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Title: Neotropical primates
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Title: Neotropical primates a newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCNSSC Primate Specialist Group
Abbreviated Title: Neotrop. primates
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
Conservation International
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Publisher: Conservation International
Place of Publication: Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
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Publication Date: March 1998
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Full Text

I .. .

A Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group

Editors: Anthony B. Rylands and Ernesto Rodrfguez Luna
PSG Chairman: Russell A. Mittermeier
PSG Deputy Chairman: Anthony B. Rylands




Neotropical Primates 6(1), March 1998 Page 1

Michael Schr6pel
Callitrichids form polygynandrous social units and have
communal breeding systems. In natural groups there are
one or more adult individuals of both sexes, as well as
subadults, juveniles and infants. The sizes of the groups
vary inter- and intragenerically, and inter- and
intraspecifically, as well as between different populations,
probably depending principally on the resources of the
habitat, population density, predator pressure, or the fill-
ing of niches by other species. Nonetheless, there are spe-
cific tendencies evident in the distinct genera. The
Callithrix species tend to have larger groups (7-8 mem-
bers on average) than Saguinus and Leontopithecus which
have 5-6 members on average; this seen especially in the
Callithrix forms of the Atlantic forest region. They feed
to a large extent on tree exudates such as gums, a food
source available year-round and concentrated on just a
few trees, with enough to feed the group. The main foods
of Saguinus and Leontopithecus are the more dispersed,
more seasonally available, fruit and nectar, as well as small
animals, as is found with all callitrichids. Cebuella is an
exception to this trend, feeding principally on tree exu-
dates, and fruit plays a minor role in its diet. The groups,
however, are generally smaller (averaging 6 to 7 animals:
Hernindez-Camacho and Cooper, 1976; Soini, 1988,
1993) than those typical of Callithrix, but larger than in
the tamarins and lion tamarins. Ranging behavior, which
is singular in callitrichids, is evidently correlated (Ferrari
and Lopes Ferrari, 1989; Soini, 1993). The home ranges
used at any one time are extremely small (sometimes only
0.1 acre; Soini, 1988), and are often ephemeral. When
the available exudate trees are insufficient, the groups split
or move to a new area. This is possible because the home
ranges of different Cebuella groups are isolated and dis-
tant from each other.
A general characteristic of all callitrichids is the restric-
tion of reproductive activity to just one adult female in the
group. The other group members, especially the father
but also other adult and subadult individuals, take part in
the rearing of the offspring, especially by carrying them
(communal breeding system). The causes for this altruis-
tic behavior by the group members in their rearing the
young of the reproductive female have not yet been clari-
fied completely, although this phenomenon has been
widely discussed in the literature. Callitrichid females
usually give birth to twins, which combined comprise about
20% of the mother's weight. Help in carrying the infants
is, therefore, seen as a necessity because of the energetic
constraints on the mother during lactation (Eisenberg,
1977; Leutenegger, 1980; Garber et al., 1984; Goldizen
and Terborgh, 1989). There are, however, examples from

the wild and from the captivity which show that mothers
can rear their young by themselves (Soini, 1982a; K6nig
and Siess, 1986; Rothe and Darms, 1993). The sociobio-
logical explanations of communal in tearing vary (increase
of the inclusive fitness, gaining experience for the rearing
of own offspring, submissive behavior for securing group
membership, etc.) (Epple, 1975b; Rylands, 1989; Cleve-
land and Snowdon, 1984; Ferrari and Lopes Ferrari, 1989).
Monogamy is considered to be another characteristic of
reproductive strategies in callitrichid societies (Hampton
et al., 1966; Epple, 1967, 1970; Kleiman, 1977). Repro-
duction limited to the dominant pair in a group is seen as
the basic pattern. There are proven divergences from mo-
nogamy, but at a very low percentage in the wild as well
as in captivity. Possible deviations from sexual monogamy
in wild Cebuella and Callithrix groups have been found
in about 3% of the cases studied. There are even fewer
cases of non-monogamous reproduction in captivity (Rothe
and Darms, 1993). Reports of polyandrous matings are
most frequent, especially in tamarins in the wild. In gen-
eral, however, closer investigation has shown that only
one male in the group has access to the reproductive fe-
male in the estrus periods. This does not contradict the
observation of polyandrous copulation out of the concep-
tive periods of the female, but it has often led to the inter-
pretation of a polyandrous reproductive strategy. In prin-
ciple, functional monogamy is maintained (Ferrari and
Lopes Ferrari, 1989). On the other hand, polyandrous re-
productive patterns are hard to prove or deny. Theoreti-
cally, the dizygotic twins might have different fathers, but
genetic finger-printing techniques have failed to answer
this question either way because of germ cell chimerism
in the early fetal stage (Dixson, 1993).
Group structure alone can indicate reproductive activity
in more than one female. More than one reproductive fe-
male in wild groups have been observed by Soini (1982)
for Cebuella pygmaea, by Scanlon et al. (1988), Digby
and Barreto (1993), and Digby and Ferrari (1994) for
Callithrixjacchus, as well as by Dietz and Baker (1992)
and Dietz and Kleiman (1986) for Leontopithecus rosalia.
There are reports of more than one reproductive female in
captive groups by Abbott (1978, 1984), Rothe (1978),
Jimmmrich (1985), Anzenberger and Simmen (1987), and
Adler and Jimmrich (1991) for Callithrix jacchus, as well
as by Wim Mager (pers. comm. in Rothe and Darms, 1993)
for Cebuella pygmaea.
Inhibition of reproductive activity in supernumerary adult
males is probably caused by the behavior of the dominant
male, although the mechanisms are still unknown. The
dominant and reproductive female also inhibits reproduc-
tion in other adult females in the group, but the mecha-
nisms differ between the genera. Physiological inhibition
of ovulation of the other females occurs in Cebuella and
Callithrix. Pheromones of the dominant female may pre-
vent the secretion of gonadotropin in the hypothalamus of
these females (Abbott and Hearn, 1978). Experiments in-
volving blocking the sense of smell, however, have shown

Cover photograph by Russell A. Mittermeier: Yellow-tailed woolly monkey, Lagothrixflavicauda.

Neotropical Primates 6(l), March 1998

Page 1

Page 2

534 O) t -- 1 --- ^ ': : r - - - -
52U (36U ..
5 1 U i: n fa n t - .- - .
50 U 9 0 juvenile
49 F 1 :1
48 M 14 0 subaduht ,
47 M 29 adult -
45 F 4 : ". r
44 M 14---
43 M 14),I_ I
42 U (293
40 M I'144 conflict

39 F (14)- l
38 F (14) __-. .. ,t* conflict

---- ----------------- __________

36 F 12 __
32U Im ui +
31M I T + b.
30 M I14 T -- + st.b.
29F 11_

25 F 11Y----ea-r---------
24.17 .. ..0 1 4 5 1 1
1. a) M and composition of+ accident
16F +

11 F --- ---_- --
6 M 2 -- + accident
5 ____--_-__________________ id
3F -, '. .conflicl
2F + I

Individual fMother) Years
... ...................... .................... ................... ....


89 1.190 1.1.91 1.192 1193 1194 1,1.95 1.1.96 1.1.97 1.1A98 b

Fig. 1. a) Development and composition of a pygmy marmoset group at Magdeburg Zoo between 1987 and 1997. The left column shows the sex and
identification numbers of the group members, and (in brackets) the identification number of the mother. The horizontal bars demonstrate the presence of
each individual within the group at the time. The ontogenetic phases (different shades of gray of the bars) were classified following Soini (1988), and mark
the infant phase (0-5 months), the juvenile phase (6-12 months), the subadult phase (13-16 months) and the adult phase (more than 16 months). All the
marmosets, except M I and F2, were boro in the group. Symbols in right column: + = death; = removal from the group after agonistic conflict. If there is
no symbol at the end of the bars, the animals were separated for transfer to other zoos without intragroup conflicts. b) The group size during the observation
period and the number of adult females in the group. c) The reproductive phases of the five reproductive females in the group. The notches on the
barsrepresent the birth dates. Note, there are three phases of simultaneous reproduction of two females.

Neotropical Primates 6(l), March 1998

Neotropical Primates 6(1), March 1998
that the behavior of the dominant female also plays a role
(Abbott et al., 1993). The suppression of ovulation in sub-
ordinate females seems to be stronger in groups comprised
of unrelated individuals than in family groups with moth-
ers and daughters (Rothe and Darms, 1993). In Callithrix
jacchus one, and only one, daughter of the reproductive
female may ovulate (Abbott, 1984). This might be a sign
of a forthcoming change in the reproductive and social
status of the daughter in the group. Physiological inhibi-
tion has also been shown in tamarins (Epple and Katz,
1984; Ziegler et al., 1989). From the diagnosis of proges-
terone levels in the blood, Tardif (1984) assumed that 50%
of the daughters of cotton-top tamarins show ovarian
cycles. There is no evidence, however, of physiological
inhibition in Leontopithecus (see French et al., 1989),
although the reproductive female in a group is able to in-
hibit the other females from reproducing by her behavior
(Abbott et al., 1993). Interestingly, the ovarian cycles of
all females (including the reproductive one) of a group
seem to be synchronized (French and Stribley, 1987). This
synchronization could also be pheromonally regulated by
the dominant female, and it might give her a greater chance
of monopolizing the dominant male during estrus (Abbott
et al., 1993).
Pygmy marmosets have been kept at the Magdeburg Zoo-
logical Gardens since 1986, and have been reproducing
regularly since 1987 (Schr6pel, 1994). The "main group"
has been stable since then and is an extended family unit.
All members, with the exception of the original pair (Ml

Page 3

and F2), were born in the group. Temporary, smaller groups
or pairs have been formed with some of the individuals
from this main group, but they were disbanded or trans-
ferred to other zoological gardens. The development and
the composition of this group from its beginning are shown
in Figure 1.
The largest group size obtained was 18 individuals (five
adult females, six adult males, two subadult males, two
juvenile females, one juvenile male, and two infants) be-
tween September and December, 1996. The first exclu-
sions due to agonistic behavior in the group did not occur
when the group was at its largest but in the early years
(1989), when it consisted of one adult male, three adult
females, one juvenile male, and two neonate females. Per-
haps the exclusion of the two non-reproductive females
(F3 and F4) was influenced by the mother's giving birth
to twins (F11 and F12) a few days previously. Possible
hints concerning the reasons for this agonistic behavior
can be found in observations of wild Callithrix jacchus
groups by Digby and Barreto (1993).
For most of the births of the female "Caqueta" (F2) there
were no other adult females living in the group. In 1990,
however, at the age of 5 years, this female gave birth for
the last time. She stayed in the group up to her death
(October 1995, at the age of 10 years and nine months)
together with other females (daughters) without agonistic
clashes. There were further expulsions through agonistic
conflicts in 1997 (two males, four and two years old, and
one nonreproductive. female, two years old).

Interbirth Interval
(days) 360
F 29 =254
300 F 2 =204 F14=180
F 11 =173
F2 F11 F14 F29
Multiparous Females

Average of Interbirth Intervals Gestation Length of C. pygmaea
Fig. 2. Interbirth intervals of the multiparous females of the pygmy marmoset group. The last birth ofFI I occurred during the first, very long interval (247
days) ofFl 4, 86 days after the first birth and 161 days before the second birth of Fl4. The Cebuella pygmaea gestation length of 137 or 138 days was taken
from Soini (1988). Soini (1993) found interbirth intervals of between 5 and 7 months for wild pygmy marmosets.

Page 4

Almost exactly two years after the last birth of the female
"Caqueta" (F2), the daughter of two years and nine months
"Cali" (F11) gave birth for the first time to a single young.
At that time, she was the oldest female after her mother,
who had ceased reproduction. There were then two other
adult females in the group, aged 2 years and 2 years.
There were no agonistic interactions evident. This female
(Fll) gave birth to twins three times, at intervals of 162,
197 and 160 days (see Fig. 2). The twins of the last birth
died at the ages of five days and 34 days. Tension in the
group was obviously responsible for this, probably affect-
ing the care given to the neonates, although this was dif-
ficult to ascertain exactly. The mother "Cali" died of an
unknown cause three months after her last birth, at the
age of 4 years.
Between the penultimate and last birth by the female
"Cali", her younger (3 year-old) sister "Sela" (F14) gave
birth for the first time. The twins were stillborn. This was
74 days after the previous birth by "Cali", who gave birth
again 86 days after her sister "Sela". After the death of
"Cali", the female "Sela" was the only reproductive fe-
male of the group, but with two other resident adult sis-
ters. Up to June 1996, "Sela" had given birth to twins on
a further four occasions and twice to a single offspring.
All of these young survived. The birth interval after the
first stillbirth of "Sela" was 247 days, and subsequently
193, 159, 143, 158 and 149 days. "Sela" died in an acci-
dent at the end of 1996.
Another female of the group (F29) gave birth to twins
between the fourth and the fifth births of "Sela". The fe-
male F29 was aged two years and three months, and there
was only one other female in the group, F36 aged one
year and four months. On the third day after parturition,
we found one of the neonate twins abandoned and suffer-
ing from hypothermia in the bottom of the enclosure. On
the fourth day, the second infant was found with severe
bites, and died. The individuals involved in the attack
were not identified and it was not possible to say for sure
if this was a case of infanticide. F29 again produced twins
after an interval of 247 days; 83 days after the penultimate
birth by the female "Sela" (F14). This time the young
grew up without any problems. Sixty-six days after the
birth of the twins of F29, "Sela" gave birth for the last
time. F29 continued reproducing, giving birth to a single-
ton after an interval of 322 days and to twins after a fur-
ther 192 days. Another female, almost certainly F36, gave
birth to twins for the first time between the penultimate
and the last birth of F29. The neonates, however, died on
the first and second day, respectively.
Five females, therefore, have reproduced in this pygmy
marmoset group, with three phases of polygynous repro-
duction when two females were breeding simultaneously.
It is certain that "Napo" (Ml) was the father of all the
offspring of the original female "Caqueta" (F2), but the
paternity of the other offspring was impossible to ascer-
tain. Currently, "Napo" is living in the group together
with five other adult males of different ages.

The size of the pygmy marmoset group at the Magdeburg
Zoo exceeds, by far, the average group size given for this
species in the wild, although up to 11 (Soini, 1988, 1993)
or 15 individuals (Hernmndez-Camacho and Cooper, 1976)
have been reported occasionally. Soini (1988), however,
argued that these larger troops were temporary aggrega-
tions of two social units, and indicated that the reproduc-
tive male or female of one group may have been the off-
spring of the reproductive pair of the other. Very large
groups, at least when they are extended families, can be
stable for a long time under captive conditions (Rothe and
Darms, 1993). There is currently a group of golden-headed
lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas) with 13 in-
dividuals at the Magdeburg Zoo. In the wild, golden-
headed lion tamarin groups are comprised of 5 to 8
(Rylands, 1989), or 3 to 9 individuals (Dietz et al., 1994).
The home range for a captive group is always consider-
ably smaller when compared to the wild, but there are
certainly no restricting factors for the group size up to a
minimum range for normal locomotion and other behav-
ioral functions. Food competition between group mem-
bers is not an important factor in captive colonies. Dawson
(1977) reported that Saguinus geoffroyi groups in habi-
tats with stable food resources ("survival habitats") were
relatively stable, but in areas with strong seasonal differ-
ences in food resources ("colonization habitats") they were
unstable. The extent to which social and socio-sexual pa-
rameters have an influence on the group size in captivity
is not yet known.
It is widely accepted that there is no clear hierarchical
structure in callitrichid social units except for the domi-
nant and reproductive pair (Epple, 1975a; Stevenson and
Rylands, 1988; Caine,1993; but see Rothe, 1978). If a
hierarchy becomes evident, it is generally related to age
and sex. Dawson (1977) refers to this as "age-related, male-
female groups" inSaguinus geoffroyi. In wild (Soini, 1988)
and captive (Christen, 1974) pygmy marmoset groups, the
older offspring of the dominant pair are dominant over
their younger siblings. However, according to Soini (1988),
the younger siblings, during the weaning period especially
but also when benefiting from parental protection, are re-
sponsible for the peripheralization of their older siblings
and their subsequent expulsion from the group. This rarely
happens through overt aggression, but is more of a gradual
process, involving, for example, exclusion of the individu-
als from the prime exudate gnawing-sites. The starting
point for this may be the reproductive status of the domi-
nant female at the time. She is often intolerant with other
group members in the third month of pregnancy. This
coincides with the weaning period of the last-born young
(see also Kleiman, 1986, for Leontopithecus rosalia).
Under captive conditions this behavior may subside and
offspring stay much longer in the group as a result (see
Rothe, 1978, for Callithrix jacchus). In captivity, the
gradual expulsion process, involving mainly social
peripheralization, is difficult to detect (Rothe et al., 1986).

Neotropical Primates 6(l), March 1998

Neotropical Primates 6(1). March 1998 Page S

It is only when there is overt aggression that the keepers
remove the animals, corresponding to emigration in the
In the Cebuella group described here, there was at first a
matrilineal transmission of the reproductive position.
When the initial reproductive female "Caqueta" (F2)
stopped giving birth, her oldest daughter "Cali" (Fll11),
took over after two years. This conforms with the repro-
ductive strategy described by Ferrari and Diego (1992)
for marmosets in the wild. When the fertility of a repro-
ductive female is reduced or lost, her daughter takes over.
Especially in areas with a high population density and
stable social groups, this is a more promising alternative
for the young female than emigrating and starting a new
group, or taking over the reproductive position of another
established group. Ferrari and Diego (1992) did not record
any immigrations of females into existing groups of
Callithrix flaviceps. The possibility of matrilineal trans-
mission is also supported by the results of physiological
suppression of the ovulation of the adult female group
members by the reproductive female in marmosets (Abbott,
1984). Besides the mother, the oldest daughter is the only
female showing ovarian cycles. In the case of the pygmy
marmosets discussed here, it is possible that the repro-
ductive decline of the old female was accompanied by a
loss in her ability to physiologically inhibit reproduction
in her daughter.
After three births by the new reproductive female "Cali"
(Fl 1) and a time span of one year, there were two repro-
ductive females in the group, with her younger, primipa-
rous sister "Sela" (F14) also breeding. The neonate twins
of "Sela" were, however, stillborn. Digby and Ferrari
(1994) argued for a correlation of high population density
and the presence of two reproductive females in wild
Callithrixjacchus. However, they were referring to mother
and daughter, while the two reproductive females in this
pygmy marmoset group were sisters. Since emigration, as
explained above, is not necessarily the best alternative,
permitting reproduction by a second female may be an
effective solution, if the reproductive success of the fe-
male is not compromised (i.e., enough helpers are avail-
able for infant care, there is sufficient food, etc.). Multiple
reproduction may also increase the inclusive fitness of both
females in cases where they are close relatives (Digby and
Ferrari, 1994). These factors still apply even though popu-'
lation density is not a factor in captive groups.
The female "Cali" died a short time after her subsequent
birth, and again there was only one reproductive female,
"Sela". All her offspring from the six following births
survived. Shortly before the fifth birth by the female "Sela",
another female began reproducing; the female F29, a
daughter of "Cali" (Fll). This gave rise to the same situ-
ation as before between "Cali" and "Sela". The liveborn
offspring were neglected and abandoned. Unfortunately it
was not possible to observe which group members were
responsible for the deaths of the offspring (the mother and/

or others). One of the young animals was bitten to death,
and infanticide was possible. About eight months later,
and 83 days after the birth of a singleton by "Sela", the
female F29 again gave birth to twins, which she reared
normally. At the time of writing this, they are already adult.
There were, as such, therefore, two reproductive females
breeding successfully in the group. The older reproduc-
tive female "Sela" (F14) later gave birth for the last time,
but died in an accident at the end of 1996. Immediately
after her death, another female (F36) became reproduc-
tive and gave birth to twins, between the births of F29.
The neonates did not survive, however. Both the females
(F29 and F36) were alive at the end of 1997.
The simultaneous reproduction by two females in one
group succeeded, therefore, in only one case. The ques-
tion arises whether the simultaneous fertility of two fe-
males can be considered a reproductive strategy at all.
There is the possibility that it is merely a failure of the
physiological inhibition of ovulation of the subordinate
females by the reproductive female. Other mechanisms,
probably behavioral, then prevent the survival of the off-
spring of the second female. The breeding pattern remains
monogynous. Price and McGrew (1991) found some cases
of simultaneous reproduction by mother and daughter in
captive Saguinus oedipus. The offspring of the daughter,
however, did not survive. In one of the cases, it involved
infanticide of the offspring of the daughter by her mother.
Evaluation of the one success in simultaneous reproduc-
tion of the two females in the pygmy marmoset group is
dependent on further data. The premises for multiple re-
production as an effective alternative to emigration (the
participating females being close relatives, enough help-
ers in the group, a large supply of food) among wild
Callithrixjacchus as assumed by Digby and Ferrari (1994)
apply to the present case. But there are, however, other
factors considering the captive conditions, in this large
group particularly, which perhaps may play a role, and
referring to it as a reproductive strategy as such may be
unwarranted. The helpers would often sit with the depen-
dent young of both mothers in close contact, and there
was no obvious agonistic behavior between the mothers.
Nothing can be said concerning the paternity of the off-
spring except that incest was involved, with the exception
of the original pair "Napo" (Ml) and "Caqueta" (F2). So
far, there have been no adverse consequences. There are
several reports of incest among callitrichids in captivity
(Epple, 1970; Abbott, 1984; Jmimmrich, 1985; Anzenberger
and Simmen, 1987; Price and McGrew, 1991; Rothe and
Darms, 1993), but no information from wild groups, be-
cause the family relationships are mostly unknown. Con-
sidering, however, the stability of wild callitrichid groups,
incestuous reproduction cannot be completely ruled out.
Immigrations in groups are often re-immigrations. For
example, out of 18 immigrants in Saguinus geoffroyi, 13
had formerly emigrated from the group, and were, there-
fore, closely related (Dawson, 1977). Few immigrations
have been recorded for Cebuella and Callithrix (Soini,

