Front Cover
 Back Matter

Title: Neotropical primates
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098814/00034
 Material Information
Title: Neotropical primates a newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCNSSC Primate Specialist Group
Abbreviated Title: Neotrop. primates
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
Conservation International
Center for Applied Biodiversity Science
Publisher: Conservation International
Place of Publication: Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Publication Date: September 2000
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Primates -- Periodicals -- Latin America   ( lcsh )
Primates -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Wildlife conservation -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: review   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Brazil
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Language: English, Portuguese, and Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Mar. 1993)-
Issuing Body: Issued jointly with Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, <Dec. 2004->
General Note: Published in Washington, D.C., Dec. 1999-Apr. 2005 , Arlington, VA, Aug. 2005-
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 13, no. 1 (Apr. 2005).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098814
Volume ID: VID00034
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28561619
lccn - 96648813
issn - 1413-4705


This item has the following downloads:

NP8 ( PDF )

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
    Back Matter
        Back Matter 1
        Back Matter 2
Full Text

ISSN 1413-4703




A Journal and Newsletter of the
Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC
Primate Specialist Group




Editors: Anthony B. Rylands and Ernesto Rodriguez-Luna
PSG.Chairman: Russell A. Mittermeier
PSG Deputy Chairmen: Anthony B. Rylands and William R. Konstant

Neotropical Primates
A Journal and Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group

Center for Applied Biodiversity Science
Conservation International
1919 M. St. NW, Suite 600, Washington, DC 20036, USA

ISSN 1413-4703 Abbreviation: Neotrop. Primates

Anthony B. Rylands, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International, Washington, DC
Ernesto Rodrfguez-Luna, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Mexico

Assistant Editor
Jennifer Pervola, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International, Washington, DC

Editorial Board
Hannah M. Buchanan-Smith, University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland, UK
Adelmar F. Coimbra-Filho, Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Liliana Cortes-Ortiz, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Mexico
Carolyn M. Crockett, Regional Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
Stephen F. Ferrari, Universidade Federal do Pari, Belem, Brazil
Eckhard W. Heymann, Deutsches Primatenzentrum, Gottingen, Germany
William R. Konstant, Conservation International Washington, DC
Russell A. Mittermeier, Conservation International, Washington, DC
Marta D. Mudry, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina
Horacio Schneider, Universidade Federal do Pari, Belem, Brazil
Karen B. Strier, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
Maria Emilia Yamamoto, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Brazil

Primate Specialist Group
Chairman Russell A. Mittermeier
Deputy Chairs Anthony B. Rylands & William R. Konstant
Co-Vice Chairs for the Neotropical Region Anthony B. Rylands & Ernesto Rodriguez-Luna
Vice Chair for Asia Ardith A. Eudey
Vice Chair for Africa Thomas M. Butynski
Vice Chair for Madagascar Jarg U. Ganzhorn

Glenda P. FAbregas, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International, Washington, DC.
Production: Kim Meek, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International, Washington, DC.

Front Cover:
The black-headed uacari, Cacajao melanocephalus ouakary.

This issue of Neotropical Primates was kindly sponsored by the Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation, 432 Walker Road, Great Falls, Virginia 22066,
USA, the Houston Zoological Gardens Conservation Program, General Manager Donald G. Olson, 1513 North MacGregor, Houston, Texas 77030,
USA, and the Los Angeles Zoo, Director Manuel Mollinedo, 5333 Zoo Drive, Los Angeles, California 90027, USA.


A flbdnion of#*~ Housto
Padks and R-eaonon Department

Neotropical Primates 8(3), September 2000


Robert H. Horwich
Robin C. Brockett
Clara B. Jones


Individuals differ in many aspects of reproductive behavior.
Two or more reproductive phenotypes may be expressed dur-
ing the lifetime of an individual and between individuals
within the same population (Austad, 1984). Variation in
mating patterns may be studied for an understanding of
differential costs and benefits to survival and reproductive
success of alternative reproductive behaviors (ARBs). In this
paper we describe ARBs in male black howler monkeys
(Alouatta pigra).

The study of ARBs in primates has a long history (Hrdy,
1974; Clarke, 1983; Horwich, 1983; Boggess, 1984; Smuts,
1985; Jones, 1995). ARBs entail all discrete tactics and strat-
egies employed to maximize reproductive benefits (Austad,
1984). Dixson's (1998) discussion of ARBs by male pri-
mates shows that they exhibit various responses to gain ac-
cess to group membership and receptive females. Among
these responses, infanticide is, perhaps, the most controver-
sial and widely discussed. ARBs will arise whenever indi-
viduals compete for mates, and sexual selection theory pre-
dicts that males will be most likely to compete for mates
since females, or, rather, their fertilizeable ova, are expected
to be limiting resources (Trivers, 1972). Smuts (1987) found
that the expression of ARBs in male primates is related to
age, demography and life-history, stochastic effects (e.g.,
"accidents of history"), and unique traits of individuals (e.g.,
temperament or intelligence). Smuts' conclusions support
the view that the diversity ofintraspecific reproductive be-
haviors results from adaptive responses to local conditions,
in particular, the operational sex ratio within populations
(the ratio of males to females fecund at a given time), which
provides a measure of the intensity of sexual selection among
competitors (Emlen and Oring, 1977; also see Leland etal.,

Animals, Study Site, and Method

We conducted adlibitum observations of marked A. pigra at
the Community Baboon Sanctuary (CBS), Belize. The CBS
is a managed reserve of >18 sq. mi. formed in 1985 by a
cooperative agreement among private landowners (Horwich,
1990). Located at 1733'N, 8835'W, the CBS is a mosaic
of small farms, pastures and tropical moist forest fragments,
including riparian habitat along the Belize River (see
Horwich and Lyon, 1990). The study area has mapped trails,
and >1500 trees are mapped and identified. Rhythms in
plant communities are seasonal, with new leaf production
occurring primarily at the beginning of the rainy season (late

May or June) (Horwich and Lyon, 1990). In northern Belize
there are two flowering peaks. The largest peak occurs during
the dry season (February through May) with a second, smaller
peak occurring about one month after the rainy season begins
(Horwich and Lyon, 1990). Fruiting activity is variable, within
and between tree species (Horwich and Lyon, 1990). At any
one time in northern Belize, there are at least some tree species
producing fruit. Seasonally, there are two fruiting peaks: near
the end of the dry season and a month or so after the start of
the rainy season. Howler monkeys are wholly herbivorous, and
phenological perturbations may have significant consequences
for their populations.

Black howlers, large atelids, are generally polygynous (single
breeding male) with a modal group size of one adult male to
several adult females and immatures (Ostro et aL, 1999;
Horwich, unpublished data), although multimale-multifemale
(polygynandrous) groups may be found. Studies of demogra-
phy, ecology, social organization and behavior are in their early
stages (e.g., Horwich, 1983; Silver et al., 1998; Ostro et al.,
1999). Groups have been censused since 1985, and systematic
observations, including marking of animals and collection of
morphometric data have been carried out since the early 1990's.


Primary Patterns
Table 1 shows male displacements within black howler mon-
key groups at the CBS between 1992 and 1997. "Displace-
ment" is used to mean that when one or more males enter an
established unit, one or more males are expelled. Several pat-
terns are noteworthy. First, males may transfer alone or in as-
sociation with one or more males. When more than one male
act together, they are always successful at expelling resident
males from their groups, although male alliances or coalitions
are not a necessary condition for successful expulsion. BBLT,
for instance, expelled 0 in March, 1995. It is important to
note, however, that, while single males successfully expelled a
group male on two occasions, transferring males moving alone
generally joined an existing group without expelling resident
males. In 1992, for example, WRT successfully joined the Bap-
tist troop without aggression and without expelling any males
from the troop. WRT later left Baptist troop with BWB to
displace Scar from the adjacent Fig troop in 1993 (Table 1).

Table 1 also demonstrates that changes in male membership
within groups was not always accompanied by overt male-male
aggression. Overt aggression among males appears to be most
likely when resident males are expelled or when a transferring
male attempts to enter a multi-male group. Infant disappear-
ance also appears most likely in these conditions.

Of further interest, as reported in Brockett et al. (1999), we
have identified a "cascade effect" in male takeovers whereby
takeover by an extra-group male may precipitate a resident male
to leave his group and initiate a takeover of another group (e.g.,
BBLT's takeover of Roxie troop in March, 1995 and LRT's
takeover of Bamboo troop in November, 1995). The effect that
we describe may be a response to some threshold of group den-

96 Neotropical Primates 8(3), September 2000

sity, possibly responsive to interaction rates, and expresses
the potential for stochastic dynamics of population processes.

Transferring males were observed to attempt copulation or
to copulate with resident females more than 50% of the time.
These events were almost always associated with male-male
aggression and subsequent infant disappearance. There ap-
pears to be a suite of associated responses for which sex and
aggression, including infanticide, are correlated, although be-
cause aggression is not associated with every transfer event,
its costs must often outweigh its benefits.

Secondary Patterns
Several additional aspects of male reproductive behavior were
observed. First, males may disperse from groups of origin,
sometimes their natal groups, and "float" in unoccupied habi-
tat or remain peripheral to an intact group on its home range.
Peripheral males have been observed to interact with group
members, usually adult females in a sexual context. The role
of females in determining who leads their social unit requires
further study.

On one occasion, an expelled adult male and female were
observed to form a new group, showing that new groups may
form from a process of forced fissioning. In another instance,
displaced individuals (an adult male, an adult female, and an
immature) were observed wandering within the home ranges
of two established groups. This result suggests that popula-
tion density at the study site is high and that habitat is satu-
rated; thus, all social units may not have home ranges.

Our observations suggest that "sperm competition" (see
Birkhead and Moller, 1998) may be a significant evolution-
ary force in both single-male and multimale-multifemale
groups ofA. pigra. Transferring males, for example, were ob-
served to solicit group females, and vice versa, before the male
successfully obtained group membership or left a group's home
range (see Horwich, 1983). Horwich (1983) observed copu-
lations between a female of one group and an extra-group
male, and even occasional copulations could generate "sperm

competition". In multimale-multifemale groups, newly-
transferred males and resident males were observed to copu-
late with the same resident females during the same estrus
cycles, suggesting "facultative polyandry" in A. pigra as has
been reported for A. palliata (Jones and Cortis-Ortiz, 1998).


Figure 1 is a diagram of the ARBs exhibited by A. pigra in
the present study, as well as those ARB's suspected but not
directly observed. Our observations are preliminary, particu-
larly since we have limited data on age, kinship, and domi-
nance rank. However, it is clear that males exhibit creative
and highly variable reproductive tactics, highlighting the plas-
ticity of social organization in Alouatta as discussed by other
authors (e.g., Crockett and Eisenberg, 1987). The diversity
of mating tactics that we describe for A. pigra are similar to
those observed in other polygynous or polygynandrous so-
cieties (see Dixson, 1998) except that we have not observed
all male groups of>2 individuals (e.g., patas, Hanuman lan-
gurs), we have not observed a male capture and guard one
or more juvenile females until sexual maturity is attained
(e.g., Hamadryas baboon), we have not positively docu-
mented the acquisition of one or more females by a male
from an established group to form a new group (e.g., go-
rilla), nor have we positively documented the inheritance of
a group by a natal male (e.g., gelada and Hamadryas ba-
boons). Interspecific differences in ARBs are likely to be a
function of phylogeny and ecology as well as the factors noted
by Smuts (1987, see Introduction).

Future research must clarify the role that male alliances and
coalitions play in successful group takeovers as well as suc-
cessful resistance of takeovers. While our results suggest that
males belonging to multimale-multifemale groups success-
fully prevent extra-group males from expelling group males,
multimale-multifemale groups may not prevent the entry of
a persistent intruder (see Moore, 1999). Related to these
events is the role of male-female relations in determining
successful takeover and male tenure.

Table 1. Male displacements observed (1992-1997) at the Community Baboon Sanctuary and associated events.
Dares of events Transferring Troop of Troop Male(s) Aggression Copulation Infant
males) origin entered displaced observed attempt or disappearance
1993 UM, TLT Bamboo Wade LLT (GWG) Yes ? ?
1993 WRT, BWB Baptist Fig Scar No No No
Feb-Mar 1995 BWB Fig Roxie BBLT, UM1 Yes Yes' Yes2
March 1995 BBLT Roxie via Baizar 0 Yes Yes Yes3
Baptist &
Sept-Oct 1995 UM2 (RLT) River Trail Bamboo LRT No No No
Nov 1995 LRT Bamboo Wade TWRT No Yes No
Feb-Mar 1997 SA1 Fig, Baizar Robin WLT Yes Yes Yes
SA2, Baizar
'See Brockett, et al, in press.2 Three infants disappeared (see Brockett, et aL, in press). Observed directly.

Neotropical Primates 8(3), September 2000 W/

Became Peripheral
to an Established Unit

Inherit unit over the



$I9 999
May inherit May enigratr
females over the singly or with

Join existing gop and compete
for copulation with or without
9-9 infanticide.

-~ E~I~I~1

Figure 1. Alternative male reproductive tactics (Alouatta pigra)
observed directly and indirectly in the present study at the Com-
munity Baboon Sanctuary, Belize (based on Dixson, 1998).

A noteworthy result of our studies is the identification of a
"cascade effect", possibly a chaotic effect of habitat satura-
tion triggered by male takeovers. Cascade effects may have
important implications for conservation efforts if their de-
mographic consequences increase likelihood of population
extinctions by increasing stochastic factors. Cascade effects
illustrate the importance of identifying and measuring the
differential costs and benefits of polygynous and
polygynandrous mating systems to males in a range of envi-
ronmental conditions. Relying on economic models, Moore
(1999) has recently suggested that these ARBs are best un-
derstood in terms of "intruder pressure, mediated by popu-
lation density".

Future studies, including genetic analyses, will permit us to
compare the behavior and social organization ofA. pigra with
other species of Alouatta. In red howlers (A. seniculus), for
example, Crockett and Sekulic (1984) suggested that a male's
reproductive success subsequent to his taking over a group
was related to his ability to form coalitions with other males.
Our results support their conclusions and are consistent with
mechanisms of change in male tenure reported for A. palliata
(e.g., Jones, 1980; Clarke, 1983; Glander, 1992). While our
present results are preliminary and do not permit us to iden-
tify the complete range of similarities and differences in ARBs
between A. pigra and other species ofAlouatta, future stud-
ies by our and other research programs will enable us to under-

ulm a
( file from a
9 established unit
e and form a ew

new unit.

ma__May foni
alliance with

stand the causes and consequences of polygynous and
polygynandrous social organization within and between species.


We are grateful to Dr. K.E. Glander for his assistance in mark-
ing the animals and to Dr. R. James for help with data collec-
tion. These studies were carried out with the support of the
National Geographic Society (Grants #5352-94 and #5653-96).

Robert H. Horwich, Community Conservation Consultants,
R.D. 1, Box 96, Gays Mills, Wisconsin 54631, USA, Robin
C. Brockett, Zoo Atlanta, Atlanta, Georgia, USA and Clara
B. Jones, Livingstone College, Salisbury, North Carolina
28144, USA. Address for correspondence: Clara B. Jones,
Livingstone College, Department of Psychology, 701 W. Mon-
roe Street, Salisbury, North Carolina 28144, USA,
e-mail: .


Austad, S. N. 1984. A classification of alternative reproduc-
tive behaviors and methods for field-testing ESS models.
Amer. Zool. 24: 309-319.
Birkhead, T. R. and Moller, A. P. (eds.). (1998). Sperm Com-
petition and Sexual Selection. Academic Press, San Diego.
Boggess, J. 1984. Infant killing and male reproductive strate-
gies in langurs (Presbytis entellus). In: Infanticide: Compara-
tive and Evolutionary Perspectives, G. Hausfater. and S. B.
Hrdy (eds.), pp.283-310. Aldine, New York.
Brockett, R. C., Horwich, R. H., and Jones, C. B. 1999. Dis-
appearance of infants following male takeovers in the Belizean
black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra). Neotrop. Primates
Clarke, M. R. 1983. Infant killing and infant disappearance
following male takeovers in a group of free-ranging howling
monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in Costa Rica. Am. J. Primatol.
56: 241-247.
Crockett, C. M. and Eisenberg, J. E 1987. Howlers: varia-
tions in group size and demography. In: Primate Societies, B.
B. Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham,
andT. T. Struhsaker (eds.), pp.54-68. The University of Chi-
cago Press, Chicago.
Crockett, C. M. and Sekulic, R. 1984. Infanticide in red howler
monkeys (Alouatta seniculus). In: Infanticide: Comparative
and Evolutionary Perspectives, G. Hausfater and S. B. Hrdy
(eds.), pp.173-191. Aldine, New York.
Dixson, A. E 1998. Primate Sexuality. Oxford University Press,
Emlen, S. T. and Oring, L. W. 1977. Ecology, sexual selection
and the evolution of mating systems. Science 197: 215-223.
Glander, K. E. 1992. Dispersal patterns in Costa Rican mantled
howling monkeys. Int. J. Primatol. 13: 415-436.
Horwich, R. H. 1983. Breeding behaviors in the black howler
monkey (Alouattapigra) of Belize. Primates 24: 222-230.
Horwich, R. H. 1990. How to develop a community sanctu-
ary: An experimental approach to the conservation of pri-
vate lands. Oryx 24: 95-102.

without mab-

98 Neotropical Primates 8(3), September 2000

Horwich, R. H. and Lyon, J. 1990. A Belizean Rainforest.
Orang-Utan Press, Gays Mills, WI.
Hrdy, S. B. 1974. Male-male competition and infanticide
among the langurs (Presbytis entellus) of Abu, Rajasthan.
Folia Primatol. 22: 19-58.
Jones, C. B. 1980. The functions of status in the mantled
howler monkey, Alouatta palliata Gray: Intraspecific com-
petition for group membership in a folivorous neotropical
primate. Primates 21: 389-405.
Jones, C. B. 1995. Alternative reproductive behaviors in
the mantled howler monkey (Alouattapalliata Gray): Test-
ing Carpenter's hypothesis. Boletin Primatoldgico
Latinoamericano 5: 1-5.
Jones, C. B. and Cortes-Ortiz, L. 1998. Facultative polyan-
dry in the howling monkey (Alouatta palliata): Carpenter
was correct. Boletin Primatol6gico Latinoamericano 7: 1-7.
Leland, L., Struhsaker, T. T., and Butynski, T. M. 1984. In-
fanticide by adult males in three primate species of Kibale
Forest, Uganda: A test of hypotheses. In: Infanticide: Com-
parative and Evolutionary Perspectives, G. Hausfater and S.
B. Hrdy (eds.), pp. 151-172. Aldine, New York.
Ostro, L. E. T, Silver, S. C., Koontz, E W., Young, T. P. and
Horwich, R. H. 1999. Ranging behavior of translocated and
established groups of black howler monkeys Alouattapigra in
Belize, Central America. Biol Conserv. 87: 181-190.
Silver, S. C., Ostro, L. E. T., Yeager, C. P., Koontz, E W. and
Horwich, R. 1998. The feeding ecology of the black howler
monkey (Alouattapigra) in Northern Belize. Am.J. Primatol.
45: 263-279.
Smuts, B. B. 1985. Sex and Friendship in Baboons. Hawthorne,
Aldine, NY.
Smuts, B. B. 1987. Sexual Competition and mate choice. In:
Primate Societies, B. B. Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth,
R. W. Wrangham and T. T. Struhsaker (eds.), pp.385-399.
The University of Chicago Press. Chicago.
Trivers, R. L. 1972. Parental investment and sexual selection.
In: Sexual Selection and the Descent ofMan 1871-1971, B.
Campbell (ed.), pp. 136-179. Aldine, Chicago.


Carlos R. Ruiz- Miranda
Adriana G. Affonso
Andrdia Martins & Benjamin Beck


0 mico-leao-dourado (Leontopithecus rosalia) 6 uma especie
native da mata Atlintica, sendo um dos primatas mais
ameacados de extincao (Kleiman et al., 1988; Dietz et al.,
1994). As causes principals dessa situaqco sio falta de habitat
e o trifico illegal de animals silvestres (Dietz et al., 1994;

Kierulff, 1994). As populag6es remanescentes
(aproximadamente 800 individuos) se encontram em
fragments de mata, sendo que 60% se encontram em Areas
protegidas, 25% em dreas nao protegidas mas seguras e 15%
em pequenos fragments florestais isolados e desprotegidos
(AMLD, 1998). Esta situacqo as faz vulneriveis a catAstrofes,
processes aleat6rios e efeitos antr6picos, como a caqa e
introducao de espcies ex6ticas (Meffe e Carroll 1994; Foose
et al., 1995).

O program de reintroduqIo do mico-leao-dourado ao seu
ambiente nativo, tem como alvo os animals de cativeiro
encontrados em zool6gicos (nos EUA e Europa), que sdo
trazidos a fragments de mata Atlantica de fazendas
particulares no estado do Rio de Janeiro (15 fazendas). Existe
hoje uma populacao de 279 individuos que slo monitorados
semanalmente pelos tecnicos da Associaqao Mico-Ledo-
Dourado (AMLD) (AMLD, 1998). A reintroducao do mico-
leao-dourado e um dos poucos casos de reintroducao bern
sucedidos. Grande parte do sucesso se deve a esforros ap6s a
reintroducqo para manter a sobrevivencia dos animals de
cativeiro at6 eles se reproduzirem na mata (Beck etal., 1991;
AMLD, 1998; Castro et al., 1998). Num "workshop" de
AnAlise de Viabilidade de Habitats e Populaq6es (PHVA),
realizado em 1997 (Ballou et al., 1998), foi colocado como
prioridade a compreensdo dos fatores que afetam a
sobrevivencia ap6s as reintroduq6es, e um dos fatores citados
foi a presenga do Callithrix jacchus, uma especie ex6tica, no
estado do Rio de Janeiro.

A partir de 1985 foi observada a presence de individuos do
sagiii (Callithrixjacchus) em fragments de mata nas fazendas
destinadas a reintroducao do mico-lelo. C. jacchus, originArio
do nordeste brasileiro, vemn sendo introduzido no estado do
Rio de Janeiro, resultado do trafico illegal de animals silvestres.
A ecologia desta esp&cie 6 parecida corn a dos micos-le6es e
por isso, poderiam ser competidores. 0 grau de competicqo
imposto por uma especie introduzida iri defender da
semelhanqa entire os nichos da esp&cie native e da exotica.

Observaq6es feitas pelos t&cnicos da AMLD indicam que C.
jacchus utiliza os comedouros colocados para os micos-le6es
e os acompanha durante o dia, sendo registrados
comportamentos agressivos (por exemplo, luta) e afiliativos
(por exemplo, brincadeiras) entire as esp6cies. Nio existem
dados quantitativos sobre o tamanho da populacao de C.
jacchus, grau de associaco entire as duas esp&cies e a
organiza:go funcional da associaiao.

0 objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a distribuicgo de C
jacchus nas areas de ocorrencia do Leontopithecus rosalia e
tambem estimar a populacao de C. jacchus no maior
fragmento de mata com micos-le6es reintroduzidos.


Foi verificada a ocorrencia de C. jacchus nas 15 fazendas com
micos-le6es reintroduzidos localizadas nos municfpios de Rio

Neotropical Primates 8(3), September 2000 99

Bonito e Silva Jardim no Rio de Janeiro. A amostragem
populacional foi realizada na Fazenda Rio Vermelho,
localizada no municipio de Rio Bonito (4235'W, 2243'S).
Esta fazenda foi escolhida como modelo por ter o maior
fragmento de mata (1.000 ha) e a maior populaqio de micos-
le6es reintroduzidos. No infcio do estudo esta fazenda possuia
10 grupos de micos-le6es corn um total de 65 individuos
marcados individualmente e com colares de telemetria (um
indivfduo por grupo).

Amostragem da populafdo
O levantamento da populacao de C. jacchus nas fazendas
destinadas a reintroduqio de micos-le6es foi feito atravds de
uma enquete aos t6cnicos da AMLD, que monitoram todas
as fazendas tres vezes por semana desde 1985. As respostas
dos tecnicos se basearam nos registros diarios do program e
percepq6es ou observaq6es pessoais da coordenadora, Andrdia
Martins (AMLD), a qual tern 15 anos de servico no projeto
de reintroducao.

A partir de outubro de 1998 comeqaram as captures mensais
para estimar o tamanho da populacao de C. jacchus na
Fazenda. As captures foram feitas usando entire 12 a 18
armadilhas tipo "Tomahawk" por grupo, cevadas corn ba-
nanas e colocadas em sete plataformas de capture. 0 esforqo
para capturar um grupo terminou no dia em que foram
capturados pelo menos a metade dos membros.

