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Title: Neotropical primates
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Title: Neotropical primates a newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCNSSC Primate Specialist Group
Abbreviated Title: Neotrop. primates
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
Conservation International
Center for Applied Biodiversity Science
Publisher: Conservation International
Place of Publication: Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
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Publication Date: June 1999
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Subject: Primates -- Periodicals -- Latin America   ( lcsh )
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Wildlife conservation -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
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Table of Contents
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Full Text

A Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group
Editors: Anthony B. Rylands and Ernesto Rodrfguez Luna
PSG Chairman: Russell A. Mittermeier
PSG Deputy Chairman: Anthony B. Rylands


ir r


. Page 39

Andrew C. Collins
The species status among various groups of spider mon-
keys (Ateles) was recently determined by comparison of
mitochondrial and nuclear DNA variation (Collins and
Dubach, in prep. a, c). The traditional pelage-based tax-
onomy of Ateles, as proposed by Kellogg and Goldman
(1944), and used by most researchers since that time, was
demonstrated to have little or no correlation to the actual
genetic relationships among the various species and sub-
species of spider monkeys (Collins and Dubach, in prep. a).
Overall, the conclusions of Collins and Dubach (in prep. a,
b, c), which supported four species of spider monkeys (A.
paniscus, A. belzebuth, A. hybridus andA. geoffroyi), were
very similar to those reached by Froehlich et al. (1991),
with one important exception. (See Figure 1 for distribution
and constitution of Ateles species.)
This brief communication focuses on that exception, which
composed one of the four primary clades discovered by
Collins and Dubach (in prep. a) on examination of
mitochondrial DNA variation. This clade contained genetic
haplotypes referred to previously as A. belzebuth hybridus
(Kellogg and Goldman, 1944; Konstant et al., 1985; Groves,
1989). A. b. hybridus occurs primarily along the Rio
Magdalena valley of Colombia, with isolated populations
in northeastern Colombia and the mountainous regions of
northwestern Venezuela around Lake Maracaibo (Kellogg
and Goldman, 1944; Hernmndez-Camacho and Cooper, 1976;
Norconk et al., 1996) (Fig. 1).
Investigation of the genetic variation among all Ateles
haplotypes found no support to group haplotypes
described as A. b. hybridus with other haplotypes
previously classified as A. belzebuth based on pelage
(Collins and Dubach, in prep. a, c). Genetic investigations
(Collins and Dubach, in prep. a, c) also differed from the
taxonomy supported by Froehlich etal. (1991) by removing
A. b. hybridus from a clade also containing A. geoffroyi and
A.fusciceps. Froehlich et al. (1991) support uniting all trans-
Andean forms in one species with various subspecies.
Collins and Dubach (in prep. a, c) propose thatA. b. hybridus
is a separate species, A. hybridus. Thus, A. hybridus,
represents the former subspecies A. b. hybridus of Kellogg
andGoldman (1944), Konstant etal. (1985) and Groves (1989)
and A. g. hybridus of Froehlich et al. (1991).
The suggestion that A. hybridus is a separate species may
have important implications for the conservation of this
primate. A. hybridus is listed as endangered by Mittermeier
et al. (1989) and Rylands et al. (1997). The IUCN identifies
endangered species/subspecies as those with a 20%
chance of extinction in the wild in 20 years or five of its
generations. A. hybridus is threatened by both hunting

pressure and habitat fragmentation throughout its present
distribution. Ateles are found primarily in the top canopy
layers of low, humid, primary, evergreen, never-flooded, rain-
forest at elevations below 800 meters (Hern6ndez-Camacho
and Cooper, 1976; Van Roosmalen, 1980; Madden and
Albuja, 1987). They are large frugivores with large home
range requirements (Milton, 1981). Thus, small isolated
forest fragments can rarely support populations of this
primate. The combination of habitat destruction, hunting
pressure, and a long inter-birth interval can result in small
fragmented populations. This seems to represent the present
status of A. hybridus in Colombia (Hernindez-Camacho
and Cooper, 1976; Hemrndez-Camacho and Defier, 1989;
Rylands et al., 1997). Uncorrected, the probability that this
particular primate will survive in small isolated forest
fragments is believed to be very low (Collins and Dubach,
in prep. b).
Genetic and Biogeographical Evidence of Species Status
At present the Eastern Cordillera of the northern range of
the Andes in Colombia (Haffer, 1987) combined with the
Llanos Savannas of Colombia and Venezuela effectively
prevent genetic exchange between A. hybridus and A. b.
belzebuth (van der Hammen, 1982; Froehlich et al., 1991;
Norconk et al., 1996). The western cordillera of the Andes
and the Rio Cauca are possible barriers to present day gene
flow between A. geoffroyi (fusciceps) and A. hybridus.
Phylogenetic analysis ofmitochondrial (Collins and Dubach,
in prep. a) and nuclear DNA (Collins and Dubach, in prep.
c) suggests A. hybridus forms a monophyletic group
without clear ties to any other spider monkey clades (Collins
and Dubach, in prep. a). A. b. hybridus haplotypes always
group together, with high bootstrap support ranging from
92% -100% in parsimony and distance based analyses of
mitochondrial regions (Collins and Dubach, in prep. a). The
combined phylogenetic analyses for the mitochondrial DNA
regions investigated reflect a variety of different,
inconsistent relationships between the A. hybridus clade
and the other primary clades among the various
phylogenies. Genetic distances between A. hybridus and
all other spider monkey populations are the highest
observed in the mitochondrial DNA analysis (Collins and
Dubach, in prep. a). Thus, no clear relationship of A.
hybridus populations to any other Ateles populations are
Limited nuclear DNA evidence produces a phylogeny which
unites haplotypes of A. hybridus with 62%-66% bootstrap
support (Collins and Dubach, in prep. c). Twenty-one
percent of the total variation in the nuclear data set occurs
between these haplotypes and those ofA. g. robustus. Thus,
limited evidence exists for the union of these two species
as suggested by Froehlich etal. (1991), instead supporting
A. hybridus as a distinct species (Collins and Dubach, in
prep.). Based on the current findings, A. hybridus appears
to constitute a separate species of Ateles.
Gene flow between parapatric populations ofA. g. robustus
andA. hybridus along the northern reaches of the Rio Cauca

Cover photograph by Russell A. Mittermeier: The white-fronted capuchin, Cebus albifrons from Colombia.

Neotropical Primates 7(2), June 1999

Neotropical Primates 7(2), June 1999

does not seem to occur, even though no obvious geological
barriers exist in this region at the present time. A comparison
with the taxonomic boundaries of two other primates,
Alouatta seniculus and A. palliata, delineated from one
another in this same area (Rowe, 1996) supports the
distinction between A. hybridus and A. g. robustus, as well.
A discussion of biogeographic processes which may have
created this species, and which have exerted pressure on
all spider monkey populations, are provided in detail by
Collins and Dubach (in prep. b). It would appear that the
ancestors to A. hybridus and A. geoffroyi crossed the
eastern cordillera of the Andes prior to the complete end of
uplift of the chain during the late Pliocene, approximately 3
mya (van der Hammen, 1982; Haffer, 1987; Collins and
Dubach, in prep. b). Local molecular clock calculations for
all trans-Andean Ateles species' last common ancestor of
3.1 mya corroborates this hypothesis (Collins and Dubach
in prep. b). Since that time A. hybridus has been isolated
from A. belzebuth through uplift of the eastern cordillera of
the Andes and by the Llanos Savannas of Colombia and
Venezuela (van der Hammen, 1982; Haffer, 1987).
Spider monkeys apparently migrated into the Isthmus of
Panama, and A. hybridus has been secondarily isolated
from Central American and Choco populations by continued

uplift of the western cordillera of the Andes and ecological
fluctuations in habitat during the Pleistocene (Collins and
Dubach, in prep. b). AllA. hybridus haplotypes share a last
common ancestor 1.4 mya, during the early Pleistocene. It
appears there were marked periods of very dry and very
wet climates in the middle and upper Magdalena valley
during the Pleistocene (van der Hammen, 1982; Haffer, 1987).
The lower valley appears to have fluctuated between forest
savanna types during drier phases and inundated "floating
meadows" during the interstitial periods (van der Hammen,
1982). It is, thus, possible that spider monkeys, with a
preference for unflooded, primary forest, may have been
pushed back and forth, up and down the valley in response
to changing Pleistocene biomes, which effectively kept them
isolated from genetic exchange with other spider monkeys
(Collins and Dubach, in prep. b).
With a limited 'geographic distribution, habitat
fragmentation, and hunting pressure all acting against this
group of spider monkeys, the suggestion that they represent
a separate species presents a new challenge to their
conservation. Rylands et al. (1997) identify eight possible
protected areas where A. hybridus is thought to occur, but
its existence has been confirmed in only three (Rylands et

A. chamek .

Figure 1. The approximate distributions of the Central and South American spider monkeys, Ateles. Map by Stephen D. Nash.

Page 40

Neotropical Primates 7(2), June 1999 Page 41

al., 1997). Many of these protected areas are found outside
of the traditionally recognized range of A. hybridus.
Additionally, large areas of available habitat and many spider
monkeys will likely be lost with completion of the Urra II
dam on the Rfo San Jorge in Colombia (Rylands et al., 1997).
The conclusions from the phylogenetic and biogeographic
investigations of Ateles (Collins and Dubach, in prep. a, b,
c) should be used in conjunction with the proposed new
species status of this population of spider monkeys (Collins
and Dubach, in prep. a, c) to direct increased attention to
conservation efforts aimed at protecting this Neotropical
Dr. Jean Dubach and the Conservation Biology Department
of Brookfield Zoo provided a location for the research at
the Daniel F. and Ada L. Rice Conservation Biology and
Research Center's Genetics Laboratory. Brookfield Zoo also
provided financing for this project through grants awarded
by SEACON (Chicago Zoological Society Conservation
Research Grant) and the Institute of Museum and Library
Services Grant (#1C-40190-94). Sigma Xi also provided a
grant in aid of research to Andrew Collins for the early
stages of this study.
Andrew C. Collins, Department of Conservation Biology,
Genetics Laboratory, Brookfield Zoological Society, 3300
Golf Road, Brookfield, Illinois 60513, USA. Current address
for correspondence: Department of Anthropology and
Sociology, University of Wisconsin College Waukesha,
N119 Northview Hall, Waukesha, Wisconsin 53188, USA.
E-mail: .
Collins, A. C. and Dubach, J. In preparation a. 1999.
Phylogenetic relationships among spider monkey (Ateles)
haplotypes based on mitochondrial DNA variation.
Collins, A. C. and Dubach, J. In preparation b. 1999.
Biogeographic and evolutionary forces responsible for
speciation in Ateles.
Collins, A. C. and Dubach, J. In preparation c. 1999. Nuclear
DNA variation among spider monkeys (Ateles).
Fedigan, L. M., Fedigan, L., Chapman, C. and Glander, K. E.
1988. Spider monkey home ranges: A comparison of radio
telemetry and direct observation. Am. J. Primatol. 16: 19-
Froehlich, J. W., Supriatna, J. and Froehlich, P. H. 1991.
Morphometric analyses of Ateles: Systematic and
biogeographic implications. Am. J. Primatol. 25: 1-22.
Groves, C. P. 1989. A Theory of Human and Primate
Evolution. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
Haffer, J. 1987. Quartenary history of tropical America. In
Biogeography and Quaternary History in Tropical
America, T. C. Whitmore and G. T. Prance (eds.), pp.1-18.
Clarendon Press, Oxford.
Hernidez-Camacho, J. and Cooper, R. W. 1976. The
nonhuman primates of Colombia. In: Neotropical
Primates: Field Studies and Conservation, R. W.
Thorington, Jr. and P. G. Heltne (eds.), pp. 35-69. National

Academy of Sciences, Washington, D. C.
Hernindez-Camacho, J. and Defter, T. R. 1989. Algunos
aspects de la conservaci6n de primates en Colombia. In:
La Primatologia en Latinoamirica, C. J. Saavedra, R. A.
Mittermeier and I. B. Santos (eds.), pp.67-97. World
Wildlife Fund-US, Washington, D. C.
Kellogg, R. and Goldman, E. A. 1944. Review of the spider
monkeys. Proc. U. S. Mus. Nat. Hist. 96:1-45.
Konstant, W., Mittermeier, R. A. and Nash, S.D. 1985. Spider
monkeys in captivity and in the wild. Primate
Conservation (5): 82-109.
Kunkel, L. M., Heltne, P. G. and Borgaonkar, D. S. 1980.
Chromosomal variation and zoogeography in Ateles. Int.
J. Primatol. 1: 223-232.
Madden, R. H., and Albuja, L. 1987. Conservation status of
Atelesfuscicepsfusciceps in northwestern Ecuador. Int.
J. Primatol. 8: 513.
Milton, K. 1981. Estimates of reproductive parameters for
free-ranging Ateles geoffroyi. Primates 22: 574-579.
Medeiros, M. A., Barroso, R. M. S., Pieczarka, J. C.,
Nagamachi, C. Y., Ponsa, M., Garcia, M., Garcia, F. and
Egozcue, J. 1997. Radiation and speciation of spider
monkeys, genus Ateles from the cytogenetic viewpoint.
Am. J. Primatol. 42:167-178.
Mittermeier, R. A., Kinzey, W. G. and Mast, R. B. 1989.
Neotropical primate conservation. J. Hum. Evol. 18: 597-
Norconk, M.A., Sussman, R. W. and Phillips-Conroy, J. P.
1996. Primates of Guyana Shield forests. In: Adaptive
Radiations of Neotropical Primates, M. A. Norconk, A.
L. Rosenberger and P. A. Garber (eds.), pp. 69-83. Plenum
Press, New York.
Rowe, N. 1996. The Pictorial Guide to the Living Primates.
Pogonias Press, East Hampton, NY.
Rylands, A. B., Mittermeier, R. A. and Rodriguez-Luna, E.
1997. Conservation of Neotropical primates: Threatened
species and an analysis of primate diversity by country
and region. Folia Primatol. 68:134-160.
Van Roosmalen, M. G. M. 1980. Habitat Preferences, Diet,
Feeding Strategy, and Social Organization of the Black
Spider Monkey (Ateles paniscus paniscus) in Surinam.
Ph.D. Thesis, University of Wageningen, Netherlands.
Van der Hammen, T. 1982. Paleoecology of tropical South
America. In: BiologicalDiversification in the Tropics, G.
T. Prance (ed.), pp.60-65. Columbia University Press, New

Oswaldo de Carvalho JAnior
Andreia C. B. Pinto
Mauro Galetti
Cebus kaapori is a new species of untufted capuchin
monkey recently described by Queiroz (1992). It is similar
to Cebus olivaceus, and data from molecular studies indicate
that this new form is differentiated from C. olivaceus at no

Neotropical Primates 7(2), June 1999

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Page 42 Neotropical Primates 7(2), June 1999

more than the subspecific level (Harada and Ferrari, 1996).
C. kaapori has one of the smallest geographical ranges of
an Amazonian cebid primate, being restricted to the border
of the Amazonian lowland high forest to the north-east and
south-east in the state of Maranhao and the Rio Tocantins
to the west in the state of Pard (Queiroz, 1992; Lopes and
Ferrari, 1996). Recently, Silva Junior and Cerqueira (1998)
enlarged the known geographical distribution of this
species, describing new sites in the east of its range.
The fact that C. kaapori inhabits the region with the highest
human population density and the highest level of
deforestation and habitat degradation in Amazonia, and
that it naturally occurs at low population densities, resulted
in C. kaapori being considered one of the most threatened
of all Amazonian primates (Lopes and Ferrari, 1996). Here
we report on a study carried out at the Fazenda Cauaxi (FC)
(345'32"S, 48010'06"W), in Paragominas, northeastern
Pard, in eastern Brazilian Amazonia. This area has an average
temperature of 28C and a mean annual rainfall of 2200 mm.
In June 1997 a quantitative census of mammals was
conducted in a plot of 100 ha of primary forest. This plot is
surrounded by patches of primary forest and logged areas
with different histories and intensities. We used Line
Transect Methods (NRC, 1981; Brockelman and Ali, 1987)
to evaluate the density of C. kaapori in the area, but here
we used the number of individuals sighted per km
(encounter rate) to compare sites.
A total of 71 km was walked between 6:00-12:00 and 16:00-
18:00 at a mean speed of about 1 km/h. Thirteen species of
mammals were observed in the area, involving 39 sightings,
20 of which were of primates. The average number of groups
or individuals observed was 5.49/10 km walked for all
mammals and 2.82/10 km for primates. The diurnal primate
community was composed of Alouatta belzebul belzebul,
Chiropotes satanas satanas, Saguinus midas niger, Cebus
apella and Cebus kaapori. In general, the density of
primate species at FC is very similar to data available from
others studies in this region (Carvalho Jr. and Pinto, in prep.).
At FC, Cebus kaapori was sighted seven times in 71 km
censused (0.99/10 km walked). At the Gurupf Biological
Reserve (GBR) (325'S, 4720'W), state of Maranhao, Lopes
(1993) observed this species three times in 480 km censused
(0.06/10 km walked). The groups observed at both sites (FC
and GBR) showed the same pattern of social organization.
At FC observations included: on two occasions, a solitary
individual, twice two individuals, and three times in
association with C. satanas. At GBR: a solitary individual
twice, once two individuals, and once in association with
C. satanas (Lopes, 1993). The composition of these mixed
groups ranged from one to seven individuals of C. kaapori
and seven to nine of C. satanas at FC, and five C. kaapori
and more than 20 individuals of C. satanas at GBR (Lopes,
The data presented here confirm that C. kaapori naturally
occurs in low population densities, but at least in FC, the
abundance of the species was higher than for any other

previous study reported. These higher densities may be
reflecting differences in both the structure and composition
of the vegetation and the hunting pressure of the sites. At
FC, hunting is banned and there are no humans living in
the area within a 30 km radius. On the other hand, the
presence of the closely-related C. apella at this site may
influence the abundance of C. kaapori through inter-
specific competition. Preliminary data in adjacent plots
shows that the abundance of C. kaapori is inversely related
to the presence and abundance of C. apella, and also that
the species is not tolerant to high intensity logging
(Carvalho, Jr. and Pinto, in prep.).
There is only one area in eastern Amazonia that is protected
by federal law: the Gurupf Biological Reserve. This entire
region has many threatened species, but due to intense
deforestation, hunting pressure and lack of protected areas,
we consider that C. kaapori may be the first species to
become extinct in the Brazilian Amazon if a conservation
plan is not initiated in the region.
Acknowledgments: Field work was supported by funds
from FUNTEC, USAID and the Federal University of Pard
(UFPA)..We thank Mr. DamiAo for permission to work on
his farm, and the IPAM-SOMA group for collaboration in
the field. We are also grateful to S. F. Ferrari for revising the
English text and for helpful comments.
Oswaldo de Carvalho Jr., Instituto de Pesquisa Ambiental
da Amaz6nia (IPAM), Caixa Postal 8610,66075-970 Bel6m,
Para, Brazil, e-mail: , Andreia
Cristina Brito Pinto, Departamento de Psicologia
Experimental, Universidade Federal do Pari (UFPA), 66075-
150 Bel6m, Pari, Brazil, and Mauro Galetti, Departamento
de Ecologia, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Caixa Postal
199, 13506-900 Rio Claro, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Brockelman, W. Y. and Ali, R. 1987. Methods of surveying
and sampling forest primate populations. In: Primate
Conservation in the Tropical Rainforest, C. W. Marsh and
R.A. Mittermeier (eds.), pp.21-62. Alan R. Liss, New York.
Carvalho Jr, 0. and Pinto, A. C. B. In prep. Impacts of
traditional and low intensity logging on wild mammals in
eastern Amazonia.
Harada, M. L. and Ferrari, S. F., 1996. Reclassification of
Cebus kaapori Queiroz, 1992 based on new specimens
from eastern Para (Brazil). In: Abstracts: XVIth Congress
of the International Primatological Society and the
XIXth Conference of the American Society of
Primatologists, #729. 11-16 August 1996, Madison,
Lopes, M. A. 1993. Distribuiqao, ecologia e conservacao
do cuxiui-preto, Chiropotes satanas satanas (Cebidae,
Primates), na Amazonia oriental. Master's Dissertation.
Universidade Federal do Pari, Bel6m.
Lopes, M. A., and Ferrari, S. F. 1996. Preliminary
observations on the Ka'apor capuchin Cebus kaapori
Queiroz 1992 from eastern Brazilian Amazonia. Biol.
Conserv. 76:321-324.

Page 42

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Neotropical Primates 7(2), June 1999 Page 43

NRC. 1981. Techniques for the Study of Primate Population
Ecology. National Academy Press, Washington, D. C.
Queiroz, H. L. 1992. A new species of capuchin monkey,
genus Cebus Erxleben 1777 (Cebidae: Primates), from
eastern Brazilian Amazonia. Goeldiana Zool. 14:1-17.
Silva Jdnior, J. and Cerqueira, R. 1998. New data and a
historical sketch on the geographical distribution of the
Ka'apor capuchin, Cebus kaapori Queiroz, 1992.
Neotropical Primates 6(4):118-121.


Govindasamy Agoramoorthy
Ragna Lohmann
The black-and-gold howler monkey, Alouatta caraya, is
one of the six living species of howlers, and occurs in
northern Argentina, Paraguay, southern Brazil and eastern
Bolivia (Wolfheim, 1983; Rowe, 1996). It is one of the two
species of Alouatta, along with A. guariba (= A. fusca),
which exhibits sexual dichromatism. The male is black and
the female is yellowish brown. They are commonly called
black howler monkeys, but the name black-and-gold howler
monkey is appropriate due to its appearance and to avoid
confusion with A. pigra of Central America (Rowe, 1996).
Little is known about the population dynamics, social
behavior and ecology of the black-and-gold howlers when
compared to the well-studied red howlers (A. seniculus)

and mantled howlers (A. palliata). Between May and
August 1997, several black-and-gold howler groups were
surveyed in forest patches along the Rfo Riachuelo in the
state of Corrientes, Argentina. A total of 24 social groups
were surveyed in different forest patches: Caprim, Tacuaral,
Lab. 1, Lab. 4, Lab. 5, Medialuna, Sanchez, and Earthwatch.
Data on social interactions were also collected for several
groups. One solitary adult female who recently emigrated
from her native troop was also followed for several days to
record her activity patterns. We also evaluate the
conservation problems of this species in the gallery forest
habitats along the Rio Riachuelo, Argentina.
Survey sites
The survey sites included a number of forest patches along
the Rio Riachuelo, situated south of the Tropic of Capricorn
(27 30' S and 58 41' W). The mean annual temperature in
this area is 21.70C (with extremes of 44.4C and 1.1 C). Rains
occur throughout the year but decrease from June to
August. The vegetation is a mosaic of forest and clear-cut
areas dominated by pastures following the cutting of the
semi-deciduous forest dominated by Schinopsis balansae,
Astronium balansae and Tabebuia avellanedae. Patches
of dense tall forest around 15 m in height and ranging from
one to 10 ha in size remain on some flat hillocks and along
the creeks and banks of the Rio Riachuelo. These areas
contain trees of the above mentioned species as well as
Ficus enormis, Phytolacca dioica, Enterolobium
contortisiliquum, Gleditsia amorphoides and a common
exotic species, Melia azedarach. Most of these tree species
and several other vine species are important food sources
-for the black howlers (Rumiz et al., 1986).

