaci6n Biol6gica Quebrada
Blanco (421'S, 7309'W) in northeastern Peru (for details
see Heymann and Hartmann, 1991). The tamarins were
observed for 14-20 days each month from 14 February to
28 June 2000. The group consisted of two adult females
(labeled 1 & 2), two adult males and a subadult male. The
group was never trapped and was fully habituated to the
presence of humans. Individuals were recognized by natural
distinguishing characteristics. The group was first seen in
the area in May 1999, without the second adult male who
immigrated in late August/early September 1999 (Tirado
Herrera, pers. obs.).
On the morning of 21 February, 2000, a single male infant
was seen (born to female 1). He fell to the ground shortly
after the group left its sleeping site, and was later recovered by
a member of the group, only to fall again shortly thereafter.
He was not retrieved the second time and died at 10:10
hrs. That night, female 2 gave birth to male twins and
the following morning they were observed being carried
separately. Female 1 repeatedly tried to take an infant from
his mother's back, but the mother resisted. Later in February
the infants of female 2 were seen being nursed on five
occasions by their mother and twice by female 1. The
mother nursed only with her left nipple. Her right nipple
did not produce milk and her breast remained unswollen and
unmarked by any effects of suckling. Female 1 nursed with
both nipples normally. Their swollen breasts) indicated that
both females continued to lactate until the end of May. Both
infants survived to at least one year of age.
Factors underlying the occurrence of multiple breeding
females in callitrichines are largely unknown. High
population density and limited opportunities for dispersal
have been suggested as influencing factors in C jacchus and
Leontopithecus rosalia (De Vleeschouwer et al., 2001; Digby
and Ferrari, 1994; Dietz and Baker, 1993). However, in C.
aurita polygyny occurred despite much lower population
densities (Coutinho and Correa, 1995). Dietz and Baker
(1993) found a correlation between the occurrence of
polygyny and some habitat parameters in L. rosalia, but
nevertheless excluded the polygyny threshold model as an
explanation. They suggested that the balance of costs and
benefits to the dominant female determines whether or not
she allows a subordinate female (daughter) to breed (see
also Rylands, 1996). The presence of males unrelated to the
daughter may play a key role in this decision. This agrees with
Savage etal.'s (1996) findings that incidences of two pregnant
female S. oedipus in the same group were associated with the
immigration of a novel male. It is also consistent with a greater
success of multiple breeding females in captive groups of L.
chrysomelas with unrelated males (De Vleeschouwer et al.,
In our case, population density and habitat quality have
not changed noticeably since 1994, and hence are unlikely
Neotropical Primates 9(2), August 2001
Table 1. Polygynous breeding in wild callitrichines (except Callimico goeldit).
Species Observations Reference
Callithrix aurita 3/4 infants of dominant female survived, 2/3 infants of subordinate Coutinho & Corra (1995)
female survived; no allo-nursing observed.
Callithrixjlaiceps 4/4 infants of dominant female survived, 3/5 infants of subordinate Guimars (1998)
female survived; allo-nursing by all females.
8/13 infants of dominant females survived, 2/6 infants of subordinate
Callithrixjacchus females survived; one infanticide observed; allo-nursing by subordinate Digby (1995)
females of dominant females' infants.
13 infants (six births) born to 2 females, 6 survived, 6 died or Roda & Mendes Pontes
disappeared, 1 infanticide; allo-nursing by subordinate female. (1998)
Leontopithecus rosalia Polygyny in 20 of 211 group samples (10.6%); lower infant survival for Dietz & Baker (1993)
offspring of subordinate females.
Saguinus fuscicollis One set of twins born to each of 2 females, all infants survived. alegaro-Marques etal.
Twins born to each of 2 females in 5 groups: all infants survived in four Goldizen eal. (1996)
cases, 1 set of twins probably died immediately after birth in one case.
2 simultaneously pregnant females in each of 2 groups; in 1 group, only
1 female gave birth; in the other group, 1 female gave birth to a single Tirado et al. (2000),
offspring which she killed on the day of birth; second female gave birth Tirado Herrera (pers. obs.)
to twins, one of which disappeared at age 5 months.
Sagusnus mystax Twins born to each of 2 females, 1 set survived, 1 female died and her Ramirez (1989)
Sauinus mysta infants disappeared.
2 pregnant females or 1 pregnant and 1 lactating female in 3 out of 13 Garber et al (1993)
groups, but only 1 female reared and nursed infants.
2 simultaneously pregnant females in each of 2 groups; in 1 case, only 1
Saguinus oedipus female delivered live offspring; in the second case, no live births were Savage et al. (1996)
Pregnancy, but no subsequent offspring, observed in a daughter of a Savage et al. (1997)
regularly reproducing female.
to be factors. However, the coincidence of polygynous 1995). All callitrichine group members are involved in infant
breeding observed since 1997 in S. fuscicollis groups living care (Tardif et al., 1993) and, at least in captivity, they will
in the same area (Tirado Herrara et al. 2000; Tirado Herrera, carry non-related infants (Box, 1977) and, in mixed-species
pers. obs.) suggests some causal environmental factor. In groups, congeneric infants (Buchanan-Smith, pers. obs.).
addition, the immigration of the second adult male one In the S. mystax group, female 1, the allo-nurse, had lost
month earlier may have provided a situation similar to those an infant, and the fact that the mother female 2 was only
under which multiple females breed in S. oedipus, L. rosalia nursing with one nipple may have increased her willingness
and L. chrysomelas. However, mounts by male 1 of female to let female 1 allo-nurse her infants. In Callithrix, females
2 had been observed on 10 September (Heymann, pers. have been seen to allo-nurse while they had their own infants
obs.), suggesting that immigration of male 2 may only have and also after the death or disappearance of their infants.
been additional to environmental factors. At the same time
there was tension between the two females (repeated head- This is the first reported incidence of allo-nursing in a
grasping of female 2 by female 1, and squealing of female 2 Saguinus spp. Although the factors affecting multiple
towards female 1) (Heymann, pers. obs.). Such tension may breeding females and allo-nursing are still unclear, it is
be expected, given that in callitrichines, except Callimico, only as cases emerge and are reported that the underlying
reproduction is usually monopolized by a single female conditions will become clear. These observations provide
(French, 1997). further evidence for the high degree of flexibility and co-
operation in tamarin sociality and mating patterns (Caine,
In callitrichines, allo-nursing has only previously been 1993).
observed in Callithrixspp. However, whether their tendency
to live in larger groups than other genera (Ferrari and Lopes Acknowledgments
Ferrari, 1989; Rylands, 1993) affects the incidence of allo-
nursing is unclear. One would predict that female relatedness We thank Ney Shahuano and Camilo Flores for excellent
plays a critical role in whether allo-nursing occurs, but the assistance in the field. ACS was funded by BBSRC grant no:
kinship between the two females in our study was not known. 98/S11498 awarded to HMB-S.
In C. jacchus, it is frequently the mother and daughter who
breed simultaneously (Coutinho and Correa, 1995; Digby,
Neotropical Primates 9(2), August 2001
Andrew C. Smith, Scottish Primate Research Group,
Department of Psychology, University of Stirling, Stirling
FK9 4LA Scotland, UK, Emerita R. Tirado Herrera,
Abteilung Verhaltensforschung & Okologie, Deutsches
Primatenzentrum, Kellnerweg 4, D-37077 Gbttingen,
Germany, Hannah M. Buchanan-Smith, Scottish Primate
Research Group, Department of Psychology, University of
Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland, UK, and Eckhard W.
Heymann, Abteilung Verhaltensforschung & Okologie,
Deutsches Primatenzentrum, Kellnerweg 4, D-37077
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reproductive success in golden lion tamarins, Leontopithecus
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J. D. 1993. Demographic and reproductive patterns
in moustached tamarin monkeys (Saguinus mystax):
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systems: Unusual flexibility. Trends Ecol. Evol. 3: 36-40.
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(Callitrichidae, Primates), na Estacao Biol6gica de
Caratinga, Minas Gerais. Masters thesis, Universidade
Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte.
Heymann, E. W. and Hartmann, G. 1991. Geophagy
in moustached tamarins, Saguinus mystax (Platyrrhini:
Callitrichidae), at the Rio Blanco, Peruvian Amazonia.
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the moustached tamarin Saguinus mystax in northeastern
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infanticide in common marmosets in a fragment of the
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Rylands, A. B. 1993. The ecology of lion tamarins,
Leontopithecus: Some intrageneric differences and
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Tamarins: Systematics, Behaviour, and Ecology, A. B.
Rylands (ed.), pp.296-313. Oxford University Press,
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Giraldo, L. H., Lasley, B. L. and Snowdon, C. T. 1997.
Reproductive events of wild cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus
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Tardif, S. D., Harrison, M. L. and Simek, M. A. 1993.
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Saguinus fuscicollis. Am. J. Primatol. 50: 153-157.
DENSIDADE E CONSERVAC1AO DO BUGIO (ALOUATTA
FUSCA) NO PARQUE ESTADUAL INTERVALES
70 Neotropical Primates 9(2), August 2001
A Mata Atlintica originalmente ocupava cerca de 1.200.000
km2 ou 12% do territ6rio national. Corn a colonizaqao do
Brasil, que se deu justamente atraves da costa Atlantica,
houve em muitos lugares uma rapida depauperaqao deste
ecossistema. A crescente concentraqao humana, corn a
consequence expansdo das dreas urbanas e o desenvolvimento
da agropecuiria e da inddistria madeireira no meio rural
sdo os principals fatores que causaram a destruigao da
Mata Atlantica (Mittermeier et al., 1982; Fonseca, 1985).
Atualmente, resta 7% da Mata Atlintica, estando a maior
parte dispersa em remanescentes isolados e uma infima parte
protegida por unidades de conservaqao (Cons6rcio Mata
Atlantica, 1992; CI do Brasil et al., 2000). Levantamentos
revelaram que das 18 especies de primatas endemicas da
Mata Atlintica, 16 estio ameacadas de extincgo (Rylands
e Rodrigues-Luna, 2000). Entre estas esti Alouatta fusca
(= guariba), citada no Anexo II da CITES (Convention
of International Threatened and Endangered Species) e
enquadrada na categoria de "Vulnerivel" pela IUCN (World
Conservatin Union) (Hilton-Taylor, 2000).
Atualmente, se conhece muito pouco a respeito da
demografia das populao6es de A. fusca. Como a destruicao
de habitats na Mata Atlintica continue em um ritmo
acelerado, a sobrevivencia desta especie nas pr6ximas
decadas esta sob s&io risco, ficando condenada a viver
em remanescentes cada vez menores. 0 Parque Estadual
Intervales represent um dos tiltimos grandes remanescentes
de Mata Atlintica continue e bem preservada, abrigando
uma important populacao de bugios. Mendes (1985)
alertou que, apesar de algumas areas menores, como a
Reserva Estadual da Cantareira, apresentarem grande
densidade de bugios, e muito questionivel que areas em
torno de 5.000 ha sejam suficientes para a preservacao de
uma esp&cie corn o porte de Alouatta, especialmente quando
se consideram os riscos de endocruzamentos a long prazo e
de incendios florestais.
Material e M6todos
0 comportamento e a ecologia do bugio, Alouatta fusca,
foram estudados de outubro 1997 a novembro 1999, no
Parque Estadual Intervales (24012' a 24025' S e 48003'a
48030' W), localizado na Serra de Paranapiacaba (SP), corn
49.888 ha de area. 0 trabalho de campo totalizou 1.799
horas, sendo 1.118 horas em observacio de diversos grupos
de bugios. 0 padrao de atividades e dieta de um grupo de
seis individuos foram registrados atraves de amostragemr
instantinea. As observao6es diretas do grupo totalizaram
92 dias ou 918:30 horas. A irea de uso dos bugios foi
quantificada atraves da plotagem de seus percursos diirios
em mapa (Steinmetz, 2000).
A cada avistamento de um grupo de bugios em Intervales,
foram anotados: data; localizacao; horario initial e final de
contato corn o grupo; caracteristicas fisicas de cada animal
taiss como, ferimentos, marcas naturals, caracteristicas facials,
e pelagem) e classes sexo etiria de cada indivfduo.