Os sagiiis capturados foram levados ao laborat6rio (localizado
em Rio do Ouro, Rio Bonito), onde foram anestesiados corn
Ketamina (sob supervisor do veterinArio C. Verona da
Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense) e marcados corn
tatuagem (na perna direita, corn a sigla do grupo e o ndmero
do mico). Os animals ficaram sob supervisor veterinAria ate
passar os efeitos do anest6sico, ap6s o qual foram devolvidos
ao lugar de capture.

A estimativa da populacso de C jacchus foi feita atravds da
contagem de todos os individuos marcados, representando o
numero minimo de sagiiis na Fazenda Rio Vermelho. Este
ndmero foi dividido pela area de mata para estimar a densidade
populacional mfnima (Cullen, Jr. e Valladares-Padua, 1997).


C. jacchus esti amplamente distribuido dentro da Area de
ocorrencia do mico-leao. Das 15 fazendas corn micos-le6es,
sete contem sagiiis (Tabela 1). Destas sete, as cinco fazendas
mais ao sul (nas Areas de Rio Vermelho e Afetiva) jA tinham
sagiiis ao infcio das reintrodug6es (c. 1985), das fazendas mais
ao norte (Area de Santa Helena, nas fazendas Dois Irmaos e
Igarap6), os sagiiis foram avistados somente a partir de 1998
(Tabela 1). Foram avistados sagiiis na Reserva Biol6gica de Poqo
das Antas, mas nao na Reserva Biol6gica da Fazenda Unigo.

Os resultados indicam que a populacio de C. jacchus na Fazenda
Rio Vermelho esti maior do que a populacqo de L. rosalia. Fo-
ram marcados 90 individuos, provavelmente de nove grupos
socials, representando o ndmero mfnimo da populacqo
(densidade = 0,09 ind/ha), enquanto que a populaco de mico-
leao na Fazenda Rio Vermelho foi de 62 animals (densidade =
0,06 ind/ha). Foi observado que nos territ6rios de dois grupos
de micos-le6es (TRI, EST) havia pelo menos dois grupos de
sagiii, enquanto nos outros grupos (APP, RV) havia apenas um
grupo de sagiiis.


Callithrixjacchus 6 uma espdcie originiria do nordeste brasileiro,
habitando predominantemente florestas secundarias ou
perturbadas (Ferrari, 1993). Hoje em dia podemos encontrar
essa espdcie em virios fragments de mata no estado do Rio de
Janeiro, sendo freqiientemente encontrados em parques da
cidade do Rio de Janeiro alim de fazendas no interior do estado,
principalmente a regiko centro-fluminense. 0 trifico illegal de

Tabela 1. Area (ha), nmmero de individuos e data do primeiro avistamento de sagiiiis, nas fazendas destinadas a reintrodu!o do mico-leio-
dourado e seu agrupamento por regi6es.
Fazenda Regija Area (ha) N' de Mico-leto Presenga de Sagiiis
Rio er melho Rio Bonito 10001 62 1985
Afetiva 45 2 1985
Estreito nd 11 1985
St Cisne Branco Afetiva nd 3 1985
St Pacoty nd 5 1985
Igarape 150 18 1998
2 Irmnos 87 38 1998
Bom Retiro Santa Helena 550 8 *
Slo Francisco 25 28 *
Coqueiro 20 28 *
Santa Helena 235 26 *
Iguape 77 26 *
Kombi Pogo das Antas nd 2 *
Maratua 100 16 *
Pogo das Antas 5600 250 2000
Total 7889 565 7 fazendas
nao foi observada a presenga de sagiiiis desde 1985 nd: nao disponivel

100 Neotropical Primates 8(3), September 2000

animals silvestres aumentou corn a construcio de rodovias
ligando os diferentes estados (Dean, 1995). A dispersao dos
sagiiis para a regiao centro fluminense provavelmente
intensificou-se corn a construcgo da BR-101 e a ponte Rio-
Niter6i. Atualmente, hi sete fazendas da reintrodugio de mico-
leao-dourado corn a presenca de sagiiis. Em 1985 o sagii estava
present apenas nos fragments de Rio Bonito (26 km distant
da Reserva Biol6gica Pogo das Antas) e na regiao da Fazenda
Afetiva (16 km de Poqo das Antas). Treze anos depois, em 1998,
os sagiiis apareceram nos fragmentos na regiao da Fazenda Santa
Helena, a 1 km de Poqo das Antas, com uma taxa de expansao
de 1,2 km/ano. JA em 2000, foram observados sagiiis no centro
educativo da Reserva Biol6gica Poo das Antas. A presenga do
sagui na reserve e a proximidade corn outras fazendas aumentam
o perigo de que esta especie possa vir a colonizar esses fragments
de mata onde os micos-le6es selvagens se encontram,
dificultando ainda mais a conservacqo dessa espdcie.

No maior fragmento de mata corn mico-le6es reintroduzidos,
a fazenda Rio Vermelho em Rio Bonito, a populacao de C.
jacchus esti maior que a dos micos. Hi pelo menos 10 grupos
de mico-le6es (0,06 ind/ha) e nove de sagitis (0,09 ind/ha) em
1000 ha de mata. As femeas de Callithrix possuem um alto
potential reprodutivo. Verificamos em nossas captures e
observaq6es na Fazenda Rio Vermelho, a presenca de femeas
grividas e lactantes em todas as estaq6es do ano, ji o mico-lelo
s6 teve filhotes no perfodo de setembro a marqo. 0 alto potential
reprodutivo do sagiiis pode ser uma das causes da ripida
expansio da especie pelo estado do Rio de Janeiro.

A associaqao entire especies de primatas simpitricos e corn habi-
tats similares, tem sido documentada em florestas amaz6nicas,
onde as associa6es parecem trazer beneficios mdtuos (Garber,
1988; Heymann, 1990; Peres, 1992; Lopes e Ferrari, 1994).
No entanto, a assodaco de primatas nativos e ex6ticos & pouco
estudada, e essa aparente associa.,o poderia resultar em
competiqdo por recursos e troca de parasitas entire as duas
especies e, portanto um obsticulo para a conservacao do
Leontopithecus. Os Leontopithecus e os Callitrhix sdo simpitricos
somente nas florestas do norte da Bahia. Na Reserva Biol6gica
de Una, L. chrysomelas e o C. kuhlii se associam corn pouca
freqiiuncia e esta esp&cie parece explorer o Leontopithecus (Ruiz-
Miranda, obs. pess.). Na Fazenda Rio Vermelho, o indice de
associacao entire C. jacchus e os L. rosalia chega a 65% durante
o inverno, e a presenqa do C. jacchus muda o comportamento
dos L. rosalia reintroduzidos (Affonso et al., no prelo).

Podemos concluir que o sagiii e um factor de importincia para
a conservaco do mico-leao-dourado. Antes de qualquer media
de manejo da populacao dos sagiiis, e necessirio mais estudos
para determinar ate que ponto essa possivel sobreposicao de
nichos poderi prejudicar o restabelecimento do mico-leio-
dourado em seu ambiente natural e saber como a dispersio
desta especie pelas fazendas esti ocorrendo, pois a presenca de
um ex6tico competitor e essencial para considerar futuras ireas
de reintroducao (Kleiman et al., 1990).


Esse estudo recebeu apoio logfstico da Associacao Mico-Le0o-
Dourado, o Instituto Brasileiro de Meio Ambiente e dos
Recursos Naturais Renoviveis (IBAMA) e UENF/
FENORTE. Apoio financieiro veio de PRONABIO/
PROBIO/MMA com funds do BIRD-GEF-MCT, Frank-
furt Zoological Society Fund for Threatened Species, e o
National Zoological Park do Smithsonian Institution.
Agradecemos aos alunos (Vera Sabatini, Sergio Bonadiman,
Guilherme Faria, Amilcar Fraga, Fabricio Alvim, Claudia R.
de Oliveira, Agnes Velloso, Carlos Eduardo Verona) e t6cnicos
da AMLD (Ezequiel Moraes dos Santos e a equipe de
reintroducao) que nos ajudaram na coleta de dados e ao Sr.
Paulo Abreu, dono da fazenda aonde foi realizado o estudo.

Carlos R. Ruiz-Miranda, Adriana G. Affonso Laborat6rio
de Ci8ncias Ambientais, Universidade Estadual do Norte
Fluminense Av. Alberto Lamego 2000, Campos 20815-620,
Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, Andrdia Martins, Associagco Mico-
Lelo-Dourado, Caixa Postal 109968, Casimiro de Abreu
28860-970, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil e Benjamin Beck, Na-
tional Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institution, Washing-
ton, DC 20008, USA.


AMLD. 1998. Relat6rio Anual da Associaq~o Mico-Ledo-
Dourado. Annual report of the Golden Lion Tamarin As-
sociation. Associaqao Mico-Leko-Dourado/Golden Lion
Tamarin Association, Silva Jardim, Rio de Janeiro.
Affonso, A. G., Ruiz-Miranda, C. R. e Beck, B. B. No prelo.
Interaq6es ecol6gicas entire mico-leio-dourado
(Leontopithecus rosalia Linnaeus, 1758) reintroduzido e
mico-estrela (Callithrix jacchus Linnaeus, 1758)
introduzido em fragments de mata Atlantica, RJ. Em: A
Primatologia no Brasil Vol 8, S. L. Mendes eA. G. Chiarello
(eds.), Santa Teresa, Espirito Santo.
Ballou, J. D., Lacy, R. C., Kleiman, D. G., Rylands, A. B. e
Ellis, S. 1998. Leontopithecus II. Final Report: The Second
Population and Habitat Viability Assessment for Lion Tama-
rins (Leontopithecus), 20-22 de maio de 1997, IUCN/SSC
Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, MN.
Beck, B. B., Kleiman, D. G., Dietz, J. M., Castro, M. I.,
Carvalho, C., Martins, A. e Rettberg-Beck, B. 1991. Losses
and reproduction in reintroduced golden lion tamarins,
Leontopithecus rosalia. Dodo, J. Jersey Wild. Preserv. Trusts
27: 50-61.
Castro, M. I., Beck, B. B., Kleiman, D. G., Ruiz-Miranda,
C. R. and Rosenberger, A. R. 1998. Can environmental
enrichment help with golden lion tamarin reintroduction.
Em: Second Nature: EnvironmentalEnrichmentfor Captive
Animals, D. J. Shepherdson, J. D. Mellen e M. Hutchins
(eds.), pp.113-128. Smithsonian Institution Press, Wash-
ington, DC.
Cullen, Jr., L. e Valladares-Padua, C. 1997. M6todos para
estudo de ecologia, manejo e conservacgo de primatas na
natureza. Em: Manejo e Conservaqdo de Vida Silvestre no

Neotropical Primates 8(3), September 2000 101

Brasil, C. Valladares-Padua, R. E. Bodmer and L. Cullen,
Jr. (eds.), pp.239-269. MCT-CNPq, Sociedade Civil
Mamiraud, Brasilia e Tefe.
Dean, W. 1995. With Broadax and Firebrand: The Destruc-
tion of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. University of Califor-
nia Press, Berkeley.
Dietz, J. M., Dietz, L. A. e Nagagata, E. 1994. The effective
use of flagship species for conservation of biodiversity:
The example of lion tamarins in Brazil. Em: Creative Con-
servation: Interactive Management ofWild and CaptiveAni-
mals, P. J. S. Olney, G. M. Mace e A. T. C. Feismer. (eds.),
pp.32-49. Chapman and Hall, London.
Ferrari, S. F. 1993. Ecological differentiation in the
Callitrichidae. Em: Marmosets and Tamarins: Systematics,
Behaviour, and Ecology, A. B. Rylands (ed.), pp.314-328.
Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Foose, T. J., De Boer, L., Seal, U. S. e Lande, R. 1995. Con-
servation management strategies based on viable popula-
tions. Em: Population Management fr SurvivalandRecov-
ery: Analytical Methods and Strategies in Small Population
Conservation, J. D. Ballou, M. Gilpin e T. J. Foose (eds.),
pp.273-294. Columbia University Press, New York.
Garber, P. A. 1988. Diet, foraging patterns, and resource
defense in a mixed species troop of Saguinus mystax
and Saguinus fuscicollis in Amazonian Peru. Behaviour
105(1-2): 18-34.
Heymann, E. W. 1990. Interspecific relations in a mixed
species troop of moustached tamarins, Saguinus mystax,
and saddle-back tamarins, Saguinusfuscicollis (Platyrrhini:
Callitrichidae), at the Rio Blanco, Peruvian Amazonia. Am.
J. Primatol. 21: 115-127.
Kierulff, M. C. 1994. Avaliaco das Populag6es Selvagens
de Micos-Le6es-Dourados, Leontopithecus rosalia, e
Proposta de Estrategia para Sua Conservacao. Tese de
Mestrado, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo
Kleiman, D. G., Beck, B. B., Baker, A. J., Ballou, J. D.,
Dietz, L. A. e Dietz, J. M. 1990. The conservation pro-
gram for the golden lion tamarin, Leontopithecus rosalia.
Endangered Species Update 8(1): 82-85.
Kleiman, D. G., Hoage, R. J. e Green, K. M. 1988. The
lion tamarins, genus Leontopithecus. Em: Ecology and Be-
havior of Neotropical Primates. R. A. Mittermeier, A. E.
Coimbra-Filho, A. B. Rylands e G. A. B. da Fonseca (eds.),
pp.299-347. World Wildlife Fund-US, Washington, DC.
Lopes, M. A. e Ferrari, S. F. 1994. Foraging behavior of a
tamarin group (Saguinus fuscicollis weddelli) and interac-
tions with marmosets (Callithrix emiliae). Int. J. Primatol.
15(3): 373-387.
Meffe, G. K. e Carroll, C. R. 1994. Principles of Conserva-
tion Biology. Sunderland, Sinauer Associates, Inc., Massa-
Peres, C. A. 1992. Prey-capture benefits in a mixed-species
group of Amazonian tamarins, Saguinus fuscicollis and S.
mystax. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 31: 339-347.
Rylands, A. B. e Faria, D. S. de.1993. Habitats, feeding ecology,
and home range size in the genus Calithrix. Em: Marmosets and
Tamarms: Sytematics, Behaviour, andEcology,A. B. Rylands (ed.),
pp.262-272. Oxford University Press, Oxford.


Robin C. Brockett
Bruce C. Clark


The Belize Ministry of Natural Resources formally approved
the establishment of the Wildlife Care Center of Belize (WCCB)
in October 1996. Located within Monkey Bay Wildlife Sanc-
tuary (MBWS), the WCCB's goals are:

1. Maintain confiscated wildlife and evaluate suitability for
2. Explore suitable options for non-releasable wildlife.
3. Conduct Monkey Bay National Park habitat surveys and
post-release wildlife monitoring, for example, see Clark
and Brockett, 1999.
4. Research, develop and document rehabilitation techniques
for this location.
5. Provide training opportunities for Belizean students and
conservation personnel.
6. Collaborate with governmental and non-governmental
organizations on public awareness programs.
7. Publish data in relevant scientific journals.

In February 1998 the Conservation Division of the Forest
Department of Belize confiscated an eight-month old, female
black howler monkey (Alouattapigra). She was in the posses-
sion of a private individual residing in the Cayo District. Fed a
market diet with limited veterinary care and obviously human-
ized, she was presented to the WCCB at five pounds and in
surprisingly good health. She was immediately placed in a small
holding pen and allowed out for exercise three times daily. In
March 1998 an estimated eight-month old male was similarly
acquired, originating from the Belize District. This animal was
fed rice, powdered milk, fruit and occasional native browse.
He was of reasonable weight at five pounds, but was lethargic
and displayed chronic diarrhea. This animal was maintained
in visual proximity of the newly acquired female. Both animals
accepted market produce and native browse immediately.

The pair were gradually introduced over a period of several
days of visual and limited physical contact, and only after fecal
checks proved negative. Diet consisted of various market and
native fruits and approximately 35 native browse species cut
and presented three times daily by the first author. Over time
fruits were reduced, but never eliminated, to induce browse

Based upon the methodology of the howler translocation from
CBS to Cockscomb (Koontz et al., 1994), two negative TB
tests were conducted three months apart. Chemical
tranquilization with Telazol (Tiletamine/Zolazepam, 100 mg/
ml, Fort Dodge Animal Health, Fort Dodge, Iowa, USA) was
administered the second time to permit a thorough examina-

102 Neotropical Primates 8(3), September 2000

tion and to insert a permanent metal identification ear tag.
Radio collaring was not an option due to the size of the ani-
mals. Fecal samples were performed periodically throughout
the fifteen months of captivity with all but one sample prov-
ing negative. Ascarids were found in one sample and treat-
ment with Pyrantel (pyrantel pamoate, Pfizer, Inc., US Ani-
mal Health Operations, 235 E. 42"n Street, New York, NY)
cleared the condition. Weights were monitored throughout
the captive phase. Early on, the male was found to have suf-
fered a break of the left tibia, thought to have been caused by
his poor diet. Full use of the limb was eventually regained.
Botfly infestations are relatively common in wild populations
and generally do not result in problems. Both animals were
treated with Ivermectin (Ivomec, 10 mg/ml, Merck AgVet
Division, Merck & Co., Inc., Rashway, New Jersey, USA)
when larvae counts reached 5 per animal. In December 1998
the male presented an approximately 40% hair loss, thought
to be attributed to botfly bites. Skin scrapings were negative
and the scratching eventually subsided with treatment of Pred-
nisone (Prednisolone, Merck, Sharp and Dohme, Division of
Merck and Co., In., West Point, Pennsylvania, USA).

Pre-release Training

In September 1998 the animals were moved to an enclosure
to encourage native browse foraging, exercise and to dehu-
manize. This enclosure contained native trees, surrounded by
137 meters of electrified nylon mesh measuring one meter in
height (Fast-Fence Net, WV Fence Corporation) and charged
by solar-power. A small holding-cage measuring 1.8 x 1.8 x
2.4 m was placed inside to allow supplemental feeding and
aid in recapture. Supplemental feedings were gradually re-
stricted. Containerized water was available continuously, al-
though animals were observed early on drinking off leaves
and from tree crotches. A swath was kept dear surrounding
the charged fence for a distance of five meters. This contain-
ment method has proved effective for howlers, which are not
adept jumpers and do not brachiate. The animals were condi-
tioned to a clicker to signal feeding with the presumption
that predictable entering of the feeding cage would aid in re-
capture. Furthermore, clicker training would help to locate
the animals once released. A total of 300 observational hours
were conducted during the survival training portion of this

Release Methodology
Published behavioral, ecological and translocation data helped
to develop criteria supporting the highest expectation of sur-
vivorship for this program (Brockett, unpubl. obs.; Brockett
etal., in press; Ostro etal., in press; Ostro etal., 1999; Silver
et al., 1999; IUCN, 1995a; IUCN, 1995b; Horwich et al.,
1993; Horwich and Lyon, 1990; Griffith etal., 1989; Neville
et al., 1988; Horwich and Johnson, 1986; Horwich, 1983;
Haarthorn, 1982; Konstant and Mittermeier, 1981). Criteria
1. Minimum of two familiar and unrelated animals will be
released together for predator avoidance, sociality,
foraging success and observation conspicuousness.

2. Animals must be behaviorally sound, physically adept
and able to identify natural food sources.
3. Veterinarian supported health screenings including fecal
floats and TB negative. Identification markers must be
apparent for observational follow-up.
4. At least one animal must be two or more years old. Wild
individuals disperse at that age.
5. The re-release area must be protected, have habitat
capable of supporting howlers and be of low howler
population density. An acclimatization period must be
maintained in a natural setting minimizing human
dependence and contact.
6. Soft-release methodology must be employed.

In May 1999 the howler pair were relocated to a pre-se-
lected wild release site located deep within MBNP They were
placed in a 2.4 cubic meter holding cage and fed favored
fruits and native browse three times per day for a total of
four days to acclimate to the new location. Some human
contact was maintained to ensure a reasonable prediction of
re-entry into this cage if necessary.

On Day four within MBNP, the animals were released dur-
ing early morning. They immediately ran along the ground
for approximately 10 m before heading up into trees. Main-
taining continual visual or auditory contact with each other,
within five minutes they located a native fruit tree. Three
hours post-release, the animals were enticed back into the
holding cage with the clicker, fed fruits and locked in over-
night. This scenario was repeated for two additional days
when, on the third day, they refused to re-enter. Supplemen-
tal feedings were offered three times per day. The animals
refused altogether the browse presented. An increasing re-
luctance to accept more than one fruit feeding or to descend
below 2.4 m of the ground quickly became apparent. Within
fourteen days of release they became unresponsive to the

Behavioral analysis
Post-release data were collected from sunrise to sunset daily
on behavior and ranging. Approximately 150 field-hours were
documented between 30 May and 8 July 1999. A follow-up
paper will be drafted documenting comparative behavior pre-
and post-release. During Week five, a wild adult male joined
the pair and remained in immediate proximity for 14 days.
The rainy season began in earnest and flooding of the site
made further access impossible. Within 14 days, the rains
subsided and re-contact was attempted. On three separate
occasions vocalizations were heard, yet the animals were not
observed. After cutting and mapping new trails to the pre-
sumed location of the vocalization, re-contact was not con-
firmed. On 16 October, three unrelated howlers were observed,
an adult male and female with one juvenile male. The next day
this trio was observed in proximity of the repatriated pair.
However disappointing it was to have missed this group for-
mation, follow-up observations determined that this newly
formed group of five animals has maintained habitual contact.

Neotropical Primates 8(3), September 2000 103


It is believed that neither of the confiscated howlers had been
with conspecifics for two-three months prior to introduction.
The immediately successful introduction appears to be a result
of an age-specific response. The primary author observed simi-
lar-aged, yet unfamiliar wild animals interacting, while adults
of each group looked on. Eight months old is perhaps an ideal
age for introductions. Additionally, these animals were prob-
ably juveniles rather than infants upon initial capture judging
from their acceptance of a natural diet and the demonstration
of appropriate predator responses. As of this writing, additional
release candidates have been relocated to the WCCB. Primate
surveys in surrounding areas of MBNP are planned.


Conservation International, the Margot Marsh Biodiversity
Foundation, Roger Williams Park Zoo, Kansas City Zoo-
logical Gardens and Riverbanks Zoo generously provided
funding for this project. J. Dawson, M. Fox, R. Jones, K.
Whittington and H. Wohlers assisted field support and data
collection. The authors are grateful to Natalie Rosado, Con-
servation Officer-In-Charge, Conservation Division, Belize
Forest Department, for support of this project.

Robin C. Brockett, Wildlife Care Center of Belize, P. 0.
Box 346, Belmopan, Belize, Central America, e-mail:
and Bruce C. Clark, Roger
Williams Park Zoo, 1000 Elmwood Avenue, Providence,
Rhode Island 02907, USA, e-mail: .


Brockett, R. C., Horwich, R. H. and Jones, C. B. 2000.
Female dispersal in the Belizean black howler monkey
(Alouatta pigra). Neotrop. Primates 8(1): 32-34.
Clark, B. and Brockett, R. 1999. Black howler monkey
(Alouatta pigra) reintroduction program: Population
census and habitat assessment. Neotrop. Primates 7(2):
Griffith, B., Scott, J. M., Carpenter, J. W and Reed, C. 1989.
Translocation as a species conservation tool: Status and
strategy. Science 245: 477-480.
Harthorn, A. M. 1982. Translocation as a means of preserv-
ing wild animals. Oryx 6: 215-227.
Horwich, R. H. 1983. Species status of the black howler
monkey, Alouattapigra, of Belize. Primates 24: 288-289.
Horwich, R. H. and Johnson, E. D. 1986. Geographic dis-
tribution of the black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) in
Central America. Primates 27: 53-62.
Horwich, R. H. and Lyon, J. 1990. A Belizean Rainforest.
Orang-Utan Press, Gays Mills, WI.
Horwich, R. H., Koontz, E, Saqui, E., Saqui, H. and Glander,
K. 1993. A reintroduction program for the conservation
of the black howler monkey in Belize. Endangered Species
Update 10: 1-6.
IUCN. 1995a. Draft Guidelines for Reintroductions. Species
Survival Commission (SSC) Reintroduction Specialist

Group, IUCN-The World Conservation Union, Gland, Swit-
IUCN. 1995b. Draft Guidelines for the Placement of Confis-
catedAnimals. Species Survival Commission Reintroduction
Specialist Group, IUCN-The World Conservation Union,
Gland, Switzerland.
Konstant, W R. and Mittermeier, R. A. 1981. Introduction,
reintroduction and translocation of Neotropical primates: Past
experience and future possibilities. Int. Zoo Yearb.
22: 69-77.
Koontz, E W, Horwich, R., Saqui, E., Saqui, H., Glander, K.,
Koontz, C. and Westrom, W 1994. Reintroduction of black
howler monkeys (Alouattapigra) into the Cockscomb Basin
Wildlife Sanctuary, Belize. In: American Zoo and Aquarium
Association Annual Conference Proceedings, pp. 104-111. AZA,
Bethesda, Maryland.
Neville, M. K., Glander, K. E., Braza, E and Rylands, A. B.
1988. The howling monkeys, Genus Alouatta. In: Ecology
and Behavior ofNeotropical Primates, R. A. Mittermeier, A.
B. Rylands, A. E Coimbra-Filho and G. A. B. da Fonesca,
(eds.), pp.349-454. World Wildlife Fund, Washington, DC.
Ostro, L. E. T., Silver, S. C., Koontz, E W, Young, T. P. and
Horwich, R. 1999. Ranging behavior of translocated and
established groups of black howler monkeys (Alouattapigra)
in Belize, Central America. Biol. Conserv. 87: 181-190.
Ostro, L. E. T., Silver, S. C., Koontz, F. W and Young, T. P. In
prep. Habitat selection in translocated groups of black howler
monkeys (Alouatta pigra) in Belize, Central America.
Silver, S. C., Ostro, E. T., Yeager, C. P. and Horwich, R. 1999.
The feeding ecology of the black howler monkeys (Alouatta
pigra) in northern Belize. Am. J. Primatol 45: 263-279.