Page 5

Neotropical Primates 6(l), March 1998

Page 6

1988; Rylands, 1982; Ferrari and Diego, 1992; Digby and
Barreto, 1993). New members mostly result from births.
Perhaps in callitrichids inbreeding resulting from long-
term stable groups may have contributed to genetic drift
and be responsible, therefore, for at least part of the enor-
mous variety of forms of this primate group, in a similar
fashion to island populations. Such a hypothesis is very
speculative, but requires consideration. In captive man-
agement there is always a conflict between the problem of
avoiding incest, available space, and the usually undesir-
able measure of breaking up stable social groups by ex-
cessive manipulation.
Michael Schripel, Zoologischer Garten Magdeburg, Am
Vogelgesang 12, D 39124 Magdeburg, Germany.
Abbott, D. H. 1978. The physical, hormonal and
behavioral development of the common marmoset,
Callithrix jacchus jacchus. In: Biology and Behaviour
of Marmosets, H. Rothe, H.-G. Wolters and J. P. Hearn,
(eds.), pp. 99-106. Eigenverlag H. Rothe, Gottingen.
Abbott, D. H. 1984. Behavioural and physiological sup-
pression of fertility in subordinate marmoset monkeys.
Am. J. Primatol. 6: 169-186.
Abbott, D. H. and Hearn, J. P. 1978. Physical, hormonal
and behavioral aspects of sexual development in the
marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus). J. Reprod. Fert.
53: 155-166.
Abbott, D. H., Barrett, J. and George, L. M. 1993. Com-
parative aspects of the social suppression of reproduc-
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R. Pastor-Nieto
D. K. Williamson
Studies carried out on the geographic distribution and
ecology of New World Primates (for example, Pagel et
al., 1991; Ross, 1992; Rosenberger, 1992; Strier, 1992;
Ford, 1994) all find that environmental variables such as
temperature and rainfall have an important effect on the
morphological adaptations and behavioral ecology of the
platyrrhine primates.
There is a general relationship between overall body size
and ecological, behavioral and physiological traits in mam-
mals (for example, Calder, 1984; Clutton-Brock and
Harvey, 1983; Eisenberg, 1981; McNab, 1987; Peters,
1983; Schmidt-Nielsen, 1984). In primates there is a con-
sistent relationship between body size and feeding ecol-
ogy (Ford and Davis, 1992). Body size by itself, therefore,
is a useful predictor of a species' adaptations (Damuth
and McFadden, 1990), and appears to be related to nu-
merous life-history variables (Clutton-Brock and Harvey,
1983; Harvey and Clutton-Brock, 1985).
Platyrrhines are thought ideal for examining morphologi-
cal adaptations to diet, because of their monophyletic ori-
gin, universal arboreality, and variation in food prefer-

Page 7

Neotropical Primates 6(l), March 1998

Page 8 Neotropical Primates 6(1), March 1998

Table 1. Mean body weights (adapted from Ford and Davis, 1992) of the platyrrhine primates, and their presence in the phytogeographic
regions (Rylands etal., 1995). *CCCH = Cerrado/Caatinga/Chaco; AM = Amazonia; SA= Southern Andes; MA= Middle America; NVC
= Northern Venezuela-Colombia; NA = Northern Andes; AF = Atlantic forest.
Species Male weight (g) Female weight (g) Mean weight (g) Phytogeographic region
Alouatta belzebul 7270.0 5525.0 6397.5 AM
Alouatta caraya 6800.0 4605.0 5702.5 CCCH
Alouattafusca 6175.0 4550.0 5362.5 AF
Alouatta palliata 7150.0 5350.0 6250.0 MA, NA
Alouatta pigra 11352.0 6434.0 8893.0 MA
Alouatta seniculus 7200.0 5600.0 6400.0 SA, MA, NVC
Aotus azarae 933.0 953.0 943.0 CCCH, AM
Aotus lemurinus 955.0 968.0 961.5 MA,NA
Aotus nancymae 923.0 940.0 931.5 AM
Aotus trivirgatus 920.0 950.0 935.0 AM
Ateles belzebuth 6200.0 5800.0 6000.0 AM, NVC, NA
Atelesfusciceps 8890.0 8800.0 8845.0 MA, NVC, NA
Ateles geoffroyi 8210.0 7456.0 7833.0 MA
Ateles paniscus 7460.0 9750.0 8605.0 AM
Brachyteles arachnoides 12125.0 9450.0 10787.5 AF
Cacajao calvus 3450.0 2880.0 3165.0 AM
Cacajao rubicundus 3450.0 2880.0 3165.0 AM
Cacajao melanocephalus 3450.0 2880.0 3165.0 AM
Callicebus brunneus 854.0 805.0 829.5 AM
Callicebus caligatus 1098.0 1075.0 1086.5 AM
Callicebus cinerascens 1098.0 1075.0 1086.5 AM
Callicebus cupreus 1012.0 1119.0 1065.5 AM
Callicebus donacophilus 1098.0 1075.0 1086.5 CCCCH, AM
Callicebus dubius 1098.0 1075.0 1086.5 AM
Callicebus hoffmannsi 1098.0 1075.0 1086.5 AM
Callicebus moloch 1000.0 860.0 930.0 AM
Callicebus oenanthe 1098.0 1075.0 1086.5 SA
Callicebus olallae 1098.0 1075.0 1086.5 AM
Callicebus personatus 1325.0 1285.0 1305.0 AF
Callicebus torquatus 1300.0 1307.0 1303.5 AM
Callimico goeldii 640.0 530.0 585.0 AM
Callithrix argentata 357.0 320.0 338.5 AM
Callithrix geoffroyi 290.0 190.0 240.0 AF
Callithrix humeralifera 280.0 310.0 295.0 AM
Callithrixjacchus 256.0 236.0 246.0 CCCH, AF
Cebuella pygmaea 130.0 126.0 128.0 AM
Cebus albifrons 2480.0 1814.0 2147.0 AM, SA, NVC, NA
Cebus apella 3050.0 2385.0 2717.5 CCCH, AM, SA, NVC, AF
Cebus capucinus 3868.0 2666.0 3267.0 MA,NVC,NA
Cebus olivaceus 2974.0 2395.0 2684.5 AM, NVC
Chiropotes albinasus 3020.0 2510.0 2765.0 AM
Chiropotes satanas 3100.0 2600.0 2850.0 AM
Lagothrixflavicauda 8335.0 5750.0 7042.5 SA
Lagothrix lagothricha 8335.0 5750.0 7042.5 AM
Leontopithecus chrysomelas 620.0 535.0 577.5 AF
Leontopithecus chrysopygus 614.0 557.0 585.5 AF
Leontopithecus rosalia 607.0 578.0 592.5 AF
Pithecia irrorata 2010.0 1875.0 1942.5 AM
Pithecia monachus 2795.0 1900.0 2347.5 AM
Pithecia pithecia 1732.0 1515.0 1623.5 AM
Saguinus bicolor 430.0 430.0 430.0 AM
Saguinusfuscicollis 387.0 403.0 395.0 AM
Saguinus imperator 400.0 400.0 400.0 AM
Saguinus inustus 423.0 454.0 438.5 AM
Saguinus labiatuf 451.0 465.0 458.0 AM
Saguinus leucopus 490.0 490.0 490.0 AM
Saguinus midas 586.0 432.0 509.0 AM
Saguinus mystax 577.0 560.0 568.5 AM
Saguinus nigricollis 470.0 480.0 475.0 AM
Saguinus oedipus 411.0 430.0 420.5 AM
Saguinus tripartitus 423.0 454.0 438.5 AM
Saimiri boliviensis 1015.0 700.0 857.5 CCCH, AM
Saimiri oerstedi 829.0 695.0 762.0 MA
Saimiri sciureus 852.0 675.0 763.5 AM, NVC
Saimiri ustus 910.0 795.0 852.5 AM
Saimiri vanzolinii 950.0 650.0 800.0 AM

Neotropical Primates 6(1), March 1998 Page 9

Figure 1. The geographic ranges of a large (Alouatta) and a small (Cebuella)
platyrrhine, overlayed with the seven phytogeographic regions of Gentry

ences (Anapol and Lee, 1994). Differentiation of body size
is a significant factor in the partitioning of platyrrhine
diets and foraging strategies (for example, Temerin et al.,
1984; Janson and Boinski, 1992; Garber, 1992;
Rosenberger and Strier, 1989; Strier, 1992).

There are currently three main hypotheses, based on eco-
logical determinants, to explain the maximum body-weight
thresholds of platyrrhines.
Terborgh and van Schaik (1987) suggested that the fruit
and leafing cycles in the Neotropics are 'in-phase', there-
fore the species have to adapt to a seasonal environment.
This leaves two options; either to specialize as folivores,
or to exploit insects in periods of fruit scarcity.

Fleming et al. (1987) suggested that the low diversity of
fleshy fruits in the Neotropics, in combination with a
greater variety of fruit species, would have favored the
evolution of small-bodied frugivores.

The 'brittle-branch' hypothesis (Cristoffer, 1987) proposed
that the Neotropical forests had a more 'fragile' vegeta-
tion structure than its Paleotropical counterpart (Emmons
and Gentry, 1983) and would have limited the evolution
of large-bodied arboreal vertebrates.
All of these theories converge on one simple statement:
the body size of Neotropical primates seems to be indi-
rectly affected by climate. However, such theories do not
explain the current geographical distribution of species.
In this context we make two assumptions:

The larger platyrrhines, such as the atelines are distrib-
uted more evenly in the Neotropics because they are buff-
ered against long periods of reduced food availability dur-
ing the dry season (Boyce, 1979; Lindstedt and Boyce,

N o h ern

Table 2. Climatic variables calculated from long term records from ran-
domly sampled weather stations (Wernstedt, 1972) for each of the phyto-
geographic regions (adapted from Gentry, 1982). CCCH = Cerrado/
Caatinga/Chaco; AM = Amazonia; SA = Southern Andes; MA = Middle
America; NVC = Northern Venezuela-Colombia; NA = Northern Andes;
AF= Atlantic forest.
Phytogeographic Climatic variables*
n T P RDV Z MO<50 P>2T
CCCH 38 21.45 1116.62 0.74 0.89 3.65 8.68
AM 30 25.08 2118.01 0.71 0.90 2.18 9.79
SA 8 23.46 1407.29 0.81 0.89 3.13 10.67
MA 20 25.73 2876.04 0.82 0.89 2.00 9.90
NVC 11 22.60 2198.11 0.79 0.90 2.55 9.36
NA 7 21.31 772.75 0.91 0.85 6.00 6.57
AF 7 21.21 1439.75 0.79 0.90 2.71 9.57
CCCH/AF ** 21.33 1302.18 0.78 0.90 3.18 9.12
CCCH/AM ** 23.26 1641.31 0.74 0.89 2.19 9.24
AF/AM 23.14 1778.88 0.75 0.90 2.45 9.68
AM/SA ** 23.18 1443.37 0.81 0.87 4.09 8.18
AM/NA ** 20.34 1444.83 0.82 0.89 3.71 9.90
AM/NVC ** 23.83 2158.08 0.73 0.90 2.36 9.58
NA/MA ** 23.51 1854.58 0.87 0.87 4.00 8.24
NA/NVC ** 21.95 1485.42 0.87 0.87 4.27 7.97
MA/NVC ** 234.16 2357.07 0.89 0.89 2.27 9.63
*n = number of weather stations sampled; T = mean annual temperature; P
= mean annual precipitation (C); RDV = rainfall diversity index; Z =
Simpson's index of diversity; Mo<50 = number of months where mean rain-
fall is greater is greater than 50mm; P>2T = number of months where rain-
fall (mm) is greater than two times the temperature (C).
**No sample size given since means for the overlapping sub-regions were
calculated from the means of two neighboring regions.

Smaller species, such as the callitrichids, are more re-
stricted in their geographic distribution due to their nutri-
tional requirements (see Fleagle, 1988).
To illustrate this observation two genera were selected: a
larger ateline with a wide distribution (Alouatta spp.), and
the smallest platyrrhine genus (Cebuella spp.) which has
a relatively restricted distribution (see Fig 1).

In this paper we test whether rainfall seasonality has an
effect on the geographic distribution of platyrrhine spe-

Southern and Middle America can be divided into nine
phytogeographic regions (Gentry 982), which give an ac-
curate description of Neotropical vegetation diversity. In
a review of platyrrhine distribution, Rylands et al. (1995)
listed the species occurring in seven phytogeographic re-
gions, adapted from Gentry (1982) (see Fig. 1). They did
not consider two regions, the Caribbean, because no pri-
mates occur there, and the Guyana sub-region, which is
subsumed into the Amazonia region. We use the species
list of Rylands et al. (1995) because of the detailed infor-
mation on distributions provided (see Table 1).

Indexing habitat productivity and rainfall seasonality

The main climate variables influencing plant and animal
life are water availability and temperature, and can be used
alone to characterize vegetation patterns and plant pro-
ductivity globally (Walter, 1979; Box, 1981; Le Houerou

* Cebuella pygmae

Page 9

Neotropical Primates 1), March 1998

and Popov, 1981). However, plant productivity can be in-
dexed indirectly in a variety of ways; plant evapotranspi-
ration being the most accurate. Potential evapotranspira-
tion (PET) measures the potential amount of water re-
leased into the atmosphere through plant evaporation, res-
piration and transpiration. In the absence of data to com-
pute evapotranspiration, it has been suggested (Bagnouls
and Guassen, 1953; Walter and Leith, 1967) that the num-
ber of months where precipitation (P), in millimeters, is
less than two times the mean annual temperature (t), in
degrees Celsius (P>2t) is an excellent substitute for PET.
This is shown by the high correlation between the two
measures (r2= 0.938, p = 0.00; Williamson, 1997). The
advantage of the P>2t index is that the data are readily

Seasonality of Gentry's phytogeographic regions
Gentry (1982) characterized the phytogeographic regions
in terms of plant species richness, (canopy trees and li-
anas; ephiphytes and palmettos). Clinebell et al. (1995)
further suggested that Neotropical tree and liana species'
richness are best explained by annual rainfall and rainfall
seasonality. In this analysis we characterized each of the
phytogeographic regions in terms of climate, with a view

SA p=0.1

3 600

400 NC M NA
0 .7 0.75 0.8 0.85 0.9 0.95
Rainfall Diversity (RDV)

Figure 2. The smallest platyrrhine species' body weight in each of the phy-
togeographic regions (Gentry, 1982), regressed against rainfall diversity
(RDV). CCCH = Cerrado/Caatinga/Chaco; AM = Amazonia; SA = South-
em Andes; MA = Middle America; NVC = Northern Venezuela/Colombia;
NA = Northern Andes; AF = Atlantic forest.

to predicting habitat productivity. There is also strong
evidence that insect abundance, and fruiting and leafing
phenology is highly correlated with rainfall seasonality
(Wolda, 1978; Terborgh, 1983; Poulin et al., 1992).

Weather stations from a worldwide climatic data source
(Wernstedt, 1972) were chosen for each of the phytogeo-
graphic regions. They were selected focusing on the sam-
pling areas in each region around known field study sites
where the primates are known to live. Mean values for the
climatic variables were then calculated for each of the
phytogeographic regions.
Many of the primates occur in more than one phytogeo-
graphic region. These regions of overlap were considered
as discrete sub-regions. Those species in the overlapping
sub-regions were considered to be at the limits of their
distribution, and therefore assumed to be in the most eco-
logically constrained part of their range. In support of this
approach, it has been suggested (Strier, 1992), that one
way to further distinguish between the effects of seasonal-
ity on dietary strategies (and by inference body size), is to
examine data on sympatric taxa. The same climatic vari-
ables were recorded for the regions of overlap.
The following climatic variables were recorded from each
of the weather stations; mean annual temperature (C);
mean annual rainfall (mm), number of months with less
than 50 mm (mo<50); the number of months where mean
monthly rainfall (mm) was greater than twice the mean
monthly temperature (C); and (P 2t). Two indices of rain-
fall diversity were calculated. The first index was Z
(Simpson's index of rainfall diversity). Simpson's is an
index of the proportional distribution of total rainfall across
the 12 months of the year, and varies from Z = 0 (com-
pletely uneven) to Z = 1 (completely even). Simpson's
index of diversity (Peet, 1974), which is derived from the
species diversity literature (Magurran, 1988), has been
questioned (Bronikowski and Webb, 1996; but see
Williamson and Dunbar, in press), since it does not take
dry months into account. There is as yet no single cli-
matic index applicable across all habitat types. Some in-
dices provide insufficient variance between values of the

Page 10

Table 3. The smallest species for each weight category, rainfall diversity (RDV) and mean annual temperature for
each of Gentry's (1982) phytogeographic regions. P values and r2 values listed for weight category versus RDV
Phytogeographic Body weight categories (g)
< 500 600-1000 1000-1500 1500-2500 2500-3300 3300-6400 6400-11000
AM 128.0 807.0 1004.0 1732.0 3165.0 6200.0 7621.0
AF 246.0 1933.0 1004.0 2675.0 5362.0 10788.0
CCCH 246.0 607.0 1004.0 2171.5 5702.0 *
MA 420.5 955.0 3267.0 6250.0 7833.0
NVC 420.5 955.0 1065.5 2675.0 6400.0 8605.0
NA 490.0 955.0 1303.5 2675.0 7621.0
SA 955.0 2675.0 6400.0 7042.5
Diet*** I, Fr, G I, Fr, Pr, ScFr ScFr ScFr Fol Fr, Fol
p values 0.001 0.01 0.04 ** 0.5 0.28 0.81
r2 0.87 0.62 0.93 ** 0.28 0.20 0.06
* No species of that weight category for that particular phytogeographic region.
** No statistical tests conducted.
S* I = insectivore, Fr = frugivore, G = gummivore, ScFr = sclerocarpic-frugivore, Fol = folivore, Pr = vertebrate

Neotropical Primates 6(l), March 1998

Neotropical Primates 6(1), March 1998

seasonality index for statistical tests; for example, when
rainfall is very low or even. We used, therefore, the index
of the temporal distribution (RDV) of rainfall (Williamson,
1997). RDV is calculated by finding the difference be-
tween all possible pair-wise comparisons of the 12 mean
monthly rainfall values, then finding the mean of these
differences. This statistic is based on the exact random-
ization test (Sokal and Rohlf, 1981; p.788). RDV records
the opposite of Z, a high value indicates a more seasonal
environment, a low value a less seasonal environment.
The climate data for the regions and overlapping regions
is shown in Table 2.