A densidade foi estimada dividindo-se o tamanho mrdio
dos grupos de bugios encontrados em Intervales pela irea de
uso do grupo de estudo, sendo esta calculada pelo mrtodo
do esquadrinhamento (Steinmetz, 2000). A populaqao foi
calculada multiplicando-se a densidade pela irea total do
Resultados e Discussijo
Composifo dos grupos
A organizaqao social e resultado das respostas compor-
tamentais as condiq6es ambientais e aos events
demogrificos recentes e limitada pela filogenia (Crockett,
1996). Urn aspect da organizaqIo social de uma especie d o
tamanho e a composicao dos grupos. 0 tamanho dos grupos
varia inter e intra-especificamente, mas geralmente e maior
quando as densidades populacionais sao altas (A. palliata:
6-23, Crockett e Eisenberg, 1987; A. pigra: 4-6, Horwich
e Johnson, 1986; A. seniculus: 3-16, Crockett e Eisenberg,
1987; A. caraya: 2-19, Rumiz, 1990). No entanto, a
composicao e o tamanho dos grupos das diferentes espdcies
de bugios sao significativamente diferentes, mesmo quando
as densidades sao semelhantes. Os grupos de A. palliata
contemn mais femeas adults por macho do que os grupos
de A. pigra, A. seniculus e A. caraya (Crockett e Eisenberg,
1987; Rumiz, 1990). Durante o trabalho de campo, foram
avistados 12 grupos de bugios, incluindo o grupo de estudo.
A composicao destes encontra-se na Tabela 1.
A media de individuos por grupo encontrada em Intervales
foi de 5,83 (variando de 4 a 8 individuos). Os grupos de
Alouatta fusca tendem a serem pequenos, mesmo em locals
corn altas densidades (Tabela 2). Em seus estudos na Serra da
Cantareira, Silva (1981) encontrou uma mddia de 5,76 ind./
grupo para A. fusca enquanto que Torres (1983), na Fazenda
Barreiro Rico, encontrou 6,4 ind./grupo. Em Caratinga,
Minas Gerais, Young (1983) observou 6 ind./grupo e
Mendes (1985) 6,79 ind./grupo.
A maioria dos grupos encontrados em Intervales e formada
por um macho adulto e duas femeas adults. Na Serra da
Cantareira a maioria dos grupos de A. fusca observados tinha
mais de um macho adulto (Silva, 1981), ji em Barreiro Rico
(Torres 1983) e Caratinga (Mendes, 1985; Young, 1983), os
grupos encontrados tinham apenas um macho adulto.
Geralmente os grupos de Alouatta tern um nimero maior de
femeas que de machos adults (Altmann, 1959; Carpenter,
1934; Chivers, 1969; Mittermeier, 1973; Neville, 1972a;
Rudran, 1979). A organizacqo social dos bugios tern sido
descrita como macho inico ("unimale"), machos mdltiplos
("multimale") e gradacao de idade ("age-graded") (Eisenberg,
1979). 0 sistema de gradacao de idade, como proposto
originalmente por Eisenberg, Muckenhirn e Rudran (1972),
difere do sistema de machos multiplos, pois apenas um
macho adulto, geralmente o mais velho, realize a maioria
das c6pulas e, provavelmente, tern parentesco corn os outros
machos do seu grupo (Crockett e Eisenberg, 1987). Mas
Neotropical Primates 9(2), August 2001
Tabela 1: Composiao dos grupos de bugios observados no Parque Estadual Intervales, Sio Paulo, de junho 98 a novembro 99.
Referencia Nmero de Machos adults Machos Fmeas Jovens Infantes
Grupo estudo 5 2 (1) 1 1 1
Laranjdo 6 1 2 2 1
Bochecha 5 1 3 1
TRQ 5 1 2 1 1
TRQ2 6 1 1 2 1 1
Bananeira 5 1 2 2
Estrada 6 2 2 1 1
CD 2 7 1 1 2 2 1
T. Fig. 6 1 1 2 1 1
Fig. branca 8 1 3 3 1
AraSi-branco 4 1 2 1
Parcela 7 1 1 3 1 1
Media 5,83 1,17 0,42 2,17 1,42 0,75
Tabela 2: Tamanho do grupo, densidade e populacao estimada em alguns estudos sobre Alouattafusca, corn referencias sobre a Area em
que o estudo foi realizado e seu tamanho.
Area de estudo Tamanho Densidade Populajao M6todo Area de Referencia
do grupo (ind./ha) estimada estudo
Reserva de Santa Genebra SP 4,9 1,77 274 -407 Esquadrinhamento 250 Chiarello (1993)
Estaoao Biol6gica de Caratinga MG 6,79 1,1 667 Esquadrinhamento 569 Mendes (1985)
Estacao Biol6gica de Caratinga MG 5,7 0,92-1,49 793 -1.284 Censo 860 Hirsch (1995)
Fazenda Barreiro Rico SP 6,4 0,22 Censo "115" Torres (1983)
Floresta Nacional de Tr&s Barras SC 5-7 0,64 60 Esquadrinhamento "93,6" Peres (1997)
Parque Estadual da Cantareira SP 5,76 0,81 4.369 Censo 5.400 Silva 1981
Parque Estadual do Rio Doce MG 2,8 0,02-0,49 586 -16.129 Censo 32.583,9 Hirsch (1995)
nem todos os grupos de bugios seguem esse sistema, sendo As populaq6es de Alouatta possuem densidades varidveis,
que em alguns casos os machos jovens sao dominantes dependendo do habitat e do estado de conservacao
(Crockett e Eisenberg, 1987; Jones, 1980). Mesmo que deste (Mendes, 1985). Os m&odos utilizados e o tempo
alguns grupos de bugios tenham mais de um macho adulto, despendido nos vArios estudos tambdm devem influenciar
a organizacao social dos bugios tern semelhanqas com as densidades encontradas (Tabela 2). Os bugios passam a
os sistemas de harm (Crockett e Eisenberg, 1987). No grupo maior parte do tempo descansando em irvores altas e, em
de estudo, apenas o macho 1, mais velho, foi observado geral, sua reaqao ao perigo e se esconder, o que torna sua
copulando corn a femea e, no perfodo fkrtil desta, o macho 2 observayao bastante dificil em censos, principalmente, em
se manteve mais afastado do grupo. Parece que o padrao, em Areas de floresta madura e onde os animals tem pouco ou
Intervales, e de um macho adulto por grupo e, quando existe nenhum contato com humans.
um ndmero maior, estes devem ter parentesco.
JA que o tamanho dos grupos de A. fusca parece nIo variar
Densidade e populaciao tanto entire as diferentes localidades estudadas, a densidade
deve variar junto corn o tamanho da Area de uso ocupada
A densidade foi estimada com base na Area de uso do grupo pelos grupos. Em fragments florestais pequenos, os bugios
de estudo, calculada pelo mrtodo do esquadrinhamento e tern Areas de uso restritas e, portanto a densidade tende a ser
no tamanho mrdio dos grupos de bugios encontrados em maior (Tabela 2) (Crockett, 1996). Os bugios parecem ser
Intervales. Se considerarmos a Area total do grupo de estudo bastante flexfveis quanto ao tamanho de suas Areas de uso
(33 ha), a densidade e de 0,18 ind./ha. No entanto, se e isso deve ser reflexo da sua consideravel plasticidade de
considerarmos apenas a Area de uso restrita ao grupo (27 ha), dieta (Rylands e Keuroghlian, 1988). Os grupos de bugios
a densidade e de 0,22 ind./ha.
Neotropical Primates 9(2), August 2001
parecem lidar corn as variao6es de densidade aumentando ou
diminuindo suas areas de uso.
Se a densidade for homogenea por todo o Parque Estadual
Intervales (49.888 ha), uma populacao total de 10.975 bugios
pode ser estimada, com base na densidade. No entanto, essa
deve ser uma super estimativa, ji que a vegetacao do Parque
e heterogenea e em alguns pontos nunca foram observados
bugios. Contudo, parece razoavel afirmar que em torno de
10.000 bugios habitat Intervales, uma populacao bastante
representative para esta especie.
Por se tratar de uma area extensa, a maior parte do
Parque Intervales se encontra isolada do contato corn
humans e animals domrsticos, o que evita pressao de
caya, desmatamentos, incendios provocados e contagio por
doenqas. As florestas do Parque estao se regenerando e
provavelmente as populao6es de animals estao aumentando,
ao menos isso foi descrito por Petroni (2000) para umrn
grupo de monos-carvoeiro. Ao long deste estudo, nunca se
presenciou animals feridos, corn cicatrizes ou algum tipo de
berne, pelo contrArio, os bugios em Intervales parecem sadios
e, em todos os grupos observados, havia a presenya de jovens
elou infants (Tabela 2).
Os primatas neotropicais, por serem arboricolas, slo especial-
mente vulneriveis a fragmentacao do habitat. Mesmo as
esp&cies maiores parecem incapazes de atravessar as distancias
que separam os fragments florestais. Isso ocasiona dois
grandes problems: a incapacidade de recolonizar fragments
florestais onde a populacIo foi eliminada e a aus&ncia de fluxo
genico entire as populaq6es existentes (Ferrari e Diego, 1995).
Em geral, as reserves extensas sao melhores do que as
pequenas porque suportam populaq6es mais completes e
viiveis de fauna e flora de uma regiao (Ferrari e Diego, 1995).
Devido a grande fragmentacao da Mata Atlintica, ireas
como Intervales sao raras e, portanto, devem ser mantidas e
Intervales se encontra numa regiao muito pobre e sofre uma
grande pressao dos mineradores e palmiteiros. Deveria-se
dar alternatives de renda para a populacao local, como o
ecoturismo e o manejo sustentivel do palmito, junto corn
o desenvolvimento de programs de educacao ambiental e
control populacional. Aldm disso, o Parque necessita de
mais recursos para a preservaiao, os vigias e as viaturas sao
insuficientes para um monitoramento constant ao long de
toda sua extensao. A infra-estrutura para pesquisa tambem
deveria ser ampliada e melhorada (Fundayao Florestal,
De um modo geral, seria necessario identificar a distribuicao e
as populac6es de A. fAsca existentes nas Areas de conservagio,
para se ter uma iddia mais precisa do estado de conservagio
desta especie. E indispensivel preservar o que ainda sobrou
de MataAtlintica, principalmente em regi6es extensas, onde
existem populacoes grandes que vao garantir uma maior
Sandra Steinmetz, Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto
de Biociencias, Universidade de SIo Paulo, Cidade Uni-
versitAria, 05508-900 SIo Paulo, SIo Paulo, Brasil, e-mail:
. Address for correspondence: Sandra Steinmetz, Rua Marie
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Senior Honors Thesis, Harvard University, Cambridge.
THE "NEOTROPICAL APE" AMER-ANTHROPOIDES
A recent publication by Bernardo Urbani, Angel L. Viloria
and Franco Urbani, 'La creaci6n de un primate: El "simio
americano" de Francois de Loys (Amer-anthropoides loysi
Montandon, 1929) o la historic de un fraude', examines
in great detail the story, the facts and the misconceptions
surrounding the controversy of the "discovery" of an alleged
Neotropical ape by the Swiss geologist Francois de Loys in
1917-1918 during an oil prospecting expedition in the forests
of the Rio Tarra, southwestern Lake Maracaibo, state of Zulia,
The authors provide short biographies of three of the
principal players: Francois de Loys (1892-1935), a geologist
who attained considerable respect and position, which made
it impossible for him to admit it was all a joke; George
Montandon (1879-1944?), physician, and racist, who used
the "discovery" as ammunition for the theory of human
hologenesis (the argument that species are "programmed"
in their extinction, and that new and similar species arise
simultaneously in different places), a proposition heinously
used by the nazis to justify their persecution of the Jews;
and Enrique Tejera (1899-1980), who came to be the most
distinguished of the three, a decorated tropical physician
and pathologist, ambassador and minister in the Venezuelan
government who was a friend of de Loys in the field. The
expedition members were supposedly attacked by a group
of apes, one of which was killed. The cadaver, given to the
cook to look after, was lost during the expedition, and the
controversy was subsequently based on a photograph of what
would appear to be a spider monkey, perched on a wooden
crate. According to de
Loys it was a female, 1.57
m tall, tailless and with
The story of the "man-
ape" is complex; over
the years inspiring
analysis and controversy
(Urbani et al. 2001
list 247 bibliographic
references!) not least by
Neotropical Primates 9(2), August 2001
eminent mammalogists such as Angel Cabrera (1930), Philip
Hershkovitz (1960), Ivan Sanderson (1962), W. C. Osman
Hill (1962) and G. H. H. Tate (1951). It was immortalized
by Heuvelmanns (1958). The inevitable conclusion is that
Amer-anthropoides loysi is a synonym of Ateles hybridus (see
Kellogg and Goldman, 1944), but the coup de grace, reported
for the first time in Urbani etal. (2001), is a letter, reproduced
in full in the appendix, written by Enrique Tejera in 1962 to
Guillermo J. Schael, who had published a report that same
year of another encounter with the supposed "man-ape" of de
Loys, again in the vicinity of the Rio Tarra. In this letter Tejera
explained that the tail had been cut off, that it was nothing
more than a joke, the "ape" was a marimonda and de Loys's
field pet, and stated simply at the end that Montandon was an
evil person who was shot after the war as a traitor to France. A
good read, a fascinating story.