Table 1. Population status and troop composition of black-and-gold howlers surveyed in different forest patches around the Rio
Riachuelo, Argentina (Subad. = subadult, Juv. = juvenile, M = male, F = female).
# Group name Adult M Adult F Subad. M Subad. F Juv. M Juv. F Infant Total
1 Caprim A 1 1 2 4
2 Caprim B 1 1 1 3
3 Tacuaral A 2 3 2 1 1 9
4 Tacuaral B 1 1 1 1 1 5
5 Lab4 A 1 3 1 5
6 Lab4 B 3 3 1 7
7 Lab4 C 1 4 1 1 1 8
8 Ponton U 1 1 1 1 4
9 Lab5 A 1 5 1 1 1 3 12
10 Lab5 B 4 3 3 10
11 Benite 1 2 2 5
12 Corrales 1 2 1 4
13 Medialuna A 3 2 1 1 7
14 Medialuna B 1 1 2
15 Labl A 2 2 1 2 2 9
16 Labl B 1 2 1 4
17 Sanchez 1 2 1 1 1 1 6
18 Sanchez 2 3 4 2 2 1 12
19 Sanchez 3 4 3 2 3 12
20 Earthwatch 1 3 2 1 1 1 8
21 Earthwatch 2 2 3 1 1 2 2 12
22 Earthwatch 3 1 1 1 1 4
23 Earthwatch 4 1 3 3 1 8
24 Earthwatch 5 1 4 2 1 3 11
TOTAL 41 58 8 7 17 21 19 171

Neotropical Primates 7(2), June 1999

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Page 44 Neotropical Primates 7(2), June 1999

Population Status
Black-and-gold howler groups were located either by their
vocalizations or by thoroughly searching different parts of
the forest patches. After contacting each group, we
recorded information on the size and age-sex composition,
using methods previously described by Rumiz (1990). A
total of 24 groups were monitored and the total number of
black-and-gold howlers encountered during this study was
171 individuals (Table 1). Thirteen of 24 groups were "one-
male groups", with one sexually mature male, while the
remaining 10 groups were "multi-male groups", with two or
more adult males. One group evidently lacked an adult male
(Caprim A). Group size fell below five individuals in seven
groups, while the remaining 17 had five or more individuals
(Table 1). Group size ranged from 2 to 12 (n = 24), and the
mean group size was 7.1 (3.2). The adult male to female sex
ratio was 1:1.4. The black-and-gold howler demographic
data presented in this report are similar to earlier studies on
the same population (Rumiz, 1990; DeLuycker, 1995).
The Solitary Female
A solitary female who had recently dispersed from her group
was seen near the Caprim A forest patch from 5-15 June,
1997. During this time, she was in a forest patch of 0.5 ha
and moved around 3-5 trees for foraging and resting. She
disappeared on 16 June but was seen again between 1 and
4 July near the neighboring Caprim B forest patch and
between 13 and 17 July in the Tacuaral B forest patch. During
this time, she was seen to approach the Caprim B and
Tacuaral B troops, but was unable to immigrate. This pattern
of female dispersal in black-and-gold howlers is similar to
the dispersal patterns described for red howlers (Sekulic,
1982; Agoramoorthy, 1994; Agoramoorthy and Rudran,
Conservation Status
Howler groups occur in a number of isolated forest patches
along the Rfo Riachuelo, both on government land and on
privately-owned cattle ranches. Most of the forest patches
that harbor wild howlers have been heavily degraded due
to on-going deforestation, man-made fires and cattle
ranching activities. They are also hunted. We collected two
dead howlers during the census, evidently victims of
hunting. There, the howlers are considered to be common
and the local people are completely unaware of any need to
protect them. Blood samples collected from the howlers
were found positive for yellow fever (J. C. Ruiz, pers. comm.),
but the rate of infection and mortality in the population are
not clearly known and require further investigation. It will
be important for the local government to protect the forest
patches along the Rfo Riachuelo from further degradation,
and environmental education programs are essential to
inform the ranch owners and the local communities along
the river of the importance of conserving the black-and-
gold howlers and their gallery forest habitats. There is
considerable potential for ecotourism centered on the
howlers to provide revenue for the local government, the

ranchers and the local communities. Community-based
conservation education and ecotourism would certainly
benefit both the people and howlers in this area.
Eighteen volunteers from Earthwatch Institute assisted us
in the field to collect population and behavior data and we
thank all of them for their excellent help. We are most grateful
to the Earthwatch Institute, USA, for providing financial
assistance to the black-and-gold howler project. Several
people assisted our project in various ways and we thank
especially J. C. Ruiz, C. Meyer, R. Fernandez, C. Pitteri, R.
Romero and F. Fernandez.
Govindasamy Agoramoorthy, Department of Wildlife
Conservation, National Pingtung University of Science and
Technology, Taiwan, ROC, and S. M. Govindasamy
Nayakkar Memorial Foundation, 4 Thittai Road, Thenpathy
609111, Tamilnadu State, India, and Ragna Lohmann, Max
Planck Institute for Behavioural Physiology, Seewiesen
82319, Germany
Agoramoorthy, G. 1994. An update on the long-term field
research on red howler monkeys, Alouatta seniculus at
Hato Masaguaral, Venezuela. Neotropical Primates 2(3):
Agoramoorthy, G. and Rudran, R. 1992. Adoption in free-
ranging red howler monkeys, Alouatta seniculus of
Venezuela. Primates 33:551-555.
Agoramoorthy, G. and Rudran, R. 1993. Male dispersal
among free-ranging red howler monkeys (Alouatta
seniculus) in Venezuela. Folia Primatol. 61: 93-96.
Agoramoorthy, G. and Rudran, R. 1995. Infanticide by adult
and subadult males in free-ranging red howler monkeys
of Venezuela. Ethology 99: 75-88.
DeLuycker, A. 1995. Deforestation, selective cutting, and
habitat fragmentation: The impact on a black howler
monkey (Alouatta caraya) population in northern
Argentina. Bol. Primatol. Lat. 5(1): 17-24.
Rowe, N. 1996. The Pictorial Guide to the Living Primates.
Pogonias Press, New York.
Rumiz, D. I. 1990. Alouatta caraya: Population density and
demography in northern Argentina. Am. J. Primatol. 21:
Rumiz, D. I., Zunino, G. E., Obregozo, M. L. and Ruiz, J. C.
1986. Alouatta caraya: Habitat and resource utilization
in northern Argentina. In: Current Perspectives in
Primate Social Dynamics, D. Taub and F. King (eds.),
pp.175-193. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.
Sekulic, R. 1982. Behavior and ranging patterns of a solitary
female red howler (Alouatta seniculus). Folia Primatol.
Wolfheim, J. H. 1983. Primates of the World: Distribution,
Abundance, and Conservation. University of Washington
Press, Seattle.

Page 44

Neotropical Primates 7(2), June 1999

Neotropical Primates 7(2), June 1999 Page 45

Dionisios Youlatos
Wilmer Pozo Rivera
A recent article on the distribution, and the taxonomic and
conservation status of New World primates (Rylands et al.,
1995) presented a table listing the primate fauna of Ecuador.
According to these authors, only one species of titi monkey
is present in Ecuadorian Amazonia: Callicebus cupreus
discolor. However, Albuja's (1991) inventory of the
mammals of Ecuador reported the presence of two
Callicebus species. C. moloch, the dusky titi monkey or
songo songo and C. torquatus, the yellow-handed titi
monkey or cotoncillo. According to Ulloa (1988) and de la
Torre et al. (1995) the latter species is found in the Cuyabeno
Faunal Production Reserve, situated in the northeastern
part of Ecuador, north of Rfo Aguarico, near the Colombian
border. C. moloch, on the other hand, inhabits the area
south of Rio Napo, and is found in the Yasunf National
Park, in northeastern Ecuador, near the Peruvian border. In
this report, we present some preliminary data on C. moloch
in the Yasuni National Park, Ecuador.
Dusky titis at Yasunf are found in both flooded gallery forest,
as well as lowland terra firma forests. The preliminary
observations we present here come from a site (0042'01"
S, 76028'05" W) situated at km 47 of the Pompeya Sur-Iro
road of Maxus Ecuador Inc., within the park. It is a 350 ha
site of undisturbed terrafirma lowland hilly forest, a research
site found and established by Drs. A. DiFiore and P.S.
Rodman of the University of California at Davis. All
observations are based on first sightings: habitat, behavior,
height where the animal was seen, and group size and sex-
age class identification when possible. The animals were
followed for as long as possible in order to obtain positional
(20-second intervals) and feeding data. The total number
of encounters was 24 from December 1995 until September
Dusky titis were found primarily in liana forest, high forest,
and treefall edges (33.3%, 20.8%, 20.8%, respectively). In
62.5% of the encounters, the animals were found below
10m. In Peru, C. torquatus used preferably the varillal alto
seco more or less corresponding to Yasuni's high forest,
where it used forest layers between 15m and 25m (Kinzey,
1977). The majority of encounters (90%) involved only two
groups of three and four individuals respectively. The first
group was composed of an adult male, adult female and a
juvenile of unidentified sex. The second group included an
adult male, an adult female, a subadult male, and a juvenile
of unidentified sex. This is in agreement with previous
findings where Callicebus live in monogamous, highly
territorial groups along with their offspring (Mason, 1968).
Locomotion when traveling was dominated by quadrupedal
walking and bounding (54%, n= 325 instants). Clambering

across multiple supports and leaping between small
supports in the tree crown peripheries were equally
represented (18%). Leaping from and to single vertical
supports was rare. Kinzey (1977) also found that
quadrupedalism and leaping between terminal branches
were the two most frequently used locomotor modes for C.
Dusky titis appear to be predominantly herbivorous, feeding
equally on ripe fruit and young leaves (43% and 39%
respectively, n = 23 feeding bouts). Foraging for fruit
occurred mostly on the terminal branches of trees varying
in height between 10m and 23m. Frequent postures for the
acquisition and processing of those fruits were sitting and
quadrupedal standing. The young leaves consumed
belonged to understorey lianas, acquired by vertical
clinging, and seated postures. Terborgh (1983) suggested
for titis that, since liana leaves show a continuous growth
in contrast with tree leaves, these animals would prefer
them as temporary ubiquitous protein sources to supplement
their diet.
The dusky titis were found to forage for insects in 13% (of
23 feeding bouts recorded). Kinzey and Gentry (1979) and
Terborgh (1983) who studied the same species in different
sites in Peru reported similar diets but with very low
percentages of insectivory. We believe that the high
percentage of insectivory in Yasunf is primarily due to the
small feeding bout sample. However, more investigation is
required, since C. torquatus, which seems to prefer poor
soil habitats, supplements its frugivorous diet with
arthropods rather than leaves. Apparently arthropods seem
to be abundant and to retain stable populations in such
habitats, and therefore comprise a year-round protein
source for titis (Kinzey and Gentry, 1979). The Yasunf
National Park is reported to have soils which are even poorer
than the normally nutrient limited tropical soils (Foster,
undated). They are grayish brown rather than the common
lateritic type of most tropical lowlands, and have a low pH,
and a high concentration of aluminium (J. Torres, pers.
comm.). This might be related to the relatively high
percentage of insectivory in C. moloch in our observations,
than in habitats with much richer soils of brown clayey
latosol (Kinzey and Gentry, 1979).
Acknowledgments: We are greatly indebted to Dr. J. G. H.
Cant, University of Puerto Rico, whose help and financial
support (NSF SBR 9222526) made data collection possible,
and to Prof. P. S. Rodman, University of California at Davis,
for assistance in locating the study site and logistics. We
would also like to thank Dr. L. Albuja V., Escuela Polit6cnica
National in Quito, for considerable and vital assistance,
Mr. I. Comejo P., for help in transportation, Dr. L. Arcos
Ter6n, Pontificia Universidad Cat61ica del Ecuador, for
accommodation at the research station, and the Ecuadorian
Institute of Forestry and Natural Areas (INEFAN) for
permission to conduct the study in the Yasunf National
Park. We are also most grateful to Dr. A. DiFiore, and L.
Dew for help in the field. Prof. P. S. Rodman made useful

Neotropical Primates 7(2), June 1999

Page 45

Page 46

suggestions to earlier drafts of this report.
Dionisios Youlatos, University of Puerto Rico, School of
Medicine, Department of Anatomy, PO Box 365067, San
Juan, Puerto Rico 00936-5067, USA, and Wilmer Pozo
Rivera, Escuela Polit6cnica del Ejercito, I.A.S.A. Av. El
Progreso, s/n, Sector Sta Clara, PO Box 231 -B, Sangolquf,
Ecuador. Current address of first author for
correspondence: Dionisios Youlatos, 35, Agathoupoleos
Street, 11252 Athens, Greece. E-mail: .
Albuja V., L. 1991. Mamfferos.Politdcnica 16(3): 163-203.
Foster, R. B. Undated. Vegetation of the proposed Yasunf
National Park, Ecuador. Unpublished report. Smithsonian
Tropical Research Institute, Bilbao.
Kinzey, W. G. 1977. Positional behavior and ecology in
Callicebus torquatus. Ybk. Phys. Anthropol. 20:468-480.
Kinzey, W. G. and Gentry, A. H. 1979. Habitat utilization in
two species of Callicebus. In: Primate Ecology: Problem-
Oriented Field Studies, R. W. Sussman (ed.), pp. 89-100.
John Wiley and Sons, New York.
Mason, W. A. 1968. Use of space by Callicebus groups.
In: Primates: Studies in Adaptation and Variability, P.
C. Jay (ed.), pp.200-216. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New
Rylands, A. B., Mittermeier, R. A. and Rodrfguez-Luna, E.
1995. A species list for the New World primates
(Platyrrhini): Distribution by country, endemism, and
conservation status according to the Mace-Lande
system. Neotropical Primates, 3(suppl.): 113-160.
De la Tonrre, S., Campos, F., and de Vries, T. 1995. Home
range and birth seasonality of Saguinus nigricollis
graellsi in Ecuadorean Amazonia. Am. J. Primatol. 37:
Terborgh, J. 1983. Five New World Primates: A Study in
Comparative Ecology. Princeton University Press,
Princeton, NJ.
Ulloa, R. 1988. Estudio Sinecol6gico de Primates en la
Reserva de Producci6n Faunistica Cuyabeno, Amazonia
Ecuatoriana. Tesis de Licenciatura, Pontificia Universidad
Cat61ica del Ecuador, Quito.


Benott de Thoisy
Thierry Parc
We report here on our observations of the predatory
behavior of a red howler, free-ranging on a 56-ha forested
island (4053'N, 52*10'W), the llet-La-M&re, offshore from
Cayenne, French Guiana. The island vegetation can be
characterized as an old secondary forest with dominance
of Spondias mombin (Anacardiaceae), Astrocaryum
vulgare and Desmoncus orthacanthos (Arecaceae),
Cecropia obtusa (Cecropiaceae), Gustavia augusta
(Lecythidaceae), Guarea guidonia (Meliaceae), Inga nuda

(Mimosaceae), Virola sebifera (Myristicaceae), Alibertia
edulis (Rubiaceae) and Pouteria guianensis (Sapotaceae)
(M. Nugent, unpubl. data). The Pasteur Institute of French
Guiana was established there 15 years ago as a squirrel
monkey (Saimiri sciureus) breeding colony for use in malaria
research programs (de Thoisy and Contamin, 1998). One
hundred and twenty squirrel monkeys are held in captivity
and approximately 180 are free-ranging, released as from
end of the 1970's. A single male red howler monkey is also
present on the island (no howlers occur there otherwise).
Unfortunately, there is little information about the history
of this howler. Its mother was killed by hunters and it was
hand-reared and was released on the island in the early
1980's when presumed already adult (C. Roussilhon, pers.
comm.). It is today free-ranging, completely independent
and apparently healthy.
Predatory behaviour on green iguanas by this male howler
has been recorded opportunistically on 12 occasions
between 1991 and 1997. Ten of these events occurred at the
end of the dry season (October to December). The howler
would hunt the iguanas along large branches of old mango
trees present in a small part of the island where the howler
is often found. On two occasions the prey was pursued on
the ground. As a rule the howler would spot the iguana
motionless in the sunlight, move slowly forward, and then
suddenly rush upon its prey. In nine of the 12 attacks, the
howler failed. Twice, however, it succeeded in catching
young individuals (body length approx. 25 cm), and then
proceeded to eat the hind legs and the base of the tail,
without killing them first. On another occasion, the howler
caught an adult (body length approx. 40 cm) by the tail that
then broke; the iguana escaped and the howler ate the part
of the tail remaining in its hands.
Insectivory is not rare among cebids, and predation of
vertebrates has been recorded in Cebus spp. and Saimiri
spp. (for example, Newcomer and de Farcy, 1985; Boinski
and Timm, 1986; Clarke, 1987; Fedigan, 1990; Galetti, 1990;
Souza et al., 1997; pers. obs.). Howlers on the other hand,
are considered to be strictly folivorous-frugivorous by all
authors (Crockett and Eisenberg, 1987; Neville et al., 1988;
Julliot and Sabatier, 1993). None of the numerous long-term
studies on Alouatta species have described predatory
behaviours, except nestling predation by a juvenile Alouatta
palliata observed by Sue Boinski (pers. comm.). Insect
fragments can be regularly found in feces (pers. obs), but
may be an accidental consumption when eating fruits, leaves
or flowers (Dunn, 1970).
Hypotheses to account for this exceptional hunting of lizards
are speculative indeed. The capture of vertebrates appears
to be largely opportunistic in most of the Cebidae (Clarke,
1987). This hunting activity could be a play behaviour, and
may be initiated by the proximity of the free-ranging squirrel
monkeys that regularly pursue small-sized lizards (pers.
obs.). A penchant for the taste of meat, possibly acquired
during its time in captivity, may have induced these repeated
acts. Finally, the hunting and consumption of the iguanas
could be adaptive behaviour arising from the need for

Neotropical Primates 7(2), June 1999

Neotropical Primates 7(2), June 1999

proteins. Red howlers are quite opportunistic in their diets
in disturbed habitat (de Thoisy and Richard-Hansen, 1997).
Plant diversity is low on the island: only 28 ligneous species
are common on the island (M. Nugent, unpub. data), and
just six of them are among the 195 species constituting the
diet of howlers in their natural habitats on the mainland,
none of which are included amongst the 40 species most
regularly consumed (Julliot and Sabatier, 1993). Hunting
was observed mainly during the dry season, when fruits
are scarce on the island. Meat-eating by blue monkeys
(Cercopithecus mitis) has also been reported during the
driest seasons and has been interpreted as an important
protein contribution to its diet (Fairgrieve, 1997).
Although the unusual history of this howler complicates
any conclusion about this behaviour, the repeated
successful predation of iguanas is significant. Howlers are
generally peaceful "opportunistic folivore-frugivores"
(Julliot and Sabatier, 1993). Nonetheless, they are capable
of showing considerable aggression (Crockett and Pope,
1988), and at times show unexpected behaviours (see
Richard-Hansen et al., 1998), and occasionally resort to
unusual food items (de Thoisy and Richard-Hansen, 1997).
Acknowledgments: We thank the Service de Primatologie
de l'Institut Pasteur de la Guyane for the opportunity to
carry out observations on the island. We also thank C.
Roussilhon for details about the earlier stages of life of the
howler. We are grateful to S. Boinski, C. Crockett, J.-C. Vie,
and C. Richard-Hansen for constructive comments on a
preliminary draft of this note.
Benoit de Thoisy and Thierry Parc, Association Kwata
"Study and Conservation of French Guianan Wildlife", BP
672, 97335 Cayenne cedex, French Guiana. E-mail:
Boinski, S. and Timm, R. M. 1986. Predation by squirrel
monkeys and double-toothed kites on tent-making bats.
Am. J. Primatol. 9:121-128.
Clarke, A. S. 1987. Animal foods in the diets of prosimian
and New World primates. In: Comparative Primate
Biology, Vol. 2B: Behavior, Cognition, and Motivation,
G. Mitchell and J. Erwin (eds.), pp.133-165. Alan R. Liss,
Inc., New York.
Crockett, C. M. and Pope, T. T. 1988. Inferring patterns of
aggression from red howler monkey injuries. Am. J.
Primatol. 15:289-308.
Crockett, C. M. and Eisenberg, J. F. 1987. Howlers: Variation
in group size and demography. In: Primate Societies, B.
B. Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham
and T. T. Struhsaker (eds.), pp. 54-68. University of
Chicago Press, Chicago.
Dunn, F. L. 1970. Natural infection in primates: Helminths
and problems in primate phylogeny, ecology and
behavior. Lab. Anim. Sci. 20:383-388.
Fairgrieve, C. 1997. Meat eating by blue monkey
(Cercopithecus mitis stuhlmanni): Predation of a flying
squirrel (Anomalurus derbianus jacksonni). Folia

Primatol. 68:354-356.
Fedigan, L. M. 1990. Vertebrate predation in Cebus
capucinus: Meat-eating in a Neotropical monkey. Folia
Primatol. 54196-205.
Galetti, M. 1990. Predation on the squirrel, Sciureus aestuans,
by capuchin monkeys, Cebus apella. Mammalia 54:152-
Julliot, C. and Sabatier, D. 1993. Diet of the red howler monkey
(Alouatta seniculus) in French Guiana. Int. J. Primatol.
Neville, M. K., Glander, K. E, Braza, F. and Rylands, A. B.
1988. The howling monkeys, genus Alouatta. In: Ecology
and Behavior of Neotropical Primates, Vol 2, R. A
Mittermeier, A. B. Rylands, A. F Coimbra-Filho and G. A.
B. da Fonseca (eds.), pp.349-453. World Wildlife Fund,
Washington, D. C.
Newcomer, M. W. and de Farcy, D. D. 1985. White-faced
capuchin (Cebus capucinus) predation on nestling coati
(Nasua narica). J. Mammal. 66:185-186.
Richard-Hansen, C., Bello, N. and Vi6, J.-C. 1998. Tool use
by red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) towards a
two-toed sloth (Choloepus didactylus). Primates 39: 545-
Souza, L. L., Ferrari, S. F. and Pina, L. C. B. 1997. Feeding
behaviour and predation of a bat by Saimiri sciureus in a
semi-natural Amazonian environment. Folia Primatol. 68:
de Thoisy, B. and Richard-Hansen, C. 1997. Diet and social
behaviour changes in a red howler monkey (Alouatta
seniculus) troop in a highly degraded rainforest. Folia
Primatol. 68:357-361.
de Thoisy, B. and H. Contamin, H. 1998. The squirrel monkey
breeding colony of the Pasteur Institute, Cayenne, French
Guiana. Neotropical Primates 6(1): 14-18.