Body weight categories

We divided the platyrrhines into body weight categories
that would reflect finer-grained dietary adaptations, since
body size and dietary quality are related (Fleagle, 1988;
Anapol and Lee, 1994). To test whether rainfall seasonal-
ity has an effect on the geographic distribution of platyr-
rhines, the smallest species was chosen for each of the
seven body weight categories, for each of Gentry's regions
(Table 3). The smallest species were selected since they
would be expected to be more constrained in their distri-
bution, and because small species they are less able to
buffer themselves against unpredictable food availability
in fluctuating environments.


Initial diagnostic Spearman rank correlations showed RDV
to be the only climatic variable significantly correlated
with body weight, so only those results will be presented

Table 4. Genera inhabiting each phytogeographic region, and those occu-
pying regions overlapping phytogeographic regions. MA = Middle America;
NA = Northern Andes; NVC = Northern Venezuela-Colombia; SA = South-
erm Andes; AM = Amazonia; AF = Atlantic Forest; CCCH = Cerrado/
Phytogeographic Genera
MA Saguinus, Aotus, Saimiri, Cebus, Alouatta, Ateles
NA Saguinus, Aotus, Callicebus, Cebus, Alouatta, Ateles,
NVC Saguinus, Aotus, Callicebus, Saimiri, Cebus, Alouatta,
SA Aotus, Callicebus, Cebus, Alouatta, Lagothrix
AM Cebuella, Callithrix, Saguinus, Aotus, Callicebus,
Saimiri, Cebus, Pithecia, Chiropotes, Cacajao,
Alouatta, Ateles, Lagothrix
AF Callithrix, Leontopithecus, Callicebus, Cebus,
Alouatta, Brachyteles
CCCH Callithrix, Aotus, Callicebus, Cebus, Alouatta
Overlapping regions
CCCH/AF Callithrix, Callicebus, Cebus, Alouatta
CCCHIAM Callithrix, Aotus, Callicebus, Cebus, Alouatta
AF/AM Callithrix, Callicebus, Cebus, Alouatta
AM/NA Saguinus, Aotus, Callicebus, Saimiri, Cebus,
Alouatta, Ateles
AM/SA Aotus, Callicebus, Cebus, Alouatta, Lagothrix
AM/NVC Saguinus, Aotus, Saimiri, Cebus, Alouatta, Ateles
NA/MA Saguinus, Aotus, Cebus, Alouatta
NA/NVC Saguinus, Aotus, Callicebus, Cebus, Alouatta, Ateles
NA/NVC Saguinus, Aotus, Saimiri, Cebus, Alouatta, Ateles

Page 11

Body weight relationships with climate

The body weight of the smallest species in each of the
seven phytogeographic regions was positively correlated
with RDV (r2 = 0.70, F = 2.19, p = 0.01), (Fig. 2). The
regions containing the smallest species had the most even
spread of rainfall (low RDV, or non-seasonal environ-
Body weight categories were regressed against RDV (Table
3, Fig. 3). As body weight increases, the significance level
of the regression slope decreases (Table 3), being non-
significant from the 2300 g category and upwards (Figs.
3: D, E. and F.). The most highly significant regression is
that for the category <500g (r2 = 0.87, p = 0.001). This
corresponds to "Kay's threshold" (Kay, 1975) which de-
fines the boundary between insectivorous (<500g) and
folivorous primates (>500g).


This study suggests that rainfall seasonality acts as a se-
lective force on the distribution of body weights in Neo-
tropical primates. The results of this study summarize what
has already been suggested by other authors (for example,
Cristoffer, 1987; Ross, 1992; Kinzey, 1994), that the adap-
tive morphological changes in body size are affected by
environmental factors. In this paper we have analyzed in
detail how environmental factors characterize rainfall sea-
sonality and hence habitat productivity in each of Gentry's
phytogeographic regions.

The most important result presented in this paper is the
very significant effect that rainfall seasonality has on the
geographic boundaries of the smallest species and how, in
very seasonal habitats, only larger platyrrhines are found.
Species' with body weights of less than 500g can only be
distributed in the Amazonian region, which has a ten-
dency to be less seasonal, favoring year-round food avail-

The smallest body weight category plotted against rain-
fall seasonality (RDV) (Fig. 3: A; Table 3), has the most
highly significant regression slope of all the body weight
categories (r2 = 0.87, p = 0.001). This result corresponds
to "Kay's threshold" (Kay 1975, 1984), and applies to the
entire Order Primates. Smaller animals require a higher
protein content in their diet, and therefore have a higher

Table 5. Mean body weights for each of the platyrrhine genera.
Genus Mean weight (g)
Alouatta 6500.92
Aotus 942.75
Ateles 7820.75
Brachyteles 10787.5
Cacajao 3165
Callicebus 1086.58
Callimico 585
Callithrix 279.88
Cebuella 128
Cebus 2704
Chiropotes 2807.5
Lagothrix 7042.5
Leontopithecus 585.17

Page 12

basal metabolic rate (BMR), and consequently higher en-
ergetic needs (reviewed in Ford and Davis, 1992). Kay
(1984) stated that no primarily insectivorous primates
(>30-40% of their diet composed of insects) would weigh
more than 700g. Significantly, this body weight threshold
also correlates with twinning and monogamy (Dunbar,
1995a, 1995b), features only found in callitrichids. On
the other hand, for the middle-sized and larger platyr-
rhines (>1 kg), troop fragmentation appears to be a facul-
tative adjustment to food scarcity (Kinzey and
Cunningham, 1984).

Rosenberger (1992) suggested that small and large platyr-
rhines have overcome the problem of seasonality in two
different ways:

1. Smaller species, which require a high energy diet, will
shift to alternative food resources (e.g., gums or insects)



a 400

o 300


7 0.75 0. 0.85 0.9 0.95-
1 0.75 0.8 0.85 0.9 0.95


Neotropical Primates 6(1), March 1998

in the dry season when fruit is scarce. For example,
Saguinusfuscicollis switches from fruit to predominantly
nectar in the dry season (Terborgh and Stern, 1987), and
thus avoids competition with larger primates by feeding
on specialized resources (Garber, 1992). Alternatively
Peres (1989) suggests, that small species switch to differ-
ent feeding locations, where insects are more likely to be
concentrated in the dry season, such as gumlicks and knot-
holes. We need to be cautious, therefore, in suggesting
that resources for the smaller primates are fewer in the
dry season.

2. Larger platyrrhine primates have solved the problem of
seasonality with folivory. Leaves are available year-round,
although they are a low-quality food resource that requires
special adaptations to overcome the problems of its diges-
tion (Rosenberger, 1992). Large body size, an adaptation

600-1 O0Og

0.A 0.5 0.9 0.95



0.7 0.75 0.8 0.85 0.9 0.95 0.7 0.75 0.8 0.85



--- -- --- --- -- -- --- --- p-f-.2
6S> 6400 -
6200 -0-
6000 -
S 5400 -
0.7 0.75 0.8 0.85 0.9 0.95

*I 9500
B 9000
" 8500
M 7000

I I e i I I

- - 1~1z

0.75 0.8 0.85 0.9 0.95

Figure 3. The smallest platyrrhine primate in each of the body weight categories (see Table 3) in each phytogeographic region against rainfall diversity
(RDV). A. less than 500 g (dotted line indicates Kay's threshold); B. 600-1000 g; C. 1000-1500 g; D. 2500-3300 g; E. 3300-6400 g; F. 6400-11000 g.

0.9 0.95



Neotropical Primates 6(1), March 1998

to folivory, buffers against harsh seasonal habitats. This
is supported by recent discoveries of giant extinct
pitheciines (Hartwig, 1995; Hartwig and Cartelle, 1996),
weighing as much as 25 kg. Their extreme large size may
be an adaptation to competition for resources in a harsh
habitat, brought on by climate changes in the Pleistocene.
Low rainfall seasonality habitats evidently permit the sur-
vival of a wider variety of primate species, but there is a
need to understand better the environmental factors that
underlie the biogeographic distribution of species if we
are to devise effective conservation strategies.
We are grateful to Prof. R. Dunbar for his comments on
earlier drafts, to D. Tsivilis for assistance with scanning,
and to C. Lowen and C. Underwood for discussions on
the work in progress. R. Pastor-Nieto has a grant from
The National Council of Science and Technology of
Mexico (CONACYT). D. K. Williamson is grateful for
support from the Natural Environment Research Council
(NERC) and the Leverhulme Trust.
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Universidad Autonoma de Campeche, ECOMAT, Avenida
Universidad s/n, Campeche, Campeche, M6xico, and
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Benoit de Thoisy
Hugues Contamin
Squirrel monkeys, especially Saimiri sciureus and S.
boliviensis, are animal models widely used in biomedical
research; mainly in pharmacology, toxicology, cancerol-
ogy, nutrition, cardiovascular diseases and neurology
(Mittermeier et al., 1994). Numerous captive breeding
colonies have been established in different parts of the
world. However, reproduction of captive squirrel monkeys
is often inconsistent, giving rise to disappointing breed-
ing results. The aim of this article is to briefly present the
15-year-old colony of the Pasteur Institute of French
Guiana, emphasizing efforts to ensure the well-being of
the monkeys and, being a biomedical research institution,
the results obtained using this non-human primate model.
In 1978, The Pasteur Institute of French Guiana, belong-
ing to a network of international Pasteur Institutes, de-
cided to initiate a long-term research program on human
malaria. Although not the natural host of either Plasmo-
dium vivax or P falciparum, Saimiri sciureus was chosen
as a model because it is sensitive to experimental infec-
tion (Gysin, 1991). Moreover, squirrel monkeys naturally

Neotropical Primates 6(1), March 1998 Page 15

occur in French Guiana, and a captive colony maintained
under natural climate conditions appeared to have better
chances of obtaining good reproductive rates.
Establishment of the Colony
Three phenotypes, belonging to two squirrel monkey spe-
cies (Hershkovitz, 1984), were acquired for the establish-
ment of the colony: two phenotypes of Saimiri s. sciureus
(Gothic type), one from Guianas and the other from Bra-
zil, and the Bolivian squirrel monkey, Saimiri boliviensis
(Roman type). Most of them were wild caught from
Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana and northeastern Bra-
zil, although a few were bought in the USA.
The colony is organized into three areas in two distinct
locations: inside the confines of the Pasteur Institute in
Cayenne, where the main captive breeding colony is main-
tained, and on the "Ilet-La-Mere", a 56-ha, wooded is-
land just offshore from Cayenne. On the island, a part of
the monkey population is held in captivity in a supple-
mentary breeding colony, whilst the rest are free-ranging.
Three factors determined the use of the island. The "Ilet-
La-MWre" permitted the establishment of a semi-wild
colony, where animals for experimentation or reproduc-
tion needs could be obtained by trapping. The isolation
from wild monkey populations and animal dealers is to-
day considered to be fundamental, both for conservation
and health reasons. The island should also give the op-
portunity to release into a controlled environment post-
experiment monkeys and old breeders. This isolated colony
could also represent a reserve in case of a dramatic epi-
demic in Cayenne, and would permit the re-establishment
of the captive colony within a few years without recourse
to the capture of wild monkeys and a consequent long-
term disruption of research programs.
Current Situation
At the end of 1996, the entire colony was comprised of
1,060 squirrel monkeys: 770 and 110 in the Cayenne and
island colonies, respectively, and 180 free-ranging. To-
day all captive monkeys are S. s. sciureus from the Guianas
due to their much better breeding performance, and the
two other types of squirrel monkeys have been progres-
sively released onto the island. The infrastructure at Cay-
enne consists of large outside cages where breeding moth-
ers and young are kept. There are indoor cages for mon-
keys destined for experimental purposes, and monkeys used
in the various malaria protocols are maintained in indi-
vidual cages in a separate room. Three airtight rooms are
reserved for HTLV and Hepatitis C-infected monkeys. On

Table 1. Main characteristics of the captive population of the captive squir-
rel monkey colony of the Pasteur Institute in Cayenne, French Guiana.
n Male:Female Young':Adult Captive-born Mortality
1986 475 2:3 4.5:10 17% 75 (16%)
19912 701 1:2 4.1:10 29% 91(13%)
19963 879 1:1 4.2:10 87% 49 (5.52%)
< 3 year-old.
260 wild monkeys were introduced in the colony in 1987.
360 monkeys were sold and left the colony in 1992.

the island, the infrastructure is restricted to large outside
cages for breeders and young.
The Breeding Colony
The French Guianan colony of S. sciureus is today prob-
ably one of the largest in the world. The colony was estab-
lished 18 years ago, and records from 1986, 1991 and
1996 highlight its growth and the overall improvement in
breeding (Tables 1 and 2). Most of the monkeys are now
captive-born, 65% of births in 1996 produced F2 infants
(born from captive-born parents, parents of which were
caught in the wild), and for the first time a small number
(3%) of F3 births. Interestingly, a birth peak (observed in
free-ranging squirrel monkeys) was noticeable during the
first ten years of the Cayenne colony, but has gradually
disappeared. In 1991, a birth peak was still evident
(Moisson and Gysin, 1992), but has not been observed in
recent years. Seasonality is recorded, however, in the cap-
tive squirrel monkeys on the island, and is the only differ-
ence in the breeding performances of the two captive colo-
nies (Cayenne and Iet). In general, there has been an over-
all decrease in mortality, with a change in the causes of
death. Infection-related deaths decreased from 22% in
1991 to 4% in 1996. In 1991, 11% of deaths were related
to experimentation, whereas by 1996 this proportion had
increased to 18%. It should be noted that this slight in-
crease reflects a better control of other causes of mortal-
ity, mainly infections, rather than an increase in death
related to experimentation. At present, infant mortality
(new-born, <1 week old), is the major contributor to the
mortality statistics (40%). Deaths are otherwise the re-
sults of accidental injuries, reproductive pathologies and
old age.
The Wild Population on the "Ilet-La-Mire"
This island was colonized during XVIIIth and XIXth cen-
turies by Jesuits, and later was the site of the famous French
Guianan convict prison. Jesuits deforested most of the is-
land and introduced fruit trees, such as Spondias mombin
(Anacardiaceae), mangos (Mangifera indica,
Anacardiaceae), and guavas (Psidium goyava, Myrtaceae).
Today with the exception of two small Schizachyrium sa-
vanna areas, the vegetation is characterized by a mixed
community of non-deciduous trees with a high floristic
diversity (Alexandre, 1983), thus providing fruits year-
round. Since 1981, the island has been legally protected
by local decrees prohibiting hunting and restricting ac-
cess. Initially there were no mammals on the island. Some
rodents, rats, agoutis (Dasyprocta agouti) and acouchis
(Myoprocta acouchi) were introduced and have since
thrived. The primate population includes mostly squirrel
monkeys together with some pairs of night monkeys (Aotus

Table 2. Breeding results of the captive squirrel monkey colony.
Reproductive Viable Fecundity Fertility Young still
females births alive at weaning
1986 164 46 28% 32% 65%
1991 266 125 47% 53% 93%
1996 272 149 55% 61% 87%

Neotropical Primates 6(l), March 1998

Page 15

Pag 16Norpcl rmts61, Mac 19

trivirgatus) released by the Pasteur Institute in the early
1980s. Observations of the night monkey groups are in-
frequent, but they are estimated to number less than 20 or
30 individuals, including young. There is an absence of
competitors of the squirrel monkeys. A total of 170 were
introduced in 1981 and more than 150 were released dur-
ing the following years. From this population, 60 animals
were captured and taken back to Cayenne. A recent sur-
vey (Louguet et al., 1997) indicated that 180 squirrel
monkeys currently inhabit the island. This is not a single
population, however. It is divided into two distinct sub-
populations which interact very infrequently. Half of the
squirrel monkeys, although free-ranging are not wild. They
are completely dependent on the provision of artificial
dietary supplements twice a day, and their home range is
restricted to 2-3 ha around the site of the captive colony.
The other monkeys live in four groups occupying the for-
ested area. Most of the adult females are breeding and we
believe that the population may now have reached a nu-
merical threshold due to limited food resources. The popu-
lation density is, however, comparable to those observed
in natural habitats on the continent. The main eco-etho-
logical patterns of the free-ranging population are com-
parable to those observed in secondary forests elsewhere
(Louguet et al., 1997).
The Role of Saimiri sciureus at the Pasteur Institute of
French Guiana
The aim of the colony is to maintain squirrel monkeys for
biomedical research, especially as a model for human
malaria. In general, the females are kept for reproduc-
tion, and it is mostly the four-year-old males which are
used in the research programs. Sixty to 70 naive monkeys
are available for experimentation each year. Ninety-five
percent of the monkeys are involved in the various human
malaria research protocols, and are not sacrificed. Anti-
Plasmodium treatments, when required, are efficient, and
as a consequence the monkeys recover fully. After vary-
ing periods of experimental use, the monkeys are re-inte-
grated into the colonies as breeders. Programs studying
the physiology and physiopathology of squirrel monkeys
are receiving increasing importance (Contamin et al., sub-
mitted). Some other research programs have also been
initiated recently. They include the use of the squirrel
monkeys as a model for HTLV (Kazanji et al., 1997) and
Hepatitis-C. Scientific collaboration in vaccinology, pa-
thology, parasitology, genetic and cytogenetic studies are
ongoing or planned with other Pasteur Institutes and bio-
medical research institutions.
Once or twice a year, the Pasteur Institute opens its doors
for public visitation, including even part of the island.
This represents a valuable means by which the Pasteur
Institute can explain its various biomedical research pro-
grams to the local people, many of whom are strongly

concerned with the problems of malaria in French Guiana.
Lectures are given about the colony, squirrel monkey bi-
ology, and the importance of biomedical research.
It is important to emphasize some of the difficulties in
maintaining the colonies. The large, outdoor colony re-
duces cost, but renders difficult the strict application of
recommendations and guidelines proposed for the keep-
ing of monkeys for biomedical research. Nevertheless, the
success of this colony is shown by its good breeding record,
its importance internationally in its contributions to re-
search on malaria, and the increasing role of squirrel
monkeys as a primate model for retroviral studies.
The preliminary results on the performance of the Pasteur
Institute breeding colony could not have been highlighted
without the important work carried out by the successive
veterinarians who have contributed so much to the well-
being of the monkeys and the improvement of their living
conditions, most especially: J. Gysin, J.-M. Postal, P.
Moisson, J.-C. Vid, and B. Bonnemains. We also thank
Gordon Langsley for help with the English version of this
Benoit de Thoisy and Hugues Contamin, Institut Pas-
teur de Guyane, Service de Primatologie, BP 6010, 97306
Cayenne cedex, French Guiana.
Alexandre, D.-Y. 1983. Premiers aperqus sur la v6g6tation
de I'Ilet-La-MWre. Unpublished report, ORSTOM, Cay-
Contamin, H., Behr, C., Puijalon, 0. and Michel, J.-C.
Submitted. The Guyanan squirrel monkey (Saimiri
sciureus): a model for studying some clinic pathological
changes associated with human falciparum-malaria.
Gysin, J. 1991. Relevance of the squirrel monkey as a
model for experimental human malaria. Res. Immunol.
Hershkovitz, P. 1984. Taxonomy of squirrel monkeys ge-
nus Saimiri (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): A preliminary re-
port with description of a hitherto unnamed form. Am.
J. Primatol. 7:155-210.
Kazanji, M., Moreau, J-P., Mahieux, R., Bonnemains, B.,
Bomford, R., A. Gressain and de The, G. 1997. HTLV-
A infection in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) us-
ing autologous, homologous, or heterologous HTLV-1-
transformed cell lines. Virology 231(2):258-266.
Louguet 0., Bayart, F. and de Thoisy, B. 1997. Adapta-
tions 6cologiques et comportementales d'une population
de singes-6cureuils sur I'llet-la-Mere en Guyane
Frangaise. Congress Soci6t6 Francophone de
Primatologie, Lyon, France.
Mittermeier R. A., Konstant, W. R. and Mast, R. B. 1994.
Use of Neotropical and Malagasy primate species in bio-
medical research. Am. J. Primatol. 34:73-80.
Moisson P. and J. Gysin, J. 1992. Reproductive perfor-