Cabrera, A. 1930. Sobre el supuesto antrop6ideo de
Venezuela. Physis, Rev. de La Sociedad Argentina de Ciencias
Naturales 10: 204-209.
Hershkovitz, P. 1960. Supposed ape-man or "missing link" of
South America. Chicago Nat. Hist. Mus. Bull. 31(4): 6-7.
Heuvelmanns, B. 1958. On the Track of Unknown Animals.
Rupert Hart-Davies, London.
Hill, W. C. 0. 1962. Primates. Comparative Anatomy and
Taxonomy V. Cebidae, Part B. Edinburgh University Press,
Kellogg, R. and Goldman, E. A. 1944. Review of the spider
monkeys. Proc. U S. Natl. Mus. 96: 1-45.
Sanderson, I. T. 1961. Hairy primitives or relic submen in
South America. Genus, Roma, 18: 60-74.
Tate, G. H. H. 1951. Letters. The "ape" that wasn't an ape.
Nat. Hist. 60(7): 289.
Urbani, B., Viloria, A. L. and Urbani, E 2001. La creaci6n
de un primate: el "simio americano" de Francois de Loys
(Amer-anthropoides loysi Montandon, 1929) o la historic de
un fraude. Anartia, Publicaciones Ocasionales del Museo de
Biologia de La Universidad del Zulia (16):1-56.
SOCIAL BEHAVIOR AND DIET OF THE SPIDER MONKEY,
ATELES BELZEBUTH, IN THE YASUNT NATIONAL PARK,
In July 2001, Wilmer E. Pozo, R. defended his doctoral thesis
entitled "Social Behavior and Feeding Habits of the Eastern
Spider Monkey in the Yasuni National Park, Ecuador" at
the School of Biology, Universidad Central del Ecuador. The
study was supervised by John G. H. Cant, Peter Rodman,
Luis Albuja V. and Oswaldo Baez. Financial support was
provided by the National Science Foundation and the
Department of Anatomy of the University of Puerto Rico.
Logistical support was provided by the Yasuni Research
Station of the Universidad Cat6lica of Quito and by the
Ecuadorian Primates Project. The following is a summary of
the thesis, translated kindly by Cris Canaday of CECIA.
This thesis is the result of a study of the social behavior
and feeding behavior of a group of eastern spider monkeys
(Ateles belzebuth belzebuth), a component of the Ecuadorian
Primates Project's study area in Yasunf National Park,
Amazonian Ecuador. It is one of the first long-term studies
conducted in Ecuador on a naturally occurring primate
population. Ateles belzebuth has been studied previously in
Colombia and Brazil, but without achieving an adequate
understanding of the relationship between the spatial
distributions of resources used by Ateles and their social
behavior. I addressed this question and looked for differences
among other wild Ateles populations.
The objectives were to study the natural behavior of eastern
spider monkeys, their social grouping patterns and the
plants they eat, and to contribute to an understanding of
the community ecology of the primate species present at
the site. I habituated and followed a group at Km 47 of
the Pompeya Sur-Iro road, inside Yasunf National Park, in
eastern Ecuador. I collected data on activity budgets, habitat
use, composition of social groups and diet. This information
was compared to results from existing studies of this and
other species of Ateles. Behavioral data were correlated with
climatic variation, available habitat and fruit production.
The group spent 30% of their time resting, 25% feeding,
32% moving, and 13% socializing. Forest types were used
by the spider monkeys in proportion to availability. In
terms of topography, valleys and slopes were preferred, and
the monkeys tended to stay about 15 to 20 m above the
ground. The group consisted of 25 individuals (including
infants) and used a home range of about 469 ha. They often
broke into subgroups of 1 to 13 individuals (mean = 3.24).
A quarter of the group tended to be solitary, while the rest
formed subgroups of only males or females, or mixed groups.
Fruit, usually eaten whole and ripe, constituted 70% of their
diet, and 60% of plant foods eaten came from trees. Eleven
species of plants were the most important in the diet in
Wilmer E. Pozo R., Escuela de Biologia, Universidad
Central del Ecuador, Ciudadela Universitaria. Current
address: Escuela Politicnica del Ej&rcito, Facultad de Ciencias
Agropecuarias, IASA, PO Box 231-B, Sangolquf, Ecuador.
Pozo R., W. E. 2001. Composici6n social y costumbres
alimenticias del "mono arafia oriental" en el Parque
National Yasunf, Ecuador. Tesis Doctoral, Escuela de
Biologia, Universidad Central del Ecuador, Quito,
SPIDER MONKEYS IN CAPTIVITY THE NORTH
AMERICAN REGIONAL STUDBOOK
The North American Regional Studbook for spider monkeys
is maintained by Kristi Newland, Population Manager of the
Neotropical Primates 9(2), August 2001 75
Memphis Zoo, Tennessee. The 1999 update (through 31st
December 1999) records the births, deaths and movements
of Ateles belzebuth (unknown subspecies, one male in Ralph
Mitchell Zoo, Kansas), the white bellied spider monkey,
Ateles belzebuth belzebuth (one female in the Bramble Park
Zoo, South Dakota), the black-faced black spider monkey,
Ateles chamek (1.5.2 in two institutions), the endangered
robust black spider monkey, Ateles fusciceps robustus (44.78.9
 in 37 institutions: two births, 15 transferred, and
4 deaths), the variegated spider monkey, Ateles hybridus
(12.17.0  in 11 institutions: one birth, four transferred
and two deaths), and the Guiana black spider monkey,
Ateles paniscus (2.3.0 in five institutions: no births, transfers
or deaths). There are no white-whiskered spider monkeys,
Ateles marginatus, in North America, and there are no records
of the critically endangered brown-headed spider monkey,
A. fusciceps fusciceps, ever having been kept in captivity
in the region. Population Management Plans (PMP) have
been recommended for A. fusciceps robustus and A. hybridus
by the AZA's New World Primate Taxon Advisory Group
(TAG). The New World Primate TAG has also recommended
phasing out the small North American populations of
A. belzebuth belzebuth and A. chamek. Due the problem
of hybridization in the past, Newland recommends that all
spider monkeys in captivity be karyotyped, and instructions
as to how to do this are given in the studbook.
To maintain an accurate record of the North American
populations, vital for the recommended PMPs, Kristi
Newland requests information on all births and deaths
(including stillborns and fetuses), sales, transfers and
acquisitions as soon as they occur to allow the studbook
records to be current throughout the year, rather than only
just prior to publication.
Kristi Newland, Population Manager, Memphis Zoo,
2000 Galloway, Memphis, TN 38112, USA. E-mail:
Newland, K. 2000. 1999 North American Regional Studbook
Update for South American Spider Monkeys, Ateles belzebuth,
Ateles fusciceps, Ateles hybridus, Ateles paniscus all
subspecies. Memphis Zoo, Memphis, Tennessee.
THE OCCURRENCE OF MURIQUIS (BRACHYTELES
ARACHNOIDES) IN THE ITATIAIA NATIONAL PARK,
Brachyteles arachnoides is the largest living new world
monkey and one of the most threatened species of the
platyrrhines (Fonseca, 1994). Having knowledge of any
remaining forest areas containing muriquis is important
for conservation efforts. The Itatiaia National Park of
30,000 ha, located in the Atlantic Forest, close to the
borders of the states of Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and
Minas Gerais, was created in 1937 as the first federally
protected area in Brazil. The occurrence of Brachyteles in
the Itatiaia Park in the past was confirmed by an adult
male specimen collected byJ. Lima in 1950 and deposited
at the Museu de Zoologia of the University of Sao Paulo
(MZUSP), museum register number 9962. Cimara
(1995) pointed out that Brachyteles may still occur in the
Itatiaia National Park based on a complete skeleton of an
individual which was electrocuted while crossing power
transmission lines near to the park's headquarters. Unable
to ascertain when exactly the animal died, Camara (1995)
suggested that it was sometime between 1990 and 1995.
The complete skeleton of the animal is now in the Centro
Universitario de Barra Mansa (number six in the collection
register). The register indicates that the animal was found
dead on February 22, 1992, at Mont Serrat, close to the
During a field trip to Itatiaia Park in November of 1993,
an adult muriqui was sighted crossing a hiking trail called
"Tr&s Picos," which begins at the Simon Hotel and ends at
the Tres Picos in the Serra do Palmital, within the boundaries
of the Itatiaia Park. The animal was sighted at approximately
22026' S, 4435'N, at an altitude between 1,000 and 1,400
m. The observation of this individual indicates that a muriqui
population still occupies the park, which is contiguous with
other forested areas in the region and undoubtedly serves as
a significant refuge for this threatened species.
Acknowledgments: We are grateful to Maria do Carmo Silva
and to the Centro Universitario de Barra Mansa for giving
us the information about the dead individual found in the
Itatiaia National Park. This research was supported by grants
from the Brazil Science Council (CNPq), Fundacao de
Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de SIo Paulo Biota Sio Paulo
(FAPESP), Fundagqo Jose Bonificio (FUJB), and the Projeto
de Conservacio e UtilizaqIo Sustentivel da Diversidade
Gabriel Marroig and Andiara Bastos Coelho Sant'Anna,
Laborat6rio de Vertebrados, Departamento de Ecologia,
Institute de Biologia, CCS, Ilha do Fundao, Universidade
Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68020, Rio de
Janeiro 21941-590, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, e-mails:
email@example.com> and .
C5mara, I. de G. 1995. Muriquis in the Itatiaia National
Park, Brazil. Neotrop. Primates 3(1): 19.
Fonseca, G. A. B. da 1994. Mono-carvoeiro, muriqui,
Brachyteles arachnoides (E. Geoffroy, 1806). In: Livro
Vermelho dos Mamiferos Brasileiros Ameafados de Extinfdo,
G. A. B. da Fonseca, A. B. Rylands, C. M. R. Costa, R. B.
Machado and Y. L. R. Leite (eds.), pp.191-199. Fundaqao
Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte.
SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES OF PRIMATES DESCRIBED
76 Neotropical Primates 9(2), August 2001
Thirty-six primates (species and subspecies), have been without any judgement as to the validity or otherwise of the
described in the last ten years: ten from Madagascar, eight various primates described.
from Africa, seven from South-east Asia, eight from the
Brazilian Amazon (seven of them marmosets) and three Acknowledgments: The authors thank Ardith Eudey, Jorg
from the Brazilian Atlantic forest. Froehlich et al. (1998) Ganzhorn, Thomas Butynski, Douglas Brandon Jones, Jatna
record the existence of a new macaque species occurring in Supriatna and Jeffrey Froehlich for help in compiling this list.
the Central Sulawesi peninsula, Indonesia, but its formal AnthonyB.Rylands, CenterforApplied BiodiversityScience
description has yet to be published (see also Supriatna at Conservation International, Russell A. Mittermeier and
and Hendras, 2000). Please note that this list is presented
Pseudopotto martini Schwartz, 1996 False potto
Tarsius dianae Niemitz, Nietsch, Warter & Rumpler 1991 Dian's tarsier
Galagoides rondoensis Honess 1996 Rondo dwarf galago*
Galagoides udzungwensis Honess 1996 Matundu dwarf galago*
Microcebus ravelobensis Zimmerman, Cepok, Rakotoarison, Zietemann & Radespiel, 1998 Lac Ravelobe mouse lemur
Microcebus tavaratra Rasoloarison, Goodman & Ganzhorn, 2000 Northern rufous mouse lemur
Microcebus sambiranensis Rasoloarison, Goodman & Ganzhorn, 2000 Sambirano mouse lemur
Microcebus berthae Rasoloarison, Goodman & Ganzhorn, 2000 Berthe's mouse lemur
Cheirogaleus ravus Groves, 2000 Large iron-grey dwarf lemur
Cheirogaleus minusculus Groves, 2000 Lesser iron-grey dwarf lemur
Phanerfurciferpallescens Groves & Tattersall, 1991 Western fork-crowned lemur
Phaner furciferparienti Groves & Tattersall, 1991 Sambirano fork-crowned lemur
Phanerfurcifer electromontis Groves & Tattersall, 1991 Amber mountain fork-crowned lemur
Avahi unicolor Thalmann & Geissmann, 2000 Unicolor avahi
*The first descriptions were in "Honess, P. E. 1996. Speciation Among Galagos (Primates: Galagidae) in Tanzanian Forests. Ph.D thesis, Oxford Brookes
University, Oxford, UK." While here attributed to Honess (1996), both forms were described and illustrated in Kingdon (1997). Not accepting the
validity of a doctoral thesis as a formal published description, the authorship is also attributed to "Honess, 1997" by Groves (2001), referring to the
descriptions in Kingdon (1997). Honess and Bearder (1996) also published the descriptions of these species, but issue 2(2), 1996, of African Primates was
in fact published after Kingdon (1997).
Old World monkeys
Miopithecus ogouensis Kingdon, 1997
Cercopithecus cephus ngottoensis Colyn, 1999
Cercopithecus erythrogasterpococki Grubb, Lernould & Oates, 1999
Macaca pagensis siberu Fuentes & Olson, 1995
Colobus badius semlikiensis Colyn, 1991
Procolobus badius epieni Grubb & Powell, 1999
Presbytis melalophos bicolorAimi & Bakar, 1992
Semnopithecus auratus ebenus Brandon-Jones, 1995
Pygathrix nemaeus cinerea Nadler, 1997
Rhinopithecus roxellana hubeiensis Wang, Jiang & Li, 1998
Rhinopithecus roxellana qinlingensis Wang, Jiang & Li, 1998
Ngotto moustached monkey
Nigerian white-throated guenon
Semliki red colobus
Niger Delta red colobus
Wulsin's ebony leaf monkey
Grey-shanked douc langur
Hubei golden snub-nosed monkey
Qinling golden snub-nosed monkey
New World monkeys
Callithrix nigriceps Ferrari & Lopes, 1992 Black-headed marmoset
Callithrix mauesi Mittermeier, Ayres & Schwarz, 1992 Mauds marmoset
Callithrix argentata marcai Alperin, 1993 Marca's marmoset
Callithrix saterei Souse e Silva Jr & Noronha, 1998 Satere marmoset
Callithrix humilis Van Roosmalen, Van Roosmalen, Mittermeier & Fonseca, 1998 Black-crowned dwarf marmoset
Callithrix manicorensis Van Roosmalen, Van Roosmalen, Mittermeier & Rylands, 2000 Manicord marmoset
Callithrix acariensis Van Roosmalen, Van Roosmalen, Mittermeier & Rylands, 2000 Rio Acari marmoset
Leontopithecus caissara Lorini & Persson, 1990 Black-faced lion tamarin
Callicebus personatus barbarabrownae Hershkovitz, 1990 Blond titi
Callicebus coimbrai Kobayashi & Langguth, 1999 Coimbra-Filho's titi monkey
Cebus kaapori Queiroz, 1992 Ka'apor capuchin
Neotropical Primates 9(2), August 2001
William R. Konstant, Conservation International, 1919 M. References
Street NW, Suite 600, Washington, DC 20036, USA.
Aimi, M. and Bakar, A. 1992. Taxonomy and distribution
of the Presbytis melalophos group in Sumatra, Indonesia.
Primates 33: 191-206.
Alperin, R. 1993. Callithrix argentata (Linnaeus, 1771):
consideraq6es taxon6micas e descricao de subespecie nova.
Bol. Mus. Para. Emilio Goeldi, Sir. Zool. 9(2): 317-328.
Brandon-Jones, D. 1995. A revision of the Asian pied leaf
monkeys (Mammalia: Cercopithecidae; Superspecies
Semnopithecus auratus), with a description of a new
subspecies. Raffles Bulletin ofZoology 43(1): 3-43.
Colyn, M. 1991. L' importance zoogdographique du bassin
du fleuve Zaire pour la speciation: La cas des Primates
Simiens. Koninklijk Museum voor Midden-Afrika, Tervuren,
Belgie, Annalen. Zoologische Wetenschappen 264: i-ix,
Colyn, M. 1999. Etude populationnelle de la super-esp&ce
Cercopithecus cephus habitant l'enclave forestiere Sangha-
Oubangui (Rdpublique Centrafricaine). Description de C.
cephus ngottoensis subsp.nov. Mammalia 63(2): 137-147.
Ferrari, S. E and Lopes, M. A. 1992. A new species of
marmoset, genus Callithrix Erxleben 1777 (Callitrichidae,
Primates) from western Brazilian Amazonia. Goeldiana
Zoologia (12): 1-3.
Froehlich, J. W., Supriatna, J., Hart, V., Akbar, S. and Babo,
R. 1998. The Balan of Balantak: A possible new species
of macaque in Central Sulawesi. Tropical Biodiversity 5(3):
Fuentes, A. and Olson, M. 1995. Preliminary observations
and status of the Pagai macaque. Asian Primates 4(4): 1-4.
(See Groves, C. P. 1986. The nomenclature of the Tanzanian
mangabey and the Siberut macaque. Australian Primatol.
10(4): 2-5.) (See also: Whitten, A. J. and Whitten, J.
E. J. 1982. Preliminary observations of the Mentawai
macaque on Siberut Island, Indonesia. Int. J. Primatol. 3:
Groves, C. P. 2000. The genus Cheirogaleus: Unrecognized
biodiversity in dwarf lemurs. Int. J. Primatol. 21(6):
Groves, C. P 2001. Primate Taxonomy. Smithsonian
Institution Press, Washington, DC.
Grubb, P. and Powell, C. B. 1999. Discovery of red colobus
monkeys (Procolobus badius) in the Niger Delta with the
description of a new and geographically isolated subspecies.
J. Zool., Lond. 248: 67-73.
Grubb, P, Lemould, J. M. and Oates, J. E 1999. Validation
of Cercopithecus eythrogaster pococki as the name for the
Nigerian white-throated guenon. Mammalia 63(3):
Hershkovitz, P. 1990. Titis, New World monkeys of the
genus Calli'ch, (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): A preliminary
taxonomic review. Fieldiana, Zoology, New Series, (55):
Honess, P. E. 1996. Speciation Among Galagos (Primates:
Galagidae) in Tanzanian Forests. Ph.D thesis, Oxford
Brookes University, Oxford, UK.
Honess, P E. and Bearder, S. 1996. Descriptions of the dwarf
galago species of Tanzania. African Primates 2(2): 75-79.
Neotropical Primates 9(2), August 2001
Kingdon, J. 1997. The Kingdon Field Guide to African
Mammals. Academic Press, San Diego.
Kobayashi, S. and Langguth, A. 1999. A new species of
titi monkey, Callicebus Thomas, from north-eastern
Brazil (Primates, Cebidae). Revta. Bras. Zool. 16(2):
Lorini, M. L. and Persson, V. G. 1990. Uma nova especie
de Leontopithecus Lesson, 1840, do sul do Brasil (Primates,
Callitrichidae). Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, nova sjr.,
Zoologia, 338: 1-14.
Mittermeier, R. A., Schwarz, M. and Ayres, J. M. 1992a. A
new species of marmoset, genus Callithrix Erxleben 1777
(Callitrichidae, Primates), from the Rio Mau6s region,
state of Amazonas, Central Brazilian Amazonia. Goeldiana
Zoologia (14): 1-17.
Nadler, T. von. 1997. A new subspecies of douc langur,
Pygathrix nemaeus cinereus ssp. nov. Zool. Garten N. Z
Niemitz, C., Nietsch, A., Warter, S. and Rumpler Y. 1991.
Tarsius dianae: a new primate species from Central Sulawesi
(Indonesia). Folia Primatol. 56: 105-116.
Queiroz, H. L. 1992. A new species of capuchin monkey,
genus Cebus Erxleben 1977 (Cebidae, Primates), from
eastern Brazilian Amazonia. Goeldiana Zoologia (15): 1-3.
Rasoloarison, R. M., Goodman, S. M. and Ganzhorn, J. U.
2000. Taxonomic revision of mouse lemurs (Microcebus) in
the western portions of Madagascar. Int. J. Primatol. 21(6):
Schwartz, J. H. 1996. Pseudopotto martini: A new genus and
species of extant lorisiforme primate. AnthropologicalPapers
of the American Museum of Natural History 78: 1-14. (See
also Groves, C. P. 1997-1998. Pseudopotto martini: A new
potto? African Primates 3(1-2): 42-43; Bearder, S. 1997-
1998. Pseudopotto: When is a potto not a potto? African
Primates 3(1-2): 43-44; Sarmiento, E. 1997-1998. The
validity of "Pseudopotto martini." African Primates 3(1-2):
SilvaJr., J. S. and Noronha, M. deA. 1998. On a new species
of bare-eared marmoset, genus Callithrix Erxleben, 1777,
from central Amazonia, Brazil (Primates: Callitrichidae).
Goeldiana Zoologia (21): 1-28.
Supriatna, J. and Hendras, W., E. 2000. Primata Indonesia.
Yayasan Obor Indonesia, Jakarta. 332pp.
Thalmann, U. and Geissmann, T. 2000. Distributions and
geographic variation in the western woolly lemur (Avahi
occidentalis) with description of a new species (A. unicolor).
Int.J. Primatol. 21(6): 915-941.
Van Roosmalen, M. G. M., Van Roosmalen, T., Mittermeier,
R. A. and Fonseca, G. A. B. da. 1998. A new and distinctive
species of marmoset (Callitrichidae, Primates) from the
lower Rio Aripuana, state of Amazonas, central Brazilian
Amazonia. Goeldiana Zoologia (22): 1-27.
Van Roosmalen, M. G. M., Van Roosmalen, T., Mittermeier,
R. A. and Rylands, A. B. 2000. Two new species of
marmoset, genus CallithrixErxleben, 1777 (Callitrichidae,
Primates), from the Tapaj6s/Madeira interfluvium,
south central Amazonia, Brazil. Neotrop. Primates 8(1):
Wang Y., Jiang X. and Lid D. 1998. Classification and
distribution of the extant subspecies of golden snub-nosed
monkey (Rhinopithecus [Rhinopithecus] roxellana). In: The
Natural History of the Doucs and Snub-nosed Monkeys, N.
G. Jablonski (ed.), pp.53-64. Recent Advances in Human
Biology, Vol. 4. World Scientific Publishing Company,
Singapore. (See also: Wang Y., Jiang X. and Lid D. 1994.
Classification of existing subspecies of golden snub-nosed
monkey, Rhinopithecus roxellana (Colobinae, Primates). In:
Handbook and Abstracts. XVth Congress of the International
Primatological Society, 3-8 August 1994, Kuta, Bali,
Indonesia, p.277. Abstract.)
Zimmerman, E., Cepok, S., Rakotoarison, N., Zietemann,
V. and Radespiel, U. 1998. Sympatric mouse lemurs in
north-west Madagascar: A new rufous mouse lemur species.
Folia Primatol. 69: 106-114.