Kellen A. Gilbert

During a survey of primates in a 100-ha isolated forest frag-
ment, a crested eagle (Morphnus guianensis) attacked a young
female white-faced saki (Pitheciapithecia). The forest fragment
is one of the reserves of the Biological Dynamics of Forest Frag-
ments Project (BDFFP) located about 80 km north of Manaus,
Amazonas, Brazil. This area of the central Amazonian basin is
upland terra firme moist forest (Bierregaard et al., 1992). Six
primate species, Ateles paniscus, Alouatta seniculus, Cebus apella,
Chiropotes satanas, Pithecia pithecia, and Saguinus midas are in
the reserve area, but only groups ofA. seniculus, P. pithecia, and
S. midas inhabit this 100-ha reserve (pers. obs). Potential avian
predators of monkeys observed in the reserve area include
Harpia harpyja, M. guianensis, and Spizeatus ornatus (Cohn-
Haft et al., 1997).

At 11:07, while conducting a primate survey, about 30 meters
from the edge of the reserve, I observed a P pithecia group. I
counted three individuals; an adult male, an adult female, and
a smaller female. The male was on a large horizontal branch

104 Neotropical Primates 8(3), September 2000

about 15 m above the ground, looking about while pacing
and making a low chuck vocalization. The females were to-
gether about 10 m from the male. They appeared agitated
and moved closer to the male as I observed. At 11:09 a large
raptor flew from the interior of the reserve toward the group.
The bird, a crested eagle, swooped down into the tree where
the younger female was last seen. There was a loud screaming
vocalization by the female and a loud sound of breaking
branches. The attack took less than ten seconds. The eagle
then flew at midstory toward the edge of the reserve. Imme-
diately after the eagle left, the adult male saki returned to the
location of the attack and appeared piloerected. The adult
female then moved closer to the male and both left the area
silently. I did not observe the eagle with the saki, nor did I
find the body of the juvenile female. I did not see the younger
female again however on repeated surveys of the group.

This is the first reported observation of an avian attack on P.
pithecia. Crested eagles prey on a variety of small to medium-
sized mammals. At a crested eagle nest in one of the BDFFP
reserves, Bierregaard (1984) found the remains of small ro-
dents, marsupials and two kinkajous (Potosflavus) whose adult
weight is approximately 2.6 kg (Fonseca et al., 1996). Julliot
(1994) observed a crested eagle take a six to eight-month old
spider monkey in French Guiana. An adult white-faced saki
weighs approximately 1.5-2.25 kg (Buchanan et al., 1981).
An immature individual, weighing closer to the lower end of
the range, could be a likely prey item for a crested eagle.

Buchanan et al. (1981) reported that a captive juvenile P.
pithecia displayed an alarm reaction of freezing without vo-
calization when exposed to large bird silhouettes and to the
overhead movement of large objects. This behavior is in con-
trast to the agitated behaviors of the sakis observed in this
case. The saki group in the reserve was not habituated, so the
reaction observed may have been due to the presence of the

Observations of predation and attempted predation on pri-
mates are rare. In the neotropics, harpy eagles have been the
most common predators observed to take immature and adult
howling monkeys (Rettig, 1978; Eason, 1989; Peres, 1990;
Sherman, 1991). Peres (1990) reported secondhand but reli-
able observations of harpy eagle predation on sakis and other
primate species in Amazonia. The crested eagle needs to be
considered a significant primate predator as well. Informa-
tion on predation is needed for a more comprehensive exami-
nation of the constraints on free-ranging primate sociality. It
is also important to note that the isolation of forest fragments,
in this case, did not eliminate a large avian predator.

Acknowledgments: I am grateful for the support of Claude
Gascon and comments by Mario Cohn-Haft. I thank the
Institute Nacional de Pesquisas da Amaz6nia and SUFRAMA
for permission to work in the BDFFP reserves. This project
was supported by the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments
Project and Southeastern Louisiana University.

Kellen A. Gilbert, Department of Sociology, Social Work
and Criminal Justice, Southeastern Louisiana University,
Hammond, LA 70402, USA, e-mail: .


Bierregaard, R. 0. Jr. 1984. Observations of the nesting
biology of the Guiana crested eagle Morphnus guianensis.
Wilson Bull. 96: 1-5.
Bierregaard, R. 0. Jr., Lovejoy, T. E., Kapos, V., Santos, A. A.
dos and Hutchings, R. W 1992. The biological dynamics of
tropical rainforest fragments. BioScience 42: 859-866.
Buchanan, D. B., Mittermeier, R. A. and Van Roosmalen,
M. G. M. 1981 The saki monkeys, genus Pithecia. In:
Ecology and Behavior ofNeotropical Primates, Vol. 1., A. E
Coimbra-Filho and R. A. Mittermeier (eds.), pp.391-417.
Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, Rio de Janeiro.
Cohn-Haft, M., Whittaker, A. and Stouffer, P. C. 1997.
A new look at the "species-poor" central Amazon: The avi-
fauna north of Manaus, Brazil. OrnithologicalMonographs
48: 205-235.
Eason, P. 1989. Harpy eagle attempts predation on adult
howler monkey. Condor 91: 469 470.
Fonseca, G. A. B. da, Herrmann, G., Leite, Y. L. R.,
Mittermeier, R. A., Rylands, A. B. and Patton, J. L. 1996.
Lista Anotada dos Mamifferos do Brasil. Occasional Papers
in Conservation Biology 4: 38pp. Conservation Interna-
tional, Washington, DC.
Julliot, C. 1994. Predation of a young spider monkey (Ateles
paniscus) by a crested eagle (Morphnus guianensis). Folia
Primatol. 63: 75-77.
Peres, C. A. 1990. A harpy eagle successfully captures
an adult male red howler monkey. Wilson Bull. 102:
Rettig, N. L. 1978. Breeding behavior of the harpy eagle
(Harpia harpyja). Auk 95: 629-643.
Sherman, P. T. 1991. Harpy eagle predation on a red howler
monkey. Folia Primatol. 56: 53-56.


Erwin Palacios

Red howler monkeys are among the several primate species
showing male and female transfer (Crockett and Eisenberg,
1987; Glander, 1992; Crockett and Pope, 1993). Neverthe-
less, this emigration pattern differs from most polygynous
primates in that red howler immatures of both sexes emi-
grate from natal groups (Crockett and Eisenberg, 1987),
with females rarely succeeding in entering and breeding in a
previously established troop (one that has produced offspring)
(Crockett, 1984; Crockett and Pope, 1993). One of the facts
preventing female immigration into an established troop is
the aggressive attitude adopted by female residents. This is
indeed a manifestation of the complex behavior identified

Neotropical Primates 8(3), September 2000 105

to mediate the emigration of some females. Female-female
reproductive competition in this species appears to be di-
rected at limiting the number of reproductive positions in a
troop, and hence maintain small troop size (Crockett and
Pope, 1993; Crockett, 1996).

Recently, a new hypothesis has pointed out infanticide as
the most reasonable fact to explain small troop size in red
howlers (Crockett and Janson, 1993, 2000). Infanticide has
been well documented in red howlers (Rudran, 1979;
Crockett and Sekulic, 1984; Izawa and Lozano M., 1994;
Agoramoorthy, 1994; Crockett, 1998), and it is associated
with male invasions of established groups, or within group
male status changes, in order to gain access to reproductive
females. By killing infants, males reduce the time to the
mother's next conception.

During 1996, Istudied the diet and ranging patterns of a group
of red howler monkeys at Caparn Biological Station (1'5.55'S,
69"30.8'W), lower Rio Apaporis River, Colombia (Palacios,
1997, 1998; Palacios and Rodriguez, in review). I observed
the group from January to December. The group was usually
contacted for 3-5 days per month. At the beginning of the
study, two adult females, one subadult female, an infant fe-
male, and three males (adult, juvenile and infant) composed
the study group. The adult male was the same individual dur-
ing the entire study period. I was able to recognize him by his
particular facial physiognomy, and a little scar on his upper lip.
This male was observed in the same group on November 1997,
and on several additional occasions afterward.

Female immigration

On April 1, 1996, the group was moving to the western
border of their home range, and arrived at a Couma
macrocarpa tree (#84) (about 200 m away from the home
range's border), where they spent 19 minutes feeding on
ripe fruits. This part of the home range is located about 80-
100 m from the highest water level of the Taraira Lake, and
is deluged by small creeks flowing into the lake. The forest
growing in this area is very low and shrubby, and heavy ar-
boreal animals such as red howlers must circumvent it.

After feeding in tree #84, with the adult male leading the
progression, the group moved 150 m to the west, going
around the low vegetation area, and stopped for a moment.
The adult male grunted, and then all the group members
but the adult male moved back (i. e., to the east) around the
low vegetation area, but following its southern border, until
arriving at tree #85 (Maquira guianensis) where they began
another feeding bout.

While the group was moving back, the adult male repeat-
edly grunted and then hid in the canopy. I kept contact with
the rest of the group, waiting for the male to join the troop
later. Ten minutes after the troop began to feed on tree #85,
the adult male and a new female (that I had not observed
before) moved toward the Maquira tree. The male grunted

twice, entered the tree with the female, and both began to feed
with the other troop members. Female residents showed no
aggression towards the female immigrant at that time, nor on
the three subsequent days of observation in April.

Infant killing

In early May the immigrant female was observed with a new-
born male (28 days old, according to our last date of contact
with the group). On May 2, after feeding for a long time on
tree #121 (Couma macrocarpa), the group moved in the linear
fashion progression typical of red howlers, with the immigrant
female being the closest one to the adult male, which was fol-
lowing them. At 2:52 h the adult male rapidly approached the
immigrant female and attacked her, causing her to fall about
16 m to the ground. The adult resident females were about 20
m ahead, and rapidly returned. While they approached, the
female climbed to a tree, where the male attacked her again,
and roughly took away her little infant. The male moved to an
adjacent creek area, where I was not able to observe him due to
dense foliage and vines. I could not detect if the infant fell
down, probably because of his very light weight. It was also
possible that his small body remained wedged within the
branches and dense vines.

Five minutes after this episode the group continued moving,
with females in front and continuously grunting. The immi-
grant female was piloerected and clearly frightened by the male,
which moved behind her, also grunting repeatedly. Thereafter,
the group engaged in three feeding bouts on three different
trees. The male participated in all but one. When he was not
feeding, he remained watching the rest of the group from a
neighboring tree, and continuously grunted. Some minutes
later, when the group was feeding on young leaves at tree #116
(unidentified Fabaceae), the two adult female residents chased
and expelled the adult male from the tree, when he approached
where the immigrant female was feeding. Later the group ar-
rived at sleeping tree #19, this tree had been used by the group
before, and although they usually formed two or three sub-
groups (adult male always alone), the animals used to rest rela-
tively close to each other (6-10 m apart), the animals entered
the tree, adult male being the last one, and all but the male
settled down to rest. The male moved to an adjacent tree, ten
minutes later returned to the sleeping tree, and then he settled
about 15 m away from the rest of the group, already resting in
three different groups very close together (3-6 m apart). The
next morning the male was observed resting in an adjacent
tree, while the rest of the group remained in the sleeping tree.
On the following two days, female residents displayed aggres-
sive attitudes towards the male on three occasions, all in a feed-
ing context. Over the next two days, the male repeatedly ap-
proached the immigrant female, but she always fled. On the
second day, while the troop was moving, the immigrant female
jumped between two trees, and the male grabbed her by the
tail, pulled her towards him and mounted her. Copulation lasted
119 s. I did not observe further copulation bouts until the end
of the study period (December 15, 1996).

106 Neotropical Primates 8(3), September 2000


Red howler females may emigrate from natal groups because
ofwithin-group competition for breeding positions (Crockett,
1984, 1996). After dispersal, they attempt to join a troop in
which to breed, but are more likely to succeed in joining a
newly-formed troop and rarely enter established troops. In
the present study, the troop composition included a juvenile,
suggesting that it was not newly formed. No cases of female
emigration in red howlers to date (Crockett, 1984, 1996;
Crockett and Pope, 1993) have reported on emigrating preg-
nant females. On the contrary, this could be possible in
mantled howler transient immigrant females (Glander, 1992).
It is uncertain whether the immigrant female became preg-
nant in a newly formed troop that failed and broke up or in
her natal group.

Successful red howler immigration into established troops is
very infrequent (Crockett, 1984). By showing an aggressive
attitude towards immigrants, female residents limit reproduc-
tive female membership to four (Sekulic, 1982; Crockett,
1996). The howler group at Capard had only two adult fe-
males, both rearing infants, and a subadult. No aggressive
attitudes were observed between resident and immigrant fe-
males, probably because female membership positions were
not fully occupied. Nevertheless, it is uncertain whether resi-
dent females were able to detect the immigrant female's preg-
nancy, and whether this affected their decision. Glander (1992)
described how mantled howler females joined established
groups; males do help extragroup females entering a group,
and once a female achieves entry into a group this way, it is no
longer chased by the resident females and becomes a group
member. The male's explicit acceptance of the new female is
in accordance with Glander's observations, and could be con-
sidered as a definite fact leading to the extragroup female's
success in entering the group.

Infanticide of infants born to pregnant females some time
after entry of new males was reported by Crockett and Sekulic
(1984). These observations and my own are consistent with
the hypothesis that males can remember which females they
mated with. Infanticide in red howlers has always been re-
ported as a consequence of male status changes, whether this
occurs by male takeovers, or changes within a troop. This is
the first report on infanticide not associated with a male sta-
tus change, and, regardless of the context in which it occurred,
was related to the same benefit that infanticidal males seek
after taking over a group or deposing a male of their own: a
reproductive advantage by having access to a reproductive fe-
male. Nevertheless, this did not represent an immediate profit
to the male, nor to the immigrant female; no new infants of
the immigrant female were observed during the rest of the
study period. I observed a new infant on November 1997,
belonging to one of the adult female residents. This clearly
agrees with Crockett's (1984) proposed costs of emigration;
although the immigrant female succeeded in entering an es-
tablished troop, she did not breed successfully (paying a high
cost losing her infant) and, very likely, delayed her age at first,
successful breeding. The latter could also be affected by the

fact that the other two infants (about eight and nine months
old) in the group disappeared during June-July 1996 (prob-
ably because of food shortage or predation), leaving the male
free to mate with any of the three reproductive females.


Thanks go to Colciencias (Colombia) and the American So-
ciety of Primatologists' Conservation Committee for fund-
ing my study on red howlers. I especially wish to thank
Carolyn Crockett for her valuable comments and biblio-
graphical references. I also thankAdriana Rodriguez for help-
ful comments on the manuscript.

Erwin Palacios, La Pedrera (Amazonas) Environmental
Center, Conservation International Colombia. Address
for correspondence: Apartado AMreo 12114, Santaf6 de
Bogoti, Colombia. E-mail: or


Agoramoorthy, G. 1994. An update on the long-term field
research on red howler monkeys, Alouatta seniculus, at Hato
Masaguaral, Venezuela. Neotrop. Primates. 2: 7-9.
Crockett, C. M. 1984. Emigration by female red howler
monkeys and the case for female competition. In: Female
Primates: Studies by Women Primatologists, M. E Small (ed.),
pp.159-173. Alan R. Liss, New York.
Crockett, C. M. 1996. The relation between red howler mon-
key (Alouatta seniculus) troop size and population growth
in two habitats. In: Adaptive Radiations ofNeotropicalPri-
mates, M. A. Norconk, A. L. Rosenberger and P. A. Garber
(eds.), pp.489-510. Plenum Press, New York.
Crockett, C. M. 1998. Family feuds. In: The Primate An-
thology: Essays on Primate Behavior, Ecology and Conserva-
tion from NaturalHistory R. L. Ciochon and R. A. Nisbett
(eds.), pp.28-35. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Crockett, C. M. and Eisenberg, J. 1987. Howlers: Varia-
tions in group size and demography. In: Primate Societies,
B. B. Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W.
Wrangham and T. T. Struhsaker (eds.), pp.54-68. Uni-
versity of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Crockett, C. M. and Janson, C. 1993. The costs of sociality
in red howler monkeys: Infanticide or food competition?
Am. J. Primatol. 30(4): 306.
Crockett, C. M. and Janson, C. 2000, In press. Infanticide
in red howlers: Female group size, male composition, and
a possible link to folivory. In: Infanticide by Males and its
Implications, C. P. van Schaik, and C. H. Janson (eds.),
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Crockett, C. M. and Pope, T. 1993. Consequences of sex
differences in dispersal for juvenile red howler monkeys.
In: Juvenile Primates: Life History, Development and Behav-
ior, M. E. Pereira and L. A. Fairbanks (eds.), pp. 104-118.
Oxford University Press, New York.
Crockett, C. M. and Sekulic, R. 1984. Infanticide in red
howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus). In: Infanticide: Com-
parative and Evolutionary Perspectives, G. Hausfater and

Neotropical Primates 8(3), September 2000 jU/

S. B. Hrdy (eds.), pp.173 -191. Aldine, Hawthorne,
New York.
Glander, K. E. 1992. Dispersal patterns in Costa Rican mantled
howling monkeys. Int.J. PrimatoL 13(4): 415-436.
Izawa, K and Lozano, X. 1994. Social changes within a group
of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus). Field Studies
of New World Monkeys 9: 33-39.
Palacios, E. 1997. Limitantes Ecol6gicas de Alouatta seniculus
en laAmazonia Colombiana. Final Report to Colciencias.
Palacios, E. 1998. Ecological bases for lake-and river-side
habitat use ofAlouatta seniculus in Colombian Amazonia.
ASP Bulletin 22(3): 8.
Palacios, E. and Rodriguez, A. In review. Ranging pattern
and use of space in a group of red howler monkeys (Alouatta
seniculus) in southeastern Colombian rainforest.
Rudran, 1979. The demography and social mobility of a
red howler (Alouatta seniculus) population in Venezuela.
In: Vertebrate Ecology in the Northern Neotropics, J. E
Eisenberg (ed.), pp.107-126. Smithsonian Institution
Press, Washington, DC.
Sekulic, R. 1982. Behavior and ranging patterns of a
solitary female red howler (Alouatta seniculus). Folia
Primatol. 38: 217-232.


Giane Carla Kopper Midler
Andreia Krambeck
Zelinda Maria Braga Hirano
Hercilio Higino da Silva Filho


As doencas parasitirias sio responsiveis por considerdvel
morbidade e mortalidade em todo o mundo, e
freqiientemente estao presents com sinais e sintomas nao
especfficos. A recent descoberta de uma serie de agents
infecciosos, inclusive definindo quadros clfnicos ate entgo
nao descritos, bem como a crescente expansio de doengas ji
conhecidas, tem feito ressurgir o debate sobre a importrncia
das doengas infecciosas e parasitarias (DIPs), mesmo nos
pauses de primeiro mundo (Berkelman, 1994). Yamashita
(1963), em estudos parasitol6gicos com primatas do genero
Alouatta detectou a presenga de Mathevotaenia megastoma,
Anchylostoma mycelis, Longiastriata dubis, Enterobius minutus,
Dipetalonema atelenses, Microfilaria sp., Controrchis
biliophilus, Filariopsis aspera, Raillietina demerariensis, Railli-
etina multistesticulata, Squanema bonnei e Raillietina
alouattae. Martins etal. (1997) encontraram ovos de parasitas
em 33% das amostras de fezes de Alouatta guariba, porem
nio as identificaram. Luz et al (1987) encontraram cistos
de Entamoeba coli, E. histolytica, Taenia sp. e Strongiloides
sp. em fezes deAlouattaguariba. Quanto a anatomia do trato

digestive, o genero Alouatta possui est6mago avantajado,
intestino curto, mas espacoso, com fermentacao bacteriana.
Quanto a dieta, slo folivoros comportamentais, possuindo
seletividade quanto ao alimento, apresentando organizagco so-
cial, locomocao e nfvel de atividade que os torna adaptados k
sua dieta (Milton, 1977). A esp&cie Alouatta guariba, descrita
na regilo hi 70 anos, encontra-se ameacada devido a devastaqdo
da mata, aao de predadores e caga. Por isso, surgiu hi sete
anos o interesse pelo desenvolvimento de estudos cientfficos
sobre o comportamento e hibitos destes animals, por professors
e academicos da Universidade Regional de Blumenau, Santa
Catarina, corn a finalidade de subsidiary as a96es de preservagio.
O estudo de endoparasitoses intestinais em primatas no Brasil
e bastante escasso, mas de extrema importncia principalmente
em populac6es que ocorrem em ambientes fragmentados, como
So caso da Mata Atldntica em Indaial, Santa Catarina.


As coletas foram realizadas no perfodo de julho de 1998 k marco
de 1999, sendo avaliados oito animals machos e duas femeas
de diferentes faixas etarias, mantidos em cativeiro durante e
p6s quarentena, totalizando 165 amostras. A coleta de mate-
rial de animals foi realizada semanalmente, no perfodo da
manha, as fezes coletadas em frascos plisticos descartiveis
contend conservante SAF (920ml de soluqlo fisiol6gica
0,85%, 50ml de Scido acetico glacial, 30ml de formol e 5ml
de glicerol). Durante o trajeto do CEPESBI-Centro de Pesquisas
Biol6gicas de Indaial, Santa Catarina (local de coleta) atd o
laborat6rio, as amostras foram mantidas em conservante, dentro
de caixa de isopor evitando calor excessive e conseqilente
deterioracao de alguns organismos. A pesquisa e identificaqko
dos parasitas foi realizada atraves de dois diferentes metodos:
Metodo de Faust y Cols.-centrffugo flutuaqao em sulfato de
zinco 33%; e Sedimentacao Hoffmann -sedimentagco
espontinea das fezes em agua (Moraes, 1984 e Pessoa, 1988).

Resultados e Discussio

Aldm dos resultados apresentados acima, nos animals de
quarentena foram encontradas combinac6es de 5,46% de dois
tipos de parasitas (Giardia sp. e Enterobius sp.). Nos animals
de p6s-quarentena observou-se a mesma combinaqio de
parasitas, pordm com maior freqiiencia (11,52%).

Estes resultados devem-se, talvez, pelo fato de que os animals
de quarentena encontravam-se isolados em process de
aclimatamo, sendo que, no period p6s-quarentena os mesmos

Tabela 1. Freqiiencia relative (%) dos parasitas encontrados nas
amostras de fezes de dez animals analisados, durante nove meses de
Parasitas Q- uaiemena (%) P6s -qtarmnrena (%)
Giardi.a p 61 5- --'.
Enterobius sp. 38,47 8,7
Entamoeba sp. 0 8,7
Ancylostoma sp. 0 8,7

108 Neotropical Primates 8(3), September 2000

encontravam-se em companhia de outros bugios, em contato
direto corn humans e animals domesticos. Silva etal. (1997),
em estudo com Alouatta guariba clamitans, identificaram seis
generos distintos de parasitas entire protozoarios e nemat6dios.
Os protozoirios representaram 17,87% de cistos de E. coli e
17,87% uma combinaqco deE. coli com E. histolytica. Dentre
os nemat6ides foram encontrados 22,42% de ovos e larvas de
ancilostomideos. Os primatas neotropicais sao hospedeiros de
uma grande variedade de parasitas, entire eles muitas especies
de nemat6dios que ocorrem em animals capturados na
natureza e em animals mantidos em cativeiro. Os primatas
Cebidae, sao altamente infectados por parasitas da famflia
Oxyuridae (Inglis etal., 1959 in Inglis etal., 1965). De acordo
corn Yamashita etaL (1963) foram encontradas 228 esp6cies
de helmintos, incluindo, 166 especies de nemat6dios, cinco
especies de acantocdfalo, 24 especies de tremat6dios e 33
especies de cest6dios em 103 especies de primatas. Sao poucos
os estudos parasitol6gicos relacionados diretamente ao Alouatta
guariba, seja em ambiente natural ou em cativeiro (Hirano et
al., 1997). No present estudo foram encontradas 23,64% de
ocorrencia de ovos, cistos e larvas nas amostras de fezes de
Alouatta guariba clamitans em cativeiro, coletadas durante e


A verificacqo de um maior percentual de parasitas p6s-
quarentena levou a constataqgo de que ocorrem contaminag6es
em cativeiro, as quais podem estar ligadas ao comportamento
alimentar dos animals, ao contato corn fezes, corn outros
macacos, animals domesticos e atd mesmo corn o home. Os
resultados desta pesquisa tem auxiliado a equipe do CEPESBI
na adocAo de medidas e procedimentos que minimizem a
reinfestaco dos animals. Em face da escassez de estudos
referentes a endoparasitas intestinais de primatas no Brasil,
este trabalho preliminary nos auxilia no entendimento
de quest6es como a relacao entire hospedeiro-parasita, bern
como amplia o conhecimento da ecologia da esp6cie,
fornecendo dados relevantes para pianos de conservagao e
manejo da mesma.