Eric C. Schneider
L. Frances Hunter
Robert H. Horwich
Infant adoptions have been reported in several non-human
primate species (Thierry and Anderson, 1986). Permanent
infant adoption may be a selfish behaviour of the adoptive
mother to practice mothering skills (Lancaster, 1971) or it
may also be altruistic and explicable by kin-selection theory
(West-Eberhard, 1975). It is hard to explain all reported
adoptions by these two theories, but in all cases it serves
to aid the survival of a lost or abandoned infant. In this
study a small juvenile female black howler monkey
(Alouatta pigra) was adopted by a mother suckling her
own small juvenile. Despite aggression from two males the
orphan survived and remained in the troop. This paper
describes the process of the adoption and discusses its


Page 48 Neotropical Primates 7(2), June 1999

30 U
20 ---------
1 0 .. ....... .. .

1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15

17 19 21 23

A*- R~M'sjuv
-w-- orphan juy

injured tien missing

Figure 1. Percentage of time the orphan and rwr's daughter spent near or touching rwr female.

A stable howler monkey troop, known as Y-troop, was
studied at the Community Baboon Sanctuary (CBS) in rural
Belize, Central America. The study site is an area of
secondary growth riverine forest and new milpa (small,
temporary farmed plots) supporting at least nine troops
ranging in size from two to 14 individuals. Y-troop consisted
of nine individuals at the start of the study period: two
adult males, a subadult male which left the troop part way
through the study, three adult females, two juvenile females,
and a juvenile male. All the juveniles were approximately
13-16 months old.
The animals in the troop were identified by sex, size and
age along with coloured ankle discs as follows: rM = red
male, IM = lime male, saM = sub adult male, rwrF = red white
red female, IF = lime female, umF = unmarked female, sj =
small juvenile and mj = medium juvenile. The troops at
Bermudian Landing, within the Community Baboon
Sanctuary, have been studied since 1985. Regular censuses
have taken place and the ages and kinship of the younger
animals are known (R. H. Horwich, unpublished). Scan
samples, recording activity and proximity, were taken every
15 minutes. Proximity data was recorded as follows:
'touching' (in physical contact), 'near' (within 6 feet), or
'distant' (further than 6 feet). At each scan, proximity data
for all individuals was recorded, as was the identity of any
individuals near or touching each animal. For each
individual, the number of 'near', 'touching', 'distant' and
'not visible' scans was totalled each week, multiplied by
100, and divided by the weekly total number of scans, to
provide a percentage of total time spent in each proximity
category in relation to all other members of the troop. Ad
libitum notes were also taken throughout the periods of
observation, covering these and other behaviours, such as
aggression, travel, suckling.
Observations of the troop took place between September
1996 and October 1997. This paper covers the period from 5
February to 4 September 1997 inclusive: the period covering
the first sighting of the orphan juvenile female until the

injury and subsequent disappearance of the adoptive
mother's small juvenile female. A total of 1,121 scan samples,
covering over 269 contact hours, were taken in this period.
A foreign young juvenile female was initially seen with Y-
troop between 5-7 February, 1997. She was not seen again
until 18 March when she then remained with the troop.
Aggressive behaviour towards the orphan was exhibited
by Lime male (the subordinate adult male) on 6 February,
and by the sub-adult male on 18 March, the day of her
reappearance, and again on 4 and 14 April. However, when
the orphan screamed and was aggressive towards L male,
he retreated and no physical contact took place. The
subadult male, in contrast, bit her, despite her screaming
aggressive defence, and she continued to show concern
toward the subadult male whenever he was nearby. No other
troop members interfered in any instances of aggressive
behaviour toward the orphan.
The female rwrF had a daughter, still suckling, of similar
size to the orphan. The orphan began following rwrF and
her daughter almost immediately when she rejoined the
troop in March; within five weeks of her first appearance
and 17 days after her second appearance the orphan was
observed riding on rwrF. Two days later, she was seen
suckling from rwrF. Both juveniles were in the process of
being weaned. The adult female would push both off or
move away when either approached; there appeared to be
no distinction in her treatment of her daughter and the
orphan at these times.
RwrF showed no aggression toward the orphan during her
integration into the troop, and the time taken to be adopted
by rwrF appeared to be a function of the orphan's behaviour
rather than that of the adult female. The orphan seemed to
be the initiator of contact between herself and rwrF. On
most occasions of suckling, rwrF's daughter would be the
first to suckle and the orphan would then join in. This was
especially true during the earlier stages of the adoption.
RwrF was not observed encouraging the orphan to ride or


Neotropical Ptimates 7(2), June 1999

Neotropical Primates 7(2), June 1999 Pa2e49

suckle. If the orphan fell behind when the troop was moving
and she started to make distress calls, rwrF would not return
for her. RwrF would often leave her own daughter behind
as well, although she was seen to return for her on at least
two occasions, and on one occasion appeared to go and
search for her when she had been separated from the troop
for over an hour.
Figure 1 shows the percentage of scan observations each
week that the two juveniles spent either near or touching
rwrF. Percentages were used because of the different
numbers of observations during the weeks of the study. It
should be noted that the adopted female was not observed
with the troop in Weeks 2 and 3. Within a week of her
reappearance in the troop the orphan closely matched the
patterns of rwrF's daughter in terms of the time spent near
or touching rwrF. The orphan interacted infrequently with
the other adult females in the troop. She was sometimes
near other members of the troop during resting periods but
she did not appear to seek out other adult females. On one
occasion she was observed resting with and grooming the
unmarked female. The orphan was seen to initiate play with
the two medium-sized juveniles on one occasion and the
medium-sized juvenile male initiated play with her once.
After the initial aggression shown by Lime male no other
instances of aggression by him toward the orphan were
observed, and the orphan was seen sleeping in contact
with him when rwrF was absent from the troop. The orphan
stayed close to rwrF when travelling, often closer than the
daughter, who was observed lagging behind, calling and
being helped by other adult females. RwrF did not usually
return for her daughter when she gave distress calls; rwr
female had shown a similar lack of response to her daughter
prior to the orphan's arrival. She allowed the orphan to
suckle at six weeks from the first sighting (19 days after her
return to troop). Both juveniles suckled at the same time on
nearly all occasions once the orphan began suckling.
On the morning of 4 September both juveniles were
observed with the troop, and were in good health. A
rainstorm prevented further observations until the afternoon
when it was noted that the daughter was unable to use one
leg. Over the next three days the daughter was unable to
move quickly and consequently could not follow the troop.
She did not call and was not carried. When the troop
returned to the same tree she attempted to climb to her
mother but was unable to do so and again did not call. Over
the next two days she was observed feeding occasionally
on leaves and flowers but appeared to become increasingly
weak. On 7 September, she was missing and was presumed
dead. The orphan remained close to and continued to suckle
Black howler monkeys (Alouattapigra) live in troops of 2-
16 individuals, averaging eight. A troop is composed of
one or two adult males, a number of adult females and their
juveniles. Female howlers have typically been observed

carrying and caring for infants and small juveniles other
than their own and all members of the troop have some
contact and interactions with infants (Horwich and Gebhard,
There have been reports of adoptions in Alouatta palliata
and A. seniculus but no previous reports of such behaviour
in A. pigra. In A. palliata, when a mother was lost, infants
and juveniles were observed initiating care from other
females in the group (Clarke and Glander, 1981). Clarke and
Glander also observed the short term adoption of an infant
from a subgroup, and adoption of a foreign juvenile male.
A. palliata live in much larger groups than A. pigra; the
large groups divide into subgroups, the sub groups come
together and separate, and infants have been adopted
between sub groups (Clarke and Glander, 1981). In this
population of A. pigra the troops are smaller and
subgrouping, if it occurs, is not obvious. Territorial
behaviour is exhibited by all adults and subadults in the
troop. It involves chases and physical aggression, as well
as howling. When a troop is chased all individuals are
chased and may be grabbed and bitten if close enough.
Infanticide and bite injuries have been observed during
troop take-over (Horwich et al., in prep. ). Solitary animals
and neighboring troops which come within a troop's
territory will be chased if noticed.
In A. seniculus, adoptions have been seen between kin
(grandmother and grandchild) and also from another troop
by a nulliparous female (Agoramoorthy and Rudran, 1992).
This last adoption was of an injured infant abandoned after
a male invasion of its troop. Izawa reports the adoption of a
related newborn infant after the loss of the mother's own
infant (Izawa, 1989). The mother lost her own infant possibly
after attack by a foreign male, and she then adopted her
sister's newborn infant.
The adoption of orphans from within the same troop or
from subgroups of the troop may be a genetic mechanism
to preserve the genes of the family (kin selection theory).
Adoption of an orphan from outside the troop is harder to
explain, particularly where territory is vigorously defended
and infanticide and injuries have been seen to occur.
This adoption does not obviously fit the theory of females
learning mothering skills. The adult female in question had
already raised a number of infants. Presumably the nursing
of a second juvenile put a further strain on her own resources
and could have had a detrimental effect on her own
daughter. Also during this time, over 90% of Y-troop's home
range was cleared by bulldozer. The troop already appeared
to be less fit than other local troops, the juveniles were
much smaller than juveniles of similar age in other parts of
the Community Baboon Sanctuary and females had longer
than expected inter-birth intervals, presumably due to a
lack of resources.
There is some chance that the orphan was related to rwrF.
We do not have any definitive evidence for the origin of
the orphan but it seems likely that she was from a small

Neotropical Primates 7(2), June 1999

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Page 50 Neotropical Primates 7(2), June 1999

unmarked troop that borders Y-troop to the north. This
troop has not been studied but has been observed
occasionally. It appears that an adult female disappeared
from this troop. Additionally the orphan was first observed
with Y-troop in a border area between the two troops. If the
orphan did come from this troop then there is some
possibility that the mother was known to Y-troop or even
possibly the offspring or related to some troop members.
This might explain the adoption on the basis of kin selection.
It is also possible that the troops in CBS are closely related
and developed from a relatively small founder population
(James et al., 1997). However, other behaviour towards
neighboring troops and solitary animals indicates that
territorial considerations take precedence over kinship. It
was therefore surprising that a juvenile from a foreign troop
was allowed within Y-troop's territory and adopted by a
The persistence and assertiveness shown by the adopted
juvenile perhaps overcame the initial aggression exhibited
by two of the males. She appeared to have initiated care
behaviour and received it even at the probable detriment to
the adoptive mother and the mother's own offspring. The
behaviour of the adopted juvenile appeared to be a very
important component of the adoption. The adopted female
actively tried to stay close to rwrF. RwrF did not appear so
much to encourage the adopted female as to tolerate her.
This could be a genetically maladaptive trait of the mother
(Dawkins, 1976).
It is perhaps possible that by allowing small juveniles into
a stable population promotes some genetic diversity within
the group. Immigrations into troops appear to occur
infrequently for females, and males must often take-over a
troop, with the consequent risk of severe injury, to enter it
(Brockett, pers. comm.; Horwich, 1995). However, itremains
to be seen if the juvenile will act as a daughter and leave
when she becomes a sub-adult, as is the usual case with
the offspring of the males.
Re-Attachment or Regressive Periods
Although normal, age-related re-attachment periods have
been noted in a variety of primates and other mammals
(Horwich, 1974, 1989) there have only been indications of
such developmental periods in the wild. Such periods occur
in recurring cycles throughout individuals' lives. In wild
black howlers, re-attachment has been noted in association
with a second period of infant transfers at 7-11 weeks of
age, when the infants were carried by other females and in
one case spent time on a male as well (Horwich and Gebhard,
1986). This association supports the hypothesis that infant
transfer behaviour as well as re-attachment behaviours may
function in adoption for the survival of the infant in the
event of its mother's death (Horwich and Manski, 1975).
Regressive behaviour on the part of a juvenile, facilitating
its adoption by a female outside of its troop gives stronger
support that it plays an important role in infant survival.
Dolhinow and DeMay (1982) support this view, noting that

a potential advantage to colobine infants having multiple
caregivers is that they might be more likely to acquire care
from others in the group in the event of the loss of their
mother. They noted further that such adoptions were
initiated and maintained by the infant, as occurred in this
study. Since infant transfer and multiple caregivers have
been observed in howler monkeys as well, the howlers are
probably showing the same pattern in their adoptions as
the colobine monkeys.
Regressive periods and accompanying behaviours on the
part of the infant seem to play a role in other primate and
howler species at about the same age (2-3 months). It has
been noted in captive Colobus guereza (see Horwich and
Wurman, 1978), and patas monkeys (Chism, 1978). Data
from mantled howlers in the field showed a slight increase
in mother-infant contact at 11-13 weeks and very clear
increases at six months and a year (Clarke, 1982; Horwich
and Gebhard, 1986). We feel that this is a case where the
infant being in a regressive period in synchrony with a
similar age step-sibling facilitated the adoption by the
Thanks go to the National Geographic Society for support
(grants #@5352-94 and 5653-96), to the Community Baboon
Sanctuary staff, the people of Bermudian Landing, Robin
Brockett, Dr Eluned Price, and also for support to Dr and
Mrs P Tanguay, H. Wallace and Mr and Mrs A Brandt-
Eric C. Schneider andL. Frances Hunter, 29 Dingley Court,
Peterborough, Cambridgeshire PE3 7AP, UK, and Robert
H. Horwich, Community Conservation Consultants/Howlers
Forever, Inc. RD1, Box 96, Gays Mills, WI 54631, USA.
Reprint requests to Robert H. Horwich.
Agoramoorthy, G. and Rudran, R. 1992. Adoption in free-
ranging red howler monkeys, Alouatta seniculus of
Venezuela. Primates 33(4): 551-555.
Chism, J. 1978. Relationships between patas infants and
group members other than the mother. In: Recent
Advances in Primatology, Vol. 1, D. J. Chivers and J.
Herbert (eds.) pp.173-176. Academic Press, New York.
Clarke, M. R. 1982. Socialization, infant mortality, and infant
non-mother interactions in howling monkeys (Alouatta
palliata) in Costa Rica. Ph.D. thesis, University of
California, Davis.
Clarke, M. R. and Glander, K. 1981. Adoption of infant
howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata). Am. J. Primatol.
Dawkins, R. 1976. The Selfish Gene. Oxford University Press,
Dolhinow, P and DeMay, M. G. 1982. Adoption: the
importance of infant choice. J. Hum. Evol. 11:391-420.
Horwich, R. H. 1974. Regressive periods in primate
behavioral development with reference to other mammals.
Primates 15:141-149.

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Neotropical Primates 7(2), June 1999 Page 51

Horwich, R. H. 1989. Cyclic development of contact behavior
in apes and humans. Primates 30: 269-279.
Horwich, R. H. 1995. Howler Research. Newsletter,
Community Conservation Consultants, Howlers
Forever, Inc. 6(2), Fall/Winter: 1.
Horwich, R H. and Gebhard, K. 1986. Relation of
allomothering to infant age in howlers, Alouatta pigra,
with reference to Old World monkeys. In: Current
Perspectives in Primate Social Dynamics, D. Taub and J.
King (eds.), pp.66-88. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.
Horwich, R. H. and Manski, D. 1975. Maternal care and
infant transfer in two species of colobus monkeys.
Primates 16:49-73.
Horwich, R. H. and Wurman, C. 1978. Socio-maternal
behaviors in response to an infant birth in colobus
guereza. Primates 19: 693-713.
Izawa, K. 1989. The adoption of an infant observed in a wild
group of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus). Field
Studies of New World Monkeys, La Macarena, Colombia
James, R. A., Leberg, P. L., Quattro, J. M. and Vrijenhoek, R.
C. 1997. Genetic diversity in black howler monkeys
(Alouatta pigra) from Belize. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 102:
Lancaster, J. B. 1971. Play-mothering: the relations between
juvenile females and young infants among free ranging
vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). Folia
Primatol. 15:161-182.
Thierry, B. and Anderson, J. A. 1986. Adoption in
anthropoid primates. Int. J. Primatol. 7(2): 191-216.
West-Eberhard, M.J. 1975. The evolution of social behavior
by kin selection. Quart. Rev.. Biol. 50:1-33

Bruce Clark
Robin C. Brockett
The Belize Forest Department has shown an interest in the
reintroduction of confiscated howlers acquired via the illegal
pet trade. This is a foundation project with far-reaching
ramifications. A potential release site was identified as the
Monkey Bay National Park (17*16'N, 8832'W), Belize
District, Belize, Central America where howlers are known
to have occurred in the past. Monkey Bay National Park
(MBNP) is a protected site of 911 ha. Government permits
are necessary for entry. It is bordered to the north by the
Monkey Bay Wildlife Sanctuary (BSWS), a 433-ha, privately-
endowed property held in trust as a nature preserve. MBNP
is bordered to the south by the large Manatee Forest Reserve
which restricts access and encroachment.
The black howler monkey, Alouatta pigra, is a flagship
species for Belize, representing the country's
internationally-recognized, self-sustaining conservation

practices (Horwich, 1994). This species is considered
"Lower risk" by the World Conservation Union (IUCN)
(Rylands etal., 1995; IUCN, 1996). However, Groombridge
(1993) considered that A. pigra was possibly threatened
and that there was insufficient data to determine their
current population trends. The habitat and range of A. pigra
is shrinking rapidly, especially in Mexico where it is not
protected (Horwich and Johnson, 1986).
Howlers and spider monkeys, A. geoffroyi, ranged
throughout the Monkey Bay region until a 1958 yellow
fever epidemic and hurricanes in 1961 and 1978 decimated
primate populations locally (Mahler and Wotkyns, 1995).
Information from landowners gleaned during this study
indicated that spider monkeys were last observed in 1993,
and recent periodic sightings of howlers were claimed within
Tiger Sandy Bay, a privately-owned citrus plantation
bordering the east boundary of MBNP. In the late 1970's a
howler family existed just east of Tiger Sandy Bay. This
group was eventually shot, however, by locals (R. Foster
and C. Fametti-Foster, pers. comm. 1998). Tiger Sandy Bay's
owner does not allow hunting on this property but it may
well occur. The owner of MBWS heard howlers within
MBNP until 1983 (M. Miller and J. Brown., pers. comm.
1998). A long-term local resident reported hearing howler
vocalizations in the recent past (S. Young, pers. comm 1998).
Trail-cutting and mapping within MBNP was carried out
from 12-19 April 1998. Bruce Clark coordinated field activities
and Robin Brockett supervised the systematic mapping of
the trail system (see Fig. 1). A total of 4,650 m of trails were
cleared, tagged at approximately 20 m intervals and
subsequently mapped. Care was taken, as topography
permitted, to stratify the habitat forest types to estimate
the extent of their occurrence within the study area as has
been suggested in previous studies (Chapman et al., 1988;
NRC, 1981).

Figure 1. Trail systems within the study area and eventual release
site at the Monkey Bay National Park, Belize.

Neotropical Primates 7(2), June 1999

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Page 52 Neotropical Primates 7(2), June 1999

A habitat survey and population census was carried out
from 2-9 June 1998. Black howlers and spider monkeys were
the target species. The census was carried out by the two
authors and counted on the assistance of six Kansas City-
based university workstudy students and Oscar Habet,
Curator of the Belize Zoo. Ms. Brockett is a long-term
resident in MBWS. A fruiting tree and forest structure
survey was completed by Hector Mai, a Forest Guard of
the Conservation Division, Belize Department of Forestry.
A total of 80 hours were spent quietly walking the trail
systems, pausing about every 20 meters to watch and listen.
Surveys included all times of the day, but with an emphasis
on early mornings and late afternoons. Black howler
monkeys are most likely to be inactive in the heat of the day
(R. C. Brockett, pers. obs.). Walks were scheduled in a
preplanned random pattern of either outgoing or incoming
and through various habitats. Night camping was
conducted deep within MBNP in order to maintain two
continuous morning and evening listening posts. A two-
hour evening vigil was conducted on the highest point
within the surrounding landscape where an unobstructed
view in all directions could be observed with binoculars. A
late evening and early morning visit to Tiger Sandy Bay
was conducted to listen for howler vocalizations known to
have been in the area in the past. Brockett also carried out
a canoe survey along the Sibun River MBNP boundary
one morning when howlers are known to be most active. In
February 1998, Lighthawk, a volunteer pilot natural systems
assessment organization, conducted a light plane aerial
survey of MBNP. No deforestation within MBNP nor the
Manatee Forest Reserve was observed.
Results and Discussion
If black howler monkeys occur in this area the population is
sparse as no howlers were seen or heard. Anecdotal
observations indicated a conspicuous lack of feeding fruit
litter, and no howler feces were found. Based on the fruiting
tree and forest structure survey, resources appeared to be
adequate to support howlers, being similar to those for the
Community Baboon Sanctuary (Silver et al., 1998), an area
supporting a large population of A. pigra. although not as
extensive or diverse. MBNP is believed to be an excellent
reintroduction site because intraspecific competition would
not complicate the process. Additionally, MBNP is
relatively secure from illegal hunting. A young male-female
pair is currently being held in a pre-release station at MBWS,
maintained by Robin Brockett. These animals were provided
by the Belize Forest Department. Preparations are underway
for pre-release training following accepted standards (AZA
Reintroduction Advisory Group, 1992; IUCN/SSC Re-
introduction Specialist Group, 1998) and repatriation is
expected to occur in early June 1999. The pre-release station
consists of a 100 m solar-powered, 1 m-high electric mesh
fence surrounding several native fruit and canopy trees.
This cluster of trees and scrub is isolated within an 'island'
surrounded by mowed grass. The site is located within
MBWS. Ms. Brockett provisions them daily with native
browse and fruits.

Questions remain concerning the long-term development
of a viable self-sustaining genetic population at this site
and at what point is the program determined to be a success?
The authors maintain an immediate and long-range view of
the problem. The salvaging of animals from certain death
within the pet trade is unarguably a goal, but with effective
survival training, these animals can become founders for a
new and genetically diverse population. It is believed that
natural migration processes would eventually bring animals
back into this area, and a reintroduction is merely hastening
the process. Additional howlers from the pet trade are
already known to exist, and are likely to be available in the
near future. If after rehabilitation, these animals survive at
least one year, this will be considered a primary success,
although reproduction is the final goal. Ms. Brockett is
documenting behavior during pre-release training and
intends to track the animals once released.
Funding for this project was generously provided by the
Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation, John Ball
Zoological Society Wildlife Conservation Fund, Riverbanks
Conservation Support Fund and Wildlife Preservation Trust
International Gerald Durrell Memorial Fund. Additionally,
the Friends of the Zoo Kansas City Zoological Gardens
Conservation Endowment Fund purchased materials for the
pre-release training site and the American Association of
Zoo Keepers CPR Grant provided a boat. The authors are
grateful to Dr. Marcelo Windsor, Conservation Office In-
Charge, Conservation Division, Belize Forest Department,
for the approval of this project and all applicable permits.
The aerial survey of MBNP by Lighthawk was kindly
provided free of charge. Special recognition is owed Robin
Brockett for her personal dedication and commitment to
this effort.
Bruce Clark, Zoological Curator, Kansas City Zoological
Gardens, 6700 Zoo Drive, Kansas City, Missouri 64132.
Present address: Zoo Director, Roger Williams Park Zoo,
1000 Elmwood Avenue, Providence, Rhode Island 02907-
3600, USA, e-mail: , and Robin
Brockett, Wildlife Care Center, Monkey Bay, P.O. Box 187,
Belmopan, Belize, Central America.
American Zoo and Aquarium Association Reintroduction
Advisory Group (Benjamin B. Beck, National Zoological
Park, Washington, D. C., Chair). 1992. Guidelines for
Reintroduction of Animals Born or Held in Captivity.
AZA Conservation Center, Bethesda, Maryland.
Brockett, R. C. Zoo Atlanta Conservation Affiliate,
Community Conservation Consultants and Technical
Associate living and working in Belize with four years
experience studying black howler monkeys at Bermudian
Landing and the Cockscomb Basin areas of Belize.
Chapman, C., Fedigan, L. andFedigan, L. 1988. A comparison
of transect methods of estimating population densities
of Costa Rican primates. Brenesia 30:67-80.
NRC. 1981. Techniques for the Study of Primate Population

Page 52

Neotropical Primates 7(2), June 1999

Page 53

Ecology. National Research Council (NRC), Subcommittee
on Conservation of Natural Populations, Committee on
Nonhuman Primates, National Academy Press,
Washington, D.C.
Foster, R. and Fametti-Foster, C. 1998. Wildlife film-makers
working extensively within Tiger Sandy Bay located along
the east boundary of Monkey Bay National Park from the
mid-1971 to the present. Personal communication.
Groombridge, B. 1993. The 1994 IUCN Red List of
Threatened Animals. The World Conservation Union
(IUCN), Gland, World Conservation Monitoring Centre
(WCMC), Cambridge.
Horwich, R. 1994. Catalysts for rural conservation.
Neotropical Primates 2(2):24-25.
Horwich, R. and Johnson, E. 1986. Geographical distribution
of the black howler (Alouatta pigra) in Central America.
Primates 27(1): 53-62.
IUCN. 1996. The 1996 Red List of Threatened Animals.
The World Conservation Union (IUCN), Gland, World
Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC), Cambridge.
IUCN/SSC Re-introduction Specialist Group. 1998. IUCN
Guidelines for Re-Introductions. IUCN Publications,
Mahler, R. and Wotkyns, S. 1995. Belize: A Natural
Destination. John Muir Publications, Santa Fe, New
Miller, M. and Brown, J. 1998. Co-owners of Monkey Bay
Wildlife Sanctuary and Field Station and long-term
residents directly north of Monkey Bay National Park.
Personal communication.
Rylands, A. B., Mittermeier, R. A. and Rodrfguez-Luna, E.
1995. A species list for the New World primates
(Platyrrhini): Distribution by country, endemism, and
conservation status according to the Mace-Lande
system. Neotropical Primates 3 (suppl.): 104-164.
Silver, S., Ostro, L., Yeager, C. and Horwich, R. 1998. The
feeding ecology of the black howler monkey (Alouatta
pigra) in northern Belize. Am. J. Primatol. 45:263-279.
Young, S. 1998. Long-term local tenant and pasture caretaker
until 1998 residing 500 m north of Monkey Bay National
Park. Personal communication.

Clara B. Jones
Stereotyped and ritualized action patterns may produce
visual signals oriented to potential receivers (Bradbury and
Vehrencamp, 1998). These postures may transmit information
to conspecifics and may exhibit "typical intensity" whereby
the posture appears "unambiguous" and varies little within
and between (closely related) species (Eibl-Eibesfeldt, 1970).
Visual signals, thus, tend to be highly conservative
evolutionarily (Bradbury and Vehrencamp, 1998).
In this note I report ritualized "pointing" behavior in mantled
howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata Gray). Pointing in
mantled howlers occurs in two forms during foraging. One

form (Type 1) entails an individual, almost always an adult
female, sitting still in a normal, non-ritualized, position in a
given direction in an apparent solicitation to other group
members to follow. The second form (Type 2, Figure 1) is a
ritualized posture described in the present note. It is similar
to carnivore pointing behavior described by Morris (1986),
Ewer (1973), and others (e.g., Shaler, 1895; Scott and Fuller,
1965; Arkwright, 1902; Whitman, 1899; Rine, 1973).
As described for pointing dogs and wolves by Morris (1986),
"The behavior of the pointer on a hunt seems highly
artificial, but it is not. When wolves first scent a prey, the
leading members of the pack freeze in their tracks and point
themselves rigidly in the direction of the scent. There is a
pause, until they have all fixated on the odor of the prey,
and then they begin the next phase of their hunting
operation. It is this wolf-pause that the pointer is performing.
The only thing that is strange about the dog example is the
way the animal extends the 'frozen moment'."(pp.67).
I have observed the "frozen moment" in mantled howlers
on nine occasions in riparian habitat at Hacienda La Pacifica,
Cafas, Guanacaste, Costa Rica. All occurrences took place
between 5-7 August 1976 (n= 3) and between 21 February
and 10 March 1977 (n = 6). Adult females exhibited Type 2
pointing eight times, a young male, once. In all instances,
animals appeared to be searching for food, and changes in
direction occurred in group movement, sometimes leading
to the formation of subgroups when non-posturing
individuals followed females pointing in different directions.
Positions of non-posturing individuals often shifted from
subgroup to subgroup as they appeared to "decide" which
pointer to follow. Males and females generally vocalized
continuously during this process which was reminiscent
of avian "information centres" described by Ward and
Ewer (1973) suggested that "vegetarian species" (such as
mantled howlers) may be responsive to plant, especially
flower, odors, suggesting a relationship between olfactory

Figure 1. Approximate representation of the ritualized pointing
posture (Type 2, see text) of an adult female mantled howler.

Neotropical Primates 7(2), June 1999

Page 54

sensitivity and "mode of life". In her opinion, the ritualized
pointing posture originated from the animal's tendency to
extend its neck to smell. Arkwright (1902) makes the
intriguing suggestion that hunting by smell may select for
"spreading nostrils", a diagnostic trait of New World
Ewer also stresses that ritualized pointing in wolves is a
silent posture that may occur in association with a "group
ceremony", similar to the "greeting ceremony" seen in
African hunting dogs. Glander (1975) has described the
"greeting ceremony" in mantled howlers, and the
"information centre" noted above may be similar in form
and function to the wolf and hunting dog ceremonies
discussed by Ewer. Such apparent similarities in behavior
may represent convergent mammalian patterns.
Discussing pointing dogs, Scott and Fuller (1965) point
out that the tendency to crouch is primitive in mammals
and make the interesting suggestion that ritualized point-
ing represents "selection to restrain attack". This view may
be generalized to the idea that ritualized pointing indicates
a restraint on selfish behavior and the tendency to forage
solitarily for maximum individual gain. Social foraging has
been described in howlers (Milton, 1980; Glander, 1975;
Jones, 1996), and howlers are noted for their communal and
non-aggressive tendencies (e.g., Wilson, 1975).
The behavior described in this note is consistent with
Milton's (1980) conclusion that foraging in howlers is "goal
directed". The pattern of decision-making leading individu-
als to follow different pointers (both Type 1 and Type 2) to
alternative feeding sources may explain patterns of
subgrouping and differential assortment of group members.
These patterns of behavior and the vocalizations accom-
panying them require systematic study in the future.
Acknowledgments: I thank David Gaines for drawing Fig-
ure 1. I also appreciate the assistance of the staffs of the
Museum of Comparative Zoology (Harvard University), the
Monmouth (NJ) University Library, and the Plainfield (NJ)
Public Library in obtaining references for this note.
Clara B. Jones, Community Conservation Consultants,
Gays Mills, WI, USA. Address for correspondence:
Livingstone College, Department of Psychology, 701 W.
Monroe Street, Salisbury, NC 28144, USA. E-mail:
Arkwright, W. 1902. The Pointer and His Predecessors: An
Illustrated History of the Pointing Dog from the Earliest
Times. Arthur L. Humphreys, London (Copy 209/750).
Bradbury, J. W. and Vehrencamp, S. L. 1998. Principles of
Animal Communication. Sinauer, Sunderland, MA.
Eibl-Eibesfeldt, I. 1970. Ethology: The Biology of Behavior.
Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York.
Ewer, R. F. 1973. The Carnivores. Weidenfeld and Nicolson,
Glander, K. E. 1975. Habitat and resource utilization: An
ecological view of social organization in mantled howling
monkeys. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of

Chicago, Chicago.
Jones, C. B. 1996. Temporal division of labor in a primate:
Age-dependent foraging behavior. Neotropical Primates
Milton, K. 1980. The Foraging Strategy of Howler Monkeys:
A Study in Primate Economics. Columbia University Press,
New York.
Rine, J. Z. 1973. The World of Dogs. Dolphin Books, New
Scott, J. P. and Fuller, J. L. 1965. Genetics and the Social
Behavior ofthe Dog. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Shaler, N. S. 1895. DomesticatedAnimals. Scribner, New York.
Ward, P. and Zahavi, A. 1973. The importance of certain
assemblages of birds as "information centres" for food
finding. Ibis 115:517-534.
Whitman, C. 0. 1899. Biological Lectures: Animal Behavior.
Ginn and Co., Boston, MA.
Wilson, E. 0.1975. Sociobiology: The New Synthesis. Harvard
University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Hartmut Rothe
In 1995, the colony of common marmosets of the Institute
of Zoology and Anthropology, University of G6ttingen,
moved from an air-conditioned and artificially illuminated
laboratory to a 6.3 ha outdoor enclosure in the vicinity of
G6ttingen, Lower Saxony (51'27'N, 10'03'E). A detailed
description of the enclosure and the new buildings has
been given elsewhere (Rothe, 1996; Rothe etal., 1997). All
our marmosets were born in captivity (5th to 8th filial
generation). Before their removal to the open-air enclosure
the animals had no contact with predators and were not
forced to search for food.
From April to July 1995, the marmosets acclimatised to the
new surroundings and to the Middle European climate
(K6ppen and Geiger, 1961). During this time each group
was housed in a wooden hut (2.7 x 2.7 x 2.4 m) with roofed
veranda 1.3 x 2.7 x, 2.4 m) and adjacent wire-mesh cage (1.3
x, 1.3 x 2.6 m). The animals were fed twice daily (details in
Ahlbom and Rothe, in press). In July 1995 the marmosets
were allowed access to the open-air enclosure. Each social
group had a home-range of about 1.0 ha during the first
year, and from 1996 it increased to c. 2 ha (details in Ahlborn
and Rothe, 1997; Behet and Rothe, in review; Suchi and
Rothe, 1999). The animals are fed regularly twice a day; the
feeding sites are spread throughout the home-range,
including the hut-cage-complex. Depending on the weather,
the animals remain in the enclosure until mid-November.
During the winter they are again confined to the hut-cage-
complex. The data were taken ad libitum (Martin and
Bateson, 1986).
Preying on Animals
During the first year in their new habitat the marmosets,

Neotropical Primates 7(2), June 1999

Neotropical Primates 7(2), June 1999 Page 55

Table 1. List of prey items of semi-free common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

Prey/lbar 1995 1996 1997 1998

Gastropoda Puhmnala

Hynenoptera (Apis, Vespa,

Lepidoptera (Satyridae;
imagines and caterpillars)

Diptera (Muscidae)

Manmalia Rodentia (Arvicola)

Lunbricida (Lumbricus)

Isopoda (Powcelio)

Hemiptera (Philaenus2)

Hymenoptera (Apis', Vespa3,
Bombus3; Fonnicidae

Coleoptera (Carabidae,

Lepidoptera (imagines and
caterpillars: Totricidae,
Pyralidae, Pieridae,
Nyrphalidae, Geonetridae,
Satyridae, LWcaenidae)

Diptera (Culcidae,
Scatopsidae, Bombylidae,
Dolichopodidae, Syrphidae,

Rodentia (Arvicola)




Oscines (Emberiza,
Motacilla, Erithacus)

Rodentia (Arvicola)

Lumbricida (Lumbricus)


Isopoda (Poicellio)

Chilopodal (Geophilus)

Hemiptera (Philaenus2)

Dermaptera (Forficula2)

Saltatoria (Tettigonia,

Planipennia (Chrysopa)
Hymemptera (ApisP, Vespa3,
Bombus3; Formicidae
(Pupae), Cynipidae,

Coleoptera (Carabidae,
Phalacridae, Coccinellidae,
Elateridae, Cemnbycidae,
Chrysormelidae, Curculionidae)

Lepidoptera C(magines and
Pyralidae, Pterophoridae,
Lasiocampidae, Noctuida,
Arctiidae, Notodortidae (only
caterpillars), Pieridae,
Nynmphalidae, Geometridae,
Satyridae, Lycaenidae)

Diptera (Cuicidae,
Scatopsidae, Tabanidae,
Bombylidae, Dolichopodidae,
Syrphidae, Muscidae)

I Caught but not eaten.
2 Caught and manipulated but seldom eaten.
3 Chased, seldom caught, never eaten.

especially the alpha-animals, seldom tried to catch insects,
spiders or snails (c. 0.4-0.5% of their daily activity), and
only every fourth attempt of the animals to catch animal
prey was successful. Furthermore, the behaviour was
evidently rather more playful or exploratory than aimed at
getting food. Since 1996, however, the marmosets have
increased substantially the amount and the variety of their
prey. Prey-catching was no longer playful, but obviously
goal-oriented and quite effective. The marmosets were
"hunting" very successfully, even during slight rain or cool
weather, when prey would be resting, immobile on the

underside of the branches or leaves or on the grass blades
and other herbs from where they were skilfully grabbed
and eaten. Very often the marmosets would systematically
turn over the leaves of linden, maple and alder trees, and
were seen to eat the caterpillars of a number of species of
Lepidoptera. Several animals have specialisedd' in searching
on the ground in the tall grass by "combing" the tussocks,
whereas others have been observed stripping the prey with
one or both hands from flowers (e.g., the umbels of tansy).
or from grass blades.


Lunbricida (Lumbricus)

Opiliones, Araneae

Isopoda (Porcellio)

Chilopoda' (Geophilus)

Hemiptera (Philaenus2)

Dernmaptera (Forficula2)

Saltatoria (Tettigonia,

Planipennia (Chrysopa)

Hymenoptera (Apis', VespaP,
Bombus3, Polistes;
Formicidae (Pupae),
Cynipidae, Ichneumonidae)

Coleoptera (Carabidae,
Pialacridae, Coccinellidae,
Elateridae, Ceranbycidae,
Chrysomelidae, Curculionidae)

Lepidoptera (imagines and
Pyralidae, Pterophoridae,
Lasiocampidae, Noctuida e
Arctiidae, Notodortidae (only
caterpillars), Pieridae,
Nynphalidae, Geometridae,
Satyridae, Lycaenidae)

Diptera (Culicidae,
Scatopsidae, Tabanidae,
Bombyidae, Dolichopodidae,
Syrphidae, Muscidae)

Oscines (Emberiza,
Motacilla, Erithacus)

Rodentia (Arvicola)




Neotropical Primates 7(2), June 1999

Figure 1. Remains of Erithacus caught and partially eaten by the
The majority of the animal prey are insects, but they have
frequently been seen to eat spiders, young snails (Arion),
and worms (Lumbricus terrestris), and sometimes small
voles (Arvicola), and birds (especially Erithacus) (Fig. 1,
Table 1). Unfortunately, we have not seen how they catch
the birds and the voles. Since 1997, animal prey, most
especially Gastropoda, Diptera and Lepidoptera (mostly
imagines and caterpillars of Vanessa urticae, Inachis io,
and Gonopteryx rhamni) has come to comprise a substantial
portion of the daily food of the marmosets when they have
access to the outdoor enclosure (May to November).
Exudate-feeding was not observed during the first season
(1995), but since 1996 all marmosets except for the infants
have been seen to spend much time each day gnawing and
licking on the trunk and twigs of linden and maple trees
(Fig. 2). Lime trees are preferred, maple trees are gouged
less often, and birch trees are generally avoided. The marks
were regularly checked and deepened during the entire
season. Very often these holes were besieged by insects,
especially by flies and hover flies, which were then caught
by the marmosets.
Foraging on Plants (Flowers, Leaves, Buds)
In 1995 and 1996 the marmosets were not seen to gnaw at,
or forage on, plants, i.e. flowers, buds, leaves, twigs. Since
the Summer of 1997, however, they regularly and very
intensively suckle and chew on the blossoms of trefoil,

Figure 2. Linden tree with sap-holes cut by the marmosets

vetch, deadnettle, rape, willow-herb, linden and maple trees;
they also chew the leaves of linden, robinia and alder trees,
of trefoil, dandelion, orach, tansy, speed well, camomile,
different kinds of knotgrass and grass, fresh fruits of linden
and maple trees, and shepherd's purse as well as the
infructescences of grass, plantain, linden and maple trees.
Apparently the animals do not really eat these items but
only chew and crush the material. It is quite possible,
however, that they swallow some particles or the exudates
of the plants. Since the marmosets do not chew on all plants
which are growing in their home range, it may be assumed
that they select the plants for such as their taste or nutritive
It was evident from the ad libitum observations that the
laboratory-born marmosets were still learning about the
natural food sources available to them through the first
one or two summer seasons after their release to the new
habitat. We believe that an increase in the diversity of their
home range would be accompanied by a corresponding
increase in the use of natural food resources due to (1)
greater locomotor activity and energy demands and (2) an
expanded knowledge of the edible animal and plant foods
available to them.
Hartmut Rothe, Institut fir Zoologie und Anthropologie,
Ethologische Station der Anthropologischen Abteilungen,
UniversitAt G6ttingen, D-37130 Gleichen-Sennickerode,
Germany. E-mail: .

Page 56

Neotropical Primates 7(2), June 1999 Page 57

Ahlborn, S. and Rothe, H. 1997. Aktivititsprofil und
Tagesperiodik der Futtersuche und Futteraufnahme einer
Gruppe semi-freilebender WeiBbtischelaffen. Zool. Garten
N.E 67:301-316.
Ahlborn, S. and Rothe, H. In press. Food selection of
semifree common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus):
indications for optimal foraging. Primates.
Behet, A. and Rothe H. In review. Home-range Nutzung
durch WeiBbiischelaffen (Callithrix jacchus) unter
Semifreiland Bedingungen.
Koppen, W. and Geiger, R. 1961. Die Klimate der Erde:
Wandkarte. Pertes, Darmstadt.
Martin, P. and Bateson, P. 1986. Measuring Behaviour.
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Rothe, H. 1996. New semifree enclosure for common
marmosets at the Institute of Anthropology, University
of G6ttingen, Germany. Neotropical Primates 4: 92.
Rothe, H., Westermann, H. and Kerl, J. 1997. Freigehege fuir
Krallenaffen am hInstitut fir Anthropologie der Universitht
Gottingen.Zool. GartenN.E 67:85-91.
Suchi S. and Rothe H. 1999. The influence of abiotic factors
on the onset and cessation of activity of semi-free
Callithrix jacchus. Am. J. Primatol. 47: 241-253.

