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Title: Neotropical primates
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Title: Neotropical primates a newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCNSSC Primate Specialist Group
Abbreviated Title: Neotrop. primates
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
Conservation International
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Publisher: Conservation International
Place of Publication: Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
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Publication Date: September 1999
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Wildlife conservation -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
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    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text

ISSN 1413-4703

A Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group
Editors: Anthony B. Rylands and Ernesto Rodrfguez Luna
PSG Chairman: Russell A. Mittermeier
PSG Deputy Chairman: Anthony B. Rylands




Page 73

Andrew C. Smith
The aim of this study was to document competitors for the
gums consumed by saddleback (Saguinusfuscicollis) and
moustached (S. mystax) tamarins. Gums are potentially a
high energy food source, composed mainly of water, com-
plex polysaccharides, calcium, and trace minerals (iron, alu-
minium, silicon, magnesium, and sodium) (Nash, 1986). They
are most commonly found as small droplets, and whilst
they are rapidly depleted they are also rapidly renewed.
They can also form larger "globs" or streaks. The way in
which they are typically produced means that gum sites
seldom permit more than one individual to exploit them at a
time (Nash, 1986). Tamarins consume gum from a large num-
ber of sources. The majority of these are only used once,
with relatively few sources accounting for the majority of
gum feeding through repeated use. In contrast to the ma-
jority of the fruit resources exploited, even the most impor-
tant exudate sites used by tamarins provide relatively little
food (Smith, 1997). Hence, gums may be considered to be a
limited resource of potentially high nutritional value.
Little is known about specific trophic relations within the
Amazon rain forest, particularly with respect to relatively
minor resources such as exudates. Few Neotropical ani-
mals have been reported to eat exudates, with the notable
exception of callitrichids. For example, besides tamarins,
other potential exudate consumers at the Estaci6n Biologica
Quebrada Blanco II in the Peruvian Amazon include such
as the white-fronted (Cebus albifrons) and brown (C.
apella) capuchins, and night monkeys (Aotus nancymai),
based on Hladik and Hladik's (1969) report of gum feeding
by related white-throated capuchins (C. capucinus) and
night monkeys (A. trivirgatus). Bush-tailed opossums
(Glironia venusta), if present, might also eat gums, based
on Emmons and Feer's (1990) observation of an individual
licking the surface of a branch. Other potential exudate-
eaters include the green acouchy (Myoprocta pratti) given
its taste for gum in captivity (Kelly, 1993), and the Neotro-
pical pygmy squirrels (Sciurilluspusillus), observed to feed
on "a substance scraped from the inner surface of tree bark"
Emmons and Feer (1990, p.176). Amazon dwarf squirrels
(Microsciurus flaviventer) may also feed on exudate as
they occupy a similar ecological niche to Neotropical pygmy
squirrels. Further, based on what is known for North Ameri-
can red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) (Kilham, 1957),
larger Neotropical squirrels may also consume exudate.
Species related to these, such as other cebids, opossums,
and sciuromorph and caviomorph rodents may also con-

sume gum, as might generalists such as procyonids (e.g.
kinkajous, Potosflavus, and coatis, Nasua nasua) and tayras
(Eira barbara). Some species of bat, particularly those that
feed on fruit and nectar, for example long-tongued bats
(Glossophaginae), little fruit bats (Carolliinae), and Neotro-
pical fruit bats (Stenodermatinae) may also take exudates,
such as gums, opportunistically. Here I report on my obser-
vations regarding the use of exudates as a food source
during 1994 and 1995, while carrying out a field study of
two tamarin species at the Estaci6n Biologica Quebrada
Blanco II in the Peruvian Amazon.
A mixed-species group of saddleback and moustached tama-
rins was observed from October 1994 until November 1995
as part of a long-term field study (Smith, 1997) at the Estaci6n
Biologica Quebrada Blanco II (4*21'S, 73009'W) in Peru.
Each month several sources of exudate that had recently
been exploited by the tamarins were observed from sunrise
till sunset (approx. 0550-1750 h). Eleven exudate sites of six
species of trees were observed for a total of 257hrs 38min.
Notes were taken of any animals that fed upon the exudate,
or passed within 10 m of it. Mammals were identified using
Emmons and Feer (1990), and birds using Hilty and Brown
(1986). No specific identification was possible for
The observations are summarised in Table 1. Eleven exu-
date sites of six species of trees were observed: Parkia
igneiflora (Mimosaecae; six trees); Parkia nitida
(Mimosaceae; one tree); Peltogyne altissima (Mimosaceae;
one tree); Sloanea floribunda (Elaeocarpacae; one tree);
Acacia sp. (Mimosaceae; one tree); and a further tree which
was not identified (Field #1494). The majority of the obser-
vations were for Parkia igneiflora. The exudate sites were
visited for a total of 371 minutes, 2.4% of the time that they
were observed.
There were few other diurnal competitors for the gum
sources used by the tamarins. In addition to both species
of tamarins only a squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus), two
Neotropical pygmy squirrels (Sciurilluspusillus), two large
bees and two large wasps were definitely seen to feed on
gum. The behaviour of Amazon dwarf squirrels
(Microsciurus flaviventer), and other Neotropical pygmy
squirrels suggested that gum may have been eaten, but
this was not directly observed. It is possible that the scale-
breasted woodpecker (Celeus grammicus) and the plain
brown woodcreeper (Dendrocincla fuliginosa) were tak-
ing small droplets of gum, but perhaps more plausibly they
may have been after insects on the bark surface or larvae in
the gum. The southern river otter (Lutra longicaudis) was
almost certainly not interested in the gum, and was simply
travelling through the forest. Of all animals observed to
feed, the tamarins used the exudate sources for the great-
est proportion of time (S. fuscicollis, 51.21%; S. mystax,

Cover photograph: The titi monkey, Callicebus coimbrai, from Sergipe, Brazil. Photo: S. Kobayashi and A. Langguth, 1999.

Neotropical Primates 7(3), September 1999

Neotropical Primates 7(3), September 1999

Table 1. Summary of animals seen at or near gum sites during dawn to dusk observations.

Tree #


Parkia igneiflora

Parkia igneiflora
Parkia igneiflora
Parkia igneiflora
Parkia igneiflora

587 Parkia igneiflora

111 Parkia igneiflora
111 Parkia igneiflora

587 Parkia igneiflora
732 Parkia igneiflora
1515 Parkia igneiflora

732 Parkia igneiflora
454 Parkia nitida

1163 Peltogyne altissima
1085 Sloanea floribunda

Sloanea floribunda
Sloanea floribunda
Sloanea floribunda
Acacia sp.
Acacia sp,
Acacia sp.

Species (No. in group)
Large wasps (2)
S. fuscicollis (5)
Lutra longicaudis
Microsciurus flaviventer (1)
Microsciurus flaviventer (1)
Sciurillus pusillus (2)
Saimiri sciureus (c. 25)
Large bees (2)
S. mystax (7)
Dendrocincla fuliginosa (1)
Celeus grammicus (1)
Sciurillus pusillus (1)
Sciurillus pusillus (1)

S. fuscicollis (3)
S. mystax (7)
Sciurillus pusillus (1)
S. fuscicollis (3)
S. fuscicollis (5)
S. mystax (7)

S fuscicollis (3)
S. mystax (5)
Saimiri sciureus (c. 25)
S. fuscicollis (3)
S. mystax (7)
S. fuscicollis (5)

S. fuscicollis (5)

S. fuscicollis (5)

S. fuscicollis (5)
S. mystax (7)

Fed on exudate; 1 bout
Passed, no interest shown
Passed, no interest shown
Moved in sub-canopy, 2 bouts*
Moved in sub-canopy, 2 bouts*
Moved on trunk for 25 minutes*
Fed on exudate
Fed on exudate
Fed on exudate
Tapped on trunk for 3 minutes
Moved on trunk for 4 minutes*
Pecked trunk for 2 minutes
Fed on exudate

Fed on exudate
Passed, no interest shown
Fed on exudate
Passed 5 times, no interest shown
Fed on exudate, 3 bouts
Fed on exudate

Fed on pod-exudate
Fed on pod-exudate
Passed, no interest shown
Fed on exudate, 2 bouts
Passed, no interest shown
Fed on exudate, 3 bouts

Fed on exudate

Passed, no interest shown

Fed on exudate, 3 bouts
Fed on exudate, 4 bouts

* Behaviour suggested that gum was being eaten, but no direct observation of consumption was seen.

40; 1: 32
120; 55; 168; 16


The results of the study indicate that, saddleback and mous-
tached tamarins were the principal diurnal species to ex-
ploit the gums produced by the tree and liana species ob-
served. Squirrel monkeys, Neotropical pygmy squirrels, and
possibly Amazon dwarf squirrels may also feed on the gum,
but at such low rates that competition with the tamarins
would appear to be negligible. Other primates, procyonids,
and bats may also exploit gum resources opportunistically,
although at an even lower frequency than tamarins.

Gums do not form a sizeable proportion of the diet of most
Neotropical mammals, with the notable exception of
callitrichids, in particular marmosets (Callithrix spp.) and
pygmy marmosets (Cebuellapygmaea). Typically, few au-
thors have considered gums to present a digestive chal-
lenge to the primates that consume them. However, as Power
(1991) points out, they may be considered to be a type of
dietary fibre (Cummings, 1981; Van Soest, 1982; Kritchevsky,
1988), and thus be difficult for mammals to digest (Monke,
1941; Booth et al., 1949; Hove and Herndon, 1957; Booth
and Henderson, 1963). Their complex polysaccharide struc-
ture may render them resistant to normal mammalian diges-
tive enzymes (Cummings, 1981; Van Soest, 1982;
Kritchevsky, 1988). As a consequence, microbial fermenta-
tion may be required for their digestion. They may contain
phenolic or other secondary compounds requiring rapid
excretion or detoxification. This may reduce the net benefit

to below that potentially obtained from the majority of fruits.
Coupled with their potentially limited availability, this may
explain why the gum sites were visited by so few diurnal
animals other than the saddleback and moustached tama-
rins. Even the rate at which the tamarins exploited the gum
sites is well below that recorded for more gumivorous pygmy
marmosets. Ramirez et al. (1978), for example, carried out
focal observations on a Quararibea rhombifolia tree, and
recorded gum feeding by at least one Cebuella pygmaea
for 53% of the day.


Authorisation to conduct the field work was kindly given
by the Direcci6n Regional de Recursos Naturales y Medio
Ambiente in Iquitos (No. 002-94-GRL-CTAR-DRA). I am
grateful to Dr. E. Montoya from the Proyecto Peruano de
Primatologfa for his help and support with logistical mat-
ters. Financial assistance was provided by the Department
of Psychology, University of Reading. I thank Ney
Shahuano, Arsenio Cordova and Hugo Huanaquiri for their
help in observing the gum trees, and Dr. J. Ruiz at the Her-
barium Amazonense (AMAZ), Universidad Nacional de la
Amazonfa Peruana (UNAP), Iquitos, Peru, for identifying
botanical voucher specimens.

AndrewCSmih,DepartmentofPsychology, UniversityofRead-
ing, P. 0. Box 238, Reading, RG6 6AL, UK. E-mail:
. Current address: DepartmnentofPsy-
chology, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland, UK.

Time feeding (mins)

17; 24
3; 12



53; 12; 20


6; 15

7; 32; 8



Neotropical Primates 7(3), September 1999 Page 75

Booth, A. N., Elvehjem, C. A. and Hart, E. B. 1949. The impor-
tance of bulk in the nutrition of the guinea pig. J. Nutr 37:
Booth, A. N. and Henderson, A. P. 1963. Physiological effects
of three microbial polysaccharides on rats. Tox. App.
Pharmacol. 5:478-488.
Cummings, J. H. 1981. Dietary fibre. Brit. Med. Bull. 37:65-70.
Emmons, L. H. and Feer, F 1990. NeotropicalRainforestMam-
mals: A Field Guide. The University of Chicago Press, Chi-
Hilty, S. L. and Brown, W. L. 1986. A Guide to the Birds of
Colombia. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
Hladik, A. and Hladik, C. M. 1969. Rapports trophiques entire
vegetation et primates dans la fort de Barro Colorado
(Panama). La Terre et la Vie 1: 25-117.
Hove, E. L. and Herndon, F. J. 1957. Growth of rabbits on
purified diets. J. Nut. 63:193-199.
Howes, F N. 1949. Vegetable Gums and Resins. Chronica
Botanica Company, Waltham, Mass.
Kilham, L. 1957. Red squirrels feeding at sapsucker holes. J.
Mammal. 39(4): 596-597.
Kritchevsky, D. 1988. Dietary fiber.Ann. Rev. Nutr. 8:301-328.
Monke, J. V. 1941. Non-availability of gum arabic as a glyco-
genic food stuff in the rat. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 46:
Nash, L. T. 1986. Dietary, behavioral and morphological as-
pects of gummivory in primates. Yearbook Phys. Anthropol.
Power, M. L. 1991. Digestive function, energy intake and the
response to dietary gum in captive callitrichids. Ph.D. the-
sis. University of California, Berkeley.
Ramirez, M, Freese, C. H. and Revilla, J. 1978. Feeding ecol-
ogy of the pygmy marmoset, Cebuella pygmaea, in north-
eastern Peru. In: The Biology and Conservation of the
Callitrichidae, D. G. Kleiman (ed.), pp.79-90. Smithsonian
Institution Press, Washington, D. C.
Smith, A. C. 1997. Comparative ecology of saddleback
(Saguinusfuscicollis) and moustached (Saguinus mystax)
tamarins. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Reading, Reading.
Van Soest, P. J. 1982. Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant. 0
and B Books, Inc., Corvalis, Oregon.

Wendy R. Townsend
Robert B. Wallace
Carnivory is rarely observed amongst most primate spe-
cies in the wild. Most reports have concerned large bodied
species such as baboons (Strum, 1981; Hamilton and Busse,
1982), and especially the cooperative hunting behavior of
chimpanzees (Teleki, 1973; Goodall, 1986; Boesch and
Boesch, 1989). Nevertheless, many other primate species
are known to opportunistically kill and consume vertebrates
including, reptiles, birds and small mammals (Wahome et
al., 1988; Fedigan, 1990; Cordeiro, 1994; Digby and Barreto,

Pygmy marmosets (Callithrixpygmaea) forage principally
on exudates from gum-producing vines and trees, although
they also eat significant quantities of arthropods (Soini,
1988; Townsend, in press). Most other species in the
Callithrix genus are frugivore/insectivores (Stevenson and
Rylands, 1988), and callitrichids in general display this di-
etary pattern with varying degrees of plant exudate con-
sumption (Rylands, 1984; Goldizen, 1987; Rylands and Faria,
1993). In terms of vertebrate consumption, callitrichids have
been observed eating frogs, lizards (Anolis spp.), and birds,
but these take up a small proportion of overall diets
(Goldizen, 1987; Snowdon and Soini, 1988; Stevenson and
Rylands, 1988; Peres, 1993; Digby and Barreto, 1998;
Townsend, in press).
In 1984 in Araracuara, Colombian Amazon, one of us (WRT)
witnessed an attack by a wild caught pet pygmy marmoset
upon a bird. The observer was sitting at a round, wide-
edged table with a group of people when a small finch
stunned itself against a window and was brought in and
placed upon the table. A male pygmy marmoset was on the
ground with a long string attached to its owner. Upon spot-
ting the bird, the marmoset jumped up to the edge of the
table and for a split second, looked at the bird. The marmo-
set then disappeared from view until its head appeared
about one quarter of the way around the table. It looked
quickly at the bird and disappeared again, only reappear-
ing as it crept all the way around the edge of the table. The
marmoset then jumped on the bird from behind, put its left
hand on the bird's throat and with the right hand on its
beak, twisted the head upward leaving the neck exposed
and bit directly into the bird's neck. Lowering the beak as
the bird was convulsing, the marmoset then began biting
through the bird's brain case. The owner removed her pet
from the bird before it could be determined to what extent
the primate would have consumed it's prey.
In a review of the Callithrix genus, fledgling birds and
eggs had been suggested as possible dietary constituents
for free-ranging animals (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).
Recent observations of vertebrate predation by common
marmosets (C. jacchus) in the wild (Digby and Barreto, 1998)
and in captivity (Rothe, 1999) have confirmed this hypoth-
esis. Eggs and nestlings are also occasionally consumed
by buffy-headed marmosets (C.flaviceps) and buffy tufted-
ear marmosets (C. aurita) (Ferrari, 1988; Muskin, 1984). To
our knowledge, this represents the first recorded case of a
pygmy marmoset killing a bird, and is especially interesting
given that C. pygmaea is the smallest Neotropical primate
species. The fact that the marmoset initially attempted to
consume the brain of the bird is notable given that this
organ is particularly energy rich. Observations of free-rang-
ing populations have revealed similar behavior with regards
to lizards and frogs which are 'highly contested among
group members' (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). Thus, the
prioritization of brain consumption in vertebrate prey prob-
ably reflects an optimal foraging strategy in an intra-spe-
cific feeding competition context.
Critically, not only did the captive marmoset kill and begin

Neotropical Primates 7(3), September 1999

Page 75

Page 76

to consume the bird (until prevented), it also clearly 'stalked'
its prey, as has been reported for free-ranging populations
during invertebrate foraging (Soini, 1988; Stevenson and
Rylands, 1988). Indeed, a similar observation of stalking,
capturing, killing (with a bite to the head) and consuming a
bird is reported for a captive Saguinus (Schauffelin, 1958 in
Snowdon and Soini, 1988). A working hypothesis is that
this hunting behavior may be opportunistically extended
to birds in the wild. Digby and Barreto (1998) report that
free-ranging common marmosets 'seek out and inspect bird
nests', and that birds were occasionally observed mob-
bing marmosets suggesting recognition of a predator threat.
Intriguingly, Soini (1988) reports that pygmy marmoset core
use areas have fewer birds than surrounding areas of the
home range, and that flocking birds are often chased. Soini
(1988) suggests this behavior maybe designed to reduce
inter-specific feeding competition with birds. This obser-
vation suggests there may also be some risk to those that
are careless.
Wendy R. Townsend, Proyecto de Investigaci6n sobre los
Recursos Naturales, CIDOB/DFID, Casilla 6135, Santa Cruz,
Bolivia, and Robert B. Wallace, Wildlife Conservation So-
ciety, 185"' Street and Southern Boulevard, Bronx, New York,
10460, U.S.A. Address correspondence to: Wendy R.
Townsend, Casilla 6266, Santa Cruz, Bolivia. E-mail:
Boesch, C. and Boesch, H. 1989. Hunting behavior of wild
chimpanzees in the Tai National Park. Am. J. Phys.
Anthropol. 78:547-573.
Cordeiro, N. J. 1994. Opportunist killers: blue monkeys feed
on forest birds. Folia Primatol. 63: 84-87.
Digby, L. and Barreto, C. E. 1998. Vertebrate predation in com-
mon marmosets. Neotropical Primates 6: 124-126.
Fedigan, L. M. 1990. Vertebrate predation in Cebus capucinus:
meat eating in a Neotropical monkey. Folia Primatol. 54:
Ferrari, S. F. 1988. The Behaviour and Ecology of the Buffy-
headed Marmoset, Callithrixflaviceps (0. Thomas, 1903).
Ph.D., University College London.
Goldizen, A. W. 1987. Tamarins and marmosets: communal
care of offspring. In: Primate Societies, B. B. Smuts, D. L.
Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham and T. T.
Struhsaker (eds.). pp.34-43. The University of Chicago Press,
Goodall, J. 1986. The Chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of
Behavior. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.
Hamilton, W. J. and Busse, C. D. 1982. Social dominance and
predatory behavior of chacma baboons. J. Hum. Evol.
Muskin, A. 1984. Preliminary field observations of Callithrix
aurita (Callitrichinae, Cebidae). In: A PrimatologianoBrasil,
M. T. de Mello (ed.), pp. 79-82. Sociedade Brasileira de
Primatologia, Brasilia.
Peres, C. A. 1993. Diet and feeding ecology of saddle-back
(Saguinus fuscicollis) and moustached (S. mystax) tama-
rins in an Amazonian terra fiume forest. J. Zool., Lond. 230:

Neotropical Primates 7(3), September 1999

Rothe, H. 1999. Adaptation to natural food resources by semi-
free common marmosets (Callithrixjacchus): Preliminary
results. Neotropical Primates 7:54-57.
Rylands, A. B. 1984. Exudate-eating and tree-guging by
marmosets (Callitrichidae, Primates). In: Tropical Rain For-
est: The Leeds Symposium, A. C. Chadwick and S. L. Sutton
(eds.), pp.155-168. Leeds Philosophical and Literary Soci-
ety, Leeds.
Rylands, A. B. and Faria, D. S. de. 1993. Habitats, feeding
ecology and range size in the genus Callithrix. In: Marmo-
sets and Tamarins: Systematics, Behaviour, and Ecology,
A. B. Rylands (ed.), pp.262-272. Oxford University Press,
Snowdon, C. T. and Soini, P. 1988. The tamarins, genus
Saguinus. In: Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical Pri-
mates, Vol. 2, R. A. Mittermeier, A. B. Rylands, A. F. Coimrnbra-
Filho and G. A. B. da Fonseca (eds.), pp.223-298. World
Wildlife Fund, Washington, D.C.
Soini, P. 1988. The pygmy marmoset, genus Cebuella. In:
Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical Primates, Vol. 2, R.
A. Mittermeier, A. B. Rylands, A. F. Coimbra-Filho, and G.
A. B. da Fonseca (eds.), pp.79-129. World Wildlife Fund,
Washington, D.C.
Stevenson, M. F. and Rylands, A. B. 1988. The marmosets,
genus Callithrix. In: Ecology and Behavior of Neotropi-
calPrimates, Vol. 2, R. A. Mittermeier, A. B. Rylands, A. F.
Coimbra-Filho and G. A. B. da Fonseca (eds.), pp. 131-222.
World Wildlife Fund, Washington, D.C.
Strum, S. C. 1981. Process and products of change: baboon
predatory behavior at Gilgil, Kenya. In: Omnivorous Pri-
mates Gathering and Hunting in Human Evolution, R. S.
0. Harding and G. Teleki (eds.), pp.255-302. Columbia Uni-
versity Press, New York.
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zees. Bucknell University Press, Lewisburg.
Townsend, W. R. In press. Callithrixpygmaea. Mammalian
Wahome, J. M., Cords, M., and Rowell, T. E. 1990. Blue mon-
keys eat mice. Folia Primatol. 51:158-160.