PLANNED 2000 REVISION OF DIRECTORY OF
GRADUATE PROGRAMS IN PRIMATOLOGYAND PRIMATE
An updated Directory will be published in the January,
2002, issue of the Laboratory Primate Newsletter. If you
wish your program to be represented in this Directory or
to revise your present entry, please send us the necessary
information, following the format shown here as closely
as possible. Return the information as soon as possible,
but not later than 1st December, 2001, to the Laboratory
Primate Newsletter, Psychology Department, Box 1853,
Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 e-mail:
brown.edu>. Please note that the Directory is not intended
for postdoctoral programs, though any such sent to us will
be listed separately. For examples, see the 2000 Directory
in the Lab. Prim. Newsl. 2000, 39, 37-44, or see
Recommended format: 1. State: 2. Institution: 3. Division,
Section, or Department: 4. Program Name and/or
Description: 5. Faculty and Their Specialties: 6. Address for
further information: Judith E. Schrier, Editor Laboratory
Primate Newsletter, Box 1853, Brown University, Providence,
RI 02912, USA, Tel: 401-863-2511, Fax: 401-863-1300, e-
NEW HEAD ANNOUNCED FOR THE IUCN/SSC
Dr. Sue Mainka has been appointed as the new Coordinator
for IUCN's Species Program, responsible for supporting
an increasingly active 7,000-member Species Survival
Commission. Dr. Mainka is already familiar with the role,
having served as Acting Coordinator for the past four months
Neotropical Primates 9(2), August 2001
while her predecessor, Dr. Simon Stuart, served as IUCN's
Acting Director General. He is being seconded by IUCN to
a new position at the Center for Applied Biodiversity Science
(CABS) at Conservation International, Washington, DC,
where he will help expand the activities of the IUCN/SSC
Red List Program.
In 1997 Dr. Mainka joined SSC as Deputy Coordinator of
the Program and since then, has been involved in all aspects
of SSC's work. She also served as Acting Coordinator for
part of 1998. She will work closely with SSC's Chair, Mr.
David Brackett, and the Commission's Executive and Steering
Committees in implementing SSC's new Strategic Plan.
A veterinarian with 16 years experience in wildlife
conservation, Dr. Mainka has worked on giant panda
conservation in China and captive management of wildlife
in several countries. Her particular field of interest is species
conservation related to traditional medicine. She has written
several reports on the effectiveness of CITES (the Convention
on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild
Fauna and Flora) submitted to previous Conferences of the
Parties, and headed the IUCN delegation at the 11th CITES
Conference of the Parties in April 2000.
NEW DEPUTY COORDINATOR FOR IUCN's SPECIES
Dr. Jean-Christophe Vie has been appointed as the new
Deputy Coordinator of the IUCN Species Programme and
will be starting work in Gland, Switzerland, on 15 October
2001. Jean-Christophe is French, a qualified veterinarian,
and has a Ph.D in evolutionary biology and ecology. He
has worked for IUCN as the Programme Coordinator of
the Guinea-Bissau office, and his broad-ranging expertise
includes coastal planning, protected area management,
and translocation of species. Jean-Christophe's experience
includes the directorship of an NGO dedicated to the study
and conservation of Guianan wildlife. His career has also
taken him to Saudi Arabia, Gabon and the USA, and he
speaks French, English and Portuguese. Jean-Christophe will
be responsible for general operations and management of
the Species Programme and network support. From: IUCN
Species Survival Commission (SSC) E-Bulletin August 2001,
Editor, Anna Knee.
CURSO DE MONITORAMENTO E MANEJO DE FAUNA
EM UNIDADES DE CONSERVACAO
0 Curso de Monitoramento e Manejo de Fauna em
Unidades de Conservacao, seri ministrado pelo Laborat6rio
de Biologia da Conservacao do Departamento de Ecologia
da UNESP, Rio Claro, nos dias 19-23 fevereiro de 2002. 0
curso (tanto a part te6rica quanto a prAtica) seri oferecido
no Parque Estadual da Ilha Anchieta (PEIA), em Ubatuba,
no litoral norte de Sdo Paulo, Brasil. Pesquisadores corn
experiencia em manejo de aves e mamfferos conduzirdo
aulas te6ricas e exercicios de campo em aspects relevantes
'a ecologia de aves e mamfiferos. No final do curso o aluno
teri subsideos para realizar levantamentos e censos de aves e
mamfferos de MataAtlantica, e identificar e avaliar o impact
de turistas nas trilhas. Vagas: 20 vagas. Prazo de inscripao:
30 Janeiro 2002. Candidates: Profissionais relacionados t
pesquisa corn dispersio de sementes, bi6logos, ec6logos,
engenheiros florestais, agr6nomos, turismo e de dreas afins.
0 curso serd ministrado por: Dr. Mauro Galetti (censo
de mamfiferos, frugivoria), e Dr. Marcos Rodrigues (censo
de aves). Monitores: Denis Briani (pequenos mamfferos),
Renato Marques (censos de mamfferos, cameras automiticas)
e Mercival Francisco (gen&tica de aves). 0 que voce ird
aprender. Censo de mamfferos por transectos lineares;
Levantamento de mamfferos por cameras automiticas e
rastros; Levantamento de pequenos mamiferos; Captura
e anilhamento de aves; e Georeferrenciamento das trilhas.
Inscrifdo/Selecdo: Os interessados em se candidatar deverdo
enviar Curriculum Vitae e carta de intencao para Dr. Mauro
Galetti. A selegao seri baseada no CV do candidate. Custo
total: R$350,00 (inclui quatro dias de alojamento corn diaria
complete no Parque Estadual da Ilha Anchieta, e transport
Ubatuba-PEIA). Equipamento obrigat6rio: Roupa de cama e
banho, perneiras (contra cobras), 01 bin6culo, 01 bissola,
01 prancheta, cadernos de campo, papel milimetrado,
calculadora, lanterna e capa de chuva.
Mauro Galetti, Laborat6rio de Biologia da Conservayao,
Departamentode Ecologia, UNESP, C.P. 199,13506-900 Rio
Claro, Sao Paulo, Brasil. E-mail: .
DRAFT GUIDELINES FOR NON-HUMAN PRIMATE
A draft document prepared by the SSC Re-introduction
Specialist Group, "Guidelines for Non-Human Primate
Re-Introductions," is available for comment on the SSC
rsg.htm>. These guidelines were developed in response to
the increasing number of primate re-introduction projects
worldwide. They are based on the IUCN Guidelines for Re-
introductions (1998), IUCN Guidelines for the Placement of
Confiscated Animals (2000), a review of case histories and
consultation across a range of disciplines. From: IUCN
Species Survival Commission (SSC) E-Bulletin-March 2001.
Anna Knee, Communications Officer SSC/IUCN.
SPECIES SURVIVAL COMMISSION (SSC) PUBLICATIONS
The Species Survival Commission (SSC) Publications
Catalogue (July 2001) is now available. An electronic
version (in MS-Word) can be downloaded from:
Neotropical Primates 9(2), August 2001
This catalogue provides a comprehensive list of SSC
publications, but may not include some of the early titles
from the 1950s or '60s which are no longer available. It
provides a comprehensive list of SSC's published work and
includes short summaries of all Action Plans and Occasional
Papers. Throughout the catalogue, publications are listed in
chronological order with the most recent first.
SSC Publications can be ordered from: IUCN Publications
Services Unit, 219c Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3
ODL, UK, Tel: +44 1223 277894, Fax: +44 1223
277175, e-mail: , Web site:
/www.iucn.org/bookstore>. Some of the "Out of Print"
titles may be available on CD-ROM or as photocopies.
Please contact: C&cile Thi&ry, Librarian, IUCN-The World
Conservation Union, Rue Mauverney 28, CH-1196 Gland,
Switzerland, Tel: +41 22 999 01 35, Fax: +41 22 999 00 10,
Mariano Gimenez Dixon, Programme Officer/SSC,
IUCN-The World Conservation Union, Rue Mauverney
28, CH-1196 Gland, Switzerland. E-mail:
DOMINANCE RELATIONSHIPS AND HIERARCHIES IN
NEW WORLD PRIMATES
Jennifer Burns and Andreas Koenig are currently conducting
a review of dominance relationships and hierarchies among
wild, unprovisioned, nonhuman primate females. Included
in this review are quantitative approaches only, i.e., data
published in the form of dominance matrices or indices
(directional consistency, linearity, etc.). They have identified
a number of published sources that provide the necessary
data (see below). However, they have certainly overlooked
some sources. They are appealing for help to identify
publications that are not on their list.
They are also aiming at a broad overview of primates, and wish
to include as many taxa as possible from different radiations.
If you are willing to share unpublished information, they
would be happy to include the information in their review
(and to run an analysis with MatMan). All information
provided will be acknowledged if a publication will follow.
Andreas Koenig and Jennifer Burns would be most grateful
for your help.
List of publications providing data in the form of matrices or
Barton & Whiten, Anim. Behav. 46: 777-789 (1993)
Borries, Sommer & Srivastava, Int.J. Primatol. 12: 231-257
Cheney, Lee & Seyfarth, Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 9: 153-161
Cords, in Old World Monkeys, pp.453-479 (2000)
Furuichi, Primates24: 445-455 (1983)
Hausfater, in Contributions to Primatology 7 (1975)
Hausfater, Altmann & Altmann, Science 217: 752-755
Hill & Okayasu, Behaviour, 132: 367-379 (1995)
Hrdy & Hrdy, Science 193: 913-915 (1976)
Isbell & Pruetz, Int. J. Primatol.19: 837-855 (1998)
Iwaza, Primates 21: 443-467 (1980)
Janson, Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 18: 125-138 (1985)
Jones, Primates 21: 389-405 (1980)
Koenig, Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 48: 93-109 (2000)
Matsumura, Folia. Primatol. 69: 346-356 (1998)
Perry, Am.J. Primatol. 40: 167-182 (1996)
Poirier, Folia Primatol. 12: 161-186 (1970)
Pruetz, Ph.D thesis, Univ of Illinois (1999)
Range & Noe, Am. J. Primatol. in press
Robinson, Anim. Behav. 29: 1036-1056 (1981)
Seyfarth, Anim. Behav. 24: 917-938 (1976)
Smuts, Sex and Friendship in Baboons (1985)
Sterck & Steenbeck, Behaviour 134: 749-774 (1997)
Watts, Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 34: 347-358 (1994)
Whitten, Am.J. Primatol. 5: 139-159 (1983)
Zucker & Clarke, Int. J. Primat. 19: 433-449 (1998)
Please send any information to: Andreas Koenig, Assistant
Professor, Dept of Anthropology, SUNY at Stony Brook,
Stony Brook, NY 11794-4364, USA. E-mail:
WANTED FIELD ASSISTANT TO STUDY SURINAME
An ongoing field study of monkeys in the pristine
Raleighvallen-Voltzberg Nature Preserve in Suriname
needs additional assistants. The primary responsibility of
field assistants will be to collect behavioral and ecological
data on brown capuchins (see Boinski et al. 2000. Substrate
and tool use by brown capuchins in Suriname: ecological
contexts and cognitive bases. American Anthropologist 102:
741-761). Data are also collected on food availability,
mammal and bird abundance and forest phenology.
Assistants will work as part of a team of usually four or
more. Accommodations are a field camp with permanent
buildings, running water and reasonably reliable electricity.
Sue Boinski (University of Florida) directs the project with
the close collaboration of Lisa Rose (University of British
Columbia, Vancouver) and Susan Cropp (Washington
One or two assistants are needed to start in February 2002,
and at least several others later in the year. High priority will
be given to applicants with successful experience collecting
detailed social and ecological data from individually
recognized mammals, especially primates. Experience in
situations demanding rigorous physical exercise in tropical
conditions will also be useful. All transport costs to, and
Neotropical Primates 9(2), August 2001
living expenses within, Suriname are covered. A moderate
stipend is provided from which the assistant is expected to
purchase his/her health insurance.