Giane Carla Kopper Miller, Rua Divin6polis, 999 Apto
301-C, Bairro Velha, 89040-400, Blumenau, Santa Catarina,
Brasil, Andrdia Krambeck, Rua Julio Baumgarten, 646 -
Edificio Karina, Apto211, 89037-000, Blumenau, Santa
Catarina, Brasil, Zelinda Maria Braga Hirano, Coordenadora
do CEPESBI, "Projeto Bugio" e Hercilio Higino da Silva
Filho, Departamento de Ciencias Naturais, Universidade Re-
gional de Blumenau, Rua Ant6nio da Veiga 140, Bairro Vic-
tor Konder, Blumenau 89010-971, Santa Catarina, Brasil.


Berkelman, R. L. 1994. Emerging infectious diseases in the
United States. J. Infec. Dis. 170(2): 272-7.
Hirano, Z. M. B., Marques, S. W., Wanke E. e Silva, J. C.
1997. Comportamento e hAbitos dos bugios (Alouattafusca,

Primata, Cebidae), do Morro Geisler (Indaial, SC, Brasil).
Dynamis Blumenau 5(19): 19-47.
Inglis, W. e Cosgrove, G. E. 1965. The pin-worm parasite
(Nematoda: Oxyuridae) of the Hapalidae (Mammalia: Pri-
mates). Parasitology 55: 35-82.
Luz, V. L., Carvalho, A. C. T. e Pereira, L. H. 1987. Sobre
alguns parasitas encontrados em inspecio preliminary de
Alouattafusca (Primatas Cebidae) da regiio de Caratinga,
MG. Resumos. XIV Congresso Brasileiro de Zoologia,
Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora,
Minas Gerais.
Martins, S. S., Limeira, V. A. G. e Rodrigues, M. L. A. 1997.
Comportamento de defecacao e ocorrnncia de endoparasitas
nas amostras de Alouatta fusca num fragmento de mata
semidecfdua no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Anais do VII
Congress Brasileiro de Primatologia e V Reunido Latino-
Americana de Primatologia, Joao Pessoa.
Milton, K. 1977. The foraging strategy of the howler mon-
key (Alouattapalliata) in the tropical forest of Barro Colo-
rado Island, Panama. Doctoral thesis, New York University,
New York.
Moraes, R. G. 1984. Parasitologia e Micologia Humana.
3a edigio. Ed. Cultura Medica, Rio de Janeiro.
Pessoa, S. B. 1988. Parasitologia Midica. IIa. ed. Guanabara,
Koogan, Rio de Janeiro.
Silva, R. B., Anaruma Filho, F. e Kawazoe, U. 1997.
Identificacko e analise de endoparasitas intestinais de
Alouatta fusca clamitans (Cabrera, 1940), de uma floresta
tropical urbana de Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brasil. Anais do
VII Congresso Brasileiro de Primatologia e VReunido Latino-
Americana de Primatologia, Joio Pessoa, Brasil.
Yamashita, J. 1963. Ecological relationships between para-
sites and primates. Primates 4(1): 01-96.


Cecilia Veracini


Saguinus niger (E. Geoffroy, 1803) ocorre na Amaz6nia ori-
ental, sul do Rio Amazonas, leste dos Rios Xingi e Fresco,
atd o baixo Rio Araguaia incluindo o Arquipdlago do Maraj6
(Napier, 1976; Hershkovitz, 1977; Ferrari e Lopes, 1996).
Apesar de ser considerado relativamente comum (Rylands et
al., 1993), a sua ecologia e o comportamento na natureza
s-o ainda pouco conhecidos e, ate hoje ha somente um estudo
a long prazo; na area de Paragominas, no leste do Para
(Mendes de Oliveira, 1996).

0 present trabalho relata alguns aspects da ecologia
alimentar e da utilizagco de habitats de S. niger observado na
Estacgo Cientffica Ferreira Penna, Caxiuana (ECPF). 0 in-

Neotropical Primates 8(3), September 2000 109

teresse do estudo na Floresta Nacional de Caxiuana 6 devido
a sua particular biodiversidade e grande grau de preservacao
(Almeida et al., 1993; Lisboa et al., 1997) em comparasco
corn outras areas da Amaz6nia oriental e, tambem, k presenca
de uma outra especie de calitriqulneos, Mico argentatus
(Linnaeus, 1771), pois a simpatria entire os g6neros Saguinus
e Mico se encontra de fato em limitadas ireas na Amaz6nia
(Ferrari, 1993; Lopes e Ferrari, 1994; Ferrari et al., 1997).

Area de Estudo e MWtodos

A irea de estudo esti localizada na Estacao Cientifica Ferreira
Penna, Caxiuani, pertencente ao Museu Paraense Emflio
Goeldi-CNPq, no Municipio de Melgaqo, Pard. Esta drea e
constitufda, em grande parte, de floresta de terra firme e
abrange parties inundadas de igap6 e formaq6es de
crescimento secundirio (capoeiras), corn idades estimadas
em 3, 10, 25 e 40 anos, respectivamente, e altura media de 5
atr 15-18 m, na dpoca do estudo. As capoeiras incluidas na
area de uso do grupo estudado compreendiam 10,5 ha, e as
dreas inundadas aproximadamente 6 ha (para a descricgo
floristica da drea ver Lisboa et al., 1997). Para estudar a
utilizacao dos diferentes habitats foram consideradas as areas
de transicqo (10 m de passage entire habitats primirios e

Na drea de estudo foi identificada a presenqa de um minimo
de trrs grupos sociais de S. niger. Para o estudo foi escolhido
um grupo constituido de tries individuos cuja a composigco
various ao long da pesquisa, passando a quatro individuos e
depois a cinco nos dltimos dias de observacio. Foram abertas
trilhas em sistema de quadrantes (50 x 50) de acordo corn a
drea de vida do grupo. Observac6es nao sistemrticas foram
feitas sobre os tres grupos sociais de S. niger em janeiro e
fevereiro de 1996, enquanto o grupo de estudo foi habituado
ao observador. Outros dados ad libitum (Altmann, 1974)
sobre a alimenta coletados durante o estudo da espdcie simpstrica C. argentata
de janeiro a novembro de 1996 (Veracini, 1997). Dados
quantitativos foram coletados nos meses de marqo, abril,
julho, agosto e novembro de 1996, para um total de 80 horas
(1.904 registros, 909 amostragens) distribuidas ao long
destes meses, corn os animals sendo acompanhados em
diferentes moments do dia. 0 m6todo usado foi a varredura
instantinea ("instantaneous scan sampling", Altmann, 1974)
corn intervalos de cinco minutes por um minuto de amostra
instantinea das atividades (Ferrari e Rylands, 1994). Em cada
amostragem era anotado: a categoria comportamental
(alimentagio, forrageio, locomocao, descanso, atividade so-
cial), a altura (quando possivel) de cada animal avistado e o
tipo de habitat que o grupo ocupava. Em combinaqIo,
utilizou-se o registro de todas as ocorr8ncias para a capture
de press animals e utilizacIo de frutos e outros materials
vegetais. As irvores utilizadas para a alimentacgo foram
marcadas e mapeadas para uma identificago sucessiva. Todos
os frutos consumidos foram coletados e conservados em alcool
a 70%. Os dados climatol6gicos gerais da drea e do ano de
1996 foram obtidos na estacgo metereol6gica da ECFP
(Carvalho et al., 1997).

Tabela 1. PadrIo de advidade do grupo de estudo para 80 horas de


Atividades social

Outras atividades
Total dos registros




A dieta do grupo de estudo foi constituida principalmente de
itens vegetais (frutos maduros, nectar e exsudados vegetais).
Nos meses de estudo os registros de itens alimentares foram
336 em 1904 registros (Tabela 1). Os components vegetais
da dieta foram 95,5%, enquanto que as press animals
vertebrados e invertebrados, constituiram 4.5% dos registros
alimentares. A fruta foi o alimento mais consumido corn
48,81% dos registros de alimentacao. 0 nectar e a goma fo-
ram 22,32% e 23,81% respetivamente.

Utilizapdo de recursos vegetais
S. niger utilizou os frutos de 46 tixons diferentes e o nectar de
quatro especies (Tabela 2), para um total de 22 families
diferentes. As mais representadas foram Sapotaceae,
Mimosaceae e Burseraceae. A maior diversificagio na utilizaqAo
dos frutos ocorreu na estaglo da chuva (janeiro-junho). Neste
perfodo, a fruta constituiu a maior part da alimentacao dos
animals, e os tixons mais importantes por ndmeros de registros
foram: Manilkara amazonica e Tapirira guianensis,
respectivamente 7,1% e 5,91% do total dos registros de
alimentacqo corn vegetais. Nos meses de julho e agosto, trhs
especies de frutos se destacaram (Byrsonima aerugo, Goupia
glabra e Inga lateriflora) constituindo 17,39% do total dos
registros de alimentacao com vegetais. As parties dos frutos
consumidos eram em sua maioria mesocarpos e arilos, nio
sendo observada a predacqo de sementes. As observaq6es
quantitativas e adlibitum indicam que os exsudados vegetais e
o nectar constituiram importantes recursos sobretudo em
perfodos de maior escassez de frutas. 0 grupo utilizou os
exsudados de oito tAxons (Tabela 3) e foi observado
freqiientemente comendo a goma dos orificios produzidos pelo
C argentata em arvores de Parkia ulei e Tapirira guianensis. Os
exsudados mais utilizados foram da especie Parkia ulei (7,78%
do total dos registros de alimentaqIo corn vegetais) e a
concentraggo das atividades do grupo ao redor destas arvores
no mes de julho foi um aspect relevant do comportamento.
O consume de ndctar aumentou nos 6ltimos meses da pesquisa
(de agosto ate novembro); neste periodo 50% dos registros de
alimentacao corn vegetais foram de ndctar, principalmente Inga
alba e Symphoniaglobulifera. No mes de novembro o nectar de
Symphonia globulifera constituiu 69,8% do total dos registros
de alimentacao corn vegetais naquele mes.

110 Neotropical Primates 8(3), September 2000

Tabela 2. Frutos e n&ctar utilizados por S. niger no period de estudo. A = irvore, C = cip6, Ar= arbusto. Habitat = habitats em que os
animals foram vistos alimentando-se da espicie; M = terra firme, I = igap6, C = capoeira. nectar

Taion -
Poturoanj guiaeii Hns
Pouroma velutina
Myrcia splendens
Tetragastris altissima
Protium trifoliolatum
Myrcia atramentifera
Tetragastris panamensis
Casearia decandra
Famflia indeterminada
Esp6cie indeterminada
Espicie indeterminate
Inga cf. disticha
Tapirira guianensis
Salacia sp.
Inga thibaudiana
Planchonella oblanceolata
Micropholis cf. venulosa
Protium tenuifolium
Parahancornia amapa
Manilkara amazonica
Maripa scadensm
Dilleniacea sp.
Dialium guianense
Especie indeterminada
Nectandra sp.
Famflia indeterminada
Espcie indeterminada
Protium decandrum
Henriettea succosa
Lacunaria sp.
Franchetella sagotianaz
Especie indeterminada
Familia indeterminada
Rollinia esxucca
Mendocia hofflmannseggiana
Quiina amazonica
Byrsonima aerugo
cf. Moronobea sp.
Stiychnos guianensis
Cordia sp.
Lacmellea aculeata
Inga heterophylla
Goupia glabra
Eugenia biflora
Inga lateriflora
Inga alba
Symphonia globulifera
Miconia holosericea
Famflia indeterminada





Tabela 3 Esp&cies utilizadas na exploracao de esxsudados. A= irvore. exsudados provenientes de frutos; # exsudados presents no haste
das folhas. M = terra firme, C = capoeira.
Esp&ie Famlia Meses Hibitat
Parkia ul/e Mimosaceae A Jul-Ago-Sep C-M
Parkia pendula Mimosaceae A Abr-Nov M
cf. Parkia oppositifolia Mimosaceae A Abr-Nov M-C
Tapirira guianenis Anacardiaceae A Mar-Jul C
Anacardium giganteum Anacardiaceae A Jul M
Sterculia pruriens # Sterculiaceae A Nov M
Cochlospermum orinocensis Cochlospermaceae A Nov C
Vochysia obscure Fabaceae A Jul-SNov M







Neotropical Primates 8(3), September 2000 111

Atividade de forrageio
A atividade de forrageio (procura de insetos e outras press
animals) ocupa de 16% ate 45% das atividades do genero
Saguinus (Snowdon e Soini, 1988). 0 grupo de estudo em
Caxiuana dedicou 18,86% (n = 359) do tempo total de
observacio nesta atividade (Tabela 1). S. niger foi observado
procurando press animals em varios substratos e microhabi-
tats (sub-bosque aberto, copa das irvores, Area de margem
com densa vegetacao), chegando a seguir as press no chio,
mas principalmente nas copas das irvores do baixo-midio
estrato da floresta. Na busca das press, a intense observacgo
do meio pareceram mais important do que a manipulacio
dos substratos. A altura mais utilizada para esta atividade foi
entire 6 e 15 metros (72% dos registros, Fig. 1). Nao houve
uma preferencia significativa na utilizacio de Areas primArias
(terra firme e igap6) e secundirias (capoeiras e Areas de
transiqio) durante a atividade de forrageio: 35,65% desta
atividade ocorreu em floresta primria de terra firme, 37,61%
em Areas de capoeira, 15,04% em areas de transigio e 11,7%
no igap6. No geral, foi dificil observer as press dos saguis e
somente as maiores foram identificadas (dois fasmideos, umrn
mant6ideo, quatro ort6pteros). Foi observada somente uma
capture de um vertebrado; uma perereca (Classe Anura).

Utilizacdo de habitats
0 grupo de estudo utilizou uma area de vida de 35 ha, mas o
tamanho e provavelmente maior uma vez que o grupo saiu
vxrias vezes da parte demarcada. Houve sobreposidio de Area
entire os diferentes grupos e nio foi identificada uma parte de
uso exclusive do grupo. Foram observadas muitas interag6es
agonisticas entire os grupos socias, sobretudo na epoca da chuva
perto das irvores de fruta. Nos cinco meses de estudo
quantitative, o grupo de estudo utilizou a capoeira em 38,6%
do tempo (a capoeira de tries anos de idade nao foi frequentada),
a terra firme em 46,24%, o igap6 em 6,42% e as Areas de
margem por 8,74% do tempo. 1 provivel que as freqiiUncias
no igap6 e, talvez na terra firme, sejam subestimadas devido a
maior dificuldade de encontrar e observer os animals nestes
habitats. Na 6poca da chuva as observagoes no igap6 foram
quase impossiveis pelo alto nfvel da dgua e houve dificuldades
na terra firme, onde as alturas utilizadas eram freqiientemente
superiores a 20 m, em seguir um grupo de somente tres
indivfduos. A utilizacao dos diferentes habitats pareceu seguir
urn padrio sazonal correlacionado com a disponibilidade dos
recursos vegetais (por exemplo o igap6 foi muito freqiientado
no final da estaqlo seca em correspondencia com o abundant
consumo do nectar de Symphonia globulifera), mas no total
nio houve diferenga significativa entire o uso dos habitats
primirios e secundArios. S. niger foi ativo em todos os estratos
da floresta, utilizando, as vezes, alturas superiores a 30 m, mas
foi observado sobretudo (68,3% dos registros) na parte mddia
da mata de 6 at620 m (Fig. 1). A media das alturas dos substratos
utilizados foi de 15,5 m.


Estudos precedentes sobre a alimentaqgo do genero Saguinus
relataram uma dieta de frutos, nectar, exsudados vegetais,
fungos, casca de irvores, press animals invertebradas e

vertebradas (Sussman e Kinzey, 1984; Snowdon e Soini, 1988;
Garber, 1993). Os frutos foram os components mais
consumidos por S. niger em Caxiuani, assim como o observado
no estudo em Paragominas sobre a mesma especie, onde os
frutos foram 87,5% dos itens alimentares (Mendes de Oliveira,
1996). As families mais utilizadas pelo grupo de estudo
(Sapotaceae, Mimosaceae, Burseraceae, Guttiferae) foram
tambem observadas na dieta de outras esp6cies (Snowdon e
Soini, 1988; Garber, 1993; Peres, 1993b; de la Torre et al.,
1995) e na especie S. midas (Mittermeier, 1977). Em
comparaqIo corn o grupo estudado em Paragominas, o ndimero
de tAxons vegetais na alimentacao foi muito maior (59 contra
18), indicando que a dieta de S. niger e dependent da
disponibilidade e diversidade ambiental mais que de uma
preferencia especie-especifica.

Urn intenso uso de nectar ji havia sido observado em outros
Saguinus amaz6nicos (Janson et al., 1981; Terborgh e Wilson,
1983; Egler, 1992; Peres, 1993b). 0 ndctar de Symphonia
globulifera demonstrou ser um recurso important na dieta de
S. niger sobretudo na 6poca menos chuvosa do ano, quando ha
escassez de frutos nas florestas de terra firme. As Areas inundadas
de Caxiuana (onde se encontra uma alta densidade de Symphonia
globulifera) chegam ao pico reprodutivo em terms de flares e
frutos em novembro, e podem servir como sftios alternatives
de alimentaqio para mamiferos e aves.

O consumo de exsudados vegetais e bastante comum entire os
calitriquideos e fundamentalmente sazonal para a maiora das
especies do genero Saguinus (Terborgh, 1983; Soini, 1987; Peres,
1993b). 0 uso de exsudados nao foi descrito em S. midas por
Mittermeier (1977) e Kessel (1995), embora A. Rylands
observou a ingestgo da goma produzida espontineamente das
vagens de Parkiapendula por essa espdcie nas reserves do Projeto
DinAmica Biol6gica de Fragmentos Florestais, ao norte de
Manaus em 1982-1983. Mendes de Oliveira (1996) tamb6m
relatou o uso de gomas de Parkia pendula por S. niger em
Paragominas (3.1% dos registros alimentares). Para S. niger,
em Caxiuani, os exsudados parecem ter um papel mais


0-3 4-5 69 10-15 16-20 21-25 26-30 >31

Figura 1. Altura preferencial ocupada pelo grupo de estudo.

112 Neotropical Primates 8(3), September 2000

important, seja em terms de um maior numero de tAxons
explorados seja de urn maior consumo em porcentagem. Al6m
das fontes de exsudados provenientes de frutos, ou das les6es
de insetos, ou de outros agents, os saguis fizeram um grande
uso da goma proveniente dos orificios abertos pelo C. argentata
em irvores de Parkia ulei e Tapirira guianensis, comportamento
observado pela primeira vez nesta espdcie. Este fen6meno de
parasitismo (Snowdon e Soini, 1988) foi reportado em outros
casos de simpatria entire as especies Callithrix emiliae e Saguinus
fuscicollis weddelli (Lopes e Ferrari, 1994) e S. fuscicollis e
Cebuellapygmaea (Soini, 1988).

A porcentagem de press animals na dieta foi provavelmente
subestimada pela dificuldade de observaqAo em conseqiiencia
do freqiiente uso de alturas maiores de dez metros. De uma
forma geral, o tipo de forrageamento de S. niger e parecido
corn aquele descrito para Saguinus imperator, Saguinus mystax e
Saguinus labiatus que utilizam em prevalancia os estratos baixos
e mrdios da floresta. Isto se diferencia daquele mostrado pelo
S. fuscicollis caracterizado por uma intense atividade
manipulat6ria e por um maior uso do sub-bosque e da parte
baixa da floresta (Garber, 1993b).

S. niger ocorre em virios tipos de habitats na Amaz6nia orien-
tal (Ferrari e Lopes, 1996); em Areas de floresta primiria como
de floresta secundiria, chegando nas Areas submontanas no sul
do Pari (Ferrari e Lopes Ferrari, 1990). 0 uso de habitats
secundarios parece preferencial em Paragominas (Mendes de
Oliveira, 1996), mas neste estudo nio teve diferenca significativa
entire o uso das ireas primArias (terra firme e igap6) e secundarias
ou de transigao. A distribuiqgo ou prefer&ncia para um particu-
lar tipo de presa animal nao parecem fatores determinantes na
escolha dos habitats, mas precisam de outros dados para uma
melhor interpretacio deste aspect. Um uso maior da floresta
de terra firme por S. niger em comparacao corn outros sftios da
Amaz6nia oriental, tern sido observado tambem por Bobadilla
e Ferrari (2000) que trabalharam numa outra area da ECFP A
grande biodiversidade em terms de composigco botanica
(Lisboa etal, 1997) observada em todos os habitats de Caxiuana
6 provavelmente responsivel por uma utilizacao menos seletiva
das diferentes ireas. No geral um uso de diferentes habitats e a
inclusio de uma grande diversidade de vegetaqio na area de
vida parece fundamental para S. niger assim como observado
em outras especies do genero Saguinus na Amaz6nia ocidental
(Terborgh, 1995; Peres, 1993a). 0 tamanho da Area de vida
do grupo em Caxiuana foi compiravel corn aquele observado
na especie S. midas (34-39 ha) por Kessel (1996) e foi
sensivelmente maior daquele observado por S. niger em
Paragominas (15,6 ha). A preferencia de S. niger para o estrato
mddio da floresta foi observada tambem por Bobadilla e Ferrari
(2000) enquanto Mendes de Oliveira (1996) relatou uma media
menor das alturas ocupadas.


Ao pessoal do Museu Paraense Emflio Goeldi e a Estaqgo
Cientffica Ferreira Penna/Caxiuana. Ao Prof. S. E Ferrari, Prof.
B. Mascarenhas e Prof. J. Carvalho de Moraes. Aos Drs. P. L.

Lisboa, A. S. Lima, S. Almeida; ao Sr. Nelson de Aradjo
Rosa. Este trabalho foi financiado pelo MURST (Ministero
per I'Universith e per la Ricerca Scientifica e Tecnologica) e
oficialmente autorizado pela Conselho Nacional de Pesquisa

Cecilia Veracini, Dipartimento di Biologia Animale e
Genetica, Laboratori di Antropologia, Universita degli Studi
di Firenze, Via del Proconsolo 12, 50122 Firenze, Italia, e-
mail: .