Jose de Sousa e Silva Junior
Marcus E. B. Fernandes
The night monkeys (Aotus Humboldt, 1811) are predomi-
nantly Amazonian in their distribution, although they also
exend into Central America and south into Paraguay and
Argentina (Hershkovitz, 1983). A number of recent studies
have adjusted the geographic distributions as indicated by
Hershkovitz (1983) (for example, Aquino and Encamaci6n,
1988; Timm, 1988; Pieckzarca, 1993; Brooks, 1993, in Brooks,
1996; Ford, 1994; Silva Jr. et al., 1995; Rodrfguez-Luna et
al., 1996). Silva Jr. etal. (1995) reported the occurrence of A.
infulatus Kuhl, 1820 on the islands of Caviana and Maraj6,

Neotropical Primates 7(3), September 1999 Page 77

and north of the Amazon estuary in a small area of south-
eastern Amapa. According to Hershkovitz (1983), the range
of A. infulatus is restricted in the east by the Rios Gurupf
and Tocantins, and although Silva Jr. etal. (1992) and Lopes
(1993) recorded its occurrence east of the Rio Gurupi, the
range limits as given by Hershkovitz (1983) have been main-
tained in the recent literature (see, for example, Ford, 1994;
Emmons and Feer, 1997; Eisenberg and Redford, 1999). Here
we report on a study examining new localities for, and the
habitatse-eeupied-by,-A.nfu/atus-in-the-easternmost part
of the range of the genus in the state of Maranhao, con-
firming its occurrence east as far the Rio Parnaiba.

Material and Methods

A number of expeditions have been carried out since 1989
in order to examine the range limits of A. infulatus in the
state of Maranhao. Specimens were collected and further
evidence was obtained through direct observation
(sightings and vocalizations), interviews and from animals
kept as pets. The specimens collected were compared with
museum specimens at the Museu Paraense Emflio Goeldi
(MPEG), Bel6m, the National Museum of the Federal Uni-
versity of Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ), and the Zoology Mu-
seum of the University of Sao Paulo (MZUSP). All the field

specimens collected were deposited in the scientific collec-
tion of the MPEG. The localities were plotted on
Hershkovitz's map (Hershkovitz, 1983, Fig. 2, p.214) (see
Fig. 1).

Results and Discussion

Table 1 summarizes the information obtained in this study,
including the localities visited, the habitats in which the
specimens were registered, and the nature of each record.
The state of Maranhao covers a mosaic of biomes resulting
from the transition from Amazonia rain forest to the bush
savanna (Cerrado) of central Brazil, and the dry thorn scrub
and deciduous forest (Caatinga) of the northeast. A.
infulatus was registered in 20 new localities, all east of the
Rios Tocantins and Gurupf. These localities are spread
through the following five landscapes in Maranhao:
Amazonia, Zona dos Cocais (Orbignya palm tree forest),
coastal areas, Cerrado, and the transition zone eastward
(between Amazonia, Cerrado and Caatinga biomes). In
Amazonian forest, A. infulatus was registered in a few de-
graded terra fire forests mixed with patches of igap6
(flooded forest). In the Zona dos Cocais records indicated
the presence of A. infulatus in disturbed forest patches,
locally called "capoeira alta", as well as in the extensive

Table 1. Field data on the occurrence of Aotus and habitat in the states of Maranhao and Piauf, Brazil.

1. Jurema, Amarante
2. Near to Grajad

3. Fazenda MAPISA, Buriticupu

4. Near to Santa Luzia

Near to Arame
Santa Maria, Alcantara
Canelatiua, Alcantara

8. Sao Josd das Verdades, Bacabal "

9. Near to Lago Verde

10. Morada Nova,Vit6ria do Mearim

11. Pedra Preta, Lago da Pedra
12. Eight localities near to Bacabal
(both banks of the Rio Mearim)
13. Near by Sao Luis Gonzaga
14. Near by CoroatA

15. Nova Guin6, Sao Mateus
16. Lago Verde, right bank of the
Rio Mearim, Sao Mateus
17. Palmeiral, Matdes

18. Sao Miguel, Caxias

19. Brejinho, Caxias
20. Estiva, Alto Parnaiba

Localities in the state of Piauf:
David Caldas, Novo Nilo, Unilo,
and Santa Rita




Coastal area
Coastal area

Zona dos Cocais

Zona dos Cocais

Zona dos Cocais

Zona dos Cocais

Zona dos Cocais
Zona dos Cocais

Zona dos Cocais
Zona dos Cocais

Zona dos Cocais

Transition zone

Transition zone

Transition zone

Secondary forest
Secondary forest
vocalizations, and pets
Secondary forest
and vocalizations
Secondary forest
vocalizations and pet.
Secondary forest
Mangrove/Capoeira/Secondary forest
Mangrove/Capoeira/Secondary forest
Babaqual-CapoeiralSecondary forest
Orbignya sleeping trees
Babafual/Secondary forest

Secondary forest
Babafual/CapoeiralSecondary forest

Babafual/Secondary forest
and vocalizations
Babafual/Capoeira/Gallery forest

Babafual/Secondary forest


CerradolGallery forest

Record Type
Specimen collected; interviews
Direct observation:sightings,

Direct observation: sightings

Direct observation:

Direct observarion: sightings;

Interviews: local extinction and

Interviews: Orbignya sleeping

Direct observation:
vocalizations; interviews:
Orbignya sleeping trees
Specimens collection; interviews
Interviews: local extinction

Direct observation: sightings

Interviews: local extinction

Direct observation: sightings,
vocalizations and sleeping trees
Specimens collected; direct
observation: sightings and
vocalizations; interviews:
Orbignya sleeping trees

Not present Interviews

Neotropical Primates 7(3), September 1999

Page 77

Page 78 Neotropical Primates 7(3), September 1999


Figure 1. Geographical distribution (part, dashed area) of Aotus infulatus from Hershkovitz (1983) and the
new localities in the state of Maranhio: 1. Jurema, municipality of Amarante, about 05'28'S, 46034'W; 2.
Near to Grajafi, about 05'49'S, 46*08'W; 3. Fazenda MAPISA, municipality of Buriticupu, about 04*36'S,
46*30'W; 4. Near to Santa Luzia, Rio Zutiua, about 03*53'S, 4528'W; 5. Near to .Arame, about 0442'S,
45*55'W; 6. Santa Maria, municipality of AlcAintara, 02*25'S, 44*39'W; 7. Canelatiua, municipality of
AlcAntara, 02"28'S, 44'43'W; 8. Slo Jos6 das Verdades, municipality of Bacabal, about 04*57'S, 44*28'W; 9.
Near to Lago Verde, about 0404'.S, 4445'W; 10. Morada Nova, left bank of the Rio Ipixuna-Aqu, municipal-
ity of Vit6ria do Mearim, near to 03*28'S, 44*53'W; 11. Pedra Preta, municipality of Lago da Pedra, 0426'S,
4500'W; 12. Eight localities on both banks of the Rio Mearim, near to Bacabal, around 04*12'S, 4447'W;
13. Near to Slo Luis Gonzaga, right bank of the Rio Mearim, 04*22'S, 44'34'W; 14. Near to Coroati, 04*08'S,
44*08'W; 15. Nova Guin6, municipality of Sio Mateus, about 0401'S, 44*27'W; 16. Lago Verde, right bank
of the Rio Mearim, municipality of Sio Mateus, near to 04*01'S, 4427'W; 17. Palmeiral, municipality of
Mat6es, about 03*40'S, 44"27'W; 18. Sio Miguel, left bank of the Rio Parnafba (opposite to UniAo, State of
Piauf), municipality of Caxias, 04*39'S, 43'36'W; 19. Brejinho, near to the left bank of the Rio Parnaiba,
municipality of Caxias, 04*49'S, 42*26'W; 20. Estiva, municipality of Alto Parnaiba, 09*28'S, 46*03'W.

areas of Orbignya sp. palm trees locally referred to as
babafual. These palms are used by night monkeys as sleep-
ing trees. The coastal area is dominated by red mangroves
(Rhizophora sp.), adjacent to tall secondary growth
(Capoeira alta). Night monkeys can be found throughout
these contiguous areas along the coastline. Cerrado is the
dominant vegetation in the south of the state. Information
collected in the municipality of Alto Parnaiba strongly sug-

gested the occurrence of A. infulatus only on the left bank
of the river. Finally, there is a transition zone in the east of
the state of Maranhdo, dominated by mosaics and transi-
tions of Cerrado forest (cerradao), gallery forest, babaqual,
and caatinga, as well as associations of some local palm
trees such as Orbignya and Copernicia. A. infulatus was
collected in the cerradao, near to a patch of Orbignya for-
est. Direct observations (sightings and vocalizations), to-

Page 78


Neotropical Primates 7(3), September 1999

Neotropical Primates 7(3), September 1999 Page 79

gether with information from local people, showed that A.
infulatus forages in all these environments with the excep-
tion of caatinga. Local people also emphasized the use of
Orbignya as sleeping trees. All the information obtained in
Sao Miguel and Brejinho, as well as in four other localities
on the right bank of the Rio Parnaiba, state of Piauf (David
Caldas, Novo Nilo, Unido, and Santa Rita), indicated thatA.
infulatus was restricted to the left bank of the river in the
state of Maranhio.
The results showed that the geographical distribution of A.
infulatus extends east to the left bank of the Rio Parnafba,
and hence including all of the state of Maranhao. Although
the distribution may not be continuous in this part of
Maranhio, the night monkeys were found in many differ-
ent forest types. The only exceptions were severely de-
graded areas such as the region nearby the city of Bacabal.
Although the Rio Parnaiba evidently delimits the geographi-
cal distribution of A. infulatus in the east of its range (and
that of the genus), it has features which would indicate that
it is not an efficient barrier (see Ayres and Clutton-Brock,
1992). It is a meandering, slow, white-water river, with a
high sediment load, and is not a natural barrier for any
other primate species. Callithrix jacchus, for example, a
smaller species than A. infulatus, occurs on both banks of
the Rio Parnaiba (Silva Jr., unpublished data), and it is rea-
sonable to suppose that enclave populations of A. infulatus
may occur on the right bank, as has been recorded for other
night monkeys by Hershkovitz (1983). Further investiga-
tion may also extend the eastern limits of the range of A.
infulatus toward the northwest of the state of Bahia. This
possibility is suggested by a museum specimen (MNRJ-
3904), collected by R.M. Gilmore from "north-west Bahia"
which has to date been considered to be of mistaken origin.
With the range extension described here, the geographical
distribution of A. infulatus has the largest range of the
genus Aotus.
Rylands et al. (1995) consider A. infulatus to be a common
species without any risk of extinction. However, there is no
information on its biology and ecology from areas outside
the Amazon. This study showed that A. infulatus uses pre-
viously unrecorded environments, such as the meso-habi-
tats described as part of the Zona dos Cocais, coastal area,
and the transition zone from eastern Maranhio. Further
research is needed to study the ecology of these night
monkeys, vital for future conservation programs in a re-
gion which has suffered widespread deforestation and deg-
radation of its natural environments.
Specimens Collected and Examined
Specimens collected and material examined at the Museu
Paraense Emflio Goeldi (MPEG), Museu Nacional,
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ), and Museu
de Zoologia da Universidade de SAo Paulo (MZUSP): Aotus
infulatus: AMAPA: Carmo do Macacoari, municipality of
Itaubal (MPEG-22522, 22523, 24035); PARA: Ponta de

Pedras, Maraj6 Island (MPEG-8875, 8876,8877); Arari Lake,
Maraj6 Island (MPEG-99, 100); Fazenda Santana, Caviana
Island, municipality of Chaves (MPEG-23058, 23059,24130,
24131,24132); Maiandeua Island, municipality of Maracand
(MNRJ-23102); Nova Timboteua(MNRJ-24840, 24841); Vila
Brabo, right bank of Rio Tocantins (MPEG-12177, 12178);
Cocal, right bank of Rio Tocantins (MPEG-11851); Timbozal,
left bank of Rio Tocantins (MPEG-11852, 11853); Sftio
Calandrinho, left bank of the Rio Tocantins (MPEG-8869,
8870); Sadde, left bank of the Rio Tocantins (MPEG-12179);
Conceigdo do Araguaia (MPEG-1321); MARANHAO:
Jurema, municipality of Amarante (MPEG-23036); Pedra
Preta, municipality of Lago da Pedra (MPEG-23037); Sao
Miguel, right bank of Rio Parnaiba, municipality of Caxias
(MPEG-24123,24124, and field number CZ- 1420); BAHIA:
northwestern Bahia (MNRJ-3904).
We are grateful to Mariana Moncassin Vale for help in the
determination of the geographical coordinates of some lo-
calities, and to Diego Astda de Moraes for reviewing this
Josi de Sousa e Silva Jdnior, Departamento de Zoologia,
Museu Paraense Emflio Goeldi, Caixa Postal 399,66040-170
Bel6m, Para, Brazil, and Marcus Emanuel Barroncas
Fernandes, Departamento de Oceanografia e Limnologia,
Universidade Federal do Maranhao, Praga Gonqalves Dias
21, Centro, 65020-240 Sao Lufs, Maranhao, Brazil. Current
address of first author: Laborat6rio de Vertebrados,
Departamentos de Ecologia e de Gen6tica, CCS,
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68020,
21941-970 Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. E-mail:
Aquino, R. and Encamaci6n, F. 1988. Population densities
and geographic distribution of night monkeys (Aotus
nancymae and Aotus vociferans) (Cebidae: Primates) in
northeastern Peru. Am. J. Primatol. 14:375-381.
Ayres, J. M. and Clutton-Brock, T. H. 1992. River boundaries
and species range size in Amazonian primates. Am. Nat.
Brooks, D. M. 1996. Some observations on primates in Para-
guay.Neotropical Primates 4(1): 15-19.
Eisenberg, J. F and Redford, K. H. 1999. Mammals of the
Neotropics: The Central Neotropics. Volume 3: Ecuador,
Peru, Bolivia, Brazil. The University of Chicago Press,
Emmons, L. H. and Feer, F 1997. Neotropical Rainforest
Mammals: a Field Guide. 2nd Edition. The University of
Chicago Press. Chicago.
Ford, S. M. 1994. Taxonomy and distribution of the owl mon-
key. In: Aotus: The OwlMonkey, J. F. Baer, R. E. Weller and
I. Kakoma (eds.), pp.1-57. Academic Press, New York.
Hershkovitz, P. 1983. Two new species of night monkeys,
genus Aotus (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): A preliminary report on
Aotus taxonomy. Am. J. Primatol. 4:209-243.
Lopes, M.A. 1993. Distribui~go, ecologia e conservagio do

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cuxiti-preto, Chiropotes satanas satanas (Cebidae, Pri-
mates), na Amaz6niaOriental. Master's thesis, Universidade
Federal do Pard, Bel6m.
Rodriguez-Luna, E., Corlts-Ortiz, L., Mittenneier, R. A., Rylands,
A. B., Wong-Reyes, G., Carrillo, E., Matamoros, Y., Nufiez, E
and Motta-Gill, J. 1996. Hacia un plano de acci6n para los
primates mesoamericanos. Neotropical Primates 4(suppl.):
Rylands, A. B., Mittermeier, R. A. and Rodrfguez-Luna, E.
1995. A species list for the New World primates (Platyrrhini):
Distribution by country, endemism, and conservation sta-
tus according to the Mace-Lande system. Neotropical Pri-
mates 3(suppl.): 113-160.
SilvaJr, J. deS. e, Queiroz, H. L. andFernandes, M. E. B. 1992.
Primatas do Maranhdo: Dados preliminares (Primates:
Platyrrhini). In: Resumos: XIX Congresso Brasileiro de
Zoologia. p.173. Sociedade Brasileira de Primatol6gia,
Silva Jr, J. de S. e, Nunes, A. and Femandes, M. E. B. 1995.
Geographic distribution of night monkeys, Aotus, in north-
ern Brazil: New data and a correction. Neotropical Primates
3(3): 72-74.
Timm, R. M. 1988. A review and reappraisal of the night mon-
key, Aotus lemurinus (Primates: Cebidae), in Costa Rica.
Rev. Biol. Trop. 36(2B): 537-540.

Teresita de Jesds Ortiz Martinez
Sauil Juan Solano
Alejandro Estrada
Rosamond Coates-Estrada
En M6xico, la selva hdimedo tropical de la regi6n de Los
Tuxtlas resguarda la distribuci6n geogrifica mais
septentrional del g6nero Alouatta en el Continente
Americano representado por la especie A. palliata (v.
Estrada y Coates-Estrada, 1984). Desdichadamente gran
parte del habitat de esta especie ha sido destruido o
fragmentado por el hombre como parte del process de
conversion de la selva a pastizales y, en menor media, a
monocultivos (Estrada y Coates-Estrada, 1996). Nuestro
conocimiento sobre el comportamiento y ecologfa de
Alouatta bajo condiciones de fragmentaci6n y aislamiento
del habitat en el Neotr6pico es atin escaso. Tal informaci6n
es indispensable para general models de conservaci6n
que eviten la desaparici6n continuada de representantes
de las species de inter6s.
Los patrons de actividad diumos de monos aulladores
(Alouatta spp.) y la relaci6n que 6stos guardian con las
condiciones de su habitat ha sido motivo de studio en
diferentes parties del Neotr6pico (Serio-Silva, 1992; Bicca-
Marques y Calegaro-Marquez, 1994; Stoner, 1996). Los
monos aulladores se han caracterizado por presentar
patrons de baja actividad, descansando mas de la mitad
de su tiempo diumo, lo cual se atribuye a la necesidad de
procesar grandes cantidades de fibra vegetal como

Figura. 1. Ubicaci6n de la zona de studio y del fragmento habitado
por la tropa de monos aulladores. Note la forma alargada y angosta
del sitio.
resultado de una dieta rica en hojas (Milton, 1980). Las
variaciones en los patrons de actividad de este primate
parecen estar relacionados con el grado de dispersi6n en el
tiempo y espacio del recurso alimentario (Crockett y
Eisenberg, 1987; Serio-Silva, 1992), con su densidad y con
variables abi6ticas como el clima (Chivers, 1969, Glander,
1979); asf como tambi6n con la edad y sexo de los aulladores
(Bicca-Marques y Calegaro-Marques, 1994). La
perturbaci6n antropog6nica de los habitats naturales de
este primate tambi6n tiene una influencia important sobre
la estrategia de asignaci6n de tiempo y energfa a las
diferentes actividades vitales (crecimiento, mantenimiento
y reproducci6n), ppro hasta el moment existe poca
informaci6n al respect. Asf, este trabajo present
informaci6n sobre el patr6n de actividad general para un



.A 40


o E E 0 6
0 0 .so 0
)a < > Cl

Figura 2. Patr6n general de actividades de la tropa bajo studio para
el ciclo annual reportado.

Page 80

Neotropical Primates 7(3), September 1999

Figura 3. Patr6n general de actividades para las classes de edad y
sexo en la tropa estudiada.
ciclo annual de una tropa de A. palliata existiendo en un
fragmento de selva aislado.
Este studio se llev6 a cabo en la regi6n de Los Tuxtlas,
ubicada al sureste del estado de Veracruz, en Mdxico y
localizada geograficamente entire los 95*03' y 95*08' de
longitud Oeste y 18*28' y 18*38' de latitud Norte (Fig. 1). La
precipitaci6n y temperature medias anuales son 4900 mm y
270C respectivamente. En esta regi6n se encuentra ubicada
la Estaci6n de Biologia "Los Tuxtlas" del Instituto de
Biologfa de la Universidad Nacional Aut6noma de M6xico.
En las inmediaciones existen constelaciones de fragments
de selva aislados unos de otros por distancias variables. El
studio se realiz6 en uno de estos fragments con una
extension de 3.6 ha y de forma alargada y angosta (Fig. 1).
El fragmento formaba parte de un corredor semicontinuo
de vegetaci6n selvdtica ubicado en los bordes de un ar-
royo y estaba habitado por una tropa de A. palliata
compuesta por dos machos adults, dos hembras adults,
un juvenile y dos infants.
Las observaciones del comportamiento de los aulladores
se efectuaron durante 10 dias en cada mes del ciclo annual.
En cada dia se dedic6 una hora de observaci6n a cada
individuo entire las 06:00 y las 18:00 horas. Para cada sujeto
se registry el tiempo dedicado a cada una de cinco
actividades generals: descanso, alimentaci6n, locomoci6n,
interacciones sociales y viaje (este tltimo definido como
movimientos >20 m del Arbol base). Los resultados fueron
expresados como porcentajes del tiempo total registrado y/
o tasas de tiempo por hora de observaci6n (Ortiz-Martfnez,
Para conocer el patr6n de dispersi6n en el espacio de las

60 1,4
50 1,2 Desc
4-- 1 -Alim
W30 0,8 Loc
-0,6 -Via
S20 --0,4 -is
10 0,2

6 7 8 9 101112131415161718
Figura 4. Variaciones en las actividades generals investigadas con
relaci6n al period diurno de actividad.