Page 16

Neotropical Primates 1), March]998

Neotropical Primates 6(1), March 1998

mances and pathologies statements in a breeding colony
of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus). In: Abstracts.
XIVth Congress of the International Primatological So-
ciety, pp.296-297. Strasbourg, France, 16-21 August,

Urbano L. Bobadilla
Stephen E Ferrari
The Xingu-Tocantins interfluvium has been the principal
focus of development in eastern Amazonia over the past
three decades, with the building of the TransAmazon high-
way, the Carajds mining project, construction of the
Tucuruf hydroelectric dam, and the establishment of cattle
ranching in its southern half, currently the principal loca-
tion of land conflicts in Brazilian Amazonia. Endemic to
this interfluvium (Hershkovitz, 1985), Uta Hick's bearded
saki, Chiropotes satanas utahicki, was assigned the Mace-
Lande category of 'vulnerable' by Rylands et al. (1996),
based on criterion Al(c): a decline in area of occupancy,
extent of occurrence and/or quality of habitat. This clearly
reflects the overall situation within this primate's distri-
bution, but, with the exception of a small number of more
general surveys (see Ferrari and Lopes, 1996), there are
no specific data on the status of wild populations.
With this in mind, C. s. utahicki was the focus of a study
at two locations, the Ferreira Penna Scientific Station
(ECFPn) (0142'S, 5128'W) in the Caxiuand National
Forest, and the Fazenda Aratati (03*50'S, 5020'W) (Fig.
1). They were chosen in order to assess the effects of hu-
man colonisation on C. s. utahicki populations. Surveys
were carried out at these sites between January and Octo-
ber, 1996. While primary terra fire forest predominates
at both, the 33,000 ha ECFPn is contiguous with the re-
maining 300,000 ha of the Caxiund National Forest, a
protected area that suffers only very low levels of human
encroachment, while in contrast the 7,000 ha forest re-
serve on the Fazenda Aratad has not only been isolated
from surrounding forest for some twenty years, but has

Page 17

also been selectively logged.
Data were collected using standard line-transect survey
methods (Brockelman and Ali, 1986). A total of 532.9
km were surveyed at the ECFPn, covering both rainy (Janu-
ary to April) and dry seasons (September and October),
whereas 101.3 km were surveyed at the Fazenda Aratad
during the late wet/early dry season (May to August).
The two surveys revealed some surprising contrasts be-
tween the two study sites (Table 1) which, in many re-
spects, were the opposite of the pattern that would be ex-
pected according to the ecological characteristics of each
species. Black-handed tamarins (S. m. niger) normally
prefer disturbed and/or secondary forest, for example
(Oliveira, 1996), even at Caxiuana (Ferrari and Lopes,
1996), but they were nevertheless sighted more than twice
as frequently at ECFPn than at the Fazenda Aratad. While
bearded sakis are thought to be highly intolerant of habi-
tat disturbance (Johns and Ayres, 1987), on the other hand,
the sighting rate for C. s. utahicki at the Fazenda Aratad
was almost twenty times higher than that at Caxiuana.
C. s. utahicki groups were slightly larger at the ECFPn
(mean size 9.3 individuals, n = 7 sightings) in compari-
son with the Fazenda Arataul (mean size 6.9 individuals,
n = 24), but both values fall within the range for Chiropotes
recorded in previous studies (Ayres, 1981; Branch, 1983;
Lopes, 1993), and there is little to suggest any significant
tendency with regard to this variable, especially given the
sample size.
The ECFPn survey not only covered the longest total dis-
tance of any carried out so far in an area inhabited by
bearded sakis, but also encompassed a range of different
months. It thus seems reasonable to conclude that the num-
ber of sightings recorded is a reliable indication of an enig-
matically low density of C. s. utahicki at this site. While
the survey at the Fazenda Arataul was much shorter, a simi-
lar study carried out in January 1996 also indicated that
bearded sakis were relatively abundant there (A. F. P.
Nunes, pers. comm.).
The reasons for such a striking difference in the apparent
abundance of C. s. utahicki at the two sites remain un-
clear, but one factor may be the high density of babaqu
(Orbignya martiana) palms at the Fazenda Arataui, the
fruits of which were regularly eaten by the sakis. Although
the forest at the ECFPn may be among the most floristi-
cally diverse of eastern Amazonia (Almeida et al., 1983),

Table 1. Sightings of primates at the two study sites.
Species Sightings (per 10 km) at
ECFPNI Fazenda Aratai2
Alouatta belzebul belzebul 111(2.08) 10 (1.00)
Cebus apella apella 25 (0.47) 18 (1.78)
Chiropotes satanas utahicki 6 (0.11) 21(2,07)
Saguinus midas niger 59 (1.11) 5 (0.50)
Saimiri sciureus sciureus 4 (0.40)
Total 201 (3.77) 58 (5.73)
1 Total transect length = 532.9 km;
2 Total transect length = 101.3 km.

\-I Arata6l

Figure 1. Study sites mentioned in the text. The Ferreira Penna Scientific
Station (ECFPn) in the Caxiuana National Forest, municipality of Melgago,
and the Fazenda Aratad, municipality ofNovo Repartimento, Para, Brazil.

Page 18

certain characteristics of the Aratad forest may be more
beneficial specifically to C. s. utahicki (and perhaps also
to other taxa). Thus, while the Caxiuand National Forest
may be the most important protected area in the region,
effective conservation ofC. s. utahicki and possibly other
fauna may depend on the establishment of further re-
serves, and the development of effective alternative mea-
sures in other areas of the Xingu-Tocantins interfluvium.
Acknowledgments: This study was supported by the Goeldi
Museum/ECFPn and the Grupo Queiroz Galvao, and by
grants from WWF-US and the Brazilian Higher Educa-
tion Authority CAPES. We would also like to thank Olavo
Galvao, Luciano Tavares and Andrea Nunes.
Urbano L. Bobadilla, Departamento de Psicologia Ex-
perimental, Universidade Federal do Para, 66075-150
Belhm, Pard, Brazil, e-mail: , and
Stephen F. Ferrari, Departamento de Gen6tica,
Universidade Federal do Pard, 66075-150 Bel6m, Para,
Brazil, e-mail: .
Ayres, J. M. C. 1981. Observaqoes sobre a Ecologia e o
Comportamento dos Cuxids (Chiropotes albinasus e
Chiropotes satanas, Cebidae, Primates). Masters disser-
tation, INPA/Fundagio Universidade de Amazonas,
Branch, L. C. 1983. Seasonal and habitat differences in
the abundance of primates in the Amazon (Tapaj6s)
National Park, Brazil. Primates 24:424-431.
Brockelman, W. Y. and Ali, R. 1987. Methods of survey-
ing and sampling forest primate populations. In: Pri-
mate Conservation in the Tropical Rain Forest, C. W.
Marsh and R. A. Mittermeier (eds.), pp.23-62. Alan R.
Liss, New York.
Ferrari, S. F. and Lopes, M.A. 1996. Primate populations
in eastern Amazonia. In: Adaptive Radiations of Neo-
tropical Primates, M. A. Norconk, A. L. Rosenberger
and P. A. Garber (eds.), pp.53-67. Plenum Press, New
Hershkovitz, P. 1985. A preliminary taxonomic review of
the South American bearded saki monkeys, genus
Chiropotes (Cebidae, Platyrrhini), with the description
of a new subspecies. Fieldiana, Zoology, New Series
(27):iii + 46.
Johns, A. D. and Ayres, J. M. 1987. Southern bearded
sakis beyond the brink. Oryx 21:164-167.
Lopes, M.A. 1993. Conservagdo do Cuxidi-Preto,
Chiropotes satanas satanas (Cebidae, Primates), e de
Outros Mamfferos na Amazonia Oriental. Masters dis-
sertation, Universidade Federal do Para, Bel6m.
Oliveira, A. C. M. 1996. Ecologia e Comportamento
Alimentar de um Grupo de Saguinus midas niger
(Callitrichidae, Primates) na Amaz6nia Oriental.
Master's dissertation, Universidade Federal do Pari,
Rylands, A. B., Mittermeier, R. A. and Rodrfguez-Luna,
E. 1996. A species list for the New World primates
(Platyrrhini): distribution by country, endemism, and

conservation status according to the Mace-Lande sys-
tem. Neotropical Primates, 3(suppl.): 113-160.


Brdz A. P Cosenza
Fabiano R. de Melo
Aguirre (1971) pointed to the Serra do Brigadeiro, in the
south-east of the state of Minas Gerais, as one of the few
localities where the muriqui,Brachyteles arachnoides, still
survives. Aguirre (1971) had suggested the existence of
50-60 individuals of B. arachnoides in a 2,400 ha forest
at Araponga. The exact localities proved impossible to
identify, and it was only in the last decade, that its contin-
ued occurrence in the region was confirmed, when a fe-
male juvenile was captured during surveys by the Centro
de Estudos Ecol6gicos e Educacgo Ambiental (CECO),
based at Carangola, Minas Gerais.
The Serra do Brigadeiro State Park (PESB), 13,210 ha,
was created by the State Government of Minas Gerais,
through the State Forestry Institute (IEF) on 27 Septem-
ber, 1996 (Fig. 1). The park covers part of the municipali-
ties of Ervilia, Fervedouro, Sericita, Araponga, Miradouro,

Figure 1: Location and limits (approximately between 42022'S and 4232'S,
and between 20'34'W and 2053'W) of the Serra do Brigadeiro State Park,
Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais, southeast Brazil. Note the four sampling areas.



0 2 4Km

Neotropical Primates 6(1), March 1998

Neotropical Primates 6(1), March 1998 Page 19

Pedra Bonita, Muria6 and Divino. The predominant veg-
etation in the past was tropical forest, part of the Atlantic
forest of Brazil. Today only fragments remain. In the
1960s, the Belgo-Mineira mining company cut the ma-
jority of the forests of the region to produce charcoal, and
today only 10% of the primary forests remain, the major-
ity of which is composed of secondary vegetation.
Faunal surveys were carried out in 1996/1997, involving
six expeditions and 25 days in the field. Censuses were
carried out along specific trails in four sampling areas
(Table 1). For three species, playback was used in order to
increase the chance of locating the groups. Tape record-
ings of the vocalizations of Callithrix geoffroyi, Callicebus
personatus and Brachyteles arachnoides were used at
regular intervals (Sony Walkman and audio amplifiers).
Four primate species were observed which had already
been recorded for the area (Callicebus personatus, Cebus
apella nigritus, Alouatta fusca, and Brachyteles
arachnoides), along with the first sightings of Callithrix
aurita. C. aurita had already been recorded in the vicinity
of the park in the municipality of Araponga (Cosenza,
1994; Fonseca et al., 1994). Two small groups (5 and 4
individuals, respectively) were seen in primary and sec-
ondary forest within the Fazenda Neblina. Both observa-
tions were made using playback, with the groups approach-
ing the observer, allowing accurate identification and group
counts. Population densities of the primates were esti-
mated from a single census in the Fazenda Neblina (Table
C. aurita was found to be rare, as was B. arachnoides the
most vulnerable species in the park. The low densities of
muriquis are undoubtedly associated with the widespread
deforestation and hunting pressure during the 1960s and
1970s. Annual visits to the Park since 1987 have allowed
us to identify two separate groups of muriquis, one with
27 individuals (no infants seen) in the Fazenda Brigadeiro
(Andrade, pers. comm.) and another with 15 individuals
in the Fazenda Neblina (Cosenza, 1993).

Callicebus personatus groups occur throughout the re-
maining forest patches, both primary and secondary, in
the Park. Group size varied from 2 to 5 and the titis are
evidently the species least affected by forest fragmenta-
tion and degradation. They are occasionally captured for
pets by local people. Two females have been sent to the
Rio de Janeiro Primate Center (CPRJ/FEEMA). The brown

Table 1: Species of primates, their occurrence at the different survey areas
and in different vegetation types in the Serra do Brigadeiro State Park, Minas
Species Census Areas' Vegetation Types2
Callithrix aurita i SF-PF
Callicebus personatus 1-2-3-4 S-SF-PF
Cebus apella nigritus 1-2-4 SF-PF
Alouattafusca 1-2-3-4 SF-PF
Brachyteles arachnoides 1-2 SF-PF
'Census areas: (1) Fazenda Neblina, (2) Fazenda Brigadeiro, (3) Ararica,
(4) Sgo Bento.
2 Vegetation types: (S) Scrub, (PF) Primary forest, (SF) Secondary forest.

Table 2 Estimated densities of primates in the Pazenda Neblina forest of
320 ha, Serra do Brigadeiro State Park, Minas Gerais.
Species Density (ind.ha)
Callithrix aurita 0.028
Callicebus personatus 0.103
Cebus apella nigritus 0.009
Alouatta fusca 0.075
Brachyteles arachnoides 0.018

howling monkey, Alouattafusca, was also observed with
some frequency, even though, after B. arachnoides, it is
the species suffering the highest hunting pressure. Al-
though Cebus apella nigritus was rarely seen during the
censuses, capuchin monkeys were the species most often
mentioned in interviews with local people.

The number of primate species in the Serra do Brigadeiro
State Park is very high when compared to other protected
areas in the Atlantic forest of Minas Gerais. Including, as
it does, four species (C. aurita, C. personatus, A. fusca
and B. arachnoides) listed as threatened in the IUCN Red
List of Threatened Animals (IUCN, 1996), as well as the
threatened species lists of Brazil (Fonseca et al., 1994)
and of the state of Minas Gerais (Lins et al., 1997), the
importance of the Serra do Brigadeiro State Park is un-
Acknowledgments: We thank Sdrgio L. Mendes and An-
thony B. Rylands for commenting on an earlier text. Our
thanks also for support from FAPEMIG (Fundo de Amparo
a Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais), and numerous
people who directly or indirectly helped us in field, most
especially Renato Neves Feio, Ronaldo Pereira and Lticio
S. Leoni.
Brfiz A. P. Cosenza, Centro de Estudos Ecol6gicos e
Educagdo Ambiental CECO, Departamento de Ciencias
da FAFILE/UEMG, Museu Municipal Sessdo de Hist6ria
Natural, Carangola, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and Fabiano
R. de Melo, Gen6tica e Melhoramento, Departamento de
Biologia Geral, Universidade Federal de Vigosa, Minas
Gerais, Brazil.
Aguirre, A. C. 1971. 0 mono Brachyteles arachnoides (E.
Geoffroy). Situagdo atual da Espicie no Brasil.
Academia Brasileira de Ci8ncias, Rio de Janeiro.
Consenza, B. A. P. 1993. Primatas do municipio de
Carangola. Boletim do Museu Municipal Sgrie
Zoologia, Carangola, Minas Gerais 1(1):1-17.
Consenza, B. A. P. 1994. Inventdrio de pequenos
manifferos do Parque Estadual da Serra do Brigadeiro.
Unpublished report, IERF/FAFILE, Carangola.
Fonseca, G. A. B. da, Rylands, A. B., Costa, C. M. R.,
Machado, R. B. and Leite, Y. L. R. (eds.). 1994. Livro
Vermelho dos Mamiferos Brasileiros Ameagados de
Extindo. Fundaqio Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte.
IUCN. 1996.1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals.
IUCN, Gland.
Lins, L. V., Machado, A. B. M., Costa, M. R. C. and
Herrmann, G. 1997. Roteiro Metodol6gico para

Neotropical Primates 6(l), March 1998

Page 19

Page 20 Neotropical Primates 6(1), March 1998

Elaboragdo de Listas de Esp6cies Ameagadas de
Extingdo, Contendo a Lista Oficial de Fauna Ameacada
de Extingao de Minas Gerais. PublicagSes Avulsas da
Fundacdo Biodiversitas (1): 50pp. Fundacgo
Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte.

Cldudio Arani Nunes
Jilio Cisar Bicca-Marques
Karin Schacht
Alice C. de Alencar Araripe
Predation on callitrichines is rarely observed
in the wild. Reports of predation by snakes
include, for example, those by Heymann
Projeto (1987) and Correa and Coutinho (1997).
Bigodeiro Other predators include raptors, tayras, and
ocelots (see Caine, 1993; Ferrari and Lopes Ferrari, 1990).
Since predation on these primates is not commonly wit-
nessed by researchers in the wild, anecdotal accounts may
be useful to evaluate its role in callitrichine social evolu-
tion (see Caine, 1993) as well as its impact on population
density. In this paper we report on the reaction of a black-
chinned emperor tamarin (Saguinus imperator imperator)
group on the proximity of a snake.
The incident (observed by the first author, C.A.N.) oc-
curred on 24 September, 1997, during a study on the cog-
nitive aspects of foraging decisions in S. i. imperator, S.
fuscicollis weddelli, and Callicebus cupreus cupreus at
the Zoobotanical Park of the Federal University of Acre
(UFAC), Brazil (956'30"-957'19"S, 6752'08"-
6753'00"; 100 ha), Rio Branco, state of Acre, Brazil. At
1209 h, an emperor tamarin group composed of four indi-
viduals'(one adult male AMA, one adult female PNK,
and two immature males BRA and LAR) arrived at feed-
ing station A. Each feeding station (totalling four) was
composed of eight visually identical feeding platforms (FP)
distributed in a circular arrangement. At 1214 h, follow-
ing BRA and PNK, respectively, AMA and LAR were
feeding on bananas at FP1 and FP7 when a snake (prob-
ably a Bothrops sp. measuring approximately 1.2 m)
climbed up FP2 and remained curled on the top. FP2 was
approximately 4.6 m distant from FP1, and 10.7 m dis-
tant from FP7 (Fig. 1). At 1216 h, AMA saw the snake
from FP1 and left the platform, emitted an alarm call from
an adjoining tree, and abandoned the feeding station, fol-
lowed by all other group members. LAR could not see the
snake from FP7 because there were two trees between it
and FP 2 (Fig. 1). About one minute after the tamarins
had left the feeding station, the snake went to the ground
and disappeared into the vegetation.
This single observation of an interaction between a po-
tential predator and the tamarins was made during ap-
proximately 4,000 hours of daily monitoring of the feed-
ing stations from September 1997 through January 1998.

Figure 1. Partial view of the feeding station showing the first author close
to the platform 1 (A). Feeding platforms 2 (B) and 7 (C) are also shown.
During this time two stable social groups and several soli-
tary emperor tamarins visited the feeding stations 986
times, involving more than 145 hours of observations.
Whether this case represents a predation attempt or not,
is impossible to affirm. However, the reaction of the tama-
rins would indicate it was.
Acknowledgments: The study is supported by the Fundagao
O Boticario de Proteg9o a Natureza, The John D. and
Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, the Fundo Mundial
para a Natureza-WWF, Brasil, the American Society of
Primatologists, the Center for Latin American and Carib-
bean Studies/University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,
S.O.S. Amaz6nia, the Brazilian Higher Education Au-
thority (CAPES), and the Parque Zoobotanico/UFAC.
Cliudio Arani Nunes, Projeto Bugio, Rua Rio de Janeiro
235, 89130-000 Indaial, Santa Catarina, Brazil, Jilio
Cisar Bicca-Marques, Department of Anthropology,
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 109 Daven-
port Hall, 607 S. Matthews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801,
USA, Karin Schacht, Projeto Bugio, Rua Rio de Janeiro
235, 89130-000 Indaial, Santa Catarina, Brazil, and Alice
C. de Alencar Araripe, Rua Pereira Sim6es 25, 53030-
060 Olinda, Pernambuco, Brazil.
Caine, N. G. 1993. Flexibility and co-operation as unify-
ing themes in Saguinus social organization and
behaviour: The role of predation pressures. In: Marmo-
sets and Tamarins: Systematics, Behaviour, and Ecol-
ogy, A. B. Rylands (ed.), pp.200-219. Oxford Univer-
sity Press, Oxford.
Correa, H. K. M. and Coutinho, P. E. G. 1997. Fatal at-
tack of a pit viper, Bothropsjararaca, on an infant buffy-
tufted-ear marmoset (Callithrix aurita). Primates 38:
Ferrari, S. F. and Lopes Ferrari, M. A. 1990. Predator
avoidance behaviour in the buffy-headed marmoset,
Callithrix flaviceps. Primates 31: 323-328.
Heymann, E. W. 1987. A field observation of predation
on a moustached tamarin (Saguinus mystax) by an ana-
conda. Int. J. Primatol. 8:193-195.

Page 20

Neotropical Primates 6(l), March 1998

Page 21

During a recent reorganization of the fluid collection of
the Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de
Janeiro, Brazil, I found a recipient with three callitrichid
specimens, two identified as Callithrix chrysoleuca
(MNRJ-43078, 43080) and a third as Saguinus labiatus
labiatus (MNRJ-43079). The labels did not have the
name(s) of the collectorss, but indicated only that all speci-
mens were obtained at the locality named "Mata do Acara,
State of Amazonas, Brazil". This area is located on the
right bank of the middle/lower Rio Madeira, a few kilo-
meters below the mouth of the Igarap6 Acard (= Igarap6
AuarA), 0356'S, 59038'W (Fig. 1). Theoretically, only
C. chrysoleuca should occur in this region, which is near
to Borba, the type locality of the species. S. labiatus
labiatus is known only from the Madeira-Purus
Due to the proximity of this area with the Rio Madeira it
is probable that the collectors) travelled to some point on
the left bank of that river, in a stretch of non-flooded for-
est, to obtain the tamarin. Alternatively it was purchased
or otherwise obtained on the right bank from somebody
keeping it as a pet, but originated from the left bank. It
would seem improbable that this record represents an en-
clave population of S. labiatus in the geographical distri-
bution of C. chrysoleuca, and if it does it is unlikely that
it is syntopic; the moustached tamarins and the marmo-
sets being so similar ecologically.
Acknowledgments: To Joao Alves de Oliveira and Maria
Alexandra Ramos Bezerra who gave me access to these
Saguinus and Callithrix specimens in the Museu Nacional,
Rio de Janeiro. To Andrea Portela Nunes and Diego Asttia
de Moraes for reviewing the text.
Jose de Sousa e Silva Jinior, Departamento de Zoologia,
Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Caixa Postal 399, 66040-
170 Bel6m, Pard, Brasil. Current address: Laborat6rio de

Figure 1. The collecting locality of Saguinus labiatus labiatus and
Callithrix chrysoleuca recorded in the Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro.

Vertebrados, Departamentos de Ecologia e de Gen6tica,
CCS, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal
68020, 21941-970 Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

O Program de Conservaqao para o Mico-Leao-Dourado,
Leontopithecus rosalia, iniciou em dezembro a
implantacgo de corredores agroflorestais em fazendas
particulares, corn o intdito de aumentar a area florestal
disponivel para os micos-leoes reintroduzidos e tamb6m,
de diversificar a produrao em tais areas. Este projeto,
coordenado pela Associaqao Mico-Leao-Dourado, vem
sendo financiado pelo PD/A o Programa Demonstrativo
- Categoria "A" do Programa Piloto para ProteqAo das
Florestas Tropicais do Brasil (um program corn
financiamento externo criado pelo Minist6rio do Meio
Ambiente, principalmente para a Amaz6nia mas incluindo
uma parcela para a Mata Atlantica) desde agosto de 1996,
quando foram implantados corredores experimentais
dentro da Reserva Biol6gica de Poco das Antas. 0 modelo,
cujos resultados tern sido positives, esti sendo usado como
parcela demonstrative para incentivar os proprietirios
particulares a adotarem o mesmo sistema. 0 primeiro
corredor, corn cerca de 300 metros de comprimento,
passari por uma area de pastagem ligando dois fragments
de matas quejA tern grupos de micos, sendo um na Fazenda
Santa Helena e outro na Fazenda Vale dos Cedros, ambas
de antigos colaboradores do Programa de Reintroducgo
que estdo, inclusive, nos fornecendo a mao-de-obra para
implantacgo destes corredores. 0 Coordenador deste
projeto 6 o agr6nomo Alexandre Jos6 Vieira, da Associacqo
Mico-Leao-Dourado, Caixa Postal 109.968, Casimiro de
Abreu, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, e-mail: micoleao @ax.apc.org.
Denise Marpal Rambaldi, Associacgo Mico-Ledo
Dourado, Caixa Postal 109.968, 28860-970 Casimiro de
Abreu, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

O seguinte 6 um resumo de uma palestra apresentada no
VIII Congresso Brasileiro de Primatologia e V Reuniao
Latino-Americana de Primatologia, Jodo Pessoa, Parafba,
Brasil, 10-15 de agosto de 1997.
O avanqo dos estudos em sistemitica e biogeografia
envolvendo primates neotropicais, especialmente os tAxons
que ocorrem na Regiao Amazonica, ainda esti seriamente
comprometido pela deficiencia de dados bdsicos. 0
esclarecimento das relacges de parentesco entire os
membros da maioria dos grupos ainda esbarra na falta de
compreensdo global da diversidade, corn taxons
permanecendo por serem descritos e variagoes geogrdficas
por serem acuradamente interpretadas. Al6m do mais, em
sua maioria, as distribuig~es geogrAficas potenciais sao
mal delineadas, ignorando-se como grupos aparentados

Neotropical Primates 6(l), March 1998

Pag 2Netoca Prmae 6() arh19

se comportam, em terms de relag6es mdtuas, nas bordas
de suas areas de ocorrencia. Apesar de haver um
conhecimento relative do papel desempenhado pelos rios
e descontinuidades de paisagem na determinacao de limits
de distribuiq6es geogrificas e dos mecanismos envolvidos
nos processes de especiagao a isto associados, esta 6 uma
area do conhecimento que ainda carece de um corpo de
dados mais consistent. Isto term se refletido nas
dificuldades de se determinar Areas de endemismo, que
deveriam funcionar como unidades geogrificas operates
em biogeografia hist6rica e como fonte de orientagao para
estrat6gias de conservacgo. Estas dificuldades tem
frequentemente levado a tomada de decisoes com base em
ausencia de provas. Coleg6es de amostras quantitativas
ainda sao necessdrias para a maioria dos tixons. Contudo,
os principals problems se referem ao estabelecimento de
amostras qualitativas, que deverao ser coligidas a partir
da determinagao de Areas geograficas prioritArias para a
conduqao de novas investigagoes.
Jose de Sousa e Silva Juinior, Departamento de Zoologia,
Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Caixa Postal 399, 66040-
170 Bel6m, Pard, Brasil, e Laborat6rio de Vertebrados,
Departamentos de Ecologia e de Gen6tica, CCS,
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal
68020, 21941-970 Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

The third edition of the European Endangered Species
Programme (EEP) studbook for the cotton top tamarin,
Saguinus oedipus, was published in September 1997. It
was compiled by Michael Schripel, Vice Director of
Magdeburg Zoo and EEP Coordinator for the species. The
first two editions (1995, 1996) gave both a historical and
current survey of the captive populations. The third (1997)
edition gives only the demographic changes (births, deaths
and transfers) during the period 1 January 1996 to 31
December 1996. Although some collections did not con-
tribute to this studbook, it contains data on 1980 cotton-
tops. On 31 December 1996, there were 534 live tamarins
registered (243.225.66), with a sex ratio of 1:0.9, in 82
European zoos and institutions which contributed. The
population has been increasing since 1990, although the
growth rate is slowing and has been very low in the past
few years. Over the last 10 years, changes in the popula-
tion have been largely due to births and deaths, with im-
ports and exports being infrequent. The oldest living cot-
ton top is a male of 20 years. The mortality rate of neo-
nates is high and the net reproductive rate has decreased
from 3.1 for males and females in 1987-1991 to 2.3 for
males and 2.0 for females in 1992-1996. Analyses in the
studbook provide information on the total captive popula-
tion as from 1965, population growth trends (lambda val-
ues), the crude demography (deaths, births and transfers),
age pyramid, mortality, generation structure and number,
inbreeding coefficients, fecundity and birth seasonality.

The studbook also includes a full list of participants in the
Michael Schroipel, Zoologischer Garten Magdeburg, Am
Vogelgesang 12, D-39124 Magdeburg, Germany.
Schr6pel, M. 1997. EEP Studbook for Cotton-top Tama-
rin (Saguinus oedipus). 3rd edition (changes during
1996). September 1997. Zoologischer Garten
Magdeburg, Magdeburg.

O Centro Nacional de Primatas (CENP), Belem, Pard, foi
criado em 15 de margo de 1978, atrav6s da Portaria Min-
isterial n 115 para tender convenio celebrado entire o
Minist6rio da Sadde, Minist6rio da Agricultura,
Organizagao Panamericana da Saidde e a Organizaqco
Mundial da Sadde, com o objetivo principal de criar e
reproduzir primatas nao humans, sob condig6es
controladas, para apoiar investigacges biom6dicas
desenvolvidas no Brasil e no exterior e assegurar a
preservagqo das esp6cies. Ao CENP compete: 1) planejar
e executar polftica de desenvolvimento de pesquisas
cientificas voltadas para as popular6es de primatas nao
humans do Brasil; II) proporcionar o suprimento
necessArio as pesquisas no campo das cincias da satide,
III) assegurar a preservacgo das esp6cies; IV) estudar os
aspects relacionados com a ecologia, biologia e patologia
das esp6cies de primatas, com 6nfase nos seguintes pontos;
a) realizar pesquisas de campo para determinar o estado
atual das populacoes de primatas e sua dinamica; b)
pesquisa de campo para determinar as Areas geogrificas
mais susceptfveis A capture, protegendo esses habitats, sem
que as populacoes corram risco de extermifnio; c) avaliar
os efeitos do impact das situaqges ecol6gicas sobre os
habitats dos primatas; d) realizar estudos para
determinaqgo e implantaqAo das col6nias de primatas para
a reproduqdo em cativeiro e sua utilizagAo em pesquisas
cientfficas; e) capacitacgo de recursos humans nas areas
de biologia, patologia, bacteriologia, parasitologia e outras
relacionadas ao campo da primatologia, f) proporcionar
condigbes para realizaqdo de pesquisas nacionais e
estrangeiras que envolvam primatas nao humans, g)
promover intercambio com centros similares no exterior
e h) criar subcentros regionais no pafs, com as mesmas
finalidades, indicadas anteriormente.
As pesquisas desenvolvidas no Centro Nacional de
Primatas incluem: estudo de filarioses de macacos;
elaboragdo de dieta para macacos mantidos em cativeiro;
avaliagAo reprodutiva das esp6cies; estudo comportamental
em cativeiro; e a avaliagao clfnico-laboratorial
(parasitol6gico-bacteriol6gico). As instituig6es que
desenvolvem pesquisas que utilizam material e/ou animals
do CENP: a) Instituto Evandro Chagas, Bel6m (malaria,
arboviroses, sarampo, schistosomose, leshimanioses, vi-
roses e outras), b) Universidade Federal do Pard, Bel6m

Page 22

Neotropical Primates 1), March 1998

Neotropical Primates 6(1), March 1998

(gen6tica de primatas nao humans, estudo do sistema
nervoso central, estudo da visao), c) Instituto Rene6
Rachoux, Pernambuco, d) Instituto Aggeu Magalhdes,
Minas Gerais, e) Instituto Osvaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro,
e f) National Institutes of Health, EUA.
Atualmente o Centro Nacional de Primatas possue um
plantel de aproximadamente 300 animals, pertencentes
as seguintes esp6cies: Aotus azarai, Callithrix
humeralifera, C. argentata, C. jacchus, Callithrix aff.
emiliae, C. penicillata, Callicebus moloch, C. torquatus,
Saguinus midas midas, S. m. niger, S. imperator, S.
fuscicollis weddelli, Alouatta belzebul belzebul, Cebus
apella, C. olivaceus, C. albifrons, Cercopithecus aethiops,
Saimiri ustus, S. sciureus, Chiropotes satanas utahicki,
Pithecia irrorata, e Ateles chamek.
Centro Nacional de Primatas, BR 316 Km 7, Caixa Postal
44, 67030-000 Ananfndeua, Pard, Brasil, Tel: (091) 255-
1720, Fax (091) 255-0248.

Y The Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation,
a charitable institution dedicated exclusively
to primate conservation, was created in 1996.
The mission of the fund is "to contribute to
global biodiversity conservation by providing
strategically targeted, catalytic support for the conserva-
tion of endangered nonhuman primates and their natural
In 1997, the Primate Action Fund provided support for 25
projects promoting action for the conservation of primates,
as well as the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group news-
* Primate segments of environmental radio broadcasts -
Sharon Matola, (Belize Zoo and Tropical Education
Center, Belize)
Study of the Assamese macaque in Makalu-Barun Con-
servation Area, Nepal Mukesh Kumar Chalise (Natu-
ral History Society of Nepal, Kathmandu)
Spider and howler monkey rescue Joseph Vieira
(Chalalan Project, San Jos6 de Uchupiamanas and
Madidi National Park, Bolivia)
Community-based conservation program for the golden
langur in Assam, India (Community Conservation
Consultants, Gays Mill, Wisconsin)
Primate census along the Rio Tapiche, Peru (Detroit
Zoological Institute, Detroit, Michigan)
Second Lion Tamarin Population and Habitat Viabil-
ity Analysis Workshop Fundagao Biodiversitas (Belo
Horizonte, Brazil)
Genetic characterization of new types of mouse lemur
from the west coast of Madagascar Rodin

Page 23

Rasoloarison (Laboratoire de Primatologie et de
Biologic Evolutive Antananarivo, Madagascar), Jbrg
Ganzhorn (Deutsches Primatenzentrum Gottingen,
Germany) and Anne Yoder (Northwestern University
Medical School, Chicago, Illinois, US)
* Primate distributions in Pando, northern Bolivia Scott
Hardie (University of Abertay, Dundee, Scotland),
Hannah Buchanan-Smith and Mark Prescott (Univer-
sity of Stirling, Scotland)
* Indonesian Gibbon Conference Alan Mootnick (In-
ternational Center for Gibbon Studies, Santa Clarita,
California) and Jatna Supriatna (Conservation Inter-
national Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia)
* Sustainable development in a riverine wildlife sanc-
tuary, Belize Ed Johnson (Eco-Communications In-
ternational, Ojai, California)
* Population dynamics of the brown howler monkey -
Sergio Mendes (Museu de Biologia Mello Leitao,
Santa Teresa, Espfrito Santo, Brazil)
* Behavior and breeding of the buffy tufted-ear marmo-
set S6rgio Mendes (Museu de Biologia Mello Leitao,
Santa Teresa, Espfrito Santo, Brazil)
* Conservation of capuchin and howler monkeys in
Trinidad Kimberly A. Phillips (Hiram College,
Hiram, Ohio)
* Behavior and diet of the diademed sifaka and indri -
Joyce Powzyk (Duke University, Durham, North Caro-
* Search for Tattersall's and Perrier's sifaka in north-
ern Madagascar Serge Rajaobelina (Fanamby,
Antanarivo, Madagascar)
* Chimpanzee Conservation Budongo Forest Project -
Vernon Reynolds (Oxford University, Oxford, UK, and
Kampala, Uganda)
* Primate conservation in Yasuni National Park, Ecua-
dor (Peter Rodman, University of California, Davis,
California), John Cant (University of Puerto Rico,
Puerto Rico) and Laura Acros (Catholic University,
Quito, Ecuador)
* Ecology and behavior of the golden langur in Assam,
India Barry Rosenbaum (University of Colorado,
Boulder, Colorado)
* Conservation of endangered monkeys in southeast-
ern Ivory Coast Scott MacGraw and Randall Susman
(State University of New York, Stony Brook, New
York), Isaac Mona (Centre suisse de Recherche
Scientifique, Abidjan, Ivory Coast) and Michael
Abedi-Lartey (Ghanian Forestry Department, Accra,
* Ecology of the Niger Delta red colobus monkey J.
Lodewijk Werre (Niger Delta Wetlands Foundation,
Port Harcourt, Nigeria)

Page 24
* Assessment of cyclone damage in southeastern Mada-
gascar Patricia Wright (State University of New York,
Stony Brook, New York)
* African Primates Newsletter Tom Butynski (Zoo At-
lanta, Nairobi, Kenya)
* Neotropical Primates Newsletter Anthony Rylands
(Conservation International do Brasil, Belo Horizonte,
* Golden-headed lion tamarin conservation James
Dietz (University of Maryland, College Park, Mary-
* Translocation of golden lion tamarins Maria Cecilia
Martins Kierulff (Golden Lion Tamarin Conservation
Program, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil).
Project proposal guidelines were outlined in Neotropical
Primates 4(2):66, June 1996. For further information
about the Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation, please
contact: William R. Konstant, Conservation International,
2501 M Street NW, Suite 200, Washington D. C. 20037,
USA. Fax: (215) 402-0469.

A workshop for a regional CAMP for Mesoamerican pri-
mates was held from 23-29 June, 1997 at the Zool6gico
Nacional Simon Bolivar, San Jos6, Costa Rica. It was or-
ganized by the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -
Neotropical Section, AZA New World Primate Taxon
Advisory Group, AZA Mesoamerican Fauna Interest
Group, Asociaci6n Mesoamericana y del Caribe de
Zool6gicos, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica), Fundaci6n
pro Zool6gicos, Brookfield Zoo, Houston Zoo, and Bur-
net Park Zoo, in collaboration with the Conservation
Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG), and was sponsored
by the IUDZG/World Zoo Organization, St. Louis Zoo,
and the New World Taxon Advisory Group. Sixty-three
participants from 28 institutions analyzed the conserva-
tion problems of Mesoamerican primates. A CAMP pro-
cess guided the evaluation of the status of the primate spe-
cies and subspecies present in each country. The partici-
pants recommended the conservation actions to be taken
immediately and in the long-term. Yolanda Matamoros,
Mesoamerican and Caribbean Zoo and Aquarium Asso-
ciation (AMAZOO). Published in CBSG News, 8(2):12,

The Dutch primatologist, Dr. Marc G. M. van Roosmalen,
naturalized Brazilian, working at the National Institute
for Amazon Research (INPA) in Manaus, received the
Order of the Golden Ark from His Royal Highness Prince
Bernhard of the Netherlands, in a ceremony at the

Neotropical Primates 6(1), March 1998

Soestdijk Palace on November 29, 1997.
As he bestowed the honor of Officer in the Order of the
Golden Ark, Prince Bernhard cited Dr. Van Roosmalen
for "his conservation efforts to identify areas of highest
priority by conducting surveys of fruits and primates in
the Brazilian Amazon, and the discovery of at least ten
primates new for science, a new dwarf porcupine, and a
number of new tree species, including a new species of
Lecythis from the Rio Aripuand".
The Order of the Golden Ark was established by Prince
Bernhard in 1971 to recognize people committed to in-
ternational nature conservation. It is recognized as an
official order of the Dutch government, and is the high-
est conservation award of the Netherlands. Since 1971,
some 300 people have received The Order of the Golden
Ark, including Dr. Richard Leakey, Sir David
Attenborough, Tanzania's former President Nyerere,
Maurice Strong, Dillon Ripley and, in 1995, Dr. Russell
A. Mittermeier, President of Conservation International,
and Chairman of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group.

If you have videotape materials or slides related to non-
human primates and would consider contributing copies
to the WRPRC archive, please contact the Wisconsin Re-
gional Primate Research Center Audiovisual Archive staff.
Please do not prejudge your material as inappropriate for
the archive. Image clarity is the minimum criterion. Fin-
ished pieces as well as data tapes should be preserved.
We would like to have 50 or more slides for EACH spe-
cies to have good taxonomic, behavioral and other de-
scriptive documentation. Please keep in mind that people
who have been a part of the growing history of the disci-
pline should also be photodocumented. We gratefully ac-
knowledge the more than 475 contributions received to
date. A sample of the 6,000 slides in the Archive is avail-
able on Primate Info Net at pin/images/index.html>.
WRPRC Archival materials are loaned internationally for
educational and research purposes. Any requests to repub-
lish photographic materials from the archive must be ap-
proved by the photographer. If you have materials available
or are planning laboratory or field work which involves vid-
eotaping or photography, please send us a note at
. A catalog of videotapes avail-
able from the WRPRC Audiovisual Archive is available at:
. To borrow
items from the Archive, contact Special Collections Librar-
ian, Ray Hamel at: .
Larry Jacobsen, The Library, Wisconsin Regional Pri-
mate Research Center, University of Wisconsin, 1220
Capitol Court, Madison, Wisconsin, 53715-1299, USA.

Neotropical Primates 6(1), March 1998

Fauna and Flora International's 100% Fund
offers a unique approach to the funding of
small-scale conservation projects focused on
the protection of endangered species throughout the world.
It is one of the very few sources of grants for this pur-
pose, especially for applicants from developing countries.
It was set up in 1971 to provide sums of money very
quickly for urgent conservation action. Since then the
Fund has supported more than 570 projects in over 120
countries. It provides grants to a wide diversity of projects
ranging from population surveys of endangered animals
and plants to education campaigns, and covering a wide
range of species, from partulid snails to gorillas.
The Fund is unique in that 100% of all donations pass
directly to conservation projects, with no deductions for
administration. Applications are assessed by a commit-
tee of international conservationists. Projects are selected
on the basis of conservation importance, sound scientific
principles, cost effectiveness and local involvement. Re-
ports are submitted after six months and at the end of the
Outcomes of the 100% Fund: Conservation and research
activities that enhance the chances of survival for some
of the world's most endangered species; implementation
of small-scale projects for which funding is generally not
available from any other source, especially for people ap-
plying from developing countries; the collection of infor-
mation essential to the development of species action plans
and IUCN listings; local people benefit through involve-
ment in the projects, and from training opportunities pro-
vided; many 100% Fund projects involve an educational
component, generating environmental awareness in lo-
cal communities; grant recipients benefit from personal
development and skill-sharing provided by working
alongside local people; the 100% fund is also an impor-
tant mechanism for training young conservationists, many
early recipients have since risen to prominent positions
in the conservation world.
For donations to the fund or applications for grants, con-
tact: Fauna and Flora International, Great Eastern House,
Tenison Road, Cambridge CB1 2DT, UK, Tel: +44
(0)1223 571000, Fax: +44 (0)1223 461481, e-mail:
. Web site: http://www.wcmc.org.uk/ffi>.

The Laboratory Primates Newsletter is published quar-
terly by the Schrier Research Laboratory, Psychology De-
partment, Brown University, Rhode Island, and edited by
Judith E. Schrier. Pages 31 to 38 of volume 37(1) provide
a list and details of graduate programs in primatology
and primate research in: the USA, Arizona (Arizona State

Page 25

University, Tempe; Primate Foundation of Arizona,
Mesa), California (California State University, San
Marcos; University of California, Davis), Florida (Uni-
versity of Florida, Gainesville), Georgia (Emory Univer-
sity, Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center and Uni-
versity of Georgia, Atlanta), Illinois (Northwestern Uni-
versity Medical School and University of Chicago, Chi-
cago), Massachusetts (Boston University School of Medi-
cine, Boston), Minnesota (University of Minnesota, St.
Paul), New Mexico (University of New Mexico, Albu-
querque), North Carolina (Duke University, Durham),
Ohio (Kent State University, Kent, Miami University, Ox-
ford), Oregon (Oregon Regional Primate Research Cen-
ter, Beaverton), Pennsylvania (University of Pennsylva-
nia, Philadelphia; University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh),
Tennessee (Vanderbilt University, Nashville), Texas (Uni-
versity of Texas, Austin), Washington (Central Washing-
ton University, Ellensburg; University of Washington,
Seattle), Wisconsin (University of Wisconsin, Milwau-
kee; Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center and
University of Wisconsin, Madison), Australia (Austra-
lian National University, Canberra), Canada (University
of Calgary, Calgary; and Unversity of Alberta, Edmonton,
Alberta), England (University of Liverpool, Liverpool)
and India (Jai Naraian Vyas University of Jodhpur,

The Center for Environmental Research and Conserva-
tion (CERC) is a consortium of five education and re-
search institutions: The American Museum of Natural
History (AMNH), The New York Botanical Garden
(NYBG), the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), and
Wildlife Preservation Trust International (WPTI), besides
the University of Columbia, New York, where it is based.
The New York-based United Nations Development Pro-
gram is also linked to the CERC through its governing
council. The CERC combines the expertise of these insti-
tutions for conservation-related research and training for
scientists, planners and managers from around the world.
It currently offers the Ph.D. in ecology and evolutionary
biology (EEB). The Center's faculty includes numerous
areas of expertise (25), including such as: Behavioral
Ecology (Marina Cords, Columbia; John Glendinning,
Columbia, Barnard College; Hilary Morland, WCS; James
Wetterer, Columbia); Biogeography (Joel Cracraft,
AMNH; Darrel Frost, AMNH; Bill Hahn, Columbia; Alan
Harvey, AMNH; Ross McPhee, AMNH; Christopher
Raxworthy, Columbia); Captive Breeding (Ellen
Dierenfeld, WCS; Anna Marie Lyles, WCS; Danny
Wharton, WCS); Ecology/Tropical Ecology (Joel Cohen,
Columbia; Alejandro Graal, WCS; Paul Hertz, Colum-
bia, Barnard College; Scott Mori, NYBG; Paul Olsen,
Columbia; Charles Peters, NYBG; Christopher
Raxworthy, Columbia; James Wetterer, Columbia; Helen
Young; Columbia, Barnard College); Mammalogy and

Page 26

Systematics (Fred Koontz, WCS; Ross MacPhee, AMNH;
Juan Carlos Morales, Columbia; Michael Novacek,
AMNH); and Primatology (Marina Cords, Columbia; Don
Melnick, Columbia; Hilary Morland, WCS; Mary Pearl,
WCS; John Robinson, WCS). Applications are available
electronically from the CERC Web site or the Columbia
University application page: cu/bulletin/apply.html>.
The CERC also offers a two-semester training course "The
Morningside Institute Program in Conservation Biology"
in the science, techniques and policy of conservation bi-
ology. It provides a solid overview of the theoretical bases
as well as practice in the tools of conservation science. It
is designed for those needing additional background in
conservation science in anticipation of a career change.
Participants take the courses at the CERC on Columbia's
Morningside campus. Themes for the 1st semester are
'Conservation Biology' and 'People in the Landscape',
and for the 2nd Semester are 'Techniques in Conserva-
tion Biology' and 'Issues in Environmental Policy'. The
application deadline is 31 July. Financial support for par-
ticipation in the program is available. Contact: Dr. Mary
C. Pearl, Associate Director, CERC- Morningside Insti-
tute, Tel: 212 854 8186, Fax: 212 854 8188, e-mail:
For more information about CERC, write to: CERC
Graduate Program MC 5557, 10th Floor Schermerhorn
Extension, Columbia University, 1200 Amsterdam Av-
enue at 119th Street, New York, NY 10027, USA, Tel:
212 854 8186, Fax: 212 854 8188, e-mail:
. World Wide Web: www.columbia.edu/cu/cerc>.

- 1998
The American Society of Primatologists is
A ^ soliciting nominations for two awards via
the Awards and Recognition Committee:
1) The Distinguished Primatologist Award: This award
honors a primatologist who has had an outstanding ca-
reer and made significant contributions to the field. Pre-
vious awards have honored Dr. William Mason, Dr. Philip
Hershkovitz, Dr. Charles Southwick, and Dr. Orville
Smith. Nominations should be made in writing and must
include a narrative that describes the nature and extent of
the nominee's contribution to primatology. Nominators
must also see that two additional letters of support be sub-
mitted on behalf of the nominee. 2) The Distinguished
Service Award: This award is not presented on any sched-
uled basis but is presented to deserving individuals who
have contributed long-time service to the ASP and to pri-
matology in general. Former awardees are Dr. Richard
Harrison, Historian for the ASP, Dr. Leo Whitehair, for

Neotropical Primates 6(1), March 1998

long-time accomplishments on behalf of primatology,
Judith Schrier, Editor of the Laboratory Primate News-
letter, and Larry Jacobsen, Head of Library Services at
the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, Madi-
son. A nominating letter in support must be included at
submission. If you would like to nominate individuals for
either of these special awards (Deadline for receipt is May
15, 1998) send pertinent information to: Gerry Ruppenthal,
Chair, Awards and Recognition Committee, Box 357920,
University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA, Fax:
(206) 616-9774, e-mail: .

MEDAL 1997
The 1997 Napier Medal was awarded to Nicola
Koyama of Liverpool University for her Ph.D.
thesis on reconciliation behaviour in wild Japa-
nesemacaques at Arashiyama in Japan. Alan Dixson (Sub-
department of Animal Behaviour, Madingley, Cambridge)
awarded the medal. He not only congratulated Nicola on
her fine thesis, but so ably remembered the unique and
enduring contribution of both John Napier PSGB found-
ing President in whose honour and memory the medal
has been given and his wife Prue, also a distinguished
Hilary 0. Box, PSGB President, Department of Psychol-
ogy, University of Reading, Reading RG6 2AL, England,

SNominations for Conservation Awards and
Grants are now being sought by the Ameri-
can Society of Primatologists (ASP). These
awards and grants, funded from the ASP Conservation
Fund, are a mechanism to recognize deserving colleagues
and students, including those from primate habitat coun-
tries for whom the prestige of an ASP award or grant can
be a valuable aid to the recipient's conservation efforts.
An award nomination is basically a letter of recommen-
dation. A grant proposal should consist of a concise nar-
rative (a few pages) plus a budget page. Subscription
Award: This award provides the American Journal of
Primatology to worthy individuals in habitat countries who
otherwise would have little access to the scientific litera-
ture on nonhuman primates. Preference is given to indi-
viduals who will make the journal available for use by
students and colleagues. The award is normally the jour-
nal. A nominating letter should describe the nominee's
credential, his/her primate-related activities, and should
explain why the nominee deserves to receive high priority
consideration. Conservation Award ($500): This award
provides recognition and financial support for students
and young investigators from habitat countries who dem-

Page 27

onstrate potential for making significant and continuing
contributions to primate conservation. Those eligible in-
clude students, researchers, and educators from primate
habitat countries for whom no more than five years have
elapsed since receipt of their terminal degree. Nomina-
tors should provide the name, title and full mailing ad-
dress of their nominee, along with a statement about the
nominee's qualifications for the award, focusing on past
and potential contributions to primate conservation. A copy
of the nominee's CV is encouraged. Supporting letters from
other individuals acquainted with the nominee's work may
be submitted. Past awards have been presented by U.S.
Ambassadors or other senior officials, thereby obtaining
favorable publicity for the award, its recipient, and pri-
mate conservation in the recipient's country. Senior Biol-
ogy and Conservation ($500 Honorarium): This award
is one of ASP's highest honors. It is given to recognize an
individual without an advanced degree who has made sub-
stantial contributions over many years to promote primate
conservation either though direct action or via enhance-
ment of biological knowledge of the well-being of pri-
mates. Such contributions could arise from work done in
the field, laboratory, or zoo settings. Nominees might work
directly with primates or be engaged in activities support-
ing those who work with primates. Examples include, park
rangers, census takers, animal caretakers, research tech-
nicians, assistants or facilitators, and individuals involved
in primate enterprise benefitting primate conservation.
Nominating letters should detail the nominee's qualifica-
tions, contributions to primate biology and conservation,
period of service, and full mailing address. A copy of the
nominee's CV is encouraged. Supporting letters from other
individuals acquainted with the nominee's work may be
submitted. This award is typically presented at a public
ceremony by senior officials. Conservation Small Grants
(up to $1500, but usually $500): Grant proposals are so-
licited for conservation research or related projects, in-
cluding conservation education. ASP and IPS members
working in habitat countries are especially urged to apply
to help someone from a habitat country submit a mean-
ingful project which can be a portion of a larger effort.
Grant proposals must be typed in English, should not ex-
ceed 2000 words, and should include a brief budget page.
Recipients of grants must agree that a brief progress re-
port, in a form suitable for publication in the ASP Bulle-
tin, will be made within 12 months of the award. Evalua-
tion and Application procedure: With the exception of
requests for emergency support, which can be considered
at any time for immediate action, the Conservation Com-
mittee will make its recommendations for awards and
grants to the ASP Executive Committee at its annual meet-
ing. Successful nominees and applicants will be informed
following the meeting and their names will be published
in the ASP Bulletin. The 1998 deadline for submission of
nominations and grant proposals is 22 May 1998. They
should be sent to, Chair, ASP Conservation Committee at
the address below.

Dr. Randall C. Kyes, Regional Primate Research Center,
University of Washington, Box 357330, Seattle, WA

Durante la celebraci6n del pasado Simposio Nacional de
la Asociacion Mexicana de Primatologfa (AMP), se eligi6
la nueva mesa directive que presidiri durente el Bienio
1997-1999. Los cargos se distribuyeron de la siguiente
forma: Presidente Dr. Jorge Martinez-Contreras
(Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Iztapalapa);
Secretario Dra. Ana Maria Santillin-Doherty (Instituto
M6xicano de Psiquiatrfa); y Tesorero Jorge Ocampo
Carapia (Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana,
Iztapalapa). La direcci6n de e-mail de la Asociaci6n para
este period serd la siguiente: .

The journal Phenology and Seasonality is published by
SBP Academic Publishing, Amsterdam and New York.
The first issue came out in the fall of 1996. The Editor-in-
Chief is Helmut Lieth, University of Osnabruek, the Ex-
ecutive Editor is Frank-M. Chmielewski, Humboldt Uni-
versity of Berlin. The Editorial Board has the following
members: Elisabeth B. Beaubien, University of Alberta;
Koen Kramer, Agricultural University of Wageningen;
Mark D. Schwartz, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee;
and D. Klaveness, University of Oslo. It is published quar-
terly. The purpose of Phenology and Seasonality, the first
international journal on this discipline, is to provide a
worldwide basis for communication among scientists who
deal with phenological observations. Topics covered in-
clude: National and international activities in the area of
phenology and seasonality; annual cycles in the atmo-
sphere, hydrosphere, and in the soil; investigations of
impacts of climatological or other factors on phenologi-
cal events; impact of climate variations and climatic
changes on seasonal events; annual growth patterns of
plants and development patterns of animals; seasonal and
diurnal behaviour of animals; periodicity of pests and dis-
eases; linkage of remotely-sensed information to pheno-
logical data; and development of seasonally-forced mod-
els (statistical and process-based models). Annual sub-
scriptions: Institutional DFL120,00 or US$159,00; In-
dividual DFL120,00 or US$75,00. For more informa-
tion: SPB Academic Publishing, P. 0. Box 11188, 1001
GD Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Fax: +31 20 638 0524,
e-mail: , or c/o Demos Vernande, Order
Department, 386 Park Avenue South, Suite 201, New York,
NY 10016, USA, Fax: +1212 6830118. Information kindly
provided by PSG member Eckhard W. Heymann of the
Deutsches Primatenzentrum, Gottingen, Germany.

Neotropical Primates 6(l), March 1998

Page 28


A Primatologia no Brasil 6, edited by Maria Bernadete
Cordeiro de Sousa and Alexendre A. de L. Menezes, 1997,
292pp. Editora da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande
do Norte, Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia, Natal.
ISBN 85 7273 059 1. Price: Brazil R$20.00 (+R$2.00
postage), elsewhere US$20.00 (+US$5.00 postage). The
proceedings of the VII Congresso Brasileiro de
Primatologia, held in Natal, 23-28 July, 1995. Contents:
Sedo I Ecologia. Habitat analysis for the metapopulation
conservation of black lion tamarins (Leontopithecus
chrysopygus, Mikan, 1823) Claudio Valladares-Padua,
pp.13-26; Fatores ecol6gicos e comportamentais
implicados na selegdo e uso dos locais de pernoite de grupos
de Callithrix jacchus em ambiente natural Fatima L. M.
Camarotti & Maria Ad61lia 0. Monteiro da Cruz, pp.27-
42; Composigdo qufmica de exsudados explorados por
Callithrixjacchus e sua relagao corn a marcagco de cheiro
- Leonardo C. de 0. Melo, Maria Ad61lia 0. Monteiro da
Cruz & Zelita F. Fernandes, pp.43-59. Secdo II -
Comportamento. Elements of common marmoset
(Callithrixjacchus) complex vocal sequences Dwain P.
Santee & Beatriz 0. Stumpf, pp.61-73; Vocal develop-
ment in monkeys Charles T. Snowdon, pp.75-90;
Resposta reprodutiva de f8meas de Callithrix jacchus a
pareamentos sucessivos: repensando o "mate guarding" e
o "pair-bond" Maria Bernadete C. de Sousa, H61deres P.
A. da Silva, Ana C. S. R. Albuquerque, Ian C. D. Teixeira,
Francisco C. Raulino & Andrd Luiz de Oliveira, pp.91-
108; 0 comportamento agonista intersexos em fungqo do
acesso ao alimento em pares de sagiiis (Callithrixjacchus)
- Maria de Fatima C. Cirne & H61ida M. Bezerra, pp. 109-
122; Rela9io tamanho do grupo x cuidado infantil em
Callithrix jacchus no ambiente natural Edinilza M. dos
Santos & Maria Ad61lia 0. Monteiro da Cruz, pp.123-137;
Socializagdo de filhotes de Callithrixjacchus em ambiente
natural Fabiola da S. Albuquerque & Maria de F. Arruda,
pp. 139-153; Variacgo diurna em comportamentos s6cio-
sexuais do sagiii, Callithrixjacchus Maria Bernadete C.
de Sousa & Janete de B. Mois6s, pp.155-170; Estudo da
distribuiqao do comportamento de catagao em grupos
sociais cativos de sagiiis (Callithrix jacchus, Primates:
Callitrichidae) a partir de parametros cronobiol6gicos -
Carolina V. M. de Azevedo, Jos6 W. Queiroz, Alexandre
A. de L. Menezes & Liicio F. de S. Moreira, pp.171-192.
Sedo III Patologia. Helmintos de sauas, Callicebus
personatus nigrifons (Spix, 1823, Primates: Cebidae),
coletados em resgate faunistico durante a construcgo da
Usina Hidrel6trica Nova Ponte MG Alan L. de Melo,
Fernanda M. Neri & Maria B. Ferreira, pp.193-198;
Presenga de Escherichia coli pertencente ao sorogrupo das
EIEC (Escherichia coli enteroinvasora) em fezes diarr6ias
do Callitrhix jacchus (sagiii comum) Maria J. B. C.
Fernandes, Dulce Almeida; Maria E. A. Seixas; Ant6nio
P. Rocha & Lfgia M. R. Melo, pp.205-216; Estudo
bacteriol6gico de 6rgaos de Callitrhixjacchus (Primates:
Callitrichidae) que foram ao 6bito no Ndcleo de

Primatologia da UFRN Maria Jos6 B. C. Fernandes,
Dulce Almeida, Maria E. A. Seixas, Elzeneide D. Duarte
& Lfgia M. R. Melo, pp.217-230; Actinomicose cervico-
facial de carter disseminado em Leontopithecus
chrysopygus (Mikan, 1823) Primates: Callitrichidae -
Waldo M. Gongalves, Helena Magalhaes, Carlos H. C.
Costa, MArio A. Ronconi, Joao B. da Cruz & Alcides
Pissinatti, pp.231-240; Osteodistrofia fibrosa em hfbridos
de Callithrix (Erxleben, 1777) Primates: Callitrichidae -
Relato de dois casos Joao B. da Cruz, Alcides Pissinatti,
Marcflio D. do Nascimento & Carlos H. C. Costa, pp.241-
248; Parasitismo por helmintos e protozodrios no sagiii
comum (Callithrix jacchus) Maria de F. F. de M.
Ximenes, pp.249-256. Segao IV Geral. Medidas
morfom6tricas de Saguinus imperator imperator e
Saguinusfuscicolli weddelli (Callitrichidae: Primates) em
ambiente natural Jilio C. Bicca-Marques, Cliudia
Calegaro-Marques, Elvira M. P. de Farias, Maria A. de
0. Azevedo & Francisco G. de A. Santos, pp.257-267;
Methods and use of fecal steroid analyses for monitoring
reproductive functioning in marmosets and tamarins Toni
E. Ziegler, Guenther Scheffler & Anne A. Carlson, pp.269-
280; A Primatologia no Brasil: 10 anos de Current Pri-
mates References Ivana T. D. Jarreta, Kitia C.P.S. Santos
& M. Emilia Yamamoto, pp.281-292. Available from:
Maria Bernadete Cordeira de Sousa, Departamento de
Fisiologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte,
59072-970 Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, Fax: +55
(0)84 211-9206, e-mail: .
Behavioral Approaches to Conservation in the Wild,
edited by Janine R. Clemmons and Richard Buchholz,
1997, 400pp. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,
UK. Hardback ISBN 0 52158054 4. Price: 55.00 (+p&p),
Paperback ISBN 0 521 58960 6. Price: 19.95 (+p&p).
This book is unique in emphasizing conservation of wild
populations as opposed to captive and reintroduced, where
behavioral research has concentrated in the past. The va-
riety of expertise in this volume demonstrates that the
complete ethological framework, not just behavioral ecol-
ogy, provides valuable techniques and knowledge for con-
serving biodiversity. Issues addressed include: the limits
and potentials of behavioral research to conservation; the
importance of behavioral variation as a component of
biodiversity, and the use of animal behavior to solve con-
servation problems and provide specific direction for re-
search and management practices. Contents: Part I: Prob-
lems and issues; Part II: Conservation and the four levels
of behavioral study; Part III: Examples and case studies.
Available from: Customer Services Department, Cam-
bridge University Press, The Edinburgh Building, Cam-
bridge CB2 1BR, UK, Fax: +44 (0)1223 325152, e-mail:
Phylogenies and the Comparative Method in Animal
Behavior, edited by Emilia P. Martins, 1996. Oxford Uni-
versity Press, New York. ISBN 0 19 509210 4. Based on
papers from a symposium organized for the Animal Be-
havior Society in Seattle, July 1994. Available from: Ox-

Neotropical Primates 6(l), March 1998

Neotropical Primates 6(1), March 1998 Page_29

ford University Press, Order Department, 2001 Evans
Road, Cary, NC 27513, USA, or Oxford University Press,
Science Publications, Walton Street, Oxford OX2 6DP,
UK, Fax: +44 (0)1865 56646.
The Enchanted Amazon Rain Forest: Stories from a
Vanishing World, by Nigel J. H. Smith, 1996, 208pp.
ISBN 0 8130 1577 1. Price US$29.95. University Press of
Florida, Gainesville. Compiled during Nigel Smith's quar-
ter-century of fieldwork in the Amazon, the stories reflect
the resilient culture of millions of small farmers, hunters
and fisherfolk along the region's waterways and pioneer
roads. Their lore is an intriguing blend of indigenous
European and African religious beliefs spanning all as-
pects of daily life and including a wide assortment of
ghosts, monsters and enchanted places. As a backdrop to
the tales, Smith provides information on the flora and fauna
of the area, on the geographical and historical setting,
and in particular on the problems of rain forest conserva-
tion. With its intimate photographs, also by Nigel Smith,
this book will appeal to the general public as well as to
ecologists, anthropologists, botanists, natural historians,
and all others working in the Amazon basin. Available
from: University Press of Florida, 15 NW 15th Street,
Gainesville, Florida 32611-2079, USA. Tel: (352) 392-
1351. Tel: (toll free): 1 800 226 3822.
Ecology of an African Rain Forest: Logging in Kibale
and the Conflict Between Conservation and Exploi-
tation, by Thomas T. Struhsaker, 1997, 456pp., 103 fig-
ures, 43 tables, index, references. University Press of
Florida, Gainesville. ISBN 0 8130-1490 5. Price: Cloth
US$39.95 (with p+p, US$3.50 in the USA, US$4.00 else-
where). Highly recommended. This book examines some
of the most important aspects of the conservation biology
of tropical forests. Thomas Struhsaker summarizes 20
years of research in the Kibale forest in Uganda, one of
the most important centers for the study of tropical rain
forests in Africa. Among the longest ongoing projects in
rain forest ecology anywhere, Struhsaker's book differs
from the great majority of logging studies by emphasiz-
ing the fauna rather than looking only at the commer-
cially valuable timber species. By providing long-term data
on a variety of plants and animals, it offers the first truly
in-depth synthesis of the consequences of selective log-
ging in the tropics. The main body of the book demon-
strates the adverse effects of logging, even 25 years after
the event, on community structure and numerous other
aspects of forest ecology. Although much has been claimed
for the possibilities of sustainable logging in tropical rain
forests, few data support these claims. Struhsaker demon-
strates that future logging must be done at far lower in-
tensities than is currently practiced if intact ecosystems
are to be maintained. He also offers detailed recommen-
dations for harvest plans compatible with the conserva-
tion of biodiversity and ecological integrity. The long-term
data he has summarized on the population dynamics of
rain forest trees, primates, rodents, duikers, and elephants

are unrivaled and will be widely cited, as will the data on
seasonality, tree phrenology, gap dynamics, rainfall, and
temperature. Struhsaker addresses the underlying causes
of tropical deforestation and concludes that although there
are numerous proximate factors, the ultimate causes are
rapidly increasing human populations and rates of con-
sumption per capital. He draws comparisons with relevant
studies elsewhere in the tropics and offers specific recom-
mendations to address the problems. "A much-needed
volume that will be of interest to a wide audience, written
by a leader in the field, and one with an international
reputation. The current rosy advocacy for 'sustainable de-
velopment' needs a wake-up call, and this is it. This vol-
ume combines some of the hottest topics in conservation
science today into a cohesive whole that looks clear-eyed
into the face of modern conservation in the tropics and
finds it frighteningly lacking in scientific underpinning,
rational consideration, and effective implementation". -
Truman Young, University of California at Davis. Con-
tents: Introduction: Objectives and Historical Overview;
Ecological overview of Kibale; Biological Seasonality and
El Nifio Effects; Effects of Logging on the Tree Commu-
nity; The Impact of Logging on Forest Gap and Edge
Dynamics; Primates; Rodents; Duikers; Elephants; Tropi-
cal Rain Forest Management Policy and Practice; Causal
Factors of Tropical Deforestation and Recommendations;
Appendices. Thomas T. Struhsaker has conducted field
research in Africa over a period of 34 years. From 1970
through 1987 he established, developed, and directed the
field research station in Kibale, Uganda. He maintains an
active role in Kibale today and is a research scientist in
the Department of Biological Anthropology and Anatomy
at Duke University. Available from: University Press of
Florida, 15 NW 15th Street, Gainesville, Florida 32611-
2079, USA. Tel: (352) 392-1351.
Brazilian Perspectives on Sustainable Development
of the Amazon Region, edited by Miguel Clhisener-Godt
and Ignacy Sachs, 1995, 330pp. ISBN 1 85070 576 3.
Hardcover. Price: 45.00/US$68.00. Vol. 15. Man and the
Biosphere Series (editor J. N. R. Jeffers). The Parthenon
Publishing Group, Carnforth, UK, and UNESCO, Paris.
A high level scientific reference text on Amazonian ecol-
ogy, resource use and development. Contents: Introduc-
tion; Climatic and hydrological conditions as key factors
for eco-development strategies; Development and man-
agement plans for the Amazon region; The Amazon an
urbanized forest; Sociodiversity and biodiversity;
Agroforestry in Brazil's Amazonian development policy;
Rehabilitation of capoeiras; Degraded pastures and min-
ing sites; The Amazon and extracting activities; Devel-
opment of commercial fisheries in the Amazon basin and
consequences for fish stocks and subsistence fishing; Min-
ing without destruction; Organizing research for the de-
velopment of the Amazon region; Possibilities for sus-
tainable agriculture development in the Brazilian Ama-
zon; Elements for a strategy for territorial settlement and
eco-development in the Amazon. Available from: The

Page 29

Neotropical Primates 6(l), March 1998

Pae3 etoia rmts61,Mrh19

Parthenon Publishing Group, UK Office, Casterton Hall,
Carnforth, Lancs LA6 2LA, UK, Tel: +44 (0)15242 72084,
Fax: +44 (0) 15242 71587: USA Office, One Blue Hill
Plaza, P.O.Box 1564, Pearl River, NewYork 10965, USA,
Tel: +1 914 73 9363, Fax: +1 (914) 735 1385. Web site:
Congress Brasileiro de Unidades de Conservafao.
Anais. Vol. I Conferencias e Palestras. Vol. II -
Trabalhos Tecnicos, edited by Miguel S. Milano, 1997.
Vol. I 414pp., Vol. II 803pp. The proceedings of a ma-
jor congress on Brazilian protected areas held in Curitiba,
Parand, 15-23 November 1997. In Portuguese with En-
glish abstracts. The Congress was organized by the
Universidade Livre do Meio Ambiente, the Rede Nacional
Pr6 Unidades de Conservagao, and the Instituto Ambiental
do Parana, and promoted by the Fundagao 0 Boticdrio de
Proteqao A Natureza, the Secretaria de Estado do Meio
Ambiente e dos Recursos Hidricos do Parand, and the
Institute Ambiental do Parand. Volume I contains the 30
major lectures given during the congress, and Volume II
contains 75 talks, presentations, and workshop results di-
vided into the following themes: Policy and legislation;
Planning and administration; Public use; Biodiversity, re-
search and monitoring; and Management. A remarkable
and most valuable compendium. Available from: Miguel
S. Milano, Diretor T6cnico, Fundagao 0 Boticrio de
Protecgo A Natureza, Avenida Rui Barbosa 3450, 83065-
260 Sao Jos6 dos Pinhais, Parand, Brazil, e-mail:
. Web site: br>.
Biodiversidade, Populafdo e Economia, organizado
por Joao Ant6nio de Paula, 1997, 672pp., Centro de
Desenvolvimento e Planejamento Regional (CEDEPLAR)
e Program de P6s-Graduacgo em Ecologia, Conservag.o
de Vida Silvestre (ECMVS), Universidade Federal de
Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, Brasil. Prego:
R$30,00 (nqo incluindo postagem). Esse volume 6
resultado de trabalho coletivo de vdrios pesquisadores da
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais em torno do
program "Biodiversidade, Populagao e Economia: Uma
Regiao da Mata Atlantica", vinculado ao Programa de
Apoio ao Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnol6gico -
Nticleo de Cidncias Ambientais (PADCT/CIAMB), do
Ministdrio de Ciencia e Tecnologia. E um relat6rio-sfntese
de estudos interdisciplinares desde 1990. 0 program
estudou privilegiadamente a bacia do m6dio Rio Doce em
Minas Gerais, em particular a sub-bacia do Rio Piracicaba.
Inclui os seguintes capitulos: Dinamica Capitalista,
Divisdo Internacional do Trabalho e Meio Ambiente Joao
Antonio de Paula et al.; A Ocupacao do Territ6rio e a
Devastaqdo da Mata Atlintica Fausto R. A. Brito, Ana
Maria H. C. de Oliveira & Andr6 C. Junqueira; Ocupacao
do Territ6rio e Estrutura Urbana Roberto L. de M. Monte-
M6r et al.; Estrutura Econtmica Regional e Meio
Ambiente Alisson F. Barbieri et al.; Fundamentos
Hist6ricos e Metodol6gicas da Quaestdo Ambiental Joao

Antonio de Paula, Fausto R. A. Brito & Maria Regina
Nabuco; A Bacia HidrogrAfica como Unidade de Andlise
e Realidade de Integragao Disciplinar Francisco A. R.
Barbosa, Joao Ant6nio de Paula & Roberto L. de M. Monte-
M6r; Atividades Antr6picas e Impactos Ambientais -
Alisson F. Barbieri et al.; Impactos Antr6picos e
Biodiversidade Aquitica Francisco A. R. Barbosa et al.;
Impactos Antr6picos e Biodiversidade Terrestre Gustavo
A. B. da Fonseca; Sociedade, Poder e Meio Ambiente -
Tinia M. Braga & Vanja A. Ferreira; Programa de
EducaqAo Ambiental Cliudio B. Guerra et al.; Andlise
Integrada dos Resultados Roberto L. de M. Monte-M6r
et al.; Propostas de Intervengio Helofsa M. Costa et al.;
Uma Proposta Metodol6gica Interdisciplinar Joao
Ant6nio de Paulo et al. Para maiores informag6es: Editora
UFMG, Biblioteca Central, 40 andar, Universidade Fed-
eral de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Avenida Ant6nio Carlos
6627, 30161-970 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Etologia: Bases Biol6gicas de la Conducta Animal y
Humana, editado por Fernando Peldez del Hierro,
Universidad Aut6noma de Madrid, and Joaquim Veh
Barro, Universidad Central de Barcelona, 1997. Ediciones
Pirdmide, S. A., Madrid. ISBN 84 368 1076. Preco: 3.000
Pts. Contenido: Presentaci6n; Jordi Sabater Pi: semblanza
de un naturalista Joaquim V. Barr6 & Fernando P. del
Hierro; 1. Los m6todos observacionistas en la Etologia -
Vicenc Quera Jordana; 2. Aproximaci6n al significado de
los perfodos sensibles en el desarrollo del comportamiento
- Juan M. Serrano Rodriguez & Jaime Iglesias Dorado; 3.
El pensamiento animal a la luz de la comunicaci6n Caries
Riba i Campos; 4. Conducta cultural Montserrat Colell
Mim6 & Maria D. Segarra Castells; 5. Agresi6n Dietmar
Zinner; 6. Comportamiento sexual y reproductor: models
evolutivos y conductuales Fernando P. del Hierro, Susana
S. Rodriguez & Carlos Gil-Burman; 7. Factores ecol6gicos
y sistemas sociales de los primates Carlos Gil-Burmann,
Fernando P. del Hierro & Susana S. Rodriguez; 8. Modelos
primatol6gicos de la evoluci6n conductual humana: la caza
en los chimpanc6s Joaquim V. Bar6; 9. La importancia
de la mano y de la manipulaci6n en la adaptaci6n de los
primates Mateo Escobar Aliaga & Carmen Garcia
Gonzdlez. Disponible: Jos6 Maria Elola G6mez, Delegado
de Ventas, Comercial Grupo Araya, c/ Iriarte 4, E-28028
Madrid, Espafia.

Schr6pel, M. 1997. EEP Studbook for Cotton-top Tama-
rin (Saguinus oedipus). 3rd edition (changes during
1996). September 1997. Zoologischer Garten
Magdeburg, Magdeburg. (1 January 1996 to 31 Decem-
ber 1996).

Anonymous. 1997. Twin tamarins born at Indian Lake.
Preview (Brookfield Zoo), (Winter): 6.
Bugnyar, T. and Huber, L. 1997. Push or pull: an experi-
mental study on imitation in marmosets. Anim. Behav.

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Neotropical Primates 6(1), March 1998 Page 31

54(4): 817-831.
Burns, R., Langbauer, W. R., Jr., Marks, S. and Neiffer,
D. 1997. Telemetric monitoring of blood pressure, heart
rate, and activity in a woolly monkey (Lagothrix
lagotricha) in a zoo setting. Am. Assoc. Zoo Vet. (AAZV)
Ann. Conf. Proc. (1997): 158-159.
Carlson, A. A., Ziegler, T. E. and Snowdon, C. T. 1997.
Ovarian function of pygmy marmoset daughters
(Cebuella pygmaea) in intact and motherless families.
Am. J. Primatol. 43(4): 347-355.
Chalmeau, R., Visalberghi, E. and Gallo, A. 1997. Capu-
chin monkeys, Cebus apella, fail to understand a coop-
erative task. Anim. Behav. 54(5): 1215-1225.
Cranley, J. J. and Barnett, F. E1996. An outbreak of sudden
death in juvenile marmosets. Scandinavian J. Lab. Anim.
Sci. 23(suppl.): 199-200.
Didier, L. G. 1997 Leading behavior in a free ranging
group of spider monkeys (Ateles belzebuth) in La
Macarena, Colombia. Field Studies of Fauna and Flora,
La Macarena, Colombia 10: 29-31.
Fidgett, A. L. and Feistner, A. T. C. 1997. Non-invasive
methods for nutritional research at the Jersey Wildlife
Preservation Trust. Proceedings 2nd Conference Nutri-
tion Advisory Group, American Zoo and Aquarium As-
sociation on Zoo and Wildlife Nutrition, pp. sess. 9, pa-
per 1, 1-13. NAG/AZA, Fort Worth.
Fragaszy, D. M. and Bard, K. 1997. Comparison of devel-
opment and life history in Pan and Cebus. Int. J.
Primatol. 18(5): 683-701.
Fuchs, E., Kirschbaum, C., Benisch, D and Bieser, A.
1997. Salivary cortisol: a non-invasive measure of
hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical activity in the
squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus. Lab. Anim. 31(4):
Garber, P. A. 1997. One for all and breeding for one: co-
operation and competition as a tamarin reproductive
strategy. Evol. Anthropol. 5(6): 187-199.
Heymann, E. W. 1998. Giant fossil New World primates:
arboreal or terrestrial? J. Hum. Evol. 34: 99-101.
Kleiman, D. G. and Mallinson, J. J. C. 1998. Recovery
and Management Committees for lion tamarins: part-
nerships in conservation planning and implementation.
Conserv. Biol. 12(1): 1-13.
Knogge, C., Heymann, E. W. and Herrera, E. R. T. 1998.
Seed dispersal of Asplundia peruviana (Cyclanthaceae)
by the primate Saguinus fuscicollis. J. Trop. Ecol. 14:
Mallinson, J. J. C. 1997. A 'case study': partnerships and
conservation initiatives resulting from a Population Vi-
ability Assessment (PVA) Workshop for the genus
Leontopithecus. Zool. Garten N. F. 67: 355-363.
Mallinson, J. J. C. 1997. Partnerships and conservation
initiatives resulting from tamarin PVA workshops. CBSG
News 8(2): 36-38. IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding
Specialist Group (CBSG), Apple Valley, MN.
Manson, J. H., Perry, S. and Parish. A. R. 1997.
Nonconceptive sexual behaviour in bonobos and capu-
chins. Int. J. Primatol. 18(5): 767-786.

Marinho-Filho, J. and Verrisimo, E. W. 1997. The redis-
covery of Callicebus personatus barbarabrownae in
northeastern Brazil with a new western limit for its dis-
tribution. Primates 38(4): 429-433.
McGrew, W. C. and Marchant, L. F. 1997. Using the tools
at hand: manual laterality and elementary tecnhology
in Cebus spp. and Pan spp. Int. J. Primatol. 18(5): 787-
Oftedal, 0. T., Power, M. L. and Tardif, S. D. 1997. Do
New World primates really have elevated needs for pro-
tein and Vitamin D? Proceedings 2nd Conference Nu-
trition Advisory Group, American Zoo and Aquarium
Association on Zoo and Wildlife Nutrition, pp. sess. 3,
paper 1, 1-4. NAG/AZA, Fort Worth.
Overdorff, D. J. and Strait, S. G. 1997. What the physical
properties of seeds can tell us about primate adaptation.
Evol. Anthropol. 5(6): 206.
Paul, A. 1997. Breeding seasonality affects the associa-
tion between dominance and reproductive success in non-
human male primates. Folia Primatol. 68(6): 344-349.
Pedroni, F and Sanchez, M. 1997. Seed dispersal of
Pereskea aculeata Miller (Cactaceae) in a forest frag-
ment in southeast Brazil. Rev. Brasil. Biol. 57(3): 479-
486. (Portuguese with English summary).
Pessier, A. P., Stringfield, C., Tragle, J., Holshuh, H. J.,
Nichols, D. K. and Montali, R. J. 1997. Cerebrospinal
nematodiasis due to Baylisascaris sp. in golden-headed
lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas): implica-
tions for management. Am. Assoc. Zoo Vet. (AAZV) Ann.
Conf. Proc. (1997): 245-247.
Pulido, M. T. 1997. Notes on the dispersal behavior of
howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus). Field Studies of
Fauna and Flora, La Macarena, Colombia 10: 7-11.
Rolland, R. M., Chalifoux, L. V., Snook, S. S., Ausman,
L. M. and Johnson, L. D. 1997. Five spontaneous deaths
associated with Clostridium difficile in a colony of cot-
ton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus). Lab. Anim. Sci.
47(5): 472-476.
Rose, L. M. 1997. Vertebrate predation and food sharing
in Cebus and Pan. Int. J. Primatol. 18(5): 727-765.
Rothe, H., Kerl, J. and Westermann, H. 1997. Spirura
tamarini- and Pterygodermatites nycticebi-infection in
the common marmoset (Callithrixjacchus): case report.
Zool. Garten N. E 67(3): 164.
Rothe, H., Westermann, H. and Kerl, J. 1997. Outdoor
enclosures for marmosets at the Institute for Anthropol-
ogy at G6ttingen University. Zool. Garten N. F 67(3):
85-91. (German with English summary).
Sant Cruz, A. M., Borda, J. T., Rott, M. I. 0. de and
G6mez, L. 1998. Pulmonary Filariopsis arator in capu-
chin monkeys (Cebus apella). Lab. Prim. Newsl. 37(1):
Savage, A., Shideler, S. E., Soto, L. H., Causado, J.,
Giraldo, L. H., Lasley, B. L. and Snowdon, C. T. 1997.
Reproductive events of wild cotton-top tamarins
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Stevenson, P. 1997. Notes on the mating behavior of woolly

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monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha) at Tinigua National
Park, Colombia. Field Studies of Fauna and Flora, La
Macarena, Colombia 10: 13-15.
Stevenson, P. 1997. Vocal behavior of woolly monkeys
(Lagothrix lagotricha) at Tinigua National Park, Co-
lombia. Field Studies of Fauna and Flora, La Macarena,
Colombia 10: 17-28.
Strait, S. G. 1997. Tooth use and the physical properties
of food. Evol. Anthropol. 5(6): 199-211.
De Thoisy, B. and Richard-Hansen, C. 1997. Diet and
social behaviour changes in a red howler monkey
(Alouatta seniculus) troop in a highly degraded rain for-
est. Folia Primatol. 68(6): 357-361.
Verbeek, P. and de Waal, F. B. M. 1997. Postconflict be-
havior of captive brown capuchins in the presence and
absence of attractive food. Int. J. Primatol. 18(5): 703-
Visalbarghi, E. and McGrew, W. C. 1997. Cebus meets
Pan. Int. J. Primatol. 18(5): 677-681.
Yamamoto. M. E. and Box, H. 0. 1997. The role of non-
reproductive helpers in infant care in captive Callithrix
jacchus. Ethology 103: 760-771.

De Blois, S. T. 1997. Object permanence in three species
of primates: Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), squir-
rel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) and orangutans (Pongo
pygmaeus). Diss. Abst. Int. B58(2): 996. To order:
#AAD97-21442. University Microfilms, Inc., Ann Ar-
bor, MI 48106, USA.
Von Dornum, M. J. 1997. DNA sequence data from mito-
chondrial COII and nuclear G6PD loci and a moleculart
phylogeny of the New World monkeys (Primate,
Platyrrhini). Diss. Abstr Int. A58(5): 1799. To order:
#AAD97-33976. University Microfilms, Inc., Ann Ar-
bor, MI 48106, USA.
Harcourt, C. 1997. The conservation of nocturnal primates.
Primate Eye (63): 19-20.
Hida, M., Terao, K., Ono, H., Yoshikawa, Y. et al. 1997.
Homologies in human and squirrel monkey (Saimiri
sciureus) chromosomes revealed by chromosome paint-
ing and GC-rich banding. Anthropol. Sci. 105(1): 37.
Horovitz, I., MacPhee, R. D. E., Flemming, C. and
McFarlane, D. A. 1997. Cranial remains of Xenothrix
and their bearing on the question of Antillean monkeys
origin. J. Vert. Paleontol. 17(3, suppl.): 51A.
Larose, F. 1997. Foraging strategies, group size, and food
competition in the mantled howler monkey, Alouatta
palliata. Diss. Abstr. Int. A58(5): 1798. To order:
#AADNN-18063. University Microfilms, Inc., Ann Ar-
bor, MI 48106, USA.
Nogues, C., Garcia, F., Egozcue, J., Garcia, M. et al. 1997.
Chromosomal evolution in primates using flourescent
in situ hybridization. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 77(1-2):
Purvis, A. and Dixson, A. F. 1997. Why phylogeny mat-
ters in comparative studies. J. Morphol. 232(3): 311.

Neotropical Primates 6(1), March 1998

Rogers, S. A. 1997. Feeding behavior of captive capuchin
monkeys as a function of food type, abundance, and dis-
tribution. Diss. Abst. Int. B58(3): 1157. To order:
#AAD97-26967. University Microfilms, Inc., Ann Ar-
bor, MI 48106, USA.
Samudio Acevedo, M. 1997. Characterization of Trypa-
nosoma cruzi-induced cytokine expression in a Cebus
monkey model and in chagasic individuals from high
and low endemic areas in Paraguay. Diss. Abst. Int.
B58(5): 2347. To order: #AAD97-31959. University
Microfilms, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI 48106, USA.

Workshop sobre a Biodiversidade de Mamiferos do
Brasil (Sistemitica, Biogeografia e Conservacio):
Discussio de um Programa Nacional de Inventirio,
Monitoramento e Informatizafio das Principais
ColeS5es do Pais, 6 a 8 de maio de 1998, Sociedade
Brasileira de Mastozoologia, Museu Nacional e
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). Comissao
organizadora: Dr. Leandro 0. Salles e Dr. Luiz Flamarion
B. de Oliveira, Setor de Mastozoologia, Departamento de
Vertebrados, Museu Nacional, Quinta da Boa Vista,
20.940-040 Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, e Dr. Rui
Cerqueira, Laborat6rio de Vertebrados, Departamento de
Ecologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ),
Caixa Postal 68020, 21941 Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro,
Brasil. E-mail: Leandro Salles .
21st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Pri-
matologists, 28 June 1 July, 1998, Southwestern Uni-
versity, Georgetown, Texas. Co-hosted by the Southwest-
ern University and The University of Texas M. D. Ander-
son Cancer Center, Science Park, Bastrop, Texas. For fur-
ther information: Steven Schapiro, University of Texas
M.D Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Veterinary
Research, Rte 2, Box 151-B 1, Bastrop, Texas 78602, USA.,
Tel: 512 321 3991, Fax: 512 322 5208, or Evan Zucker,
Chair ASP Program Committee, Department of Psychol-
ogy, Loyola University, New Orleans, LA 70118, USA,
Tel: 504 865-3255, e-mail: . Web
site: .
Human Behavior and Evolution Society 10th Annual
Meeting, 8-12 July, 1998, University of California, Davis.
Papers on non-human primates that have relevance to
human behavior are welcomed. Contact: Peter Richardson
(Division of Environmental Studies) or Monique
Borgerhoff Mulder (Department of Anthropology), Uni-
versity of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.
1998 Meeting of the Society for Conservation Biology,
13-16 July, 1998, Macquarie University, Sydney, Austra-
lia. For more information; Dr R. Frankham, School of
Biological Sciences. Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW
2109, Australia, Tel: +61 2 850 8186, Fax: +61 2 850

Neotropical Primates 6(1), March 1998 Page 33

Animal Behavior Society Annual Meeting, 18-22 July,
1998, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois.
For further information: Dr Lee Drickamer, Department
of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL
62901, USA. Web site: abs.html>.
VII International Congress of Ecology, New Tasks for
Ecologists after Rio 92, 19-25 July 1998, Centro Affari
& Palazzo Internazionale Congressi, Florence, Italy. Or-
ganized by the International Association for Ecology
(INTECOL) in conjunction with the Italian Ecological
Society (SItE). Themes include: Perspectives in global
ecology; Perspectives for the ecological management of
natural resources; Problems and perspectives in Mediter-
ranean ecosystems; Diversity concepts at different scales;
Perspectives in ecological theory and modeling; Key is-
sues in aquatic ecosystems; Perspectives in landscape ecol-
ogy; Perspectives in sustainable land use; Key issues in
microbial ecology; Patterns and interactions in popula-
tions and communities; Perspectives in environmental
chemistry and ecotoxicology; Integrating ecology into eco-
nomic and social development; Ecological engineering;
Progresses in ecological education. Contact: Almo Farina,
Vice-President INTECOL, Secretariat VII International
Congress of Ecology, Lunigliana Museum of Natural His-
tory, Fortezza della Brunella, 54011 Aulla, Italy, Tel: +39
187 400252, Fax: +39 187 420727, e-mail:
afarina@tamnet.it, web site: http://www.tamnet.it/
Euro-American Mammal Congress, 20-24 July, 1998,
University of Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain.
Organized under the auspices of the American Society of
Mammalogists (ASM), Societas Europea Mammal6gica
(SEM) and the Sociedad Espafiola para la Conservaci6n y
el Estudio de los Mamiferos (SECEM). Also participat-
ing: University of Santiago de Compostela (USC) through
its Colleges of Sciences and Pharmacy as well as the
Consejeria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, y Montes of the
local government (Xunta de Galicia) through the inter-
mediacy of its Direcci6n General de Montes y Medio
Ambiente Natural. The meeting will emphasize the cut-
ting edge and little known aspects of scientific knowledge
of mammalian species, and communities and ecosystems
of the Holarctic. However, contributions of interest relat-
ing to mammals from other regions will also be welcomed.
Contributions will be grouped in sessions that will cover
general subjects, symposia or workshops. General mat-
ters currently projected: Behavioral Ecology, Biogeogra-
phy, Community Ecology, Conservation, Development,
Molecular Systematics, Morphology and Morphometrics,
Natural History, Paleontology, Parasites and Diseases,
Physiology, Population Dynamics, Population Genetics,
Systematics and Evolution, and Wildlife Management.
Those interested in organizing a symposium should con-
tact a member of the Steering Committee. Deadlines for

proposals 11 March 1997. The organizers request that elec-
tronic mail be used for contact whenever possible. For
more information, all queries and requests:
galemys@pinarl.csic.es. Circulars will also be sent by
electronic mail, and distributed through a variety of dis-
tribution lists and list servers. Postal address: Euro-Ameri-
can Mammal Congress, Laboratorio de Parasitologia,
Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Santiago de
Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain, Fax:
(34) 81 593316.
7th International Behavioral Ecology Congress, 27 July
- 1 August, 1998, Asilomar Conference Center, Monterey
Peninsula, California, USA. For further information con-
tact: Walt Koenig, e-mail: ,
or Janis Dickinson, e-mail: edu>. International Society for Behavioral Ecology web
site: .
XVIH Congress of the International Primatological So-
ciety, 9-14 August, 1998, University of Antananarivo,
Antananarivo, Madagascar. The theme of the Congress
is: Taking Responsibility for our Future through Conserv-
ing Biological Diversity such as Primates". Deadline for
registration and free communications abstracts is 1 Feb-
ruary 1998. Materials must be received by this date. Dead-
line for abstracts for symposia, workshops and roundtable
discussions: 31 October 1997. Registration fees are
US$300 for regular IPS members, US$100 for IPS stu-
dent members, US$350 for non-members, and US$100
for accomanying persons. Registration includes the open-
ing and closing receptions, as well as the program and
abstract booklets, lunches and shuttles. After 1 February
1998, all rates will increase by US$50. On site registra-
tion will be more. The official languages will be French
and English. Two plenary lectures will be given on topics
relevant to human responsibilities for World Survival and
to the significance of primate conservation. Contact: Sec-
retariat XVII IPS Congress, Madame Berthe
Rakotosamimanana, Faculte des Sciences, Batement P,
Porte 207, BP 906, Antananarivo 101 Madagascar. Tel:
261 2 26991 ext.24, e-mail: .
Development Committee: Marlene Rakotomalala, Tel: 261
2 26991 ext.13, Scientific Committee: Hantanirina
Rasamimanana, e-mail: .
Coordinator and for information: Soava Rakotoarisoa, Tel:
261 2 26991 ext.24. Common fax: 261 2 31398.
Measuring Behavior '98,2nd International Conference
on Methods and Techniques in Behavioral Research,
18-21 August, 1998, Center for Biological Sciences, Uni-
versity of Groningen, Haren, The Netherlands. The Con-
ference host is Prof. Dr. J.M.- Koolhaas. The program will
consist of oral papers, poster sessions, demonstrations,
training sessions, user meetings, scientific tours, post-con-
ference excursions, and a pleasant social program. All
presentations will deal with innovative methods and tech-
niques in behavioral research. Validation of a new tech-
nique is an acceptable subject for a paper or poster. How-

Neotropical Primates 6(1), March 1998

Page 33

Page 34

ever, papers discussing applications of proven techniques
do not belong at Measuring Behavior '98. Presentations
on physiological techniques are welcome, as long as there
is a clear link with behavior. Contributions are welcome
on the following topics: Behavioral Recording, Behavior
and Physiology, Behavioral Analysis, and Behavioral
models "Measuring Behavior '98" will devote special
attention to the integration of advanced behavioral research
with physiological measurements. Deadline for submis-
sion of abstracts: 1 April 1998. Notification of acceptance
of abstracts: 1 June 1998. Deadline for early registration
(reduced fee): 15 June 1998. For further information: The
Conference Secretariat, Measuring Behavior '98, Attn:
Rosan Nikkelen, P.O. Box 268, 6700 AG Wageningen,
The Netherlands, Tel: +31 (0)317 497677, Fax: +31 (0)317
424496, e-mail: . Web: www.noldus.com/events/mb98/mb98.htm>.
Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour In-
traspecific Variation in Behaviour, 2-4 September, 1998,
University of Urbino, Italy. Organized in conjunction with
the Societa Italiana di Ethologia, by Giorgio Malacame
and Tim Roper. Plenary lectures will address four main
themes: the role of social learning and culture in produc-
ing intraspecific variation in behaviour; intraspecific varia-
tion in social and mating behaviour in vertebrates as a
function of population density and other variables; alter-
native strategies; and individual differences in behaviour.
Offers of talks or posters relevant to these or other aspects
are invited. Posters on any other aspect of animal behaviour
are also welcomed. For more information: Prof. Giorgio
Malacame, Department of Sciences and Advanced Tech-
nologies, Borsalino 54, 15100 Alessandria, Italy, e-mail:
, or Dr Tim Roper, School of
Biological Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1
9QG, UK, e-mail: .
Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG) An-
nual Meeting 1998, 8-11 October, 1998, Pacifico
Yokohama Conference Center, Yokohama, Japan. Orga-
nized by the CBSG, Zoological Gardens of the City of
Yokohama, and the Japanese Association of Zoological
Gardens and Aquariums. For further information: Secre-
tariat of the 1998 CBSG Annual Meeting, c/o AXTEION
Co., Ltd., Room #401, Toranomon Sangyo Bldg., 1-2-29
Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 105-0001 Japan, Tel:+81
3 3593 2565, Fax: +81 3 3593 1088, e-mail:
Primate Society of Great Britain (PSGB) Winter Meet-
ing Current Contributions of Zoos to Primate Con-
servation and Biology, 2 December, 1998, Zoological
Society of London, London, U.K. Organized by Dr
Miranda Stevenson and Dr Bryan Carroll. Contact: Dr
Miranda Stevenson, Marwell Zoological Park, Colden
Common, Winchester, Hants S021 1JH, England, U.K.
Tel: 01962 777407, Fax: 01962 777511, e-mail:

Neotropical Primates 6(1), March 1998

Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour The
Genetic Analysis of Behaviour, 3-4 December, 1998,
Zoological Society of London, London. Organized by Mike
Ritchie and Bambos Kyriacou. For more information: Dr
M. G. Ritchie, Environmental & Evolutionary Biology,
Bute Medical Building, University of St. Andrews, Fife
KY16 9TS, UK, Fax: +44 (0)1334 463600, e-mail:
, or Dr Bambos Kyriacou, De-
partment of Genetics, Adrian Building, University of Le-
icester, Leicester LE 1 7RH, UK, Fax: +44 (0)1162523378,
e-mail: .

We would be most grateful if you could send us information
on projects, research groups, events (congresses, symposia,
and workshops), recent publications, activities of
primatological societies and NGOs, news items or opinions
of recent events and suchlike. Manuscripts should be
double-spaced and accompanied by the text in diskette
for PC compatible text-editors (MS-Word, Wordperfect,
Wordstar). Articles, not exceeding six pages, can include
small black-and-white photographs, high quality figures,
and high quality maps, tables and references, but please
keep them to a minimum.
Please send contributions to: ANTHONY RYLANDS, C/o
Conservation International do Brasil, Avenida Ant6nio
AbrahZo Caram 820/302, 31275-000 Belo Horizonte,
Minas Gerais, Brazil, Tel/Fax: +55 (31) 441 17 95 or
ERNESTO RODRiGUEZ-LUNA, Parque de La Flora y Fauna
Silvestre Tropical, Instituto de Neuroetologfa, Universidad
Veracruzana, Apartado Postal 566, Xalapa, Veracruz
91000, M6xico, Fax: 52 (28) 12-5748.
LILIANA CORTES-ORTIZ (Universidad Veracruzana) provides
invaluable editorial assistance.
Correspondence, messages, and texts can be sent to:
a.rylands @conservation.org.br

saraguat@ speedy.coacade.uv.mx

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This issue of Neotropical Primates was kindly sponsored by the Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foun-
dation,432 Walker Road, Great Falls, Virginia 22066, USA, the Houston Zoological Gardens Con-
servation Program, General Manager Donald G. Olson, 1513 North MacGregor, Houston, Texas
77030, USA and the Grupo de Trabalho em Biodiversidade (GTB), through the Brazilian National
Science Research Council (CNPq), Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca, Coordenador do GTB, c/o Conserva-
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