Almeida, S. S. de, Lisboa, P. L. B. e Silva, A. S. L. 1993.
Diversidade floristica de uma comunidade arb6rea na
Estacio Cientifica Ferreira Penna, em Caxiuana (Para). BoL
Mus. Pard. Emilio Goeldi, Bot. 9(1): 93-188.
Altmann, J. 1974. Observational study of behaviour: Sam-
pling methods. Behaviour 49: 227-267.
Bobadilla, U. L. e Ferrari S. E 2000. Habitat use by Chiropotes
satanas utahicki and syntopic Platyrrhines in eastern
Amazonia. Am. J. Primatol 50: 215-224.
Carvalho de Moraes, J., Costa, J.P.R. da, Rocha, E.J.P. e Silva
I.M.O. da 1997. Estudos hidrometeorol6gicos na bacia
do Rio Caxiuana. In: Caxiuand, P. L. Lisboa (org.), pp.85-
95. Museu Pariense Emilio Goeldi, Belkm, Pari.
de laTorre, S., Campos, E e De Vries, T. 1995. Home range
and birth seasonality of Saguinus nigricollis graellsi in Ec-
uadorian Amazonia. Am. J. Primatol. 37: 39-56.
Egler, S. G. 1992. Feeding ecology of Saguinus bicolor bi-
color (Callitrichidae: Primates) in a relict forest in Manaus,
Brazilian Amazonia. Folia Primatol. 59: 61-76.
Ferrari, S. F. 1993. Ecological differentiation in the
Callitrichidae. In: Marmosets and Tamarins: Systematics,
Behaviour and Ecology, A. B. Rylands (ed.), pp.314-328.
Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Ferrari, S. E e Lopes Ferrari, M. A. 1990. A survey of pri-
mates in central Par. Bol. Mus. Pard. Emilio Goeldi, Zool.
6(2): 169-179.
Ferrari, S. E e Lopes, M. A. 1996. Primate populations in
eastern Amazonia. In: Adaptive Radiations of Neotropical
Primates, M. A. Norconk, A. L. Rosenberger and P. A.
Garber (eds.), pp.53-67. Plenum Press, New York.
Ferrari, S. E e Rylands, A. B. 1994. Activity budgets and
differential visibility in field studies of three marmosets
(Callithrix spp.). Folia Primatol. 63: 78-83.
Garber, P. A. 1988. Diet, foraging patterns, and resource
defense in a mixed species troop of (Saguinus mystax
and Saguinusfuscicollis) in Amazonian Peru. Behaviour 105:
Garber, P. A. 1993a. Seasonal patterns of diet and ranging
in two species of tamarin monkeys: Stability versus vari-
ability. Int. J. Primatol. 14(1): 145-166.
Garber, P. A. 1993b. Feeding ecology and behaviour of the
genus Saguinus. In: Marmosets and Tamarins: Systematics,
Behaviour, andEcology, A. B. Rylands (ed.), pp.273-293.
Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Neotropical Primates 8(3), September 2000 113

Hershkovitz, P 1977. Living New World Monkeys, Part 1
(Platyrrhini), With an Introduction to Primates. Chicago
University Press, Chicago.
Janson, C. H., Terborgh, J. e Emmons, L. H. 1981.
Non-flying mammals as pollinating agents in the Amazo-
nian forest. Biotropica (suppl.) 14: 1-6.
Kessler, P. 1995. Revierverhalten, Nahrungsstrategie und
Habitatpraferenzen des Rothandtamarins (Saguinus
midas midas) in Franzosish-Guayana. Diplomarbeit
Anthropologisches Institut und Museum der Universitat
Lisboa P. L. B., da Silva A. S. L. e de Almeida S. S. 1997.
Floristica e estrutura dos ambientes. In: Caxiuana, P L Lisboa
(org.) pp.163-193. Museu Pardense Emilio Goeldi, Belem,
Lopes, M. A. e Ferrari, S. E 1994. Foraging behavior of a
tamarin group (Saguinus fuscicollis weddelli) and interac-
tions with marmosets (Callithrix emiliae). Int. J. Primatol.
15(3): 373-387.
Mendes de Oliveira, A. C. 1996. Ecologia e comportamento
alimentar de um grupo de Saguinus midas niger
(Callitrichidae, Primates) na Amaz6nia Oriental.
Dissertacio de Mestrado, Universidade Federal do Para,
Mittermeier, R. A. 1977. The distribution, Synecology and
Conservation of Surinam Monkeys. Unpublished Ph.D.
dissertation, University of Harvard, Cambridge.
Mittermeier, R. A. e Van Roosmalen, M. G. M. 1981. Pre-
liminary observations on habitat utilization and diet in eight
Surinam monkeys. Folia Primatol. 36: 1-39.
Napier, P. H. 1976. Catalogue of Primates in the British Mu-
seum (Natural History). Part 1: Families Callitrichidae and
Cebidae. British Museum (Natural History), London.
Peres, C. A. 1993a. Structure and spatial organization of an
Amazonian terra firme forest primate community. J Trop.
Ecol. 9: 259-276.
Peres, C. A. 1993b. Diet and feeding ecology of saddle-back
(Saguinusfuscicollis) and moustached tamarins (Saguinus
mystax) in an Amazonian terra firme forest. J. Zool. Lond.
230: 567-592.
Rylands, A. B., Coimbra-Filho, A. F. e Mittermeier, R. A.
1993. Systematics, geographic distribution, and some notes
on the conservation status of the Callitrichidae. In: Mar-
mosets and Tamarins: Systematics: Behaviour, and Ecology,
A. B. Rylands (ed.), pp.11-77. Oxford University Press,
Snowdon, C. T. e Soini, P. 1988. The tamarins, genus
Saguinus. In: Ecology and Behavior ofNeotropical Primates,
Vol 2, R. A. Mittermeier, A. B. Rylands, A. E Coimbra-
Filho e G. A. B. da Fonseca (eds.), pp.223-298. World
Wildlife Fund-US, Washington, DC.
Soini, P. 1987. Ecology of the saddleback tamarin Saguinus
fuscicollis illigeri on the Rio Pacaya, northeastern Peru. Fo-
lia Primatol. 49: 11-32.
Soini, P. 1988. The pygmy marmoset, genus Cebuella. In:
Ecology and Behavior ofNeotropical Primates, Vol. 2, R. A.
Mitteremeier, A. B. Rylands, A. E Coimbra-Filho e G. A.
B. da Fonseca (eds.), pp.79-129. World Wildlife Fund-
US, Washington, DC.

Sussman, R. W. e Kinzey, W. G. 1984. The ecological role of
the Callitrichidae. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 64: 419-449.
Terborgh, J. 1983. Five New World Primates: A Study in Com-
parative Ecology. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
Terborgh, J. 1985. The ecology of Amazonian primates. In:
Amazonia, G. T. Prance e T. E. Lovejoy (eds.), pp.284-304.
Pergamon Press, New York.
Terborgh, J. e Wilson, A. C. 1983. Ecologia y comportamiento
de Saguinus en el Parque Nacional del Manu, Perd. Symposio
de Primatologia, pp.167-173. Arequipa, Pert.
Veracini, C. 1997. 0 comportamento alimentar de Callithrix
argentata (Linnaeus, 1771) (Primates, Callitrichinae). In:
Caxiuan, P. L. Lisboa (org.), pp.437-446. Museu Pariense
Emilio Goeldi, Belem, Para.


Marcelo F Tejedor

The platyrrhine skull No 17.3 (Fig. 1) held by the Mammalogy
Section of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales
(MACN), Buenos Aires, is undoubtedly attributable to
Callicebus, and came from the Argentine province of Formosa.
In January 10, 1917, Mr. CAceres sold several mammalian speci-
mens from Formosa, including Panthera onca, Myrmecophaga,
Tamandua and the skull of Callicebus to the MACN. Although
this is the first record of Callicebus in Argentina, the remaining
genera certainly occur there.

The titi monkey, genus Callicebus, is one of the most diversi-
fled platyrrhines, widely distributed throughout the neotropical
forests especially in the Amazon and Orinoco basins, but also
in other regions such as the Atlantic and Parana forests in Bra-
zil, as well as in Bolivia and northwestern Paraguay (Hershkovitz,
1988, 1990). Following the latest taxonomic revision by
Hershkovitz (1990), the genus Callicebus includes 13 species
divided into four species-groups: modestus, donacophilus, moloch
andpersonatus. Among the donacophilus group, C donacophilus
occurs in the southernmost part of the geographic range for the
genus (excluding the isolatedpersonatus group in the south east

Figure 1. Skull of Callicebus. No. 17.3 in the Museo Argentino de
Ciencias Naturales, Buenos Aires.

114 Neotropical Primates 8(3), September 2000

of Brazil, at about the same latitude). In Paraguay, C.
donacophiluspallescens reaches the Pilcomayo river, a geographic
boundary between Paraguay and Argentina, but there are no
reports from the Argentine border.

A more precise location for the specimen from Formosa was
not provided by the collector Ciceres. Fieldwork in the area,
will be needed to confirm the continued occurrence or other-
wise of Callicebus in Argentina.

Acknowledgments: Drs. Marta Piantanida, Olga Vaccaro and
Gabriel Zunino (Secci6n Mastozoologia, Museo Argentino de
Ciencias Naturales. Buenos Aires) for providing access to the
specimens in their care.

Marcelo E Tejedor, CONICET and Facultad de Ciencias Natu-
rales, Sede Esquel, Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia "San
Juan Bosco", Sarmiento 849, (9200) Esquel, Provincia del
Chubut, Argentina. E-mail:


Hershkovitz, P 1988. Origin, speciation and distribution of
South American titi monkeys, genus Callicebus (Family
Cebidae, Platyrrhini). Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 140:
Hershkovitz, P 1990. Titis, New World monkeys of the genus
Callicebus (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): A preliminary taxonomic
review. Fieldiana Zoology, new series 55: 1-109.


Massimo Mannu
Eduardo B. Ottoni

The majority of primates give birth to a single offspring, except
for callitrichids (Fleagle, 1999) and some prosimians (Mittermeier
et al., 1994). Twinning is rare in other species. In captivity Stott
(1952) and D'amatto and Eisenstein (1972) reported twinning
in Cebus apella, Pissinatti et al. (1999) in

Figure 1. Cebus apella twins.

C. xanthosternos and Altmann etal. (1988) in Callimicogoeldii.
In the wild, Strier, (1990) mentions one case in Brachyteles
arachnoides, Crockett and Rudran, (1987) inAlouattaseniculus,
Chapman and Chapman, (1986) in Alouatta palliata, Bicca-
Marques and Calegaro-Marques, (1990) in Allouatta caraya,
Knogge and Heymann, (1995) in Callicebus cupreus cupreus,
and Aquino et al. (1990) in Aotus vociferans.

A semi-free ranging capuchin group lives in a semi-refor-
ested area of 180,000 m2in Tietd Ecological Park, Sao Paulo,
Brazil. They have been studied since January 1996 (Ottoni
and Mannu, in press) and now comprise a group of 23 indi-
viduals. In this long-term study, two out of 11 births were
sets of twins. The sets of twins were born to the same mother.
The first birth was reported by the veterinary Liliane
Milanello in September 1996. The surviving infant (Frank)
is now three and a half years old. The second twinning oc-
curred early in the morning of May 22, 1999, when the
observer arrived one of the newborns was still wet. As far as
we know this is the first report of capuchin monkey twin-
ning in semi-free ranging conditions. On the day of the birth
the smaller newborn was being carried by its mother in a
ventral position, whereas its bigger brother was being car-
ried in transverse-dorsal position. On the second day both
of them were being carried in transverse-dorsal position (Fig.
1). The smaller newborn was found dead on the morning of
May 24, 1999, while still being carried by its mother. The
other twin (Darwin) was still alive in July, 2000.

Massimo Mannu and Eduardo B Ottoni, Departamento de
Psicologia Experimental, Instituto de Psicologia, Universidade
de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Mello Moraes, 1721, Bloco A, Cidade
Universitiria, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, Sio Paulo, Brazil.
E-mail: .


Altmann, J., Warneke, M. and Ramer, J. 1988. Twinning
among Callimico goeldii. Int. J. Primatol. 9(2): 165-168.
Aquino, R., Puertas, P and Encarnaci6n, F. 1990. Supplemen-
tal notes on a population of northeastern peruvian night mon-
keys, genus Aotus (Cebidae). Am. J. Primatol. 21(2):
Bicca-Marques, J. C. and Calegaro-Marques, C. 1994. Twins
or adoption? Neotrop. Primates 2(3): 6-7.
Chapman, C. and Chapman, L. J. 1986. Behavioural devel-
opment of howling monkey twins (Alouattapaliatta) in Santa
Rosa National Park, Costa Rica. Primates 27(3): 377-381.
Crockett, C. M. and Rudran, R. 1987. Red howler monkey
birth data I: Seasonal variation. Am. J. Primatol. 13(4):
D'Amato, M. R. and Eisenstein, N. 1972. Twinning in the New
World monkey, Cebus apella. J. Mammal. 53(2):
Fleagle, J. C. 1999. Primate Adaptation and Evolution,
Academic Press, New York.
Knogge, C. and Heymann, E. W 1995. Field observation of
twinning in the dusky titi monkey, Callicebus cupreus. Fo-
lia Primatol. 65(2): 118-120.

Neotropical Primates 8(3), September 2000 115

Mittermeier, R. A., Tattersall, I., Konstant, W. R., Meyers,
D. M. and Mast, R. B. (eds.) 1994. Lemurs ofMadagascar.
Conservation International Tropical Field Guide Series,
Washington, DC.
Ottoni, E. B. and Mannu, M. In press. Semi-free ranging
capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) spontaneously use tools
to crack open nuts. Int. J. Primatol..
Pissinatti, A., Coimbra-Filho, A. E, Rylands, A. B. and Rubido,
E. C. N. 1999. A twin birth in Cebus xanthosternos (Wied,
1820) (Cebidae, Primates). Neotrop. Primates 7(1): 21-24.
Stott, K. 1953. Twinning in hooded capuchin. J. Mammal.
34(3): 385.
Strier, K. B. 1991. Demography and conservation of an en-
dangered primate, Brachyteles arachnoides. Conserv. Biol.
5(3): 214-218.


Anthony B. Rylands
Ernesto Rodriguez-Luna

The 2000 IUCNRed List of Threatened Species was launched
on 28 September, 2000. It was compiled by Craig Hilton-
Taylor, and the assessment for primates was coordinated by
the IUCN/SSC Red List Authority for primates, Russell A.
Mittermeier, Chair of the Primate Specialist Group (PSG),
along with the Deputy Chairs for the PSG: William R.
Konstant and Anthony B. Rylands. The 2000 assessment
lists 39 species and 66 species and subspecies of Neotropical
primates as threatened, with a further 15 as "Data Deficient".
The taxonomy used for the assessment for the 2000 Red
List was that resulting from the Primate Specialist Group
workshop held in Orlando, Florida, in February 2000
(Rylands etaL, 2000). As with the 1996 RedList, the criteria
used to assess these species were those published by IUCN
in 1994 (IUCN, 1994). Future Red List assessments will
use a revised version of these criteria; "the 2000 criteria",
which have been approved by IUCN/SSC and will be pub-
lished in an upcoming issue of NeotropicalPrimates.

The numbers for Mesoamerica and South America are shown
in Tables 1 and 2, along with the distributions by country and
the criteria which determine their status. Mesoamerican coun-
tries have three species and 13 species and subspecies consid-
ered threatened, and there are 36 species and 56 species and
subspecies threatened in South America (Table 1). Nine spe-
cies are "Critically endangered", all from the Atlantic forest in
Brazil, except for the yellow-tailed woolly monkey, Oreonax
flavicauda, from the Peruvian Andes. Sixteen species and sub-
species are "Critically endangered"; three occur in Mesoamerica
and thirteen in South America (Table 1). Seventeen species
and subspecies are "Endangered", four occur in Mesoamerica
(three endemic) and 14 in South America.

Six Mesoamerican countries have threatened primates, the ma-
jority in Panama and Costa Rica, with eight and six species and
subspecies, respectively. Six South American countries have threat-
ened primates. The majority occurs in Brazil (36), followed by
Colombia with 17 species and subspecies and Peru with 10.

The 2000 Red List can be accessed on the World Wide Web:
. For further
details about the Red List Program, especially the Red List
Authorities, documentation requirements, taxonomic stan-
dards, RAMAS Red List software and the petitions process,
please contact Craig Hilton-Taylor, IUCN/SSC Red List Pro-
gram Officer, 219c Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3 ODL,
United Kingdom, Fax: ++44-1223-277845, e-mail:

Anthony B. Rylands, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science,
Conservation International, 1919 M Street NW, Suite 600,
Washington, DC 20036, USA and Ernesto Rodriguez-Luna,
Institute de Neuroetologfa, Universidad Veracruzana, Apartado
Postal 566, Xalapa, 91000 Veracruz, Mexico.


Hilton-Taylor, C. (Compiler). 2000. 2000 IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and
IUCN. 1994. IUCN Red List Categories. Prepared by
the IUCN Species Survival Commission (SSC),
Gland, Switzerland.
Rylands, A. B., Schneider, H., Langguth, A., Mittermeier,
R. A., Groves, C. P. and Rodrfguez-Luna, E. 2000. An
assessment of the diversity of New World primates. Neotrop.
Primates 8(2): 61-93.

Table 1. 2000 Red List: Numbers of threatened primates in Mesoamerica, South America and the Neotropics.
Cridically Endangered Vulnerable Total threatened Data Deficient
Mesoamerica 2 1 3 0
South America 9 7 20 36 3
Neotropics 9 9 21 39 3
Species and subspecies
Mesoamerica 3 4 6 13 1
South America 13 14 29 56 15
Neotropics 16 17 33 66 15

116 Neotropical Primates 8(3), September 2000

Appendices: Listings of the threatened Neotropical primates in Mesoamerica and South America according to the 2000 Red
List of Threatened Species (Hilton-Taylor, 2000).

Appendix 1. 2000 Red List: Threatened and Data Deficient primates in Mesoamerica. CR = Critically Endangered, EN = Endangered,
VU = Vulnerable, DD = Data Deficient. *Criteria follow IUCN (1994). (E) = English, (F) = French, (S) = Spanish.
Common name Criteria' Distribution
Critically Endangered
Aloua.ri coibenuis ryabi.a Azuero howling monkey I.E) CR B I .2abcde, C2a Panama

Ateles geoffroyi azuerensis Azuero spider monkey (E) CR Bl+2abcde, C2a Panama
Saimiri oerstedii citrinellus Grey-crowned Central American squirrel CR B1+2abcde, C2a Costa Rica
monkey (E)
AIor,.. .coibe., Co.bhi Island hov. lng monke) iEi EN Bl+2abcde, C-2a Panima

Alouatta coibensis coibensis Coiba Island howling monkey (E) EN Bl+2abcde, C2a Coiba Is., Panama
Ateles geoffroyi grisescens Hooded spider monkey (E) EN Bl+2abcde, C2a Colombia, Panama
Ateles geoffroyi panamensis Panama spider monkey (E) EN B1+2abcde, C2a Costa Rica, Panama
Red spider monkey (E)
Atele de Geoffroy du Panama (F)
Atele du Panama (F)
Mono arafia de panami (S)
Saimiri oerstedii Black-crowned Central American Squirrel EN B1+2abcde, C2a Costa Rica, Panama
monkey (E)
Central American squirrel monkey (E)
Red-backed squirrel monkey (E)
Salmiri a dos roux (F)
Singe-6cureuil k dos rouge (F)
Singe-ecureuil a dos roux (F)
Barizo dorsirrojo (S)
Mono titf (S)
Saimiri oerstedii oerstedii Black-crowned Central American squirrel EN Bl+2abcde, C2a Costa Rica, Panama
monkey (E)
Ao',...; pa/liara ...-....i. lmcin howling monke) (E) \_I AIc, BI-2c .M ..co, Guatemala
Aotus lemurinus Lemurine night monkey (E) VU Bl+2c Colombia, Costa Rica,
Aotus lemurinus lemurinus Colombian night monkey (E) VU B1+2c, C2a Colombia, Costa Rica,
Lemurine night monkey (E) Panama
Ateles geoffroyifrontatus Black-browed spider monkey (E) VU Alc, Bl+2c Costa Rica, Nicaragua
Red-bellied spider monkey (E)
Atele du Costa Rica (F)
Singe araignde du Panama (F)
Singe-araign6e aux mains noires (F)
Mono arafia maninegro (S)
Ateles geoffroyi ornatus Ornate spider monkey (E) VU Alc, Bl+2c Costa Rica
Ateles geoffroyi ruviventris Colombian spider monkey (E) VU Alc, Bl+2c Colombia, Panama
Ateles geoffroyi yucatanensis Yucatin spider monkey (E) VU Alc, Bl+2c Belize, Guatemala,
Data Deficient
Aotus lemurinus zonalis DD Colombia, Panama


Neotropical Primates 8(3), September 2000 117

Appendix 2. 2000 Red List: Threatened and Data Deficient primates in South America. CR = Critically Endangered, EN = Endangered,
VU = Vulnerable, DD = Data Deficient. *Criteria follow IUCN (1994). (E) = English, (F) = French, (S) = Spanish.

Common name Criteria* Distribution
Critically Endangered
Ai,;.-.', be '.,; dulu.. Red-hlindcd hov.ling monrkey I.E, CR B I .2abcde, C2a Brazil
Alouatta guariba guariba Northern brown howling monkey (E) CR Bl+2abcde, C2a, D Brazil
Ateles geoffroyi fusciceps Brown-headed spider monkey (E) CR Bl+2abcde, C2a Ecuador
Athle a tate brune (F)
Brachyteles arachnoides Muriqui (E) CR Bl+2abcde, C2a Brazil
Southern muriqui (E)
Woolly spider monkey (E)
Atele arachnoide (F)
Eroide (F)
Singe-araign&e laineux (F)
Mono grande (S)
Muriki (S)
Brachyteles hypoxanthus Northern muriqui (E) CR Bl+2abcde, C2a Brazil
Callicebus barbarabrownae Northern Bahian blond titi (E) CR Bl+2abcde Brazil
Callicebus coimbrai Coimbra's titi (E) CR B1+2c, C2a Brazil
Cebus apella margarita Margarita Island capuchin (E) CR Bl+2abcde, C2a Margarita Is., Venezuela
Cebus xanthosternos Yellow-breasted capuchin (E) CR Bl+2abcde, C2a Brazil
Leontopithecus caissara Black-faced lion tamarin (E) CR Bl+2abcde, C2a, D Brazil
Leontopithecus chrysopygus Black lion tamarin (E) CR Bl+2abcde, C2a Brazil
Golden-rumped lion tamarin (E)
Leontopithecus rosalia Golden lion tamarin (E) CR Bl+2abcde, C2a Brazil
Singe-lion (F)
Tamarin soyeux (F)
Oreonaxflavicauda Yellow-tailed woolly monkey (E) CR Bl+2abcde, C2a Peru
Singe laineux a queue jaune (F)
.oru0. '...un .7t,' '*,'lin... *.a Grey-legged nighi monkey I.E) EN BI 2-ab:de Colombia
Ateles geofroyigrisescens Hooded spider monkey (E) EN Bl+2abcde, C2a Colombia, Panama
Ateles hybridus Variegated spider monkey (E) EN B1+2abcde Colombia, Venezuela
Ateles hybridus brunneus Brown spider monkey (E) EN Bl+2abcde Colombia
Ateles hybridus hybridus Hybrid spider monkey (E) EN B1+2abcde Colombia, Venezuela
Variegated spider monkey (E)
Ateles marginatus White-whiskered spider monkey (E) EN Bl+2abcde Brazil
Cacajao calvus calvus White bald-headed uacari (E) EN Bl+2abcde Brazil
Cacajao calvus novaesi Novaes' bald-headed uacari (E) EN Bl+2abcde Brazil
Cacajao calvus rubicundus Red bald-headed uacari (E) EN Bl+2abcde Brazil, Colombia
Callithrix aurita Buffy-tufted-ear marmoset (E) EN Bl+2abcde, C2a Brazil
White-eared marmoset (E)
Marmouset h oreilles blanches (F)
Oustiti a oreilles blanches (F)
Oustiti oreillard (F)
Callithrixflaviceps Buffy-headed marmoset (E) EN Bl+2abcde, C2a Brazil
Ouistiti a t&te jaune (F)
Chiropotes satanas satanas Bearded saki (E) EN Bl+2abcde Brazil
Black saki (E)
Leontopithecus chrysomelas Golden-headed lion tamarin (E) EN, Bl+2abcde, C2a Brazil
Tamarino le6n de cabeza dorada (S)

Saguinus bicolor Pied bare-faced tamarin (E) EN Bl+2abcde, C2a Brazil
Pied tamarin (E)
Saguinus oedipus Cotton-headed tamarin (E) EN Bl+2abcde, C2a Colombia
Cotton-top tamarin (E)
Geoffroy's tamarin (E)
Rufous-naped tamarin (E)
Tamarin h perruque (F)
Tamarin d'Oedipe (F)
Tamarin pinch (F)
Bichichi (S)


118 Neotropical Primates 8(3), September 2000

Appendix 2, continued. 2000 Red List: Threatened and Data Deficient primates in South America. CR = Critically Endangered, EN =
Endangered, VU = Vulnerable, DD = Data Deficient. *Criteria follow IUCN (1994). (E) = English, (F) = French, (S) = Spanish.