Page 81

species arb6reas usadas por Alouatta como fuente de
alimento se calcul6 el indice de dispersi6n de Morisita
(Brower y Zar, 1981, donde: 0 = uniform, 1 = azar, >1 =
agregado) para aquellas plants con un d.a.p > 25 cm. El
patr6n de dispersi6n temporal del recurso se obtuvo a partir
de registros fenol6gicos mensuales en estas species,
anotando la presencia de hojas y frutos e indicando su
estado de madurez. Para estos datos tambi6n se calcul6 el
indice de Morisita como un fndice de dispersi6n temporal.
El 80% del tiempo registrado en el ciclo annual para las cinco
actividades generals fue aportado por la actividad de
descanso (47.8 min/hr) y el 17% lo contribuy6 la actividad
de alimentaci6n (10.3 min/hr). Las tres actividades restantes
contribuyeron al 3% del tiempo de registro (Fig. 2).
En cuanto a las classes de edad y sexo representadas en el
grupo, los machos adults presentaron las mayores tasas
(minutos/hora de registro) en actividades como descanso,
locomoci6n y alimentaci6n. Las hembras adults tuvieron
las tasas mds altas en la actividad de viaje seguidas de las
actividades de descanso y alimentaci6n. Las tasas de
ocurrencia de "interacciones sociales" fueron
significativamente mAs bajas para los adults de ambos
sexos, pero tuvieron valores de 76 registros/hora de
observaci6n para los juveniles (la mayor parte se trat6 de
registros de juego social) (Fig. 3).
El patr6n diurno general de actividades mostr6 un patr6n
biomodal para las actividades de descanso y alimentaci6n
con una fuerte manifestaci6n de esta dltima conduct
temprano en la mafiana y en la tarde; las otras tres
actividades generals presentaron sus mayores niveles
hacia el segment vespertino del period diurno (Fig. 4).
La tasa media mensual de la actividad descanso estuvo
relacionada positivamente con la temperature maxima me-
dia mensual (r. = 0.74, p<0.05) presentando la tasa de
ocurrencia mis alta (53 min/hora de observaci6n) en Mayo,
cuando la temperature maxima media mensual fue de 39C.
La tasa media mensual de la actividad alimentaci6n estuvo
negativamente relacionada a la temperature mdxima (r, = -
0.52, p = 0.03) y ala temperature minima (r. = -0.80, p=0.001)
media mensuales. Las actividades locomoci6n y
alimentaci6n estuvieron asociadas negativamente con la
temperature maxima media mensual (r, = -0.67, p<0.05 y r =
-0.82, p<0.05 respectivamente).
El censo de la vegetaci6n en el sitio de studio indic6 la
presencia de 536 Arboles de las species usadas por los
aulladores como fuente de alimento y el cAlculo del indice
de dispersi6n de Morisita (Id) indic6 que el 26% de las
species presentaron un patr6n agregado, el 11% un patr6n
al azar y el 63% un patr6n uniform. Las species arb6reas
que presentaron un patr6n espacial agregado
contribuyeron al 29% del tiempo de alimentaci6n registrado,
las species con un patr6n espacial al azar contribuyeron al
61% y las species con un patr6n espacial uniform al 10%.
Solamente el porcentaje de tiempo dedicado a la actividad

Page 82

viaje estuvo correlacionado con los valores del fndice de
dispersi6n de Morisita (r. = 0.75, p = 0.002).
Las tasas mensuales de locomoci6n y viaje tuvieron
correlaci6n negative (r, = -0.59, p = 0.02) y positive (r. = 0.51,
p = 0.04) respectivamente con el ntmero de species que
presentaban hojas j6venes en los registros fenol6gicos
mensuales. Las tasas mensuales medias de actividades como
descanso y alimentaci6n estuvieron asociadas
negativamente (r, = -0.52, p=0.01) y positivamente (r. = 0.48,
p = 0.03) respectivamente a los valores mensuales del Indice
de Sorensen, calculado para medir el traslape intermensual
en el uso de species arb6reas como fuente de alimento.
Las tasas medias mensuales de locomoci6n y viaje
estuvieron negativamente asociadas a los valores maximos
del fndice de dispersi6n temporal (Morisita) (rs = -0.63, p =
0.01 y r, = -0.77, p = 0.001, respectivamente).
Los perfodos largos de inactividad de los aulladores
funcionan como un mecanismo regulador que les permit
enfrentar la presi6n de abastecer sus requerimientos
energ6ticos a partir de una dieta alta en follaje y/o baja en
energia ripidamente digerible (Milton et al., 1979). La tropa
bajo studio consumi6 hojas en un 57% del tiempo total de
registro en alimentaci6n al afio, enfatizando las tendencies
folfvoras de la especie (Juan, 1997). La predominancia de la
actividad de descanso en el patr6n de actividad de la tropa
es consistent con lo reportado previamente para species
del g6nero (Kinzey, 1997). Es decir, un modo de vida
conservador de energfa. Sin embargo, este patr6n de
actividad no s61o es el resultado de la necesidad de
conservar energia por razones alimenticias. La elasticidad
etol6gica de Alouatta es tal que variaciones extremes en la
temperature ambiental provocan la manifestaci6n de
conductas conservadoras de energfa, como lo sugieren las
correlaciones positivas entire la actividad descanso y los
incrementos y decrementos en la temperature ambiental.
Los machos adults registraron tasas altas en la actividad
de locomoci6n como resultado de movimientos de
monitoreo de los alrededores, debido a la presencia de
agents externos humanso, bovinos, porcinos y perros)
en el sitio o en sus bordes. Los registros diumos indicaron
una mayor actividad general de los individuos de la tropa
en el segment vespertino que en el period diurno
afectando las actividades de alimentaci6n, locomoci6n e
interacciones sociales y coincidiendo con decrementos en
la temperature ambiental.
La dispersi6n espacial uniform de la mayor parte de las
species arb6reas usadas como recurso alimentario por el
grupo puede ser un efecto de la perturbaci6n del fragmento
de selva. A lo anterior puede atribuirse la ausencia de
correlaciones significativas entire la dispersi6n espacial del
recurso alimentario y actividades como descanso,
alimentaci6n y locomoci6n.
Las variaciones mensuales registradas en la disponibilidad
de hojas j6venes tuvieron una influencia sobre la actividad

Neotropical Primates 7(3), September 1999

de los aulladores, quienes respondieron a una mayor
sincronfa en las diferentes species arb6reas utilizadas
como fuente de alimento con actividades de bdisqueda
(viaje). Una vez detectado el recurso, la conduct de los
aulladores se volvi6 mas estacionaria concentrAndose 6stos
en la cosecha de las hojas j6venes. Igualmente, en ciertas
6pocas del ciclo annual una mayor sincronfa intermensual
(indicada por el Indice de Sorensen) entire estas species
promovi6 una mayor actividad alimentaria en la tropa y
decrementos importantes en la actividad descanso.
Las caracteristicas fisicas del fragmento de selva habitado
por el grupo de studio son poco favorables para su
conservaci6n a largo plazo. El tamafio pequefio de su area,
su forma alargada y angosta, y con ello una superficie de
borde grande, favorecen el deterioro ecol6gico de este
habitat aislado (Offerman et al., 1995). En estas
circunstancias existed una penetraci6n de vientos al interior
del fragmento causando, si son de alta velocidad, el
derrumbe de drboles, especialmente de aquellos que se
encuentran en la pendiente del terreno. El trAnsito y pastoreo
continue de bovinos y porcinos impide la regeneraci6n del
habitat a trav6s del banco de plAntulas. Asi, la tendencia a
largo plazo son cambios importantes en la estructura de la
vegetaci6n y de los recursos para los aulladores. Por otro
lado, la carga animal que representan los aulladores sobre
las hojas y los frutos podrfa estar muy por arriba de aquella
reportada para condiciones normales. Por ejemplo, mientras
que la carga de Alouatta en selvas amplias (>500 ha) y no
perturbadas es de 1.28 kg por hectarea (Estrada y Coates-
Estrada, 1996), en el sitio de studio se estim6 en 8.7 kg por
hectArea (Juan, 1997).
La mayor penetraci6n de vientos y exposici6n a la radiaci6n
solar en el interior del fragmento tambi6n sugiere que los
monos aulladores estAn sujetos a condiciones extremes de
temperature y humedad que posiblemente se alejan much
de aquellas condiciones microclimiticas que predominan
en habitats mas extensos en donde la densidad y
continuidad de la vegetaci6n en el dosel les ofrece una
mayor protecci6n. La tendencia manifestada por los monos
aulladores estudiados a concentrar la mayor parte de sus
actividades en la tarde podria star determinado, en buena
parte, por condiciones microclimiticas extremes en las
porciones mas tempranas del dfa. La predominancia de la
actividad de descanso en la tropa estudiada serfa asf el
resultado no s61o de la necesidad de conservar energia
para procesar material vegetal rica en fibra, sino tambi6n
para enfrentarse a las fuertes variaciones observadas en
las temperatures maximas (25C 43*C) y minimas (10C -
24*C menos los valores 10C<20C asociados a intense
precipitaci6n y vientos de 30-50 km/h) en el sitio de studio.
Esto es consistent con las correlaciones positivas descritas
entire la tasa de descanso y las variaciones en las
temperatures maxima y minima, asf como las correlaciones
negatives entire las tasas de locomoci6n y alimentaci6n con
estos parimetros climiticos. Esto sugiere que las demands
del habitat sobre la elasticidad ecol6gica, fisiol6gica y
conductual de los monos aulladores son tales que energia

Neotropical Primates 7(3), September 1999 Page 83

que posiblemente podria dedicarse a actividades vitales
como crecimiento y reproducci6n esta siendo concentrada
en actividades de mantenimiento. Tal situaci6n sugiere
deterioro en el bienestar ffsico de los individuos, con
consecuencias graves para su supervivencia a corto,
median y largo plazo. Por ejemplo, durante el period de
12 meses que dur6 el studio la tropa creci6 hasta tener
nueve individuos, pero el 40% de 6stos entiree adults, ju-
veniles e infants) perecieron durante el ciclo annual
La conservaci6n de tropas de Alouatta que existien en
fragments aislados de vegetaci6n selvAtica en los paisajes
Neotropicales es una tarea compleja que demand un
conocimiento fino y preciso de los requerimientos de
espacio y alimento de estos primates y de la dininica de la
vegetaci6n bajo condiciones de aislamiento y perturbaci6n
antropog6nica continuada. En esta tarea no s61o es
important el restablecimiento de la conexi6n bi6tica entire
segments aislados de las poblaciones originales de
Alouatta, sino que es de importancia equivalent la
generaci6n de models de manejo de la tierra que detengan
el deterioro ecol6gico de los fragments de selvas que,
cada vez mis a menudo, conforman el habitat de estos pri-
mates (Estrada y Coates-Estrada 1996). Un scenario possible
podrfa ser el establecimiento de cultivos arbolados en los
bordes del fragmento con el fin de atenuar los efectos
negatives de borde sobre la vegetaci6n y los primates
(Brown 1991, Offerman et al., 1995, Estrada y Coates-
Estrada, 1996). Tal modelo involucra importantes beneficios
para la retenci6n de suelo y su fertilidad y tambi6n
econ6micos para los pobladores humans (Estrada et al.,
Se agradece el apoyo del Scott Fund for Neotropical Re-
search del Lincoln Park Zoological Society de Chicago, del
Sistema Nacional de Investigadores a travds de una beca
de Asistente de Investigador asignada por el Dr. A. Estrada
y a la Universidad Nacional Aut6noma de M6xico por
apoyos generals y logisticos.
Teresita de Jesus Ortiz Martinez, Saul Juan Solano,
Facultad de Biologfa, Universidad Veracruzana, Alejandro
Estrada y Rosamond Coates-Estrada, Estaci6n de Biologia
Tropical "Los Tuxtlas", Instituto de Biologfa, Universidad
Nacional Aut6noma de M6xico, Apartado Postal 176, San
Andr6s Tuxtla, Veracruz, Mdxico.
Bicca-Marques, J. C. y Calegaro-Marques, C. 1994. Activity
budget and diet of Alouatta caraya: an age-sex analysis.
FoliaPrimatol. 63:216-220.
Brower, E. J. y Zar, H. J. 1981. Field andLaboratory Methods
for General Ecology. W. C. Brown Company Publishers,
EUA. 194pp.
Brown, K. S., Jr. 1991. Conservation of Neotropical environ-
ments: insects as indicators. En: The Conservation of In-
sects and their Habitats, N. M. Collins y J. H. Thomas (eds.),

pp. 349-404. Academic Press, London.
Crockett, C. M. y Eisenberg J. E 1987. Howlers: Variation in
group size and demography. En: Primate Societies, B. B.
Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham y T.
T. Struhsaker (eds.), pp. 54-68. The University of Chicago
Press, Chicago.
Chivers, D. J. 1969. On the daily behaviour and spacing of
howling monkeys groups. Folia Primatol. 10: 48-102.
Estrada, A. 1984. Resource use by howler monkeys (Alouatta
palliata) in the rain forest of Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico.
Int. J. Primatol. 5:105-131.
Estrada, A. y R. Coates-Estrada. 1984. Some observations on
the present distribution and conservation of Alouatta and
Ateles in southern Mexico. Am. J. Primatol. 7:133-137.
Estrada, A. y R. Coates-Estrada. 1996. Tropical rain forest
fragmentation and wild populations of primates at Los
Tuxtlas. Int. J. Primatol. 5:759-783.
Estrada, A., R. Coates-Estrada y D. Meritt, Jr. 1997. Anthro-
pogenic landscape changes and avian diversity at Los
Tuxtlas, Mexico. Biodiv. Conserv. 6(1): 19-43.
Glander, K. E. 1979. Howling monkey feeding behavior and
plant secondary compounds: A study of strategies. En:
The Ecology of the Arboreal Folivores, G. G. Montgomery
(ed.), pp.561-574. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washing-
ton, D. C.
Juan S. 1997. Recursos Alimenticios Utilizados por Monos
Aulladores (Alouatta palliata) en un HAbitat con Alta
Perturbaci6n Antropog6nica en la Regi6n de Los Tuxtlas,
Veracruz, M6xico. Tesis Licenciatura, Facultad de Biologfa,
Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Veracruz, M6xico.
Kinzey, W. G. 1997. Alouatta. En: New World Primates: Ecol-
ogy, Evolution and Behavior, W. G. Kinzey (ed.), pp. 174-
185. Aldine, New York.
Milton, K. 1980. The Foraging Strategy of Howler Monkeys:
A Study in Primate Economics. Columbia University Press,
Milton, K., Casey, T. M. y Casey K. K. 1979. The basal me-
tabolism of mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata).
J. Mammal. 60(2): 373-376.
Offerman, H. L., Dale, V. N., Pearson, S. M., Bierregaard, R. 0.,
Jr. y O'Neill, R. V. 1995. Effects of forest fragmentation on
Neotropical fauna: current research and data availability.
Environmental Review 3:190-211.
Ortiz-Martinez. 1997. Patrones de Actividad y Dispersi6n de
Recursos Alimenticios en Monos Aulladores (Alouatta
palliata) en un HAbitat con Alta Perturbaci6n Antropog6nica
en la Regi6n de Los Tuxtlas Veracruz, M6xico. Tesis
Licenciatura. Facultad de Biologfa, Universidad Veracruzana,
Xalapa, Veracruz, M6xico.
Serio-Silva, J. C. 1992. Patr6n Diario de Actividades y HAbitos
Alimenticios de Alouatta palliata en Semilibertad. Tesis
Licenciatura. Facultad de Biologia, Universidad Veracruzana,
C6rdoba, Veracruz, M6xico.
Stoner, K. E. 1996. Habitat selection and seasonal patterns of
activity and foraging of mantled howling monkeys (Alouatta
palliata) in northeastern Costa Rica. Int. J. Primatol. 17: 1-

Neotropical Primates 7(3), September 1999

Page 83

Page 84

Stella de la Torre
Charles T Snowdon
Monserrat Bejarano
Ecotourism has been proposed as an alternative form of sus-
tainable use in protected areas (Yu-Douglas et al., 1997). How-
ever, very little has been done to determine the impact of this
activity on these habitats and on the animal populations,
especially in Neotropical rain forests. A possible effect of the
noise caused by tourism-related activities (e.g., motor en-
gines and human voices) on the vocal communication and
other behaviors of animals has been suggested by Payne
and McVay (1971) and Edington and Edington (1986). Arbo-
real primates in Neotropical rain forests, where visibility is
poor, are highly dependent on vocal communication (Marler,
1965; Seyfarth, 1987). Among these Neotropical primates,
howler monkeys are well known for their vocal behavior
(Whitehead, 1987; Neville etal., 1988). The dawn choruses of
howling involve ritualized aggression in the males' defense
of the females and infants of their groups, and are used also
as location cues among groups (Chivers, 1969; Sekulic, 1982).
To evaluate the effects of tourism-related activities on the
howling behavior of red howler monkeys, Alouatta seniculus,
we carried out morning censuses of dawn choruses at two
sites which differed in the amount of tourism and motor boats
in the Cuyabeno Reserve in northeastern Ecuador.
Study Area andMethods
The Cuyabeno Reserve is a protected area of tropical rain
forest located in northeastern Ecuador. The annual mean pre-
cipitation is about 3,000 mm and two seasons can be distin-
guished: the rainy season (March-August) with more than
250 mm of monthly rainfall, and the dry season (September-
February) with less than 250 mm of monthly rainfall (de la
Torre etal., 1995). The high faunal diversity of this area, which
includes ten primate species (de la Torre et al., 1995), has
attracted considerable tourism along the rivers of the
Cuyabeno Reserve. In 1992, there were about 10 tourist agen-
cies working in the Reserve. Today there are 20, and most of
them use motor boats in all stages of their itineraries.
Two sites were selected to carry out the study. The first was
the Laguna Grande, approximately 95 ha, in the Cuyabeno
basin, located between 0*2'N-03'S and 761 1'W-76*15'W
(Ron, 1995). In the rainy season, water levels reach 5 m in the
deepest parts; while in the dry season, water levels gradually
drop and the lake may dry out completely from December
through February. The area is consistently visited by 17 tour-
ist agencies that use motor boats on almost every trip. The
second site was the Zancudococha, black-water, lake approxi-
mately 100 km south-east of La Hormiga Island, and larger
than the Laguna Grande, covering an area of about 150 ha,

Neotropical Primates 7(3), September 1999

although both are similar in shape. The water levels in the
Zancudococha lake reach 5 m in the deepest part in the rainy
season but drop to about 4 m in the dry season (Vallejo, 1995).
This lake was visited by just one tourist agency and thus
supported much less tourism compared to the Laguna Grande.
In addition, motor boats were not permitted at Zancudococha.
Morning censuses of howling groups in the lake areas were
carried out for two consecutive days in the rainy season at
the Laguna Grande (May, 1997) and 2 consecutive days in
the rainy season at Zancudococha (July, 1997). The censuses
were carried out only in the rainy season (the season with the
highest number of tourists in both areas) to obtain data when
the highest tourism pressure occurred in an area; we also
tried to control for seasonal differences between the habitats
of the two lakes (since the Zancudocha lake does not dry
out); and, finally, it was logistically easier to go to the middle
of Laguna Grande during the rainy season than during the
dry season. Censuses were carried out only on days with no
rain and minimal wind.
All the censuses were carried out from a fixed point consid-
ered to be the center of the lake. Each census began at 0500
and lasted two hours. The direction and distance from the
center of the lake of the howling groups were recorded. The
direction of calls was recorded with a compass (accuracy 5)
and the distance was estimated, by ear, in three categories:
far, middle and close. Since the roars of a howling group can
be heard at a distance of about 2 km (pers. obs.), we consid-
ered that a group estimated to be far away was at two or more
kilometers from the lake center; a group howling at a medium
distance was at about 1 km from the lake center; and a group
close to the lake was at about 400 m in Laguna Grande, or 600
m in Zancudococha, from the lake center (equivalent to the
approximate radius of each lake). The distance estimates were
confirmed by periodical observations of some of the howler
groups in areas around both lakes at varying distances from
the shore, ranging from groups observed close to the lakeside
(0-50 m) to groups observed far away (approximately 1.5 km).
The howling monkey groups in each lake were well identified
from the first census by their direction and distance. Since all
of the groups howled more than once in each census, the
direction of each group was the average of the group direc-
tions' in a census. The distance estimates did not vary within
and between censuses for any of the groups. The average
direction and distance from the estimated center (correspond-
ing to the fixed center point in the field censuses) was plotted
on a map for all groups; once plotted, its distance to the
closest lake shore was recorded. Mann-Whitney non-para-
metric tests were used to compare the estimates of group.
distances from the shores between the two lakes.
Results and Discussion
Nine groups of howler monkeys were recorded during the
censuses at the Laguna Grande and eight groups at
Zancudococha. The estimated mean distance of the howl-
ing groups was significantly different between the two lakes
(Mann-Whitney Z = -2.08; p = 0.037); groups at Laguna
Grande howled further from the shores (mean = 839 m

Neotropical Primates 7(3), September 1999 Page 85

103), than did groups at Zancudococha (mean = 478 m +
The fact that howler monkey groups howled closer to the
shore in the lake with no motor boats suggests a possible
effect of the noise of motor boats on the calling behavior of
this species. The sound frequency of the roars of red howler
monkeys is centered on 500-700 Hz (Whitehead, 1995), and
thus greatly overlaps with the frequency of the noise of
outboard engines for which most of the sound energy is
below 1 kHz (pers. obs.). The shores of the Laguna Grande
and Zancudococha have similar forest types, with areas of
non-flooded terra fire forest and flooded forests (igap6)
(Pires and Prance, 1985; Ron, 1995; Vallejo, 1995). Although
it is not possible to entirely exclude differences in the habi-
tat quality between the two lake shores that may influence
the spatial distribution of the howler monkey groups, it
would seem likely that those at the Laguna Grande were
howling further from the shores to avoid the negative sound
interference with the motor noise, or that howler monkey
groups that were closer to the shores at the Laguna Grande
howled less, not only to avoid sound interference with
motor noise but to avoid being detected by humans. Given
the importance of howling behavior to these monkeys,
changes in the vocal behavior and/or the spatial distribu-
tion of the groups would predictably have long-term nega-
tive effects on their reproductive performance (Chivers,
1969; Sekulic, 1982; Neville et al., 1988).
These data suggest an impact of tourism-related activities
on the vocal behavior of the howler monkeys and are
complementary to data obtained on pygmy marmosets
(Cebuella pygmaea) in the Cuyabeno Reserve that also
point to a negative effect of human activities, including
tourism, on their behavior. Groups of pygmy marmosets
living in areas with intense tourism and human traffic
showed lower rates of social play and used less the lower
strata of the forests than groups of marmosets living in
areas with reduced tourism and traffic. These behavioral
changes appeared to be an effort of the marmosets to avoid
contact with humans and were possibly related to differ-
ences in the reproductive performance of the groups (de la
Torre et al., submitted). It has been assumed that primates
habituate to human presence without any special effort
(Griffith and van Schaik, 1993), but we believe our findings
challenge this assumption and that more studies monitor-
ing the effect of ecotourism and human traffic in Neotropi-
cal rain forests are required to minimize the potential envi-
ronmental damage of these human activities and to improve
the current conservation policies in protected areas.
We are greatly indebted to the following persons and insti-
tutions: Daniel Payaguaje, Lucia de la Torre, Xavier Burbano
and Stephan Amend from PROFORS (Forestry Program for
the Province of Sucumbios), Lcdo. Luis Borbor, Director of
the Cuyabeno Reserve and all the park guardians, for their
most valuable support during the field work. Anthony
Rylands, Lisa Naughton, Karen Strier, Adrian Treves,