Please note that assistants will not be permitted to collect
data for publication independent of the project. For example,
graduate students in other programs will not be able to
arrange collection of their thesis data while also harvesting
data for this monkey study. On the other hand, assistants
will be invited to co-author publications and independent
exploratory projects will be encouraged. Boinski hopes to
recruit successful assistants to pursue (further) graduate
studies as her students. In these instances, "redistribution" of
data can easily be arranged. In any case, assistants successfully
completing their fieldwork commitment will have her utmost
support in applications to any graduate or other professional
Interested individuals are requested to contact Sue Boinski
for further information starting November 2001. After
initial communication with Boinski, those still finding these
positions enticing will be asked to provide a curriculum vitae
and the names, positions and e-mail addresses of at least
three references. We hope to reach firm agreements with at
least two applicants by the end of December 2001.
Please contact: Dr. Sue Boinski, Department ofAnthropology,
University of Florida, 1350 Turlington, Gainesville, Florida
32611, USA, e-mail: .
WILDLIFE CONSERVATION SOCIETY-RESEARCH
Mailing address and contact information for the Wildlife
Conservation Society-Research Fellowship Program (RFP)
are: Program Coordinator, Research Fellowship Program,
Wildlife Conservation Society- International, 2300 Southern
Blvd., Bronx, NY 10460, USA, Tel: +1 (718) 220-6828,
Fax: +1 (718) 364-4275, e-mail: .
4596>. Bi-annual deadlines: Must be post-marked by 1
January and 1 July of every year. Geographic preferences:
Africa, Asia, Latin America and their regional marine areas.
Please note that the RFP does not support research in North
America (excluding Mexico), Australia or Europe and their
territories. The RFP will not limit any individual from
applying. However, most of the grantees are: professional
conservationists from the country of research and/or post-
graduates pursuing a higher degree. There are the following
restrictions: Organizations are not eligible for funding;
previous research fellows are not eligible for funding for the
same project; faculty and/or research advisors should not
be listed as principal investigators unless they plan to carry
out the majority of the field work; the principal researcher
must write the proposal (those written on behalf of another
individual will be disallowed). Application information:
Interested applicants may download the application from
the website (above) or e-mail the Program Coordinator
and request an electronic RFP Application. Any queries
or further information, please contact: Christina Ojar,
Research Fellowship Program (address above).
CITES: A CONSERVATION TOOL UPDATED EDITION
The IUCN/SSC Wildlife Trade Program has completed
the seventh edition of "CITES: A Conservation Tool, a
Guide to Amending the Appendices to the Convention on
International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna
and Flora." This publication guides the CITES Parties
through the Convention's articles and resolutions. It covers
the process for the submission, presentation and adoption
of proposals to amend the Appendices for the 12th CITES
Meeting of the Conference of the Parties (CoP), 3-15
November 2002 in Chile. The seventh edition has been
produced in a booklet form and on CD for the first time.
Both CDs and booklets have been distributed to CITES
Parties in time for their preparations for the 12t' CoP.
The guide is available in pdf version in English, French
and Spanish via the IUCN/SSC Wildlife Trade Programme
web page at:
NEWLY LAUNCHED WILDLIFE COMMUNITY WEBSITE
WildlifeDecisionSupport.com is proud to announce the
launch of its online wildlife community website. The site
gives access to specialized information for the wildlife
professional, including rehabilitators, veterinarians, ranchers,
researchers, game capturers, managers and students.
The website, at: ,
includes the full text of the current edition of the Capture
and Care Manual which is out of print. The Manual, a
combined effort by 22 specialist authors, has become the
definitive reference on the translocation of African wildlife.
The site also enables people to share their knowledge and
experiences with one another in an interactive, immediate
manner. Topics covered in WildlifeDecisionSupport.co
m include: Capture and care issues (darting, handling,
loading, transportation, temporary accommodation, etc.);
husbandry in more permanent captivity (zoos, safari parks,
etc.); wildlife management issues; rehabilitation; capture
and translocation equipment; and telemetry-techniques
and technology. Further, a regular newsletter is sent to
members which includes: Reviews or lists of recent articles
in journals/magazines; notes on updates to the community
website; reviews of new products and publications (e.g.,
book reviews); who's who people and NGOs; NGO news
(especially serious conservation/management projects);
letters to the Editor; toolbox equipment, electronics, etc.;
reports back, symposia, etc.; wildlife diary (meetings and
conferences); and other issues of interest to the wildlife
professional. For more information, visit
cisionSupport.com>, or call Riley O'Brien at 012-991-3083,
Neotropical Primates 9(2), August 2001
CALLICAM WEB SITE
The Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center is pleased
to announce the release of the Callicam Web Site,
//callicam.primate.wisc.edu>, a resource available through
Primate Info Net, .
Supported by grants RR15311 and RR00167, the site allows
visitors to see a live image from a camera focused on a family
of common marmosets (Callithrixjacchus) at the WRPRC.
By clicking on the image on the screen, users can take control
of the Callicam for two minutes at a time and are able to pan,
zoom and focus the camera.
A series of informational pages, developed in conjunction
with Dr. David Abbott and other members of the Common
Marmoset group at the WRPRC, accompanies the web cam
window and gives users the opportunity to learn about the
species and its behavior as they view the animals live on their
screens. Links to the Primate Info Net "Common Marmoset"
web site are also available from the Callicam window.
The Common Marmoset site offers general information
about Callithrix jacchus, its behavior, current research, a
bibliography of print and AV resources and a link to search
for more web sites through PIN. Images from the WRPRC's
av.html> are also included on the site.
STEPHEN NASH ART LECTURE Now ON TAPE
A video tape of the opening lecture of the 2000 Primate
Pathology workshop, held in Madison, Wisconsin, given
by Dr. Stephen Nash is now available on loan from the
WRPRC. This great presentation, "Primates in Art," was
taped by the American Society of Primatologists. To borrow
the tape please contact: Ray Hamel, Reference and Special
Collections Librarian, e-mail: .
Call number for the tape: vt0674. Title: Primates in Art:
Stephen Nash Lecture. Source: Produced by the IMDC,
University ofWisconsin-Madison for the Wisconsin Regional
Primate Research Center PHYSDES: VHS; col., sd.; 49
PRIMATE BEHAVIOR AND ECOLOGY
From 27 December-18 January 18, 2001, the La Suerte
Biological Field Station, Costa Rica, and Ometepe
Biological Field Station, Ometepe Island, Nicaragua, are
offering a course on primate behavior and ecology. This
course covers the behavior and ecology of Old and New
World primates from an evolutionary perspective. Emphasis
will be given to the three species present at La Suerte: Cebus
capucinus, Alouatta palliata and Ateles geoffroyi. The material
and topics covered in this course are equivalent to an upper
division university course in primate behavior and ecology.
A background in biology or physical anthropology is helpful
Neotropical Primates 9(2), August 2001
but not required. It is far more important to have a serious
interest in learning about primates and a desire to do field
work in a tropical rainforest.
Flora and fauna of interest will be pointed out and discussed
as they are encountered. Students are encouraged to
familiarize themselves in advance with general information
about primates, tropical ecosystems and Costa Rica. A
list of books of reference for the course is available on
the web site . For more
information and to request an information pack, contact:
La Suerte Biological Field Station; Ometepe Biological
Field Station, P.O. Box 55-7519, Miami, Fl 33255-7519.
Phone: (305) 666-9932, Miami Office (9-5 eastern), e-mail:
LINCOLN PARK Zoo FUNDS
The Lincoln Park Zoo, Chicago, Illinois, has a Neotropic and
Africa/Asia Fund to support field research in conservation
biology around the world. The Neotropic Fund focuses on
projects undertaken in Latin America and the Caribbean
and emphasizes the support of graduate students and other
young researchers from those countries. The fund, created
in 1986, has awarded over 146 grants in 19 countries.
Usually between five and ten projects are supported annually,
including project renewals for a second year. The typical
award given falls into the range of $3,000-6,000. Initial
support is for up to one year from the date of the award and
the maximum duration of support is for two years.
For additional information and application procedures please
see: , e-mail:
lpzoo.org> or write to: Lincoln Park Zoo NF/AA Funds,
Department of Conservation and Science, Lincoln Park Zoo,
2001 N. Clark St., Chicago, IL 60614, USA.
ERRATA: POPULATION GROWTH IN THE BELIZEAN
BLACK HOWLING MONKEY (ALOUATTA PIGRA)
In the paper Population growth in the Belizean black
howling monkey (Alouatta pigra) by Horwich, Brockett,
James and Jones, Neotropical Primates 9(1): 1-7, April 2001,
please note the following:
On page 5, column 2, paragraph 3, the last sentence of
the paragraph should read, "Our finding that proportions
of males in populations are negatively and significantly
correlated with increasing population density can be viewed
as a consequence of increased group size with increases in
On page 6, Acknowledgements, the authors wish to thank
one anonymous reviewer for constructive comments that
significantly improved the manuscript.
The authors regret any inconvenience these oversights may
have caused our readers.
Neotropical Primates 9(2), August 2001
THE XIXTH CONGRESS OF THE INTERNATIONAL
PRIMATOLOGICAL SOCIETY: "CARING FOR
The XIXth Congress of the International Primatological
Society will be held in Beijing, China, 4-9 August, 2002.
It is being organized byThe Mammalogical Society of China
and The Institute of Zoology of the Chinese Academy
of Sciences, and is sponsored by The Chinese Academy
of Sciences and The National Natural Science Foundation
of China. The following is letter of invitation to the
We, the Organizing Committee, have the pleasure of
inviting you to the XIXth Congress of the International
Primatological Society (IPS). The main theme of the event
will be "Caring for Primates: Progress in and Prospects for
Primatology and the Conservation of Non-human Primates
in the 21st Century."
China is one of the most important countries in the world
in terms of its culture and biodiversity. Twenty-one primate
species, five of them endemic, occur there. Ecological and
behavioral research and the conservation of China's non-
human primates have received increasing attention in recent
years. Some species are now seriously endangered, all are
still poorly known, and through this Congress we hope to
promote and consolidate national programs and research
efforts and international co-operation in our endeavors to
protect China's remarkable primates at a time of accelerated
development and with the burgeoning needs of the country's
large and ever-growing human population.
The 19th IPS Congress in Beijing will be China's first major
international primate meeting. We are very enthusiastic about
this big event and will do what we can to make this gathering
go smoothly and combine a first-class scientific programme
with a cultural and social experience which will be enjoyable
and memorable to all. Most of all, we hope that it will make
a major contribution to the development of primatology
and especially to our ongoing efforts to conserve primates in
China and around the world. In addition to plenary sessions,
a variety of symposia and workshops will be convened during
the meeting. The deadline for accepting topics for symposia
and workshops is the 31st August, 2001.
We are sure that the great biodiversity, the fascination of
China's long history and many unique cultures, and the
beautiful countryside will make this Congress an enjoyable
and memorable experience for all.
We are looking forward to seeing you in Beijing in 2002.
For more details please access the web site at:
Professor Sung WANG, Chairman of the Organizing
Committee, 19th Congress of the International
Primatological Society, and Professor FuwenWEI, Secretary
General, 19th Congress of the International Primatological
EUROPEAN FEDERATION OF PRIMATOLOGY MEETING
2000, CONFERENCE REPORT
Organized by Hilary Box, Hannah-Buchanan-Smith,
Bertrand Deputte, Ann MacLarnon, Phyllis Lee and Regine
Vercauteren Dubbel, the European Federation of Primatology
2000 Meeting was hosted by the Primate Society of Great
Britain, 30 November 1 December 2000. It was the first
international meeting of a primate society to be held in
Europe for several years and took place over three days and
three venues: University of Surrey Roehampton, Goldsmiths
College and the Zoological Society of London. Of particular
significance was that a number of post-graduate students
were able to attend the conference and workshops due
to grants provided by the European Community. Themes
for the three days included "Evolution and Biology" and
"Reproduction and Mating Systems" on the first day, chaired
by Phyllis Lee and Ann MacLarnon; "Cognition and Social
Conflict" on the second day, chaired by Hilary Box; and
"Ecology and Conservation" on the third day, chaired by
ASP PRESIDENT'S AWARD
The first President's Award of the American Society of
Primatologists was given to Professor Vernon Reynolds. This
newly created award is given to individuals or organizations
that have made unique and exceptional contributions to
primatology. The award was announced in the June issue
of the ASP Bulletin. At the annual conference in Boulder,
Charles Southwick read an acceptance letter from Vernon.
who was unable to attend the meeting. The award includes a
plaque and $1000.