Common name Criteria" Distribution
Aoru. / anurinw Lemurine night monkey (E) VU BI +2c Colombia, Costa Rica,
Aotus lemurinus lemurinus Colombian night monkey (E) VU B1+2c, C2a Colombia, Costa Rica,
Lemurine night monkey (E) Panama
Aotus miconax Andean night monkey (E) VUAlc, Bi+2c Peru
Ateles be/zebuth Long-haired spider monkey (E) VUAlc Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador,
White-bellied spider monkey (E) Peru, Venezuela
Atele belzbuth (F)
Ateles geoffvoyi rufiventris Colombian spider monkey (E) VUAlc, B1+2c Colombia, Panama
Cacajao calvus Bald-headed uacari (E) VUAlcd Brazil, Colombia, Peru
Red-and-white uacari (E)
Ouakari chauve (F)
Cacajao (S)
Cacayao (S)
Huapo colorado (S)
Huapo rojo (S)
Uacaries (S)
Cacajao calvus ucayalii Ucayali bald-headed uacari (E) VUAlc Brazil (?), Peru
Callicebus medemi Medem's collared titi (E) VU B1 +2c, C2a Colombia
Callicebus melanochir Southern Bahian masked titi (E) VUAlc Brazil
Callicebus nyifromns Black-fronted titi (E) VUAlc Brazil
Callicebus oenanthe Andean titi monkey (E) VU Bl+2c Peru
Callicebus ornatus Ornate titi monkey (E) VUAlc, B1+2c Colombia
Callicebus personatus Masked titi (E) VUAlc, Bl+2c Brazil
Northern masked titi (E)
Titi a masque (F)
Callimico goeldii Goeldi's marmoset (E) VUAlc Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia,
Goeldi's monkey (E) Peru
Goeldi's tamarin (E)
Tamarin de Goeldi (F)
Tamarin sauteur (F)
Pichico negro (S)
Titf de Goeldi (S)
Callithrix geoffroyi Geoffroy's tufted-ear marmoset (E) VU B1+2b, C2a Brazil
White-fronted marmoset (E)
Tidt de caba blanca (S)
Cebus nigitus robustus Robust tufted capuchin (E) VU Bl+2c Brazil
Cebus capucinus curtus Gorgona white-fronted capuchin (E) VU B1+2c Gorgona Is., Colombia
Cebus olivaceus kaapori Ka'apor capuchin (E) VUAlc, Bi+2c Brazil
Chiropotes satanas utahicki Uta Hick's bearded saki (E) VUAlc Brazil
Lagothrix cana VUAlc Brazil, Peru
Lagothrix cana cana Geoffroy's woolly monkey (E) VUA1C Brazil, Peru
Lagothrix cana tschudii VU Alc Bolivia (?), Peru
Lagothrix lugens Colombian woolly monkey (E) VU Alc+2c Colombia, Venezuela
Lagothrix poeppigii VUAlc Brazil, Ecuador, Peru
Mico chrysoleucus Golden-white tassel-ear marmoset (E) VU Bl+2c Brazil
Mico leucippe Golden-white bare-ear marmoset (E) VU B1+2c Brazil
Mico nigriceps Black-headed marmoset (E) VU B1+2c Brazil
Pithecia monachus millen Miller's monk saki (E) VUAlc, B1+2c Colombia
Saguinus imperator imperator Black-chinned emperor tamarin (E) VU AIc, Bl +2c Brazil, Peru
Saguinus leucopus Silvery-brown bare-face tamarin (E) VUAlc, Bl+2c, C2a Colombia
White-footed tamarin (E)
Tamarin h pieds blancs (F)
Tamarin de manos blancas (S)
Saguinus nigricollis hernandezi Hernrndez-Camacho's black mantle VU AIc, Bl+2c Colombia
tamarin (E)
Saimiri vanzolinii Blackish squirrel monkey (E) VU B1+2c, C2a Brazil


Neotropical Primates 8(3), September 2000 119

Appendix 2, continued. 2000 Red List: Threatened and Data Deficient primates in South America. CR = Critically Endangered, EN =
Endangered, VU = Vulnerable, DD = Data Deficient. *Criteria follow IUCN (1994). (E) = English, (F) = French, (S) = Spanish.
Common name Criteria' Distribution
Data Deficient
Aotus lemurinus zonalis DD Colombia, Panama
Callicebus olallae Beni titi monkey (E) DD Bolivia
Cebus albifrons adustus Brown-faced capuchin (E) DD Venezuela
Cebus albifrons aequatorialis Ecuadorian capuchin (E) DD Ecuador
Cebus albifrons cesarae DD Colombia
Cebus albifrons cuscinus Shock-headed capuchin (E) DD Bolivia, Brazil, Peru
Cebus albifrons leucophaeus DD Venezuela
Cebus albifrons malitiosus DD Colombia
Cebus albifrons versicolor Varied capuchin (E) DD Colombia
Cebus albifrons yuracus Andean white-fronted capuchin (E) DD Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
Mico marcai Marca's marmoset (E) DD Brazil
Mico saterei Saterd marmoset (E) DD Brazil
Pithecia monachus napensis Napo monk saki (E) DD
Saguinusfuscicollis crandalli Crandall's saddleback tamarin (E) DD Brazil (?), Peru (?)
Saguinusfuscicollis cruzlimai Cruz Lima's saddleback tamarin (E) DD Brazil (?)


In 1999, Lilian R. M. de Sa defended her Master's thesis
entitled "Determination and characterization of disease of
callitrichids and cebids (multidisciplinary approach)", at the
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnology of the
University of Slo Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Her supervisor
was Dr. Jos6 Luiz Catio Dias, and it was financed by the
University and the state funding agency, the Fundacao de
Amparo a Pesquisas do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP). The
following is an abstract of the thesis.

Little information is available in Brazil about the causes of
morbidity and mortality among Neotropical primates. The
aim of this study was to contribute to the knowledge con-
cerning the diseases of New World primates using clinical,
laboratory, microbiological, and parasitological data and pa-
thology examinations. Twenty-two callitrichids and 14 cebids
held in captivity or free-ranging were studied, and their dis-
eases and causes of death were determined and character-
ized. The animals were selected on the basis of the conserva-
tion of their carcasses sent to the Comparative Pathology
Laboratory, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Zootechny,
at the University of Sao Paulo, from January 1997 to Octo-
ber 1998. The final pathology diagnoses were made using
clinical history, laboratory data, bacterial growth from heart
blood and organs, and identification of protozoa. The data
revealed 14 cases of infection and parasitic death, six wast-
ing marmoset syndrome cases, two metabolic problems, three
digestive disturbances, three traumas, two reproductive dis-
eases, and one death each from electric shock, hematopoi-
etic problems, renal disease, respiratory disease, nervous sys-
tem disease and congenital anomalies. The bacterial agents
considered pathogenic were Corynebacterium spp., Strepto-
coccus spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pasteurella multocida and

Leptospira interrogans. The deaths caused by protozoan infec-
tion were toxoplasmosis and infestation by enteric flagellates.
Micotic infections, candidiasis, zygomicosis and aspergillosis
were secondary infections that contributed to the poor health
of the animals. Campylobacter spp. was isolated from both as-
ymptomatic and clinically affected Neotropical primates. In
addition, other processes were diagnosed, such as hiperplasia
and neoplasia of the endocrine system, hepatic hemossiderosis,
ophthalmic lesions, atherosclerosis and metazoan parasites. The
results show the advantage of a complete pathology examina-
tion associated with bacterial culture and parasitic identifica-
tion, and so the need for implementation of general control
measures and for the prevention of zoonoses and infectious-
parasitic diseases in Neotropical primates.

Lilian R. M. de Sa, Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de
Medicine Veteriniria e Zootecnia, Av. Prof. Dr. Orlando
Marques Paiva 87, Cidade Universitiria, Sao Paulo 05508-900,
Slo Paulo, Brazil.


Sa, L. R. M. 1999. Determination and Characterization of
Disease of Callitrichids and Cebids (Multidisciplinary Ap-
proach). Master's thesis, Experimental and Comparative Pa-
thology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnology,
University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo. 174pp.


The Edentate Specialist Group of the Species Survival Com-
mission (SSC) of The World Conservation Union (IUCN)
has established a conservation action fund which will offer small
grants to support studies and conservation initiatives related to
edentates. Financed by the Center for Applied Biodiversity Sci-

120 Neotropical Primates 8(3), September 2000

ence at Conservation International, based in Washington, DC,
the grants offered will be a maximum of US $3000, with the
typical amount given around US $1000. The grant applica-
tion process is designed to have a fast turn around time. Those
interested in submitting a proposal should contact Jennifer
Pervola, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conserva-
tion International, 1919 M. St., NW, Suite 600, Washington,
DC 20036, USA, e-mail: .


The Primate Conservation and Welfare Society (PCWS) is
proud to announce the availability of an annual Primate Con-
servation Small Grant. For details, including the Application
Packet in PDF Format, please see our website at: http://
www.primates-online.com/apps.html>. To receive a hard copy
of the Conservation Grant Application Packet, please send a
self-addressed stamped envelope to: PCWS-Conservation
Grant, PO Box 2101, Port Townsend, WA 98368, USA. Please
note that due to the volume of requests, applications must be
accompanied by a self-addressed, stamped envelope. Applicants
outside the US should contact PCWS via e-mail with appro-
priate contact information. The grant deadline is June 30, 2001.
For more information: Hope Walker, Executive Director, The
Primate Conservation & Welfare Society, PO Box 2101, Port
Townsend, WA 98368, USA, e-mail: .


The Fulbright Scholar Program for faculty and professionals is
offering more than 45 awards in biological sciences for lectur-
ing and/or doing research abroad during the 2001-2002 aca-
demic year. The program is sponsored by the United States
Department of State, Bureau of Educational and Cultural Af-
fairs, and administered by the Council for International Ex-
change of Scholars. For more information contact the Interna-
tional Exchange of Scholars, 3007 Tilden St. NW, Suite 500,
Washington, DC 20008-3009, USA, Tel: (202) 686-7877, Fax:
(202) 362 3442, web site: .


The SSC has several new Specialist Groups. The Afrotheria
Group, chaired by Galen Rathbun, was created to cover the
Superorder Afrotheria, which includes aardvarks, hyrax, golden-
moles, elephant-shrews and tenrecs. A Caribbean Inland Fresh-
water Fishes Specialist Group was created as part of an evolv-
ing SSC strategy for freshwater fish. Co-Chairs are Michael
Smith and Carlos Rodriquez. The Global Amphibian Special-
ist Group, chaired by Claude Gascon, will work towards devel-
oping a regionally-based network of amphibian specialists, us-
ing the model of SSC's Sustainable Use Specialist Group. The
Iguana Specialist Group, formerly West Indian Iguana, has a
new mandate to cover all species. Allison Alberts continues as
Chair, with Jose Ottenwalder appointed as Co-Chair. The first

regionally-based Invertebrate Specialist Group, the South-
ern African Invertebrates Specialist Group, has been estab-
lished, chaired by Michael Samways. A new Philippine Plant
Specialist Group, chaired by Domingo Madulid, will address
the important issues relating to plant diversity conservation
in the Philippines. A list of all SSC Specialist Groups and
Task Forces with contact details, is available on the SSC
website at .
Information from the IUCN Species Survival Commission E-
Bulletin-February 2001.


The School of Social Sciences and Law at Oxford Brookes
University in Oxford, UK, is offering a one-year full time or
two-year part time MSc course in primate conservation. The
course combines the expertise of anthropologists and biolo-
gists to examine primate conservation biology in a broad
context, with particular emphasis on the interrelationships
between humans and wildlife in forest and woodland envi-
ronments. Aimed to provide a high quality postgraduate re-
search qualification, the course focuses on eight major themes
including: Primate diversity and biogeography, socio-politi-
cal aspects of conservation, environmental education, mo-
lecular and population genetics, fieldwork training and meth-
ods, captive management, museum studies, and habitat pro-
tection and the future of rainforests.

Students interested in the course will normally have an hon-
ors degree in anthropology, biology or a related discipline.
Applications can be made at any time up to the beginning of
the first term of study and may be obtained from: The Sec-
retary, School of Social Sciences and Law, Oxford Brooks
University, Oxford, OX3 OBP, UK, Tel: +44 (0) 1865
433750, Fax: +44 (0) 1869 483937, e-mail:
. You can also download an ap-
plication from the web page at pgcourse/application/down.html>.


A course on the "Ecology of New World Primates" was held
from 02 to 06 October 2000 at the Universidad Nacional de
la Amazonfa Peruana (UNAP) in Iquitos (Peru). The course
was directed by Eckhard W. Heymann from the Deutsches
Primatenzentrum (DPZ, German Primate Center) and
Filomeno Encarnaci6n C. from the Universidad Nacional
Mayor de San Marcos (Lima, Peru) and hosted by the Facul-
ties of Forestry Engineering and Biological Sciences of UNAP
Sixteen students and staffmembers from UNAP participated
in this course which was supported by a grant from the
Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation. The course first
provided a general introduction to the diversity of New World
primates and their habitats. Then aspects of the ecology of

Neotropical Primates 8(3), September 2000

all genera of New World primates (e.g., feeding ecology) were
given, with emphasis on those genera occurring in Peru. The
major part of the course dealt with the ecological roles (e.g.,
seed dispersal, seed predation). The course ended with the
presentation of the problems of the conservation of New
World primates and their habitats. It is hoped that this theo-
retical course can be backed up by a practical field course in
the near future.

Un curso sobre "Ecologfa de Primates Neotropicales" se
realize entire el 02 y 06 de octubre 2000 en la Universidad
Nacional de laAmazonfa Peruana (UNAP) en Iquitos (Perd).
El curso fue dirigido por Eckhard W. Heymann del Deutsches
Primatenzentrum (DPZ, Centro Alemin de Primates) y
Filomeno Encarnaci6n C. de la Universidad Nacional Mayor
de San Marcos (Lima, Peru) y fue auspiciado por las
Facultades de Ingenierfa Forestal y de Ciencias Biol6gicas de
la UNAP. Participaron 16 personas en el curso, entire
estudiantes y docentes de estas dos facultades. La realizaci6n
del curso fue subvencionado por una beca de la Margot Marsh
Biodiversity Foundation. El curso present una introducci6n
general a la diversidad de los primates neotropicales y sus
habitats. Despues se present aspects de la ecologia (p.ej.,
dieta y selecci6n de alimentos) de todos los generos de pri-
mates neotropicales, poniendo 6nfasis en aquellos generos
distribuidos en el Perd. La mayor parte del curso trat6 de los
roles ecol6gicos (p.ej., dispersion ydepredaci6n de semillas).
El curso termin6 con la presentaci6n de los problems de
conservaci6n de los primates neotropicales y sus habitats. Se
espera que sera possible completar este curso te6rico con un
curso prictico de campo en el pr6ximo future.

Eckhard W. Heymann, Abteilung Verhaltensforschung &
Okologie, Deutsches Primatenzentrum, Kellnerweg 4, D-
37077 Gittingen, Germany, e-mail:
and Filomeno Encarnaci6n C., Apartado 575, Iquitos, Perd,
e-mail: .


Duke University is offering a four-week course in Tropical
Ecology during June, 2001 in Costa Rica. The course will
focus on the natural history of tropical habitats in an evolu-
tionary and ecological context. Scholarship opportunities are
available. For more information contact the Organization
for Tropical Studies, Box 90630, NC 27708-0630, USA,
Tel: + (919) 684 5774, Fax: + (919) 684 5661, e-mail:
, or website .


The University ofAmsterdam has established a database net-
work of world taxonomists. To register or for further infor-
mation visit their website at: base/WTD.html>.


Earthprint, the official bookstore of the United Nations, oper-
ating since August 1999, has expanded to include publications
from: The World Health Organization, Organisation for Eco-
nomic Co-operation and Development, United Nations Uni-
versity, Tata Energy Research Institute, and the International
Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. The full
service online bookstore provides a location for purchasing
authoritative environmental publications from various inter-
national organizations. To access Earthprint, see the website


Viktor and Annie Reinhard have made revisions to their Pri-
mate Enrichment Database. You will now find simplified search-
ing and active links to various papers available on the web. To
view the web site go to biblio/enrich.htm>.


This site includes the Tamarin Husbandry Manual, a
Cotton-top Fact Sheet, a Project Tamarin link site, Cotton-top
Species Survival Plan, information for institutional representa-
tives, and additional resources to help understand and learn
about cotton-top tamarins in their natural and captive envi-
ronments. Visit the site at: .


The Asociaci6n Primatol6gica Espafiola (APE), President
Federico Guilldn-Salazar (Universidad Cardenal Herrera,
Valencia) produces a newsletter three times a year, in January,
May and September the Boletin de laAsociacidn Primatoldgica
Espafiola. Recent issues are now available on the web
, maintained by the Universidad Aut6noma
de Madrid. For any enquiries regarding membership, etc., please
write to: Celina Anaya-Huertas, General Secretary, APE,
Departamento de Psicobiologia, Buz6n 150, Facultad de
Psicologfa, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Campus de
Somosaguas, 28223 Madrid, Spain. Tel: 913 943 075, Fax:
913 943 189, e-mail: .

122 Neotropical Primates 8(3), September 2000


Recently published, in May 2000, was the 5th issue of the
IUCN/SSC PSG newsletter Lemur News. With 51 pages, it
contains sections on News and announcements, Funding and
training, Meetings, and Recent publications (books, journal
volumes, theses and other IUCN/SSC publications of inter-
est), besides 16 articles in English and French. Contributions
to the next issues should be sent to: Jbrg U. Ganzhorn, Institut
flr Zoologie, Universitkt Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz
3, D-20146 Hamburg, Germany, Fax: +49 40 42838 5980, e-
mail: , or Berthe
Rakotosaminanana, D6pt de Paldontologie et d'Anthropologie
Biologique, Facult6 des Sciences, Universit6 d'Antananarivo,
BP 916, Antananarivo, Madagascar, e-mail:


In 1999, the Dutch publishers Springer launched a new quar-
terly journal-RegionalEnvironmental Change, ISSN 1436-3798.
The aim is to focus on the interactions of human and natural
systems at the regional level within the context of global change.
Regions considered are river catchments, estuaries, deltas, ad-
jacent seas and wetlands as well as the interactions between
cities and their environments. Disciplinary, but in particular
multidisciplinary, approaches to the study of these systems are
considered. The Editor-in-Chief is Dr. Wim Salomans, GKSS
Research Centre and Free UniversityAmsterdam, Max-Planck-
Strasse, D21502 Geesthacht, Germany. More information
from: Springer for Science, PO Box 503, 1970 AM Ijmuiden,
The Netherlands, Fax: +49 30 82787 448, e-mail: tions@ springer.de>. Website: .


The 2000 IUCNRed List of Threatened Species, 2000, 6lpp, +
CD-ROM, was launched on the 28h September 2000, in Lon-
don, Washington, Geneva, and Ottawa. It was compiled by
Craig Hilton-Taylor, with the assistance of Caroline Pollock,
Matthew Linkie, Alan Mauric, Janice Long, Mariano Gimenez-
Dixon, Simon Stuart, Alison Stattersfield, Martin Sneary, and
Georgina M. Mace, in association with experts in the IUCN/
SSC Species Survival Commission specialist groups and
BirdlLife International. Includes a foreword by David Brackett,
Chair of the IUCN Species Survival Commission, and an in-
troductory essay "A challenge to the global community" by
Russell A. Mittermeier, President of Conservation International
and Chairman of the Primate Specialist Group. Seven annexes:
1. Recent developments in the IUCN/SSC Red List
Programme; 2. Organization of information; 3. Information
sources and quality; 4. Habitat types authority file; 5. Threat

types authority file; 6. The 1994 IUCN Red List categories
and criteria; 7. Summary of the results of the review of IUCN
Red List categories and criteria 1996-2000 (Georgina M.
Mace). There are a number of innovations introduced to
enhance the effectiveness of the List as a conservation tool.
Improved species coverage: All bird species have been com-
pletely reassessed by BirdlLife International and its partners;
all primates have been reassessed following a consultative
review workshop on primate systematics (see Neotropical
Primates 8(2), pp.61-93); many other mammals, including
antelope, bats, cetaceans, otters, wild pigs, wild cattle and
wild goats, and some rodents were reassessed; improved cov-
erage of sharks, rays and saw-fish; all South-east Asian fresh-
water turtles were comprehensively assessed; a number of
new reptile and amphibian assessments from Brazil, the Phil-
ippines, Russian Federation and the Russian Republics were
carried out; the correction of some insect information and
the addition of a number of new European butterfly assess-
ments; correction of errors in the mollusc listings in the 1996
Red List, a thorough re-evaluation of all potentially extinct
species of mollusc and the inclusion of a number of new
assessments; all the tree assessments from The World List of
Threatened Trees (Oldfield et al., 1998) were incorporated
and updated where necessary; all conifers were comprehen-
sively reassessed; and new assessments for plants from
Cameroon, Galipagos, Mauritius and South Africa were in-
cluded, as were comprehensive assessments for the carnivo-
rous plant genera Nepenthes and Sarracenia, and for the first
time almost 100 assessments of mosses were included. Peer
review process carried out by the appointment of Red List
Authorities responsible for the evaluation of all assessments
on the Red List to help ensure the maintenance of standards
and the correct application of the criteria. Improved docu-
mentation: with the inclusion of a rationale for many listings
explaining how they were reached to improve accountabil-
ity; provision of information on range, current population
trends, main habitats, major threats and conservation mea-
sures taken; and improved documentation of extinct spe-
cies. Introduction of a petitions process whereby listings can
challenged. Increased accessibility via a new web site and a
CD-ROM. The web site provides a mechanism whereby users
can feed corrections and additional information back to the
Red List Programme. The web site is: redlist/2000/index.html>.

The 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (Book with
analysis and CD-ROM) is available only in English. Price:
30 or US$45 at: IUCN Publication Services Unit,
219c Huntingdon Road, Cambridge, CB3 ODL, UK,
Tel: +44 1223 277894, Fax: +44 1223 277175, e-mail:
, or order it through the Net at:
. The above is
the preferred address, it can also be ordered at the IUCN
Publishing Division, IUCN-The World Conservation Union,
rue Mauverney 28, CH-1196 Gland, Switzerland, Tel: +41
22 999-0111, Fax: +41 22 999-0010, e-mail:
, WWW: . US and Ca-
nadian customers may also order IUCN publications from:
Island Press, Box 7, Covelo, California 95428, Tel: 800 828

Neotropical Primates 8(3), September 2000 123

1302 or +1 707 983 6432, Fax: +1 707 983 6414, e-mail:
. For publications out of print, photo-
copies can be obtained from the IUCN Library at IUCN-
The World Conservation Union, rue Mauverney 28,
CH-1196 Gland, Switzerland, Tel: +41 22 999 0135, Fax:
+41 22 999 0010; e-mail: . As the price
varies, depending on the number of pages to photocopy and
where they are to be mailed, please contact Ms Cecile Thiery
with your request. Please specify if you wish a copy of the
full publication or just part of it, as well as your mailing


In September 2000, The World Bank in collaboration with
the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), New York, pub-
lished two important documents on hunting and biodiversity
conservation. They are monographs in the Biodiversity Se-
ries Impact Studies, Environment Department Papers. The
first, "Biodiversity Conservation in the Context of Tropical
Forest Management" by Francis E. Putz, Kent H. Redford,
John G. Robinson, Robert Fimbel and Geoffrey M. Blate,
80pp., has six chapters, as follows: 1. Introduction; 2. Dis-
aggregating "Biodiversity"; 3. Disaggregating "Logging"; 4.
Impacts of Forest Management on Biodiversity; 5. Over-
view of Biodiversity Conservation in Relation to Logging
and Other Silvicultural Treatments; 6. Recommendations.
There are seven appendices. The second, "Hunting ofWild-
life in Tropical Forests: Implications for Biodiversity and
Forest Peoples", by Elizabeth L. Bennett and John G.
Robinson, 42pp., is based on the book recently published
by the same authors, Hunting for Sustainability in Tropical
Forests, Columbia University Press, New York, 2000. Be-
sides an executive summary, it has five chapters: 1. Intro-
duction; 2. The Sustainability of Hunting in Tropical For-
ests; 3. Factors Affecting the Sustainability of Hunting; 4.
Enhancing the Sustainability of Hunting; 5. Conclusions
and Recommendations. Copies are available from: Environ-
ment Department, The World Bank, 1818 H Street, NW,
Washington, DC 20433, USA, Tel: +1 202 473-3641, Fax:
+1 202 477-0565. The documents can be viewed at: /www.worldbank.org/biodiversity> or for a hardcopy email
Sharon Esumei at .

Putz, E E., Redford, K. H., Robinson, J. G., Fimbel, R. and
Blate, G. M. 2000. Biodiversity conservation in the con-
text of tropical forest management. Biodiversity Series -
Impact Studies, Environment DepartmentPapers (75): 80pp.
The World Bank, Washington, DC.
Bennett, E. L. and Robinson, J. G. 2000. Hunting of wild-
life in tropical forests: Implications for biodiversity and
forest peoples Biodiversity Series Impact Studies, Environ-
mentDepartment Papers (76): 42pp. The World Bank, Wash-
ington, DC.