Cristina Lazaro-Perea and Mariano Sironi provided useful
comments on the manuscript. INEFAN (Ecuadorian Insti-
tute of Forestry and Wildlife), permitted us to conduct the
research in the Cuyabeno Reserve. Most of the tourist agen-
cies that work in the Reserve helped us logistically at some
point in our study, we are especially thankful to Transturi
that greatly facilitated our work at Zancudococha. This re-
search was supported by the Grant 5806-96 from the Na-
tional Geographic Society, with additional support from the
Milwaukee Zoological Society, the Tinker-Nave Fund, the
University of Wisconsin Davis Fund and the Latin Ameri-
can Studies Program in American Universities, LASPAU.
Stella de la Torre, Department of Zoology, University of
Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA, Charles T. Snowdon,
Department of Psychology, 1202 West Johnson Street,
University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA, and
Monserrat Bejarano, Departamento de Biologfa, Pontificia
Universidad Cat61ica del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador.
Chivers, D. J. 1969. On the daily behaviour and spacing of
howling monkey groups. Folia Primatol. 10: 48-102.
de la Torre, S., Campos, F. and de Vries, T. 1995. Home range
and birth seasonality of Saguinus nigricollis graellsi in
Ecuadorian Amazonia. Am. J. Primatol. 37:39-56.
de la Torre, S. Snowdon, C. T. and Bejarano, M. Submitted.
Effects of human activities on pygmy marmosets in Ecua-
dorian Amazonia.
Edington, J. M. and Edington, M. A. 1986. Ecology, Recre-
ation and Tourism. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Griffiths, M. and van Schaik, C. P. 1993. The impact of human
traffic on the abundance and activity periods of Sumatran
rain forest wildlife. Conserve. Biol. 7:623-626.
Marler, P. 1965. Communication in monkeys and apes. In: Pri-
mate Behavior, I. de Vore (ed.). Holt, Rinehart and Winston,
New York.
Neville, M. K., Glander, K. E., Braza, F and Rylands, A. B.
1988. The howling monkeys, genus Alouatta. In: Ecology
and Behavior of Neotropical Primates, Vol. 2., R. A.
Mittermeier, A. B. Rylands, A. F Coimbra-Filho and G. A. B.
da Fonseca (eds.), pp.349-453. World Wildlife Fund. Wash-
ington, D. C.
Payne, R. S. and McVay, S. 1971. Songs of humpback whales.
Science 173:585-597.
Pires, J. M. and Prance, G. T., 1985. The vegetation types of
the Brazilian Amazon. In: Amazonia, Key Environments, G.
T. Prance and T. E. Lovejoy (eds.), pp. 109-145. Pergamon
Press, Oxford.
Ron, S. R. 1995. Estudio poblacional del caimrn negro,
Melanosuchus niger, y del caiman blanco, Caiman
crocodilus (Crocodylia: Crocodylidae) en seis lagunas de
la Amazonfa Ecuatoriana. Tesis de Licenciatura, Pontificia
Universidad Cat61ica del Ecuador, Quito.
Sekulic, R. 1982. The function of howling in red howler mon-
keys (Alouatta seniculus). Behaviour 81: 38-54.
Seyfarth, R. M. 1987. Vocal communication and its relation to.
language. In: Primate Societies, B. B. Smuts, D. L. Cheney,
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pp. 440-451. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Vallejo, A. J. 1995. Estado poblacional, utilizaci6n de tipos
vegetacionales y crecimiento de Melanosuchus niger y
Caiman crocodilus (Crocodylidae: Alligatorinae) en
Zancudococha y Cuyabeno, Amazonfa Ecuatoriana. Tesis
de Licenciatura, Pontificia Universidad Cat61ica del Ecua-
dor, Quito.
Whitehead, J. M. 1987. Vocally mediated reciprocity between
neighboring groups of mantled howling monkeys Alouatta
palliatapalliata. Anim. Behav. 35:1615-1627
Whitehead, J. M. 1995. Vox Alouattinae: A preliminary survey
of the acoustic characteristics of long-distance calls of howl-
ing monkeys. Int. J. Primatol. 16:121-144.
Yu-Douglas, W., Hendrickson, T. and Castillo, A. 1997.
Ecotourism and conservation in Amazonian Peru: Short-
term and long-term challenges. Environ. Conserv. 24:130-

Robin C. Brockett
Robert H. Horwich
Clara B. Jones
Organisms are expected to employ self-interested tactics
and strategies to maximize lifetime probabilities of survival
and reproductive success (Trivers, 1985). Behavior pro-
grams may differ significantly between the sexes, since se-
lection is thought to operate on the relative parental in-
vestment in offspring by males, on the one hand, and fe-
males, on the other (Trivers, 1972). Some researchers (e.g.,
Sugiyama, 1967; Hausfater and Hrdy, 1984) have argued
that males may gain a reproductive advantage by killing
infants likely to have been sired by non-kin ("infanticide").
This "sexual selection hypothesis" suggests that infanti-
cide shortens a female's interbirth interval through the ces-
sation of lactation and subsequent return of ovarian cy-
cling. Infanticidal males are thought to gain a reproductive
advantage by impregnating the dead infant's mother.
Dixson (1998, Table 4.4, p.68) summarizes 48 cases of infan-
ticide observed directly in 13 primate species. Paleotropical
species account for 42 of the 48 (88%) cases, and the
Hanuman langer (Presbytis entellus) accounts for 21 of
them (50%). The bias in this database favoring Old World
primates, and P. entellus in particular, may reflect sampling

error resulting from differential time-investment by research-
ers. Supporting this idea is the observation that infanticide
has been reported most commonly in terrestrial or semi-
terrestrial species for which visibility is less of a deterrent
to observation.
Infanticide has been reported for four species of Alouatta
(A. seniculus, the red howler monkey: Rudran [1979], Sekulic
[1983]; A. caraya, the black and brown howler monkey:
Zuninoetal. [1986], Rumiz [1940];A. fisca, the brown howler
monkey: Galetti et al. [1994]; and A. palliata, the mantled
howler monkey: Clarke [1981, 1983]). The first three species
exhibit polygynous mating systems (after Dixson, 1998)
while A. palliata groups vary from polygynous to multimale-
multifemale (see Crockett and Eisenberg, 1987). Clarke's
(1981, 1983) study groups exhibited multimale-multifemale
social organization, and infanticide was associated with
turnovers in the male hierarchy. Infanticide typically oc-
curs in polygynous (harem or age-graded) or multimale-
multifemale mating systems (Dixon, 1988).
We conducted ad libitum observations of marked A. pigra
at the Community Baboon Sanctuary (CBS), Belize. The
CBS is a managed reserve formed in 1985 by cooperative
agreement among private landowners (Horwich, 1990). Lo-
cated at 17033'N, 88035'W, the CBS is a mosaic of small
farms, pastures, and tropical moist forest fragments includ-
ing riparian habitat along the Belize River (see Horwich and
Lyon, 1990). The study area is composed of mapped trails,
and >1000 trees have been mapped and identified. Black
howlers are generally polygynous with a modal group size
of one adult male to several adult females and immatures
(Ostro et al., 1999), although multimale groups may be found.
Studies of demography, ecology, social organization and
behavior are in their early stages (e.g., Horwich, 1983; Sil-
ver et al., 1998; Ostro etal., 1999).
As part of a broader study, five incidents of infant disap-
pearance associated with male takeovers were observed
(Table 1). These data suggest several topics for further
research. First, similar to findings for langurs (Presbytis
spp.) (Sommer, 1994), there appears to be a male bias in the
sex of infants which disappeared. It would be interesting to
obtain larger sample sizes in order to evaluate the sex ratios
of infants killed, since an offspring's "value" will differ ac-
cording to its sex and, possibly, the condition of the mother
(see Hrdy, 1987). It is possible that infanticide generally
occurs in response to some threshold of benefits to costs
to the potential victimizer and that the "value" of the po-

Table 1. Observations of infant disappearances at the Community Baboon Sanctuary, Belize. All
observations recorded by RCB.

Dates of Takeover Troop Male(s) Displacing Mother Post-takeover
displaced male of infant copulation
2 Feb. 20 Feb. 1995 Roxie BBLT UM BWB BBLT yes
BBRT no'
27 Feb. 30 Mar. 1995 Baizar 0 BBLT ORT no2
15 Feb. Mar. 1997 Robin WLT Baizar LLT yes

'BBRT gave birth to a male offspring on 13 October 1995 and BBLT to a male offspring on 1
December 1995.
2Copulation attempt observed.

Neotropical Primates 7(3), September 1999


Neotropical Primates 7(3), September 1999

tential victim affects this tradeoff. Some infants may be of
such low "value" that they are not worth killing. Alterna-
tively, in some conditions, the costs of infanticide may be
prohibitively high. These ideas are supported by the ob-
servation that infant disappearance was not observed in
association with all male takeovers.
Second, female W died of an intestinal obstruction shortly
after the takeover. Although we cannot verify that she was
injured during aggressive encounters between displacing
and displaced males, it is important to stress that male-male
aggression has potential costs (sometimes unexpected) for
males that may outweigh the benefits in some conditions.
Third, male BBLT initiated a successful takeover of Baizar
troop after he was displaced from Roxie troop by the male
BWB. This observation reinforces the benefits of group
membership and suggests an apparent cascade effect since
we assume that BBLT would not have left his group with-
out the precipitating events of BWB's takeover.
Fourth, our observations show that a single male can take
over a multimale group (Roxie troop). Thus, arguments other
than superior fighting ability alone must be sought to ex-
plain successful takeover strategies. Takeovers should be
studied as components of male reproductive strategies,
including the role of females in determining which males
lead their groups.
Finally, all of our observations occurred in February or
March. While this result may be a function of sampling
error, systematic studies have been made on a monthly
basis at the CBS since 1992, including several thousand
contact hours. February and March are the peak of the dry
season when preferred food (new leaves, flowers, and fruit)
abundance is low and many deciduous trees lose their ma-
ture leaves (see Silver, 1998, especially Figs. 2.2 and 2.3),
possibly creating stressful conditions for these folivorous
monkeys. Food stress in combination with reduced habitat
occasioned by deforestation and resultant fragmentation
may increase population density and interaction rates, pos-
sibly resulting in increased aggressive competition among
males (see Kowalewski et al., 1995) and subsequent take-
overs. Further research will test the significance of these
Our studies suggest that infanticide may be a significant
component of a male's lifetime reproductive strategy. Dixson
(1998), however, concludes his discussion of infanticide
with the statement, "Infanticide is neither widespread nor
of general importance in the evolution of primate social or
sexual behaviour." (p.70, italics in the original). He bases
this conclusion in part upon the observation that infanti-
cide has been documented in only 12% of primate species.
However, Johnstone and Cant (1999), using an evolution-
arily stable strategy model, show that the potential for in-
fanticide alone may influence the partitioning of reproduc-
tion within groups, even in situations where individuals
cannot discriminate their own from another's offspring.
Dixson's (1998) conclusion appears premature, awaiting,
as is the fate of all speculations, confirmation or disproof

Page 87

based on future evidence.
Acknowledgements: We are grateful to Dr. K. E. Glander for
his assistance in marking the animals. The study was car-
ried out with the support of the National Geographic Soci-
ety (Grants #5352-94 and #5653-96).
Robin C. Brockett, Zoo Atlanta, Atlanta, Georgia, USA,
and Community Conservation Consultants, R.D. 1, Box 96,
Gays Mills, Wisconsin 54631, USA, Robert H. Horwich
Community Conservation Consultants, R.D. 1, Box 96, Gays
Mills, Wisconsin 54631, USA, and Clara B. Jones, Com-
munity Conservation Consultants, and Livingstone Col-
lege, Department of Psychology, 701 W. Monroe Street,
Salisbury, North Carolina 28144, USA.
Clarke,M. R. 1981. Aspects of male behavior in mantledhowlers
(Alouattapalliata Gray) in CostaRica.AmJ. Primatol. 54:209.
Clarke,M.R. 1983. Infantkldling andinfantdisappearancefollow-
ing male takeovers in a group of free-ranging howling monkeys
(Alouattapalliata) inCostaRica.Am. J. Primatol. 56:241-247.
Crockett, C. M. and Eisenberg, J. F 1987. Howlers: variations in
group size and demography. In: Primate Societies, B. B. Smuts,
D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham and T. T.
Struhsaker (eds.), pp.54-68. The University of Chicago Press,
Dixson, A. F. 1998. Primate Sexuality. Oxford University Press,
Galetti, M., Pedroni, E, and Paschoal, M. 1994. Infanticide in the
brown howler monkey, Alouattafitsca. Neotropical Priamtes
Hausfater, G. andHrdy, S. B. (eds.) 1984. Infanticide: Compara-
tive and Evolutionary Perspectives. Aldine, New York.
Horwich,R.H. 1983. Breedingbehaviors intheblackhowlermon-
key (Alouattapigra) of Belize. Primates 24:222-230.
Horwich, R.H. 1990.Howtodevelopacommunitysanctuary-an
experimental approach to the conservation of private lands.
Oryx24: 95-1025.
Horwich, R.H. andLyon, J. 1990. A Belizean Rainforest. Orang-
Utan Press, Gays Mills, WI.
Hrdy, S. B. 1974. Male-male competition and infanticide among
the langurs (Presbytis entellus) of Abu, Rajasthan. Folia
Primatol. 22:19-58.
Hrdy,S. B. 1987. Sex-biasedparental investment amongprimates
and other mammals: A critical evaluation of the Trivers-Willard
hypothesis. In: Child Abuse and Neglect: Biosocial Dimen-
sions, R.J. Gelles andJ. B. Lancaster (eds.), pp.97-147. Aldine de
Johnstone, R. A. and Cant, M.A. 1999. Reproductive skew and
indiscriminateinfanticide.Anim. Behav. 57:243-249.
Kowalewski,M., Bravo, S. P. andZunino, G. E. 1995. Aggression
between Alouatta caraya males in forest patches in northern
Argentina. NeotropicalPrimates 3:179-181.
Ostro,L.E. T., Silver, S. C., Koontz, F. W, Young,T.P.andHorwich,
R.H. 1999. Ranging behavior of translocated and established
groups of black howler monkeysAlouattapigra in Belize, Cen-
tral America. BioL Conserv. 87:181-190.
Rudran, R. 1979. The demography and social mobility of a red
howler (Alouatta seniculus) population in Venezuela. In Verte-

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brate Ecology in the Northern Neotropics,J. F. Eisenberg (ed.),
pp. 107-126. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Rumiz, D. L 1990. Alouatta caraya: Population density and de-
mography in northern Argentina. Am. J. Primatol. 2:279-294.
Sekulic,R. 1983.Malerelationshipsandinfantdeathsinredhowler
monkeys (Alouatta seniculus).Z Tierpsychol. 61:185-202.
Silver, S. C. 1998. The feeding ecology of translocated howler
monkeys,Alouattapigra, inBelize. PhD. dissertation, Fordham
University,New York.
R. 1998. The feeding ecology of the black howler monkey
(Alouattapigra) in Northern Belize. Am. J. Primatol 45: 263-
Sommer,V. 1994. Infanticide amongthelangurs ofJodhpur Test-
ing the sexual selection hypothesis with along-termrecord. In:
Infanticide and Parental Care, S. Panmigiani andE S. von Saal
(eds.), pp. 137-154. HarwoodAcademic Publishers, Langehome,
Sugiyama, Y. 1967. Social organization of Hanuman langurs. In:
Social CommunicationAmong Primates. S. A. Altmann (ed.),
pp.221-236. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Trivers, R. L. 1972. Parental investment and sexual selection. In:
Sexual Selection and the Descent of Man 1871-1971, B.
Campbell (ed.), pp. 136-179. Aldine, Chicago.
Trivers, R. L. 1985. Social Evolution Benjamin/Cummings Pub-
lishing Co., Inc., Menlo Park, CA.
Zunino,G.E.,Chalukian,S. C., andRumiz, D. 1986. Infanticfdio e
desaparici6n de infants asociados al reemplazo de machos en
grupos de Alouatta caraya. In: A Primatologia no Brasil 2,
M. T. de Mello (ed.), pp.185-190. Sociedade Brasileira de
Primatologia, Braslia.

A new species of titi monkey, Callicebus, has been de-
scribed from the Atlantic forest along the coast of the state
of Sergipe, northeastern Brazil, by Shuji Kobayashi (Chukyo
Women's University, Japan) and Alfredo Langguth (Fed-
eral University of Paraiba, Brazil). The species has been
named Callicebus coimbrai, in honor of Adelmar F. Coimbra-
Filho, founder and ex-Director of the Rio de Janeiro Primate
Center (CPRJ/FEEMA), in recognition of his research and
valuable contributions to the biology and conservation of
Brazilian primates.
The holotype (an adult female, UFPB 1599, in the mammal
collection of the Departamento de Sistemitica e Ecologia,
Universidade Federal da Parafba) was collected by the au-
thors on 30 January 1994. Two specimens had been shot by
a local hunter. The type locality is given as "Proximity of
the small village Aragdo, in the region of Santana dos Frades
about 11.0 km SW of Pacatuba, state of Sergipe, Brazil (GPS
1032'S, 3641'W, alt. 90 m)". The locality is south of the
Rio Sao Francisco. The species has been recorded from

between the Rio Sao Francisco and the Rio Real, which
marks the southern border of Sergipe. Although believed
to be restricted to the south of the Rio Slo Francisco, the
southern limits to its range have not been established. Titi
monkeys have been reported from the south of the Rio
Real. Oliver and Santos (1991), for example, obtained re-
ports of titi monkeys from the vicinities of Cachoeira do
Abadia and Jandaira, in the north-east of the state of Bahia,
which may have been C. coimbrai. The western limits to its
range are also unknown, but C. coimbrai is believed to be
restricted to the humid coastal Atlantic forest, and titis in-
land, in drier, more seasonal formations probably belong to
the form barbarabrownae Hershkovitz 1990 (see Marinho-
Filho and Verissimo, 1997). Further surveys are urgently
needed to establish the limits of the range of this titi, which
was listed as "Critically Endangered" by Rylands et al. (1995,
1997) even before its description, due to its minute distri-
bution and the widespread destruction of the forests of the
C. coimbrai is distinguished from other Atlantic forest titi
monkeys by its black forehead, crown and ears, and the
buffy trunk. It has pale fur along its sidewhiskers and cheeks,
and along the back of the head and nape. The hands and
feet are blackish, its tail is orange, and there is a zebra-like
striped pattern on the anterior half of the back. Kobayashi
and Langguth (1999) also describe distinct features of its
dental morphology and craniometry.
On the basis of their study of this new species, along with
previous craniometric studies by Kobayashi (1995),
Kobayashi and Langguth (1999) argue that the titis of the
Atlantic forest should be considered species rather than
subspecies of C. personatus. They list C. nigrifrons, C.
personatus, C. melanochir, and C. barbarabrownae be-
sides C. coimbrai. Accepting this classification, the Atlan-
tic forest has 21 species of primates, 16 (76%) of which are
endemic, and 16 considered threatened according to the
1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals (IUCN, 1996).
Shuji Kobayashi, Department of Asian Studies, Chukyo
Women's University, Nadakayama 55, Yokone-cho, Aichi
474-0011, Japan, and Alfredo Langguth, Departamento de
Sistemitica e Ecologia, Universidade Federal da Parafba,
58059-900 Joao Pessoa, Paralba, Brazil.
Hershkovitz, P. 1990. Titis, New World monkeys of the genus
Callicebus (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): a preliminary taxonomic
review. Fieldiana, Zoology, New Series (55): 1-109.
IUCN. 1996. 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals.
The World Conservation Union (IUCN), Gland, World Con-
servation Monitoring Center (WCMC), Cambridge.
Kobayashi, S. 1995. A phylogenetic study of titi monkeys,
genus Callicebus, based on cranial measurements: I. Phyl-
etic groups of Callicebus. Primates 36(1): 101-120.
Kobayashi, S. and Langguth, A. 1999. A new species of titi
monkey, Callicebus Thomas, from north-eastern Brazil (Pri-
mates, Cebidae). Rev. Bras. Zool. 16(2): 531-551.
Marinho-Filho, J. and Verfssimo, E. W. 1997. The rediscovery

Neotropical Primates 7(3), September 1999

Page 88

Neotropical Primates 7(3), September 1999 Page 89

of Callicebus personatus barbarabrownae in northeast-
ern Brazil with a new western limit for its distribution. Pri-
mates 38(4): 429-433.
Oliver, W. L. R. and Santos, I. B. 1991. Threatened endemic
mammals of the Atlantic forest region of south-east Brazil.
Wildlife Preservation Trust, Special Scientific Report 4,
Rylands, A. B., Mittermeier, R. A. and Rodriguez-Luna, E.
1995. A species list for the New World primates (Platyrrhini):
distribution by country, endemism, and conservation sta-
tus according to the Mace-Lande system. Neotropical Pri-
mates 3(suppl.): 113-160.
Rylands, A. B., Mittermeier, R. A. and Rodrfguez-Luna, E.
1997. Conservation of Neotropical primates: threatened
species and an analysis of primate diversity by country
andregion. FoliaPrimatol. 68(3-5): 134-160.