In September, Janette Wallis, ASP Executive Secretary and
Reynolds' frequent collaborator, traveled to Uganda to
make a public presentation of the ASP President's Award.
Vernon graciously accepted the award and, as is typical,
gave all recognition and credit to the hard-working staff of
the Budongo Forest Project (BFP), directed by Mr. Fred
Babweteera. Vernon split the $1000 award evenly among
the staff. Research conducted via BFP has included studies
of the forest itself (effects of logging, reforestation, etc.)
and many species of animals inhabiting the forest, including
various birds, butterflies and, of course, chimpanzees and
SOCIETY FOR CONSERVATION BIOLOGY NEOCONS
The Neotropical Conservation Biology Bulletin NeoCons is
an electronic bulletin produced and edited by the Society
Neotropical Primates 9(2), August 2001
for Conservation Biology (SCB) as a forum for conservation
issues in South America, Central America, Mexico and
the Caribbean. The first issue Vol. 1(1) was released in
February 2001. The Society for Conservation Biology is
an international professional organization dedicated to
promoting the scientific study of the phenomena that affect
the maintenance, loss and restoration of biological diversity
. Mac Hunter is the
SCB President Elect and Co-chair of the Internationalization
NeoCons is distributed electronically and free to all interested
individuals, regardless of whether they reside or not in the
region or are members of the SCB. The purpose of NeoCons
is to facilitate information exchange in order to help
strengthen the discipline of conservation biology in Austral
and Neotropical America. NeoCons is published every two
months and has two main sections. The first includes the
table of contents of each issue of the journal Conservation
Biology in Spanish, and the second is a compilation of
information relevant to the practice of conservation
biology. Contributions to NeoCons can be made in Spanish,
English, Portuguese and French. The NeoCons website is
NeoCons/>, where you will find the subscription form and
further information on how to make contributions for its
content. Additional information: Jon Paul Rodriguez, Editor
NeoCons, Centro de Ecologia IVIC, Apartado 21827,
Caracas 1020-A, Venezuela, Tel. +58 212 504 1194, Fax.
+58 212 504 1088, e-mail: .
ECOLOGY AND SOCIAL ORGANIZATION OF BEARDED
SAKIS, CHIROPOTES SATANAS
The Society for Tropical Ecology, Germany, has begun a
monograph series Ecotropical Monographs, associated with
their journal Ecotropica. The editor is Karl-L. Schuchmann of
the Zoological Research Institute and Museum of Zoology,
Bonn, Germany. No 1 (20 May, 2001) is "Ecology and
Social Organization of the Bearded Saki Chiropotes satanas
chiropotes (Primates: Pitheciinae) in Venezuela," by Angela
Peetz, 170pp. ISBN 3 9807780 0 2. In 1988, Angela Peetz
joined the "Proyecto Primatologia Ecol6gica de Guayana" in
Estado Bolivar, Venezuela, run by the late Warren G. Kinzey
(City University of New York) and Marilyn Norconk (Kent
State University). For her MSc thesis (University of Bielefeld,
Bielefeld) she studied the behavior of a group of red howler
monkeys. Subsequently she continued her research, the
subject of this monograph, working on the ecology and
behavior of Chiropotes satanas for a doctoral dissertation,
supervised by Prof. Dr. Roland Sossinka. The study was
based on an island of about 180 ha in the 4,300 km2 Lake
Guri formed by the Ratil Leoni Dam, completed in 1986 on
the Rio Caronf, eastern Bolivar State. Two other species occur
on the island, Alouatta seniculus and Cebus olivaceus (given as
the subspecies apiculatus). Over 15 months in 1989-1990,
Peetz studied the habitat, feeding ecology, activity budget,
ranging behavior, social organization and development of
infants. The overall aim of the study was to investigate the
extent to which ecological parameters influence behavioral
strategies at the northern limit to the species' range. This
monograph gives a thorough and detailed description of
her findings. It is a solid and brilliant contribution to our
knowledge of this species, the pitheciines and to New World
primates in general.
Copies of Ecotropical Monographs may be ordered from:
GTOE, Zoological Research Institute and Museum of
Zoology, Adenauerallee 160, D-53113 Bonn, Germany.
Price of No. 1: EURO 55.00. Add EURO 5.00 for handling
and shipping charges outside Europe. Check payable to:
UM LIVRO VERMELHO PARA O MUNICIPIO DO RIO
DE JANEIRO, BRASIL
Especies Ameafadas de Extinfdo no Municipio do Rio de
Janeiro: Flora e Fauna, editado por Fernando Rdgis Di Maio
e Mircia Botelho R. Silva, 2000, 68pp. Secretaria Municipal
de Meio Amboente, Rio de Janeiro. Inclui uma listagem de
50 especies (27 de plants e 23 de animals) ji extintas no
municipio. A categoria "Criticamente em perigo" inclui
46 espdcies (35 de plants e 14 de animals). "Em perigo"
e "Vulnerivel" somaram mais 345 espdcies (274 plants e
170 animals). No total foram listadas como ameayadas 274
especies da flora e 170 esp&cies da fauna do munfcipio. A
parte de mamfferos (pp.39-43) foi elaborada por uma equipe
coordenada por Carla Fabiane de Vera y Conde e incluiu
Cecilia Bueno (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro),
Cibele Rodrigues Bonvicino (Instituto Nacional do Cancer),
S&rgio Maia Vaz (Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro) e
Carlos Esb&rard, especialista em quir6ptera (Fundacao Rio
Z6o). Alouatta fusca, Brachyteles arachnoides e Leontopithecus
rosalia foram todas registradas como extintas no municipio.
S6rgio Maia Vaz, Museu Nacional, Seqao de Mamfiferos,
Quinta da Boa Vista, Sao Crist6vao, Rio de Janeiro
20940-040, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.
A NEW ONLINE JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY
BioMed Central (BMC) Ecology covers environmental and
population ecology of plants, animals and microbes. The
journal is one of the 60 or so published by BioMed Central
(http://www.biomedcentral.com/), a recently established
online publishing house that is committed to making original
research articles in biological and medical science freely
available to all.
BMC believes that communication of original research is the
single most important part of the scientific process and that
the current publishing model is often more of a hindrance
than a help to this critical activity because of the limited
circulation and high costs of many journals. BioMed Central
overcomes this by making papers available online to anyone
86 Neotropical Primates 9(2), August 2001
for no charge, while also having them listed in PubMed.
Anybody publishing with BMC Ecology (or with any of the
other BMC journals) will have their article: 1) made freely
available to anyone with Internet access more people than
ever will have the ability to read the results of your work;
2) peer reviewed in the normal way but using the speed of
the Internet to expedite the process BMC's average time
from submission to publication is currently 6.5 weeks and
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SUSTAINABLE FOREST MANAGEMENT
The Center for Applied Biodiversity Science (CABS) at
Conservation International (CI), Washington, DC, has
published the third issue of the publication series, Advances
in Applied Biodiversity Science, Series Editor, Philippa
Benson. "Sustainable Forest Management: A Review of
Conventional Wisdom" (29pp. 2001) was written by
Richard E. Rice, Cheri A. Sugal, Shelley M. Ratay and
Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca. This monograph argues that
almost no logging in the tropics (except plantations) can be
considered sustainable, and considers why sustainable forest
management has met with such limited success, despite
much effort over the past two decades. It begins with a brief
overview of the scope and diversity of efforts to support
sustainable forest management, and then considers one of the
most important obstacles to its broader adoption its lack of
financial attractiveness. In the last chapter the authors discuss
the conditions under which sustainable forest management
represents an appropriate conservation tool based on its
environmental impacts, and include a brief review of its
cost effectiveness compared to other options. They conclude
that sustainable forest management has limited usefulness
as a conservation strategy, and that before it is promoted
in a given area it should be carefully evaluated against
other conservation options. Contents: 1) Introduction;
2) The History of Sustainable Forest Management; 3)
The Economics of Sustainable Forest Management; 4)
Policies Intended to Encourage Investments in Sustainable
Forest Management; 5) The Conservation Effectiveness of
Sustainable Forest Management; 6) Conclusion. Available
from: Nedra Johnstone, Center for Applied Biodiversity
Science, Conservation International, 1919 M Street NW,
Suite 600, Washington, DC 20036; e-mail:
WORLD CONSERVATION BOOKSTORE CATALOGUE
The 2001 World Conservation Bookstore catalogue is now
available. The Catalogue contains information on all new
IUCN publications as well as titles from CITES, the Ramsar
Convention on Wetlands, TRAFFIC, UNEP-WCMC and
Birdlife International. If interested in receiving a copy,
mail your name, title, organization, address, country,
phone, fax and email to: IUCN Publications Services
Unit, 219c Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3 ODL, UK.
Tel: +44 1223 277894, Fax: +44 1223 277175, e-mail:
or web site .
Primate Taxonomy, by Colin P. Groves, April 2001.
Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. ISBN 1
56098 872 X (cloth). Price: US$65.00. This is a remarkable
book a landmark in our understanding of primate diversity.
It is divided into two parts. The first is a series of chapters
on taxonomy in general, using primates as examples "The
Theory of Primate Taxonomy." Chapter 1 What taxonomy
is meant to do and how it should do it, pp.3-14; Chapter 2
- Taxonomic ranking and nomenclature, pp.15-25; Chapter
3 A brief history of primate taxonomy, pp.39-53; Chapter
4 Taxonomy of primates above the family level, pp.54-61.
As pointed out by Groves in his preface, "...primatology
does not stand on its own. Part One of this book could be
for mammalogists in general, ornithologists, and any other
student of sexually reproducing animals..." The second part
is titled "Putting Primate Taxonomy into Practice," and
reviews the taxonomy to subspecies level of the Malagasy
lemurs, the Loriformes, the Tarsiiformes, the Platyrrhini,
the Old World monkeys Superfamily Cercopithecoidea,
and the Hominoidea. There is an appendix "A Word
about Fossil Primates," and finally a glossary. For each
group of primates, taxonomy is discussed at the family and
subfamily level. The genera are divided into species groups
where appropriate. Scientific name, author, synonyms,
diagnosis, and distribution are given for each species. Similar
treatments are given to subspecies except that common
names are not provided. As Groves himself points out
(p.37), an understanding of primate diversity (and not just
species) is vital if we are to conserve it. This book is a must,
indispensable for all primatologists, primate ethologists and
geneticists, zoo curators and tropical conservation biologists.
Available from: Smithsonian Institution Press, PO Box 960,
Herndon, VA 20172-0960, Tel: 1 800 782 4612.
Tropical Ecosystems and Ecological Concepts, by Patrick L.
Osborne, 2000, 468pp, ISBN: 0-521-64251-5 (hardback),
price: US$110, or ISBN 0-521-64523-9 (paperback),
price US$39.95. An introductory textbook that provides a
Neotropical Primates 9(2), August 2001
comprehensive guide to the major tropical biomes, including
both aquatic and terrestrial systems, this book covers the
human dimension and how it relates to such issues such
population growth, urbanization, agriculture and fisheries,
natural resource use and pollution. The text contains
supplementary material on a range of subjects including
organisms, mathematical concepts and calculations, line
diagrams, maps and photographs. Available from Cambridge
University Press, 110 Midland Avenue, Port Chester,
NY, 10573-4930, USA, Fax: (914) 937 4712. Web site:
Genetics, Demography and the Viability of Fragmented
Populations, edited by Andrew Young and Geoffrey M.
Clark, 2000, 448pp. ISBN: 0-521-78207-4 (hardback),
price US$90 or ISBN 0-521-794210-8 (paperback), price
US$39.95. Providing a detailed introduction to genetic
and demographic issues relevant to conservation, this book
presents case studies on plants and animals dealing with
demographic stochasticity, genetic erosion, inbreeding,
metapopulation biology and population viability analysis
of fragmented populations. Available from Cambridge
University Press, 110 Midland Avenue, Port Chester,
NY, 10573-4930, USA, Fax: (914) 937 4712. Web site:
The Nonhuman Primates, by Phyllis Dolhinow and Agustin
Fuentes, 1999, 340pp. Mayfield CITY. Price: 24.95.