Primate Males, edited by P. Kappeler, 2000, 316pp. Cambridge
University Press, UK. ISBN 0-521-65846-2. Price 23.95 This
book, written by leading authorities on primates, focuses on
the causes and consequences of variation in the number of males
per group and also provides an extensive overview of variation
in group composition across all major primate taxa using re-
views, case studies, evolutionary theory, and theoretical mod-
els. Contents include: Part I, Introduction; Part II, Compara-
tive Perspectives on Male-Female Associations; Part III, Varia-
tion in Male Numbers; Part IV, Behavioural Aspects of Male
Coexistence; Part V, Evolutionary Determinants and Conse-
quences; Part VI, Conclusions. Available from: Cambridge
University Press, The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2
1BR, UK. E-mail to Hannah Proctor cam.uuc.uk>. Web site: .

Conservation Research in the African Rain Forests: A Technical
Handbook, edited by Lee White and Ann Edwards, 454pp.,
2000. Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York. ISBN
0 9632064 4 3 (English). ISBN 0 9632064 5 1 (French). A
remarkable and most useful book for the practicalities of field
research. As stated in the Introduction "The purpose of this
manual is to assist people working in African forests to collect
information from many different sources and use it effectively
for management and conservation. We hope to: 1) Help pro-
tected area managers to establish goals and determine priorities
for management and to design research programmes appropri-
ate to these objectives. 2) Outline simple, current, commonly-
used methods for collecting information, specifically on popu-
lation densities and behavioral ecology of larger animals, veg-
etation, physical features of the land, weather patterns, and the
numbers impacts, needs and expectations of people that use
and/or live near protected areas. 3) Present guidelines for ana-
lyzing field data realistically and with confidence; 4) Present
guidelines for interpreting and storing information with the
aim of making it useful and accessible to a variety of audiences."
Contents: Protected area management and the role of research -
A. Lanjouw, A. Edwards & L. White, pp.1-14; Research pri-
orities and design of research programmes L. White & A.
Edwards, pp. 15-22; An introduction to sampling L. White
&A. Edwards, pp.23-30; An introduction to data analysis and
interpretation L. White & A. Edwards, pp.31-51; Making
observations and recording data A. Edwards, A. Rabinowitz
& L. White, pp.53-61; Maps, compasses, GPS units and the
principals of navigation A. Edwards & L. White, pp.63-83;
Methods for recording the weather -A. Edwards and L. White,
pp.85-92; Collecting botanical specimens A. Dold, P.
Phillipson, R. Liesner, P. Lowry & L. White, pp.93-118; Veg-
etation inventory and description, L. White & A. Edwards,
pp.119-155; Information from animal tracks and trails R. J.
Parnell, pp. 157-189; Information from dead animals and their
curation A. Rabinowitz, J. Hart & L. White, pp.191-201;
Necropsy procedures for wild animals L. Munson, pp.203-
224; Methods for assessing the status of animal populations -
L. White & A. Edwards, pp.225-275; Behavioural ecology data

124 Neotropical Primates 8(3), September 2000

and its relevance for management K. Abernethy, pp.277-
329; Socio-economic data and their relevance to protected area
management B. Curran. D. Wilkie & R. Tshombe, pp.331-
353; Statistical techniques N. Chalmers, P. Parker and K.
McConway, pp.355-422; Presenting and conserving your find-
ings A. Edwards & L. White, pp.423-440. Available from:
The Wildlife Conservation Society, 185' Street & Southern
Boulevard, Bronx. New York, NY 10460-1099, USA.

Priorities for the Conservation of Mammalian Diversity:
Has the Panda Had Its Day?, edited by Abigail Entwhistle and
Nigel Dunstone, 2000, 455pp. Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge. ISBN 0 521 77279 6 (Hardback), 0 521 77536
1 (Paperback). This book is No. 3 in the Conservation Biol-
ogy series of CUP, edited by Morris Gosling in Association
with the Zoological Society of London. No. 1 was Conserva-
tion in a Changing World, edited by Georgina M. Mace, An-
drew Balmford and Joshua R. Ginsberg, and No. 2 was
Behaviour and Conservation, edited by L. M. Gosling and J.
Sutherland. This excellent review has three parts,
besides an introductory chapter by Abigail Entwhistle,
Simon Mickleburgh and Nigel Dunstone Mammal
conservation: current contexts and opportunities. Part 1. Jus-
tifying the conservation of mammals. Part 2. Setting
priorities for mammalian conservation. Part 3. Conservation
approaches for mammalian species and diversity. Orders in
the USA: Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street,
New York, NY 10011-4211, USA. Orders elsewhere:
Cambridge University Press, The Edinburgh Building,
Cambridge CB2 1BR, UK. E-mail to Hannah
Proctor . Web site: www.cambridge.org>.

Essentials of Ecology, by Colin R. Townsend, John L. Harper
and Michael Begon, 1999, 450pp. Blackwell Science, Oxford,
UK ISBN 0 632 204348 2 (Paperback). Price: 24.95. Pre-
senting a balanced overview of ecology this textbook draws
examples from both terrestrial and aquatic environments and
from a variety of organism types. Color throughout, the book
contains 14 chapters containing a wide range of key ecological
concepts including: Part I, Introduction, Part II, Conditions
and Resources, Part III Individuals, Populations, Communi-
ties, and Ecosystems, and Part IV, Applied Issues in Ecology.
Orders for the book can be placed through Blackwell Science,
Osney Mead, Oxford, OX2 OEL, UK, Tel: +44 (0) 1865
206206, Fax: +44 (0) 1865 721205.

Community Ecology, by Peter J. Morin, 1999, 432pp. Blackwell
Science, Oxford, UK. ISBN 0 865 42350 4 (Paperback). Price:
24.95. This book guides the reader through the main com-
ponents and central concepts ofecology, including: predation,
competition, food webs, indirect effects, habitat selection, di-
versity, and succession. It includes examples from both the
terrestrial and aquatic environments and from both plant and
animal species. Morin focuses on historical foundations of ecol-
ogy and stresses the functions which are necessary to drive
ecology into the millennium. Available from: Blackwell Sci-
ence, Osney Mead, Oxford, OX2 OEL, UK, Tel: +44 (0) 1865
206206, Fax: +44 (0) 1865 721205.

Footprints in the Jungle, edited by Ian A. Bowles and Glenn
T. Prickett, 2000, 352pp. Oxford University Press,
Northamptonshire, UK ISBN 0 19 512578 9 (Hardback),
price: 35.00. ISBN 0 19 850035 1 (Paperback), price:
19.99. This volume looks at new approaches that attempt
to minimize the impact of development on tropical ecosys-
tems. Includes numerous case studies, looks closely at the
environment and social impact of resource development, pro-
poses a "best practices" approach, and examines a number
of challenging technical, environmental and legal issues re-
lated to the environment. Available from: Oxford Univer-
sity Press, Saxon Way West, Corby, Northamptonshire,
NN18 9ES, UK, Tel: +44 (0)1536 454534, Fax: +44 (0)1536
454 518, e-mail: . Web site:

Endless Forms, edited by Daniel J. Howard and Stewart H.
Berlocher, 1999, 552pp. Oxford University Press, Oxford,
UK ISBN 0 19 510900 (Hardback), price: 65.00. ISBN 0
19 510901 5 (Paperback), price: 23.50. Thirty authors
present their latest research on species concepts, modes of
speciation, the nature of reproductive barriers, the forces that
drive divergence of populations, the genetic control of re-
productive isolation, and the role played by hybrid zones
and hybridization in speciation. Available from: Oxford Uni-
versity Press, Saxon Way West, Corby, Northamptonshire,
NN18 9ES, UK, Tel: +44 (0) 1536 454534, Fax: +44 (0)
1536 454 518, e-mail: . Web site:

Comparative Primate Socioecology, edited by Phyllis Lee, 1999,
438pp. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. ISBN
0 521 59336 0 (Hardback). Price: 45.00. Cambridge Stud-
ies in BiologicalandEvolutionaryAnthropology, 22. Compara-
tive studies have become both more frequent and more im-
portant as a means for understanding the biology, behaviour
and evolution of mammals. This book draws together a wide
range of experts from fields as diverse as reproductive biol-
ogy and foraging energetic to place recent field research into
a synthetic perspective. The chapters tackle controversial is-
sues in primate biology and behaviour, including the role of
brain expansion and infanticide in the evolution of primate
behavioral strategies. This book also presents an overview
of comparative methodologies as applied to recent primate
research. It is of particular relevance to primatologists and
behavioral ecologists as well those interested in the evolu-
tion of human social behaviour. Available from: UK and Ire-
land UK Sales Department, Cambridge University Press,
The Edinburgh Building, Shaftesbury Road, Cambridge CB2
2RU, UK, e-mail: , web site:
, or North and Central America -
Cambridge University Press North American Branch, 40
West 20t Street, New York, NY 10011-4211, US, e-mail:
, or South America and Hispanic
Caribbean Cambridge University Press South American
Branch, Av. Paulista 807, Conj. 1218, 01311-915 Sio Paulo,
SP, Brazil, e-mail: , web site:

Neotropical Primates 8(3), September 2000 125

Attitudes to Animals: Views in Animal Welfare, edited by
Francine L. Dolins, The Humane Society of the United States,
1999, 272pp. Cambridge University Press, New York. ISBN
0 521 47342 X (Hardback). ISBN 0 521 47906 1 (Paper-
back). Price: Hardback 40; Paperback 14.95. This book
provides a foundation which the reader can use to make ethi-
cal choices about animals. It challenges readers to question
their current views, attitudes and perspectives on animals
and nature, and the development of the human-animal rela-
tionship. It asks what it is to be human, what to be animal,
and what is the relationship between them. Available from:
UK and Ireland UK Sales Department, Cambridge Uni-
versity Press, The Edinburgh Building, Shaftesbury Road,
Cambridge CB2 2RU, UK, e-mail: cup.cam.ac.uk>, web site: , or North
and Central America Cambridge University Press North
American Branch, 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-
4211, US, e-mail: , or South America
and Hispanic Caribbean Cambridge University Press South
American Branch, Av. Paulista 807, Conj. 1218, 01311-915
Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil, e-mail: , web
site: .

Infanticide by Males and Its Implications, edited by Carel P.
van Schaik and Charles H. Janson, 2000, 450pp. Cambridge
University Press, New York. ISBN 0 521 77295 8 (Hard-
back). ISBN 0 521 77498 5 (Paperback). Price: Hardback
$130, Paperback $47.95. Contents: Foreword S. B. Hrdy;
Infanticide by males: Prospectus C. P. van Schaik & C. H.
Janson. Part I. Introduction: The holy wars about infanti-
cide. Which side are you on? And why? V. Sommer; Infan-
ticide by male primates: The sexual selection hypothesis re-
visited C. P. van Schaik; Vulnerability to infanticide by
males: Patterns among mammals by C. P. van Schaik. Part
II. Infanticide by Males: Case studies- Infanticide in red howl-
ers: Female group size, male membership, and a possible link
to folivory C. M. Crockett & C. H. Janson; Infanticide in
hanuman langurs: Social organization, male migration, and
weaning age C. Borries & A. Koenig; Male infanticide and
defense of infants in chacma baboons R. A. Palombit, D.
L. Cheney, J. Fischer, S. Johnson, D. Rendall, R. M. Seyfarth
& J. B. Silk; Infanticide by males and female choice in wild
Thomas's langurs R. Steenbeek; The evolution of infanti-
cide in rodents: A comparative analysis D. T. Blumstein;
Infanticide by male birds, byJ. P. Veiga. Part III Behavioral
Consequences of Infanticide by Males: Prevention of infanti-
cide: The perspective of infant primates A. Treves; Infanti-
cide and the evolution of male-female bonds in animals R.
A. Palombit; The other side of the coin: Infanticide and the
evolution ofaffiliative male-infant interactions in Old World
primates A. Paul, S. Preuschoft & C. P. van Schaik; Female
dispersal and infanticide avoidance in primates E. H. M.
Sterck & A. H. Korstjens; Reproductive patterns in euth-
erian mammals: Adaptations against infanticide? M. A. van
Noordwijk & C. P. van Schaik; Paternity confusion and the
ovarian cycles of female primates C. P van Schaik, J. K.
Hodges & C. L. Nunn; Social evolution in primates: The
relative roles of ecology and intersexual conflict C. L. Nunn

& C. P. van Schaik. PartIV Infanticide by Females: Infanticide
by female mammals: Implications for the evolution of social
systems L. Digby; "The hate that love generated" Sexually
selected neglect of one's own offspring in humans E. Voland
& P. Stephan. Part V Conclusion: The behavioral ecology of
infanticide by males C. H. Janson & C. P. van Schaik.
Available from: UK and Ireland UK Sales Department,
Cambridge University Press, The Edinburgh Building,
Shaftesbury Road, Cambridge CB2 2RU, UK,
e-mail: , web site:
, or North and Central America Cam-
bridge University Press North American Branch, 40 West 201h
Street, New York, NY 10011-4211, US, e-mail:
, or South America and Hispanic Car-
ibbean Cambridge University Press South American Branch,
Av. Paulista 807, Conj. 1218, 01311-915 Sao Paulo, SP, Bra-
zil, e-mail: , web site:


Albernaz, A. L. 1999. Home-range size of the bare-ear mar-
moset (Callithrix argentata) at Alter do Chao, central
Amazonia, Brazil. Int. J. Primatol. 20(5): 665-677.
Baker, J. V., Abbott D. H. and Saltzman W 1999. Social de-
terminants of reproductive failure in male common marmo-
sets housed with their natal family. Anim. Behav. 58(3):
Bizerril, M. X. A. and Andrade, T. C. S. 1999. Knowledge
of the urban population about fauna: Comparison
between Brazilian and exotic animals. Cihncia e Cultura 51(1):
Buchanan-Smith, H. M., Hardie, S. M., Caceres, C. and
Prescott, M. J. 2000. Distribution and forest utilization of
Saguinus and other primates of the Pando department, north-
ern Bolivia. Int. J. Primatol. 21(3): 353-379.
Chaoui, N. J. and Hasler-Gallusser, S. 1999. Incomplete sexual
suppression in Leontopithicus chrysomelas: A behavioral and
hormonal study in a semi-natural environment. Folia
Primatol. 70(1): 47-54.
Chiarello, A. G. 2000. Influencia da caca illegal sobre mamfferos
e aves das matas de tabuleiro do norte do estado do Espirito
Santo. Bol. Mus. Biol. Mello Leitdo, Nova Serie 11/12: 229-
Christen, A. 1999. Survey of Goeldi's monkeys (Callimico
goeldii) in northern Bolivia, Folia Primatol. 70(2): 107-111.
Christel, M. I. and Fragaszy, D. 2000. Manual function in
Cebus apella. Digital mobility, preshaping, and endurance in
repetitive grasping. Int. J. Primatol. 21(4): 697-719.
Clark, M. R., Tremblay, A. M. and Arden, D. H., 2000. A
comparison of methods for observing juvenile and group be-
havior in mantled howlers. Lab. Prim. Newsl. 39(4): 6-8.
Collins, A. C. and Dubach, J. M. 2000. Phylogenetic rela-
tionships of spider monkeys (Ateles) based on mitochondrial
DNA variation. Int. J. Primatol. 21(3): 381-420.

126 Neotropical Primates 8(3), September 2000

Collins, A. C. and Dubach, J. M. 2000. Biogeographical and
ecological forces responsible for speciation in Ateles. Int. J.
Primatol. 21(3): 421-444.
De Vleeschouwer, K., Heistermann, M., Van Elsacker, L. and
Verheyen, R. F. 2000. Signaling of reproductive
status in captive female golden-headed lion tamarins
(Leontopithecus chrysomelas). Int. J. Primatol. 21(3):
Digby, L. J. 1999. Sexual behavior and extragroup copulations
in a wild population of common marmosets (Callithrix
jacchus). Folia Primatol. 70(3): 136-145.
Dunbar, D. C. and Badam, G. L. 2000. Locomotion and pos-
ture during terminal branch feeding. Int. J. Primatol. 21(4):
Emmons, L. H. 1999. Of mice and monkeys as predictors of
mammal community richness. In: Primate Communities, J.
G. Fleagle, C. H. Janson and K. E. Reed (eds.), pp.171-
188. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Feistner, A. T. C. and Mallinson, J. J. C. 2000. A recipe
for species conservation: Multidisciplinary ingredients.
In: Priorities for the Conservation of Mammalian Diversity:
Has the Panda Had Its Day? A. Entwhistle and N. Dunstone
(eds.), pp.309-323. Cambridge University Press,
Ferrari, S. E, Iwanaga, S., Ramos, E. M., Messias, M. R,_
Ramos, P. C. S. and da Cruz Neto, E. H. 1999. Expansion of
the known distribution of Goeldi's monkey (Callimico goeldii)
in south-western Brazilian amazonia, Folia Primatol. 70(2):
Gonzalez-Kirchner, J. P. 1999. Habitat use, population den-
sity and subgrouping pattern of the Yucatan spider monkey
(Ateles geoffroyi yucatanensis) in Quintana Roo, Mexico. Fo-
lia Primatol 70(1): 55-60.
Gonzalez-Kirchner, J. P. and Sainz De La Maza, M. 1998. Pri-
mate hunting by Guaymi Amerindians in Costa Rica. Hum.
Evol. 13(1): 15-19.
Hardie, S. M. and Buchanan-Smith, H. M. 2000. Responses of
captive single and mixed species groups of Saguinus
to novel nonthreatening objects. Int. J. Primatol. 21(4):
Janik, V. M. and Slater, P. J. B. 2000. The different roles
of social learning in vocal communication. Anim. Behav. 60:
Kowalewski, M. M. and Zunino, G. E. 1999. Impact of defor-
estation on a population of Alouatta caraya in northern Ar-
gentina. Folia Primatol. 70(3): 163-166.
Lacreuse, A. and Fragaszy, D. M. 1999. Left hand preferences
in capuchins (Cebus apella): Role of spatial demands in
manual activity. Laterality 4(1): 65-78.
Laska, M., Hernandez Salazar, L. T. and Rodriguez Luna,
E. 2000. Food preferences and nutrient composition in captive
spider monkeys, Ateles geofroyi. Int. J. Primatol. 21(4): 671-
Lehman, S. M. 2000. Primate community structure in Guyana:
A biogeographical analysis. Int. J. Primatol. 21(3): 333-351.
Mace, G. M. and Balmford, A. 2000. Patterns and processes
in contemporary mammalian extinction. In: Priorities for the
Conservation ofMammalian Diversity: Has the Panda Had Its

Day? A. Entwhisde and N. Dunstone (eds.), pp.27-52.
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Martinez, R., Aguilera, M. and Ferreira, C. 1999. The karyo-
type and C-banding of Cebus nigrivittatus from the coastal
cordillera, Venezuela, Folia Primatol 70(1): 37-40.
Martins, M. M. and Setz, E. Z. E 2000. Diet ofbuffy tufted-
eared marmosets (Callithrix aurita) in a forest fragment in
southeastern Brazil. Int. J. Primatol 21(3): 467-476.
Oliveira, A. C. M. and Ferrari, S. E 2000. Seed dispersal by
black-handed tamarins, Saguinus midas niger
(Callitrichinae, Primates): Implications for the regenera-
tion of degraded forest habitats. J. Trap. Ecol. 16(5):
Passamani, M., Mendes, S. L. and Chiarello, A. G. 2000.
Non-volant mammals of the Estagio Biol6gica de Santa
Lucia and adjacent areas of Santa Teresa, Espirito Santo,
Brazil. Bol. Mus. Biol Mello Leitdo, Nova Shrie 11/12:
Passos, E C. 1999. Diet of a black lion tamarin group,
Leontopithicus chrysopygus (Mikan) (Mammalia,
Callitrichidae), in Caetetds Ecological Station, Slo Paulo.
Rev. Brasil. Zool. 16(suppl. 1): 269-278.
Rogers, L. J. and Kaplan, G. 1998. Teat preference for suck-
ling in common marmosets: Relationship to side of being
carried and hand preference. Laterality 3(3): 269-281.
Santa Cruz, A. C. M., Borda, J. T., Gomez, L. and de Rott,
M. I. 2000. Endoparasitosis in captive Cebus apella. Lab.
Prim. Newsl. 39(4): 10-12.
Schuster, J. C., Cano, E. B. and Cardona. C. 2000. Un
metodo sencillo para priorizar la conservaci6n de los
bosques nubosos de Guatemala, usando Passalidae (Co-
leoptera) como organismos indicadores. Acta Zool. Mex.
(n.s.) 80: 197-209.
Silver, S. C., Ostro, L. E. T., Yeager, C. P. and Dierenfeld, E.
S. 2000. Phytochemical and mineral components of foods
consumed by black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) at
two sites in Belize. Zoo Biol. 19(2): 95-109.
Snowdon, C. T. and Elowson, A. M. 1999. Pygmy marmosets
modify call structure when paired. Ethology 105(10):
Solano, S. J. 2000. A comparative study of resource use by
howler monkey groups (Alouatta palliata) in isolated
rainforest fragments of the region of Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz,
Mexico. ASP Bulletin 24(3): 8.
Souza-Mazurek, R. R. de, Pedrinho, T., Feliciano, X.,
Halirio, W., Ger6ncio, S. and Marcelo, E. 2000. Subsis-
tence hunting among the Waimiri-Atroari Indians in cen-
tral Amazonia, Brazil. Biodiv. Conserv. 9: 579-596.
Sousa, M. B. C., Silva, H. P. A. and Vidal, J. E 1999. Litter
size does not interfere with fertility in common marmo-
sets, Callithrixjacchus, Folia Primatol. 70(1): 41-46.
Souza de Oliveira, M., Lopes, F. A., Alonso, C. and
Yamamoto, M. E. 1999. The mothers participation in in-
fant carrying in captive groups of Leontopithicus chrysomelas
and Callithrixjacchus. Folia Primatol. 70(3): 146-153.
Tutin, C. and White, L. 1999. The recent evolutionary past
of primate communities: Likely environmental impacts
during the past three millennia. In: Primate Communities,

Neotropical Primates 8(3), September 2000

J. G. Fleagle, C. H. Janson and K. E. Reed (eds.), pp.
220-236. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Visalberghi, E. and Addessi, E. 2000. Seeing group mem-
bers eating a familiar food enhances the acceptance of novel
foods in capuchin monkeys. Anim. Behav. 60(1): 69-76.
Vleeschouwer, K. De, Heistermann, M., Van Elsacker, L. and
Verheyen, R. E 2000. Signaling of reproductive status in cap-
tive female golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus
chrysomelas). Int. J. Primatol. 21(3): 445-465.
Vleeschouwer, K De, Leus, K. and Van Elsacker, L. 2000.
An evaluation of the suitability of contraceptive methods
in golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus
chrysomelas), with emphasis on Melengestrol Acetate
(MGA) implants: (I) Effectiveness, reversibility and medi-
cal side-effects. Animal Welfare 9: 251-271.
Vleeschouwer, K. De, Van Elsacker, L., Heistermann, M.
and Leus, K. 2000. An evaluation of the suitability of con-
traceptive methods in golden-headed lion tamarins
(Leontopithecus chrysomelas), with emphasis on Melengestrol
Acetate (MGA) implants: (II) Endocrinological and
behavioral effects. Animal Welfare 9: 385-401.
Wright, P. C. and Jernvall, J. 1999. The future of primate
communities: A reflection of the present? In: Primate Com-
munities. J. G. Fleagle, C. H. Janson and K. E. Reed (eds.),
pp. 295-309. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Yeoman, R. R., Wegner, E H., Gibson, S. V., Williams, L.
E., Abbott, D. H. and Abee, C. R. 2000. Midcycle and
luteal elevations of follicle stimulating hormone in squir-
rel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis) during the estrous cycle.
Am. J. Primatol. 52(4): 207-211.


Louguet, 0., Bayart, E and de Thoisy, B. 1999. Ecological
and behavioral adaptations of a squirrel monkey popula-
tion introduced on a small island by the Pasteur Intitute in
French Guiana. Folia Primatol. 70(4): 200-201.
Nugent, M., Bayart, E, Crozier, E, Louguet, 0., de Thoisy,
B. and Contamin, H. 1999. Food, diet and feeding
behaviour of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) in rela-
tion to food availability on a small island in French Guiana.
Folia Primatol. 70(4): 217.
Teixidor, P. 2000. Funci6n y significado de las llamadas
"referenciales" en dos espceis fisi6n-fusi6n: Monos arafias
(Ateles geoffroyi) y chimpancds (Pan troglodytes). Bol.
Asociacidn Primatoldgica Espahola 7(3): 19. Thesis abstract.

Selected abstracts from the Twenty-third Annual Meeting
of the American Society of Primatologists, 21-24 June,
2000. In: American Journal ofPrimatology. 51 (Suppl. 1),

Baker, M. E. Social contexts of the "Arrawh" call in white-
faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus), p.40.
Baker, M. E. Cognitive components of plant selection for
fur rubbing in white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus
capucinus), pp.39-40.