An article published recently by Rylands and Brandon-
Jones (1998) examined the correct scientific name for the
red howling monkey occurring in the northeastern Amazon
in Brazil, Venezuela and the Guianas, as well as that of the
brown howling monkey from the Atlantic forest in Brazil
and northern Argentina. The investigation arose from
confusion over the identity of the red howlers either side of
the Rio Trombetas, north of the Rio Amazonas in Brazil.
Lima et al. (1990), Lima and SeuAnez (1989, 1991) and
Bonvicino et al. (1995) had concluded that the howlers
either side of this river were distinct and indicated that A.
seniculus stramineus occurred to the west, whereas A. s.
macconnelli, a form described by Elliot (1910) from the coast
of Guyana, occurred on the east side. Vassart et al. (1996)
subsequently referred to the red howler in French Guiana
as A. s. macconnelli. This information contradicted the long-
standing recognition of the subspecific name of stramineus
(meaning 'straw-coloured') as the howler occurring in the
Guianas (see Husson, 1957, 1978). Meanwhile, Sampaio et
al. (1996) and Figueiredo et al. (1998) had argued that the
two forms either side of the Rio Trombetas were not
separable even at the subspecific level.
This confusion, along with a contradictory type locality
ascribed to Simia straminea Humboldt, 1812 by Hill (1962),

which combined localities in Pari, Brazil with the Rio Orinoco
in Venezuela, led us to investigate the nomenclatural history
of the howling monkeys of the region. To our surprise, we
discovered that the type specimen of straminea in the
Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, had been
reclassified as a female of the sexually dichromatic species
A. caraya by Isidore Saint Hilaire in 1851. Elliott (1913) had
likewise described the holotype as a female specimen of A.
caraya. Cabrera (1957), in his classic catalogue of the South
American mammals, and Carvalho (1965), who listed the
mammals collected by Alexandre Rodrigues Ferreira and
taken by Geoffroy Saint Hilaire from the Lisbon Museum in
1808 following Napolean's conquest of Portugal, were both
aware that Isidore Saint Hilaire (1851; Rode, 1938) and Elliot
(1913) had identified the holotype as a female A. caraya,
but discarded it as improbable! At our request, Drs. Laurent
Granjon and Michel Tranier, mammalogists at the Museum
National d'Histoire Naturelle, kindly examined the type, and
Dr. Colin P. Groves, Professor at The Australian National
University, Canberra, later photographed it. Although in
poor condition, the mounted holotype is undoubtedly a
female A. caraya. This renders the name straminea a junior
synonym of caraya, and therefore not available for the red
howlers. Further research into the systematics of the red
howlers from northern South America is necessary to
establish the true name for those in the northeastern
Amazon and Venezuela. A number of names will need to be
considered, including such as Mycetes auratus Gray, 1845
andM. lanigerGray, 1845.
Turning to the brown howlers of the Atlantic forest, the
controversy lies in the validity of two names given in the
same year: Simia guariba Humboldt, 1812 and Stentorfuscus
Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, 1812. When discussing Simia
straminea Humboldt 1812, Carvalho (1965) doubted Isidore
Saint Hilaire's identification of the holotype as a female A.
caraya and indicated that the specimen might be an A.
fusca! It is not, but this led us to check on the history of the
nomenclature of this species as well. It was Hershkovitz
(1963, p.397) who claimed that, although predating Stentor
fuscus Saint-Hilaire, 1812 by two months (as related by
Thomas, 1913), Simia guariba Humboldt, 1812 is a primary
homonym of Saint-Hilaire's (1806) guariba, which
Hershkovitz (1963), therefore, regarded as a junior objective
synonym of Alouatta belzebul (Linnaeus, 1766). However,
unlike "simia belzebuth" and "simia seniculus", the name
guaribais not mentioned binominally by Saint-Hilaire (1806),
who was evidently proposing it only as a vernacular name
with which to distinguish the howler, Alouatta belzebul,
from the spider monkey, Ateles belzebuth. We concluded,
therefore, that Simia guariba Humboldt, 1812 does not have
an available senior homonym, and Hill (1962) and Hirsch et
al. (1991), following Cabrera (1957), were correct in
employing it as the species name for the Atlantic forest
brown howling monkey. Stentorfuscus Saint-Hilaire, 1812
is a junior synonym. The correct name for the Atlantic forest
brown howling monkey is Alouatta guariba (Humboldt,

Neotropical Primates 7(2), June 1999

Page 57

Page 58

Douglas Brandon-Jones, 32A Back Lane, Ham, Surrey
TW10 7LF, England, UK, e-mail: lineone.net>, and Anthony B. Rylands, Departamento de
Zoologia, Instituto de Ciencias Biol6gicas, Universidade
Federal de Minas Gerais, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas
Gerais, Brazil, and Conservation International do Brasil, Av.
Ant6nio Abrahao Caram 820/302,31275-000 Belo Horizonte,
Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Bonvicino, C. R., Fernandes, M. E. B. and SeuAnez, H. N.
(1995). Morphological analysis of Alouatta seniculus
species group (Primates, Cebidae). A comparison with
biochemical and karyological data. Hum. Evol. 10(2): 169-
Cabrera, A. 1957. CatAlogo de los mamfferos de Am6rica del
Sur. Rev. Mus. Argentino de Cienc. Nat. "Bernardino
Rivadavia" 4(1): 1-307.
Carvalho, C. T. de. 1965. Comentarios s6bre os mamfferos
descritos e figurados por Alexandre Rodrigues Ferreira
em 1790. Arq. Zool. S. Paulo 12:7-70.
Elliot, D. G. 1910. Descriptions of new species of monkeys
of the genera Galago, Alouatta, and Cercopithecus. Ann.
Mag. Nat. Hist. (8)5:77-83.
Elliot, D. G. 1913. A review of primates. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.,
New York, Monograph Series, 316pp.
Figueiredo, W. B., Carvalho-Filho, N. M., Schneider, H. and
Sampaio, I. 1998. Mitochondrial DNA sequences and the
taxonomic status of Alouatta seniculus populations in
northeastern Amazonia. Neotropical Primates 6(3): 73-
Gray, J.E. 1845. On the howling monkeys (Mycetes, Illiger).
Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. 16: 217-221.
Hershkovitz, P. 1963. Primates. Comparative Anatomy and
Taxonomy, [volume] V, Cebidae, part B, A monograph,
by W.C. Osman Hill. Edinburgh University Press. 1962,
xxix 537 pp., 31 pls., 94 figs., 3 maps. $32.00. A critical
review with a summary of the volumes on New World
primates. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop. (N.S.)21: 391-398.
Hill, W. C. 0. 1962. Primates. Comparative Anatomy and
Taxonomy V Cebidae Part B. Edinburgh University Press,
Hirsch, A., Landau, E. C., Tedeschi, A. C. de M. and
Menegheti. J. 0. 1991. Estudo comparative das esp6cies
do g8neroAlouatta Lac6pbde, 1799 (Platyrrhini, Atelidae)
e sua distribuiio geogrifica na America do Sul. In: A
Primatologia no Brasil 3, A. B. Rylands and A. T.
Bernardes (eds.), pp.239-262. Fundagco Biodiversitas and
Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia, Belo Horizonte.
Husson, A. M. 1957. Notes on the primates of Suriname.
Studies on the Fauna of Suriname and Other Guianas
Husson, A. M. 1978. The Mammals of Suriname.
Zoologische Monographieen van het Rijksmuseum van
Natuurlijke Historie (2). E. J. Brill, Leiden.
Lima, M. M. C. and Seudnez, H. N. 1991. Chromosome stud-
ies in the red howler monkey, Alouatta seniculus
straminea (Platyrrhini, Primates): description of an
X1X2Y1Y2/X1X1X2X2 sex-chromosome system and

Neotropical Primates 7(2), June 1999

karyological comparison with other subspecies. Cytogen.
Cell Genet. 57:151-156.
Lima, M. M. C., Sampaio, M. I. C., Schneider, M. P. C.,
Scheffrahn, W., Schneider, H. and Salzano, F. M. 1990.
Chromosome and protein variation in red howler mon-
keys. Brazil. J. Genet. 13(4): 789-802.
Rode, P. 1938. Catalogue des types des mammiferes du
Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle: ordre des Primates,
sous-ordre des simiens. Bull. Mus. nain. Hist. nat. Paris
(2)10: 202-251.
Rylands, A. B. and Brandon-Jones, D. 1998. The scientific
nomenclature of the red howlers from the northeastern
Amazon in Brazil,' Venezuela, and the Guianas. Int. J.
Primatol. 19(5): 879-905.
Saint-Hilaire, [9.] Geoffroy 1806. M6moire sur les singes &
main imparfaite ou les at6les. Annis Mus. Hist. nat. Paris
Saint-Hilaire, [n.] Geoffroy. 1812. Tableau des quadrumanes,
ou des animaux composant le premier ordre de la classes
des mammiferes. Annls. Mus. Hist. nat. Paris 19: 85-122.
Saint-Hilaire, I. Geoffroy. 1851. Catalogue mdthodique de
la collection des mammiifres, de la collection des oiseaux
et des collection annexes du Musdum d'Histoire
Naturelle de Paris. Premiere parties. Mammiferes. Cata-
logue des primates. Gide et Baudry, Paris.
Sampaio, M. I. da C., Schneider, M. P. C. and Schneider, H.
1996. Taxonomy of the Alouatta seniculus group: Bio-
chemical and chromosome data. Primates 37(1): 67-73.
Thomas, 0. 1913. New mammals from South America. Ann.
Mag. nat. Hist. (8)12:567-574.
Vassart, M., Gu6dant, A., Vi, J.-C., K6ravec, J., S6gu6la, A.
and Volobouev, V. T. 1996. Chromosomes of Alouatta
seniculus (Platyrrhini, Primates) from French Guiana. J.
Hered. 87:331-334.

Fabiano Rodrigues de Melo completed his Master's degree
at the Federal University of Vigosa (UFV), Minas Gerais,
Brazil, in March 1999, with a thesis entitled "Molecular
characterization of Callithrix aurita, C. flaviceps, C.
geoffroyi and their probable hybrids (Primates,
Callitrichinae)". His supervisor was Dr. Ldcio Ant6nio de
Oliveira Campos and he was co-supervised by Dr. Jorge
Abdala Dergam dos Santos (UFV) and Dr. Strgio Lucena
Mendes (Museu de Biologia Mello Leitao, Espfrito Santo).
The research was supported by the Brazilian Higher
Education Authority (CAPES), the Fundagao Boticario de
Protecao A Natureza, and the Margot Marsh Biodiversity
Foundation. The following is a summary of the thesis:
The systematics of some of the marmoset species, genus
Callithrix (Jacchus Group) is still the subject of discussion.
Three of the species, C. aurita, C. flaviceps and C. geoffroyi,
overlap in parts of their geographic distributions in the
states of Minas Gerais and Espirito Santo in the south-east
of Brazil, and there is evidence of hybrid forms in the contact
zones. Although C. flaviceps and C. geoffroyi are now

Neotropical Primates 7(2), June 1999

recognized as good species, the high degree of intraspecific
variation in C. aurita phenotypes has resulted in the
description of subspecies in the past and some confusion
as to the possible occurrence and extent of hybrids,
especially with the closely related form C. flaviceps. DNA
was extracted from skin (from the ear) and amplified by
RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) by means of
the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in order to characterize
the genetic variability of both wild and captive individuals
of these marmosets and their probable hybrids. Data was
also obtained on some aspects of their external morphology
and pelage. Seven diagnostic alleles were obtained for the
three species. At least one of them was present in all of the
hybrids, and as such, supported the existence of
intermediate genotypic patterns for the hybrid forms. The
results refuted the existence of two C. aurita subspecies.
High within-population variability in pelage color patterns,
and the relative consistency of the phenetic group formed
by C. aurita militates against consideration of any
subspecific grouping. In general, the hybrids presented
highly individual color patterns and varying degrees of
introgression. In the genetic analysis, hybrids between
aurita and flaviceps were grouped with pure C. flaviceps
despite showing phenotypes closer to that of typical C.
aurita. Hybrids between C. flaviceps and C. geoffroyi, on
the other hand, showed distances and intermediacy
consistent with their intermediate phenotypes. Multivariate
statistics examining the external morphological parameters
measured showed that they were not sufficient to separate
the hybrid forms from their parent species.
Fablano Rodrigues de Melo, Departamento de Biologia Geral,
Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), 36571-000 Vigosa,
Minas Gerais. Current address: DPB/CPVS, Instituto
Estadual de Florestas (IEF), Rua Paracatu 304, Barro Preto,
30180-090 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. E-mail:
Melo, F. R. de. 1999. Caracterizacao molecular de Callithrix
aurita, C. flaviceps, C. geoffroyi e de seus provAveis
hibridos (Primates, Callitrichinae). Unpublished Master's
thesis, Universidade Federal de Vigosa, Vigosa.

The New World Primate TAG of the American Zoo and
Aquarium Association (AZA) has focused on compiling
an up-to-date regional collection plan and restructuring the
TAG itself over the past year. The newest edition of the
plan will be submitted to the Wildlife Conservation
Management Committee (WCMC) of the AZA, later this
year for approval. Distribution of the plan will follow. The
regional collection plan covers all the New World primates,
making recommendations for the North American
collections based on their status in the wild, current
population in captivity, space availability, husbandry
concerns, and founder availability, as well as other issues.

A five-year research and conservation plan will be included
in the regional collection plan when it is published.
The restructuring of the TAG is in accordance with
guidelines from AZA. Dr. Anne Baker of the Burnet Park
Zoo will be stepping down as Co-Chair. Dr. Andy Baker of
the Philadelphia Zoo will continue as TAG chair. Ken
Kaemmerer of the Dallas Zoo is the Vice-Chair, and Cathleen
Cox from Los Angeles Zoo is the Secretary. A steering
committee of nine people was elected earlier this year from
institutional representatives willing to participate. Each zoo
was asked to name an institutional representative to the
Along with the new structure of the NWPTAG will come
new responsibilities. Review and approval of new and
existing studbooks and SSPs, applications, and changes
will be done by the TAG instead of the WCMC in the near
future. Procedures for oversight of the studbooks and SSPs
as well as other issues of research, conservation, education
and husbandry are being developed. Highlights of TAG
activities over the past year include: the completion of The
Callitrichid Husbandry Manual, a change in the taxonomic
classifications within the genus Ateles, and an increase in
requests for Saimiri and Cebus for exhibit.
Kristi Newland, NWPTAG Steering Committee, Memphis
Zoo and Aquarium, 2000 Galloway, Memphis, TN 38112,
USA, Tel: 901725 3400 x 3119, Fax: 901725 9305, e-mail:

.___- The Central Suriname Nature
. '" 2 Reserve comprises more than 1.6
:j:i-' ( million ha of primary tropical
forest in the upper Coppename
River of west central Suriname.
... iS It forms a corridor linking the
S J three most important protected
"-0j ^ areas in central Suriname: the
Voltzberg Raleighvallen Nature
Reserve (established in 1961, expanded in 1986, c.78,000
ha) in the north, and the Tafelberg (established in 1996,
c.140,000 ha) and Eilerts de Haan Gerbergte (established in
1996, c.220,000 ha) Nature Reserves in the central and
southern portions of the corridor. The area effectively
protects the watershed of one of Suriname's most important
river systems, the Coppename River.
Conservation International (CI), instrumental in the creation
of this reserve, are working in close collaboration with the
Government of Suriname to make this historic reserve a
reality, a task which requires a high a level of involvement
by both parties. A conservation trust fund will be set up to
ensure long-term financing for the Central Suriname Natural
Reserve and other protected areas in Suriname, to endow
the protected areas network, and allow the country to
engage in other conservation-based development activities.
The Nature Protection Division of the Suriname Forest

Page 59

Page 60 Neotropical Primates 7(2), June 1999

Service, the Foundation for Nature Preservation in Suriname
(STINASU), and CI will develop a comprehensive
management plan for the reserve, building on basic
information about the biological resources, existing
legislative and institutional capacity, and economic
development prospects. Very little is known of the area,
and field surveys and research will be carried out in
collaboration with CI, with particular emphasis on biological
inventories and field surveys in critical ecological sites and
environmental areas and potential use zones. The final
management plan will include appropriate strategies for
resource management and protection, human use, scientific
research and monitoring, awareness-raising and
administration. CI will also provide financial support for
the development of a research station at Raleighvallen
Nature Reserve.
The creation of the Central Suriname Nature Reserve will
be a cornerstone of Suriname's commitment to conservation-
based development. The country has tremendous
ecotourism potential, and in fact was one of the first countries
to carry out successful rain forest tourism in the 1970s. The
new Reserve should help the country to reestablish this
sector and tap into the rapidly growing international nature
tourism market, which is currently estimated at US$2 billion.
Several of Suriname's neighbors have already been
successful in developing nature-based ecotourism, notably
Costa Rica and Belize. Besides the protection of one of
Suriname's most important river basins, major economic
benefits to be tapped include the sustainable use of non-
timber forest products, community artisanry and
bioprospecting. The Reserve also has the potential to bring
significant economic benefits through carbon sequestration.
CI has been active in Suriname since 1991. CI- Suriname's
initiatives include: Geographic Information System (GIS)
projects that document and map natural resource use by
the Saramaka communities north of the Brokopondo Lake
and the Tirio community of Kawmalasemutu in
southwestern Suriname; protected areas management
contributing towards the rehabilitation of the Voltzberg-
Raleighvallen Nature Reserve and Brownsberg Nature Park;
ethnobotanical projects that include the International
Cooperative Biodiversity Groups (ICBG) Bioprospecting
Program, an initiative with the Saramaka people that
identifies and screens tropical plants for potential medicinal
uses on an international scale; economic development
projects seeking to promote economic alternatives to
destructive forest practices; and policy development
projects that include participation on the National
Environmental Council, as well as active involvement in
the development of the National Biodiversity Strategy, the
National Strategy for Rural Sustainable Development and
the Amazon Cooperation Treaty (ACT).
The Central Suriname Nature Reserve is an important
precedent in protecting large blocks of undisturbed tropical
wilderness. But it is only the first step. The challenge for CI
and its partners is to continue these efforts to protect the

ecological viability of the world's last remaining tropical
wilderness areas. To meet this challenge, CI will create the
Tropical Wilderness Protection Fund (TWPF) to help finance
major conservation corridors in the Earth's major tropical
wilderness areas. Implementing the TWPF will require further
refinement of conservation priorities through assessment
of the scope of threat to these areas, incorporation of
economic assessments that will highlight areas where
conservation can best compete with more destructive land
uses, estimates of carbon sequestration potential, appraisal
of potential funding sources and current investment
climates, further biological assessments of unknown areas,
and institutional assessments of the feasibility of
wilderness protection in key countries.
The primates protected in the Central Suriname Nature
Reserve include Saguinus midas midas, Saimiri sciureus
sciureus, Cebus apella, Cebus olivaceus, Pitheciapithecia
pithecia, Chiropotes satanas chiropotes, Alouatta
seniculus, and Ateles paniscus.
Russell A. Mittermeier, President, Conservation
International, 2501 M Street NW, Suite 200, Washington,
D.C. 20037, USA.
Conservation International. 1998. The Central Suriname
Nature Reserve / Het Centraal Suriname Natuur
Reservaat. Republic of Suriname and Conservation
International, Washington, D. C. 16pp.

0. u A Reserva da Biosfera da Mata
/. ', AtlanticafoireconhecidapeloPrograma
MaB -Man andBiosphere da UNESCO
q' j .,^ -, em 1991, por solicitagio do governor
brasileiro. Esta Reserva 6 contida entire
os paralelos 20 de latitude Norte e 33 de latitude Sul, que
envolve areas remanescentes de mata Atluntica em 14 estados
entire o Ceard e o Rio Grande do Sul, e abarca 5 dos 8 mil
quil6metros da costa maritima brasileira. Estende-se por urn
ndimero de aproximadamente 1.000 municipios e abrange cerca
de 290.000 k1n2do territ6rio national. Nesta Reserva govemos
sejuntam para trabalhar para sua conservaqao e pela melhoria
da qualidade de vida das populag6es que vivem em sua area
de influencia. A universidade e os centros de pesquisa corn
trabalhos voltados a mata Atlantica desenvolvem programs
para estudA-la, conhecer sua biodiversidade, saber de se sua
conviv8ncia equilibrada com suas comunidades tradicionais
e dos seus mecanismos de auto-regenera~io. Governos,
universidades e centros de pesquisa desenvolvem e detalham
as tecnologias para recuperar suas areas degradadas ou
proteger as que se apresentam conservadas.
O 6rgio mdximo, ao qual cabe estabelecer as diretrizes para
os trabalhos de implantagao da Reserva, 6 o Conselho
Nacional da Reserva da Biosfera da Mata Atldntica. Este
Conselho concebe seu Piano de AqAo e realize sua avaliaco

Page 60

Neotropical Primates 7(2), June 1999

Neotropical Primates 7(2), June 1999 Page 61

peri6dica. Sua constituiqao 6 parietaria. Sao 36 membros: 18
govemamentais e 18 nio-governamentais. Dos 18 membros
govemamentais, quatro representam o Govemo Federal e
quatorze representam os estados que comp6em a Reserva.
Dos nao-governamentais, seis representam a Regiao
Nordeste, seis a Sudeste e seis a Sul. Cada regiao indica para
representA-la dois cientistas, dois ambientalistas e dois lideres
das suas comunidades de moradores. Os Comites Estaduais
de Implantagao sao a instancia de apoio e articulaiao junto
aos 6rgAos dos Governos Federal, Estaduais e Municipais,
que atuam na implantaqao da Reserva em cada estado. Apoiam
e articulam a participagio de cientistas, ambientalistas e
moradores nos trabalhos das instituiq6es oficiais. 0 Piano
de Agao da Reserva de baseia no obra do Almirante Ibsen de
GusmaroCAmara(Camara, 1991,1996)efuncionaemdoisniveis
de atividades: Nacional (o Piano de Agio da Reserva
propriamente dito) e Estadual (os Pianos Estaduais de Acao).
Sua definig5o se dfi por discusses e decisoes que contain
corn a colaboragao de seis Grupos TemAticos: Areas
protegidas; Esp6cies, Educago ambiental; Planejamento
ambiental e desenvolvimento sustentAvel, Qualidade
ambiental, que inclui aspects geoambientais e recuperaao
de areas degradadas; e Legislagdo. Esses grupos sao abertos
a todos os cientistas interessados e ligados ao tema, corn
trabalhos na area abrangida pela Reserva. 0 Cons6rcio Mata
Atldntica 6 o 6rgao governmental de apoio ao Sistema de
Gestao da Reserva. Exerce por delegagao o papel da Secretaria
Executive do Conselho, atuando quando solicitado no apoio
aos Comites Estaduais, articulando os trabalhos dos 6rgaos
federal e estaduais para a implantacgo da Reserve em cada
estado, assegurando a compatibilizagao das atuaq6es
sugeridas pelos Grupos TemAticos ao Piano de Acao. As
diretrizes para as atividades do Cons6rcio sao estabelecidos
por seu Conselho de Secretarios. Este Conselho 6 composto
pelos Secretarios de Meio Ambiente dos quatorze estados
consorciados e pelo Presidente do Ibama, representando o
Govemo Federal. 0 Cons6rcio conta tamb6m corn o trabalho
de dois assessores t6cnicos em cada estado e dois junto ao
Govemo Federal, indicados pelos SecretArios de Meio
Ambiente dos estados e pela Presidencia do Ibama.
Foram definidos Areas Piloto em cada estado, que tern por
finalidade priorizar a realizaqao de experiments para buscar
as melhores formas de manejar a flora, a fauna e as Areas de
produqao sustentada dos recursos naturais, bem como o
incremento e arecuperaqAo da biodiversidade e dos processes
de conservagio. Sao as seguintes Areas: Ceard Serra do
Maranguape/Aratanha e Serra do Baturit6; Rio Grande do
Norte Mata da Estrela e o Parque Estadual das Dunas do
Natal; Para(ba Litoral Norte e Mato do Pau Ferro;
Pernambuco Complexo Itamaraca/Itapissuma/Igarassu e
Serra dos Cavalos que inclui o Parque Ecol6gico Joao
Vasconcellos Sobrinho; Alagoas Mata do Quebrangulo (Al/
PE) e Mata do Murici; Sergipe Mata do Crato e Vale do Rio
Real; Bahia Parque Metropolitano do PirajA, regiao da
Reserva Biol6gica de Una e regiao do Parque Nacional de
Monte Pascoal; Minas Gerais Parque Estadual do Rio Doce,
Municfpios de Ouro Preto e Tiradentes, Estacgo Ecol6gica

do Papagaio; Espfrito Santo Parque Estadual de Itadnas,
region da Reserva Biol6gica de Sooretama e Reserva Florestal
de Duas Bocas; Rio de Janeiro Parque Estadual do
Desengano, Reserva Ecol6gica do Joatinga, Esta$go
Ecol6gica de Ribeirao das Lages, regiao do Parque Nacional
do Itatiaia, Parque Estadual da Serra Grande, Reserva Ecol6gica
da Praia do Sul, APA de Marambaia e Jacarepeia; Sao Paulo
- Picinguaba, regiao abrangida pelo Cinturao Verde de Sao
Paulo e municipios de Apiai, Iporanga, Eldorado, Jacupiranga
e Canan6ia; Parand Municipios de Guaraquegaba e
Antonina; Santa Catarina Reserva de Patrim6nio Nacional
de Volta Velha, Rio Julio, Morro do Bat e Parque Estadual da
Serra do Tabuleiro; Rio Grande do Sul Regiao da Reserva
Biol6gica da Serra Geral, Vales do Maquin6 e das Tres
Forquilhas e municipio de Silveira Martins.
O Pr8mio Muriqui foi institufdo em 1993 pelo Conselho
Nacional da Reserva da Biosfera da Mata Atlantica, em sua
2a. Reunido realizada em Domingos Martins, Espfrito Santo.
Tern o objetivo de incentivar a96es que contribuam para a
implantagao desta Reserva, Apenas dois premios sao
outorgados anualmente pelo Conselho a pessoas ffsicas e
entidades ptiblicas e privadas, nacionais ou intemacionais
que tenham se destacado, por suas atividades em beneficio
da Protegao da Biodiversidade, do Desenvolvimento
SustentAvel ou do Conhecimento Cientffico da Mata Atlfntica.
Excepcionalmente, por raz6es especiais, tres pr8mios no
mAximo podem ser atribufdos no mesmo ano. Esta homenagem
6 constituida de uma estatueta de bronze e de um diploma que
6 entregue em cerimOnia festival, aos benfeitores desta
ecossistema. Os premiados sao escolhidos atrav6s de voto
nas reunites ordinArias anuais do Conselho Nacional da
Reserva da Biosfera da Mata Atlantica.
As seguintes instituiq6es e personalidades ja receberam o
Premio Muriqui: 1993 Ecologista Roberto Lange (in
memorial), ativo conservacionista paranaense, que lutou
intensamente em defesa da Mata Atfintica, e foi relator do
process de tombamento da Serra do Mar no Estado do
Parana; a Sociedade Nordestina de Ecologia SNE por sua
atuag~o como coordenadora dos trabalhos de elaboragqo da
proposta da Reserva da Biosfera da Mata Atlantica nos
estados do Ceara, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraiba, Pernambuco,
Alagoas e Sergipe; a Fundagdo Brasileira para Conservaf~o
da Natureza (FBCN), que durante anos foi a tinica fundagao
ambientalista a atuar no panorama politico brasileiro, tendo
participado ativamente de indmeras e hist6ricas atividades e
batalhas em defesa da mata AtlIntica. 1994 Adelmar F
Coimbra Filho, fundador do Centro de Primatologia do Rio
de Janeiro (CPRJ/FEEMA), eminente bi6logo, membro da
Academia Brasileira de Ci8ncias, autor de muitos trabalhos
sobre a fauna e flora da mata Atiantica, representante do
Brasil em events cientfficos internacionais e grande
incentivador da Reserva da Biosfera; e o Projeto Centro
Peixe-Boi/IBAMA, pelos grandes esforgos realizados na
identificaqo de solug6es e em sua aplicacio na conservagao
e recuperagao dessa important esp6cie, e tamb6m pelos
promissores resultados ja alcangados. 1995 Sebastido
Salles de Sd (in memorial), coordenador do Projeto Mata

Neotropical Primates 7(2), June 1999

Page 61

Page 62

Atlintica e Presidente do Conselho de Cultura no Estado,
pelo muito que fez, com seu trabalho incansAvel e ag6es
importantes pela criago da Reserva da Biosfera da Mata
Atlantica; Miguel Serediuk Milano, Engenheiro Florestal,
mestre e doutor em Cidncias Florestais, Professor da
Universidade Federal do Parana, autor de mais de 40
trabalhos t6cnico-cientfficos, criador do Parque Nacional
da Serra Geral, Rio Grande do Sul, e Diretor da Fundaqao 0
BoticArio para a Protecao a Natureza; e o Projeto Centro
TAMAR/IBAMA, pioneiro no desenvolvimento de um
projeto de grande relevincia para a proteco das tartarugas
marinhas que se encontravam extremamente ameaqadas e
pelo grande sucesso alcanqado na execugAo dessa tarefa
de forma sustentada. 1996 -Almirante Ibsen de Gusmao
Camara, Em6rito ambientalista, participate do Conselho
de varias ONGs ambientalistas brasileiras, representante
do movimento ambiental brasileiro em diversas ocasi6es
no exterior, e autor do Piano de Acao para a Mata Atldntica
(Cimara, 1991, 1996), um dos mais expressivos documents
ji publicados sobre a conservacio deste ecossistema; e a
Associagao Gaticha de Protecdo ao Ambiente Natural -
AGAPAN, ONG brasileira, que desde 1971 luta pela defesa
da mata Atlantica tendo participado ativamente de seu
process de tombamento no Rio Grande do Sul, e membro
do Comit6 Gadcho da Reserva da Biosfera. 1997 Russell
A. Mittermeier, Ecologista, professor e primat6logo, chefe
do Grupo de Especialistas em Primatas (UICN/CSE/PSG),
um dos principals defensores do meio ambiente no cenario
intemacional, foi vice-presidente do WWF-US, e Presidente
da Conservation International desde 1983, e 6 um grande
incentivador da Reserva da Biosfera da Mata Atlantica; e a
Secretaria do Meio Ambiente do Estado de Sao Paulo
que, al6m dos trabalhos em areas de mata Atlantica no
estado, tem assumido uma postura de lideranqa na defesa
dos remanescentes de mata Atlantica a nfvel national e
sempre proporcionou apoio fisico e material, bem como
funciondrios para os trabalhos da Reserva da Biosfera. 1998
- Denise Margal Rambaldi, Engenheira Florestal, trabalhou
pela implantacgo do Parque Florestal Ibitipoca, coordenou
e supervisionou a implantagao do Parque Municipal Eurico
Figueiredo em Conselheiro Lafayete, Minas Gerais, em 1989
foi contratada pelo Programa de ConservaAgo do Mico-
Leao-Dourado do National Zoological Park, Smithsonian
Institution, como Coordenadora do Projeto de Educaqao
Ambiental, e em 1994 assumiu a Diretoria Executiva da
Associaqdo Mico-Ledo-Dourado (AMLD), no Rio de
Janeiro; e a Fundagdo SOS Mata Atlantica, primeira
entidade ambientalista nio-govemamental a desenvolver
uma campanha national em defesa da mata Atlantica.
Tornou-se entidade referencial, dada a importancia e
qualidade de seus trabalhos como o Atlas da Mata
Atldntica que public periodicamente.
Para maiores informagbes: Conselho Nacional da Reserva
da Biosfera da Mata Atlntica, Rua do Horto 931, Instituto
Florestal, 02377-000 Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brasil, Fax: (011)
204 8067, e-mail: . Web site: www.unicamp.br/nipe/rbma>.

Neotropical Primates 7(2), June 1999

Camara, I. de G. 1991. Piano deAqdopara a MataAtldntica.
FundagRo SOS Mata Atlantica, Sao Paulo. 152pp.
Camara, I. de G. 1996. Piano de Agdo para a Mata Atlfntica:
Roteiro para a conservacgo de sua biodiversidade.
Cadernos da Reserva da Biosfera da Mata Atlhntica (4):
Correa, E 1995. A Reserva da Biosfera da Mata Atlantica:
Roteiro para o entendimento de seus objetivos e seu sistema
de gestio. Cadernos da Reserva da Biosfera da Mata
Atldntica (2): 1-28.
Guatara, I. S., Costa, J. P. de 0., Correa, F. e Azevedo, P. U. E.
de. 1994. A question fundiAria: Roteiro para solugdo dos
problems das Areas protegidas. Cadernos da Reserva da
Biosfera da MataAtlantica (1): 1-31.
Noffs, P. da S., Galli, L. F. e Gongalves, J. C. 1996. Recuperaco
da Areas degradadas da mata Atlintica: Uma experiencia da
CESP Companhia Energ6tica de SAo Paulo. Cadernos da
Reserva da Biosfera da Mata Atldntica (3): 1-44.

The Amazon Center for Environmental Education and
Research (ACEER) is a nonprofit education and research
facility situated in 250,000 acres of primary tropical rainforest
in the upper Amazon Basin of Peru, District of Loreto. The
facility is available for short and long-term tropical research
studies. Applications are continuously reviewed by the
ACEER Foundation's Scientific Advisory Board. For more
information: Dr. Stephen L. Timme, Sperry Herbarium -
Biology, Pittsburg State University, Pittsburg, Kansas
66762-7752, USA, Tel: (316) 235-4740, Fax: (316) 235-4194, e-
mail: . WWW: aceer.htm>. From Tropinet 10(1), March 1999.

The Saint Eug6ne Research Station was founded in 1993
by the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle (MNHN) with
a grant from the Electricit6 de France (EDF). It is located
upstream the Courcibo river (a tributary of the Sinnamary
river), approximately 2V2 hours by speed boat from the Petit
Saut Dam (50 km from the city of Kourou at the base of the
Centre Spatial Guyanais CSG). It was set up just months
before most of the region was flooded due to the
construction of the dam. The lake is 36,500 ha with a mean
depth of 10-11 m, and a maximum depth of 35 m.
Approximately 10,500 ha of islands were formed in 1994-
1995 during the inundation of the forest. This station is
devoted to the study of the consequences of forest
fragmentation with water as a matrix between fragments.
The core area of the Station consists of a large peninsula of
about 1,500 ha connected to the mainland by a corridor
several hundred meters wide, and of 110 islands ranging
from 0.1 to 78 ha. The research area is part of the EDF

Neotropical Primates 7(2), June 1999 Page 63

concession, and is protected from hunting by national
guards. Apart from clearing and casual logging nearby
previous goldminer camps along the river (now flooded),
no extensive logging occurred before or after flooding, and
the forest is considered old and mature. Several networks
of trails have been established at 100-m intervals on some
large islands, at 500-m intervals on others, and at 500-m
intervals on the large peninsula. Two 1-ha permanent plots
have been mapped and all trees greater than 10 cm in dbh
were tagged, inventoried and identified. One is on the large
peninsula and the other on a 28-ha island. The forest is rich
in Lecythidaceae and Leguminosae, and the fauna, at least
on the mainland, is complete and rich with six species of
primates and large terrestrial ungulates and felids.
Populations of vertebrates (reptiles, birds, rodents,
marsupials, bats, primates and ungulates) have been studied
since the beginning of the fragmentation processes. Along
with the long-term survey of fauna and flora, the goal of the
Saint Eug6ne Fragmentation Program (SEFP) is to
investigate animal-plant relationships in collaboration with
other European and international institutions. Studies are
currently being developed in other areas as well, such as
invertebrate-soil relationships (dung beetles, termites).
The housing facilities are rustic (i.e. hammocks rather than
beds). The station is equipped with three main rooms with
wooden floors, metal roofs, a generator, refrigerator, water
pump, shower and running water, allowing up to 10 persons
to live for extended periods of time. Food and necessities
can be purchased easily from Kourou, and routinely
brought to the station. Currently, the station is open twice
a year, during the wet (March-June) and the dry season
(October-December) depending on usage.
For more information: Dr. Pierre-Michel Forget (topic:
Botany and animal-plant relationships), Lab. Ecologie
G&n6rale, Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle (MNHN),
4 avenue du Petit Chateau, F-91800, Brunoy, e-mail:
, or Dr. Jean-Marc Pons (topic: Zoology).
Lab. Mammif6res et Oiseaux, Museum National d'Histoire
Naturelle (MNHN), 55 rue de Buffon, F-75005 Paris, France,
e-mail: . From: Tropinet 10(1): March 1999.

The Jersey Zoo, founded by the author
and naturalist, the late Gerald Durrell,
( celebrated its 40th anniversary on 26th
SMarch 1999. Registered as a charity in
S- 1963, the Jersey Wildlife Preservation
Trust (JWPT) manages species recovery
programmes in a number of regions
throughout the world, and the Jersey Zoo serves as the
centre for breeding, research and professional training and
fundraising. Veterinary, pathology, nutrition, and public
education services offer special expertise to conservation
programmes in the zoo and overseas. On the event of its
40th anniversary, the name of the Trust was changed to

honour its founder. It is now the Durrell Wildlife
Conservation Trust. The announcement was made at the
opening of "First Impressions", the new 1.2 million multi-
species animal enclosure, by His Excellency The Lieutenant-
Governor of Jersey, General Sir Michael Wilkes. On this
occasion, the Trust's Honorary Director, Dr. Lee Durrell,
also unveiled a larger-than-life size bronze sculpture of Gerald
Durrell in the landscaped forecourt of the exhibit.
Besides receiving the Senior Biology and Conservation
Award of the American Society of Primatologists in 1997
(see Neotropical Primates, 5(3): 82-83,1997), PSG Member
and Director of the Jersey Zoo, Jeremy J. C. Mallinson, was
recently presented with the Heini Hediger Award (October
1998), given for outstanding and dedicated service to the
zoo community by the International Union of Directors of
Zoological Gardens and Aquariums.

SThe Margot Marsh Biodiversity Fund, a
charitable foundation dedicated exclusively to
primate conservation, was created in 1996. The
mission of the Fund is "to contribute to global
biodiversity conservation by providing
strategically targeted, catalytic support for the
conservation of endangered nonhuman primates and their
natural habitats" (see Neotropical Primates 4(2): 65-66, June
1996; 6(1): 23-24, March 1997).
In 1998, Neotropical Primates received a major grant
through IUCN-US from the Margot Marsh Biodiversity
Foundation, covering the costs of printing and distributing
four issues to over 950 addresses worldwide. We are pleased
to announce that a further grant has been awarded for 1999,
mediated by the Los Angeles Zoo, and as editors, Anthony
Rylands and Ernesto Rodrfguez-Luna, and on behalf of all
who receive this newsletter free-of-charge, we express our
most sincere gratitude for the continuing support of the
Foundation in this venture.
The Primate Action Fund provided support for seven
projects in 1998 for research on and the conservation of
Neotropical primates: Translocation of white-faced
capuchins to Pedras Blancas National Park, Costa Rica -
Suzanne Chacon, Nature Restoration Foundation; Status
of populations and habitats of the Central American squirrel
monkey in Panama Ariel Rodrigo Rodriguez-Vargas,
Program Regional en Manejo de Fauna Silvestre (Costa
Rica); Preparation of the Primates of Colombia
(Conservation International Tropical Field Guide Series) -
Thomas Defter, Fundaci6n Natura-Reserva Capard,
Colombia; Seed dispersal by howler monkeys and other
frugivorous vertebrates at Itapua State Park, Rio Grande do
Sul, Brazil Ana Alice Biedzicki Marques, Universidade
Federal de Minas Gerais; Rapid assessment of yellow-tailed
woolly monkey populations in the Peruvian Andes -
Associaci6n Peruana para la Conservaci6n de la Naturaleza

Neotropical Primates 7(2), June 1999

Page 63

Page 64 Neotropical Primates 7(2), June 1999

(APECO); Distribution and feeding behavior of the black
howler monkey in the Bocas de Polochic Wildlife Refuge,
Guatemala Claudia Lorena Quan Rodas, Idea Wild; Status
of spider monkey populations in El Triunfo and La Sepultura
Biological Reserves, Mexico Alberto Anzures Dadda, Idea
Wild. Five major grants were also awarded: Publication of
the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group Newsletter
Neotropical Primates IUCN-US; Development of a Primate
Research Station at the Raleighvallen-Voltzberg Nature
Reserve, Suriname Cincinnati Zoo and Botanical Gardens;
Relationship of reproductive function and suppression to
social hierarchies in black-handed spider monkeys in
Catemaco, Mexico and the potential of Genome Resource
Banking for conservation William Swanson, Cincinnati
Zoo and Botanical Gardens; PHVA Workshop for
Endangered Muriquis IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding
Specialist Group; Conservation of Brazil's critically
endangered lion tamarins Brazil Fauna Interest Group/
American Zoo and Aquarium Association.
For 1999, so far the following Primate Action Fund grants
have been awarded in support of projects on Neotropical
primates: Spider monkey conservation project at Madidi
National Park Joe Viera and collaborators, Conservation
International, Bolivia; Search for a possible new species of
woolly monkey, Lagothrix Randy Borman, Cofan Survival
Fund; Mycophagy by Callimico and primate surveys in
the central and southwestern parts of the Pando, Bolivia -
Amy Hanson, State University of New York (SUNY), Stony
Brook; Effects of Amazonia wildfires on primates and other
vertebrates Carlos Peres, University of East Anglia, UK.
For further information on the Margot Marsh Biodiversity
Foundation, please write to: Dr. William R. Konstant, c/o
Conservation International, 2501 M Street NW, Suite 200
Washington, D. C. 20037, USA, Fax: 202 331-0570, e-mail:

Por interm6dio de seu
MPrograma de Incentivo
h Conservacao da
Natureza, a Fundago o
Natureza aprovou 24 projetos no primeiro semestre de 1998
(receberam apoio a partir de agosto de 1998). Os projetos
foram aprovados em tres categories: 1) Unidades de
Conservacgo 8 projetos; 2) Pesquisa e Protecao da Vida
Silvestre 13 projetos; 3) Areas Verdes 3 projetos. Mais 18
projetos foram aprovados no segundo semestre (apoiados
a partir de janeiro de 1999): 1) Unidades de Conservaio 5
projetos; 2) Pesquisa e Protegio da Vida Silvestre 9
projetos; 3) Areas Verdes 4 projetos. Essa segunda selegdo
incluiu, corn recursos do convenio entire a Fundacgo e a
John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, o projeto
"Levantamento das populag6es remanescentes e status

taxon6mico do muriqui, Brachyteles arachnoides, no estado
do Rio de Janeiro" da Fundacqo Brasileira para a
ConservagAo da Natureza (FBCN), Rio de Janeiro. Somam
hoje 525 projetos de conservagAo, pesquisa e manejo
apoiados pela Fundaco BoticArio.
No dia 11 de fevereiro de 1999, a Fundagio celebrou um
convenio corn a Editora da Universidade Federal do Parand.
0 convenio, que ter6 duraqAo de cinco anos, visa a realizano
em conjunto de ediqoes de obras em lingua portuguesa
sobre o tema "Conservagco da natureza". A primeira agao
deste conv8nio foi a parceria para a edicAo do livro Saudade
do Matao de Teresa Urban, que relata a hist6ria do
movimento conservacionista no Brasil, incluindo
entrevistas corn cinco das mais importantes figures deste
movimento (vejaNeotropical Primates 7(1): 34, 1999).
Miguel Seredink Milano, Diretor T6cnico (e-mail:
) e Maria de Lourdes Nunes,
Coordenadora Tecnica (e-mail: ),
Fundagco 0 Boticdrio de Protegio a Natureza, Av. Rui
Barbosa 3450, Afonso Pena, 83065-260 Sao Jos6 dos
Pinhais, Parand, Brasil, Tel: (041) 382 3456, Fax: (041) 382

Since 1986, Lincoln Park Zoo's Scott Neotropic Fund has
supported more than 125 projects in 18 Latin American
countries, dispensing more than US$750,000. The following
projects were recommended for support in 1999: Indigenous
monitoring of wildlife harvests and biodiversity in
Nicaragua's Bosawas Natural Reserve Cheryl Asa, St.
Louis Zoo, Anthony Stocks, Idaho State University & Paul
Garber, University of Illinois, Urbana; Conservation and
population assessment of mantled howler monkeys of
Mobacho Volcano Nature Reserve and surrounding coffee
plantations Colleen McCann & Fred W. Koontz, Bronx
Zoo; Viability of the endangered Darwin's fox (Pseudalopex
fulvipes): Assessing ecological factors in the last mainland
population (Chile) Jaime E. Jimenez, Utah State University;
Effects of habitat fragmentation on the bat assemblages in
the south-eastern Brazilian Atlantic forest Fernando A. S.
Fernandez, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro;
Reconciling timber harvesting with forest conservation in
the eastern Amazon (Brazil) Mark Schultze, Pennsylvania
State University; Natural history of the horned guan
(Oreophasis derbianus) in Albores, Sierra de las Minas
Biosphere Reserve, Guatemala Omar Menez, Universidad
de Valle de Guatemala; The creation of an urban tropical
conservation area: The contribution of a herpetofaunal
survey Ana Cristina de Oliveira C. Duarte, Instituto
National de Pesquisas da Amaz6nia, Manaus. The following
projects were renewed: Primate translocation as a tool for
species preservation and community conservation in
northwest Ecuador Amy Galloway, Northern Michigan
University; Strategies for the conservation of the jaguar

Page 64

Neotropical Primates 7(2), June 1999

Neotropical Primates 7(2), June 1999
(Panthera onca) in Costa Rica; Biological corridors and
buffer zones Roberval Almeida, Universidad Nacional,
Costa Rica; Baird's tapir ecology in a Costa Rican tropical
rainforest Charles R. Foerster, Universidad Nacional, Costa
Rica; Are artificial burrow colonies useful to increase
optimal nesting sites for Humboldt's penguins in Peru? -
Rosana Paredes & Carlos B. Zavalaga, Punta San Juan,
Peru; Long-term studies of forest fragmentation Alejandro
Estrada, Los Tuxtlas Biological Station, Mexico.
In 1999, the Lincoln Park Zoo will be launching a new fund,
similar to the Scott Neotropic Fund, in support of projects
in Africa, Asia and the Pacific. Application materials for
this and the Scott Neotropic Fund are available by writing
to: Steven D. Thompson, Director of Conservation and
Science, Lincoln Park Zoo, P. O. Box 14903, Cannon Drive
at Fullerton Parkway, Chicago, Illinois 60614, USA, Tel: 312
742 7765, Fax: 312 742 7220, e-mail: com>.

The L. S. B. Leakey
A Foundation was formed to
SIL further research into
human origins and
behavior. Recent priorities
include research into the environments, archaeology, and
human paleontology of the Miocene, Pliocene, and
Pleistocene; the behavior, morphology, and ecology of the
great apes and other primate species; and into the behavioral
ecology of contemporary hunter-gatherers. Other areas of
study have been funded on occasion.
The Leakey Foundation is pleased to announce an increase
in funding levels for all grant award categories. Awards in
the Special Research Grants category will be increased to
US$ 40,000 for senior scientists and post-doctoral students.
Multiple year funding will also be considered. Special
Research Grants focus on projects which involve substantial
field research in paleoanthropology, archaeology,
primatology and related disciplines. Awards in the General
Research Grants category will be increased to $20,000 for
senior scientists and post-doctoral students and $12,000
for graduate students. Grants are awarded twice annually:
Application deadline 15 August for December notification;
Application deadline 5 January for May notification.
Further details and updated application requirements are
available from the office upon request, or through the
Foundation's web site the beginning of July. Application
forms will be available on-line as of July at:
. For further information: The
Leakey Foundation, P.O. Box 29346, Presidio Bldg., 1002A
O'Reilly Ave., San Francisco, CA 94129, USA, Fax: (415)
561-4647, Tel: (415) 4646, e-mail: org>.

Page 65

As of 1 June 1999, Primate Conservation Inc. has a new
address. Please post all correspondence to: Noel Rowe,
Primate Conservation Inc., 1411 Shannock Rd., Charlestown,
Rhode Island 02813-3726, USA, Tel: +1 401 364-7140, e-
mail: . Web site: www.primate.org>.

A teaching workshop "Design of Biodiversity Inventories
and Use of Indicator Groups" will be held from 25 November
- 5 December 1999, at Villa de Leyva, Boyaca, Colombia. It
will be offered by the Program in Biodiversity Inventories
of the Humboldt Institute of the Universidad Nacional de
Colombia. The objectives are to provide training to students
and professionals in the design and direction of biological
inventories and diversity in Neotropical countries. The
course will be offered at the graduate level with credit
arranged through the Universidad Nacional of Colombia. It
will include both theoretical themes and their practical
applications in acquiring field data, design and management
of data bases, and statistical analysis, offered by an
international group of scholars and researchers. Selection
of participants will be merit-based; some financial support
is available. Applications will be received from 1 March-30
June, with notification of acceptance in mid-August. The
workshop coordinators are: Frederico Escobar S., Instituto
Humboldt, Colombia, e-mail: ,
and Mario E. Favilla C., Instituto de Ecologfa, M6xico, e-
mail: scarab@sun.ieco.conacyt.mx>. Web page:

- The Napier Memorial Medal was instituted
by the Primate Society of Great Britain (PSGB)
in memory of its founding President,
Professor John Napier, following a bequest
to the Society. The Medal is offered every
two years to a young primatologist in order to provide
encouragement through the public recognition of their work.
The fourth Napier Medal was awarded to Nicola Koyama in
1997 for her PhD on reconciliation behaviour in Japanese
macaques. Nominations for the 5th Napier Memorial Medal
(to be awarded at the 1999 Winter Meeting, 1 December
1999) are invited on behalf of recent postgraduate students.
To be eligible for consideration candidates must: 1) be either
a British subject or a foreign national who has completed a
PhD at a UK institution of higher education; 2) normally be
under the age of 30 years on 1 December 1999 (older

Neotropical Primates 7(2), June 1999

applicants are considered in exceptional circumstances); 3)
have submitted their thesis after June 1997. Candidates
should normally be nominated by a member of the PSGB,
but they may be nominated by their PhD supervisor even if
he/she is not a member. The nomination should consist of
a CV (including an abstract of the PhD thesis and full list of
publications) and two letters of reference (one of which
should normally be from the external examiner of the PhD).
The closing date for receipt of nominations is 1 August
1999, and candidates may be asked to provide a copy of
their PhD or published work for the selection committee.
Nominations should be sent to: Dr. Phyllis C. Lee,
Department of Biological Anthropology, Downing Street,
Cambridge CB2 3DZ, UK.

The Primate Society of Great Britain (PSGB)
is compiling a millennium edition of their
guide to primate field projects: Current
Primate Field Studies (a supplement to
their newsletter Primate Eye). For the first
time, this guide will be compiled in collabo-
ration with the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Cen-
tre (WRPRC), and will also be available electronically on
the Field Studies section of the International Directory of
Primatology website (http://www.primate.wisc.edu/pin/idp/
index.html). This merger of PSGB and WRPRC field directo-
ries will establish a single comprehensive global database
that will maximise accessibility and minimise redundancy
for both users and contributors alike.
We invite all those who are currently carrying-out primate
field studies, or who completed a field study during 1998-
1999, to submit their project details to this scheme. Submis-
sions can be made electronically or by hard copy. In the
first instance, submissions can be made on the electronic
form found on the International Directory of Primatology
website (http://www.primate.wisc.edu/pin/idp/idpqfield.
html). If submissions are made by hard copy (a form is
enclosed with this journal to help facilitate this option), the
following information should be included:
(1) Title of field study project, (2) Country and location, (3)
Project start and end dates, (4) Research objectives, (5)
Species studied (list latin names), (6) Other primate species
found at site, (7) Positions for field workers/volunteers, (8)
Sponsoring institutions, (9) Name of project director to-
gether with their institution, address, city, state/province
(not abbreviated), mailing code, phone number, fax number,
e-mail address and website address, (10) The names of other
research personnel on the project (including the contact
person for these project details; if same as director, please
list as same), (11) Keywords that best describe the field
study, and (12) Miscellaneous comments (optional).
Submissions by hard copy should be mailed to: Guy
Cowlishaw, Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of
London, Regent's Park, London NW1 4RY, UK, e-mail:

A series of reports on the activities and research carried
out through the US-AID/The Nature Conservancy (TNC)
project "Employment and Natural Resources Sustainability
in the Pacaya-Samiria National Reserve" have been
compiled by the Fundaci6n Peruana para la Conservaci6n
de la Naturaleza (FPCN), Iquitos, and the Centro de Datos
para la Conservaci6n of the Universidad Nacional Agraria
La Molina. The! Cahuana Biological Station on the Rio
Pacaya in the Pacaya-Samiria National Reserve in the
Peruvian Amazon is the field site of long-term research by
PSG member Pekka Soini (see Primate Conservation (7):
63-71, 1986). In Spanish, the Reporte Pacaya-Samiria:
Investigaciones en la Estaci6n Biol6gica Cahuana, 1979-
1994, published in 1995, 435pp., includes extremely
valuable ecological and demographic data on callitrichids,
Cebuella pygmaea, Saguinus fuscicollis and S. mystax,
the monk saki, Pithecia monachus, the woolly monkey
(Lagothrix lagothricha), and the red howler (Alouatta
seniculus), as well as information on the avifauna,
capybaras, the Amazon manatee (Trichechus inunguis) and
the turtles, especially the giant Amazon river turtle
(Podocnemis expansa). It contains 41 separate reports
(Informes) as follows: 1. Evaluaci6n de fauna silvestre en
la cuenca del rio Pacaya, Abril 1978 Octubre, 1979. 2.
Estudio, reproducci6n y manejo de los quelonios del g6nero
Podocnemis (charapa, cupiso y taricaya) en la cuenca del
Pacaya, rio Pacaya, Loreto-Perti. 3. Informe de las
actividades en la Estaci6n Biol6gica Cahuana, Abril -
Agosto, 1980). 4. Ecologia y dindmica poblacional del
pichico Saguinusfuscicollis (Primates, Callitrichidae). 5.
Informe de las actividades en la Estaci6n Biol6gica
Cahuana, Enero Diciembre, 1981. 6. Distribuci6n
geogrifica y ecologfa poblacional de Saguinus mystax
(Primates, Callitrichidae). 7. Informe de las actividades en
la Estaci6n Biol6gica Cahuana, perfodos Enero-Abril y
Junio-Agosto, 1982. 8. Informe de las actividades en la
Estaci6n Biol6gica Cahuana, Agosto Noviembre, 1982.
9. Ecologia reproductive de la taricaya (Podocnemis unifilis)
y sus implicaciones en el manejo de la especie. 10. Censos
de fauna silvestre en la isla de Cahuana, Enero-Abril, 1983.
11. Ecologia poblacional de los primates del g6nero
Saguinus. 12. Ensayos de incubaci6n de huevos de los
quelonios del g6nero Podocnemis (charapa, taricaya y
cupiso). 13. Ecologia y situaci6n de la charapa
(Podocnemis expansa), 1984. 14. Estudio y conservaci6n
de la charapa (Podocnemis expansa), 1984. 15. Lista
preliminary de los reptiles y mamfferos presents en Cahuana,
rio Pacaya. 16. La avifauna de Pacaya: Inventario preliminary.
17. Caracteristicas climiticas: Resumen de cinco ailos de
registros de la temperature, pluviosidad y fluviometria en
Cahuana, rio Pacaya. 18. Estudio e incubaci6n de nidadas
de la charapa (Podocnemis expansa), 1985. 19. Un resume

Page 66

Neotropical Primates 7(2), June 1999

comparative de la ecologfa reproductive de los quelonios
acuAticos. 20. Informe preliminary de la ecologia y dindmica
poblacional del "choro" Lagothrix lagotricha (Primates).
21.Resumen comparative de la ecologfa y dinimica
poblacional e la familiar Callitrichidae (Primates). 22. Estudfo
e incubaci6n de los huevos de quelonios acuaticos, 1986.
23. La dieta del mono choro (Lagothrix lagotricha). 24.
Desarrollo dentario y la estimaci6n de la edad en Cebuella
pygmaea, Saguinus fuscicollis y Saguinus mystax
(Callitrichidae, Primates). 25. La dieta del mono huapo
(Pithecia monachus). 26. Estudio y manejo de quelonios
acuaticos, 1987. 27. El huapo (Pithecia monachus):
dinimica poblacional y organizaci6n social. 28. Dinimica
poblacional del ronsoco o capibara (Hydrochaeris
hydrochaeris). 29. Ecologia del ronsoco o capibara
(Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris). 30. Estudio y manejo de
quelonios acuiticos en 1988. 31. La avifauna de Pacaya:
lista actualizada de esp6cies y evaluaci6n preliminary de la
abundancia y preferencias de habitat. 32. Estudio y manejo
de la charapa (Podocnemis expansa) en 1989. 33.
Bioecologfa de la taricaya (Podocnemis unifilis): datos
nuevos y actualizados. 34. Densidades poblacionales del
ronsoco o capibara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) y el
desarrollo de um m6todo de censo. 35. Evaluaci6n
preliminary de la vaca marina (Trichechus inunguis). 36.
Ecologfa del coto mono (Alouatta seniculus). 37. Ecologfa
de las aves acuaticas: Parte I. 38. Manejo de quelonios
acuiticos, 1992. 39. Ecologfa de las aves acuaticas. Parte
II: Desarrollo de um m6todo de censo; ecologfa y
abundancia de las garzas. 40. Investigaci6n de la charapa
(Podocnemis expansa) en 1993.41. Evaluaci6n, studio y
manejo de la charapa (Podocnemis expansa) en el rfo Pacaya
en 1994. This compilation is available from: Fundaci6n
Peruana para la Conservaci6n de la Naturaleza (FPCN),
Apartado 449, Iquitos, Peru, Fax: +5194 233 949. Information
kindly supplied by Eckhard W. Heymann, Deutsches
Primatenzentrum, Gdttingen, Germany.
Short papers which were presented at the Captive Care
Symposium held during the XVIIth Congress of the
International Primatological Society (IPS), Antananarivo,
Madagascar, 11 August 1998, have been published in
volume 38(2), 1999, of the Laboratory Primate Newsletter
(Editor Judith Schrier, Brown University, Rhode Island). The
symposium was organized by Hilary 0. Box, Interim Vice-
President for Captive Care and Breeding of the IPS, and
was centered on environmental conditions that stimulate
natural patterns of behaviour, and the "performance" of
captive breeding colonies. The following papers were
published: Adaptation of captive-bred New World monkeys
to a seminatural environment M. T. Moore & A. T. C.
Feistner, pp.18-19; Encouraging natural feeding behavior
in captive Varecia variegata variegata A. Britt, pp. 19-20;
Restocking of Varecia variegata variegata: the first six
months A. Britt, C. Welch & A. Katz, pp.20-22;
Determinants of chimpanzee longevity in zoos V. I. Landau,
J. L. Grenfell, E. I. L. Metelovski & J. E. King, p.22;

Page 67

Development of a new ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) exhibit
at Edinburgh Zoo G. Catlow, R. Clifford, L. Dickie & C.
Wren, pp.22-23; Breeding vervet monkeys in a source
country research facility M. C. Mdhluli, J. V. Seier & C.
Lambrechts, p.23; Research on laboratory animal
domestication of cynomolgus monkeys (M. fascicularis) -
Yang Shou Kai, p.23. Laboratory Primate Newsletter is
published quarterly by the Schrier Research Laboratory,
Box 1853, Psychology Department, Brown University,
Rhode Island 02912, USA, Fax: +1 401 863 1300, e-mail:
. Current and back issues are
available on the World Wide Web at www.brown.edu/Research/Primate>.

The Fundagqo Brasileira para a Conservagio da Natureza
(FBCN), based in Rio de Janeiro, has published volume 25
(1998) of its bulletin. Publication of the Boletim FBCNhad
been interrupted since 1989 (volume 24). As pointed out in
the presentation by PSG member Admiral Ibsen de Gusmao
Cimara, it plays an important and unique role in publishing
articles on conservation biology in Brasil, and its
resurrection, which marks the Foundation's 40th
Anniversary (founded on 28th August 1958 the first
Brazilian NGO of its kind), was generously sponsored by
Russell Wid Coffin. Volume 25 includes important articles
regarding the conservation of the fauna and flora of the
Atlantic forest, especially in the state of Rio de Janeiro.
Contents: Ensaios de repovoamento e reintrodugao de tr8s
esp6cies regionais do g8nero Pyrrhura, no Parque Nacional
da Tijuca, RJ, Brasil (Psittacidae Aves) A. E Coimbra-
Filho & R. da Rocha e Silva, pp.11-25; Restingas
fluminenses: Biodiversidade e preservag~o D. S. D. de
Aratijo & N. C. Maciel, pp.27-51; Um resume da situagao:
Mimus saturninus e M. gilvus no litoral sudeste brasileiro -
M. M. Argel-de-Oliveira & J. F. Pacheco, pp.53-69; Validade
dos parimetros da IUCN em amostra regional HA esp6cies
de morcegos ameanadas no municipio do Rio de Janeiro? -
C. E. L. Esb6rard, pp.71-86; 0 genero Neomarica Sprague
(Iridaceae), seu significado no combat a erosAo em areas
sombreadas A. F. Coimbra-Filho & H. F. Martins, pp.87-
98; A juqara (Euterpe edulis Mart. Palmae): Ensaios e
apontamentos A. F. Coimbra-Filho, R. da Rocha e Silva &
A. R. da Silva, pp.99-117; Conservagio da Familia
Vochysiaceae A. St. Hilaire no estado do Rio de Janeiro -
M. C. Vianna & H. F. Martins, pp.119-128; The identification
of giant petrels (Aves, Procellariidae) in South Atlantic J.
E Voisin & D. M. Teixeira, pp. 129-133. For more information,
and instructions for contributions to the Boletim FBCN,
write to: Fundaqlo Brasileira para a Conservag9o da
Natureza (FBCN), ComissWo Editorial, Rua Miranda Valverde
103, Botafogo, 22281-000 Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro,
The Instituto Pau Brasil de Historia Natural, founded in
1998 and based in ArujA, Sio Paulo, has begun a publication

Page 68 Neotropical Primates 7(2), June 1999

series Publicapges Avulsos do Instituto Pau Brasil de
Hist6ria Natural, ISSN 1516-4926. The first, in Portuguese,
is a monograph entitled "Potencial da Educacgo Ambiental
nos Zool6gicos Brasileiros", by Ana Lticia Ramos
Auricchio, 46pp., March 1999. For more information: Paulo
Auricchio, President, Instituto Pau Brasil de Historia Natural,
Caixa Postal 282,07400-970 Aruji, Sao Paulo, Brazil, Tel:
+55 (0)1196074510, Fax: +55(0)114655-2731.
Primate Sexuality: Comparative Studies of the
Prosimians, Monkeys, Apes and Human Beings,
by Alan Dixson, 1998, 656pp., 81 halftones, 333 line figures.
Oxford University Press, Oxford. ISBN 0 19 8501183-8
(hardback), 0 19 850182-X (paperback). Prices: 80.00/
US$140.00 (hardback), 32.50/US$60.00 (paperback). Primate
Sexuality is a uniquely comprehensive synthesis of our
knowledge about the sexual behaviour of primates. Alan
Dixson reviews and integrates both the evolutionary
biology and the physiological basis of sexual behaviour
across the whole spectrum of primates, from prosimians to
humans. No other book written on the subject of primate
sexuality has the comparative breadth or technical depth of
this outstanding volume, drawing on and collating work
from over 2,000 references, and illustrated throughout with
hundreds of drawings and original figures. Contents: Darwin
and friends; Primate classification and evolution; Mating
systems; Mating tactics and reproductive success; Sexual
behaviour and sexual response; Sociosexual behaviour and
homosexuality; Sexual selection and sexually dimorphic
traits; Sperm competition; Sexual selection and genitalic
evolution; Sexual differentiation of the brain and behaviour;
The ovarian cycle and sexual behaviour; The
neuroendocrine regulation of sexual behaviour in the adult
female; Hormones and sexual behaviour in the adult male;
Socioendocrinology and sexual behaviour. To order: US -
payment in dollars, credit card hotline +1-800-451-7556
(credit card orders only) 9am-5pm, or Fax: +1919 677 1303;
Rest of the World payment in sterling, credit card hotline
+44 (0)1536454534, orFax: 44 (0) 1536454518. Forenquiries,
call, +1 919 677 0977. Web site: ,
The Mammals of Paracou, French Guiana: A
Neotropical Lowland Rainforest Fauna. Part 1:
Bats, by Nancy B. Simmons and Robert S. Voss, 1998.
Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 237pp.
A most significant, thorough, and scholarly contribution
to our understanding of mammalian diversity and
distributions in Amazonia. Based on fieldwork from 1991 to
1994. Information: Dr. Nancy B. Simmons, Associate Curator,
Department of Mammalogy, American Museum of Natural
History, Central Park West at 79th St., New York, NY
10024,USA, Tel: (212) 769-5483, Fax: (212) 769-5239, e-mail:
. WWW: mammalogy/simmons.html>.

A Field Guide to Medicinal and Useful Plants of
the Upper Amazon, by J. L. Castner, S. L. Timme and J.A.
Duke, 1998. Feline Press, Gainesville, 160pp. 240 color
photos. Price: US$38. ISBN 0-96251159-7-8. This book is
the first photograph-oriented color guide that treats the
medicinal plants found in the Amazon Basin. Written in
terms that a layperson can understand. An informative and
concise description of the uses and identification of over
120 species of plants is provided. To order: Feline Press,
P.O. Box 7219, Gainesville, FL 32605, USA, e-mail:
Sampling and Statistical Methods for Behavioral
Ecologists, by Jonathan Bart, Michael A. Fligner and
William I. Notz, 1998, 352pp. Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge. ISBN 0 52145095 0 (hardback), 0 52145705 X
(paperback). Price: 47.50 (hardback), 17.95 (paperback).
Behavioral ecology research raises special statistical
problems that are generally not covered in introductory
statistics courses. This book bridges the gap, exploring the
techniques that have the greatest relevance to field
biologists, pinpointing common statistical pitfalls and how
to avoid them. Available from: Cambridge University Press,
The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 2RU, UK, Tel: +44
(0)1223 32558 to order direct or using your credit card, Fax:
+44 (0)1223 325152. For further information: Giulia Williams,
e-mail: science@cup.cam.ac.uk. Web site: www.cup.cam.ac.uk>.

Abee, C. R. 1999. Squirrel monkey breeding and research
resource. Lab. Prim. Newsl. 38(2): 13-14.
Achenbach, G. G. and Snowdon, C. T. 1998. Response to
sibling birth in juvenile cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus
oedipus). Behaviour 135(7): 845-862.
Alvard, M. S. 1998. Evolutionary ecology and resource
conservation. Evol. Anthropol. 7(2): 62-74.
Aruguete, M. S., Lyons, D. M., Mason, W. A. and Mendoza,
S. P. 1998. Reactions of adult and immature squirrel
monkeys to intergroup exposure. Zoo Biol. 17(6): 519-
Boissinot, S., Tan, Y., Shyue, S. K., Schneider, H., Sampaio,
I., Neiswanger, K., Hewett-Emmett, D. and Li, W. H. 1998.
Origins and antiquity of X-linked triallelic color vision
systems in New World monkeys. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci.
U.SA. 95(23): 13749-13754.
Christen, A. 1999. Survey of Goeldi's monkeys (Callimico
goeldii) in northern Bolivia. Folia Primatol. 70:107-111.
De Lillo, C., Aversano, M., Tuci, E. and Visalberghi, E. 1998.
Spatial constraints and regulatory functions in monkeys'
(Cebus apella) search. J. Comp. Psychol. 112(4): 353-
Feer, F. 1999. Effects of dung beetles (Scarabaeidae) on
seeds dispersed by howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus)
in the French Guianan rain forest. J. Trop. Ecol. 15: 129-
Ferrari, S. F., Iwanaga, S., Ramos, E. M., Messias, M. R.,
Ramos, P. C. S. and Cruz Neto, E. H. da. 1999. Expansion

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Neotropical Primates 7(2), June 1999 Page 69

of the known distribution of Goeldi's monkey (Callimico
goeldii) in south-western Brazilian Amazonia. Folia
Primatol. 70:112-116.
Caslick, S. 1998. Mixed species: A legitimate exhibit.
Australasian Primatology 12(4): 7.
Ely, A., Freer, A., Windle, C. and Ridley, R. M. 1998.
Assessment of cage use by laboratory-bred common
marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Lab. Anim. 32(4): 427-
Flynn, J. J. and Wyss, A. R. 1998. Recent advances in South
American mammalian paleontology. Trends in Ecology
and Evolution 13(11): 449-454.
Gage, T. B. 1998. The comparative demography of primates,
with some comments on the evolution of life histories.
Ann. Rev. Anthropol. (1998): 197-221.
Hauser, M. D., Kralik, J. and Botto-Mahan, C. 1999. Problem
solving and functional design features: Experiments on
cotton-top tamarins, Saguinus oedipus oedipus. Anim.
Behav. 57(3): 565-582.
Heymann, E. W. and Holighaus, K. 1998. The human factor:
Effect of animal keepers on the behavior of cotton-top
tamarins Saguinus oedipus (Callitrichinae). Zool. Gart.
68(4): 222-230. In German.
Hook-Costigan, M. A. and Rogers, L. J. 1998. Lateralized
use of the mouth in production of vocalizations by
marmosets. Neuropsychologia 36(12): 1265-1273.
Horovitz, I. and Meyer, A. 1997. Evolutionary trends in the
ecology of New World monkeys inferred from a combined
phylogenetic analysis of nuclear, mitochondrial and
morphological data. In: Molecular Evolution and
Adaptive Radiation, T. J. Givnish (ed.), pp. 189-224.
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Jones, C. B. 1998. The primates of Mesoamerica.
Mesoamericana 3(2): 23-25.
Jones, C. B. 1998. The Evolving Female: A Life-History
Perspective. Politics and the Life Sciences 17(1): 97-99.
(Book review).
Jones C. B. 1998. Human Nature: A Critical Reader.
Endeavour 22(1): 37-38. (Book review)
Kessler, M. J. 1999. The Caribbean Primate Research Center.
Lab. Prim. Newsl. 38(2): 12-13.
Kyes, R. C. and Howell. S. M. 1999. Conservation efforts of
the American Society of Primatologists. Am. J. Primatol.
47(1): 3-13.
Manson, J. H. 1999. Infant handling in wild Cebus
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57(4): 911.921.
Mason, W. A. and Mendoza, S. P. 1998. Generic aspects of
primate attachments: Parents, offspring and mates.
Psychoneuroendocrinology 23(8): 765-778.
-Montali, R. J. and Bush, M. 1999. Diseases of the
Callitrichidae. In: Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine: Current
Therapy. 4th edition, M. E. Fowler (ed.), pp. 369-376. W.
B. Saunders, Philadelphia.
Naughton-Treves, L., Treves, A., Chapman, C. and
Wrangham, R. 1998. Temporal patterns of crop-raiding by
primates: Linking food availability in croplands and
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Norcross, J. L. and Newman, J. D. 1999. Effects of separation
and novelty on distress vocalizations and cortisol in the
common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Am. J. Primatol.
47(3): 209-222.
Ostro, L. E. T., Silver, S. C., Koonmtz, F. W., Young, T. P. and
Horwich, R. H. 1999. Ranging behavior of translocated
and established groups of black howler monkeys
Alouattapigra in Belize, Central America. Biol. Conserv.
87(2): 181-190.
Plavcan, J. M. 1998. Correlated response, competition, and
female canine size in primates. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol.
107(4): 401-416.
Power, M. L., Tardif, S. D., Layne, D. G. and Schulkin, J.
1999. Ingestion of calcium solutions by common
marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Am. J. Primatol. 47(3):
Roda, S. A. and Mendes Pontes, A. R. 1998. Polygyny and
infanticide in common marmosets in a fragment of the
Atlantic forest of Brazil. Folia Primatol. 69(6): 372-376.
Rogers, K. 1999. Santa Barbara Zoo announces squirrel
monkey birth. AZA Communique (January): 18.
Rylands, A. B. and Brandon-Jones, D. 1998. Scientific
nomenclature of the red howlers from the'northeastern
Amazon in Brazil, Venezuela, and the Guianas. Int. J.
Primatol. 19(5): 879-905.
Saunders, K. E., Shen, Z. L., Dewhirst, F. E., Paster, B. J.,
Dangler, C. A. and Fox, J. G. 1999. Novel intestinal
Helicobacter species isolated from cotton-top tamarins
(Saguinus oedipus) with chronic colitis. J. Clin.
Microbiol. 37(1): 146-151.
Schimi, P. A., Mendoza, S. P., Saltzman, W., Lyons, D. M.
and Mason, W. A. 1999. Annual physiological changes
in individually housed squirrel monkeys (Saimiri
sciureus).Am. J. Primatol. 47(2): 93-103.
Sloan, C. and Fernandez-Duque, E. 1999. Notes from the
field: Cathemerality in Argentinian owl monkeys.
AnthroQuest (8); 1, 3-4, Spring 1999.
Smith, T. E., McGreer-Whitworth, B. and French, J. A. 1998.
Close proximity of the heterosexual partner reduces the
physiological and behavioral consequences of novel-cage
housing in black tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix kuhli).
Horm. Behav. 34(3): 211-222.
Sousa, M. B. C., Silva, H. P. A. and Vidal, J. F. 1999. Litter
size does not interfere with fertility in common marmo-
sets, Callithrixjacchus. Folia Primatol. 70(1): 41-46.
Sousa, M. B. C., Peregrino, H. P. A., Cirne, M. F. C. and
Mota, M. T. S. 1999. Reproductive patterns and birth sea-
sonality in a South American breeding colony of com-
mon marmosets, Callithrixjacchus. Primates 40: 327-336.
Strait, S. G. and Vincent, J. F. V. 1998. Primate faunivores:
Physical properties of prey items. Int. J. Primatol. 19(5):
Suchi, S. and Rothe, H. 1999. The influence of abiotic factors
on the onset and cessation of activity in semi-free
Callithrixjacchus. Am. J. Primatol. 47(3): 241-253.
Vallegia, C. R., Mendoza, S. P,, Fernandez-Duque, E., Mason,
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Vargas-Perez, H. and Santillan-Doherty, A. M. 1998. Study
of agonistic and affiliative behaviors in a group of captive
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Vi6, J.-C. 1999. Wildlife rescues the case of the Petit Saut
hydroelectric dam in French Guiana. Oryx 33(2): 115-126.
Viiia, A. and Cavelier, J. 1999. Deforestation rates (1938-
1988) of tropical lowland forests on the Andean foothills
of Colombia. Biotropica 31(1): 31-36.
Visalberghi, E. and Guidi, C. 1998. Play behaviour in young
tufted capuchin monkeys. Folia Primatol. 69(6): 419-422.
White, F. J. 1998. The importance of seasonality in
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Wiesemiiller, B. and Rothe, H. 1999. New World monkeys -
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Witte, S. M. and Rogers, J. 1999. Microsatellite
polymorphisms in Bolivian squirrel monkeys (Saimiri
boliviensis). Am. J. Primatol. 47(1): 75-84.
Wood, K. D. 1999. Exploring the New World a review of
"Adaptive Radiations of Neotropical Primates" by M. A.
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J. Primatol. 47(1): 85-87. (Book review).
Yamamoto, M. E. and Jarreta, I. T. D. 1999. Comparison of
primatological literature in Latin American, European and
African countries. Int. J. Primatol. 20(2): 281-290.
Yeoman, R. R., Crews, L. M., Zimmer, D. B., Dahl, K. D., Rizk,
B. and Abee, C. R. 1999. Elevated ovarian expression and
serum concentration of a ax inhibin in the luteal phase
during follicular development in the squirrel monkey
(Saimiri boliviensis) compared to the human. Am. J.
Primatol. 47(2): 165-179.
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Guianan capuchin monkeys, the brown capuchin (Cebus
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USA, e-mail: .
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Ann Arbor, MI 48106.
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apella. Diss. Abst. Int. B59(9): 5605. To order: #AAD99-
08598. University Microfilms, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI 48106.
Izawa, K. 1998. Ateles also crowd together: Concealed nature
of its fission-fusion type society. Reichorui Kenkyu/
Primate Res. 14(3): 243. In Japanese.
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al. 1998. The enigmatic titi monkey, Callicebus
barbarabrownae,: Its morphology, phylogeny and
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14(3): 249. In Japanese.
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Kenkyu/Primate Res. 14(3): 268. In Japanese.
Nishimura, A. 1998. Mating and reproductive patterns of
female woolly monkeys at La Macarena, Colombia.
Reichorui Kenkyu/Primate Res. 14(3): 235. In Japanese.
Sorensen, T. C. 1999. Tropical dry forest regeneration and
its influence on three species of Costa Rican monkeys
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Master's Abstracts 36(6): 1540. To order: #AADMQ-28990.
University Microfilms, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI 48106.
Takai, M., Shigehara, N., Anaya, F. and Setoguchi, T. 1998.
First specimen of titi monkey discovered from the Middle
Miocene, Colombia. Reichorui Kenkyu/Primate Res.
14(3): 250. In Japanese.
Wallace, R. B. 1999. The behavioral ecology of black spider
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Westhoff, C. M., Silberstein, L. E., Wylie, D. E., Apoil, P. et
al. 1998. Characterization of the Rh locus of the New World
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suppl.): 102S.

Il Congress de la Asociaci6n Primatol6gica Espafiola
(APE), 20-22 September 1999, Universidad Aut6noma de
Barcelona, Spain. Inaugural lecture to be given by Professor
Adriaan Kortlandt "Protohominid behaviour in primates".
Plenary lectures include: Montse Garcia "Aplicaci6n de los
studios citogen6ticos en primates a la patologia gen6tica
humana"; Dr. R. Stanyon "Evoluci6n gen6tica y especiaci6n
en primates"; Dr. J. Sabater Pi "La cultural en los primates
no humanss; Dr. Turb6n "Adaptaci6n y comportamiento
de los primeros hominidos". Contact: Secretaria del
Departamento de Biologfa Celular e Fisiologfa, Facultad de
Ciencias, Universidad Aut6noma de Barcelona, 08193
Barcelona, Spain, Fax: 93 5812295, e-mail: .
Primatology and Anthropology Into the Third Millenium,
10-12 October 1999, Anthropological Institute and Museum,
Zurich. A Centenary Congress for the Institute (1899-1999).
Fifty-two invited speakers, including a number of guest
speakers as well as past and present members of the Insti-
tute, will provide a broad-ranging overview of past and
present research in biological anthropology. The congress
programme, for which the official language is English, is

Neotropical Primates 7(2), June 1999 Page 71

divided into six sessions: 1. Primatology and Anthropol-
ogy; 2. Hominid Evolution; 3. Primate Behaviour; 4. Primate
Senses, Physiology and Behaviour; 5. Genetics, Molecular
Evolution, and Conservation; 6. Reproductive Biology. For
further information: Ms. Jenny Pastorini, Anthropologisches
Institute und Museum, Universitdit Zidrich-Irchel,
Wmterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Swiztzerland, Tel:
+411635 5447 or 635 5411, e-mail: .
Asociaci6nMexicanadePrimatologia SimposioNacional,
6-9 Septiembre de 1999, Catemaco, Veracruz, M6xico. Tema
general "Investigaci6n y Conservaci6n de Primates
Neotropicales". Mayor informaci6n: Dr. Jorge Martinez,
Depto. de Filosoffa, UAM-Iztapalapa, Apdo. Postal 55-536,
09340 M6xico, D. F. Tel: (5) 724 47 85, Fax: (5) 724 4778, e-
mail: .
IV Congress de Manejo de Fauna Amazonica, 4 al 8 de
octubre de 1999, Asunci6n, Paraguay. Este important
event, iniciado en 1992, resume en breves dias los
resultados de todos los esfuerzos aplicados en pos de la
conservaci6n de la fauna de toda la regi6n amazonica. En
esta oportunidad se fortalecera la pluriparticipaci6n, la
discusi6n de estrategias y la elaboraci6n de planes de acci6n
apuntando a una conservaci6n protagonizada por los
pobladores rurales, beneficiaries director de un uso
sostenible del recurso faunistico. La organizaci6n de este
event es el resultado de un esfuerzo conjunto entire la
Oficina CITES-Py, La Gobemaci6n del Departamento Central
y la organization ambientalista Fundaci6n Moises Bertoni
para la Conservaci6n de la Naturaleza. Misi6n: Trabajar en
forma pluriparticipativa y en acci6n coordinada para la
optimizaci6n de las political de uso, tecnicas y estrategias
de manejo de la vida silvestre amazonica para fomentar el
desarrollo socio-economico sostenible y la conservaci6n
de la naturaleza. Los trabajos seran recibidos hasta el 1 de
marzo de 1999. Se podran enviar por correo electronic, o
en impression en papel blanco tamano carta con una copia
archivada en diskette. Unicamente se recibiran los
siguientes formats: WP5.1, Microsoft Word 6.0 o textos
en ASCII (DOS IBM). Invitaci6n a events: La comisi6n
organizadora desearia recibir propuestas para la
organizaci6n de simposios, talleres, cursos, mesas redondas
y otras reuniones relacionadas a la tematica propuesta para
el Congress. Los interesados en organizer o en participar
de algunos de estos events pueden comunicarse con el
Comite Organizador. Inscripciones: Hasta el 31 de marzo de
1999, estudiantes: US$30, profesionales: US$60; Hasta el
30 de setiembre de 1999, estudiantes: US$50, profesionales:
US$100; Inscripciones tardias (durante el Congreso),
estudiantes: US$60, profesionales: US$120. Los idiomas
oficiales del Congreso seran Espanol y Portugues, no se
haran servicios de traducci6n simultanea. Comisi6n
Organizadora, IV Congreso de Manejo de Fauna Amazonica,
Fundaci6n Moises Bertoni, C.C. 714, Asunci6n, Paraguay,
Tel: (595-21) 608 740,600 855, Fax: (595-21) 608 741m, e-mail:
congresso @fmbert.una.py>. Visitenos en internet (a partir
dejulio): .

Primate Society of Great Britain Millenium Meeting, 1
April 2000, Flett Lecture Theatre, British Museum (Natural
History), London. The theme of the meeting is "Primates:
Our past, their future". It will be a public understanding of
science/primatology event, and will be associated with the
Natural History Museum's two-week millennium celebration.
Speakers will include Mike Bruford (Institute of Zoology),
Robin Dunbar (University of Liverpool), JohnFleagle (SUNY
at Stony Brook), Phyllis Lee (University of Cambridge), and
Steve Mithen (University of Reading). For more information,
please contact: Dr. Mark Collard, Department of
Anthropology, University College London, Gower Street,
London WClE 6BT, UK, Tel: +44 (0)171 380 7842, Fax: +44
(0)171380 7728, e-mail: .
1999 Annual Meeting of the IUCN/SSC Conservation
Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG), 14-17 October 1999,
National Zoological Gardens of South Africa, Warmbaths,
Pretoria, Director Willie Labuschagne. For further
information: Sarita Cronj6 or Anso Malherbe, Conference
Coordinator's Office, National Zoological Gardens of South
Africa, P. O. Box 754, Pretoria 0001, South Africa, Tel: +27 12
328 6020, +27 12 328 3265, Fax: +27 12 323 4540, e-mail:
, or .
Primate Society of Great Britain Winter Meeting 1999, 1
December 1999, The Zoological Society of London, London.
The theme will be "Mating and Social Systems of Old World
Monkeys". Suggestions for speakers and offers of posters
are very welcome. Please contact: Dr. Caroline Ross or Mairi
Macleod, School of Life Sciences, Roehampton Institute
London, West Hill, London SW15 3SN, UK, Tel: +44 181
392 3561, Fax: +44 181 392 3527, e-mail: crosss@
roehampton. ac. uk> or .
Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour Winter
Meeting, 2-3 December 1999, Zoological Society of London,
London. The theme is "Evolution of Mind". Please contact:
Dr. Karen McComb, Experimental Psychology, School of
Biological Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton
BN1 9QG, UK, Fax; +44 (0)1273 678611, e-mail: <
Primate Socioecology: The Role of Life Histories, 14-17
December 1999, The German Primate Center (DPZ),
G6ttingen. An international conference on primate
socioecology. The focus of this meeting (2nd "G6ttinger
Freilandtage") will be on life history variation among
primates. Invited speakers will examine causes of variation
in life history traits and explore the consequences of this
variation for behavioral and reproductive strategies. An
additional goal is to better characterize unique aspects of
primate life histories and illuminate general principles
through comparison with other mammals. Submissions for
relevant oral (15 min) and poster contributions are invited.
The conference is also open to guests without
presentations. The deadline for submission of abstracts
wishing to be considered for spoken papers or posters is
August 1, 1999. Guests must also register in advance by
October 1, 1999. Additional details available from Peter

Neotropical Primates 7(2), June 1999

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Page 72

Kappeler, e-mail: , or the conference
secretariat, e-mail: , and the
conference web site: freiland.htm>.
XXIII Congresso Brasileiro de Zoologia, 13-18 February
2000, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade Federal do
Mato Grosso, Cuiabi, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Theme "Zoologia
no In Mil8nio". Numerous round tables and mini-couirses.
Deadline for abstracts: 30th September 1999. For further
information: Comissdo Organizadora do XXIII CBZ,
Departamento de Biologia/Zoologia, Instituto de
Biociencias, Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso, Av.
Fernando Correa da Costa, 78060-900 Cuiabi, Mato Grosso,
Brazil, Tel/Fax: +55 (0)65 615 8870, e-mail: ufmt. br>.
2000 Workshop of the European Marmoset Research
Group (EMRG), 2-5 April 2000, Paris. Exact venue to be
announced. The theme will be "Marmosets and Tamarins
in Biological and Biomedical Research". Paper sessions and
roundtable discussion sessions will be held on the following
topics: Behaviour, Conservation, Ecology, Genetics,
Immunology, Laboratory Management, Neurobiology,
Pharmacology, Reproductive Biology, Toxicology. Further
announcements will be made on the Primate Info Net. For
more information, please contact Dr. Christopher Pryce,
Behavioural Biology Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of
Technology, Schorenstrasse 16, CH-8603 Schwerzenbach,
Switzerland, Tel +41 1 825 7386, Tel +41 1 825 7416
(Secretariat), Fax +411 825 7417, e-mail ethz.ch>, or Dr. Christian Schnell pharma.Novartis.com>.
Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour General
Meeting, 17-19 April 2000, University of Sheffield, UK.
Please contact: Dr. M. Siva-Jothy, Department of Animal
and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S 10
2UQ, e-mail: .
XVIIIth Congress of the International Primatological
Society, 7-12 January 2001, Adelaide, Australia. Hosted by
the Australasian Primate Society, President Mr. John Lemon,
Western Plains Zoo, Dubbo, NSW. Theme: "Primates in the
New Millenium". Mr. Graeme Crook is Chairman of the
Organizing Committee. Symposia Participants wishing to
register a symposium title must submit a 200 word abstract
by 31 July 1999. E-mail to Carla Litchfield net. au>. Titles of accepted symposia will be published on
the webpage from August 1999. Papers An abstract of
100 words is required. E-mail.to Carla Litchfield
. Closing date for first call for papers:
31 January 2000. Closing date for second call for papers: 31
May 2000. A final list of papers will be published on the
Internet by 30 June 2000. For more information, and to be
put onto the Congress Organizer's mailing list, write to:
Conventions Worldwide, PO Box 44, Rundle Mall, SA 5000,

Neotropical Primates 7(2), June 1999

Australia, Tel: +618 8363 0068, Fax: +618 8363 0354, e-mail:
, sending your postal address,
telephone, fax and e-mail address.

We would be most grateful if you could send us information
on projects, research groups, events (congresses,
symposia, and workshops), recent publications, activities
of primatological societies and NGOs, news items or
opinions of recent events and suchlike. Manuscripts should
be double-spaced and accompanied by the text in diskette
for PC compatible text-editors (MS-Word, Wordperfect,
Wordstar). Articles, not exceeding six pages, can include
small black-and-white photographs, high quality figures,
and high quality maps, tables and references, but please
keep them to a minimum.

Please send contributions to: ANTHONY RYLANDS, c/o
Conservation International do Brasil, Avenida Ant6nio
Abrahno Caram 820/302,31275-000 Belo Horizonte, Minas
Gerais, Brazil, Tel/Fax: +55 (31) 441-1795 or ERNESTO
RODRIGUEZ-LUNA, Instituto de Neuroetologfa, Universidad
Veracruzana, Apartado Postal 566, Xalapa, Veracruz 91000,
M6xico, Fax: 52(28) 12-5748.

LILIANA CORTis-ORTIZ (Universidad Veracruzana) provides
invaluable editorial assistance.

Correspondence, messages, and texts can be sent to:

saraguat@ speedy.coacade.uv.mx

NEOTROPICAL PRIMATES is produced in collaboration
Suite 200, Washington DC 20037, USA, and FUNDA',AO
BIODIVERSITAS, Av. do Contomo, 9155/11. andar Pra-
do, Belo Horizonte 30110-130, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Design and Composition: ALEXANDRa S. DInNOUTI -
a.dinnouti@conservation.org.br CONSERVATION

ISSN 1413-4703

Parks and Recreaon Department

This issue of Neotropical Primates was kindly sponsored by the Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foun-
dation, 432 Walker Road, Great Falls, Virginia 22066, USA, the Houston Zoological Gardens Con-
servation Program, General Manager Donald G. Olson, 1513 North MacGregor, Houston, Texas
77030, USA Houston, Texas 77030, USA, the Los Angeles Zoo, Director Manuel Mollinedo, 5333
Zoo Drive, Los Angeles, California 90027, USA and the Grupo de Trabalho em Biodiversidade
(GTB), through the Brazilian National Science Research Council (CNPq), Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca,
Coordenador do GTB, c/o Conservation International do Brasil, Avenida Ant6nio Abrahdo Caram 820/
302, 31275-000 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
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Anthony Rylands/Ernesto Rodriguez Luna, Editors
Conservation International
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31275-000, Belo Horizonte
Minas Gerais, Brazil

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