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Title: Neotropical primates
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Title: Neotropical primates a newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCNSSC Primate Specialist Group
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Table of Contents
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Full Text

ISSN 1413-4703

A Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group

Editors: Anthony B. Rylands and Ernesto Rodriguez Luna
PSG Chairman: Russell A. Mittermeier
PSG Deputy Chairman: Anthony B. Rylands




Neotropical Primates 6(3), September 1998


Wilsea B. Figueiredo
Nelson M. Carvalho-Filho
Horacio Schneider
Iracilda Sampaio
Red howlers (Alouatta seniculus) are found throughout
most of the Amazon basin north of the Amazon and west
of the Rios Madeira and Aripuani, north as far as south-
ern Panama. They occur in many types of habitat, rang-
ing from rain forest to scrub and savanna woodland (Hill,
1962; Crockett and Eisenberg, 1987; Pope, 1992; Ferrari
et al., 1996). This widespread distribution and ecological
flexibility is typical of a colonizing or pioneer species
(Eisenberg, 1981; Crockett and Eisenberg, 1987).
The last taxonomic revision ofAlouatta seniculus was that
of Hill (1962), whose classification included nine subspe-
cies (Fig. 1). It is still widely accepted, although recent
genetic and morphological studies have begun to ques-
tion its validity. In general, these studies have indicated
that Alouatta seniculus is a complex species group rather
than a single species, and that a number of Hill's subspe-
cies are in fact true species (e.g., Minezawa et al., 1985;
Groves, 1993; Bonvicino et al., 1995; Stanyon et al.,
Hill (1962) identified the red howler populations occur-
ring between the Atlantic Ocean, to the east, and the Rios

Branco and Negro, to the west, as possibly belonging to a
single subspecies, Alouatta seniculus macconnelli Elliot,
1910; type locality the Guyana coast. According to Hill
(1962), A. s. macconnelli is distinguished from the other
A. seniculus subspecies by the uniform coloration of the
dorsal parts of pelage, and its orange-red underparts (Hill,
1962). He doubted, however, that it is separable from the
form to the west of the Rios Negro and Branco, A. s.
stramineus (Humboldt, 1812). Cruz Lima (1945), Cabrera
(1957) and Husson (1978) all regarded A. s. macconnelli
to be a junior synonym ofA. s. stramineus. However, based
on their cytogenetic research, Lima et al. (1990) argued
that the red howler from the east of the Rio Trombetas
was a distinct form, and attributed to A. s. macconnelli by
Lima and Seuinez (1991). Bonvicino et al. (1995) identi-
fied two distinct howler species separated by the Rio
Trombetas, which they referred to asAlouatta macconnelli
(to the east) and Alouatta straminea (to the west), on the
basis of a multivariate analysis of cranial traits. Conversely,
cytogenetic and biochemical studies of these populations
have also indicated that they are relatively homogeneous,
consistent with the hypothesis that they belong to a single
species (Sampaio et al., 1996).
In recent years, mitochondrial DNA sequencing has been
used extensively in phylogenetic studies of closely-related
species (in the case of New World monkeys, for example:
Ashley and Vaughn, 1995; Peres et al., 1996; Tagliaro et
al., 1997). In this paper, we use sequences of the mito-
chondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) gene to
assess phylogenetic and taxonomic relationships among
populations of red howlers from the Rios Uatumd,
Trombetas and Jarf, encompassing the geographic distri-
bution of the two species proposed by Bonvicino et al.
(1995). We chose the COII gene sequences because, as
noted in a number of publications on primates (for ex-
ample, Ruvolo et al., 1993; Ashley and Vaughn, 1995),

M A. seniculus saniculus
A. s. arctoidea
SA. s. stramineus
A. s. macconnelli I. of Mexiana
A. &. amazonica Maraj6
A, a. juara
A. s. puruensis ?..
[] A.s. sam
A. s. insulanus- Island of Trinidad
E A. belzebut belzebul
A. b. ululata
EIM A. b. discolor
A. b. nigenima
A. b. mexianae Island of Mexiana
0 500 miles

Figure 1. Geographic distribution of the Alouatta seniculuts subspecies according to Hill (1962). Recent reports can be found in Ferrari et al. (1996) and
Fernandes et al. (1995).

Cover photograph by Marc G. M. van Roosmalen: The black-crowned dwarf marmoset, Callithrix humilis.

Page 73

Page 74

Table 1: Code and collecting localities of the specimens used in the present

Ase JML1
Ase UMR1
Ase UML2
Ase UML3
Ase TMR2
A. paniscus 1
A. paniscus 2

Alouatta seniculus
Alouatta seniculus
A louatta seniculus
Alouatta seniculus
Alouatta seniculus
Alouatta seniculus
Alouatta seniculus
Alouatta seniculus
Alouatta seniculus
A louatta seniculus
A louatta seniculus
Ateles paniscus
Ateles paniscus

Rio Jari, Right Bank
Rio Jari, Right Bank
Rio Jari, Left Bank
Rio Uatuma, Right Bank
Rio Uatuma, Right Bank
Rio Uatuma, Left Bank
Rio Uatuml, Left Bank
Rio Uatuma, Left Bank
Rio Trombetas, Left Bank
Rio Trombetas, Right Bank
Rio Trombetas, Right Bank
Rio Trombetas, Right Bank
Rio Trombetas, Right Bank

their marked variability makes them appropriate for phy-
logenetic studies at the specific level.

Materials and Methods

Laboratory Procedures

Blood samples were obtained from howling monkeys cap-
tured on both banks of the Rios Uatuma, Trombetas and
Jari, northern tributaries of the Rio Amazonas (see Table
1), and from two spider monkeys (Ateles paniscus). DNA
was extracted following the protocol suggested by
Sambrook et al. (1989).

COLI genes from the mtDNA of these samples were am-
plified using PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction). Oligo-
nucleotide primers were designed based on the published
COII sequence of Alouatta palliata (Adkins and
Honeycutt, 1994): primer 1, 5'C C AG C C C A A C T A
G G CTTA 3', and primer 2, 5'G G CTCATACTT
C A A A G T C T T G G 3'. The samples were subjected to
30 cycles of amplification, under the following conditions:
denaturation 94C, 1 min; annealing -50C, 45 sec.; ex-
tension 72C, 1 min., 30 sec.; final extension 720C, 10
min. The amplified DNA fragments were purified, cloned
in p-GEM T vectors and competent cells, and single
stranded DNA was obtained through infection with Helper
Phage. The sequencing reactions were carried out using
the dideoxy chain termination method (Sanger et al.,

Sequence Analysis

Neotropical Primates 6(3), September 1998

Table 2: Estimated percentage of nucleotide divergence among pairwise COHI sequences.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
1 A. palliata
2 AseJMLI 8.38
3 AseJMRI 8.17 0.49
4 Ase JML2 8.35 0.65 0.49
5 AseUMRI 7.98 0.65 0.49 0.65
6 AseUMR2 8.17 0.82 0.65 0.81 0.16
7 Ase UMLI 8.18 0.49 0.33 0.49 0.49 0.65
8 AseUML3 8.18 0.82 0.98 1.15 0.49 0.65 0.98
9 AseTMLI 8.20 1.15 0.98 1.15 0.82 0.98 0.98 0.98
10 Ase TML2 7.94 1.07 0.89 1.07 0.71 0.89 0.89 1.07 0.71
11 Ase TMRI 8.35 0.65 0.49 0.65 0.65 0.81 0.49 1.15 1.15 1.07
12 A. paniscus I 14.19 16.68 16.39 16.61 15.74 15.96 16.20 15.99 16.46 16.37 16.61
13 A. paniscus 2 14.03 16.30 16.02 16.24 15.37 15.58 15.83 15.83 16.30 16.10 16.24 0.16
Note. Divergence values were corrected for multiple hits by the method of Kimura (1980). The pairwise comparisons amongA. seniculus
sequences are highlighted in bold.

The sequences were aligned in relation to that published
by Adkins and Honeycutt (1994) for Alouatta palliata,
using the XESEE sequence editor (Cabot and Beckenbach,
1989). Pairwise divergence values were estimated by
Kimura's 2 parameter method (Kimura, 1980) and used
to compute a phylogenetic tree by the neighbor-joining
method (Saitou and Nei, 1987) using the Ateles paniscus
sequences as the outgroup. The most parsimonious tree
was estimated using the DNAPARS program of
Felsenstein's (1993) PHYLIP package. Bootstrap analy-
ses of the topologies produced by these methods were con-
ducted in order to evaluate their consistency, and "strength
of grouping" values (the minimum number of additional
substitutions required to break up the group defined by
each node) were obtained with the SOG program (J.
Czelusniak, pers. comm.).


Data Analysis

The COII nucleotide sequences are deposited at the
GENBANK database under the accession numbers
AF054291-AF54302. One hundred and fifteen of the 620
base pairs examined were variable, and eighty-six of these
were informative for parsimony analysis. Sequence varia-
tion is very low between the A. seniculus samples, although
only two samples Ase UMR1 and Ase UML2 were
identical. Of the eighteen variable sites in this species,
thirteeen were apomorphic mutations, leaving only five
informative sites. Pairwise comparisons between red
howler samples revealed similar differences between
haplotypes to those found in the same gene in humans.
The maximum number of nucleotide substitutions in the
A. seniculus sequences is six, the same number found in
human COII sequences (Ruvolo et al., 1993).

Phylogenetic Reconstruction

Genetic distances between the A. seniculus samples are
very low, ranging from zero to 1.15%. Distances between
populations are similar to those observed within popula-
tions, and some individuals from different localities are
less divergent than some individuals from the same popu-
lation. Genetic distances between A. seniculus and A.
palliata range from 7.94% to 8.38%, while those between

Neotropical Primates 6(3), September 1998

Ase JML2
Ase TMR1
3 -AseJML1
1Ase UMR 1 /UML2
1, L- Aso UMR2
100 Ase TMLI
-Ase UML3
Alouvali palllata
100- teles paniscus I
-L Aisles paniscus 2
Figure 2: Consensus tree produced by the Neighbor-Joining Method, cal-
culated with the distances corrected with the algorithm of Kimura (1980).
Numbers refer to bootstrap values from 500 replications. Branch lengths
are proportional to evolutionary distances between taxa.
howlers and spider monkeys are of the order of 15% (Table

The tree constructed using the neighbor-joining (NJ)
method (Fig. 2), grouped all A. seniculus samples in a
single branch, separated significantly from both Alouatta
palliata and the outgroup (Ateles paniscus). The topol-
ogy of this branch is not coherent with the geographic
distribution of the different samples, however. The boot-
strap values at the node separating Ateles from theAlouatta
samples, and the node separating Alouatta palliata from
the red howlers are highly significant (100%), but all the
relationships between differentAlouatta seniculus samples
are only weakly supported.

The parsimony analysis produced three most-parsimoni-
ous trees, 125 steps long (consistency index: 0.976). Fig-
ure 3 presents the 50%-majority consensus among these
trees. The results obtained with the maximum parsimony
(MP) method are similar to those found with NJ, with the
same basic topology and similar confidence values, and
with regard to the relationships of Alouatta palliata and
Ateles paniscus, and the relationhsips between these and
the Alouatta seniculus sequences. The number of substi-
tutions needed to break up the Alouattini clade is 53 and

SAtieles paniscus 2
o Ates pan.scus 1
Figure 3: Fifty percent majority-rule maximum parsimony consensus tree.
Numbers above branches represent bootstrap values from 500 replications.
Numbers below branches are SOG values, the number of additional steps
before a particular group collapses.

the grouping formed by the red howler clade is 19. How-
ever, the consensus topology supports only two groupings
-- in the Alouatta seniculus clade: that between Ase UMR1/
UML2 and Ase UMR2 (supported by a single mutation),
and a polytomic clade composed of the three specimens
from Jari, one from Uatuma and one from Trombetas. In-
deed, no synapomorphies are restricted to a single popu-
lation and therefore cannot be used as genetic markers for
phylogenetic distinction.


The data presented here reveal a strong genetic homoge-
neity among the populations. The low number of nucle-
otide differences, phylogenetic continuity (tree topology),
and the complete absence of any geographic partitioning
of the sequences are interpreted as lending further sup-
port to the classification of the populations as belonging
to a single species. According to Avise et al. (1987), geo-
graphic populations which exhibit the levels of sequence
variability found here have had relatively extensive and
recent historical interconnections through gene flow. In-
terestingly, the pattern of variability observed is typical of
species that are both able to cross zoogeographic barriers
and disperse widely (Avise et al., 1987; Avise, 1994).
Alouatta seniculus is not only one of the ecologically most
flexible of Amazonian primates (Eisenberg, 1981; Crockett
and Eisenberg, 1987), but is also able to disperse across
major rivers, in marked contrast with most other taxa
(Ayres and Clutton-Brock, 1992; Fernandes et al., 1995).

Biochemical and Karyological Data

The populations analyzed here were included in the pro-
tein electrophoresis study of Sampaio et al. (1996). The
study revealed that A. seniculus exhibits the highest de-
gree of genetic variability of any neotropical primate, with
an average heterozygosity (H) of 10%. A similar degree
of heterozygosity (H = 9.9%) was encountered in A.
seniculus populations from Venezuela (Pope, 1992). The
genetic variability detected in the three populations stud-
ied here was nevertheless fairly homogeneous, and ge-
netic distances were very similar, ranging from zero to
0.2% (Sampaio et al., 1996).

The karyological data also corroborate the close similar-
ity of these populations. A. seniculus from Uatuma and
Jari have the same diploid number (47, 48, 49), and share
similar sex chromosome structure (XXY 1Y/X X'X2X2).
The Uatuma population, however, presents a reciprocal
homozygote translocation between chromosomes 2 and
20 (Lima et al., 1990; Lima and Seuinez, 1991). This
chromosome translocation was interpreted by Bonvicino
et al. (1995) to support the classification of these popula-
tions as distinct species. Interestingly, recent cytogenetic
data from howler monkey specimens living on both banks
of the Rio Trombetas reveal that these two populations
show the same cytotypes as those found on the Uatuma
(M. Lima, unpublished data). From the cytogenetic view-
point, then, the Rio Trombetas is not a significant zoo-
geographic barrier for these red howler populations, as

F Ase TMR1
-Ass JML2
Ass UML1
As, TML1
Ase UMRil UML2
Ase UML3

Page 75

Page 76

proposed by Bonvicino et al. (1995).
The sum of the evidence strongly supports the existence
of only a single species within the geographic area con-
sidered here. The homogeneity of the biochemical data
clearly indicates continuous gene flow between the popu-
lations studied. While the chromosome translocations
found in the Uatumd and Trombetas populations may con-
stitute a reproductive barrier, further studies would be re-
quired to confirm this. Our mtDNA data are unable to
discriminate these populations at any level, and indicate
that any divergence between them occurred very recently.
Further studies will be required in order to assess the taxo-
nomic significance of the morphological and cytogenetic
variations encountered in this area, interpreted as clinal
variation by R. Gregorin (pers. comm.), on the basis of
cranial measurements and pelage coloration.
We are especially grateful to Stephen F. Ferrari and
Edivaldo H. C. Oliveira for their comments and sugges-
tions on early versions of this manuscript; and Helena M.
dos Santos and Arlindo P. S. Junior for technical assis-
tance. Margarida Lima and Renato Gregorin gave us ac-
cess to their unpublished data on the cytogenetics and
morphology of red howler monkeys, respectively. This
study was supported by the Universidade Federal do Pard
(UFPA), the Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (FINEP),
the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientffico e
Tecnol6gico (CNPq), the Coordenago de Aperfeicoamento
de Pessoal de Nfvel Superior (CAPES), and the Centro
Nacional de Primatas, Bel6m, Pard.
Wilsea B. Figueiredo, Nelson M. Carvalho-Filho,
Horacio Schneider and Iracilda Sampaio, Laborat6rio
de Biologia Molecular "Francisco Mauro Salzano",
Departamento de Gen6tica, Centro de Ciancias Biol6gicas,
Universidade Federal do Para, Caixa Postal 8607, 66075-
900 Bel6m, Para, Brazil.
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Marcelo F Tejedor
The living New World monkeys, Infraorder Platyrrhini,
are represented by sixteen genera in subfamilies and fami-
lies which even today are disputed (Cabrera, 1958;
Hershkovitz, 1977; Rosenberger, 1981; Thorington and
Anderson, 1984; Ford, 1986; Schneider et al., 1995;
Tejedor, 1996a). Their interrelationships have been the
subject of considerable debate mainly because of the mor-
phological diversity and the scarcity and fragmentary na-
ture of the fossil record, that should otherwise contribute
to constructing phylogenies. However, in recent years, new
fossil discoveries and intensive studies of the existing evi-
dence has led to considerable advances in our understand-
ing of the platyrrhine radiation. South American fossil
platyrrhines are known from several localities of the late
Oligocene through Recent, at sites in Argentina, Bolivia,
Chile, Colombia, Brazil, Cuba, Jamaica and Hispaniola.

There are considerable gaps in the record between the
middle Miocene (Colloncuran Land Mammal Age LMA)
and late Miocene (Huayquerian LMA), but subsequently
the absence of fossil platyrrhines is notable until the Pleis-
tocene of Brazil and the Caribbean islands. Although we
now know more about the diversity of platyrrhines in the
past, the record still consists of a limited number of speci-
mens representing more than 20 extinct genera during
the last 26 million years. Table 1 shows the temporal and
geographic relationships between the known fossil spe-
cies as well as the available sources.
The phyletic and geographic sources of platyrrhines are
still a matter of speculation, but the oldest "pre-catarrhine"
and "pre-platyrrhine" anthropoids are known from Af-
rica and Asia. Therefore, platyrrhines, as anthropoids,
should find their ancestral stock in Africa or Asia based
on the current evidence. Dental evidence from these po-
tential ancestors strongly favor the morphology found in
the Santacrucian genera Carlocebus and Homunculus and
in the living Callicebus as closest to the ancestral
morphotype for the infraorder, for several reasons exposed
elsewhere (Hartwig, 1993; Tejedor, 1997). Controversy
persists because the oldest South American records,
Szalatavus and Branisella, came from Bolivia and differ
considerably from Callicebus, Homunculus and
Carlocebus, being probably ancient representatives of the
Callitrichinae (see Takai and Anaya, 1996). On other other
hand, the subsequent Chilecebus, from the Chilean Andes
(late Deseadan-Colhuehuapian LMA), shows several
primitive characters not easily comparable to other fossil
forms. Of course, this means that the earliest platyrrhines
should have been considerably younger than the oldest
Deseadan records of 26 Ma (million years ago) in Bolivia
(Kay et al., 1995). The absence of significant derived char-
acters as compelling evidence for assessing early platyr-
rhine relationships is another unresolved problem. The
similarities between Callicebus, Homunculus and
Carlocebus are based largely on superficial resemblances
and shared primitive characters (Tejedor, 1996b) which
do not justify a phylogenetic link. But these
symplesiomorphies strengthen the arguments in favor of
a close common origin for the three latter genera. This
would not appear to be a convincing solution, but it is
also unusual to find several primitive characters shared
by three genera of fossil platyrrhines together.
Soriacebus is, to date, the earliest relative of the Pitheciinae
(Rosenberger et al., 1990, but see Kay, 1990 for an alter-
native view). It is possible to argue that the lower molar
structure of Soriacebus does not characterize the living
pitheciines, but the lower premolar structures of
Cebupithecia and Nuciruptor also differ from that of ex-
tant pitheciines (Meldrum and Kay, 1997), even though
they are undoubtedly pitheciines. In this case, it is inter-
esting to remember that specializations of the anterior
dentition in the Pitheciinae possibly preceded those of
premolars and molars, being, as Kinzey (1992) suggested,
an adaptive response for sclerocarpic foraging. The shared

Page 77

Page 78

features of the anterior dentition of Soriacebus,
Cebupithecia and Nuciruptor are certainly homologous
with those of Pithecia, Chiropotes and Cacajao. The fact
that Callicebus could be closest to the living pitheciines
has been proposed by Rosenberger (1981a) and was rein-
forced by recent molecular studies (Meldrum, 1995;
Schneideretal., 1995), but meaningful comparisons could
probably only be made in the incisal morphology. It is
possible that procumbent, high-crowned and mesiodistally
compressed incisors are primitive for all platyrrhines, and
the Pitheciinae has evolved further these traits, demon-
strating an early divergence from the remaining clades.