The correct scientific name for the weeper capuchin has
been, and still is, the cause for some discussion. Two names
in current use are nigrivittatus Wagner, 1848 (adopted by
Cruz Lima, 1945; Hershkovitz, 1949; Cabrera, 1957) and
olivaceus Schomburgk 1848 (adopted by Tate, 1939, and
Husson, 1957, 1978). A third name, griseus F. Cuvier 1819,
was used by Hill (1960).
Hill (1960) argued that the first name properly given to this
capuchin monkey is Cebus griseus F. Cuvier 1819, based
on a colour plate drawn from a live animal. In a footnote,
Hill (1960, p.429) explained that different copies of Cuvier's
plate vary in the depth of the colour of the upper parts of
the monkey, and that this may have caused the doubts
expressed by Hershkovitz (1949) who said that although
the head clearly depicts the distinctive wedge-shaped black
patch on the crown, the remainder of the body resembles
Cebus albifrons, the confusion as such making the iden-
tity of the animal uncertain and the name invalid. Hill (1960)
insisted that the copy of the plate in his possession de-
picted the animal which Hershkovitz refers to as
nigrivittatus. There is no preserved type specimen for C.
griseus, and the type locality was restricted by Hill to
French Guiana (1958a in Hill 1960).
Hershkovitz (1949) opted for the name of Cebus nigrivittatus
Wagner, 1848, although recognizing that Schomburgk had
described the same animal as C. olivaceus in the same year,
and that nigrivittatus may be a junior synonym if it can be
proved that olivaceus predates it. Husson (1957, 1978) ar-
gued, however, for the name of Cebus olivaceus
Schomburgk 1848, on the basis that the use of the name
nigrivittatus is not valid according to the International
Rules of Zoological Nomenclature. The problem arises from
a taxonomic confusion caused by Von Pusch (1941) who
combined the genera Saimiri (the squirrel monkeys) and
Cebus, resulting in two species having the same name of
nigrivittatus, Chrysothrix nigrivittatus Wagner 1846 (now

considered junior synonym of Saimiri sciureus) and Cebus
nigrivittatus Wagner 1848. Regarding both as belonging
to the same genus, Von Pusch (1941), correctly under the
circumstances, rejected the name Cebus nigrivittatus be-
cause it was predated by Chrysothrix nigrivittatus, the
former then being considered a junior secondary homonym.
Von Pusch (1941) renamed the capuchin Cebus capucinus
leporinus. Although now in separate genera, Husson (1957),
citing Follett (1955), argued that the International Rules of
Zoological Nomenclature do not permit the revalidation of
the name, having been, as it was, invalidated before 1951.
The International Rules published in 1985 state "A junior
secondary homonym replaced before 1961 is permanently
invalid" (Article 59b). Hershkovitz (1955), on the other hand,
merely referred to Cebus capucinus leporinus Von Pusch
as a junior synonym of nigrivittatus, and argued that the
ephemeral, and now discarded, homonymy between the
squirrel monkey and the capuchin was unworthy of con-
sideration (Hershkovitz, 1958).
In summary, therefore, C. griseus is the earliest name, the
validity of which depends on the interpretation of a colour
plate, while C. nigrivittatus and C. olivaceus were names
published by separate authors in the same year, with con-
troversy concerning the fact that the former, even if it was
published earlier, was invalidated by Von Pusch (1941), and
such an invalidation is deemed permanent according to the
International Rules of Zoological Nomenclature (1985).
Husson (1957, 1978), Eisenberg (1989), Groves (1993) and
Emmons and Feer (1997), and a number of recent authors
who have studied this animal in the wild (for example,
Fragaszy, 1986; Robinson, 1986, 1988; Miller, 1996, 1998)
refer to the Guiana wedge-capped capuchin as Cebus
olivaceus. A recent study of the chromosomes of a Ven-
ezuelan form of this species refers to it as C. nigrivittatus
(see Martinez et al., 1999). It would seem likely, however,
that the correct name may be C. griseus! Under any circum-
stances, a modern taxonomic revision is urgently needed
for this species (Bodini, 1989). Hershkovitz (1949) and Hill
(1960) are still the best sources of reference for the subspe-
cific variation. Hershkovitz (1949) listed five subspecies
which he conditionally regarded as valid: nigrivittatus
Wagner 1848, from the upper Rio Branco, Brazil (given as a
junior synonym of Cebus apella by Elliot [1913], and as a
junior synonym of C. griseus leporinus Von Pusch, 1941
by Hill [1960]); olivaceus Schomburgk, 1848, from the south-
ern foot of Monte Roraima, Brazil (given as a junior syn-
onym of Cebus apella by Elliot [1913], and as a junior syn-
onym of C. griseus griseus by Hill [1960]); castaneus I.
Geoffroy, 1851 described from Cayenne, French Guiana
(listed as a full species by Elliot [1913]; listed by Hill [1960],
but considered of doubtful validity); apiculatus Elliot, 1907
(listed as a subspecies of Cebus apella by Tate [1939], and
listed as a junior synonym of C. griseus griseus by Hill
[1960]), from La Uni6n, Rio Cuara, Venezuela; and brunneus
Allen 1914 from northern Venezuela (listed by Hill [1960],
but also considered of doubtful validity). Hershkovitz (1949)
gave the type localities for each of the forms, but unfortu-

Neotropical Primates 7(3), September 1999

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Page 90 Neotropical Primates 7(3), September 1999

nately not the distributional limits. A sixth, undescribed
form was mentioned by Bodini and P6rez-Hemrnndez (1987)
from central Venezuela, north of the Rio Orinoco, and a
seventh weeper capuchin, described as a species but prob-
ably only subspecifically different (Harada and Ferrari,
1996), was described from the eastern Amazon in the state
of Maranhdo and eastern part of the state of Pard in 1992:
C. kaapori Queiroz, 1992. The distribution of this form is
now quite well known, occurring east of the lower Rio
Tocantins to the right bank of the Rio Pindar6 and the lower
Rio Mearim (Queiroz, 1992; Ferrari and Lopes, 1996; Silva
Jr. and Cerqueira, 1998; Oliveira et al., 1999).
Anthony B. Rylands, Conservation International do Brasil,
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Minas Gerais, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Bra-
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Mus. Nat. Hist. 33:647-655.
Bodini, R. 1989. Distribuci6n geogrdfica y conservaci6n de
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en Latinoamirica, C. J. Saavedra, R. A. Mittermeier and I.
B. Santos (eds.), pp.101-113. World Wildlife Fund U.S.,
Washington, D. C.
Bodini, R. and P6rez-Hern~dez, R. 1987. Distribution of the
species and subspecies of cebids in Venezuela. Fieldiana,
Zool., New Series (39): 231-244.
Cabrera, A. 1957. Catlogo de los mamfferos de Am6rica del
Sur. Rev. Mus. Argentino de Cienc. Nat. "Bernardino
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Carvalho Jr., 0. de, Pinto, A. C. B. and Galetti, M. 1999. New
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Von Pusch, B. 1941. Die Arten der Gattung Cebus. Zeit.
Sidugetierkunde 16:183-237.
Wagner, J. A. 1848. Beitriage zur kenntniss der Siugethiere
Amerikas. Vierte Ordnung Affen. Abh. math-phys. Classe
bayer Akad. Wiss., Munich, 5:405-480.

Christoph Knogge defended his doctoral dissertation "Ani-
mal-plant interactions in the Amazonian rain forest: Seed
dispersal by two sympatric tamarin species Saguinus
mystax and Saguinusfuscicollis (Callitrichidae, Primates)"
at the University of Bielefeld, Germany, in December 1998.
The study was supervised by Eckhard W. Heymann
(Deutsches Primatenzentrum, GSttingen) and Roland
Sossinka (University of Bielefeld), and financed by the
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft DFG (German Science
Foundation). Copies of the published thesis (ISBN 3-
930962-90-X) can be obtained from: Schilling Verlag,
Falkenhorst 4, 48155 Miinster, Germany, Tel. +49 251 3115
23, Fax: +49 2513115 24, e-mail: .
Web site: http://www.ms.tlk.com/zoo_buch. The following
is a summary of the research.
The aim of the study was to analyse the role of moustached
tamarins (Saguinus mystax) and saddleback tamarins
(Saguinus fuscicollis) as seed dispersers. Faecal samples
were collected and data obtained on the feeding ecology of
a mixed-species group of moustached and saddleback tama-
rins during a 15-month field study. On the basis of this
data, and the results of germination experiments with def-
ecated and control seeds, the potential of the two tamarin
species as effective seed dispersers was characterized ac-
cording to their roles as fruit consumers, seed processors
and seed vectors. The data on their feeding ecology and
the analyses of their faecal samples showed that, accord-
ing to the number of dispersed seeds and their species
diversity, both tamarin species provide a reliable potential

in their function as fruit consumers and seed dispersal
agents. Approximately 95% of all faecal samples contained
seeds of 88 species from a total of 155 fruit species eaten.
The lengths of ingested and defecated seeds were found
to vary from 0.6 mm to 2.6 cm. Predominant in the diet of
both tamarin species (accounting for c.25% of all feeding
events) were the seed-pod exudate of Parkia velutina
(Leguminosae) and the fruits of Anomospermum
grandifolium (Menispermaceae). Seeds of these species
were those dispersed most (c.30% of all dispersal events).
The seed rain generated by the mixed-species tamarin group
over their home range was calculated to amount to 39.088
dispersed seeds/ha/year. The intensity of the inter- and
intra-specific competition of seeds or their future seedlings
was described on the basis of the number and species com-
position of seeds in the faecal samples. The two tamarin
species are evidently potentially effective as seed dispers-
ers, with an average of 1.4 seeds of 1.2 species per faecal
sample. Their role as seed processors was examined by an
analysis of gut passage times and the influence of gut pas-
sage on the germination of the seeds. The germination ex-
periments showed that, for the vast majority of the plant
species tested, neither germination rate nor germination
latency were modified by passage through the gut. Gut
passage times were determined for each seed species, tak-
ing into account the consistency of the surrounding pulp
(gelatinous, fibrous or mealy). Seeds with a gelatinous pulp
showed shorter passage times. Gut passage time for seeds
ingested and defecated on the same day varied from 20
minutes to 8.6 hours. The tamarins dispersed these seeds
to distances of up to 709 m, and fulfil as such the require-
ments for the "escape" and colonisationn" hypothesis. For
the majority of seeds, mean distances of 185 m guarantee a
dispersal that extends beyond areas of increased mortality
within the immediate vicinity of the parent plants. The dis-
tribution pattern of the dispersed seeds was characterized
by higher densities of faecal samples within quadrats that
were used frequently as sleeping sites and within those
that included a large number of trees where they rested
during the day. Because the tamarins used sleeping trees
which were typically relatively isolated, and especially be-
cause of their choice of sunny places for resting, the tama-
rins may be contributing particularly in the deposition of
seeds in optimal microhabitats for seedling establishment,
and as such may have a crucial effect on the regeneration
dynamics of treefall gaps and areas with vegetation in early
stages of succession. An example of directed dispersal was
documented with seeds from a hemiepiphytic plant
(Asplundia peruviana) being deposited onto the bark of
trunks, necessary for the establishment of the seedlings.
The tamarin species were compared in order to document
possible consequences of niche separation in their role as
seed dispersers. A 68% overlap was found for the seed
species being dispersed by the two tamnarins. Divergence
in the species eaten and dispersed was attributed to differ-
ences in the intensity of use of the forest strata. The bio-
logical relevance of the slight differences observed in the
differing germination behaviour of the dispersed seeds and

Neotropical Primates 7(3), September 1999

Page 91

Page 92 Neotropical Primates 7(3), September 1999

in dispersal distances can only be examined with detailed
studies of the demography of the plant -species involved.
A model was developed which included such variables as
predation risk, profitability, food choice, and the amount of
seeds ingested, to clarify possible mechanisms underlying
the efficacy of tamarins as seed dispersers.
Interacci6nes entire plants y animals en la selva de la
Amazonia: Dispersi6n de semillas por dos species de
tamarines sympatricos Saguinus mystax y Saguinus
fuscicollis (Callitrichidae, Primates)
El present studio tuvo como finalidad el andlisis de la
funci6n de los pichicos de barba blanca (Saguinus mystax)
y los pichicos comunes (Saguinus fuscicollis) como
dispersores de semillas. Para ello fueron tornados datos
sobre la ecologfa alimenticia de una asociaci6n
interespecifica entire los pichicos de barba blanca y los
pichicos comunes en un studio de 15 meses en el noreste
del Pert, asi como tambi6n fueron continuamente
recolectadas muestras de heces. Sobre la base de estos
datos y de los resultados de los experiments comparativos
de la germinaci6n de semillas defecadas y controls fue
caracterizado el potential de las dos species de tamarines
como dispersores efectivos de semillas en los tres niveles
de su funci6n como frugivoros, procesadores de semillas y
vectores de semillas. Los datos de la ecologfa alimenticia y
los andlisis de las muestras de heces mostraron que en
relaci6n a la cantidad de las semillas dispersadas y a la
diversidad de species, ambas species de tamarines
representan un potential confiable en su funci6n como
frugfvoros y como vectores de semillas. Cerca del 95% de
todas las muestras de heces contenian semillas de 88
species de semillas de las en total 155 species frutales
consumidas. La media longitudinal de las species de
semillas ingeridas estaba en el ambito de entire 0,6 mm a 2,6
cm. Especialmente destaca el gran significado de los
exudados de las vainas de Parkia velutina y de las frutas
de la liana Anomospermum grandifolium en la alimentaci6n
de ambas species de tamarines (en total casi el 25% de
todos los casos en los que fue ingerido alimento), asi como
tambi6n como species de semillas mayormente dispersadas
(en total cerca del 30% de todos los actos de dispersi6n).
Para el Area de recorrido de la asociaci6n entire las dos
species de tamarines fue calculada una lluvia de semillas
de 39,088 semillas dispersadas por hectArea y por afio en
total. La proporci6n de la competencia interespecifica e
intraespecifica entire las semillas conjuntamente defecadas
y las potenciales plants de semilleros fue descrita sobre la
cantidad y la composici6n de las species de semillas en
las muestras de heces. Las dos species de tamarines son
evidentemente efectivas como dispersores de semillas bajo
este aspect con 1,4 semillas de 1,2 species por defecaci6n.
A travds del andlisis del tiempo del pasaje intestinal y de
las posibles influencias de este en el comportamiento de la
germinaci6n de las semillas defecadas se caracteriz6 a los
tamarines en su funci6n como procesores de semillas. En
experiments comparativos de germinaci6n con semillas
sin pasaje intestinal se mostr6 que para la gran mayorfa de

las species de semillas dispersadas el pasaje intestinal no
tiene efectos negatives ni para el 6xito del porcentaje de
germinaci6n ni para la latencia de la germinaci6n. Los
tiempos tipicos del pasaje intestinal de las species de
semillas fueron determinados, entire otros factors, por la
consistencia de la pulpa que las recubria, y fluctuaban en-
tre 20 minutes y 8,6 horas en las semillas ingeridas y
defecadas el mismo dfa. Los tamarines pueden ser
caracterizados como vectores confiables, ya que satisfacen
de acuerdo alas distancias de dispersi6n (hasta 709 metros)
las hip6tesis de "Escape" y "Colonizaci6n" correspon-
dientementes a las relevantes funciones para el 6xito de la
dispersi6n de semillas. Con una distancia de dispersi6n de
185 m en promedio ellos garantizan la mayor cantidad de
semillas en una dispersi6n mis alld de zonas de alta
mortalidad en la cercanfa inmediata del Arbol de origen. El
modelo de propagaci6n de las semillas dispersadas por
ambas species de tamarines se mostr6 a trav6s de alta
densidad de las muestras de heces en los cuadrantes a los
que recurrian frecuentemente para dormir y en los
cuadrantes con gran cantidad de arboles para descansar.
Con la utilizaci6n de mis bien arboles aislados como lugar
para dormir, pero en especial la elecci6n predilecta de lugares
soleados para fases de descanso, los tamarines pueden
contribuir en alto grado, a que las semillas tengan 6xito en
optimales microhabitats en el establecimiento de
germinadores y con ello rindan una contribuci6n decisive
para la dinimica de regeneraci6n de claros y zonas
sucesionales. En este context se puede documentary
tambi6n un ejemplo para una dispersi6n de semillas dirigida
de una plant hemiepiphytica (Asplundia peruviana) en
las necesarias estructuras de las cortezas de otros troncos
de arboles para el establecimiento de los germenes. Los
resultados fueron expuestos diferenciadamente para ambas
species de tamarines, para poder documentary las posibles
consecuencias de la diferenciaci6n de sus nichos
ecologicos para el rol como dispersores de semillas. S61o
en los espectros de las species de semillas dispersadas,
que concidian en el 68%, se mostraron diferencias entire las
species de tamarines. Las diferencias tanto en el espectro
de las species consumidas como las dispersadas fueron
atribuidas a las diferentes intensidades de utilizaci6n de
distintas estratas de altura de la selva. Las insignificantes
diferencias que se dieron en el comportamiento de los
g6rmenes de las semillas dispersadas o en las distancias de
dispersi6n, s6lo pueden ser discutidas a un nivel de
species de semillas y sobre la base de studios mAs
detallados sobre su relevancia biol6gica. Finalmente a partir
de los resultados de fondo se desarrollarA un modelo que
incluya las variables como riesgo de depredaci6n,
profitabilidad, elecci6n de alimento y la cantidad de semillas
ingeridas para aclarar los posibles mecanismos y las
condiciones de marco que subyacen a la eficacia de los
tamarines como dispersores de semillas.
Christoph Knogge, Department of Ethology and Ecology,
Deutsches Primatenzentrum, Kellnerweg 4, D-37077
G6ttinge, Germany. E-mail: .

Page 92

Neotropical Primates 7(3), September 1999

Neotropical Primates 7(3), September 1999 Page 93

Knogge, C. 1998. Tier-Pflanze Interaktionen im Amazonas-
Regenwald: Samenausbreitung durch die sympatrischen
Tamarinarten Saguinus mystax und Saguinus fuscicollis
(Callitrichidae, Primates). Doctoral dissertation, University
ofBielefeld, Bielefeld, Germany.

Robert Benedict Wallace defended his PhD thesis on the
behavioral ecology of the black spider monkey, Ateles
chamek, in December 1998. His supervisor was Professor
Robin Dunbar, Behavioural Ecology and Evolutionary Psy-
chology Group, Department of Biological Sciences, Uni-
versity of Liverpool, UK. The field research was supported
by the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), New York,
through a grant from the Bolivian Sustainable Forestry
Project (BOLFOR) financed by USAID and the Bolivian
Government. The following is an abstract of his thesis.
This study investigates the behavioral ecology of the black
spider monkey, Ateles chamek, at a pristine research site
within Noel KempffMercado National Park, north-eastern
Department Santa Cruz, Bolivia. This location is close to the
southern distributional limits of the genus, and represents
an ecotonal position in Neotropical biogeography. It is also
characterized by marked seasonality, especially in terms of
precipitation. Spider monkeys live in fission-fusion societ-
ies; a 'community' of animals splitting into subgroups of
varying size and membership depending on local ecologi-
cal conditions.
A detailed vegetational analysis revealed the presence of
five structurally and floristically distinct habitats within the
500 ha study plot at 'Lago Caiman': tall forest, Sartenejal
(swamp) forest, low vine forest, piedmont (hillside) forest,
and Cerrado (scrub) forest. These habitats were found on
an altitudinal strip running from the Huanchaca escarp-
ment, the dominant geographical feature of the region.
Monthly phenological sampling of 1732 plants within ran-
domly distributed 0.1 ha plots revealed that these habitats
were also distinct in terms of flowering and fruiting pat-
terns. Habitats peaked in abundance of ripe fruit at differ-
ing times of the year, with fruit resources only scarce across
the entire study plot during the mid dry season.
Spider monkeys were highly frugivorous concentrating
foraging efforts on ripe fleshy fruit resources, all of which
were patchily distributed across the community home range.
During periods of fruit scarcity the focal community
switched to a more folivorous diet and adjusted their activ-
ity budget accordingly. Variation in spider monkey sub-
group size was also related to fruit resource abundance.
Larger subgroups tended to forage in larger fruit resource
patches, but sociality was constrained if resources were
generally scarce. Furthermore, spider monkey ranging
behaviour was influenced by patterns of resource avail-
ability. The focal community home range was a linear strip

covering 2.34 km2 and included all of the local habitats.
Seasonal variations in habitat use were linked to relative
differences in fruit resource abundance, and range use con-
centrated around local abundances of fleshy fruit re-
The study demonstrated that the unusually large number
of adult males present within the focal community is a re-
sponse to the elongated shape of the home range and the
resulting extensive boundary. Spider monkeys are territo-
rial, and philopatric males co-operate to defend several fe-
males whose spatial distribution varies according to re-
source availability. The studies findings were also inter-
preted in terms of male mating strategies. Finally, the con-
servation implications of the findings were discussed with
particular reference to selective logging. Keystone fruit re-
sources and local habitat diversity were critical to the long-
term future of frugivores in this region and should be con-
sidered in sustainable forestry management plans.
La Ecologia del Comportamiento del Mono Arafia Negro
en el noreste de Bolivia
Este studio investiga la ecologfa del comportamiento del
mono arafia, Ateles chamek, en un bosque intacto dentro
del Parque Nacional Noel Kempff Mercado, en el Noreste
del Departamento de Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Esta localidad se
encuentra cerca al limited sur de la distribuci6n de este
genero de primate, y represent una posici6n ecotonal en
la biogeograffa Neotropical. Una marcada estacionalidad,
especialmente del punto de vista de la precipitaci6n, tambi6n
caracteriza a esta zona. Los monos arafia negros viven en
sociedades de fisi6n-fusi6n, en las cuales una "comunidad",
dependiendo de las condiciones ecol6gicas locales, puede
dividirse en subgrupos de diferentes tamafios y membresia.
Un anglisis de vegetaci6n, dentro del Area de studio de
500 ha, demostr6 la presencia de cinco hAbitats
estructuralmente y floristicamente distintos: bosque alto,
sartenejal, bosque bajo de lianas, bosque de piedmont, y
cerrado. Estos habitats se encontraron en una franja altitu-
dinal bajando desde la Serranfa de Huanchaca, la
caracteristica geografica mas important de la region.
Adicionalmente, un muestreo fenol6gico mensual de 1732
arboles, dentro de parcelas de 0.1 ha puestas al azar,
demostr6 que estos habitats tambi6n eran diferentes en
t6rminos de patrons de producci6n de flores y frutos. Los
distintos habitats mostraron picos de abundancia de frutos
maduros en diferentes 6pocas del afio. Debido a esto solo
hubo una escasez de frutos que afectara a todo el sitio de
studio durante plena 6poca seca.
Los monos arafias negros estudiados fueron altamente
frugfvoros, concentrando sus esfuerzos de forrajeo sobre
frutos carnosos maduros. Estos recursos estuvieron
distribuidos en forma de parches a trav6s de toda la
extension del rango de la comunidad. Durante 6pocas de
escasez de frutos la comunidad focal se volc6 hacia una
dieta mas folivora y consecuentemente ajust6 su
presupuesto de actividades a este cambio diet6tico. La
variaci6n en el tamafio de grupos de monos arafia negros

Neotropical Primates 7(3), September 1999

Page 93

Neotropical Primates 7(3), September 1999

tambi6n estuvo relacionada con la abundancia de frutos.
Los subgrupos mas grandes prefirieron manchas grandes
de frutos y la escasez de alimento actu6 en contra de la
sociabilidad. Ademis, los patrons de movimiento de los
monos arafia fueron influenciados por los patrons de
distribuci6n de recursos. El area de acci6n de la comunidad
focal fue una franja linear de 2.34 km2y cubri6 todos los
diferentes habitats. Las variaciones estacionales en uso de
habitat estuvieron relacionadas con las diferencias
estacionales relatives en abundancia de frutos, y los
patrons de movimiento se concentraron alrededor de frutos
carnosos maduros localmente abundantes.
Este studio demuestra que el alto numero de machos
adults presents dentro de la comunidad focal es una
respuesta a la forma alargada del area de acci6n y de su
extensa circunferencia. Los monos arafias negros son
territoriales y los machos filopatricos cooperan en la defense
de varias hembras, cuyos patrons de distribuci6n varfan
de acuerdo a la disponibilidad de recursos. Los resultados
de este studio fueron interpretados en t6rminos de las
estrategias de apareamiento de los machos. Finalmente, las
implicaciones para la conservaci6n de estos resultados se
discuten, con particular 6nfasis sobre la tala selective. Los
frutos identificados como "recursos clave" y la diversidad
de habitat local son critics a la sobrevivencia a largo plazo
de los frugivoros en esta region y deberfan ser considerados
en planes de manejo para el aprovechamiento forestal
Robert B. Wallace, Associate Conservation Zoologist,
Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) Madidi, Casilla 3-
35181, San Miguel, La Paz, Bolivia. E-mail:
Wallace, R. B. 1998. The Behavioural Ecology of Black Spider
Monkeys in North-eastern Bolivia. Ph.D. thesis, University
of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.