Introduces students to nonhuman primates through 34
essays written by experts in their research areas. Available
from: NHBS Ltd, 2-3 Wills Road, Totnes, Devon TQ9 5XN,
UK, Tel: +44 (0) 1803 865913, Fax: +44 (0) 1803 865280,
e-mail: nhbs.@nhbs.co.uk>. Web site: .
Primate Behavior: An Exercise Workbook (2nd Edition), edited
by J. D. Paterson, 2001. Published by Waveland Press, Inc.,
Prospect Heights, Illinois, USA. ISBN 157 766 1656. Price:
US$23.95. An excellent text for students of primatology or
animal behaviour. Much larger than the first edition and
deals with a number of new concepts, including a major
expansion on the section of field ecology exercises. Contents:
Part 1. The Study of Behavior (with seven chapters); Part 2.
Exercises (with 23 various research exercises). A CD-ROM
accompanies the workbook and should be readable by any
Windows or Macintosh computer. Available from: Waveland
Press, Inc., PO Box 400, Prospect Heights, IL 60070, USA,
Tel: +1 847-634-0081. Web site: .
The Conservation Handbook: Research, Management and
Policy, by William J. Sutherland, 2000, 278pp. Blackwell
Science Publications, Oxford. Price: 21.50. Provides clear
guidance on the implementation of conservation techniques.
Methods include those used for ecological research,
monitoring, planning, education, habitat management
and combining conservation with development. 18 case
studies illustrate how these methods have actually been
applied. Available from: NHBS Ltd, 2-3 Wills Road, Tomes,
Devon TQ9 5XN, UK, Tel: +44 (0)1803 865913, Fax: +44
(0)1803 865280, e-mail: . Web site:
Designing Field Studies for Biodiversity Conservation, by Peter
Feinsinger, 2001, The Nature Conservancy. 219pp. Price
24.50. A comprehensible, practical guide to using scientific
inquiry in conservation related work. A good book for both
staff and researchers working with conservation institutions
or projects worldwide, as well as for professionals and students
in the field of ecology, wildlife biology and conservation
areas. Available from: NHBS Ltd, 2-3 Wills Road, Tomes,
Devon TQ9 5XN, UK, Tel: +44 (0)1803 865913, Fax: +44
(0)1803 865280, e-mail: . Web site:
Costa Rica Mammals, by Eduardo Carillo, Grace Wong and
Joel C. Saenz, 2000, INBio, Costa Rica. 248pp. Price 28.50.
Covers 100 species of Costa Rican mammals and includes
information on where to find them and how to distinguish
them. Available in both English and Spanish. Available from:
NHBS Ltd, 2-3 Wills Road, Totnes, Devon TQ9 5XN, UK,
Tel: +44 (0)1803 865913, Fax: +44 (0)1803 865280, e-mail:
. Web site: .
Wild Mammals of Venezuela, by Rexford D. Lord, 2000,
Armitano, Venezuela. 344pp. Price, hardback, 106.00.
Provides an authoritative and comprehensive reference to
the wide array of mammalian fauna and ecosystems found
in Venezuela. Available from: NHBS Ltd, 2-3 Wills Road,
Tomes, Devon TQ9 5XN, UK, Tel: +44 (0)1803 865913,
Fax: +44 (0)1803 865280, e-mail: . Web
Defending our Rainforest: A Guide to Community Based
Ecotourism in the Ecuadorian Amazon, by Rolf Wesche and
Andy Drumm, 216pp., 1999. Ecotourism Society, USA.
Price: 15.50. Includes maps and photos with information
on more than 40 community-based ecotourism projects in
the Amazon. Available from: NHBS Ltd, 2-3 Wills Road,
Tomes, Devon TQ9 5XN, UK, Tel: +44 (0)1803 865913,
Fax: +44 (0)1803 865280, e-mail: . Web
The Amazon Rain Forest: An Exploration of Countries,
Cultures and Creatures, by James Castner, 104pp., 1999.
Feline Press, CITY. Price: 24.95. Available from: NHBS
Ltd, 2-3 Wills Road, Totnes, Devon TQ9 5XN, UK, Tel:
+44 (0)1803 865913, Fax: +44 (0)1803 865280, e-mail:
nhbs.@nhbs.co.uk>. Web site: .
Cryobanking the Genetic Resource Wildlife Conservation for
the Future? edited by P F. Watson and W. V. Holt, 2001.
ISBN 0 748 40814 2. Published by Taylor and Francis, 11
New Fetter Lane, London, EC4P 4EE and Tayor and Francis
Inc, 29 West 35' St., New York, NY 10001, USA.
88 Neotropical Primates 9(2), August 2001
Akcakaya, H. R., Ferson, S., Burgman, M. A., Keith, D. A.,
Mace, G. M. and Todd, C. R. 2000. Making consistent
IUCN classifications under uncertainty. Conserv. Biol.
Alexander, S. E. 2000. Resident attitudes towards
conservation and black howler monkeys in Belize: The
Community Baboon Sanctuary. Environ. Conserv. 27(4):
Amori, G. and Gippoliti, S. 2000. What do mammalogists
want to save? Ten years of mammalian conservation
biology. Biodiv. Conserv. 9: 785-793.
Anonymous 1999. Animal inventory: Durrell Wildlife
Conservation Trust. Dodo 35: 187-194.
Bales, K. L. 2000. Mammalian monogamy: Dominance,
hormones, and maternal care in wild golden lion tamarins.
Diss. Abst. Int. B61(4): 1817.
Basoni, C., Lejeune, C. and Mercier, M. 2000. Comparison
of cognitive performances between brown capuchin twins,
Cebus apella. Folia Primatol. 71(4): 251.
Batista-Morais, N., Neilson-Rolim, B., Matos-Chaves,
H. H., de Brito-Neto, J. and Maria-da-Silva, L. 2000.
Rabies in tamarins (Callithrix jacchus) in the state of
Ceari, Brazil, a distinct viral variant? Memorias do Instituto
Oswaldo Cruz95(5): 609-610.
Bininda-Emonds, 0. R. P, Vazquez, D. P. and Manne, L. L.
2000. The calculus of biodiversity: Integrating phylogeny
and conservation. TREE 15(3): 92-94.
Bisby, F. A. 2000. The quite revolution: Biodiversity
informatics and the internet. Science289: 2309-2312.
Boinski, S. 1999. Comparison of the life history patterns
of three squirrel monkey species: Ecological bases and
phylogenetic constraints. Prim. Rep. (Special issue) 54-1:
Brady, A. G., Watford, J. W., Massey, C. V. Gibson, S. V. and
Abee, C. R. 2000. Aged squirrel monkeys and heart failure:
An echocardiograph survey. Contemp. Top. Lab. Anim. Sci.
Brook, B. W., O'Grady, J. J., Chapman, A. P., Burgman, M.
A., Akcakaya, H. R. and Frankham, R. 2000. Predictive
accuracy of population viability analysis in conservation
biology Nature, Lond. 404: 385-387.
Byrne, R. W. 2000. Evolution of primate cognition. Cognitive
Science 24(3): 543-570.
De la Torre, S. 1999. Environmental Correlates of Vocal
Communication of Wild Pygmy Marmosets, Cebuella
Pygmaea. PhD Thesis, University of Wisconsin, Madison.
De Waal, E B. M. 2000. Primates a natural heritage of
conflict resolution. Science 289: 586-590.
De Thoisy, B., Michel, J. C., Vogel, I. and Vid, J. C. 2000. A
survey ofhemoparasite infections in free-ranging mammals
and reptiles in French Guiana. J. Parasitol. 86(5): 1035-
Diaz, D., Naegeli, M., Rodriguez, R., Nino-Vasquez,
J. J., Moreno, A., Patarroyo, M. E., Pluschke, G. and
Daubenberger, C. A. 2000. Sequence and diversity of
MHC DQA and DQB genes of the owl monkey Aotus
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Edwards, J. L., Lane, M. A. and Nielsen, E. S. 2000.
Interoperability of biodiversity databases: Biodiversity
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Epiphanio, S., Guimaries, M. A. B. V., Fedullo, D. L.,
Correa, S. H. R. and Catio-Dias, J. L. 2000. Toxoplasmosis
in golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas)
and emperor marmosets (Saguinus imperator) in captivity.
J. Zoo Wildl. Med.e 31(2): 231-235.
Fairbanks, L. A. 2000. The developmental timing of
primate play: A neural selection model. In: Biology, Brains,
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Parker, J. Langer and M. L. McKinney (eds.), pp.131-
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Fayer, R., Morgan, U. and Upton, S. J. 2000. Epidemiology
of Cryptosporidium: Transmission, detection and
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Fearnside, P. M. 1999. Biodiversity as an environmental
service in Brazil's Amazonian forests: Risks, value and
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Fekete, J. M., Norcross, J. L. and Newman, J. D. 2000.
Artificial turf foraging boards as environmental enrichment
for pair-housed female squirrel monkeys. Contemp. Top.
Lab. Anim. Sci. 39(2): 22-26.
Fraser, H. M., Lunn, S. F., Harrison, D. J. and Kerr, J. B.
1999. Luteal regression in the primate: Different forms
of cell death during natural and gonadotropin-releasing
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Gage, T. B. 1999. Modeling the reproductive life history
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Garcia, J. A., Pinedo, I. A., Rodriguez, V. A., Baeuerle, I.
H. and Blanco, R. R. 2000. Howler monkey behavior
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S. and Boag, E T. 2000. Riverine barriers and the geographic
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Gascon, C., Williamson, G. B. and Fonseca, G. A. B. da.
2000. Receeding forest edges and vanishing reserves. Science
Grenon, H., Patenaude, R. and Bourgault, A. 2000. Unusual
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Hausler, U. 2000. Vocalization-correlated respiratory
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Heyer, W. R., Coddington, J., Kress, W. J., Acevedo, P., Cole,
D., Erwin, T. L., Meggers, B. J., Pogue, M. G., Thorington,
R. W, Vari, R. P, Weitzmann, M. J. and Weitzmann, S. H.
1999. Amazonian biotic data and conservation decisions.
Cidncia e Cultura 51(5/6): 372-385.
Hosey, G. R. 2000. Zoo animals and their human audiences:
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Huang, C. H., Liu, Z., Apoil, P. A. and Blancher, A. 2000.
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Janson, C. H. and Van Schaik, C. P. 2000. The behavioral
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The journallnewsletter aims to provide a basis for conserva-
tion information relating to the primates of the neotropics. We
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A broader range of topics are encouraged, including such as
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Examples of house style can be found throughout this journal.
Please refer to these examples when listing references.
Stallings, J. D. and Mittermeier, R. A. 1983. The black-tailed
marmoset (Callithrix argentata melanura) recorded from Para-
guay. Am. J. Primatol. 4: 159-163.
Chapter in book
Brockelman, W. Y. and All, R. 1987. Methods of surveying and
sampling forest primate populations. In: Primate Conservation
in the Tropical Rain Forest, C. W. Marsh and R. A. Mittermeier
(eds.), pp. 23-62. Alan R. Liss, New York.
Napier, P. H. 1976. Catalogue of Primates in the British Museum
(Natural History). Part 1: Families Callitrichidae and Cebidae.
British Museum (Natural History), London.
Wallace, R. B. 1998. The behavioral ecology of black spider
monkeys in north-eastern Bolivia. Doctoral thesis, University
of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.
Muckenhirn, N. A., Mortensen, B. K., Vessey, S., Frazer, C. E.
0. and Singh, B. 1975. Report on a primate survey in Guyana.
Unpublished report, Pan American Health Organization,
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Journal and Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group
Vol. 9Q2). August, 2001
Taxonomic Status of .AIon, Ien'idkomvt: It' Relationship to .-Iihl' t/IlinI/ii It l iemnst
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Body \Weight' Before arid After First Pregnancies of immigrantt Adult Female Mantled Howling Monkeys iAlonattiapalliatnn
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