It is interesting to note that there are several specimens of
Colloncuran platyrrhines from Patagonia (Pardifias, 1991;
Kay and Johnson, 1996) which are still undescribed, and
certainly represent a new taxon.

There is no question concerning the phylogenetic rela-
tionships between Stirtonia and Alouatta, as well as be-
tween Saimiri, Neosaimiri and Laventiana. Although
Rosenberger et al. (1991a) suggested that Laventiana is

Neotropical Primates 6(3), September 1998

generically distinct, some authors have argued that it
should be allocated to Neosaimiri (Takai, 1994; Meldrum
and Kay, 1997). Each of these points of view has the same
phylogenetic implications in relating Neosaimiri and
Laventiana with the living Saimiri. The Patagonian
Dolichocebus shares important cranial synapomorphies
also with Saimiri (Rosenberger, 1979). There are several
reported occurrences of callitrichines in Colombia. The
poorly known Micodon, the surprising Lagonimico, and
more recently Patasola have confirmed that the
Callitrichinae have been differentiated certainly since the
middle Miocene (Laventan stage-age), and probably since
the Deseadan of Bolivia, as mentioned above. However,
Lagonimico is a particular case (Kay, 1994). The conclu-
sion about the phyletic position and adaptations of
Lagonimico does not agree with the hypothesis of "phyl-
etic dwarfing" (Ford, 1980) proposed to explain many
distinctive morphological features of the living
callitrichines, especially those associated with body size
reduction. Lagonimico was larger than Callimico, the larg-
est living callitrichine, and exhibited features previously

Table 1. Temporal and geographic relationships between the described fossil species of platyrrhines. For each case, the available sources and possible
affinities with extant forms is detailed.
Species Locality Age Sources Living related

Branisella boliviana

Szalatavus attricuspis

Chilecebus carrascoensis

Tremacebus harringtoni

Dolichocebus gaimanensis

Soriacebus ameghinorum &
Soriacebus adrianae
Carlocebus cannenensis &
Carlocebus intermedius
Homunculus patagonicus

Cebupithecia sarmientoi
Nuciruptor rubricae
Mohanamico hershkovitzi
Aotus dindensis
Micodon kiotensis
Lagonbnico conclucatus
Patasola magdalenae
Laventiana annectens
Stirtonia tatacoensis &
Stirtonia victoria

Proropithecus brasiliensis

Caipora bambuiorumn

Xenothrix macgregori

Antillothrix bernensis

Paralouatta varonai
Ateles anthropomorphus

Salla Luribay,
Salla Luribay,
Rfo Las Lefias,
Rio Pinturas,
Rfo Pinturas,
Santa Cruz
(several localities),
La Venta, Colombia
LaVenta, Colombia
La Venta, Colombia
La Venta, Colombia
La Venta, Colombia
La Venta, Colombia
La Venta, Colombia
La Venta, Colombia
LaVenta, Colombia

La Venta, Colombia

Toca da Boa Vista,
Toca da Boa Vista,
Long Mile Cave,
Cueva de Berne,
Dominican Rep
Caverne Sawo, Haitf
Pinar del Rio, Cuba
Boca del Purial, Cuba

Desdeadan (late Oligocene)

Deseadan (late Oligocene)

Late Deseadan-Colhuehuapian
(early Miocene)
Colhuehuapian (early Miocene)

Colhuehuapian (early Miocene)
Fleagle & Bown (1983)
Santacrucian (early Miocene)

Santacrucian (early Miocene)

Santacrucian (early Miocene)
Fleagle et al. (1988),
Tauber (1991)

Laventan (middle Miocene)
Laventan (middle Miocene)
Laventan (middle Miocene)
Laventan (middle Miocene)
Laventan (middle Miocene)
Laventan (middle Miocene)
Laventan (middle Miocene)
Laventan (middle Miocene)
Laventan (middle Miocene)

Laventan (middle Miocene)






Holffstetter (1969) Rosenberger
(1981b), Wolff (1984)
Rosenberger et al. (1991 b)

Flynn et al. (1995)

Rusconi (1935),
Hershkovitz (1974)
Bordas (1942),
Kraglievich (1951),
Fleagle et al. (1987),
Fleagle (1990)
Fleagle (1990)

Ameghino (1891, 1906),

Stirton (1951)
Meldrum & Kay (1997)
Luchterhand et al. (1986)
Setoguchi & Rosenberger (1987)
Setoguchi & Rosenberger (1985)
Kay (1994)
Kay & Meldrum (1997)
Stirton (1951), Takai, 1994
Rosenberger et al. (1991 )










Stirton (1951), Hershkovitz (1970), Alouatta
Kay et al. (1989)
Lund (1840), Alouatta & Atelinae
Hartwig & Cartelle (1996)
Cartelle & Hartwig (1996) Atelinae

Williams & Koopman (1952),
MacPhee & Fleagle (1991)
Rimoli (1977),
Mac Phee et al. (1995)

Rivero & Arredondo (1991)
Ameghino (1910),
Arredondo & Verona (1985)



Neotmpical Primates 6(3), September 1998 Page 79

Late Oligocene Early-late Miocene Pliocene Quaternary

oBranise ra

Dolichocebus Neosaimiri Saimiri


\ Soracebus Ceupithecla Pitheclinae

\ Homunclusb Cautcebus
cb Xenothrix

Tremacebus Aotes dindensis Aotus
Stirtonia Paralouafla Alouaata
/ Ataeliena
Figure 1. Platyrrhine phylogeny based on current evidence. Ateles
anthropomorphus is not included because it could pertain to a living spe-
cies of Ateles (see MacPhee and Rivero, 1996).
supposed to be linked with body size reduction such as
hypocone loss in the upper molars. Another controversy
has arisen with the discoveries of Aotus dindensis and
Mohanamico. While Setoguchi and Rosenberger (1987)
found resemblances between. A. dindensis and the living
owl monkeys, Kay (1990) suggested that it should be con-
generic with the previously described Mohanamico
(Luchterhand et al., 1986), considering the latter as a pos-
sible pitheciine (Meldrum and Kay [1997] considered the
pitheciine status of Mohanamico less probable). On the
contrary, Rosenberger et al. (1990) hold the view that
Mohanamico could be related to Callimico. All these ar-
guments imply that two extinct taxa (or only one, sensu
Kay) could be compared with representatives of three dif-
ferent subfamilies: Aotinae, Callitrichinae and Pitheciinae.
At present, the affinities of Mohanamico are uncertain,
and it is convenient to maintain Aotus dindensis as a sepa-
rate genus. Geographically and temporally distant from
Colombia, the Colhuehuapian genus Tremacebus is also
linked with Aotus based on shared cranial characters, es-
pecially its large orbits (Rosenberger and Fleagle, 1981).
Protopithecus and Caipora are larger than any living
platyrrhine, being more than 20 kg. in body weight
(Hartwig and Cartelle, 1996; Cartelle and Hartwig, 1996).
Caipora is certainly a giant ateline comparable to Ateles
and Brachyteles, but Protopithecus exhibits a mosaic of
features with a skull typical ofAlouatta and a postcranium
similar to Ateles or Brachyteles. They represent the only
fossil evidence for theAteles-Brachyteles-Lagothrix clade.
Two isolated teeth of another giant platyrrhine were found
in the Rio Acre (Huayquerian, LMA), western Amazonia,
but the authors found that the morphology is similar to
Cebus (Kay and Frailey, 1993).

There are no platyrrhines in the Caribbean islands today,
but in Pleistocene-Recent times some strange forms in-
habited Cuba, Jamaica and Hispaniola. Xenothrix is at
this moment perhaps the most unusual platyrrhine, with-
out third molars but with extremely bunodont teeth and
reduced incisors and canines. Proposals have been made
for its affinity with the callitrichines (Williams and
Koopman, 1952), Callicebus and Cebus (Rosenberger,
1977), and with Callicebus and the extinct Paralouatta
and Antillothrix (Horovitz et al., 1997). MacPhee and
Fleagle (1991) described several postcranial specimens
collected in the type locality of Xenothrix that were tenta-
tively assigned to this genus. These specimens are mor-
phologically distinct from all living platyrrhines and were
reallocated in the monotypic Family Xenotrichidae (after
Hershkovitz, 1970). Antillothrix (MacPhee et al., 1995),
formerly described as "Saimiri" bernensis by Rfmoli
(1977), is cladistically considered the sister taxon of
Paralouatta, Callicebus being its closest living relative
(MacPhee et al., 1995). However, Paralouatta has strong
cranial resemblances with the living Alouatta (Rivero and
Arredondo, 1991). Finally, new data on the exact age of
Ateles anthropomorphus (Ameghino, 1910; Arredondo
and Varona, 1983) concluded that it was introduced in
Cuba after the Spanish colonization and probably as re-
cently as the 19th century (MacPhee and Rivero, 1996).
One notable exception is an isolated talus from the lower
Miocene of Cuba, the only Caribbean record of primates
prior to the Pleistocene (MacPhee and Iturralde-Vinent,
1995). The biogeographic implications of the latter dis-
covery are extremely important to explain the supposed
endemism of some Caribbean platyrrhines.
As shown above, there are different views on platyrrhine
phylogeny and about the phylogenetic relationships of
some genera in particular. Although our knowledge of the
evolutionary history of platyrrhines is based largely on
fragmentary, especially dental, remains it is possible to
recognize the generic differences in the majority of the
above described extinct forms. Some authors may disagree
considerably in their opinions, such as is the case with
Aotus dindensis and Mohanamico, or some hypotheses
may still be speculative, such as that of the "phyletic dwarf-
ing" for the callitrichine lineage. An example is
Lagonimico probably the largest callitrichine ever known,
that preserves some characters believed to be associated
with body size reduction in the Callitrichinae. There are
some problems also in understanding the trends toward
increasing body size in the Atelinae, because even though
they are among the largest New World monkeys today,
the finding of Protopithecus and Caipora shows that much
larger atelines were alive during the Pleistocene. In this
case, the size change through time was more complex than
has been commonly understood. However, there is clear
evidence of the early relatives of Saimiri (Dolichocebus,
Neosaimiri, Laventiana), Aotus (Tremacebus, Aotus
dindensis), Alouatta (Stirtonia, Paralouatta), Callicebus
(Homunculus, Carlocebus) and pitheciines (Soriacebus,
Cebupithecia, Nuciruptor). Interpretations for the remain-

Neotropical Primates 6(3), September 1998

Page 79

Page 80

ing extinct forms require more detailed studies. A scheme
representing the living and fossil platyrrhine interrela-
tionships is shown in Figure 1.
It would be possible to find the answers to many of the
controversies if we accept a broader radiation of platyr-
rhines, a greater diversity in the past, and the probability
that the history of the infraorder is older than we know
from the current evidence. Firstly, it is necessary to reach
a consensus regarding the polarity of dental characters
for a better understanding of what is primitive or derived,
in order to facilitate phylogenetic reconstruction. This is,
of course, not only the main problem but the most compli-
cated because of the scarcity of the fossil record. New dis-
coveries from pre-Deseadan sedimentary deposits of South
America, especially, would help to explain the complex
radiation of these primates.
Marcelo F. Tejedor, Faculdad de Ciencias Naturales, Sede
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In: Orders and Families of Recent Mammals of the
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Williams, E. E. and Koopman, K. F. 1952. West Indian
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Wolff, R. G. 1984. New specimens of the primate
Branisella boliviana from the early Oligocene of Salla,
Bolivia. J. Vert. Paleont. 4: 570-574.


Aldo Mario Giudice
Marina Sofia Ascunce
Los monos aulladores (g6nero Alouatta) poseen una
extensa distribuci6n geogrAfica desde el nivel del mar hasta
los 3200 metros de altura, tanto en pluviselvas como en
bosques semideciduos con clima estacional, en selvas de
inundaci6n y en ambientes coaccionados por el hombre
(Neville, 1972; Glander, 1978; Eisenberg, 1979; Milton,
1980; Mittermeier y Van Roosmalen, 1981; Gaulin y
Gaulin, 1982; Wolfheim, 1983; Piantanida et al., 1984;
Brown, 1984; Crockett y Eisenberg, 1987; Rumiz, 1990;
Hirsch et al., 1991; Redford y Eisenberg, 1992; Zunino et
al., 1995). En ciertas regions de Meso y Sudam6rica,
Alouatta es el dinico gdnero observado entire los primates
neotropicales y en especial A. caraya se encuentra en el
Iimite sur de distribuci6n, siendo su localizaci6n mAs aus-
tral en Alegrete, Brasil (2956'S; 5559'W) (Bicca-
Marques, 1990). Todos estos datos reflejarian la capacidad
descrita del gdnero a adaptarse a diversas condiciones
ecol6gicas, adn en Areas perturbadas por el hombre
(Eisenberg, 1979; Rodriguez-Luna et al., 1996).
Contrastando con la situaci6n presentada en habitats natu-
rales, Alouatta present problems para adaptarse al
cautiverio (Crandall, 1964; Dumond, 1967). Trabajos
pioneros sobre el mantenimiento de A. caraya en estas
condiciones dan cuenta de los cuidados que se le debe
brindar, aunque no siempre se alcanza el 6xito en su
supervivencia y reproducci6n (Benton, 1976; Lindbergh,
1976; Shoemaker, 1978; 1982; Colillas, 1983). En la
aclimataci6n de los aulladores al cautiverio, se han
sefialado como claves las oportunidades que se les brinde
en relaci6n a la complejidad structural de la jaula,
diversidad en la dieta y ambiente social adecuado, aspects
que posibilitan la autorregulaci6n del animal con su
ambiente y se mencionan como casos extremos de estas
oportunidades, las situaciones de semi-libertad. Al respect
Lindbergh (1976) enfatiza su importancia, afin en climas
templados, para la conservaci6n ex situ de A. caraya y
por otra parte menciona que los monos mantenidos en
estas condiciones pueden estar mejor preparados, Ilegado

el caso, para liberaciones en habitat naturales que aquellos
monos mantenidos en jaulas de zool6gicos.
El objetivo del present trabajo es informar sobre la
presencia de Alouatta caraya en un bosque del noreste de
la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, detallando el
clima, la vegetaci6n del Area e historic del grupo y
aportando un nuevo caso para la discusi6n acerca de la
adaptabilidad de A. caraya en condiciones ambientales
El Area de studio corresponde a un segment de bosque
de 12 ha incluido en un parque llamado Pereyra-Iraola,
localizado 40 km al sur de la ciudad de Buenos Aires
(3451'S, 5805'W) (Fig. 1). El clima de la region es
templado y se sitia dentro de los limites de la provincia
fitogeografica Pampeana, que ocupa las llanuras del este
de Argentina en el rango latitudinal sur 31-390. Los datos
climAticos que se aportan correspondent a una estaci6n
meteorol6gica situada aproximadamente 20 km al sur del
parque (La Plata, aero, 34 58'S; 570 54'W). Estos indi-
can que la temperature media annual es de 15.9 oC, con
una amplitud annual de 14.2 C y la precipitaci6n annual es
de 1092.6 mm (Servicio Meteorol6gico Nacional, perfodo
1981-1990) (Fig. 2). En especial el Area citada se
caracterizarfa originalmente por la presencia de pastizales
salpicados por isletas de tala (Celtis spinosa) (Cabrera,
1971). Sin embargo la vegetaci6n original del Area fue
modificada a mediados del siglo XIX introducidndose

Figura 1. Zona de studio. Referencias: I, II y III: transectos para andlisis
de composici6n floristica. DP: franja tomada para representar el diagrama
perfil (Figura 3). 1, 2 y 3: correspondent a sitios dentro del bosque en los
cuales fueron observados los monos. 4: Arboles ex6ticos. : herbdceas.
7:Celtis spinosa y Phytolacca dioica


4 5-5 31
-46 O


0 100 200m

t *i

Page 82


-- I

Netpia riae 6(3) Setme 99ae8

1 3 5 7 9 11
Figura 2. Climatograma correspondiente a los datos obtenidos por la estaci6n
meteorol6gica La Plata aero (Servicio Meteorol6gico Nacional, perfodo
1981-1990). Referencias: la lfnea continue indica precipitaci6n media men-
sual, expresado en mm y las barras indican la temperature media mensual
en grades centfgrados.
species de Arboles de distintas regions del mundo,
constituyendo asf unjardfn botdnico privado. En la d6cada
de los 40s fue expropiado por el estado national y parte
del mismo, incluida el area de studio, se destin6 a
esparcimiento del pdblico (Rosemberg et al., 1996).

Con el objetivo de analizar los recursos potenciales de
este grupo de monos, se realize un inventario y muestreo
de los arboles dentro del bosque, con la finalidad de conocer
la composici6n floristica y estructura. Para valorar la
abundancia de cada especie se analizaron los transectos I,
II y III. Los dos primeros dos correspondent a zonas del
bosque donde alguna vez se observaron 6stos monos, en
cambio la tercera se traz6 con la finalidad de conocer la
composici6n florfstica de otro segment del mismo, del

Tabla 1. AnAlisis floristico del Area de studio. Referencias: La tabla present las species, sefialando
la familiar a la cual pertenecen, halladas en cada transecto (Tl, T2 y T3) especificando su densidad
relative (Dr, numero total de ejemplares de una especie presents en el transecto dividido por el ndmero
total de species presents en la transecta y multiplicado por 100) y diametro a la altura del pecho
promedio expresado en cm (Dap). Para ver la localizaci6n de cada transecto remitirse a la Figura 1.
Especie Familia TI T2 T3
Dr Dap Dr Dap Dr Dap
Acer negundo Aceraceae 50 65.2 2.4 148.7 11.9 113.6
Gleditsia triacanthos Leguminosae 18.6 71.2 38.7 59.8 45.2 127.3
Ligustrum lucidum Olacaceae 15.7 49.5 4.8 101.7 2.3 45
Morussp. Moraceae 7.1 55.2 0.8 60 4.8 61.5
Fraxinus americana Olacaceae 2.9 59 28.2 85.1 2.4 150
Celtis australis Ulmaceae 1.4 43 1.6 57 2.4 67
Cupressus lusitdnica Cupresaceae 1.4 365 1.6 167.5 4.8 115
Platanus acerifolia Platanaceae 1.4 385 6.5 201.6
Pinus sp. Pinaceae 1.4 133
Unlmussp. Ulmaceae 6.5 79.8
Eucalyptus globulus Myrtaceae 3.2 208 9.5 260
Quercus robur Fagaceae 2.4 185.3
Populus alba Salicaceae 1.6 77 2.4 350
Celtis spinosa Ulmaceae 0.8 25 14.3 64.2
Populus deltoide Salicaceae 0.8 333 -
Otras species no presents en las transectas
Araucaria angustifolia Araucariaceae
Lonicera sp. Caprifoliaceae
Acacia craven Leguminosae
Acacia melanoxylon Leguminosae
Robinia pseudo-acacia Leguminosae
Populus tremula Salicaceae
Salix humboldtiana Salicaceae

Silvestres (ECAS) y a partir de entonces
comenzaron a vivir en el bosque
descrito, aledafio a dicho centro
(Lescano, com. pers., Fig. 1). El primer
contact que se tuvo con la tropa para
este studio fue en octubre de 1995
siendo su composici6n de 4 individuos:
1 macho adulto (fundador) (Fig. 4), 2
hembras adults (una de ellas
fundadora) y una hembra juvenile. En
agosto de 1996 se produjo el nacimiento
de otra crfa, ascendiendo el tamafio
grupal a 5 ejemplares (Lescano, com.
pers.). El grupo no fue seguido
sistemkticamente y s6lo se cuenta con
observaciones eventuales sobre uso de
espacio y comportamiento alimentario.
Se las ha observado comer hojas nuevas
y maduras de Morus sp. y Gleditsia
triacanthos, frutos de Morus alba e
inflorescencias de Robinia pseudo-aca-
La informaci6n presentada
complement las referencias previas
acerca de la capacidad deA. caraya para

ST..T. T

T. Gleditsia triacanthos; M: Morus sp.; C.L. Cupressus lusitanica; L. L.

Ligustrus lucidum; y R. P. Robinia pseudo-acacia. f HerbAceas;
yLigustrus lucidum de menos 20 cm. DAP; J Gleditsia triacanthos de
menos de20 cm DAP. @ Caducifolia;O perennifolio.

que no se posee indicio de uso por parte de los monos
(Fig. 1). Cada transecto tuvo una longitud variable en
funci6n de la extension del segment del bosque en el
cual se traz6 y cada 5 metros se registr6 la especie y el
didmetro a la altura del pecho (DAP) de cada Arbol
contabilizado. Adicionalmente se elabor6 un diagrama
perfil que permit visualizar la estructura de un segment
del bosque en el cual se ha observado con mayor frecuencia
a los monos (Fig. 3). Se registraron 21 species de arboles
y una especie de enredadera (Lonicera sp.). Entre los
drboles, 15 (71.4 %) fueron registrados en los transectos,
de los cuales s6lo Celtis spinosa corresponde a una especie
aut6ctona. En el transecto I la especie con mayor densidad
relative fue Acer negundo (50 %), en los transectos II y
III fue Gleditsia triacanthos (Tabla 1).

En 1988 se escaparon dos ejemplares adults deA. caraya
(macho y hembra) desde la Estaci6n de Crfa de Animales

Page 83

Neotropical Primates 6(3), September 1998

Page 84 Neotropical Primates 6(3), September 1998

adaptarse a las mds diversas condiciones ambientales, en
este caso a un ambiente de clima templado con
temperatures medias mensuales en los meses invernales
de junio, julio y agosto de 9.7C, 8.9C y 10.7C
respectivamente (Fig. 2). Las bajas temperatures no
parecen ser un factor determinante en la supervivencia de
este grupo de A. caraya, aspect coincidente con lo
mencionado por Lindbergh (1976) en relaci6n a una
hembra adulta de esta especie que se escap6 de su
alojamiento en el Centro de Primatologfa Verlhiac, Francia,
viviendo en un parque aledafio al mismo y tolerando, en
perfect estado de salud, temperatures diurnas inferiores
a 10C y temperatures nocturnas inferiores a 0C.
Evidentemente estas condiciones climAticas no podrian
haber sido toleradas si los monos no tuvieran los recursos
alimentarios adecuados para su nutrici6n. Por el moment
no se poseen datos sobre las estructuras vegetables
consumidas en todo el aflo y en especial en invierno,
teniendo en cuenta que la mayor parte de los Arboles son
caducifolios. S61o podemos hacer inferencias acerca de su
dieta a partir de las fragmentarias observaciones
personales, asociando a 6stas, observaciones en otros pri-
mates alojados en jaulas externas en ECAS y por la
informaci6n present en trabajos sobre aulladores
habitando bosques naturales y semi-naturales. Al respect
una de las species de arboles ex6ticos consumidas por
estos monos corresponde al g6nero Gleditsia, registrado
en los 3 transectos analizados. Este g6nero esta present
tambi6n el NE de Argentina con la especie G. amorphoides
que corresponde a un component de la dieta natural de
A. caraya, siendo utilizadas sus hojas nuevas y maduras
(Zunino, 1989) y sus inflorescencias (Giudice, obs. pers.).
Otro g6nero present en el Area de distribuci6n natural es
Celtis (C. pubescens y C. spinosa), del cual los monos
usan hojas nuevas, hojas maduras, inflorescencias y frutos
(Zunino, 1986). En Peryra-Iraola est6 present una de esas
species, Celtis spinosa, la cual se ha registrado en dos de
las tres transectos analizados. Posiblemente tanto G.
triacanthos como C. spinosa aporten distintos recursos
alimentarios a lo largo del afio a la dieta de este grupo. Se
ha observado que los frutos maduros de Celtis spinosa
son espontdneamente consumidos Cebus apella
paraguayanus alojado en ECAS bajo las copas de estos
arboles, en los meses de marzo y abril. Esta preferencia

Figura 4. Macho adulto (fundador) del grupo de studio. Foto Aldo Mario

tambi6n podria darse en el grupo de aulladores descrito.
Por otra parte, un recurso que parece influir en los
desplazamientos de los monos, corresponde a los frutos
de Morus alba, ejemplares de Morus sp. tambi6n estdn
presents en los 3 transectos analizados. M. alba fructific6
en los meses de octubre y noviembre. Esta utilizaci6n de
A. caraya de un alimento que no es parte de su dieta en
condiciones naturales fue un aspect reportado por Bicca-
Marques (1994) para un grupo de aulladores negros que
vivia en un bosque semi-natural y en el cual se observ6
preferencia por los frutos de Citrus sinensis, en
determinadas 6pocas del afio. Bicca-Marques y Calegaro-
Marques (1994) reportaron la inclusion en la dieta de
aulladores negros de Eucalyptus sp., g6nero que esta
present en el bosque estudiado y que prodrfa entonces
aportar alimentos a los monos.
Otro aspect important en la adaptaci6n del grupo al
bosque citado, tiene ver con que su estructura que brinda
la posibilidad de desplazarse por los Arboles a lo largo del
bosque, sin descender al suelo, aspect que da seguridad a
los monos, poni6ndolos a salvo de perros vagabundos.
Relacionado con la fisonomia del bosque, se debe
mencionar la presencia de ejemplares de Cupressus
lusitdnica de mds de 20 m de altura con copas cerradas,
en los cuales se observ6 dormir a los monos. La presencia
de estos irboles podria aportar seguridad a los monos du-
rante sus horas de descanso.
Los datos presentados sefialan la capacidad adaptativa de
A. caraya a condiciones ambientales particulares como el
rango t6rmico y los recursos alimentarios. En este ambiente
los aulladores negros han logrado una supervivencia
prolongada en el tiempo (9 afios) y una evoluci6n favor-
able en la situaci6n reproductive a lo largo de ese perfodo
(nacimiento de 3 individuos ), dos aspects que en las
jaulas de los zool6gicos de Argentina generalmente no se
ha observado (Giudice, obs. pers.). Recordando que los
monos aulladores en los zool6gicos argentinos llegan a
trav6s de donaciones y/o incautaciones (Arditi et al., 1989;
Giudice, 1993; Giudice et al., 1995) y son posteriormente
alojados en jaulas de tipo traditional en las cuales
manifiestan una elevada mortalidad, pensamos que muchas
de estas instituciones que cuentan con parques arbolados
y diversos en su composici6n floristica, podrian
implementar con A. caraya experiencias controladas de
liberaci6n, sirviendo para estos fines la metodologia
sefialada por Rodriguez-Luna y Cort6s-Ortiz (1994) en
sus programs de translocaci6n de A. palliata en M6xico
y de esta forma evaluar la eficacia de este tipo de
alojamiento en el mantenimiento a largo plazo de la
especie. Por otra parte, y coincidiendo con Bicca-Marques
(1994), este tipo de procedimientos llevados a cabo en los
zool6gicos podria servir para reproducir species de
aulladores amenazadas de extinci6n, como es el caso en
la Argentina de A. fusca clamitans (Di Bitteti y Arditi,
1993; Brown et al., 1993).
Agradecimientos: Agradecemos la colaboraci6n del per-

Page 84

Neotropical Primates 6(3), September 1998

Neotropical Primates 6(3), September 1998

sonal de ECAS por permitir y facilitar el trabajo dentro de
sujurisdicci6n, al Sr. Diego Lescano por sus valiosos datos
sobre el grupo de aulladores, a Silvia Garbarino por la
ayuda prestada en todas las etapas del trabajo y a la Dra.
Alejandra Vilela por su colaboraci6n en la determinaci6n
de las species de drboles. Agradecemos tambi6n a la Dra.
Marta Mudry y al Dr. Gabriel Zunino por la lectura critica
del manuscrito original.
Aldo Mario Giudice y Marina Sofia Ascunce, GIBE,
Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Departamento
de Ciencias Biol6gicas. Ciudad Universitaria, Pabell6n II,
4 piso, (1428) Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Arditi, S. I.; Mudry, M.D. y Brown, A.D. 1989. Estado
actual del desarrollo de la primatologia en Argentina.
Bol. Primatol. Lat. 1(1): 43-66.
Benton, L. 1976. The establishment and husbandry of a
black howler Alouatta caraya colony at Columbia Zoo.
Int. Zoo Yearb. 16: 149-152.
Bicca-Marques, J.C. 1990. A new southern limit for the
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State, Brazil. Primates 31(3): 449-451.
Bicca- Marques, J.C. 1994. Padrao de utilizacao de uma
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wild howler populations. Folia Primatol. 63: 209-211.
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Leticia Domingues Branddo
Pedro Ferreira Develey
The buffy tufted-ear marmoset, Callithrix aurita, is en-
demic to southeastern Brazil. The species occurs in the
Atlantic Forest region, one of the most threatened ecosys-
tems in the world (Mittermeier, 1988; Fonseca, 1985), its
distribution ranging from the northernmost part of the
state of Rio de Janeiro, east and northeast of Sao Paulo
state to the southeast of Minas Gerais (Hershkovitz, 1977;
Vivo, 1991). C. aurita is the most southerly species of the
genus (Muskin, 1984a). It is listed as "Endangered" by
IUCN and by the Official List
of Threatened Species in Bra- Table 1. Museum localities and f
of Threatened Species in Bra- coastal Atlantic forest, southeast
zil of the Brazilian Institute for Locality
the Environment (Ibama). SerradeMacad

C. aurita is of the least known
of the Atlantic forest
callitrichids. Brief field studies
have been carried out by Torres
de Assumpcao (1983), in Sao
Paulo, and Muskin (1984a,
1984b) and Bueno (1989) in
southern Minas Gerais. Corria
(1995) and Coutinho (1996)
carried out the first of the more
detailed field studies in the
Serra do Mar State Park, Sao
Paulo, and Martins (1998) re-

cently completed a study of the feeding ecology of a group
of C. aurita in Muskin's (1984a, 1984b) and Bueno's
(1989) study site in southern Minas Gerais. Here we re-
port on some preliminary results from a long-term study
on the species being carried out by LDB in the Serra da
Bocaina, on the border of the states of Sao Paulo and Rio
de Janeiro, particularly regarding the question of the alti-
tudinal range of the species and its conservation status.
Altitudinal distribution in coastal Atlantic forest
The altitudinal distribution of the species is controver-
sial. Olmos and Martuscelli (1995) record that it occurs
only at altitudes ranging from 600 to about 1200 m in Sao
Paulo, and Rylands (1994) considered the species restricted
to montane forest from 500-800 m. However, there are
museum specimens collected in the foothills of the Serra
do Mar, south of Rio de Janeiro: in 1941, Pedra Branca,
municipality of Parati, and 1942, Mambucaba, munici-
pality of Angra dos Reis (Table 1). These two past records
are the only evidence to date for the species' occurrence
in lowland forest (Coimbra-Filho, 1991; Vivo, 1991). From
observations made in 1952, Coimbra-Filho (1991) sug-
gested that the buffy tufted-ear marmoset may occur in
other lowland areas within the state of Rio de Janeiro,
although he considered the species as probably regionally
extinct there. All the recent records of the species along
the coastal Atlantic forest are restricted to montane forest
(Table 1).
Another species which is ecologically similar to C. aurita,
and even suspected to be a subspecies of aurita, is the
buffy-headed marmoset, C. flaviceps (see Coimbra-Filho,
1991, Coimbra-Filho et al. 1993). The buffy-headed mar-
moset is also largely restricted to montane forest, and oc-
curs mainly at altitudes over 500 m in the states of Minas
Gerais and Espirito Santo (Mendes, 1993). Both of these
marmosets face harsh seasonal extremes of temperature
and rainfall (Ferrari et al. 1996). It is interesting to note
that in tropical semideciduous forest in the interior, the
buffy tufted-ear and buffy-headed marmosets also occur
at lower elevations (Stallings and Robinson, 1991; Ferrari

field observations of the buffy tufted-ear marmoset Callithrix aurita along the
ern Brazil.
State Coordinates Altitude (m) Source
RJ 22' 10'S-4200'W 500 MNRJ

Teres6polis RJ 22 27'S 42' 59'W 902 MNRJ
Petr6polis RJ 22' 30'S 43 1 l'W 810 MNRJ
Mambucaba RJ 23 01'S 44' 31'W 100 MNRJ
(Angra dos Reis)
Pedra Branca (Parati) RJ 23 14'S 44 44'W 80 MNRJ
Bananal Ecological Station SP 22' 48'S 44 22'W 1200 L.D. Brandao (pers. obs.)
Bocaina National Park SP 2240'S 44 24'W 1200 L.D. Brandlo (pers. obs.)
Taquara (Serra da Bocaina) SP 22 43'S 44' 24'W 1300 MZUSP
FazendaPosse SP 22 44'S-44 37'W 1200 MZUSP
(S. J. Barreiro- Serra do Mar)
NiScleoCunha SP 23 14'S 45 03'W 1000 Corr6a (1985)
(Serra do Mar State Park)
Alto da Serra (Serra do Mar) SP 23 47'S 46 19'W 1375 Hershkovitz, 1977
FazendaLagoa SP 23' 15'S 45 20'W 800 Olmos & Martuscelli, 1995
(S.L.Paraitinga Serra do Mar)
State: RJ Rio de Janeiro, SP- Sao Paulo. Sources: MNRJ National Museum, Rio de Janeiro. MZUSP -
Zoology Museum, Universidade de Sao Paulo.

Page 86

Neotropical Primates 6(3), September 1998

Neotropical Primates 6(3), September 1998 Page 87

et al. 1996). The buffy-headed marmoset has a much
smaller range and it appears to be more restricted to higher
elevations than the buffy tufted-ear marmoset. We have
found new evidence which confirms the existence of the
buffy tufted-ear-marmoset in lowland coastal forest of the
foothills of the Bocaina mountain range.
Buffy tufted-ear marmoset in lowland coastal forests
In order to confirm the occurrence of C. aurita in low-
land coastal forests, we carried out a survey from Novem-
ber 1996 to February 1997 along the coast from northern
Sao Paulo to the coast of southern Rio de Janeiro. We
visited all the villages along the coast between the two
states, interviewing residents who knew the forest and its
animals. Color photographs of different species of mar-
mosets were shown to these people to check if they recog-
nized the buffy tufted-ear marmoset. We also used a tape
recorder with the species' vocalization, attempting to at-
tract wild groups which might be occurring in the forest
of this region.
None of the people interviewed between Ubatuba and Paratf
recognized the species. Only in Mambucaba, municipal-
ity of Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, did we obtain evi-
dence that the interviewees knew of the buffy tufted-ear
marmoset. In Mambucaba, we also found an adult male
in captivity, which had been taken from the forest four
months previously, and later two more individuals, an adult
male and a female, also being kept as pets. The person
who caught these animals showed us the area where the
species could be found.
From our own experience, finding wild groups of buffy
tufted-ear marmosets is not easy. While we were survey-
ing the forest around Mambucaba (elevation 165 m) where
the captive marmosets had been caught, we located a group
because one marmoset gave a very high-pitched rasping
scream above us, while the usual repetitive mobbing vo-
calizations were not emitted. Alarm calls of this kind are
reported for marmosets, and most often associated with
aerial predators (Ferrari and Ferrari, 1990). The group at
Mambucaba had already suffered the loss of three indi-
viduals, and probably, for this reason, the marmosets were
very shy.
Threats and Conservation
The buffy tufted-ear marmoset has had most of its natural
habitat destroyed. Most especially, the lowland habitats
have been transformed or destroyed through human ac-
tivities. Deforestation dates from the 1500s, when the first
colonizers arrived on the coast of Brazil. Angra dos Reis,
as a result of its geographical location, was one of the first
coastal areas settled and explored. Mambucaba was an
important center for trade between Indians and Europe-
ans, and the region around Mambucaba has been settled
since 1573. Trading booms from the earliest days of colo-
nization peaked around 1830, with the expansion of cof-
fee plantations, and the export of sugar-cane and

"aguardente", an alcoholic sugar cane distillation
(Machado, 1995). Nowadays, other factors contribute to
deforestation in these areas, situated on a narrow stretch
of forest between the mountains and the sea; the main one
being real estate acquisition and the housing industry.
Beside, habitat loss throughout the species' range, it is
now also threatened by hunters, who catch them illegally
for pets. Because of its natural rarity, it is not as com-
monly found, however, as the ubiquitous and introduced
common marmosets, C. jacchus, frequently up for sale in
markets. The introduction of C. jacchus, occurring natu-
rally only in northeast Brazil, may represent a threat to
the buffy tufted-ear marmoset.
The evidence we have indicates that C. aurita still occurs
in the lowland coastal forests of Rio de Janeiro, but not in
the lowland coastal forest of Sao Paulo. The record for
Ubatuba, Sao Paulo, needs further investigation (Olmos
and Martuscelli, 1995).
The forested area of the state of Rio de Janeiro, originally
4.294.000 ha (97% of the state) was reduced to 896.200
ha (20,24%) by 1990 (Brazil, 1994). The area where the
buffy tufted-ear marmoset was found is near to the Bocaina
National Park of 110.000 ha, with 60% of the Park in Rio
de Janeiro and 40% in Sao Paulo. Although the species
does occur inside the Park, the lowland forest around
Mambucaba is outside this protected area.
During our surveys, we also recorded the presence of the
fork tailed-pigmy tyrant, Ceratotriccusfurcatus, a highly
threatened endemic bird species restricted to the northern
coast of Sao Paulo and the southern part of Rio de Janeiro
(Collar et al. 1992). Another threatened species observed
was the blue-bellied parrot, Triclaria malachitacea, highly
subject to illegal trafficking.
In spite of all the difficulties in applying conservation
measures, the lack of trained forest guards and the need to
create a conservation awareness, efforts are now under-
way through a partnership between the Brazilian Institute
for the Environment (Ibama) and a local non-governmen-
tal organization, "Pr6-Bocaina", for action in the region.
At present, an agreement between these two institutions
is resulting in the elaboration of a management plan to
guarantee the effective protection of the Park. Initiatives
at all levels, from governmental, to scientific and local
communities will strongly reinforce the effectiveness of
conservation measures, vital for the survival of the in-
creasingly threatened buffy tufted-ear marmoset in the
lowland coastal forest.
This work was funded by the Fundaqao de Amparo a
Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP-Process No.
94/03843), Sao Paulo. We thank Jos6 de Sousa e Silva Jr.,
Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, for helping with locat-
ing museum specimens and a special thanks to the reviser
for his suggestions and comments.

Neotropical Primates 6(3), September 1998

Page 87

Page 88 Neotropical Primates 6(3), September 1998

Leticia Domingues Brandio and Pedro Ferreira
Develey, Departamento de Ecologia Geral, Universidade
de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 11.461, 05422-970 Sao Paulo,
Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Brazil, Secretaria de Estado do Meio Ambiente e Projetos
Especiais. 1994. Reserva da Biosfera da Mata Atlantica.
Fundagdo Instituto Estadual de Florestas (IEF), Rio de
Janeiro. Map, Scale 1:400.000.
Bueno, A. R. 1989. Determinagno da firea de uso de um
grupo de saguis Callithrix aurita em um fragmento
florestal do Sul de Minas Gerais. Bachelor's Thesis,
Universidade Estadual de Sao Paulo, Rio Claro.
Coimbra-Filho, A. F. 1991. Apontamentos sobre Callithrix
aurita (E. Geoffroyi, 1812), um sagtii pouco conhecido
(Callitrichidae, Primates). In: A Primatologia no Brasil-
3, A. B. Rylands and A. T. Bernardes (eds.) pp.145-158.
Fundacao Biodiversitas and Sociedade Brasileira de
Primatologia, Belo Horizonte.
Coimbra-Filho, A. F., Pissinatti, A. and Rylands, A. B.
1993. Experimental multiple hybridism among
Callithrix species from eastern Brazil. In: Marmosets
and Tamarins: Systematics, Ecology, and Behaviour, A.
B. Rylands (ed.), pp.95-120. Oxford University Press,
Collar, N. J., Gonzaga L. P., Krabbe, N. et al. 1992. Threat-
ened Birds of the Americas. International Council for
Bird Preservation, Cambridge.
Correa, H. K. M. 1995. Ecologia e comportamento
alimentar de um grupo de saguis-da-serra-escuros
(Callithrix aurita E. Geoffroy, 1812) no Parque Estadual
da Serra do Mar, Nficleo.Cunha, Sio Paulo, Brasil.
Master's thesis, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais,
Belo Horizonte.
Coutinho, P. E. G. 1996. Comportamento reprodutivo de
um grupo de Callithrix aurita (Platyrrhini, Primates)
no Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, Nicleo Cunha,
Sao Paulo, Brasil. Master's thesis, Universidade Fed-
eral do Pari, Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Belem.
Ferrari, S. F. and Ferrari, M. A. L. 1990. Predator avoid-
ance behaviour in the buffy-headed marmoset, Callithrix
flaviceps. Primates 31(3):323-338.
Ferrari, S. F., Correa, M. K. M. and Coutinho, P. E. G.
1996. Ecology of the southern marmosets (Callithrix
aurita and Callithrix flaviceps) How different, how
similar? In: Adaptive Radiations of Neotropical Pri-
mates, M. A. Norconk, A. L. Rosenberger and P. A.
Garber (eds.), pp.157-171. Plenum Press, New York.
Fonseca, G.A.B. 1985. The vanishing Brazilian Atlantic
Forest. Biol. Conserv. 34:1 7-34.
Hershkovitz, P. 1977. Living New World Monkeys
(Platyrrhini), Vol. 1. University of Chicago Press, Chi-
Machado, L. 0. 1995. Projeto Mata Atlantica. Unpublished
final report, G. Mitchell (ed.). Furnas Centrais E16tricas
S.A., Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.
Martins, M. M. 1998. Ecologia alimentar do sagtii-da-

serra-escuro, Callithrix aurita (Callitrichidae, Primates)
em um fragmento florestal. Master's thesis, Universidade
Estadual Paulista, Rio Claro.
Mendes, S. L. 1993. Distribuigdo geogrAfica e estado de
conservagao de Callithrix flaviceps (Primatas:
Callitrichinae). In: A Primatologia no Brasil-4, M. E.
Yamamoto and M. B. C. de Sousa (eds.), pp.139-154.
Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia, Natal.
Mittermeier, R. A. 1988. Primate diversity and the tropi-
cal forest: Case studies from Brazil and Madagascar and
the importance of megadiversity countries. In:
Biodiversity, E. 0. Wilson and F. M. Peters (eds.),
pp.145-154. National Academy Press, Washington, D.
Muskin, A. 1984a. Field notes and geographical distribu-
tion of Callithrix aurita in eastern Brazil. Am. J.
Primatol. 7: 377-380.
Muskin, A. 1984b. Preliminary field observations of
Callithrix aurita (Callitrichinae, Cebidae). In: A
Primatologia no Brasil. M. T. de Mello (ed.), pp.203-
211. Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia, Brasilia.
Olmos, F. and Martuscelli, P. 1995. Habitat and distribu-
tion of buffy tufted-ear marmoset Callithrix aurita in
Sao Paulo State, Brazil, with notes on its natural his-
tory. Neotropical Primates 3(3): 75-79.
Rylands, A. B. 1994. Sagui-da-Serra -escuro Callithrix
aurita (E. Geoffroy, 1812). In Livro Vermelho dos
Mamiferos Ameagados de Extingao. Fonseca, G. A. B.,
Rylands, A. B., Costa, C. M. R., Machado, R. B. and
Leite, Y. L. R. pp.47-54. FundaqAo Biodiversitas, Belo
Stallings, J. R. and Robinson, J. G. 1991. Disturbance,
forest heterogeneity and primate communities in a Bra-
zilian Atlantic forest park. In A Primatologia no Brasil-
3, A. B. Rylands and A. T. Bernardes (eds.), pp.357-
368. Fundaq3o Biodiversitas and Sociedade Brasileira
de Primatologia, Belo Horizonte.
Torres de Assumpgao, C. 1983. An ecological study of the
primates of southeastern Brazil, with a reappraisal of
Cebus apella races. Doctoral Thesis, University of
Edinburgh, Edinburgh.
Vivo, M. de. 1991. Taxonomia de Callithrix Erxleben,
1777 (Callitrichidae, Primates). FundaqAo Biodiversitas,
Belo Horizonte.

Juilio Cdsar Bicca-Marques
Claudio Arani Nunes
geirol Karin Schacht
This paper reports on preliminary observations of hand-
edness during feeding in wild populations of black-chinned
emperor tamarins (Saguinus imperator imperator),
Weddell's saddleback tamarins (Saguinus fuscicollis
weddelli), and red titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus

Page 88

Neotropical Primates 6(3), September 1998

Page 89

cupreus) in northwestern Brazil. Data were recorded on
the hands) used to hold and bring to the mouth pieces of
bananas left at experimental feeding sites. Records were
collected by "behavior sampling" (Martin and Bateson,
1993) as part of a study on the cognitive aspects of forag-
ing decisions in these primates. A total of 529 records
(emperor tamarins 208; saddleback tamarins 167; titi
monkeys 154) were obtained from December 1997
through January 1998. The study was carried out at the
Zoobotanical Park of the Federal University of Acre
(UFAC) (956'30" 957' 19"S, 67o52'08" 6753'00"W;
area 100 ha), Rio Branco, state of Acre, Brazil.
Prior to the beginning of the study, tamarins, except in-
fants, were captured (capture methods detailed in
Encarnaci6n et al., 1990), anaesthetized, weighed, mea-
sured, sexed, aged, and fitted with collars of different col-
ors for individual recognition. A total of two emperor tama-
rin social groups (IA and IB, composed of four and five
individuals, respectively, along with two solitary individu-
als ID and IE), and two saddleback tamarin groups (FU
and FC of five and six individuals, respectively) were cap-
tured. Titi monkeys, however, were not trapped, and indi-
viduals could not be identified with certainty. Data on at
least two titi monkey social groups were collected and
analyzed only at the species level. Data on the tamarins
were analyzed by individual and grouped by sex.
Emperor and saddleback tamarins were found to use one
hand significantly more often than both hands to hold food
and bring it to their mouths (emperor X2 = 24.04, d.f. =
1, p<0.001; saddleback V = 43.83, d.f. = 1, p<0.001). In
contrast, titi monkeys used one hand or both hands equally
(X2 = 0.47, d.f. = 1, n.s.) (Figure 1). Saddlebacks showed
a tendency to use only one hand for feeding more fre-
quently than did emperor tamarins (X2 = 7.70, d.f. = 1,
p<0.01). Although using data for the solitary ID skews
the species analysis, its exclusion did not change the re-
sults. Table 1 indicates that all classes of tamarins ana-
lyzed except for group IA and solitary IE, foraged and fed
significantly more often using one hand than both hands.
Considering those individuals for which sample sizes were
large enough to test for statistical significance, only two

CC --------

Saddleback Emperor tamarins Titi monkeys
Figure 1. Percentage use of one or both hands by tamarins and titi mon-

Table 1. Frequency of hand use (right, left, or both) by tamarin species,
group, sex, and age, and respective levels of significance.
Frequency of hand use Level of significance
Class Right Left Both One vs. Right vs.
both hands left hand
Saguinus imperator
GrouplA 29 17 12 p<0.01 n.s.
Group IB 25 12 22 n.s. n.s.
Solitary ID 36 16 7 p<0.001 p<0.05
Solitary IE 10 8 11 n.s. n.s.
Females 78 40 37 p<0.001 p<0.02
Males 22 13 15 p<0.05 n.s.
Adults 85 46 45 p<0.001 p<0.02
Immatures 15 7 7 p<0.05 n.s.
Group FU 53 46 14 p<0.001 n.s.
Group FC 24 21 9 p<0.001 n.s.
Females 33 26 12 p<0.001 n.s.
Males 40 40 10 p<0.001 n.s.
Adults 56 50 18 p<0.001 n.s.
Immatures 21 17 5 p<0.001 n.s.
n.s.= not significant
out of eight emperor tamarins showed a higher use of one
hand over two hands (ID: X2 = 17.16, d.f. = 1, p<0.001;
IA-PNK: V2 = 5.78, d.f. = 1, p<0.02). In contrast, five out
of six saddleback tamarins tended to hold the food with
just one hand (FU-AZL: X2 = 10.56, d.f. = 1, p<0.01; FU-
BRA: X2 = 8.59, d.f. = 1, p<0.01; FU-AMA: X2 = 7.22,
d.f. = 1, p<0.01; FU-ROS: x2 = 4.98, d.f. = 1, p<0.05; FC-
AEP: x2 = 4.92, d.f. = 1, p<0.05).
These results may reflect differences in patterns of posi-
tional behavior among the three species. Titi monkeys
generally ate bananas in a sitting posture, whereas
saddleback tamarins fed more frequently while clinging
to vertical trunks, a posture requiring at least one hand
for support. Emperor tamarins appear to be intermediate
between the other two species. A second variable that in-
fluenced the use of one or two hands when feeding in a
sitting position was the size of the food item eaten. The
monkeys often used both hands when holding relatively
large pieces of banana.

Regarding the use of right or left hands, saddleback tama-
rins and titi monkeys did not exhibit a preference, and
used each hand equally (saddlebacks: X2 = 0.35, d.f. = 1,
n.s.; titis: X2 = 0.18, d.f. = 1, n.s.). In contrast, emperor
tamarins showed strong right hand preference (X2 = 7.48,

5 ., 4.

Saddleback Emperor tamarins Titi monkeys
Figure 2. Percentage use of right and left hands by tamarins and titi mon-

Neotropical Primates 6(3), September 1998

Page 90 Neotropical Primates 6(3), September 1998

d.f. = 1, p<0.01) (Fig. 2). Among saddleback tamarins
there was no evidence of a hand preference by group, age
or sex. In emperor tamarins, solitary ID, females, and
adults showed a right-handed preference (Table 1). This
significance by age and sex, however, disappears when
the adult female ID is excluded from the analyses. Indi-
vidual analyses showed that the right and left hands were
used to the same extent by all saddleback tamarins tested
(n = 5) and by three out of four emperor tamarins. These
results, however, contrast with data from the individuals
which indicate a higher frequency of use of one particular
hand. While only one saddleback tamarin showed equal
use of both hands, 17 tamarins (10 emperor and seven
saddlebacks) showed a higher frequency of right-hand
records and only three (one emperor and two saddlebacks)
showed a higher frequency of left-hand records. This dif-
ference in right-left-hand use is statistically significant
(2 = 4.90, d.f. = 1, p<0.05). A similar pattern of a right-
handed preference was described by Singer (1996).
Acknowledgments: The study was supported by the
Fundagdo 0 Boticario de Protegao A Natureza, The John
D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, the Fundo
Mundial para a Natureza-WWF, Brasil, the American
Society of Primatologists, the Center for Latin American
and Caribbean Studies/University of Illinois at Urbana-
Champaign, S.O.S. Amaz6nia, the Brazilian Higher Edu-
cation Authority (Coordenacao de Aperfeigoamento de
Pessoal de Nfvel Superior CAPES), and the Parque
Jdlio CUsar Bicca-Marques, Department of Anthropol-
ogy/UIUC, 109 Davenport Hall, 607 S. Matthews Avenue,
Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA, Claudio Arani Nunes and
Karin Schacht, Projeto Bugio, Rua Rio de Janeiro 235,
89130-000 Indaial, Santa Catarina, Brazil.
Encarnaci6n, F., Moya, L., Soini, P., Tapia, J. and Aquino,
R. 1990. La capture de Callitrichidae (Saguinus y
Cebuella) en la Amazonfa Peruana. In: La Primatologia
en el Perid, N. E. Castro-Rodrfguez (ed.). pp. 45-56.
Proyecto Peruano de Primatologia, Iquitos.
Martin, P. R. and Bateson, P. 1993. Measuring Behaviour:
An Introductory Guide. 2nd ed..Cambridge University
Press, Cambridge.
Singer, S. S. 1996. Vergleichende Untersuchungen zur
Haendigkeit bei Marmosetten und Tamarinen
(Platyrrhini: Callitrichidae). Diplomarbeit, Universitlit
Regensburg, Regensburg.

A new species of marmoset has been described, the black-
crowned dwarf marmoset Callithrix humilis, by Marc G.
M. van Roosmalen, botanist and primatologist at the

Botany Department of the National Institute for Amazon
Research (INPA), Manaus, his son Tomas van Roosmalen,
at Colgate University, New York, Russell A. Mittermeier,
President of Conservation International, Washington D.
C., and Chairman of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist
Group, and Gustavo A. B. Fonseca, Professor of Mam-
malogy at the Federal University of Minas Gerais, and
Director of Conservation International do Brasil, Belo
Horizonte. This small marmoset (at 120-200 g adult weight
it is larger than the pygmy marmoset but smaller than
other Callithrix marmosets), was first encountered by Marc
and Tomas van Roosmalen on 16 April 1996 in the town
of Novo Aripuana, where they saw a two-week-old infant,
said to have been taken from the village of Nova Olinda
on the west bank of the lower Rio Aripuana, a tributary of
the Rio Madeira. The marmoset was first seen in the wild
in November 1996, during a survey of the lower Rio
Aripuana, near to Nova Olinda, where a group was feed-
ing on the trunk exsudate of a morotot6 tree, Didymoponax
morototoni. Marc and Tomas van Roosmalen were subse-
quently joined on this trip by Russell Mittermeier and
Gustavo Fonseca, along with the journalist David
Quammen who wrote up the story of the expedition in
Sports Illustrated magazine (Quammen, 1997).
The type locality for C. humilis, is the "West bank of the
lower Rio Aripuana, one kiolometer south of the settle-
ment of Nova Olinda, 41 km south-west of the town of
Novo Aripuana, Amazonas state, Brazil. This region is
located in south-central Amazonia, Brazil, south of the
Rio Amazonas and east of the Rio Madeira. Coordinates
for the type locality are 0530'63"S, 6024'61"W. Alti-
tude 45 meters.".
C. humilis was found to occur in dense primary terra firme
forest as well as secondary forest surrounding plantations
and fields. Local people confirmed that it it did not occur
in inundated forests such as vdrzea and igap6; the habitat
typical of Cebuella pygmaea. In this, and in a number of
other behavioral and physical aspects, it is closer to the
Callithrixmarmosets than the pygmy marmosets. Amongst
other pelage features, it is distinguished from Cebuella
by the lack of a lion-like mane, exposed ears, and a well-
defined mantle, by its darker, olive brown (not tawny ago-
uti), even (as opposed to spotted) general coloration of the
upper and outer parts of the body and by the orange yel-
low to golden chest, belly and inner sides of limbs. Van
Roosmalen et al. (1998) provide detailed descriptions of
the pelage, including changes with age, and compare it to
Cebuella and other Amazonian Callithrix; all beautifully
illustrated by the artist Stephen D. Nash, State University
of New York, Stony Brook.
The known range of the species is from the west bank of
the lower Rio Aripuana, from the mouth, south to the
Parand Capimtuba. Interviews with local people also in-
dicated its presence along the east bank of the Rio Ma-
deira, from the mouth of the Rio Aripuana, just south of
the town of Novo Aripuana, south to the mouth of the Rio
Mataurd. The southern limit for the species is probably

Page 90

Neotropical Primates 6(3), September 1998

Neotopial rimtes6(3) Setemer 998Pa2e 91

the headwaters of the Rios Urud, MariepauA and Araud.
Van Roosmalen et al. (1998) discuss the conservation sta-
tus of this still little known species. They estimated the
confirmed geographic distribution to be between 250,000
and 300,000 ha, the smallest range of any Amazonian
primate species. It does not occur in any protected area,
and, arguing that total numbers may not exceed a few thou-
sand, the authors conclude that it should be considered
"vulnerable" or even "endangered", and that efforts should
be undertaken to protect its entire distribution.
The publication includes appendices of lists of the pri-
mate species and taxa for Brazil. Primate species now
number 77, with 39 (51%) endemic to the country. A total
of 130 taxa are now recognized for Brazil, 69 (53%) of
them endemic. A third appendix lists all known
callitrichids (57) and their distributions in the 11 coun-
tries where they occur. Forty-six callitrichids occur in
Brazil, 15 in Peru, and 10 in Colombia. There are cur-
rently 18 species of marmosets, Callithrix; all endemic to
Brazil, except for C. argentata which extends into Para-
guay and Bolivia (Van Roosmalen et al., 1998).
Marc G. M. van Roosmalen, Departamento de Botinica,
Institute Nacional de Pesquisas da Amaz6nia (INPA),
Caixa Postal 478, 69011-970 Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.
Quammen, D. 1997. You looking for me? Sports Illus-
trated, 3 February 1997, pp.66-76.
Van Roosmalen, M. G. M., Van Roosmalen, T.,
Mittermeier, R. A. and Fonseca, G. A. B. da. 1998. A
new and distinctive species of marmoset (Callitrichidae,
Primates) from the lower Rio Aripuana, state of
Amazonas, central Brazilian Amazonia. Goeldiana
Zoologia (22): 1-27.

In February 1997, Dilmar Alberto Gonqalves de Oliveira
defended his M.Sc. thesis, "Long-distance vocalizations
of the howling monkey, Alouattafusca, in the Cantareira
State Park, Sao Paulo", at the Institute of Psychology of
the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The thesis was super-
vised by Prof. C6sar Ades. The following is an abstract of
the thesis.
The structure and contexts of the long-distance calls of
brown howler monkeys (Alouatta fusca clamitans) were
studied at the Cantareira State Park (Sao Paulo, SP, Bra-
zil). Data on activity patterns and diet showed a predomi-
nance of resting over other behaviors and an almost com-
pletely folivorous diet throughout the study period (Au-
tumn, 1996). Sonographic analyses showed that loud calls
were composed of ten elements or notes (roars, alternate
roars, incipient roars, roar accompaniments, hiccups,
barks, extended barks, incipient barks, coughs, and oodles)
that were emitted in six different types of sequences, dis-
tinguished by a predominant note or element. Extended

barks and extended bark sequences are described for the
first time. Bark sequences, observed in moderate to strong
alarm eliciting contexts, were emitted by males and acted
as a graded signal production system. Roar sequences oc-
curred in close association with intergroup conflicts and
were emitted by males, with a higher number of accompa-
nying individuals than bark sequences. It was hypothesized
that barks and roars have distinct behavioral functions
and motivations. The structural features of A. fusca's loud
calls, especially the roars, suggest that they are used as
honest signals of resource holding potential (RHP).
Dilmar A. G. de Oliveira, Departamento de Psicologia
Experimental, Instituto de Psicologia, Universidade de Sao
Paulo, Avenida Professor Mello Moraes 1721,05508-900
Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Oliveira, D. A. G. 1997. Vocaliza96es de long alcance
do bugio (Alouattafusca clamitans) na drea do Parque
Estadual da Cantareira (Sao Paulo, SP). Master's the-
sis, Instituto de Psicologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo,
Sao Paulo. 94pp.

Ann-Kathrin Oerke defended her doctoral dissertation on
ultrasonographic studies of pregnancy and the reproduc-
tive cycle in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)
at the Institut ffir Tierzucht und Haustiergenetik of the
Georg-August-UniversitAit and the Deutsches
Primatenzentrum, G6ttingen, in December 1995. The fol-
lowing is a summary of her thesis:
Ultrasonography is a non-invasive method for assessing
reproductive status, providing immediate results by direct
visualization of the uterus and ovaries. In this study, the
method was used to monitor pregnancy and ovarian func-
tion in a small New World monkey, the common marmo-
set, Callithrix jacchus. Three experiments were carried
out in order 1) to monitor uterine changes, embryonic
development and fetal growth throughout gestation, 2) to
define parameters for early pregnancy diagnosis and 3) to
monitor follicular growth, ovulation and formation of cor-
pora lutea (Cls) during the ovarian cycle.
For all studies, ovarian cycles were controlled by admin-
istration of prostaglandin F 2a (PGF) and the time of ovu-
lation was determined retrospectively by measurement of
a defined rise in plasma progesterone. All scans were per-
formed on unsedated females using a 7.5 Mhz probe for
studies of pregnancy and a 10 Mhz probe for examina-
tions of ovaries during the cycle.
The first experiment was carried out on eight pregnancies
from ovulation to birth. Detection of pregnancy was pos-
sible by visualising the appearance of a double endome-
trial echo on average 15 days after ovulation. Measure-
ments of uterus and uterine lumen were useful for deter-
mining the stage of pregnancy between day 30 and 90.

Neotropical Primates 6(3), September 1998

Page 91

Page 92 Neotropical Primates 6(3), September 1998

On day 33 embryos became directly visible and on day 54
embryonic heart beat was seen. These findings provided
information on number and viability of embryos. Since
fetal heads appeared in ultrasound images from Day 80
onwards, fetal growth could be reliably monitored by mea-
surements of skull diameters. Ultrasound results confirmed
embryonic development in the marmoset to be slower than
that reported for other primates. This delay of develop-
ment was also seen in the onset of organ function.
In the second experiment eight pregnancies were exam-
ined between ovulation and day 30, focussing on preg-
nancy diagnosis and early embryonic development. Ul-
trasound findings were related to the profiles of circulat-
ing chorionic gonadotropin (CG) and progesterone. By
ultrasound, detection of pregnancy was possible between
Days 11 and 15 after ovulation, whereas a defined rise in
CG occurred between Days 14 and 16 after ovulation. In-
dividual CG-profiles were highly variable within and be-
tween pregnancies and provided no information on em-
bryonic number or disorders in the development of mul-
tiple embryos. In ultrasound images, however, embryonic
development was seen by appearance of echos between
gestation sacs on Day 25. Accurate determination of em-
bryo number was not possible at this stage. A relation
between findings by ultrasound and pattern of CG secre-
tion was neither seen within nor between individual preg-
nancies. The present results show that in comparison to
measurement of CG, ultrasonography allows earlier de-
tection of pregnancy in the marmoset and provides addi-
tional information on embryonic development. The ad-
vantage of this method for practical reasons is the less
amount of time required until results are available.
The third experiment was divided into two parts. A vali-
dation of the method was performed on ovaries in eight
females during the follicle phase and in five females dur-
ing the luteal phase. Direct comparison of ultrasound re-
sults with findings at laparotomy revealed that determi-
nation of number and distribution of structures present on
the ovaries was correct for 92% of the follicles and 78%
of the CLs. In addition, a significant correlation was found
for ultrasound and microscope measurements of follicles.
Follicular growth, ovulation and formation of CLs was
monitored in eight cycles. On Day 6 after PGF individual
follicles were visible by ultrasonography. These follicles
became measurable by Day 7 and follicle growth was re-
corded daily until ovulation. Diameters of ovulatory fol-
licles increased from about 2 mm up to 4 mm. The day of
ovulation was confirmed by comparing ultrasound obser-
vations with the profiles of plasma luteinizing hormone
(LH) and progesterone. Whilst follicles were clearly seen
and measured on the day of the LH-surge, changes in
echogenic properties of the follicles occurred one day later.
On this day, being Day 10 to 12 after PGF for individual
cycles, follicles had either disappeared or showed increased
internal echogenicity with loss of distinct demarcation.
As indicated by the defined rise in progesterone on the
following day, these changes of follicular appearance

occurred on the day of ovulation. CLs were visualized one
to two days later, but could not be accurately measured.
This study is the first documentation of ovarian cyclic
changes in a non-human primate by ultrasonography. The
results demonstrate that despite the small size of the mar-
moset, ovarian follicles and CLs can be seen reliably. In
correspondence with ultrasound observations described for
women, visualization of individual follicles allows moni-
toring of follicle growth by measurement of follicle diam-
eter. Detection of ovulation is possible by visualizing
changes of follicular sonographic appearance. In contrast
to other, direct, methods images of ovaries by ultrasound
can be obtained non-invasively. Thus, the potential of ul-
trasonography for future studies on ovarian physiology
will be of increasing scientific interest.
Copies of this thesis (in German) are available from:
Cuvillier Verlag, Nonnenstieg 8, 37075 Gottingen, Ger-
many, Tel.: 0551-54724-0, Fax: 0551-54724-21. Price:
Oerke, A.-K. 1995. Ultrasonographische Untersuchungen
vom Graviditit und Zyklus beim Weissbtischelaffen
(Callithrixjacchus). Doctoral dissertation, Institut fuir
Tierzucht und Haustiergenetik, Georg-August-
Universitat und Deutsches Primatenzentrum,
Gottingen. 130pp.

Stefani Heiduck defended sua dissertaqao de doutorado
sobre estrat6gias alimentares do guig6, Callicebus
personatus melanochir, na Faculdade de Matemitica e
Ciencias Naturais da Universidade Georg-August,
G6ttingen, Alemanha, em 1997. A pesquisa foi realizada
na Estagdo Experimental Lemos Maia (CEPLAC/CEPEC),
Una, sul da Bahia, Brasil. 0 seguinte 6 um resumo da
O principal objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar o
comportamento alimentar do guig6 (Callicebus personatus
melanochir) com base na teoria de otimizaqgo de
forrageamento ("optimal foraging theory"). Utilizou-se
diferentes hip6teses desta teoria objetivando-se conhecer
as estrat6gias utilizados pelos guig6s em seu process
alimentar. Discutiu-se tambdm, a aplicabilidade da teoria
em questAo, e sobretudo, dos diferentes models a ela
correlacionados, em primatologia.
O trabalho realizou-se na Estaqao Experimental Lemos
Maia localizada no municipio de Una (Bahia Brasil),
enfocando um fragmento florestal em torno de 80 ha
caracterfstico de Floresta Tropical Atlantica. No period
de um ano, coletou-se de um grupo familiar de guig6s,
dados comportamentais correlacionados a diversas
preferencias alimentares, op96es quanto a mancha
("patch"), distancias percorridas, assim como atividades

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Neotropical Primates 6(3), September 1998

Neotropical Primates 6(3), September 1998 Page 93

diversas. Considerando a sazonalidade annual, avaliou-se
comparativamente a disponibilidade de alimentos no
fragmento florestal em questao. Coletou-se amostras das
esp6cies consumidas pelo grupo em estudo, visando-se a
anAlise dos nfveis de carboidratos, gordura, proteinas,
como tambdm dos teores de fibra e acido tanico (tanino).
Elaborou-se ainda, cAlculos relatives aos teores energ6ticos
dos itens alimentares em questfo.
Quanto aos resultados, constatou-se que a prefer8ncia
alimentar dos guig6s envolvia polpas, sementes e folhas
novas, e que a sazonalidade na quantidade de recursos
disponiveis para o grupo em estudo era uma caracteristica
marcante. Desta forma, distinguiu-se uma 6poca de alta e
outra de baixa disponibilidade de alimentos e a partir desta
constatacqo, analisou-se o comportamento dos animals
visando adaptarem-se a esta alteragAo.
Observou-se nao haver relagAo entire o process seletivo
das esp6cies consumidas pelo grupo e sua composigao
qufmica ou qualquer outra caracteristica marcante.
Evidenciou-se sim, uma relagao direta entire a
disponibilidade destas esp6cies e seu consume. Na 6poca
de baixa disponibilidade alimentar, a qual o item alimentar
preferido, a polpa, era escasso, os animals consumiam mais
No decorrer do estudo, caracterizou-se a nao seletividade
no uso das manchas. Contudo, observou-se haver uma
variagRo na persistencia do grupo em cada mancha, numa
relacao direta entire o tamanho e disponibilidade de
alimentos da mancha e o tempo de permanancia do grupo
nesta, ou seja, o grupo permanecia mais tempo nas
manchas maiores e de melhor oferta de alimentos.
Constatou-se tamb6m que na 6poca de menor
disponibilidade alimentar, o grupo freqtientou um menor
nfimero de manchas, as quais eram menores e corn menos
itens alimentares, permanecendo contudo, maior tempo
nestas manchas, se comparamos A dpoca de alta
disponibilidade alimentar.
Na 6poca de baixa disponibilidade de alimentos, o tempo
utilizado na manipulacgo e consumo dos alimentos elevou-
se, enquanto o tempo gasto em brincadeiras
individualizadas diminuiu. 0 comportamento ativo, aqui
representado pela soma de processes de alto custo
energ6tico como alimentacgo, locomoygo e brincadeiras,
nao sofreu alteracgo annual significativa. Quanto A
diminuigao dos recursos alimentares, observou-se uma
reduqAo na distincia diaria percorrida pelo grupo, sendo
esta, diretamente relacionada com o ntmero de manchas
diariamente visitadas.
Conclui-se entire outras, que os guig6s otimizam a
alimentacqo quando minimizam os custos na procura de
alimentos. A preferencia na utilizagao de esp6cies e
manchas nao esti vinculada a um process seletivo e sim,
aparenta estar diretamente correlacionada a menor
distancia percorrida pelo grupo. Diminuindo a distincia
didria percorrida na 6poca de baixa disponibilidade de

alimentos, o grupo reduz seu gasto energdtico
permanecendo maior tempo por mancha, ocorrendo assim,
uma diminuigAo na eficiencia da obtenglo de alimentos.
Quanto ao emprego da teoria da otimiza~go de
forrageamento na pesquisa primatol6gica, constatou-se nao
ser esta eficiente quanto busca-se a compreensao dos
processes seletivos voltados A alimentagao. Tratando-se
de models relacionados a custos na obtencgo de alimentos
demonstrou-se contudo, sua aplicabilidade e viabilidade.
Para obter um exemplar dessa dissertago, escreve para:
Cuvillier Verlag, Nonenstieg 8, 37075 Gottingen,
Alemanha, Tel.: 0551-54724-0, Fax: 0551-54724-21.
Prego: DM54,00.
Heiduck, S. 1997. Nahrungsstrategien Schwarzkipfiger
Springaffen (Callicebus personatus melanochir).
Dissertaqgo de Doutorado, Mathematisch-
Naturwissenschaftlichen FakultAiten, Georg-August-
Universitat, Gottingen. 117pp.

As Coordinator of the EEP, Eric Bairrao Ruivo
of the Lisbon Zoological Garden, and his assis-
tants, Carmo Margarido Correia, Patricia
Vilarinho and Orlando Silva, published the 4th
edition of the European Studbook for Saguinus imperator
in June 1998. The studbook is current up to 31 December
1997. It includes an activity report and the minutes of the
4th Species Committee Meeting, held in Alphen, Holland,
in 1997. The EEP Committee is comprised of the follow-
ing people: Pierre Moisson, Mulhouse; Teresa Abell6,
Barcelona; Warner Jens, Apeldoorn; Joanna Mikkola,
Helsinki, David Armitage, Banham; John B. Stronge,
Belfast; Graham Catlow, Edinburgh; Rudiger Dmoch,
Frankfurt; and Robert Zingg, Zurich. The meeting was
attended by 21 people, including four of the committee
members, and Bryan Carroll, Bristol Zoo, the Chair for
Callitrichidae for the EEP Primate Taxonomic Advisory
Group (TAG).
On 31 December 1997, a total of 126 (61.53.12) Saguinus
imperator subgrisescens was held in 35 zoos and breed-
ing facilities in Europe. Just one female S. i. imperator
remains in the Frankfurt Zoo. Sixteen hybrids (9.7) are
still present in four institutions, but they will eventually
be concentrated in just one, Peaugres Zoo, France, which
currently already has 9 (6.3). Reproductive success for S.
i. subgrisescens showed a slight improvement over 1996,
but there is still a lack of breeding females, a number of
which died in 1997.
The studbook also includes two research reports. The first
is on the hybrid population at Peaugres, by C6cile Dubois,
and the second on manual asymmetry in reaching for foods,
a study carried out in the Lisbon Zoo by Catarina Hermano
da Silva. The remainder of the studbook is taken up with

Neotropical Primates 6(3), September 1998

Page 93

Page 94 Neotropical Primates 6(3), September 1998

historical listings for both subspecies and their hybrids;
births, deaths and transfers during 1997; a listing of the
living population by location; recommendations for trans-
fers and breeding in 1998; and demographic and genetic
analyses, including the distribution of wild born and cap-
tive born animals, the development of the population since
1984, and such as fecundity, inbreeding, and founder rep-
resentation. The addresses of all the participating institu-
tions are given at the end.
Eric Bairrfo Ruivo, Coordenador do EEP do Saguim
Imperador, Jardim Zool6gico de Lisboa, Estrada de Benfica
158-160, 1500 Lisboa, Portugal.
Ruivo, E. B. 1998. European Studbook for the Emperor
Tamarin Saguinus imperator Goeldi, 1907. Number 4.
1997. Lisbon Zoological Garden, Lisbon. 173pp.

We are writing a book about the behavioral biology of
capuchins (Cebus spp.), to be published in the year 2000
(!!) by Cambridge University Press, and are now in the
process of collecting all the relevant literature about ca-
puchins that we can locate, to be sure that we do not over-
look anything. We would be very grateful if you could
send to our "corresponding secretary" (Dorothy Fragaszy)
one copy of recent (1994 or later) publications and ab-
stracts of contributions presented at recent meetings that
deal with capuchins. Dorothy will copy and distribute these
to Linda Fedigan and Elisabetta Visalberghi. We are
equally interested in publications in languages other than
English, as we are trying to present a "global" view of our
subject. We will find translators for languages we cannot
read ourselves. We do not need publications in Journals
which we get ourselves. This list includes Animal
Behaviour, Folia Primatologica, Journal of Comparative
Psychology, American Journal of Primatology, Primates,
and International Journal of Primatology. We ask also
from those who have the good fortune to live in countries
where capuchins are found, please let us know about folk
tales, songs, sayings, or other forms of cultural knowl-
edge or attitudes in which capuchins are represented.
Thank you in advance for your help. Please respond to:
Prof. Dorothy Fragaszy or Dr. Elisabetta Visalberghi (ad-
dresses below).
Informaiio sobre Cebus. Estamos escrevendo um livro
sobre a biologia comportamental do g8nero Cebus, a ser
publicado no ano 2000 (!!) pela Cambridge University
Press. No moment, estamos realizando uma revisao da
literature relevant sobre macacos pregos e caiararas, na
esperanqa de realizar um levantamento complete da
informaqdo disponivel. Ficariamos imensamente gratas em
receber contribuig6es de quaisquer publica95es ou resumes
de congresses (a partir de 1994) que tratam desse genero.
0 material deve ser enviado para Dorothy Fragaszy, que
enviard c6pias para Linda Fedigan e Elisabetta Visalberghi

(as outras autoras). N6s estamos interessadas em receber
publicaG6es tanto em ingles quanto em outras linguas para
garantir uma visdo "global" sobre o assunto. Nao
necessitamos de artigos dos peri6dicos mencionados a
seguir, os quais j6 temos acesso: Animal Behaviour, Folia
Primatologica, Journal of Comparative Psychology,
American Journal of Primatology, Primates e Interna-
tional Journal ofPrimatology. Pedimos tamb6m a aqueles
que tem a sorte de morar em pafses onde ocorrem esses
macacos, informagao sobre folclore, hist6rias, cantos,
ditados ou outras formas de conhecimento cultural sobre,
ou que fazem referEncias a, macacos pregos ou caiararas.
Agradecemos antecipadamente a sua ajuda. Favor re-
sponder para Prof. Dorothy Fragaszy ou Dr. Elisabetta
Visalberghi (enderegos a seguir).
Informaci6n sobre Cebus. Estamos escribiendo un libro
sobre biologfa conductual de monos capuchinos (Cebus
spp.) que serd publicado en el aiio 2000(!!) por Cambridge
University Press. Actualmente estamos en el process de
colectar toda la literature relevant possible sobre
capuchinos, para asegurarnos de no omitir trabajos
importantes. Agradecerfamos si pudieran enviar copia de
publicaciones (de 1994 6 posteriores) sobre monos
capuchinos y resdmenes de trabajos presentados en
reuniones acad6micas recientes a nuestra "secretaria de
correspondencia" (Dorothy Fragazy). Dorothy copiard y
distribuirA estos documents a Linda Fedigan y Elisabetta
Visalberghi. Estamos interesadas en recibir tanto
publicaciones en Ingl6s como en cualquier otro idioma,
ya que queremos presentar una visi6n "global" de nuestro
sujeto de studio. Nosotras podremos encontrar traductores
para aquellos idiomas que no podamos leer por nosotras
mismas. No necesitamos publicaciones en revistas que
podemos obtener por nuestra cuenta, esto es de Animal
Behaviour, Folia Primatologica, Journal of Comparative
Psychology, American Journal of Primatology, Primates
o International Journal of Primatology. Asimismo,
pedimos a aquellas personas que tienen la fortune de vivir
en pauses donde los monos capuchinos habitan
naturalmente, que por favor nos informen sobre relatos
folkl6ricos, canciones, dichos u otras formas de
conocimiento o actitudes culturales en los que los monos
capuchinos est6n involucrados. Gracias de antemano por
su ayuda. Favor de responder a: Prof. Dorothy Fragazy o
Dr. Elisabetta Visalberghi (a las direcciones que aparecen
Elisabetta Visalberghi, Istituto di Psicologia, Consiglio
Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Aldrovandi 16 B, 00197
Roma, Italy, Tel>: +39 (6) 3221252 or 3221437, Fax: +39
(6) 3217090, e-mail: , Dorothy
Fragaszy, Department of Psychology, University of Geor-
gia, Athens, Georgia 30602-3013, USA, Tel.: 1-706-542-
3036, Fax: 1-706-542-3275, e-mail: edu>, and Linda Fedigan, Department of Anthropology,
13-15 Tory Building, University of Alberta, Edmonton,
Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada, Tel.:(403) 492 5899, Fax: (403)
492 5273, e-mail: .

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Neotropical Primates 6(3), September 1998

Neotropical Primates 6(3), September 1998 Page 95

This December, undergraduate and graduate students have
the opportunity to participate in a primate behavior and
ecology field course in Nicaragua, December 27, 1998 -
January 18, 1999. The course will be run by Dr. Paul A.
Garber, Professor of Anthropology, University of Illinois,
Urbana-Champaign. Dr. Garber has studied nonhuman
primates in Peru, Brazil, Panama, Costa Rica, and Nica-
ragua, and along with the Molina Family is co-founder of
the La Suerte Biological Research Station in Costa Rica.
More detailed and complete information about the educa-
tional and research opportunities offered at both the La
Suerte (Costa Rica) and the Ometepe (Nicaragua) Bio-
logical Field Stations can be obtained by viewing our web
site at .
Dr. Garber and a team of graduate teaching assistants will
offer an 'advanced' primatology course on the behavior
and ecology of capuchin monkeys and howler monkeys at
Ometepe. By advanced, we mean that the course will be
directed to the particular needs of advanced undergradu-
ates (juniors and seniors) and graduate students who are
interested in a career in biological anthropology, prima-
tology, tropical ecology, rain forest conservation, and field
biology. Each day professors and graduate teaching assis-
tants will work intensively with students, give lectures,
and provide background information to help them develop
a conceptual framework for understanding the remark-
able diversity and complexity of tropical rain forest eco-
systems. Lectures, group projects, and exposure to real
examples of animal-plant interactions and primate behav-
ior and socio-ecology are designed to help students de-
velop their own original research projects. Our goals in
the course are: 1. To challenge students intellectually and
provide themes with the problem-solving skills and the
academic background needed to address key issues in tropi-
cal ecology, primate behavior, and rain forest conserva-
tion, and 2. To instill in all students a passion for inquiry,
exploration, and a personal appreciation for our natural
world. An intermediate course in Primate Behavior and
Conservation will be taught by Dr. Patricia McDaniel at
our site, La Suerte Biological Research Station, in Costa
Rica during the same dates.
Isla de Ometepe. The site that we have selected for our
first ecological-educational-research station is Isla de
Ometepe. Ometepe is an island of 276 km2 lying in Lake
Nicaragua. It is the largest island in the world situated in
a fresh water lake. Two majestic forested volcanoes domi-
nate the island. One called Madera raises 1,400 m above
the lake, the other, Concepci6n, is even taller and reaches
a height of nearly 1,700 m.. Ometepe is situated in south-
eastern Nicaragua and has a population of 30,000 people.
The majority of the people who live on the island are of
Indian ancestry. The word Ometepe is a Nashuatl word
that means "land of two volcanoes" (Nashuatl is a lan-

guage spoken by the ancient Aztecs and their descendants).
Crater lakes, beautiful streams with cascading water, cloud
forests, and lowland rain forests are found on the island,
along with some 80+ species of birds, mantled howling
monkeys (Alouatta palliata), white-faced capuchin mon-
keys (Cebus capucinus), deer, other tropical forest mam-
mals, reptiles, and amphibians. Our field camp is located
on a bay overlooking Lake Nicaragua.
For more information please visit our web site. We en-
courage faculty and students to join us in our mission of
education, research, and conservation.
Paul A. Garber, Professor, Department of Anthropology,
University of Illinois, 109 Davenport Hall, 607 S. Mathews
Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA, Tel. (desk): 217
333-0075, Tel. (Dept): 217 333-3616, Fax: 217 244-3490,
e-mail: .

The Whitley Animal Protection Trust, the Iris Darnton
Foundation and the Royal Geographic Society (with the
Institute of British Geographers) have joined forces to es-
tablish an annual award scheme worth up to 22,000 for
leaders of projects that make a pragmatic, substantial and
lasting contribution to the conservation of animals in their
habitat. The winner of the Whitley Award receives
15,000; an additional 7,000 is offered to short-listed
candidates and is awarded at the discretion of the Iris
Damton Foundation. In 1998, Claudio Sillero-Zubiri re-
ceived the Whitley Award for his work with Ethiopian
wolves, and our sincere congratulations to PSG member
Sharon Matola, who most deservedly received the Iris
Damton Foundation Award for her work at the Belize Zoo,
for the creation of The Tropical Education Center there,
and her environmental education programs throughout the
country. From Species (30): 11-12, June 1998.

The Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center will
soon be introducing a new list serve called Primate-Sci-
ence which will replace Primate-Talk. The WRPRC
Internet Services Advisory Committee elected to discon-
tinue Primate-Talk, which was closed down on 27 August
1998. The WRPRC reserves the right to the name "Pri-
mate-Talk", however, since it is so closely allied with our
institution. All of the other WRPRC Internet based ser-
vices Primate Info Net, the Audiovisual Service, Pri-
mate-Jobs, Askprimate, the World Directory of Primatol-
ogy and the International Directory of Primatology will
be continued in support of the international primatologi-
cal community. We wish to thank all present and past sub-
scribers to Primate-Talk for their participation. We hope
that the new list will effectively serve the needs of the
research community.

Neotmpical Primates 6(3), September 1998

Page 95

Page 96 Neotropical Primates 6(3), September 1998

Larry Jacobsen, WRPRC Internet Services Advisory
Committee, Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Cen-
ter, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1220 Capitol Court,
Madison, WI 53715-1299, USA.

Applications are invited from the European Community
or overseas graduates in veterinary or relevant sciences
for a twelve month taught MSc course in wild animal
health, beginning October 1999. The course includes prac-
tical and theoretical instruction in the husbandry and nu-
trition of wild animals, taxonomy, population biology,
conservation genetics, utilization of wildlife, welfare and
ethical aspects, epidemiology, immunology, infectious and
non-infectious diseases, disease investigation, therapeu-
tics, imaging and preventative medicine, together with an
individual research project. Training will be given by staff
at The Royal Veterinary College (University of London)
and the Institute of Zoology (Zoological Society of Lon-
don), as well as invited speakers from other veterinary
and zoological centers. Full particulars and an applica-
tion form are available from the Head of Registry or Dr.
M. T. Fox, The Royal Veterinary College, Royal College
Street, London NW1 OTU, UK, Tel: +44 171 468 5000,
Fax; +44 171 388 2342.

SThe XVIIth Congress of the International
PS Primatological Society was held at the Uni-
versity of Antananarivo, Antanananarivo,
Madagascar, from 10-14th August, 1998.
The General Secretary was Madame Berthe
Rakotosamimanana, the Development Committee was
chaired by Gisele Randria, and the Scientific Committee
by Hantanirina Rasimimanana. It was well attended, with
approximately 550 participants, and included numerous
interesting symposia, plenary lectures and workshops. A
total of 409 abstracts were published in the Abstracts book
for the Congress. The following plenary lectures were pre-
sented: Foundation of sensory motor percussive foraging
in aye-aye Carl Erickson; Food choice and taste percep-
tion in non-human primates and humans Marcel Hladik;
and Lemurs as flagship species for conservation in Mada-
gascar Joanna Durbin. Some symposia of particular rel-
evance for New World primates included: Callitrichine
mixed-species troops: Patterns mechanisms and conse-
quences organized by Eckhard Heymann, Hannah
Buchanan-Smith & Scott Hardie; Captive care organized
by Hilary Box; Social influences on feeding in non-hu-
man primates organized by Hilary Box & Dorothy
Fragaszy; The effects of forest fragmentation and habitat

disturbance on primate populations worldwide organized
by Lisa Gould & Jonah Ratsimbazafy; Exploration and
responses to novelty in marmosets and tamarins orga-
nized by Lesley Rogers & Hilary Box; Impact and
sustainability on hunting primates organized by Robert
Lee, Elizabeth Bennett & John G. Robinson; Conserva-
tion problems and solutions for the coming millennium -
organized by Noel Rowe, Benjamin Andrimihaja &
Patricia Wright; Behavioral ecology organized by J6rg
Ganzhorn; Social interactions organized by Peter
Kappeler, Urs Thalmann & Chalise Mukesh.
The PSG participated in this Congress in the form of a
special conservation symposium "The World's Most
Endangered Primates and the Global Status of Primate
Conservation as We Enter The 21st Century" organized
by Russell A. Mittermeier and William R. Konstant. It
included the following presentations: Primate conserva-
tion: a retrospective and a look into the 21st Century: Sur-
vival of the world's most endangered primates R. A.
Mittermeier & W. R. Konstant; The status of endangered
primates in Mesoamerica E. Rodriguez-Luna & L. Cort6s
Ortiz; Endangered primates of South America A. B.
Rylands; African primate conservation: Western Africa at
the end of the century J. F. Oates; Survey of endangered
forest primates in western Ghana M. Abedi-Lartey; Con-
servation of Madagascar's lemurs K. Glander & J.
Ganzhorn; Indian primate conservation: Priorities for the
21st Century A. Kumar; Indonesian primate conserva-
tion: Priorities for the 21st Century J. Supriatna; and
Chinese and South-east Asian primate conservation: Pri-
orities for the 21st Century R. C. Kirkpatrick & Le Xuan
Canh. The proceedings of this symposium will be pub-
lished in Primate Conservation (19), 1999.

SThe International Primatological Society
(IPS) is affiliated to the World Conservation
Union (IUCN). For this reason, as well as
the fact that many of the IUCN/SSC Primate
Specialist Group members also belong to IPS, at a meet-
ing held during the XVIIth IPS Congress, hosted by the
University of Antananarivo, Madagascar, 10-14th August
1998, the IPS Council voted to include a representative of
PSG on the Council in a non-voting capacity. This mea-
sure is intended to increase the joint effectiveness of IPS
and PSG in IUCN matters. The PSG Deputy Chairman,
Anthony B. Rylands, subsequently attended the Council
meeting on August 13, 1998 as PSG representative. At
that meeting Anthony Rylands was appointed Meeting
Secretary, to participate in the Organizing Committee of
the XVIIIth Congress of the International Primatological
Society to be held in Adelaide, Australia, 7-12 January

Page 96

Neotropical Primates 6(3), September 1998

Page 97

SThe Martha J. Galante Award is given each
year by the International Primatological So-
ciety for the conservation training of profes-
sionals of primate habitat countries. Candi-
dates are reviewed by the IPS Conservation Committee,
currently chaired by Ernesto Rodriguez-Luna, Universidad
Veracruzana, M6xico. This year it was most deservedly
presented to Dr. Mukesh Kumar Chalise of the Kathmandu
University, Dhulikhel, Nepal. Dr. Chalise is one of very
few primatologists in Nepal, and is currently studying
Macaca assamensis in the Makalu-Barun Conservation
Area. For more information on this award, please write to
Dr. Ernesto Rodriguez-Luna, Vice President for Conser-
vation, International Primatological Society, c/o Instituto
de Neuroetologfa, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa,
Veracruz 91000, Mexico, Tel: 52-28-12-57-48, Fax: 52-
28-17-65-39 or 52-28-12-57-46, e-mail: speedy.coacade. uv.mx>.

K Two important changes were made concern-
ing the Officers of the Council of the Inter-
national Primatological Society (IPS). A new
standing committee for Education was cre-
ated, and Dr. Sian Evans, Dumond Conservancy, Miami,
Florida, was appointed the first Chair, and first Vice-Presi-
dent for Education. Dr. Hilary 0. Box, Reading Univer-
sity, Reading, UK, was appointed Interim Vice President
and Chair of the Captive Care Committee, replacing Dr.
Cobie Brinkman, Australian National University,
Canberra, Australia.
The officers (1996-2000) are currently as follows: Presi-
dent Prof. Toshishada Nishida, Department of Anthro-
pology, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University,
Sakyo-ku, Kyoto-shi 606, Japan, Tel: 81-75-753-4084,
Fax: 81-75-751-6149, e-mail: u.ac.jp>; Secretary General Dr. Dorothy Fragaszy, De-
partment of Psychology, University of Georgia, Athens,
Georgia 30602, USA, Tel: 1-706-542-3036, Fax: 1-706-
542-3275, e-mail: ; Vice Presi-
dent for Membership Dr. Richard W. Byrne, Depart-
ment of Psychology, University of St. Andrews, St.
Andrews, Fife KY16 9JU, Scotland, Tel: 44 334-62051,
Fax: 44-334-63042, e-mail: ;
Vice President for Captive Care Dr. Hilary 0. Box,
Department of Psychology, University of Reading, Read-
ing RG6 2AL, UK, Tel: 44 1734 318523 x 6668, Fax: 44
1734 316604, e-mail: ; Vice Presi-
dent for Conservation Dr. Ernesto Rodriguez-Luna,
Institute de Neuroetologfa, Universidad Veracruzana,
Veracruz 91000, M6xico, Tel: 52-28-12-57-48, Fax: 52-
28-17-65-39 or 52-28-12-57-46, e-mail: speedy.coacade.uv.mx>; Vice President for Education -
Dr. Sian Evans, Dumond Conservancy, 14805 S. W. 216

Street, Miami, Florida 33170, USA, Tel: +1 305 238 9981,
Fax: +1 305 235 4253, e-mail: edu>; Treasurer Dr. William Roudebush, Department
of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of South
Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425-2233, USA,
Tel: 1-803-792-8348, Fax: 1-803-792-0533, e-mail:
. Appointed officers: Regional
Secretary for the Americas Prof. Milton Thiago de Mello,
Brasilia; Regional Secretary for Europe Dr. Regine
Vercauteren-Drubbel, Universit6 Libre de Bruxelles; Re-
gional Secretary for Asia Dr. Osamu Takenaka, Kyoto
University; Regional Secretary for Africa Dr. Fatina
Mturi, University of Dar-es-Salaam; Meeting Secretary -
Dr. Anthony B. Rylands, Conservation International do
Brasil. IPS Affiliate Representatives (voting): Primate
Society of Great Britain Dr. Hannah Buchanan-Smith,
Stirling University; American Society of Primatologists -
Dr. John Capitanio, University of California, Davis;
Gesellschaft filr Primatologie Dr. Elke Zimmermann,
Tierarztliche Hochschule Hannover; Primate Society of
Japan Dr. Yuzura Hamada / Dr. Yukimaru Sugiyama,
Kyoto University. IPS Affiliate Representatives (non-
voting): Associazione Primatologica Italiana Dr.
Giuseppe Ardito, Istituto di Antropologia, Firenze;
Australasian Primate Society Mr. John Lemon, Western
Plains Zoo; Association Primatologique de Madagascar
- Madame Berthe Rakatosamimana, University of
Antananarivo; Societd Francophone de Primatologie Dr.
Nicolas Herrenschmidt, Centre de Primatologie ULP;
Asociaci6n Mixicana de Primatologfa Dr. Jorge
Martinez, Universidad Autonoma de Mexico; IUCN/SSC
Primate Specialist Group Dr. Anthony B. Rylands, Con-
servation International do Brasil.

The next Congress of the International Pri-
7 matological Society (IPS) will be hosted by
the Australasian Primate Society, President
Mr. John Lemon, Western Plains Zoo,
Dubbo, NSW, and held in Adelaide, Austra-
lia, 7-12 January 2001. Mr. Graeme Crook is Chairman
of the Organizing Committee. For more information, and
to be put onto the Congress Organizer's mailing list, write
to: Conventions Worldwide, PO Box 44, Rundle Mall, SA
5000, Australia, Tel: +61 8 8363 0068, Fax: +61 8 8363
0354, e-mail: , sending your
postal address, telephone, fax and e-mail address.

Every fourth year there are elections for the
j council of the Gesellschaft fiir Primatologie
(GfP). At the 5th conference in Berlin, Ger-
many (October 1997) the society members
elected a new council which took office in
January 1998. The new council members are: President:
Prof. Dr. Elke Zimmermann, Institut fiir Zoologie,

Neotropical Primates 6(3), September 1998

Page 98

Tierirztliche Hochschule, Hannover, Postfach 711180,
30545 Hannover, Tel: +49 511 953 8740, Fax: +49 511
953 8586, e-mail: ezimmer@zoologie.tiho-hannover.de;
Secretary General (memberships, vice-president): Dr.
Signe Preuschoft, Living Links Center, Emory Univer-
sity, Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, 954 N.
Gatewood Road, Atlanta GA 30322, USA, Tel: +1 404
727 3695 or 727 7898, Fax: +1 404 727 3270, e-mail:
signe@rmy.emory.edu; Treasurer: Dr. Angela Meder,
Augustenstrasse 122, 70197 Stuttgart, Tel: +49 711
612963, Fax: +49 711 6159919, e-mail: angela.meder@t-
online.de; Council Member (society newsletter, Christian-
Vogel-Fonds): Dr. Andreas Koenig, Abt.
Verhaltensforschung & Okologie, Deutsches
Primatenzentrum, Kellnerweg 4, 37077 G6ttingen, Tel:
+49 551 3851 129, Fax: +49 551 3851 228, e-mail:
akoenig@www.dpz.gwdg.de; Council Member (imple-
mentation and maintenance of a home-page): Dr. Kurt
Hammerschmidt, Abt. Neurobiologie, Deutsches
Primatenzentrum, Kellnerweg 4, 37077 Gottingen, Tel:
+49 551 3851 253, Fax: +49 551 3851 228, e-mail:
At its first meeting in January 1998 the new council de-
cided to set up a board of specialists for particular fields
of interest of the society. These people will advise the coun-
cil in their particular fields of expertise and maintain con-
tact with particular organizations. These experts are: Con-
servation Biology: Prof. Dr. Jorg U. Ganzhorn,
Zoologisches Institut, Universitat Hamburg, Martin-
Luther-King-Platz 3, 20146 Hamburg, Tel: +49 40 4123
4224, Fax: +49 40 4123 5980, e-mail: ganzhorn@
zoologie.uni-hamburg.de; Zoo Biology: Mr. Achim
Johann, Tierpark Rheine, Salinenstrasse 150, 48432
Rheine, Tel: +49 5971 55666, Fax: +49 5971 55564; Ani-
mal Welfare and Animal Protection Laws: Prof. Dr. Franz-
Josef Kaup, Abt. Tiermedizin und Primatenhaltung,
Deutsches Primatenzentrum, Kellnerweg 4, 37077
G6ttingen, Tel: +49 551 3851 241, Fax: +49 551 3851
277, e-mail: fkaup@gwdg.de; Union Deutscher
Biologischer Gesellschaften (UDBio): Dr. Jutta Kuester,
Allgem. Zoologie & Neurobiologie, Ruhr-Universitat
Bochum, ND 7/31,44780 Bochum, Tel: +49 234 700 4327,
Fax: +49 234 7094 185, e-mail: kuester@neurobiologie.
ruhr-uni-bochum.de; European Federation for Primatol-
ogy (EFP): Dr. Paul Winkler, Tropenzentrum, Georg-Au-
gust-Universitat, Am Vogelsang 6, 37075 Gottingen, Tel:
+49 551 39 9543, Fax: +49 551 39 4556, e-mail:
We gratefully acknowledge the work of the retired coun-
cil of the GfP and look forward to working for a better
understanding of the biology, evolution and conservation
of primates.
Dr. Andreas Koenig, Deutsches Primatenzentrum, Abt.
Verhaltensforschung & Okologie, Kellnerweg 4, D-37077
G6ttingen, FRG, Tel: + 49 551 3851 129, Fax: +49 551
3851 228, e-mail: akoenig@www.dpz.gwdg.de.

Neotropical Primates 6(3), September 1998

The Conservation Committee of the Ameri-
JA R can Society of Primatologists (ASP), Chair
Randall Kyes, University of Washington -
Seattle, made the following awards during the Society's
1998 Annual Meeting, held in Southwestern University,
Georgetown, Texas, 28 June 1 July 1998.American Jour-
nal of Primatology Subscription Awards Minna J. Hsu,
National Sun Yat-sen University, Taiwan; and Komang
Gde Suaryana, Universitas Udayana, Indonesia: Conser-
vation Small Grants Rebeca Araya, New York Univer-
sity, "Genetic structure in two sympatric and behaviorally
diverse saki monkeys Pithecia pithecia and Chiropotes
satanas; Lucy Beresford-Stooke, UK, "Primate popula-
tion densities after pitsawing in Budongo Forest, Uganda;
Mukesh K. Chalise, Nepal, "Environmental protection
in Makalu-Barun Conservation Area through conserva-
tion education"; Mugambi Karere, Kenya, "Pre-translo-
cation ecological study of DeBrazza's monkeys (Cercop-
ithecus neglectus Schegel) in western Kenya"; Christian
Mokalu, Indonesia, "Population survey of the Sulawesi
black macaque (Macaca nigra) at the Tangkoko-
Duasudara Nature Reserve, North Sulawesi, Indonesia";
Erwin Palacios, Colombia, "Density of the red howler
monkey (Alouatta seniculus) in south-eastern Colombia";
Jill Pruetz, University of Illinois, "Forest characteristics
and spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) densities in forest
fragments at La Suerte Biological Field Station, Costa
Rica"; Juan Carlos Serio Silva, Mexico, The primates of
the peninsular of Yucatan: Current state and strategies for
their conservation"; and Kimberly Williams-Guillen,
New York University, "The behavioral ecology of mantled
howling monkeys living in Nicaraguan coffee plantations".
The Awards and Recognition Committee, chaired by Gerry
Ruppenthal, University of Washington, Seattle, gave the
1998 Distinguished Primatologist Award to W. Richard
Dukelow, of Michigan State University, in honor of his
outstanding achievements in primate research. Dr.
Dukelow was a former President of ASP, and has been a
major influence in shaping the direction of the Society
and is, besides, a world-renowned leader in the field of
primate reproductive biology.
Capuchin monkeys and titi monkeys were the subjects
graced by the Poster Presentation Award and Oral Paper
Presentation Award at this ASP meeting. Tina M. Gil-
bert, David A. Brown and Sarah T. Boysen, Ohio State
University, Columbus, were given the award for their poster
"Social effects on behavior in capuchins (Cebus apella)",
and DeeAnn Reeder, Sally P. Mendoza and William A.
Mason, California Regional Primate Research Center and
the University of California, Davis, were given the oral
paper award for their presentation "Social behavior and
sexual motivation across the reproductive cycle in titi
monkeys (Callicebus moloch): Concealment or commu-

Neotropical Primates 6(3), September 1998 Page 99

nication of ovulation?".
For further information on these awards: Dr. Randall
Kyes, Chair, Conservation Committee, University of
Washington, Regional Primate Research Center, Health
Sciences Center, Box 357330, Seattle, WA 98195, USA,
e-mail: ; Dr. Gerry
Ruppenthal, Chair, Awards and Recognition Committee,
Center on Human Development and Disability, Univer-
sity of Washington, Box 357920, Seattle, WA 98195, USA,
e-mail: . From ASP Bulletin
22(3), September 1998.

Number 17 (1996/1997) of the IUCN/SSC Primate Spe-
cialist Group Journal Primate Conservation has been
published. It is a large issue (165pp.), containing the Pro-
ceedings of the Symposium "Primate Conservation: A
Retrospective and a Look Into the 21st Century", held
during the XVIth Congress of the International Primato-
logical Society and XIXth Conference of the American
Society of Primatologists, August 11-16, 1996, Madison,
Wisconsin. It includes reviews of primate conservation
and the activities of key organizations, reviews of the ac-
tivities of the four PSG regional networks (Neotropics,
Africa, Madagascar and Asia), and case studies for spe-
cies or species' groups. The contents are as follows: Pri-
mate Conservation: A Retrospective and a Look into the
21st Century Russell A. Mittermeier & William R.
Konstant, pp.7-17; The Role of IPS and National Primate
Societies in Global Primate Conservation David J.
Chivers, pp. 18-23; Conservation Efforts of the American
Society of Primatologists Randall C. Kyes & Susan M.
Howell, pp.24-29; Funding for Primate Conservation -
Where has it Originated? William R. Konstant, pp.30-
36; The Role of Zoos in Primate Conservation Anne
Baker, pp.37-40; Primate Conservation and the IUCN/SSC
Conservation Breeding Specialist Group: Tools, Models,
and Processes Susie Ellis, pp.41-45; Neotropical Primate
Conservation The Species and the IUCN/SSC Primate
Specialist Group Network Anthony B. Rylands, Ernesto
Rodriguez-Luna & Liliana Cortds-Ortiz, pp.46-69; The
State of Lemur Conservation in Madagascar Jdrg U.
Ganzhom, Olivier Langrand, Patricia C. Wright, Sheila
O'Connor, Berthe Rakotosamimanana, Anna T. C.
Feistner & Yves Rumpler, pp.70-86; African Primate Con-
servation The Species and the IUCN/SSC Primate Spe-
cialist Group Network Thomas Butynski, pp.87-100;
Asian Primate Conservation The Species and the IUCN/
SSC Primate Specialist Group Network Ardith A. Eudey,
pp.101-110; Current Status and Future Viability for the
Mentawai Primates Agustin Fuentes, pp.111-116; En-

dangered Primate Species in Vietnam Le Xuan Canh,
pp.117-126; Proyecto Titf: Developing Alternatives to
Forest Destruction Anne Savage, L. H. Soto & L. H.
Giraldo, pp. 127-130; The Endangered Muriquis in Brazil's
Atlantic Forest Karen B. Strier & Gustavo A. B. da
Fonseca, pp. 131-137; Extinction Faces Ghana's Red Colo-
bus Monkey and Other Locally Endemic Subspecies J.
R Oates, T. T. Struhsaker & G. H. Whitesides, pp.138-
144; The Mountain Gorilla Conserving an Endangered
Primate in Conditions of Extreme Political Instability -
H. D. Steklis, C. N. Gerald-Steklis & S. Madry, pp.145-
151; Conservation Status and Prospects of the Snub-Nosed
Langurs (Colobinae: Rhinopithecus) R. M. Ren, R. C.
Kirkpatrick, N. G. Jablonski, W. V. Bleisch & X. C. Le,
pp.152-159; Conservation of Japanese Macaques in
Yakushima: The Effectiveness of UNESCO's Natural
World Heritage Designation David A. Hill & Tamaki
Maruhashi, pp.160-163.
In Brazil, copies of Primate Conservation (17) are avail-
able for R$30,00 (incl. postage and packing), cheques
payable to "Conservation International do Brasil", through
Anthony B. Rylands (address below). For other countries
they can be obtained at a price of US$30,00, by writing to
Russell A. Mittermeier, Conservation International (ad-
dress below).
Number 18 (1998) of Primate Conservation is ready to go
to the printers. It includes some important contributions
from the Neotropics, with reviews of primate conserva-
tion in Guatemala, the Tumbes Reserved Zone in north-
west Peru, and the state of Quintana Roo in Mexico, as
wJ.l as reports on the ecology of Cebus olivaceus in Ven-
ezuela, Cacajao calvus ucayalii in Peru, and Ateles
belzebuth in Colombia.
Number 19 (1999) is in preparation, and will include, but
will not be restricted to, the proceedings of the sympo-
sium organized by the Primate Specialist Group, "The
World's Most Endangered Primates and the Global Sta-
tus of Primate Conservation as We Enter The 21st Cen-
tury", held during the XVIIth Congress of the Interna-
tional Primatological Society, University of Antananarivo,
Madagascar, 10-14 August, 1998. Please send contribu-
tions to Primate Conservation (19), covering such aspects
as regional or species or species group reviews, as well as
geographic distributions, surveys, and pertinent aspects
of systematics, ecology, behavior, management, and zoo
conservation activities, to Anthony B. Rylands at the ad-
dress below.
The editors of Primate Conservation are Russell A.
Mittermeier, Conservation International, 2501 M Street
NW, Suite 200, Washington D.C. 20037, USA, and An-
thony B. Rylands, Conservation International do Brasil,
Avenida Antonio Abrahao Caram 820/302, 31275-000
Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, Tel/Fax: +55 (0)31
441-1795, e-mail: .

Neotropical Primates 6(3), September 1998

Page 99

Page 100 Neotropical Primates 6(3), September 1998

Issues of the other PSG regional newsletters have been
published recently. Asian Primates, edited by Ardith A.
Eudey, is a combined issue of Volume 6 (3), December
1996, and 6(4), March 1997, and includes articles on the
golden langur, Trachypithecus geei, in Assam, India, the
Philippine tarsier, Tarsius syrichta, the distribution of
Presbytis in Sumatra, the rediscovery of the black langur,
Trachypithecus francoisi ebenus, a survey of the Hatinh
langur, Trachypithecus francoisi hatinhensis, and reports
on the progress of the Indo-U.S. Primate Project and the
Golden Monkey Research and Conservation Project. The
third issue of the Lemur News (3), August 1998, 33pp.,
was published by its new editor, J6rg Ganzhorn, Univer-
sity of Hamburg. It reports on the creation of Madagascar's
largest protected area, the Masoala National Park with
2,300 km2 of primary and littoral rain forest in north-east
Madagascar, and includes articles on the lemurs of the
region of the region Bemaraha, a survey for Daubentonia,
the re-introduction of captive-bred Varecia variegata in
the Betampona Natural Reserve, the lemur community of
the Ambato Massif, predation on the eastern woolly le-
mur, Avahi laniger, the lemurs of the Comoro Archipelago
and the Island of Mayotte, and research efforts in the dry
zones in the west of Madagascar. Lastly, Volume 2(2),
December 1996, of African Primates, editor Thomas M.
Butynski, includes articles on the Zanzibar red colobus,
Procolobus kirkii, a census of diurnal primates on Bioko
Island, Equatorial Guinea, the status of Hamadryas ba-
boons in Eritrea, a survey of gorillas and chimpanzees in
the Dja Reserve, Cameroon, new dwarf galago species in
Tanzania, nest-making behaviour of chimpanzees in
Guinea and Uganda, and the status of the Sanje mangabey,
Cercocebus galeritus sanjei, from Tanzania.
To contribute articles and news items, and to obtain cop-
ies of these newsletters, please contact: Ardith A. Eudey,
Editor, Asian Primates, 164 Dayton Street, Upland, Cali-
fornia 91786, USA. Tel/Fax: (909) 982 9832, e-mail:
, or Jorg Ganzhorn, Editor, Lemur
News, Institute of Zoology, Ecology and Conservation,
Martin Luther King Platz 3, 20146 Hamburg, Germany,
e-mail: , or Tho-
mas M. Butynski, Senior Editor, African Primates, Zoo
Atlanta, Africa Biodiversity Conservation Program, P. 0.
Box 24434, Nairobi, Kenya, Tel: 254 2 745374, Fax: 254
2 890615, e-mail: , or Debra
Forthman, Editor, African Primates, Zoo Atlanta, 800
Cherokee Avenue S. E., Atlanta, Georgia 30315-1440,

Volume 19, number 3, 1998, of the International Journal
of Primatology, the official journal of the International
Primatological Society, Editor Russell H. Tuttle, The Uni-

versity of Chicago, is dedicated exclusively to the howl-
ing monkeys, Alouatta a feast for howler researchers.
As explained in the introduction, this special issue was
the brainchild of Kenneth E. Glander, Director of the Duke
University Primate Center, but the Guest editor was Mar-
garet R. Clarke, Tulane University, New Orleans. It is
based on a symposium "Howlers: Past and Present", held
during the XIIth Congress of the International Primato-
logical Society, Brasilia, 1988. The issue includes the fol-
lowing papers: Population characteristics of howlers: Eco-
logical conditions or group history Colin A. Chapman
& Sophia R. Balcomb, pp.385-403; Growth of mantled
howler groups in a regenerating Costa Rican dry forest -
Linda M. Fedigan, Lisa M. Rose & Rodrigo Morera Avila,
pp.405-432; Agonistic and affiliative relationships of adult
female howlers (Alouatta palliata) in Costa Rica over a
4-year period Evan L. Zucker & Margaret R. Clarke,
pp.433-449; Infant-nonmother interactions of free-rang-
ing mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in Costa
Rica Margaret R. Clarke, Kenneth E. Glander & Evan
L. Zucker, pp.451-472; Relation of intergroup variation
in allogrooming to group social structure and ectopara-
site loads in red howlers (Alouatta seniculus) Marcelo
R. Sanchez-Villagra, Theresa R. Pope & Viviane Salas,
pp.473-491; Parasites of wild howlers (Alouatta spp.) -
Michael Stuart, Vickie Pendergast, Susan Rumfelt,
Suzanne Pierberg, Lisa Greenspan, Kenneth Glander &
Margaret Clarke, pp.493-512; Physiological ecology of
howlers (Alouatta): Energetic and digestive considerations
and comparison with the Colobinae Katharine Milton,
pp.513-548; Conservation biology of the genus Alouatta -
Carolyn M. Crockett, pp.549-578; Effective solutions for
howler conservation Robert H. Horwich, pp.579-598;
Arboreal quadrupedism and forelimb articular anatomy
of red howlers Miguel A. Schin Ybarra, pp.599-613;
Skeletal pathologies in a population of Alouatta palliata:
Behavioral, ecological and evolutionary implications -
David DeGusta & Katherine Milton, pp.615-650.
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The American Journal of Primatology, official journal of
the American Society of Primatologists, Editor-in-chief
Michael J. Raleigh, University of California Los Ange-
les, has produced a special issue on "Primate Seed Dis-
persal" (Volume 45, number 1, 1998). The Guest Editors
were Joanna E. Lambert, University of California Los
Angeles, and Paul A. Garber, University of Illinois Ur-
bana. It is based on a symposium "Primates as Seed Dis-
persers and Seed Predators in Tropical Forests", presented
at the Joint Congress of the International Primatological

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Society and the American Society of Primatologists held
in Madison, Wisconsin, in August 1996. It includes the
following papers: Primates as seed dispersers: Ecological
processes and directions for future research Paul A.
Garber & Joanna E. Lambert, pp.3-8; Evolutionary and
ecological implications of primate seed dispersal Joanna
E. Lambert & Paul A. Garber, pp.9-28; Seed dispersal by
long-tailed macaques Peter W. Lucas & Richard T.
Corlett, pp.29-44; Lowland gorillas and seed dispersal:
The importance of nest sites M. E. Rogers, B. C. Voysey,
K. E. McDonald, R. J. Parnell & C. E. G. Tutin, pp.45-
68; Seed handling by three prosimian primates in south-
eastern Madagascar: Implications for seed dispersal -
Deborah J. Overdorff & Suzanne G. Strait, pp.69-82;Varia-
tion in seed handling by two species of forest monkeys in
Rwanda Beth A. Kaplin & Timothy C. Moermond, pp.83-
101; Seed dispersal by Neotropical seed predators Marilyn
A. Norconk, Brian W. Grafton & Nancy L. Conklin-
Brittain, pp.103-126; Forests without primates: Primate/
Plant codependency Colin A. Chapman & Daphne A.
Onderdonk, pp.127- 141.
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The Journal of Medical Primatology is the leading medi-
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jects on infectious diseases have always played an impor-
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search covered. Since 1996, the Editor-in-Chief is Prof.
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Global Biodiversity is a quarterly magazine published by
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aspects of biological diversity research and conservation.
Besides regular articles, it includes updates and news on
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World Wide Web: gbzine.htm>.


Planning, Proposing, and Presenting Science Effec-
tively: A Guide for Graduate Students and Research-
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search journal; gives advice and guidelines for presenting
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gives tips on how to write clearly, common abbreviations
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ulty will find it an essential instructional tool. Available
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Building, Cambridge CB2 1BR, UK, Tel.: +44 (0)1223
325056, Fax: +44 (0)1223 325891. In the US: Cambridge
University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY

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10011-4211, USA. In Australia: Cambridge University
Press, 10 Stamford Street, Oakleigh, Melbourne 3166,
Australia. For further information on textbooks from CUP,
please contact Heather Elliot at uk>.
Minds of Their Own: Thinking and Awareness in Ani-
mals, by Lesley J. Rogers, 224pp., November 1997. Allen
and Unwin, St. Leonards, NSW, Australia. ISBN 1 8644
8504 3. Price: Paperback AU$17.95 + AU$5.00 p+p out-
side of Australia. Are animals consciously aware of them-
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5. Future research on animal minds; 7. Thinking, feeling
and animal rights. For more information: Allen and
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Not Only Roars and Rituals: Communication in Ani-
mals, by Lesley J. Rogers and Gisela Kaplan, 240pp., No-
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tralia. ISBN 1 864448 798 4. Price: Paperback AU$19.95
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apes. It tackles the often-avoided concept of intentional
communication and explores the future of communica-
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fessor of Neuroscience and Animal Behavior at the Uni-
versity of New England, and Professor Gisela Kaplan has
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mal behavior, focusing especially on communication in
birds and primates. Highly recommended. For more in-
formation: Allen and Unwin, PO Box 8500, St. Leonards,
NSW 2065, Australia, Tel.: +61 (0)2 9901 4088, Fax: +61
(0)2 9906 2218, e-mail:.
Dynamics of Tropical Forest Communities, edited by
David M. Newbery, N. Brown and H. H. T. Prins, 648pp.,
March 1998. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford,
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Herbivores: Between Plants and Predators, edited by
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Science, Osney Mead, Oxford OX2 OEL, UK, Tel: +44
1865 206206, Fax: +44 1865 721205.
An Introduction to Animal Behaviour, by Aubrey Man-
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tion. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Price: Hard-
back 55.00 + p&p, Paperback 18.95 + p&p. The broad
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Fax: +44 (0)1223 325891. For further information on text-
books from CUP, please contact Heather Elliot at

Ades, C. 1998. A mirror for the self. Cisncia e Cultura
50(2/3): 123-128.
Ahlborn, S. and Rothe, H. 1997. The activity profile and
time budget for foraging and eating of a group of semi-
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Parenting and survival in anthropoid primates: Care-
takers live longer. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 95(12):
Altmann, J. 1997. Mate choice and intrasexual reproduc-
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Alves, G., SeuAnez, H. N. and Fanning, T. 1998. A clade
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Garcia, S. and Rodrfguez-Luna, E. Male-male interactions
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Hammerschmidt, K. Amplitude related variation in call
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Heymann, E. W., Buchanan-Smith, H. M. and Hardie, S.
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and consequences. (001)

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Neotropical Primates 6(3), September 1998 Page 107

Hook-Costigan, M. A. Eye preferences of marmosets for
viewing novel stimuli. (260)
Hoyt, R. and Baker, A. J. Creating financial links between
zoo "ambassadors" and wild populations. (082)
Kaplan, G. and Rogers, L. J. Response to novel stimuli
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Lee, R. J., Bennett, E. L. and Robinson, J. G. Impact and
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Mendes Pontes, A. R. Costs of polygyny for wild common
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Mudry, M., Szapkievich. V., Avila, I., Hick, A., Gorostiaga,
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Nishimura, A. Feeding behaviour of woolly monkeys,
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ambient temperature on circadian activity rhythms in
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Peres, C. A. Effects of subsistence hunting and forest types
on the structure of Amazonian primate communities.
Perez-Ruiz, A. L. and Mondragon-Ceballos, R. Food avail-
ability: Effects on affiliative behavior of a spider mon-
key community in the Lacandona Rain Forest, Mexico.
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Pires, M. R. S. and Garavello, J. C. Callitrichid phylog-
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Prado-Herndndez, J., Hernindez-Salazar, L. T., Canales-
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Prescott, M. J. and Buchanan-Smith, H. M. Does the pres-
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Queyras, A., Vitale, A., Scolavino, M. and Puopolo, M.
Social influences on food choice in the common mar-
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Rogers, L. J. and Cameron, R. Hand preference and ex-
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Rylands, A. B. and Rodriguez-Luna, E. Neotropical pri-
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Silva, C. H. da. Manual preferences of captive emperor
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Silva-Lopez, G. and Portila-Ochoa, E. Forest disturbance
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Spironello, W. Sapotaceae fruit: A mammal association.
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Veracini, C. Ecology of, and interactions between,
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Visalberghi, E. and Carosi, M. Sexual behaviour in tufted
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Visalberghi, E. and Valente, M. Individual or social learn-
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45(20), 1998.
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Anderson, D. Rapid physical but delayed behavioral matu-

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Page 108 Neotropical Primates 6(3), September 1998

ration and single births in Callimico: A reproductive
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Anderson, J. Y. South American Ateles nonmetric analy-
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Andrews, M. W. Acquisition of computerized behavior-
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Bardi, M., Petto, A. J. and Lee-Parritz, D. Infant han-
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Beck, B. B. Cognitive aspects of reintroduction of golden
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Bennett, C. L., Leonard, S. and Carter. S. Peruvian pri-
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Clarke, M. R. Collins, D. A. and Zucker, E. L. Changes
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Fite, J. E. and French, J. A. Prepartum estrogen levels in
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Garber, P. A. and Wright, B. W. Patterns of positional
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Forest 98 V Congresso e Exposico Internacional sobre
Florestas, 25-28 de novembro de 1998, Centro de
Convengbes de Curitiba, Parana, Brasil. Promoqdo:
Sociedade Brasileira para a Valoriza9go do Meio Ambiente
- BIOSFERA. Temirio preliminary: Silvicultura, manejo,
sustentabilidade e conservacgo da biodiversidade;
Industrializacgo e comercializagao de produtos florestais;
Ensino, pesquisa e extensdo florestal; Politicas, legislagdo
e geopolftica florestal; ArborizagAo urbana, paisagismo e
unidades de conservacAo. Coordenador Geral: Prof.
Mauricio Balensiefer, Escola de Engenharia Florestal,
Universidade Federal do Parand, Rua Bom Jesus 650,
80035-010 Curitiba, Parana, Tel: (041) 232 9084 (UPPR),
(041) 322-1611 (SEMA), Fax: (041) 232 3636, e-mail:
Primate Society of Great Britain (PSGB) Winter Meet-
ing Current Contributions of Zoos to Primate Con-
servation and Biology, 2 December, 1998, Zoological So-
ciety of London, Regent's Park, London, U.K. Includes
the Osman Hill Memorial Lecture to be given by Prof.
Christopher Stringer on "The Origin of Our Species".
Organized by Dr Miranda Stevenson and Dr Bryan Carroll.
Contact: Dr Miranda Stevenson, Marwell Zoological Park,

Page 108

Neorropical Primates 6(3), September 1998

Neotropical Primates 6(3), September 1998

Colden Common, Winchester, Hants S021 1JH, England,
U.K. Tel: 01962 777407, Fax: 01962 777511, e-mail:
Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour The
Genetic Analysis of Behaviour, 3-4 December, 1998, Zoo-
logical Society of London, London. Organized by Mike
Ritchie and Bambos Kyriacou. For more information: Dr
M. G. Ritchie, Environmental & Evolutionary Biology,
Bute Medical Building, University of St. Andrews, Fife
KY16 9TS, UK, Fax: +44 (0)1334 463600, e-mail:
, or Dr Bambos Kyriacou, De-
partment of Genetics, Adrian Building, University of Le-
icester, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK, Fax: +44 (0)1162523378,
e-mail: .
XVII Annual Conference of the Australasian Primate
Society, 4-6 December, 1998, Perth Zoological Gardens,
Labouchere Road, South Perth, Western Australia. Theme:
"A Home Away From Home: Creating Species-specific
Environments for Captive Primates". Deadline for ab-
stracts: 15 October 1998. For further details, contact: Dr
R. Markham, Perth Zoo, P. 0. Box 489, South Perth. WA
6151, or Mr G. Crook, P. 0. Box 500, One Tree Hill, SA
5114, Tel: +61 8 82807670, Fax: +61 8 82807078, e-mail:
, or crook.graeme@etsa.

1st European Zoo Nutrition Meeting, 8-11 January, 1999,
Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Organized by the Rotterdam
Zoo and the Veterinary Faculty in Utrecht, with the Nutri-
tion Research Group of EAZA. Topics include: Current
status of nutrition in Europe (methods, research topics);
European nutrition research targets in the future; Feeding
ecology; Specific nutrition research on various species;
Various nutrition topics. Contact: Joeke Nijboer, Rotterdam
Zoo, P. 0. Box 532, 3000 Am Rotterdam, The Nether-
lands, Tel: +31 010 4431441, Fax: +31 010 4431414, e-
Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour, Easter
Meeting, 29-31 March, 1999. University of Newcastle,
UK. Organized by Sue Healy and Marion Petrie. A gen-
eral meeting with no specific theme. Invited speakers in-
clude: Naomi Pierce (Harvard University), Margo Wilson
(McMaster University) and John Krebs (Oxford Univer-
sity). A workshop "Advice to Postgraduate Students" will
be held in conjunction with the meeting, on 29 March
1999. For more information: Dr Sue Healy, Department
of Psychology, University of Newcastle, Newcastle-upon-
Tyne NE1 7RU, UK, Fax: +44 (0)191 2225622, e-mail:
3rd European Congress of Mammalogy, 29 May 3 June,
1999, Jyvaskyla, Finland. Hosted by the Department of
Biological and Environmental Sciences of the University
of Jyviiskylai, the Societas Europaea Mammalogica and
Confennia Ltd. For more information: Congress Secre-
tariat, Confennia Ltd., e-mail: .

Page 109

II International Wildlife Management Congress "Wild-
life, Land and People: Priorities for the 21st Century",
28 June- 2 July 1999, Gbd6ll6, Hungary. Organized by
The Wildlife Society with the Hungarian co-sponsor and
host, the University for Agricultural Sciences in Gd6116,
Hungary. Deadline for proposals of one-half-day work-
shops, symposium, and special poster session proposals:
30 June 1998. Workshops, symposia, and special poster
sessions should focus on topics of wildlife science, man-
agement, sustainable development, education and out-
reach, or laws and policy within the broad theme of the
Congress. Each day will begin with a morning plenary
session followed by related concurrent sessions, symposia
and workshops in the afternoon. Themes for the five-day
congress are (1) Sustainable Development and Wildlife
Conservation; (2) Landscape Linkages: Ecosystem Sci-
ence and Management; (3) Issues in Wildlife-Human Con-
flicts; (4) Education, Outreach, and Human Dimensions
in Wildlife Conservation; and (5) Techniques for Moni-
toring Wildlife Populations. Symposia, and, where appro-
priate, workshop presentations will be considered for pub-
lication in a Congress proceedings; organizers will be re-
quired to provide an initial edit and evaluation of submit-
ted papers. The proceedings will be published in English;
oral presentations will be in English or possibly Hungar-
ian depending on the availability of translators. More in-
formation on preparing proposals for workshops, sympo-
sia, and special poster sessions can be found in the March-
April 1998 issue of The Wildlifer, and on The Wildlife
Society website , or
guidelines may be requested from Co-Chair of the Pro-
grr.m Committee, W. Daniel Edge at his e-mail address.
Deadline for submission of papers and posters: 15 Octo-
ber 1998. Electronic (e-mail or internet form) submissions
are preferred. Electronic submissions of contributed pa-
pers and posters should be sent to the Program Co-Chair
at the e-mail address below. Please, no telephone inquir-
ies related to abstract submission or acceptance. Direct all
other inquiries to The Wildlife Society office at Tel: (301)
897-9770, Fax: (301) 530-2471, e-mail: org>. Decisions concerning acceptance of papers and post-
ers will be made by 30 November 1998. The abstract sub-
mission form can be found on the TWS webpage www.wildlife.org/abstract.html>. Dr. W. Daniel Edge, Co-
Chair, Program Committee, Department of Fisheries and
Wildlife, Oregon State University, 104 Nash Hall,
Corvallis, Oregon 97331-3803, USA, e-mail -
, , also
22nd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Pri-
matologists, 12-16 August, 1999, Fairmont Hotel, New
Orleans, Louisiana, USA. Contact information: Program
Chair, Dr. Mollie Bloomsmith, TECHLab, Zoo Atlanta,
800 Cherokee Ave., S.E., Atlanta, Georgia 30315, USA,
Tel: (404) 624 5990, Fax: (404) 627-7514, e-mail:
. Local Arrangements
Chair: Dr. Margaret Clarke, Department of Anthropol-

Page 110

ogy, Tulane University, 1021 Audubon Street, New Or-
leans, LA 70118, Tel: (504) 865-5336, Fax: (504) 865-
5338, e-mail: mrclarke@mailhost.tcs.tulane.edu>. ASP
website: .
IV Congress de Manejo de Fauna Amazonica, 4 al 8 de
octubre de 1999, Asunci6n, Paraguay. Este important
event, iniciado en 1992, resume en breves dias los
resultados de todos los esfuerzos aplicados en pos de la
conservaci6n de la fauna de toda la regi6n amazonica. En
esta oportunidad se fortalecera la pluriparticipaci6n, la
discusi6n de estrategias y la elaboraci6n de planes de acci6n
apuntando a una conservaci6n protagonizada por los
pobladores rurales, beneficiaries director de un uso
sostenible del recurso faunistico. La organizaci6n de este
event es el resultado de un esfuerzo conjunto entire la
Oficina CITES-Py, La Gobernaci6n del Departamento
Central y la organization ambientalista Fundaci6n Moises
Bertoni para la Conservaci6n de la Naturaleza. Misi6n:
Trabajar en forma pluriparticipativa y en acci6n
coordinada para la optimizaci6n de las political de uso,
tecnicas y estrategias de manejo de la vida silvestre
amazonica para fomentar el desarrollo socio-economico
sostenible y la conservaci6n de la naturaleza. Los trabajos
seran recibidos hasta el 1 de marzo de 1999. Se podran
enviar por correo electronic, o en impression en papel
blanco tamano carta con una copia archivada en diskette.
Unicamente se recibiran los siguientes formats: WP5.1,
Microsoft Word 6.0 o textos en ASCII (DOS IBM).
Invitaci6n a events: La comisi6n organizadora desearia
recibir propuestas para la organizaci6n de simposios,
talleres, cursos, mesas redondas y otras reuniones
relacionadas a la tematica propuesta para el Congreso.
Los interesados en organizer o en participar de algunos
de estos events pueden comunicarse con el Comite
Organizador. Inscripciones: Hasta el 31 de marzo de 1999,
estudiantes: US$30, profesionales: US$60; Hasta el 30 de
setiembre de 1999, estudiantes: US$50, profesionales:
US$100; Inscripciones tardias (durante el Congreso),
estudiantes: US$60, profesionales: US$120. Los idiomas
oficiales del Congreso seran Espanol y Portugues, no se
haran servicios de traducci6n simultanea. Comisi6n
Organizadora, IV Congreso de Manejo de Fauna
Amazonica, Fundaci6n Moises Bertoni, C.C. 714,
Asunci6n, Paraguay, Tel: (595-21) 608 740,600 855, Fax:
(595-21) 608 741m, e-mail: .
Visitenos en internet (a partir de julio): org.py>.
Primate Society of Great Britain Winter Meeting 1999,
1 December 1999, Institute of Zoology, London. The theme
will be "Mating and Social Systems of Old World Mon-
keys". Suggestions for speakers and offers of posters are
very welcome. Please contact: Dr. Caroline Ross or Mairi
Macleod, School of Life Sciences, Roehampton Institute
London, West Hill, London SW15 3SN, UK, Tel.: +44
181 392 3561, Fax: +44 181 392 3527, e-mail: crosss
@roehampton.ac.uk> or uk>.

Neotropical Primates 6(3), September 1998

We would be most grateful if you could send us information
on projects, research groups, events (congresses, symposia,
and workshops), recent publications, activities of
primatological societies and NGOs, news items or opinions
of recent events and suchlike. Manuscripts should be
double-spaced and accompanied by the text in diskette
for PC compatible text-editors (MS-Word, Wordperfect,
Wordstar). Articles, not exceeding six pages, can include
small black-and-white photographs, high quality figures,
and high quality maps, tables and references, but please
keep them to a minimum.
Please send contributions to: ANTHONY RYLANDS, C/o
Conservation International do Brasil, Avenida Ant6nio
Abrahao Caram 820/302, 31275-000 Belo Horizonte,
Minas Gerais, Brazil, Tel/Fax: +55 (31) 441 17 95 or
ERNESTO RODRIGUEZ-LUNA, Parque de La Flora y Fauna
Silvestre Tropical, Instituto de Neuroetologfa, Universidad
Veracruzana, Apartado Postal 566, Xalapa, Veracruz
91000, M6xico, Fax: 52 (28) 12-5748.
LILIANA CORTES-ORTIZ (Universidad Veracruzana) provides
invaluable editorial assistance.
Correspondence, messages, and texts can be sent to:
a.rylands @conservation.org.br


NEOTROPICAL PRIMATES is produced in collaboration
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This issue of Neotropical Primates was kindly sponsored by the Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foun-
dation, 432 Walker Road, Great Falls, Virginia 22066, USA, the Houston Zoological Gardens Con-
servation Program, General Manager Donald G. Olson, 1513 North MacGregor, Houston, Texas
77030, USA and the Grupo de Trabalho em Biodiversidade (GTB), through the Brazilian National
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