H Conservation International, Washington,
D.C., launched the Rapid Assessment Pro-
gram (RAP) in 1990 as a means of generat-
CONSERVATION ing biological information based on field
INTERNATIONAL inventories of areas generally not, or at best
very poorly, surveyed; vital to catalyze conservation ac-
tion. Small RAP teams of leading tropical field biologists,
including host country scientists, conduct first-cut assess-
ments of the biological value of selected areas in a short
time-period. They provide conservation recommendations
to local government agencies, international policy makers,
conservationists, and scientists, based on the area's bio-
logical diversity, degree of endemism, ecosystem unique-
ness, and the risk of extinction on a national and global
scale. RAP methodology is not a substitute for more in-
depth inventory or monitoring but is designed to provide

critical scientific information quickly. RAP methodologies pro-
vide a model tool in setting priorities for conservation activ-
ity worldwide and help provide countries with the informa-
tion and technical assistance needed for the development of
national biodiversity strategies. Results from RAP surveys
are made available on the World Wide Web, and a final report
is published within one year of the expedition.
The Rapid Assessment Program includes three compo-
nents. Terrestrial RAPs assess the biological diversity of
poorly known terrestrial tropical ecosystems that are at risk.
RAP scientists gather information on vegetation structure,
birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, and insects.
AquaRAPs provide a first-cut assessment of the biological
value of freshwater ecosystems in order to identify priori-
ties and opportunities for conservation. They are carried
out by expert teams of scientists who survey fishes, plants,
invertebrates, and water quality. Marine RAPs generate and
disseminate information on coastal and near-shore, shal-
low-water, marine biodiversity (mainly coral reefs) for con-
servation purposes. Marine RAP scientists survey marine
fishes, corals, and molluscs.
Terrestrial Rapid Assessment Program Overview
The Terrestrial Rapid Assessment Program (RAP) was cre-
ated in 1990 in response to the increasing loss of biodiversity
in tropical ecosystems. The RAP assembles teams of ex-
pert scientists, whose combined knowledge of tropical
biodiversity allows them to quickly assess the uniqueness
and conservation value of an area and to make recommen-
dations about its management. Major funding for the RAP
has been provided by a USAID Cooperative Agreement,
The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, and
the W. Alton Jones Foundation.
RAP teams consist of experienced, internationally recog-
nized field biologists specializing in plants, birds, mammals,
reptiles, amphibians, and insects. RAP team members work
closely with host country scientists, exchanging informa-
tion and methodologies, and training young scientists.
Currently there are scientific teams for the South American,
Asia-Pacific, and African regions. An integrated approach
is used that pulls together information on a variety of taxa
to obtain a portrait of the habitat under study. The RAP
methodology is not a substitute for more detailed, long-
term inventories or monitoring but is designed to provide
critical scientific information quickly. Information collected
during three to four week RAP expeditions includes data
on species diversity, degree of species endemism, special
habitat types, threatened species, degree of habitat degra-
dation, and the presence of introduced species.
The RAP works closely with Conservation International's
regional and in-country programs to identify areas for which
biodiversity information is needed to set conservation pri-
orities or guide management strategies. Immediately after a
survey, RAP scientists provide preliminary conservation
recommendations to local governmental agencies, environ-
mental groups, and other stakeholders, based on their ob-
servations. A final report is published in the RAP Working

Page 94

Neotropical Primates 7(3), September 1999 Pa2e 95

Papers series within a year after the expedition. RAP sur-
veys have uncovered a multitude of new plant and animal
species and have already contributed to the creation of
national parks in Bolivia and Peru.
Expeditions of the Rapid Assessment Program (RAP)
Terrestrial RAPs: South America Alto Madidi Region,
Bolivia (1990 and 1997); Eastern Dry Forests, Bolivia (1990,
1992); Pando Region, Bolivia (1991); Tucavaca Valley, Bo-
livia (1994); South-Central Chuquisaca, Bolivia (1995);
Parque Nacional Noel Kempff Mercado, Bolivia (1995);
Cordillera de la Costa, Ecuador (1991); Cordillera del Con-
dor, Ecuador and Peru (1993); Tambopata-Candamo Reserve
Zone, Peru (1992); Pampas del Heath, Peru (1996);
Vilcabamba Mountains, Peru (1997 and 1998) and Kanuku
Mountain Region, Guyana (1993); Central America Co-
lumbia River Forest Reserve, Belize (1992); Asia-Pacific -
New Ireland, Papua New Guinea (1994); Lakekamu Basin,
Papua New Guinea (1996); Irian Jaya, Indonesia (1998);Af-
rica and Madagascar Ankarafantsika, Madagascar (1997);
Zahamena Mantady Corridor, Madagascar (1998);
Marahoue National Park, Cote d'Ivoire (1998). AquaRAPs:
South America Tahuamanu and Manuripi Rivers, Bolivia
(1996); Paraguay River, Paraguay (1977); Rio Negro and
headwaters, Pantanal, Brazil (1998). Marine RAPs : Rennell
Island/Indispensables, Solomon Islands (1993); Milne Bay
Province, Papua New Guinea (1997); Northern Palawan
Province, Philippines (1998); Togean/Banggai Islands, Cen-
tral Sulawesi, Indonesia (1998).
RAP Reports Published to Date
1991. A Biological Assessment of the Alto Madidi Region
and Adjacent Areas of Northwest Bolivia. May 18-June 15,
1990. RAP Working Papers, No. 1, Conservation Interna-
tional, Washington, D. C. 108pp.*
1992. Status of Forest Remnants in the Cordillera de la Costa
and Adjacent Areas of Southwestern Ecuador. RAP Work-
ing Papers, No. 2, Conservation International, Washing-
ton, D. C. 172pp.
1993. A Biological Assessment of the Columbia River Forest
Reserve, Toledo District, Belize. RAP Working Papers, No.
3, Conservation International, Washington, D. C. 81pp.
1993. The Lowland Dry Forests of Santa Cruz, Bolivia: A Glo-
bal Conservation Priority. RAP Working Papers, No. 4.
Conservation International, Washington, D. C., and
Fundaci6n Amigos de la Naturaleza (FAN), Santa Cruz de la
Sierra, Bolivia. 104pp.*
1993. A Biological Assessment of the Kanuku Mountain Re-
gion of Southwestern Guyana. RAP Working Papers, No.
5, Conservation International, Washington, D. C. 70pp. .
1994. The Tambopata-Candamo Reserved Zone of Southeast-
ern Peru: A Biological Assessment RAP Working Papers
No. 6, Conservation International, Washington, D. C.
1997. The Cordillera del C6ndor Region of Ecuador and Peru:
A Biological Assessment. RAP Working Papers No. 7,
Conservation International, Washington, D. C., Escuela
Polit6cnica Nacional, Quito, Ecuador, Museo de Historia

Natural, Lima, Peru, Fundaci6n Ecuatoriana de Investigaci6n
y Manejo Ambiental, Quito, Ecuador, 23 pp.*
1998. A Rapid Assessment of the Humid Forests of South
Central Chuquisaca, Bolivia. RAP Working Papers, No. 8,
Conservation International, Washington, D. C. 84pp.*
1998. A Biological Assessment of the Lakekamu Basin, Papua
New Guinea. RAP Working Papers, No. 9, Conservation
International, Washington, D. C., Foundation for People
and Community Development, Boroko, Papua New Guinea.
187pp. *
1998. A Biological Assessment of Parque Nacional Noel
Kempff Mercado, Bolivia. RAP Working Papers, No. 10,
Conservation International, Washington, D. C., Fundaci6n
Amigos de la Naturaleza, Santa Cruz, Bolivia, Missouri Bo-
tanical Garden, St. Louis, USA, Museo de Historia Natural
Noel KempffMercado, Santa Cruz, Bolivia. 372pp.*
1998. A Rapid Biodiversity Assessment of the Coral Reefs of
Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea. RAP Working
Papers, No. 11, Conservation International, Washington,
D.C. l10pp.
In press. A Rapid Biological Assessment of the Northern
Cordillera Vilcabamba, Peru RAP Working Papers, No. 12,
Conservation International, Washington, D. C.*
*Available through the University of Chicago Press. To
order: call 1-800-621-2736; .
Leeanne Alonso, Director, Rapid Assessment Program, Cen-
ter for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation Inter-
national, 2501 M Street, Suite 200 Washington, D.C. 20037,
USA, Tel: (202) 973-2282, e-mail: org>, and Tim Werner, Director, Marine Rapid Assess-
ment Program, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science,
Conservation International, 2501 M Street, Suite 200, Wash-
ington, D.C. 20037, Tel: (202) 973-2217, e-mail: conservation. org>.

__^ IPE Instituto de Pesquisas
Ecol6gicas, founded by Claudio
mmm Valladares-Padua and Suzana Padua,
and based at Nazar6 Paulista, SAo Paulo, Brazil, inaugu-
rated a new Conservation Training Center on 25 September
1999. The Center will promote courses and events in all
areas of conservation and management, seeking especially
an interdisciplinary approach, balancing theoretical and
practical aspects. It will strengthen the partnerships already
maintained by IPE with Brazilian and international profes-
sionals, and conservation and research organizations, in-
cluding the Wildlife Preservation Trust International, Phila-
delphia, the Center for Environmental Research and Con-
servation (CERC) of Columbia University, New York, and
the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. This Cen-
ter is the result of generous donations and cooperation
from the Whitley Animal Protection Trust, Wildlife Preser-
vation Trust Canada, and the Centro de Vivencia Nazar6;
institutions that recognize the importance of capacity build-
ing, the potential of such a Center in Brazil, and the contri-

Neotropical Primates 7(3), September 1999

Page 95

Page 96

bution this will make to the conservation of the world's
natural resources. For more information: IPE Instituto de
Pesquisas Ecol6gicas, Caixa Postal 47, Nazar6 Paulsta,
12960-000 Sao Paulo, Brazil. Tel/Fax: +1178611327, e-mail:

k The Atlantic forest stretches along Brazil's
coast, extending into northern Argentina
and southeastern Paraguay. It shelters an
astounding wealth of plant and animal spe-
CONSERVATION cies. In just one hectare (2.47 acres), scien-
tists have found 454 trees species, the world
record, and its fauna includes 261 mammals
and 260 amphibians; many of them endemic.
Its primates include two endemic genera,
the lion tamarin, Leontopithecus, and the muriqui,
Brachyteles, and 16 of the 21 primate species of the region
are endemic. The Atlantic forest is also Brazil's most popu-
lated and developed area, with 60 percent of the country's
population. Just 7% of the original forest remains (rela-
tively) intact.
On 9 July 1999, Conservation International and Brazil's larg-
est environmental NGO, the Fundaqdo SOS Mata Atlantica,
formed an alliance, with the pledge to combine forces to
achieve "Zero Deforestation" and "Zero Species Loss" in
the endangered Atlantic forest.
"Two of the most active NGOs in Brazil are now working
together in the 'Joint Initiative for the Atlantic Forest'. This
alliance will result in a difference in scale in our efforts,
multiplying the strength of our programs. The Atlantic For-
est is one of the World's top five hotspots for biodiversity.
Further loss of the forests and species in this biome is
unacceptable", says Roberto Cavalcanti, Director of CI's
Brazil Program.
The alliance will allow the two most powerful environmen-
tal NGOs in Brazil to combine their resources and efforts to
enable a greater and more immediate impact on Atlantic
forest conservation. Created in 1986, SOS Mata Atlantica,
President Roberto Klabin, has some 25,000 members in Bra-
zil, and has played a major role in raising awareness through-
out the country about the importance and plight of the
Atlantic forest. Key projects underway include: environ-
mental education; mapping and the evaluation of forest
cover and forest loss through the interpretation of satellite
images (in collaboration with the National Institute for Space
Research INPE, Sao Jos6 dos Campos, and the Instituto
Socioambiental ISA, Sao Paulo); the production of seed-
lings of native species for reforestation; support for pro-
tected areas; and the maintenance of data banks on numer-
ous aspects of the socioeconomy and biology of the re-
The Brazil Program of Conservation International was be-
gun in 1988, and has helped put the Atlantic Forest at the
top of the international conservation agenda. Emphasis has

Neotropical Primates 7(3), September 1999

been given to researching innovative conservation tools,
including field-based studies of economic alternatives to
deforestation and the development of low-impact
ecotourism. CI has also been active in collaborating with
the National Biodiversity Program (PRONABIO) of the Bra-
zilian Government in the development of conservation strat-
egies and the identification of priority areas and actions for
conservation, including the creation and management of
protected areas.
The initiative includes six major programs to promote the
protection of the remaining forest of the region. 1) The
development and maintenance of the reference center for
monitoring the Atlantic forest, with the organization, pro-
duction and dissemination of up-to-date information on
the region and its biodiversity, including the atlas of forest
remnants produced regularly by SOS Mata Atlantica. 2)
Communication and environmental education. 3) The con-
servation of public and private protected areas. 4) The con-
servation of rare, endemic and threatened species. 5) Pub-
lic policy. 6) Economic alternatives promoting the conser-
vation of natural resources and the forests of the region.
Heloisa de Oliveira, Project and Communications Coordi-
nator, Conservation International do Brasil, Av. Ant6nio
Abrahdo Caram 820/302,31275-000 Belo Horizonte, Minas
Gerais, Brazil, e-mail: , and
Mfrcia Hirota, Project Director, SOS Mata Atlantica, Rua
Manoel da N6brega 456,04001-001 Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo,
Brazil, e-mail: .


l o 0 IPE Instituto de Pesquisas
P E Ecol6gicas realizard, no period de 10
P [ a 19 de novembro de 1999, o "II Curso
de Ecologia Quantitativa (Estatfstica)
Aplicada A Biologia da Conservaq~o". Candidates:
Profissionais relacionados h conservagdo j desenvolvendo
pesquisa em campo e alunos envolvidos em programs de
mestrado e/ou doutorado em areas afins. Inscrigao e
Seleg o: Os interessados deverao enviar para o IPt -
Instituto de Pesquisas Ecol6gicas, uma carta de inteng6es
com dados pessoais para contato e uma descricao sucinta
do seu projeto de pesquisa, dando maior anfase na descrigco
dos dados que deseja analisar durante o curso (maximo 1
pagina). Ngmero de vagas: 16. Taxa: Seri cobrada de cada
participate selecionado uma taxa de R$ 300,00, podendo
ser dividida em 3 vezes. Local: Nazare Paulista Sao Paulo
(a uma hora de Sao Paulo e Campinas). Logistica: Os alunos
ficarao hospedados no IPE, Centro Brasileiro de Biologia
da Conservagao. Sera oferecido caf6 da manha, almogo e
jantar. Professores: Dr. Paulo de Marco (Universidade Fed-
eral de Vicosa); Adriano Pereira Paglia (MSc, Universidade
Federal de Minas Gerais); Daniela Wetzel Gastal
(Zootecnista); Daniela Chaves Rezende (Zootecnista).
Conte do: T6cnicas nao param6tricas e param6tricas
usuais; Regressao linear e nao linear; Regressio logistica;

Neotropical Primates 7(3), September 1999 Page 97

Analise de dados categ6ricos; T6pico de ecologia
quantitativa (estimativa de riqueza d esp6cies e andlise de
comportamento); Anmlise multivariada. Prazo para
Inscrifo: 28 de outubro de 1999. Para maiores informaqfes:
Fabiana Prado, e-mail: , ou Luis
Henrique de Lima, e-mail: , IPE -
Instituto de Pesquisas Ecol6gicas Caixa Postal 47, 12960-
000 Nazar6 Paulista, Sao Paulo, Brasil, Tel/Fax: +11 7861
1327. Web site: ipe.html>.
Laury Cullen Jr., Morro do Diabo State Park IF/SMA,
Caixa Postal 91, 19280-000 Teodoro Sampaio, Sao Paulo.
Brazil, Tel/Fax (018) 282-1944, e-mail: br>.

The Australasian Primate Society is pleased to an-
nounce the launch of the website for the 18th Con-
gress of the International Primatological Society to
be held in Adelaide, South Australia 7-12 January,
2001. The address is . The
site contains all the details that you may require if
you are thinking of attending the Congress, and why
wouldn't you want to enjoy the lifestyle of one of the world's
most comfortable cities, at a time of warm days and mild
nights, while the northern hemisphere is in the depths of
winter. Not only that, but the opportunity to meet some
many of the world's primatologists in the one spot. Prima-
tological Nirvana.
Graeme Crook, Chairman, Organizing Committee, PO Box
500, One Tree Hill, SA 5114, Australia, Tel: +61 8 82807670,
Fax: +618 82807078, e-mail: .

Dr. Michael W. Andrews, Southern Oregon
University, has been appointed as the editor
of the American Journal ofPrimatology. Dr.
Andrews replaces Dr. Mike Raleigh, who has served so
brilliantly as AJP editor since 1992. Dr. Andrews has been a
member and Chair of the American Society of Primatolo-
gists (ASP) Publications Committee and was also the Me-
dia Reviews Editor of AJP. He is an accomplished scientist
with a strong record of peer-reviewed research in primate
social development and in computerized assessment of pri-
mate cognition and motor performance. The AJP Editor
Search Committee, chaired by Dr. Jeffrey French, and in-
cluding Drs. Suzette Tardif and John Mitani, reflected the
broad disciplinary views of anthropology, zoology, and
psychology, and included an advisory group of current
and/or former journal editors (Drs. Jeanne Altmann, Mike
Raleigh, Charles Snowdon).

The new address for American Journal of Primatology
manuscript submissions: Dr. Michael W. Andrews, Editor,
American Journal ofPrimatology, Department of Psychol-
ogy, Southern Oregon University, 1250 Siskiyou Blvd.,
Ashland, OR 97520, USA. Instructions to authors can be
found at: http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/0275-
Nancy Caine, ASP President, Department of Psychology,
California State University, San Marcos, CA 92096, USA,
Tel: (691) 750-4145, Fax: (619) 750-4030, e-mail:
, and Janette Wallis, Ex-
ecutive Secretary, ASP, Department of Psychiatry & Be-
havioral Sciences, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences
Center, P. O. Box 26901, Oklahoma City, OK 73104-5020,
USA, Tel: (405) 271-5251 x 47612; Fax: (405) 271-3808, e-
mail: .

Number 18, 1998, of the journal of the IUCN/SSC Primate
Specialist Group Primate Conservation has been pub-
lished. It is edited by Russell A. Mittermeier (Chair PSG,
Conservation International) and Anthony B. Rylands
(Deputy Chair PSG, Conservation International do Brasil).
This issue was produced thanks to the support of the Margot
Marsh Biodiversity Foundation, The Los Angeles Zoo,
Conservation International, and the Department of Ana-
tomical Sciences of the State University of New York, Stony
Brook. It includes a wide range of articles from Africa, Asia
and the Neotropics, as well as an analysis of baseline range
size distributions in primates. Contents: Baseline range size
distributions in primates Clara B. Jones, pp.7-9; Ecologi-
cal responses of spider monkeys to temporal variation in
fruit abundance: The importance of flooded forest as a key-
stone habitat Jorge A. Ahumada, Pablo R. Stevenson &
Marcela J. Quifiones, pp. 10-14; Primates of the tropical for-
est of the Pacific Coast of Peru: The Tumbes Reserved
Zone Filomeno Encarnaci6n & A. Gaylon Cook, pp. 15-20;
Some observations on the ecology of Cacajao calvus
ucayalii in the Peruvian Amazon Rolando Aquino, pp.21-
24; Notes on the distribution and conservation status of
spider and howler monkeys in the state of Quintana Roo,
Mexico Alvaro del Campo Parra Lara & Jeffrey P.
Jorgensen, pp.25-29; Distribution and status of the primates
of Guatemala Gilberto Silva-L6pez, Johanna Motta-Gill &
Alonso I. SAnchez-Hernindez, pp.30-41; Dietary choices in
Cebus olivaceus: A comparison of data from Hato Pifiero
and Hato Masaguaral Lynne E. Miller, pp.42-50; The Zan-
zibar red colobus monkey: Conservation status of an en-
dangered island endemic Thomas T. Struhsaker & Kirstin
S. Siex, pp.51-58; Conservation status of primates in
Cameroon Leonard Usongo, pp. 59-65; Conservation sta-
tus of primates in the proposed Lob6k6 Forest Reserve,
south-east Cameroon Leonard Usongo, pp.66-68; Notes

Neotropical Primates 7(3), September 1999


Page 98 Neotropical Primates 7(3), September 1999

on the dwarf galagos (Galagoides udzungwensis and
Galagoides orinus) in the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanza-
nia Thomas M. Butynski, Carolyn L. Ehardt & Thomas T.
Struhsaker, pp.69-75; A brief report on Yunnan snub-nosed
monkeys, Rhinopithecus bieti, at Bamei in northern Yunnan
Province, China T. Zhong, L. Xiao, R. C. Kirkpatrick & Y. C.
Long, pp.76-80; Current status and conservation strate-
gies of primates in China Shu-Yi Zhang, pp.81-84;
Behaviour of two groups of Hanuman langur
(Semnopithecus entellus) during a solar eclipse in 1995 at
Medinipur, West Bengal, India; A. Murmu, S. Chaudhuri &
J. R. B. Alfred, pp. 85-87; The conservation status of two
Sulawesian tarsier species: Tarsius spectrum and Tarsius
dianae Sharon Gursky, pp.88-91. In Brazil, available from:
Anthony B. Rylands, Conservation International do Brasil,
Avenida Ant6nio AbrahAo Caram 820/302,31275-000 Belo
Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, Tel/Fax: +55 (0)31441-1795,
e-mail: . Elsewhere, avail-
able from Ella Outlaw, Conservation International, 2501 M
Street NW, Suite 200, Washington D.C. 20037, USA.

Volume 13 (1999) of Field Studies of Fauna and Flora La
Macarena Colombia has been published. The publication
is subtitled "Monbusho International Scientific Research
Program Reports" and results from the Japan Colombia
Cooperative Field Study based at at the Centro de Las
Investigaciones Ecol6gicas La Macarena (CIEM) in the
Parque Nacional Natural Macarena-Tinigua, Meta,.Colom-
bia. Contents: Social changes within a group of wild black-
capped capuchins, VI K. Izawa, pp.1-6; Face-whitened
disease observed in wild woolly monkeys, Lagothrix
lagotricha, at La Macarena, Colombia A. Nishimura, pp.7-
13; Social changes within a group of red howler monkeys,
VII K. Izawa, pp. 15-17; Home ranges and intergroup rela-
tions among the wild red howler monkeys K. Kimura, pp. 19-
24; A list of animals which fed on fruit of a fig tree K.
Izawa, pp.25-30; Vegetation succession on the floodplain
of the Rio Duda, Colombian Amazonia M. Hara, Y. Hirabuki,
A. Takehara, C. Barbosa & T. Ohba, pp.31-40; Frugivore-
dispersed seedlings of milpeso palm Oenocarpus bataua
Mart. in the Neotropical rain forest of La Macarena, Colom-
bia M. Kobayashi, Y. Shimooka & K. Izawa, pp. 41-46.
Volume 12 (1998) was published in Colombia, and includes
the following articles: Breeding biology of Hoploxypterus
cayanus (Charadriidae) at the Rio Duda Ivan Jimdnez &
Carlos Meija, pp.3-7; Locomotion patterns of woolly mon-
keys (Lagothrix lagothricha): Implications of the evolu-
tion of suspensory travel on atelines Pablo R. Stevenson,
pp.9-18; Bird species at the CIEM, Tinigua National Park: A
partial list II C. Daniel Cadena, Juan L. Parra, Carlos A.
Botero, German D. Mejia, Juanita Aldana & Gustavo A.
Londofio, pp.19-32; How does the diet of a curassow vary
within a week Ivan Jim6nez, Juanita Aldana, Daniel Cadena
& Jimena Forero, pp.33-40. Copies of Volume 12 available
from: Carlos Mejia, Universidad de los Andes, Apdo. Aereo
4976, Bogotd, Colombia. Copies of Volume 13 available from

Kosei Izawa (address below).
Kosei Izawa, Miyagi University of Education, Aramaki,
Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-0845, Japan.

The International Zoo Yearbook (Editors Peter J. S. Olney
and Fiona A. Fisken) is published by The Zoological Soci-
ety of London. It is an international forum for the exchange
of information amongst zoos. Launched in 1960, the scope
and significance of the Yearbook has enlarged as zoos re-
alize their unique opportunities for research and data col-
lection as well as their role in the conservation of
biodiversity and in increasing public awareness of the need
for conservation of species and habitats. The work carried
out in zoos is increasingly dependent on coordinated ef-
fort and shared results, not only amongst themselves but
also with laboratories, conservation centres and similar
bodies engaged in the study and preservation of wildlife.
The Yearbook is both the medium and the reflection of this
changing outlook. For zoologists, veterinarians, education-
alists and anyone concerned with the care, conservation,
biology and behaviour of wild animals it is an indispens-
able reference and a source book of much data unobtain-
able elsewhere.
Volume 36 (663pp., 23 plates, 50 figures) has been pub-
lished recently. As in all the Yearbooks published to date,
there is a special section, which in this volume is dedicated
to Old World Primates. It contains 17 articles relating to
husbandry, management and status of Old World primates,
including reviews of behavioral studies. Management of
gentle lemurs, husbandry and breeding of douc langurs,
and the conservation and management of orang-utans are
reported, and a practical model of the possible form and
content of a husbandry manual, using slender loris as an
example, is provided. A review on behavioral studies of
guenons, observations on hand modulation of vocaliza-
tion in siamangs, the behavioral response of a group of
western lowland gorillas to the death of the silverback male
and the effects of group structure and rearing strategy on
personality in chimpanzees are presented. Individual re-
ports are also given on the status of three threatened spe-
cies, gelada baboon, moloch gibbon and orang-utans. Ex-
hibit design is examined in articles on the redevelopment of
a disused enclosure to make it suitable for Sulawesi crested
macaques, and a mixed-species exhibit which provides an
appropriate social and physical environment for both an
arboreal and a terrestrial species, the eastern black-and-
white colobus and patas monkeys, respectively. Section 1
ends with articles on environmental enrichment and nutri-
tional management, with special consideration for vitamin
Section 2 begins with an innovative paper on the develop-
ment of key performance indicators as bench-marks for
progress in order to improve overall organizational man-
agement in zoos. The other 12 articles range from a report
on the rearing project for Ladybird spiders to a study on

Page 98

Neotropical Primates 7(3), September 1999

Neotropical Primates 7(3), September 1999

sex ratios in captive-born ruminants. Reviews on breeding
of d'Orbigny's slider turtle, oriental white stork, red and
blue lory, North American ungulates and a solitary and
highly aggressive fossorial mammal, the blind mole rat, are
also included. Food preferences in St. Lucia parrots, man-
agement of the Amazon river dolphin and restraint of ga-
zelles are discussed. Hand-rearing techniques for eastern
white pelican chicks and a severely dehydrated Riippell's
griffon vulture are described.
Section 3 comprises a list of Zoos and Aquariums of the
World, an updated list of national zoo associations, the list
of vertebrate species bred in captivity in 1995 and 1996, the
census of rare animals in captivity as at January 1996 and
1997 and the summary list of authorized international stud-
books and registers. A list of taxonomic authorities con-
sulted in the Yearbook, author and subject indexes com-
plete the volume.
The Guest Essay for Volume 36, by Lee Durrell and Jeremy
Mallinson of the Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust, dis-
cusses how an in-depth institutional review highlighted
and stimulated the processes by which a single organiza-
tion can strengthen its participation in field conservation
and the impact of these changes on the role of the institu-
The International Zoo Yearbook (ISSN 0074-9664) is avail-
able from: The Zoological Society of London, Dept. IZY,
Regent's Park, London NW14RY. UK, Fax: (0)171449 6411.
The price is 65.00 or US$120.00 (+ postage outside UK at
4.50 or US$9.00). Also available is an offprint of the List of
Zoos and Aquariums of the World, price 18.50 or US$35.00
(+ postage outside UK at 1.50 or US$3.00).

The final report from the lion tamarin PHVA Workshop held
in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 20-22 May 1997,
"Leontopithecus II, Final Report. The Second Population
and Habitat Viability Assessment for Lion Tamarins
(Leontopithecus)", compiled by Jonathan D. Ballou, Rob-
ert C. Lacy, Devra Kleiman, Anthony Rylands and Susie
Ellis (1998), is now available in Portuguese. It was trans-
lated by Maria Ines Castro, currently with Conservation
International, Washington, DC, but previously a long-stand-
ing member of the Golden Lion Tamarin Conservation Pro-
gram (GLTCP) of the Smithsonian Instutution. Available
from: IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group,
12101 Johnny Cake Ridge Road, Apple Valley, MN 55124,
USA, Fax; +1 612 432 2757, e-mail: edu>. The price is US$35.00 (checks payable to CBSG on a
US Bank, Mastercard and Visa also accepted).

Gustav Fischer Verlag is publishing a new journal, Per-
spectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics. It
was launched in 1998 by the Rtibel Foundation, a private

trust associated with the Geobotanical Institute of the Swiss
Federal Institute of Technology. Scope: Focus on ecology,
evolution and systematics of plants; informed perspective
on themes of current interest and debate; up-to-date au-
thoritative reviews; monographs on selected themes of
enduring importance; applied and pure science; both spe-
cialized and interdisciplinary themes. There are two issues
per volume. Volume 1(1), 1998, includes an article by P. E.
Hulme (Durham) on post dispersal seed predation and the
consequences for plant demography, and volume 1(2) a
review by A. Traveset (Palma) on the effects on germina-
tion of seed passage through vertebrate frugivore guts, as
well as an essay by N. M. Waser and M. V. Price (Riverside,
California) on why ecologists need to know about animals!
The Editor-in-Chief is Peter J. Edwards, Zurich, Switzer-
land, and the Managing Editor is Anne Pickhardt,
Geobotanisches Institut ETH, Stiftung RUibel,
Ztirichbergstrasse 38, CH 8044 ZUrich, Switzerland, e-mail:
. For more information:


Primate Behavioral Ecology, by Karen B. Strier, De-
cember 1999, 400pp. Allyn and Bacon, Needham, MA. Pa-
perback ISBN 0 205 20019 2. Price: US$36.00. Primate Be-
havioral Ecology is an introduction to the field and its
applications to primate conservation. It is designed for
courses in primate social behavior, animal behavior, and
primate ecology and behavior in Anthropology, Psychol-
ogy, Biology and Zoology at the sophomore level through
graduate level. Like no other on the market, this compre-
hensive text integrates the basics of evolutionary and eco-
logical approaches to the study of primate behavior with
up-to-date coverage of how different primates actually be-
have. Examples are drawn from the "classic" primate field
studies and more recent studies on previously neglected
species, illustrating the vast behavioral variation that we
now know exists and the gaps in our knowledge that still
remain. It integrates contemporary behavioral ecology, evo-
lutionary theory, and conservation concerns as they per-
tain to primates and provides a broad coverage of primate
behavioral diversity. Chapters: 1. Introduction to Primate
Studies; 2. Traits, Trends and Taxonomy; 3. Primates Past
and Present; 4. Evolution and Social Behavior; 5. Evolution
and Sex; 6. Food and Females; 7. Female Strategies; 8. Male
Strategies; 9. Development Stages; 10. Communication and
Cognition; 11. Community Relationships; 12. Conservation.
The Bibliography includes approx. 900 references. A must
for anyone interested in primate behavior, ecology and con-
servation. Available from: Allyn and Bacon, 160 Gould
Street, Needham, MA 02494, USA, Tel: (781) 433-8472, Fax:
Walker's Primates of the World, by Ronald M. Nowak,
November 1999, 272pp., 179 photos. The Johns Hopkins
University Press, Baltimore. ISBN 0 8018 6251 5. Price:
US$19.95 (paperback). Introduction by PSG Chairman
Russell A. Mittermeier, Anthony B. Rylands and William R.

Page 99

Neotropical Primates 7(3), September 1999

Konstant. A comprehensive guide to the primates, includes
scientific and common names, the number and distribution
of species, measurements and physical traits, habitat, daily
and seasonal activity, population dynamics, home range,
social life, reproduction, longevity, and status of threat-
ened species. Recently extinct genera, such as the giant
lemurs of Madagascar, are covered in full. Textual summa-
ries present accurate, well-documented descriptions of the
physical characteristics and living habits of primates in every
part of the world. The introduction discusses the diversity,
taxonomy and distributions of primates as well as their dis-
tinguishing characteristics, special adaptations and par-
ticularly striking features, such as sociality. Also discussed
are conservation efforts, past and future, and the factors
that are threatening many species with extinction. Avail-
able from: The Johns Hopkins University Press, Sales De-
partment, 2715 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-4319,
USA, Tel: +1 410 516 3864, Fax: +1410 516-6998, e-mail:
Faces in the Forest: The Endangered Muriqui
Monkeys of Brazil, by Karen B. Strier, 1999, 138pp.
Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Pa-
perback ISBN 0 674 29008 9. Price:US$16.95. The muriqui is
one of the most threatened primate species in the world.
Because of deforestation in their natural habitat the At-
lantic coastal forests of southeastern Brazil, the muriquis
are confined to less than three percent of their original range.
In 1987, there were only a dozen forest fragments known to
support a total muriqui population of about 500 but as of
1998, at least 20 forests are known to support at least 1,000.
This book traces the natural history of the muriqui from its
scientific discovery in 1806 to its current, highly endan-
gered status. Karen Strier provides a case study of this
scientifically important primate by balancing field research
and ecological issues. Through her accessible presenta-
tion, readers gain a broad understanding of primate behav-
ior and tropical conservation. It is reprinted in paperback
following the success of the hardback version published in
1992 by Oxford University Press. Included is a new preface
which summarizes the ongoing research and conservation
efforts for muriquis since then. As pointed out by Stephen
Ferrari who reviewed the 1992 edition for the International
Journal ofPrimatology, it is a "highly readable mixture of
personal anecdotes and serious science that will inevitably
be compared with Old World classics such as Jane Goodall's
In the Shadow of Man and Dian Fossey's Gorillas in the
Mist." Available from: Harvard University Press, Cambridge,
Massachusetts. .
Mammals of the Neotropics. The Central
Neotropics, Volume 3: Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Bra-
zil, by John F. Eisenberg and Kent H. Redford, 1999, 609pp.
The University of Chicago Press, Chicago. ISBN 0 22619541
4 (cloth), 0 226 19542 2 (paperback). The 3rd volume in the
series. The first two volumes (1989, 1992) dealt with the
northern Neotropics (Panama, Colombia, Venezuela and the
Guianas), and the southern cone (Chile, Argentina, Uru-
guay and Paraguay). A remarkable compendium of mammal

species and their distributions in central South America,
with plates in color and black-and-white by Fiona A. Reid,
and excellent essays on various aspects of mammalian ge-
ography and prehistory in the Neotropics. Contents: Part
1. Mammalian Faunas in the Plio-Pleistocene of Brazil. Iso-
lation and interchange: A deep history of South American
mammals S. David Webb, pp.13-19; Fossil mammals of the
Amazon as a portrait of a Pleistocene environment Alceu
Rancy, pp.20-26; Pleistocene mammals of the Cerrado and
Caatinga of Brazil, Castor Cartelle, pp.27-46. Part 2. The
Contempoary Mammalian Fauna, pp.47-520. Part 3. Bioge-
ography of Land Mammal Faunas. The Galpagos and other
South American islands, pp.523-526; Biodiversity recon-
sidered John F. Eisenberg, pp.527-548; Macrogeography
of Brazilian mammals Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca, Gisela
Hermann and Yuri L. R. Leite, pp.549-563; The structure of
nonvolant mammal communities in different Amazonian
forest types Carlos A. Peres, pp.564-581; The contempo-
rary mammalian fauna of South America John F Eisenberg,
pp.582-591. Appendix, pp.593-597 (some recent taxonomic
alterations pertinent to volumes 1 and 2). Indices for scien-
tific and common names. Available from: The University of
Chicago Distribution Center, 11030 South Langley Avenue,
Chicago, Illinois 60628, USA. Customer Service: (800) 621-
2736 (USA & Canada), (773) 568-1550 (International).
Mamiferos de los Bosques Humedos de Amdrica
Tropical, de Louise Emmons y Francois Feer, 1999. ISBN
99905-801-0-3. La primera guia de campo de estas criaturas
altamente diversas y dificiles de describir, ha significado
un gran exito desde su publicaci6n inicial en 1990. En esta
primera edicion en espaflol completamente revisada y
actualizada se destacan: Un total de 315 species cubiertas
en reports individuals; todos los registros de species
mantenidos desde la primera edici6n en ingles han sido
actualizados; 195 mapas que presentan informaci6n actual
sobre los rangos de distribuci6n y geografia de cada
especie; 29 hermosas laminas a color ilustran mas de 220
species (incluyendo variantes significativas de color en-
tre machos y hembras o adults yjovenes). Las dos primeras
ediciones en ingles (Neotropical Rainforest Mammals, The
University of Chicago Press, Chicago) ya fueron un gran
exito y son de much utilidad tanto en el trabajo diario de
zoologos, conservacionistas o autoridades relacionadas
con la conservaci6n como para los studios de miles de
estudiantes. La version en espaflol esta siendo publicada
por la Fundaci6n Amigos de la Naturaleza Noel Kempff
(FAN), Bolivia. F.A.N. es una instituci6n privada, sin fines
de lucro. Su misi6n es la conservaci6n de la diversidad
biol6gica mediante la protecci6n y el uso sostenible y
equitativo de los recursos naturales en Bolivia. En caso
que la edici6n y la venta de este libro dejen beneficios
economics, esta ganancia sera invertida en nuestros
proyectos de conservaci6n, sobre todo en otras
publicaciones sobre biodiversidad. Precios: Bolivia $u$
28 (tapa blanda); $u$ 40 (tapa dura); Centro u Sur Am6rica
- $u$ 32 (tapa blanda); $u$ 46 (tapa dura); Otros: $u$ 37
(tapa blanda); $u$ 62 (tapa dura). Los pagos pueden ser
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(Visa y Mastercard), favor enviar un fax con su numero de
tarjeta, fecha de expiraci6n de su tarjeta y firma; Con cheque
girado a nombre de la "Fundaci6n Amigos de la Naturaleza";
Mediante deposit en la cuenta corriente No. 6343-2105 del
banco BISA (aplicable solo aclientes de Bolivia); Mediante
giro bancario (solicitar informaci6n en su respective entidad
bancaria). Dr. Pierre Ibisch (Dir. Departamento de Ciencias,
FAN) y Silvia Afiez (Encargada Editorial FAN), Av. Las
Americas Calle Bumberque y Agreda No. 1100, Casilla 2241,
Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia, Tel/Fax: (591-03) 329692,
329717,378382,378381, e-mail: .
Walker's Mammals of the World, by Ronald M. Nowak,
6th Edition in 2 volumes, 2,160pp., 1,550 illustrations. Johns
Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. Price: US$99.95 (pa-
perback). A complete account of every genus of mammal in
all historical time, the 6th edition is 25% longer than its
predecessor. Of the previous generic accounts, 95% have
been substantially modified, and there are 80 new ones -
among them three remarkable large ungulates recently dis-
covered in the forests of Indochina. New also is a full ac-
count of the woolly mammoth, now known to have sur-
vived until less than 4,000 years ago. Each section of the
book describes one genus and includes facts such as sci-
entific and common names, the number and distribution of
species, measurements and physical traits, habitat, loco-
motion, daily and seasonal activity, population dynamics,
home range, social life, reproduction and longevity. Textual
summaries present accurate, well documented descriptions
of the physical characteristics and living habits of all of the
mammals. The names and distributions of all are listed in
systematic order. These lists have been cross-checked to
ensure coverage of all of the species in the Smithsonian
Institution's Mammal Species of the World. This edition
also records all official classifications of species and sub-
species in the 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Mam-
mals. Available from: The Johns Hopkins University Press,
Sales Department, 2715 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD
21218-4319, USA, Tel: +14105163864, Fax: +1410516-6998.
New Directions in Lemur Studies, edited by Berthe
Rakotosaminanana, Hante Rasaminanana, Jorg U. Ganzhom,
and Steven M. Goodman, 1999. Kluwer Academic/Plenum
Publishers, London. ISBN 0 306 46187 0. Proceedings of
the XVII Congress of the International Primatological Soci-
ety, Antananarivo, Madagascar, 10-14 August 1998. Con-
tents: Ancient DNA in subfossil lemurs: Methodological
challenges and their solutions; Past and present distribu-
tions of lemurs in Madagascar; Skeletal morphology and
the phylogeny of the Lemuridae: A cladistic analysis; Sup-
port preference of two sympatric lemur species: Propithecus
v. verreauxi and Eulemurfulvus rufus; Field metabolic rate
and the cost of ranging of the red-tailed sportive lemur
(Lepilemur ruficaudatus); Metabolic strategy and social
behaviour in Lemuridae; Cathemeral activity of red fronted
brown lemurs (Eulemurfulvus rufus) in the Kirindy Forest
/ CFPF; Social organization of the fat-tailed dwarf lemur
(Cheirogaleus medius) in northwestern Madagascar; De-

Page 101

mography and floating males in a population of
Cheirogaleus medius; Influence of social organization pat-
terns on food intake of Lemur catta in the Berenty Re-
serve; The importance of the black lemur (Eulemur macaco)
for seed dispersal in Lokobe Forest, Nosy Be; Taste dis-
crimination in lemurs and.the other primates, and the rela-
tionships to distributions of plant allelochemicals in differ-
ent habitats of Madagascar; Folivory in a small-bodied le-
mur: The nutrition of the Alaotran gentle lemur (Hapalemur
griseus alaotrensis); Conservation of the Alaotran gentle
lemur: A multidisciplinary approach: Teaching Primatology
at the Universit6 de Mahajanga (NW Madagascar); Experi-
ences, results and evaluation of a pilot project: Lemurs as
flagships for conservation in Madagascar. Available from:
Kluwer Academic/ Plenum Publishers, New Loom House,
101 Back Church Lane, London El 1LU, UK, Tel: +44 207
2641913; Fax: +442072641919.
Environmental Enrichment for Nonhuman Primates
Resource Guide, edited by Michael D. Kreger, Coordina-
tor Jean Larson, March 1999. Published by: The United
States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research
Service, National Agricultural Library and The Animal
Welfare Information Center, Beltsville, MD. Contents: U.S.
Laws, Regulations, and Policies for Environmental Enhance-
ment for Nonhuman Primates; Organizations and Websites;
Primate Centers and Animal Colonies; Listservs; Product
Suppliers; Audiovisuals; Journals and Newsletters; Bibli-
ography (January 1992 through December 1998); General
Environmental Enrichment; General Primate Enrichment; En-
richment Plans; Great Apes and Gibbons; Macaques; Mar-
mosets and Tamarins; New World Monkeys; Old World
Monkeys; Books and Conference Proceedings; Using train-
ing to enhance animal care and welfare (G. Laule); The use
of behavioral management techniques to reduce or elimi-
nate abnormal behavior (G. Laule); Environmental enrich-
ment for captive wildlife through the simulation of gum
feeding (K. Kelly); Arguments for single-caging of rhesus
macaques: are they justified? (V. Reinhardt); Frequently
asked questions about safe pair-housing of macaques (V.
Reinhardt); The Wisconsin gnawing stick (V. Reinhardt);
Appendix A USDA Final Rule on Environment Enhance-
ment to Promote Psychological Well Being -Section 3.81
(02/15/91 Vol. 56, No. 32, Federal Register, Pages 6426-6505).
Available free of charge from: Michael Kreger, Animal Wel-
fare Information Center, National Agricultural Library, 10301
Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA, Fax: 1-301-
504-5472, e-mail: . Please provide full
surface mail and e-mail information with your order. This
document is also available in electronic form at the follow-
ing URL: primate.htm>.
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DNA sequence in Saguinus oedipus (cotton-top tamarin).

Neotropical Primates 7(3), September 1999

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Amaiz-Villena, A. 1998. Description of two Mhc-C-related
sequences in the New World monkey Saguinus oedipus.
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Andresen, E. 1999. Seed dispersal by monkeys and the fate of
dispersed seeds in a Peruvian rain forest. Biotropica 31(1):
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Bergqvist, L. P., Ribeiro, A. M. and Bocquentin-Villaneuva, J.
1998. Primata, Roedores e Litoptemas do Mio/Plioceno da
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squirrel monkey (Saimiri) taxonomy: Implications for be-
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Boinski, S., Swing, S. P., Gross, T. S. and Davis, J. K. 1999.
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Canavez, F C., Moreira, M. A. M., Simon, E, Parham, P. and
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Chiarello, A. G. 1999. Effects of fragmentation of the Atlantic
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Cochrane, M. A. and Schultze, M. D. 1999. Fire as a recurrent
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Corradini, P., Recabarren, M., Seron-Ferre, M. and Parraguez,
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Anthropologische Institut & Museum, University of Zurich.
Wmterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057, Ziirich, Switzerland. E.
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de primates em fragments de Mata Atlantica do Vale do
Ago, Minas Gerais, p.53.
Izar, P. and Sato, T. Area de um grupo de macacos-prego
(Cebus apella) na Mata Atlantica, SP, p.65.

Page 107

Page 108 Neotropical Primates 7(3), September 1999

Javorouski, M. L., Gomes, M. L. E, Francisco L. R., Lange, R.
R., Passerino, A. S. and Pasquale, 0. L.. Manejo ereprodugdo
de macaco-cuxili (Chiropotes satanas) no Zool6gico de
Curitiba, p.84.
Kakati, K. and Sathyakumar, S. The effect of habitat loss on
feeding and ranging behavior of hoolock gibbons
(Hylobates hoolock) in a small forest fragment in north-
east India, p.69.
Kierulff, M. C. M. Program de conservacgo do mico-leao-
dourado (Leontopithecus rosalia), p.15.
Kleiman, D. G. and Mallinson, J. J. C. International commit-
tees for the recovery and management of lion tamarins
(Leontopithecus), p.14.
Kopper Miller, G. C., Krambeck, A., Hirano, Z. M. B. and Silva
Filho, H. H. Levantamento preliminary de endoparasitas do
tubo digestivo de macacos bugios Alouatta fusca, p.59.
Lehman, S. M. and Barnett, A. Biogeography of the primates
in NW Guyana, p.81.
Liesenfeld, M. V. A. andIrgang, B. E. Projetomacacosurbanos:
O bugio-ruivo (Alouattafusca) e a regenerag~o natural de
fragments florestais em Porto Alegre, pp.66-67.
Limeira, V. L. A. G. and Rocha, R. M. da. Situacgo atual de
Brachyteles arachnoides no Parque Nacional da Serra dos
Orgaos e areas adjacentes, RJ, p.49.
Lisboa, C. V, Verona, C. E., Beck, B., Martins, A., Ruiz-Miranda,
C. and Jansen. A. M. Ecologia dos ciclos de transmissdo do
Trypanosoma cruzi: Estudo da infecqdo em calitriquideos
da Mata Atlntica do Rio de Janeiro, p.60.
Lobato, L. and Aradjo, A. A influencia do parentesco em
machos de Callithrixjacchus (Primates: Callitrichidae) nas
relag6es de competi9ao, p.45.
Lopes, F. A. and Yamamoto, M. E. A influencia do estado
reprodutivo da femea no acesso prioritArio ao alimento de
animals ndo reprodutivos em sagilis (Callithrixjacchus),
Lopes, E A., Cirne, M. E C. and Yamamoto, M. E. Prioridade
no acesso ao alimento em machos e femeas reprodutivos
de sagUii-comum (Callithrixjacchus), pp.38-39.
Lynch, J. W. Hierarquia social, coaliz6es e formag9o de
subgrupo em macacos-prego (Cebus apella nigritus) de
Minas Gerais, Brasil, p.43.
Macambira, S., Cavalcanti, K., Lopes, E. C. H. and Araijo, A.
InteraqAo s6cio-sexual de uma femea reprodutora em duas
condic6es de posto hierArquico: Estudo de caso, p.44.
Mannu, M. and Ottoni, E. B. Postura e lateralidade na quebra
espont&nea de cocos por um grupo de macacos-prego
(Cebus apella) em condic6es de semi-cativeiro, p.31.
Marques, A. A. B. de and Ades, C. Cuidado paternal em
Alouatta fusca clamitans em regido de mata corn Arau-
caria Angustifolia no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, p.37.
Martinez, R., Gorostiaga, M., Ascunce, M., Nieves, M.,
Marchesini, M., Avila, I. and Mudry, M. Speciation pat-
terns of the genus Cebus, pp.79-80.
Martins, C.S., Setz, E.Z.F, Valladares-Padua, C. B., Costa, A.
C. M. and Silva M. M. Comportamento territorial deAlouatta
fusca clamitans em um fragmento de Mata Semidecfdua,
Martins, M. M. Forrageio sobre formigas de correiqgo por

Callithrix aurita: Ocorrencia sazonal? p.66.
Martins, S. de S., Lanfredi, R. M., Limeira, V. L. A. G. andSilva,
C.S. da. Ocorrencia de Trypanoxyuris minutus (Oxyuridae:
Nematoda) em Alouatta fusca (Primates: Atelidae):
Microscopia em cimara clara e microscopia eletronica de
varredura, p.57.
Matias, M. E. S. C., Cirne, M. F. C. and Medeiros, K. K. N.
Acesso ao alimento e cuidado parental em casais de sagitis
(Callithrixjacchus), no period do p6s-parto, p.83.
Mello, L. E. A. M. ttica e pesquisa corn primatas, pp.24-25.
Mello, M.T. de. Treinamento de pessoal emprimatologia, p.74.
Melo, F. R. CaracterizagAo molecular de Callithrix aurita, C.
flaviceps, C. geoffroyi e de seus proviveis hibridos (Pri-
mates: Callitrichidae), pp.74-75.
Melo, F R., Castellanos-Sold, M. E., and Nogueira, D. F
Levantamento de areas prioritArias para a conservacqo de
primatas ameagados na regiao de Salto da Divisa, Minas
Gerais, p.46.
Melo, W. F. de and Damasceno Jr., G. A. Caracterfsticas de
habitat de bugios-pretos (Alouatta Caraya) da Baia Negra,
do Municipio de Corumb6, p.69.
Melo, W. F de and Damasceno Jr., G.A. Primatas da regiao de
assentamentos do INCRA, municfpio de Corumbi-MS,
Mendes, F. D. C. Sistemas vocais e cognigao de primatas
neotropicais, pp. 19-20.
Mendes, F D. C., Martins, L. B. R., Pereira, J. A. andMarquezan,
R. F. Comportamento de manipulagio e pesca em Cebus
apella libidinosus no Zool6gico de Goiinia, p.43.
Mendes, S. L. A vocalizagdo como carAter taxon6mico em
primatas, pp.20-21.
Mendes, S. L. and Santos, R. R. Composioo social de grupos
de Alouattafusca (Primates: Atelidae) naEstacgo Biol6gica
de Caratinga, Minas Gerais, p.72.
Mendes, S. L. and Santos, R. R. Nascimentos de Alouatta
fusca (Primates, Atelidae) na Estagdo Biol6gica de Caratinga,
Minas Gerais, p.72-73.
Mittermeier, R. A. Conservacao de primatas Perspectivas
para o s6culo XXI, p.13.
Mittermeier, R. A. Os primatas brasileiros no context mundial,
Moura, A. C. de A. and Langguth, A. Dificuldade de acesso
ao alimento aumenta o comportamento de comida em grupos
de Leontopithecus chrysomelas, p.41.
Moura, C.S., Pieczarka, J. C., Nagamachi, C. Y, Silva Jr., J. S.,
Noronha, M. A. and Barros, R. M. S. Estudo citogen6tico
comparative entire Callithrix saterei e outras cinco esp6cies
de Callithrix do grupo argentata (Primates: Callitrichidae),
Mozzer, G. M., Prado, C. C., Tomaz, C. and Pessoa, V. F
Aprendizagem discriminativa de cores no mico-de-cheiro
(Saimiri ustus), pp.36-37.
Muniz, J. A. P. C., Brigido, M. C. 0. and Peralta, A. S. L.
Registro da ocorrencia na Filaria Dipetalonema caudispina
(Molin, 1858) Diesing, 1861, em Saimiri sciureus (Linnaeus,
1758) capturados na Ilha do Maraj6-PA, p.55.
Nagamachi, C.Y., Pieczarka, J. C., Pissinatti, A., Rodrigues, L.
R. R., Gongalves, A. C. 0. and Barros, R. M. S. Dados

Page 108

Neotropical Primates 7(3), September 1999

Net-iclPiats7 -, etmbr19 Pg 0

cromoss6nicos apoiam a colocaq~o de Callicebus
personatus (Primates: Cebidae) em um grupo pr6prio, p.78.
Nash, S. D. and Konstant, W. R. The importance of educa-
tional materials in primate conservation, pp.22-23.
Oliveira, C. R. de and Ruiz-Miranda, C. R. Efeitos s6cio-
ecol6gicos no comportamento de brincadeira do mico-leao
dourado (Leontopithecus rosalia) selvagem e reintroduzido:
Seleaio de substrato, vigilAncia pelos adults e efeitos de
cativeiro, p.42.
Oliveira, E. G. R., Jerusalinsky, L., Liesenfeld, M. V. A., Buss,
G., Jardim, M. M. A. and Perotto, M. A. Projeto macacos
urbanos: InteraqAo no encontro de um bando de bugio-
mivo (Alouattafusca) corn uma femeareintroduzida, p.50.
Oliveira, E. M. Uso da trilha do bugio ruivo (Alouattafusca)
como ferramenta para educagao ambiental, p.73.
Oliveira, L. C., Femandes, F. A. S., Schittini, G. M. and
Passamani, M. Uso de fragments muito pequenos de Mata
Atflntica pelo mico-ledo-dourado, Leontopithecus rosalia,

Primate Society of Great Britain (PSGB) Winter Meet-
ing 1999, 1 December 1999, The Zoological Society of Lon-
don, London. The theme will be "Mating and Social Sys-
tems of Old World Monkeys". Suggestions for speakers
and offers of posters are very welcome. Please contact: Dr.
Caroline Ross or Mairi Macleod, School of Life Sciences,
Roehampton Institute London, West Hill, London SW15
3SN, UK, Tel: +44 181 392 3561, Fax: +44 181392 3527, e-
mail: or roehampton. ac. uk>.
Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour Winter
Meeting, 2-3 December 1999, Zoological Society of Lon-
don, London. The theme is "Evolution of Mind". Please
contact: Dr. Karen McComb, Experimental Psychology,
School of Biological Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer,
Brighton BN1 9QG, UK, Fax; +44 (0)1273 678611, e-mail: <
Australasian Primate Society XVIHth Annual Conference,
3-5 December 1999, Taronga Zoo, Mosman, NSW, Austra-
lia. The theme is "Primate Conservation: The Role of Aus-
tralia in In Situ Programs". Sponsored by the Association
of Zoo Friends (NSW), Inc. and the Zoological Parks Board
of NSW. The keynote speaker will be Russell A. Mittermeier,
Chairman IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group and Presi-
dent of Conservation International, Washington, D. C.
Abstracts deadline: 15th October, 1999. For more informa-
tion: APS Conference Coordinator, c/- African Mammal
Division, Taronga Zoo, PO Box 20, Mosman, NSW 2088,
Australia, e-mail: .
Primate Socioecology: The Role of Life Histories, 14-17
December 1999, The German Primate Center (DPZ),
Gdttingen. An international conference on primate
socioecology. The focus of this meeting (2nd "G6ttinger
Freilandtage") will be on life history variation among pri-

mates. Invited speakers will examine causes of variation in
life history traits and explore the consequences of this varia-
tion for behavioral and reproductive strategies. An addi-
tional goal is to better characterize unique aspects of pri-
mate life histories and illuminate general principles through
comparison with other mammals. Submissions for relevant
oral (15 min) and poster contributions are invited. The con-
ference is also open to guests without presentations. The
deadline for submission of abstracts wishing to be consid-
ered for spoken papers or posters is August 1, 1999. Guests
must also register in advance by October 1, 1999. Addi-
tional details available from Peter Kappeler, e-mail:
, or the conference secretariat, e-mail:
, and the conference web site:
XXIII Congresso Brasileiro de Zoologia, 13-18 February
2000, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade Federal do
Mato Grosso, Cuiaba, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Theme "Zoologia
no III Milenio". Numerous round tables and mini-courses.
S&rgio Lucena Mendes (Museu de Biologia Mello Leitdo,
Santa Teresa, Espfrito Santo) will give a mini-course on
"The Ecology of Neotropical Primates". Deadline for ab-
stracts: 30th September 1999. For further information:
Comissdo Organizadora do XXIII CBZ, Departamento de
Biologia/Zoologia, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade
Federal do Mato Grosso, Av. Fernando Correa da Costa,
78060-900 Cuiaba, Mato Grosso, Brazil, Tel/Fax: +55 (0)65
615 8870, e-mail: .
Primate Society of Great Britain (PSGB) Millenium
Meeting, 1 April 2000, Flett Lecture Theatre, British Mu-
seum (Natural History), London. The theme of the meeting
is "Primates: Our past, their future". It will be a public un-
derstanding of science/primatology event, and will be as-
sociated with the Natural History Museum's two-week
millennium celebration. Speakers will include Mike Bruford
(Institute of Zoology), Robin Dunbar (University of
Liverpool), John Fleagle (SUNY at Stony Brook), Phyllis
Lee (University of Cambridge), and Steve Mithen (Univer-
sity of Reading). For more information, please contact: Dr.
Mark Collard, Department of Anthropology, University
College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK,
Tel: +44 (0)171 380 7842, Fax: +44 (0)171380 7728, e-mail:
2000 Workshop of the European Marmoset Research
Group (EMRG), 2-5 April 2000, Paris. Exact venue to be
announced. The theme will be "Marmosets and Tamarins
in Biological and Biomedical Research". Paper sessions and
roundtable discussion sessions will be held on the follow-
ing topics: Behaviour, Conservation, Ecology, Genetics,
Immunology, Laboratory Management, Neurobiology, Phar-
macology, Reproductive Biology, Toxicology. Further an-
nouncements will be made on the Primate Info Net. For
more information, please contact Dr. Christopher Pryce,
Behavioural Biology Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of
Technology, Schorenstrasse 16, CH-8603 Schwerzenbach,

Neotropical Primates 70), September 1999

Page 109

Page 110

Switzerland, Tel +411 825 7386, Tel +411825 7416 (Secre-
tariat), Fax +41 1825 7417, e-mail pryce@toxi.biol.ethz.ch.,
or Dr. Christian Schnell Novartis.com>.
Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour General
Meeting, 17-19 April 2000, University of Sheffield; UK.
Please contact: Dr. M. Siva-Jothy, Department of Animal
and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10
2UQ, e-mail: .
International Conference The Apes: Challenges for the
21st Century, 10-13 May 2000, Brookfield Zoo, Brookfield.
Keynote speakers include: David J. Chivers (lesser apes);
Carel van Schaik (orangutans); Gay Reinartz (bonobos);
Claudia Olejnickzak (gorillas); and Toshishada Nishida
(chimpanzees). The plenary speaker is Russell A.
Mittermeier (Chair, PSG and Conservation International).
Immediately following the Conference, the Lincoln Park Zoo,
Chicago, will host the North American Ape Taxon Advi-
sory Group meetings. Information on registration and sub-
mission of abstracts: Ape Conference Planning Committee,
Brookfield Zoo, Brookfield, Illinois 60513-0719, USA, Tel:
708 485-0263 x 604, Fax: 708 485-3140, e-mail:
American Society of Primatologists 2000 Meeting, 21-
24 June, Regal Harvest House, Boulder, Colorado. The web
site for the hotel is (un-
der hotel directory click on boulder) and information re-
garding the Boulder area can be located at
. Local Ar-
rangements Chair: Mark Laudenslager.
3rd International Symposium-Workshop on Frugivores
and Seed Dispersal: Biodiversity and Conservation Per-
spectives, 6-11 August, 2000, Hotel Fazenda Fonte Colina
Verde, Sao Pedro, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Web site: www.unicamp.br/ib/f2000>.
Primate Society of Great Britain (PSGB) Winter Meet-
ing 2000,30 November 1 December 2000, Meeting Rooms
of The Zoological Society of London, London, UK. A com-
bined meeting with national primatological groups of the
European Federation of Primatology (EFP). A number of
pre-conference workshops will be held. For more informa-
tion: Hilary 0. Box, EFP Representative for the PSGB, De-
partment of Psychology, University of Reading, Reading
RG6 2AL, England, UK. Fax: +44 1734 316604, e nail:
XVfIIth Congress of the International Primatological So-
ciety, 7-12 January 2001, Adelaide, Australia. Hosted by
the Australasian Primate Society, President Mr. John Lemon,
Western Plains Zoo, Dubbo, NSW. Theme: "Primates in the
New Millenium". Mr. Graeme Crook is Chairman of the Or-
ganizing Committee. Symposia Participants wishing to
register a symposium title must submit a 200 word abstract
by 31 July 1999. E-mail to Carla Litchfield au>. Titles of accepted symposia will be published on the

Neotropical Primates 7(3), September 1999

webpage from August 1999. Papers An abstract of 100
words is required. E-mail to Carla Litchfield
. Closing date for first call for pa-
pers: 31 January 2000. Closing date for second call for pa-
pers: 31 May 2000. A final list of papers will be published
on the Internet by 30 June 2000. For more information, and
to be put onto the Congress Organizer's mailing list, write
to: Conventions Worldwide, PO Box 44, Rundle Mall, SA
5000, Australia, Tel: +618 8363 0068, Fax: +61 883630354, e-
mail: , sending your postal ad-

We would be most grateful if you could send us information
on projects, research groups, events (congresses,
symposia, and workshops), recent publications, activities
of primatological societies and NGOs, news items or
opinions of recent events and suchlike. Manuscripts should
be double-spaced and accompanied by the text in diskette
for PC compatible text-editors (MS-Word, Wordperfect,
Wordstar). Articles, not exceeding six pages, can include
small black-and-white photographs, high quality figures,
and high quality maps, tables and references, but please
keep them to a minimum.

Please send contributions to: ANTHONY RYLANDS, c/o
Conservation International do Brasil, Avenida Ant6nio
Abrahlo Caram 820/302, 31275-000 Belo Horizonte, Minas
Gerais, Brazil, Tel/Fax: +55 (31) 441-1795 or ERNESTO
RODRIGtEZ-LUNA, Instituto de Neuroetologia, Universidad
Veracruzana, Apartado Postal 566, Xalapa, Veracruz 91000,
M6xico, Fax: 52 (28)12-5748.

LLIANA CORTtS-ORTrZ (Universidad Veracruzana) provides
invaluable editorial assistance.

Correspondence, messages, and texts can be sent to:
a.rylands @conservation.org.br

saraguat@ speedy.coacade.uv.mx

title: Neotrop. primates.

NEOTROPICAL PRIMATES is produced in collaboration
Suite 200, Washington DC 20037, USA, and FUNDAC(AO
BIODIVERSITAS, Av. do Contomo, 9155/11. andar Pra-
do, Belo Horizonte 30110-130, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

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a.dinnouti@conservation.org.br CONSERVATION

ISSN 1413-4703


F 0 UNDATION ADMsoinoftheHouston
SParks and Recreation Department

This issue of Neotropical Primates was kindly sponsored by the Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foun-
dation, 432 Walker Road, Great Falls, Virginia 22066, USA, the Houston Zoological Gardens Con-
servation Program, General Manager Donald G. Olson, 1513 North MacGregor, Houston, Texas
77030, USA Houston, Texas 77030, USA, the Los Angeles Zoo, Director Manuel Mollinedo, 5333
Zoo Drive, Los Angeles, California 90027, USA and the Grupo de Trabalho em Biodiversidade
(GTB), through the Brazilian National Science Research Council (CNPq), Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca,
Coordenador do GTB, c/o Conservation International do Brasil, Avenida Antonio Abrahdo Caram 820/
302,31275-000 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Anthony Rylands/Emesto Rodriguez Luna, Editors
Conservation International
Avenida Ant6nio Abrahao Caram 820/302
31275-000, Belo Horizonte
IUCN/SSC Minas Gerais, Brazil

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