Bales, K. L., French, J. A., Dietz, J. M. Reproductive and so-
cial influences on fecal cortisol levels in wild and reintro-
duced female golden lion tamarins, pp.40-41.
Bollen, K. S. and Novak, M. A. A Survey of abnormal behav-
ior in captive zoo primates, p.47.
Brush, J. A. Forest structure and sleeping site selection by a
wild white-faced saki group (Pitheciapithecia), p.49.
Buzzell, C. A. and Brush, J. A. Ontogeny of independence in
wild and captive white-faced saki groups (Pitheciapithecia),
Carosi, M., Gerald, M. S., Ulland, A. E. and Suomi, S. J. Male-
like external genitalia in female tufted capuchins (Cebus
apella), p.50.
Clarke, M. R., Tremblay, A. M. and Arden, D. H. Compari-
son of observational methods for juvenile and group behav-
ior in mantled howling monkeys, pp.51-52.
Danilova, V., Roberts, T. and Hellekant, G. The sense of
taste in common marmoset: Taste fiber type determines
behavior, p.53.
Filalho, M. S. and Setz, E. Z. E Brown howler (Alouattafusca)
feeding ecology in hillside and coastal forests in southern
Brazil, pp.56-57.
Flaschka, M. J. and Norconk, M. A. Analysis of dietary min-
eral levels for white-faced sakis and red howler monkeys from
Guri,Venezuela, p.58.
Glasgow, M. E. and Williams, L. E. Effects of timing of envi-
ronmental stress on social behavior patterns during pregnancy
in captive squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis), pp.58-59.
Hanson, A. M. and Porter, L. M. Nutritional composition and
distribution offungal sporocarps consumed by Goeldi's mon-
keys in northern Bolivia, p.60.
Kuhar, C. The process of conducting graduate research on pri-
mates in zoological parks, p.26.
Martinez-Mota, R. and Serio-Silva, J. C. Interactions in a
fragement of tropical rain forest of Los Tuxtlas, Mexico:
A dispersal case study among howler monkeys (Alouatta
palliata mexicana), amates (Ficus perforata) and ants
(Azteca), p.72.
Mendez-Cirdenas, M. G. Vocal variation in howler monkeys
(genus Alouatta) in allopatric and sympatric populations and
its use for phylogenetic analysis, pp.72-73.
Miller, K. and Dietz, J. Factors affecting variation in daily food
intake by wild golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia),
p. 74.
Phillips, K. A. and Newlon, K. Female-female social relation-
ships in white-fronted capuchins (Cebus albifrons): Testing
hypotheses about resource size and quality, p.81.
Porter, L. M. Callimico goedlii: Understory monkeys of north-
ern Bolivia, p.82.
Raboy, B. E. and Dietz, J. M. Patterns of interspecific associa-
tions between wild golden-headed tamarins and
sympatric Wied's marmosets in southern Bahia, Brazil, pp.83-
Rizkalla, C. E., Savage, A., Giraldo, L. H., Soto, L. H. and
Garcia, E Patterns of sleeping site selection in wild cotton-
top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus), p.86.
Schaffner, C. M. and Aureli, E Embracing and face greeting in
a captive group of Colombian black-faced spider monkeys
(Ateles fusciceps robustus), p.87.

128 Neotropical Primates 8(3), September 2000

Searcy, Y. M. and Caine, N. G. Captive Geoffroy's marmo-
sets (Callithrixgeoffroyi) react to soaring bird models with
anti-predator behaviors, p.88.
Serio-Silva, J. C. and Rico-Gray, V. Microclimatic factors that
influence seed germination of Ficus perforata and Ficus
lundelli (urostigma) dispersed by Alouatta palliata mexicana
in several arboreal strata (conserved and perturbed
habitat), pp.88-89.
Tarou, L. R. and Maple, T. L. The use of spatial memory in
foraging by a group of captive golden lion tamarins
(Leontopithicus rosalia), pp.95-96.
Tecot, S. R. The effect of habitat on fecal cortisol concentra-
tions in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), p.96.
Weaver, and de Waal, EB.M. Relationship quality and the
development of reconciliation in captive brown capuchins
(Cebus apella), pp.97-98.
Williams, L. E., Steadman, A. and Kyser, B. Increased cage
size affects Aotus time budgets and partner distances, p.98.

Selected abstracts from the Spring Meeting of the Primate
Society of Great Britain, Liverpool, UK, 12-13 April, 1999.
In: Folia Primatologica, 70:(4) July-August, 1999.

Aureli, E Valuable relationships, anxiety and conflict resolu-
tion, p.222.
Dunbar, R. I. M. and Kudo, H. Neocortex size and the size
of grooming cliques, p.221.
Prescott, M. J. and Buchanan-Smith, H. Foraging efficiency
in single-and mixed-species troops of tamarins, p.227.
Schaffner, C. M. Clever decisions: Male and female
marmoset's responses to reproductive competitors, p.224.

Primate Evolutionary Genetics, 19-20 May, 2001, San Di-
ego, California. Hosted by the American Genetic Associa-
tion. Contact: Registration and updated program informa-
tion can be found at http://lifesciences.asu.edu/aga. For ques-
tions and/or assistance contact: Ms. Susan Hansen, e-mail:
. Pre-registration is $90.00, non-
member ($80.00 for AGA members); $75.00 students and
postdocs ($70.00 for AGA members who are students/
postdocs). Registration includes a reception on the evening
of May 18th and banquet at the World-Famous San Diego
Zoo the evening of the 20th. The symposium will be held at
the Town & Country Resort and Convention Center, 500
Hotel Circle North, San Diego, California (619-291-7131).
A special room rate of $99.00 per night plus tax has been
arranged for the conference.

XXV Congresso Brasileiro de Zool6gicos e VI Encontro
International de Zool6gicos, 20-25 de maio de 2001,
Brasflia, DF, Brasil. 0 tema central 6 "Conservacgo".

Informac6es: Comissio Organizadora do Congresso, a/c Raul
Gonzales Acosta, Fundaqio P61o Ecol6gico de Brasflia,
Avenida das Nac6es, Via L-4 Sul, 70610-100 Brasilia, DF,
Brasil, Tel: +55 61 9966 0092, Fax: +55 61 346 4611, e-
mails: , .

Congress Primatology of The New World, 13-15 June,
2001, Centro Cultural Gimnasio Moderno, Bogota, Colom-
bia. Sponsor: Centro de Primatologia Araguatos. Four ses-
sions: Biology and Ecology; Medicine; Use and Conserva-
tion; Management and Keeping. Deadline for call for pa-
pers and posters March 21, 2000. Contact: Victoria Pereira,
Calle 96 No. 22-08, Bogota, Colombia. Tel/Fax: 57-1-
2573691, Web site: http://www.araguatos.org>, E-mail:

1" International Conference on Distance Sampling Esti-
matingWildlife Abundance for Ecology, Management and
Conservation, 30 July-3 August, 2001. St. Andrews, Scot-
land. Details from: Rhona Rodger, Tel: + 44 (0) 1334 463
228 or e-mail: , Home Page

Association for Tropical Biology Annual Meeting, 15-18
July 2001, Bangalore, India. The theme of the meeting will
be the International Conference on Tropical Ecosystems:
Structure, Diversity and Human Welfare, and will address
three major areas of concern: 1. Global change and tropical
forests, 2. The structure, diversity and fimunction of tropical
ecosystems, and 3. Biodiversity hotspots. For more informa-
tion visit the web site of the Ashoka Trust for Research in
Ecology and the Environment (ATREE) at www.atree.org>.

Animal Behavior Society, 14-18 July, 2001, Oregon State
University, Corvallis, Oregon. The symposia of the 38th An-
nual Meeting will include: Aggression and group organiza-
tion in animal societies', 'Behavioral genetics of the next
decade', 'Detecting and measuring mating preferences'
and 'Song Learning'. For further infromation contact
Andy Blaustein, e-mail , or
Lynne Houck, e-mail or see /www.animalbehavior.org/ABS/Program>.

Association for Tropical Biology Annual Meeting, 15-18
July 2001, Bangalore, India. The theme of the meeting will
be the International Conference on Tropical Ecosystems:
Structure, Diversity and Human Welfare and will address
three major areas of concern: 1. Global change and tropical
forests, 2. The structure, diversity and function of tropical
ecosystems, and 3. Biodiversity hotspots. For more informa-
tion visit the web site of the Ashoka Trust for Research in
Ecology and the Environment (ATREE) at www.atree.org>.

6th International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology,
21-26 July, 2001. Jena, Germany. For details about the con-

Neotropical Primates 8(3), September 2000 129

gress contact Dr. J.Matthias Starck at the Institute of Sys-
tematic Zoology and Evolutionary Biology, Friedrich-Schiller-
University, Erbertstrasse 1, D-07743 Jena, Germany. E-
mail:, Home Page:

Association for Tropical Biology Annual Meeting, 15-18
July 2001, Bangalore, India. The theme of the meeting will
be the International Conference on Tropical Ecosystems:
Structure, Diversity and Human Welfare and will address
three major areas of concern: 1. Global change and tropical
forests, 2. The structure, diversity and function of tropical
ecosystems, and 3. Biodiversity hotspots. For more informa-
tion visit the web site of the Ashoka Trust for Research in
Ecology and the Environment (ATREE) at www.atree.org>.

The Animal Behavior Society Annual Meeting Compari-
sons between Primates and Cetaceans, 5-9 August, 2001.
Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Details may be obtained from the
web site:
24' Annual Meeting of the American Society of Prima-
tologists, 8-11 August 2001, Armstrong Atlantic State Uni-
versity, Savanna, Georgia. Symposia and workshop deadline:
15 March, 2001. Individual abstracts deadline: 1 April, 2001.
Contact: Dr. Tammie Bettinger, ASP Program Chair,
Cleveland Metroparks Zoo, 3900 Wildlife Way,
Cleveland, OH 44109, USA, Tel: (216) 635 3314, Fax:
(216) 661 3312, e-mail: .
Web site: .

8th International Theriological Congress, 12-17 August,
2001, Sun City, South Africa. Contacts: ITC 2001 c/o Event
Dynamics, PO Box 98009, Sloane Park, 2152 Johannesburg,
South Africa. Tel: +27 11 706 5010, e-mail: eventdynamics.co.za>. Web Page: eventdynamics. co.za/itc>.

Annual Conference of the American Association of Zoo
Veterinarians, 18-23 September, 2001, Orlando Florida. For
more information on the scientific program: Ray Wack, Pro-
gram Chairman, Sacramento Zoo, 3930 West Land Park
Drive, Sacramento, CA 95822-1123, USA, Tel: 916 264
5887, e-mail: . Conference or mem-
bership information: Wilbur Amand, Executive Director/
AAZV, 6 North Pennell Road, Media, PA 19063, USA, Tel:
610 892 4812, Fax: 610 892 4813, e-mail: .

IVCongreso de laAsociaci6n Primatol6gica Espaiola, 26-27
September, 2001 Madrid, Spain, Sal6n de Actos. Facultad de
Psicologia. Universidad Aut6noma de Madrid. Cantoblanco
28049 Madrid. Spain.For more information, contact: Dr.
Susana Sanchez Rodriguez, Dpto. Psicologfa Biol6gica y de la
Salud Fac. de Psicologfa, UAM 28049 Madrid, e-mail:
Telephone: 34.91.3978748 /
3975351, Fax: 34.913975215, Web site: ape>.

V Congress Latinoamericano de Ecologfa, 15-19 de Octubre
de 2001, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad Nacional
de Jujuy, San Salvador de Jujuy, Argentina. La fecha limited de
presentaci6n de los resumenes es el 30 de abril de 2001.
Organiza: Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Alberdi No. 47, (4600)
San Salvador de Jujuy, Argentina, Tel: 54 0388 4221550, 54
0388 4221553, Fax: 54 0388 4221547, e-mail:
. Web site: .

V Congress de la Sociedad Mesoamericana para la Biologia y
la Conservaci6n (SMBC), 15-19 de Octubre de 2001, El Sal-
vador, La Sociedad Mesoamericana para la Biologia y la
Conservaci6n SMBC, es una organizaci6n international no
lucrative cuyo objetivo es contribuir con la promoci6n de la
biologia y la conservaci6n de la naturaleza, nace en 1996 como
iniciativa de un grupo de profesionales de cinco pauses,
interesados en fomentar la comunicacid6n entire conservacionistas
e investigadores trabajando en la region mesoamericana. Esta
ha crecido y evolucionado much desde su fundaci6n. Para
mas informaci6n sobre la sociedad visit: ccb.stanford.edu/mesoamericana/>. La SMBC organize cada
afio el mayor congress cientifico-conservacionista regional, este
congress constitute una oportunidad regional inica,
permitiendo la difusi6n de avances cientificos y
conservacionistas, estimula la producci6n de nuevas ideas,
promueve la interacci6n entire actors, tanto mesoamericanos
como extranjeros trabajando en la region, permit a los
profesionales conocer sobre la realidad de cada pals, da
oportunidad para la formaci6n de nuevos valores, y nos abre
las puertas al mundo, como una region de gran interns para la
conservaci6n global y decidida a construir su desarrollo sobre
bases sostenibles. Hasta la fecha se han realizado cuatro
congress, en Honduras (1997), Nicaragua (1998), Guatemala
(1999), y Panama (2000). En octubre 2001 corresponde a El
Salvador el honor de albergar tan important event y desde ya
les invita a participar. Se invita a todos los interesados en
presentar ponencias y/o organizer simposia mandar sus
propuestas a: Eunice Echeverria:
o Roberto Rivera: con copia a:
. Fecha limited para
propuestas de simposia: 5 de marzo 2001. Fecha limited para
ponencias: 31 de Mayo de 2001. Para mas informaci6n sobre
el congress visit: _2001/>, esta pigina se estara actualizando peri6dicamente para
mantenerles informados.

V Congress Brasileiro de Ecologia do Brasil, 4-9 November,
2001, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. 0 tema 4 "
Ambiente x Sociedade". Entidade promotora: Sociedade de
Ecologia do Brasil. Apoio: Universidade Federal do
Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Biociencias, Centro
de Ecologia e Departamentos de Ecologia, Zoologia e Botinica.
Contatos e correspond&ncia: Organizaqio de Congresso, Rua
Joao Abott, 44- cj.402, 90460-150 Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil,
Tel/Fax: + 55 51 333 8737, e-mail: nosequipe.com.br>. Web site: < www.ecologia/ufrgs.br.>.

130 Neotropical Primates 8(3), September 2000

5' International Conference on Environmental Enrichment,
4-9 November 2001, Taronga Park Zoo, Sydney, Australia.
The theme is "Making Enrichment a 21"s Century Priority".
For information: Margaret Hawkins, 51EE Conference
Co-ordinator, Taronga Zoo, PO Box 20, Mosman, NSW
2088, Australia, Tel: +61 2 9978 4615, Fax: +61 2 9978 4613,
e-mail: . Web site:

V Congress Brasileiro de Ecologia do Brasil, 4-9 November,
2001, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. 0 tema e "
Ambiente x Sociedade". Entidade promotora: Sociedade de
Ecologia do Brasil. Apoio: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande
do Sul, Instituto de Biociencias, Centro de Ecologia e
Departamentos de Ecologia, Zoologia e BotAnica. Contatos e
correspondencia: Organizaqgo de Congresso, Rua Jolo Abott,
44- cj.402, 90460-150 Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Tel/Fax: + 55
51 333 8737, e-mail: .
Homepage: www.ecologia/ufrgs.br.

IV Simposio Internacional de Desarrollo Sustentable en
los Andes. La Estrategia Andina para el Siglo XXI, 25 de
noviembre al 2 de diciembre, 2001. Facultad de Ciencias,
Institute de Ciencias Ambientales y Ecologicas (ICAE),
Universidad de Los Andes, Merida. Informes: Maximina
Monasterio o Rigoberto Andressen, e-mail: ciens.ula.v>.

Committing to Conservation Conference, 28 November-2
December, 2001, Melbourne, Florida, USA. This will be the
fourth Zoos and aquariums: Committing to Conservation
Conference. The goal is to bring together field researchers and
zoo personnel to promote a greater involvement of zoos and
aquariums supporting in situ work. There will be a mixture of
sessions, panel discussions and round tables with a special em-
phasis on audience participation and problem solving. The reg-
istration fee is US$ 175.00 and includes sessions, some meals
and social events. For more information contact: Beth
Armstrong, Tel: 321-454-6285, e-mail:
or Margot McKnight, Tel: 321-254-9453, ext. 23, e-mail:

3rd Gittinger Freilandtage: Sexual Selection in Primates,
11-14 December 2001, hosted by the German Primate Center
(DPZ), Gottingen, Germany. Invited speakers will summarize
and evaluate recent empirical and theoretical work dealing with
causes, mechanisms and consequences of sexual selection in
primates, including humans. In addition, it is hoped to iden-
tify general principles through comparison with other mam-
mals. Oral (15 min) and poster contributions. Deadline for
submission of abstracts is 1 August, 2001. Guests must also
register in advance by October 1, 2001. Additional details are
available from Peter Kappeler, e-mail: , and
the web site: freiland 01 C.htm>.


American Association for the Advancement of Science, 14-
19 February 2002, annual meeting. The program will in-
clude various environmental issues, including: Achieving
health in a connected world, connecting diverse disciplines,
visualizing the earth, communicating across boundaries, en-
vironmental and biological diversity in a connected world,
cultural and social diversity in a changing world, and sci-
ence and sustainability in a global economy. For more infor-
mation contact: Kathryn Papp, Senior Program Officer, Pro-
gram on Ecology and Human Needs, International Direc-
torate, AAAS, 1200 New York Avenue, NW, Washington,
DC, 20005, USA, Tel: (202) 326 6427, Fax: (202) 289 4958
or see: .

3rd International Canopy Conference, June, 2002, Cairns,
Australia. Sponsored by the Queensland Government ofAus-
tralia and the Smithsonian Institution, the conference theme
is "Science, Policy and Utilisation" and is intended to bring
together scientists, environmental managers and policy mak-
ers concerned with the discovery and sustainable use of
forests around the world. Contact: Eileen Domagala,
e-mail: . Web site:

XIXth Congress of the International Primatological Soci-
ety, 4-9 August 2002, Beijing, China. Organized by the
Mammalogical Society of China and the Institute of Zool-
ogy, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The main themes of the
Congress will focus on the progress and prospects of prima-
tology and the conservation of non-human-primates. The
first deadline is for symposium and workshop tides, to be
submitted by 31 August, 2001. Contact address- Prof. Fuwen
Wei, Secretary General, 19'h Congress of the International
Primatological Society, c/o Institute of Zoology. Chinese
Academy of Sciences, 19 Zhongguancan Lu, Haidian, Beijing
100080, China, Fax: (86-10) 82627388, e-mail:
. Home page: www.ips.ioz.ac.cn>.


The journal/newsletter aims to provide a basis for conservation
information relating to the primates of the neotropics. We welcome
texts on any aspect of primate conservation, including articles, the-
sis abstracts, news items, recent events, recent publications, prima-
tological society information and suchlike.


Please send all English and Portuguese contributions to: Jennifer
Pervola, Conservation International, Center for Applied
Biodiversity Science, 1919 M. St. NW, Suite 600, Washington,
DC 20036, Tel: 202 912-1000, Fax: 202 912-0772, e-mail:
, and all Spanish contributions to:
Ernesto Rodrfguez-Luna, Instituto de Neuroetologia, Universidad
Veracruzana, Apartado Postal 566, Xalapa 91000, Veracruz, Mexico.
Tel: 281 8-77-30, Fax: 281 8-77-30, 8-63-52, e-mail:


Manuscripts can be in English, Spanish or Portuguese, and should
be double-spaced and accompanied by the text on diskette for PC
compatible text-editors (MS-Word, WordPerfect, Excel, and Ac-
cess), and/or e-mailed to . (English,
Portuguese) or (Spanish) Hard
copies should be supplied for all figures (illustrations and maps)
and tables. The full name and address for each author should be
included. Please avoid abbreviations and acronyms without the
name in full. Authors whose first language is not English, please
have texts carefully reviewed by a native English speaker.

Articles. Each issue ofNeotropicalPrimates will include up to three
full articles, limited to the following topics: Taxonomy, Systemat-
ics, Genetics (when relevant for systematics), Biogeography, Ecol-
ogy and Conservation. Texts for full articles should not exceed
about 20 pages in length (1.5 spaced, and including the refer-
ences). Please include an abstract in English, and (optional) one in
Portuguese or Spanish. Tables and illustrations should be limited
to six, excepting only the cases where they are fundamental for the
text (as in species descriptions, for example). Full articles will be
sent out for peer-review.

Short articles. These are reviewed only by the editors. A broader
range of topics are encouraged, including such as behavioral re-
search, in the interests of informing on general research activities
which contribute to our understanding of platyrrhines. We en-
courage reports on projects and conservation and research pro-
grams (who, what, where, when, why etc.) and most particularly
information on geographical distributions, locality records, and
protected areas and the primates which occur in them. Texts should
not exceed 10 pages in length (1.5 spaced, including the refer-

Figures and maps. Articles can include small black-and-white pho-
tographs, high quality figures, and high quality maps and tables.
Please keep these to a minimum. We stress the importance of pro-
viding maps which are publishable.

News items. Please send us information on projects, field sites,
courses, recent publications, awards, events, activities of Primate
Societies, etc.


Examples of house style can be found throughout this journal.
Please refer to these examples when citing references throughout
the text.

Journal article
Stallings, J. D. and Mittermeier, R. A. 1983. The black-tailed mar-
moset (Callithrixargentata melanura) recorded from Paraguay. Am.
J. Primatol. 4: 159-163.

Chapter in book
Brockelman, W. Y. and Ali, R. 1987. Methods of surveying and
sampling forest primate populations. In: Primate Conservation in
the TropicalRain Forest, C. W. Marsh and R. A. Mittermeier (eds.),
pp. 23-62. Alan R. Liss, New York.

Napier, P. H. 1976. Catalogue ofPrimates in the British Museum
(Natural History). Part 1: Families Callitrichidae and Cebidae. British
Museum (Natural History), London.

Wallace, R. B. 1998. The behavioral ecology of black spider
monkeys in north-eastern Bolivia. Doctoral thesis, University of
Liverpool, Liverpool, UK

Muckenhirn, N. A., Mortensen, B. K., Vessey, S., Frazer, C. E. 0.
and Singh, B. 1975. Report on a primate survey in Guyana.
Unpublished report, Pan American Health Organization,
Washington, DC.

NeotropicalPrimates is produced in collaboration with
Conservation International, Center for Applied
Biodiversity Science, 1919 M. St. NW, Suite 600,
Washington, DC 20036, USA.

Neotropical Primates
Journal and Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group
Vol. 8(3), September, 2000


Alternative Male Reproductive Behaviors in the Belizean Black Howler Monkey (Alouattapigra) ..................................................... 95
Robert H. Horwich, Robin C. Brockett & Clara B. Jones

Distribuicao do Sagiii (Callithrixjacchus) nas Areas de Ocorrencia do Mico-Leio-Dourado (Leontopithecus rosalia)
no Estado do Rio de Janeiro .................................................................................................................................................................. 98
Carlos R. Ruiz- Miranda, Adriana G. Affonso, Andrlia Martins & Benjamin Beck

Repatriation of Two Confiscated Black Howler Monkeys (Alouatta pigra) in Belize .......................................................................... 101
Robin C. Brockett & Bruce C. Clark

Attempted Predation on a White-Faced Said in the Central Amazon ................................................................................................. 103
Kellen A. Gilbert

Infanticide Following Immigration of a Pregnant Red Howler, Alouatta Seniculus ............................................................................. 104
Erwin Palacios

Levantamento Preliminar de Endoparasitas do Tubo Digestivo de Bugios Alouatta guariba clamitans................................................ 107
Giane Carla Kopper Miller, Andreia Krambeck, Zelinda Maria Braga Hirano & Hercilio Higino da Silva Filho

Dados Preliminares sobre a Ecologia de Saguinus niger na Estaaio Cientifica Ferreira Penna, Caxiuani, Pari, Brasil................ 108
Cecilia Veracini

A Possible Record of Callicebus in Argentina .................................................................................................... ....................... 113
Marcelo F Tejedor

Twinning in Semi-Free Ranging Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella) ................................................................................................. 114
Massimo Mannu & Eduardo B. Ottoni

N ew s ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 115

Prim ate Societies .............................................................................................................................................................................. 12 1

Recent Publications ........................ .. ......................................... ...... ...................... ....................... ............. .......... 122

M eetin gs ......................................................................................................................................... .... ................................ ......... 12 8

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs